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Sample records for relational pronouns physiology

  1. Current Usage of Relative Pronouns in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozete, Oscar

    1981-01-01

    Examines variations in current usage that pose problems in teaching Spanish relative pronouns. Discusses their treatment in first-year college textbooks, in the professional literature and in newspapers and magazines prose. Attempts to provide a description of the use of these pronouns applicable to classroom presentation. (MES)

  2. The Role of Resumptive Pronouns in Cantonese Relative Clause Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Resumptive pronouns are often regarded as a last-resort strategy for rescuing illicit long-distance dependencies. Previous work has demonstrated a facilitative role for resumptive pronouns in production as well as in comprehension, though not a grammatical option in the languages. This study examined whether the same pattern is found in Cantonese,…

  3. Semantic Relations Cause Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension When Using Repeated Definite References, Not Pronouns.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sara A; Boiteau, Timothy W; Almor, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The choice and processing of referential expressions depend on the referents' status within the discourse, such that pronouns are generally preferred over full repetitive references when the referent is salient. Here we report two visual-world experiments showing that: (1) in spoken language comprehension, this preference is reflected in delayed fixations to referents mentioned after repeated definite references compared with after pronouns; (2) repeated references are processed differently than new references; (3) long-term semantic memory representations affect the processing of pronouns and repeated names differently. Overall, these results support the role of semantic discourse representation in referential processing and reveal important details about how pronouns and full repeated references are processed in the context of these representations. The results suggest the need for modifications to current theoretical accounts of reference processing such as Discourse Prominence Theory and the Informational Load Hypothesis.

  4. Semantic Relations Cause Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension When Using Repeated Definite References, Not Pronouns

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Sara A.; Boiteau, Timothy W.; Almor, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The choice and processing of referential expressions depend on the referents' status within the discourse, such that pronouns are generally preferred over full repetitive references when the referent is salient. Here we report two visual-world experiments showing that: (1) in spoken language comprehension, this preference is reflected in delayed fixations to referents mentioned after repeated definite references compared with after pronouns; (2) repeated references are processed differently than new references; (3) long-term semantic memory representations affect the processing of pronouns and repeated names differently. Overall, these results support the role of semantic discourse representation in referential processing and reveal important details about how pronouns and full repeated references are processed in the context of these representations. The results suggest the need for modifications to current theoretical accounts of reference processing such as Discourse Prominence Theory and the Informational Load Hypothesis. PMID:26973552

  5. The Pronoun Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Pronouns take the place of other nouns. In the case of personal pronouns, they often take the place of nouns that identify persons. The pronoun highlights the difference by being formed differently, and by being placed in different spots in the sentences. Pronouns point out the differences as they change form, and vary their representational…

  6. Correcting pretentious pronouns.

    PubMed

    Eoyang, T; Henderson, L; Ward, T

    1999-01-01

    If pronouns following prepositions or verbs sound lofty or pretentious, they probably are. Without attention to grammar rules, nurse authors and editors can make common mistakes by selecting the wrong form of the pronoun. Pronouns following prepositions and transitive verbs should be the objective form of the pronoun, not the subjective form. These experienced editors describe the rule, suggest a quick-fix tip, and provide several practice items followed by answers.

  7. Personal pronouns and perspective taking in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Ricard, M; Girouard, P C; Décarie, T G

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the evolution of visual perspective-taking skills in relation to the comprehension and production of first, second and third person pronouns. Twelve French-speaking and 12 English-speaking children were observed longitudinally from 1.6 until they had acquired all pronouns and succeeded on all tasks. Free-play sessions and three tasks were used to test pronominal competence. Four other tasks assessed Level-1 perspective-taking skills: two of these tasks required the capacity to consider two visual perspectives, and two others tested the capacity to coordinate three such perspectives. The results indicated that children's performance on perspective-taking tasks was correlated with full pronoun acquisition. Moreover, competence at coordinating two visual perspectives preceded the full mastery of first and second person pronouns, and competence at coordinating three perspectives preceded the full mastery of third person pronouns when a strict criterion was adopted. However, with less stringent criteria, the sequence from perspective taking to pronoun acquisition varied either slightly or considerably. These findings are discussed in the light of the 'specificity hypothesis' concerning the links between cognition and language, and also in the context of the recent body of research on the child's developing theory of mind.

  8. Pronouns in Akebu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffi, Yao

    2010-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed description of the pronouns in Akebu. Akebu is a language spoken in South-West Togo and in the neighboring towns in Ghana. Akebu belongs to a group of languages formerly called "Togo Remnant Languages", now (Ghana Togo Mountains, GTM). The native Akebu speakers call their language …

  9. Personal Pronouns and Communicative Engagement in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter; Lee, Anthony; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    In three experimental conditions, we tested matched children with and without autism (n = 15 per group) for their comprehension and use of first person plural ("we") and third person singular ("he") pronouns, and examined whether such linguistic functioning related to their social interaction. The groups were indistinguishable in their…

  10. The role of gender information in pronoun resolution: evidence from Chinese.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lijing; Swaab, Tamara Y; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Wang, Suiping

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have consistently demonstrated that gender information is used to resolve pronouns, the mechanisms underlying the use of gender information continue to be controversial. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether working memory modulates the effect of gender information on pronoun resolution. The critical pronoun agreed or disagreed with its antecedent in gender. Moreover, the distance between a pronoun and its antecedent was varied to assess the influence of working memory. Compared with the congruent pronouns, the incongruent pronouns elicited an N400 effect in the short distance condition and a P600 effect in the long distance condition. The results suggest that the effect of gender information on pronoun comprehension is modulated by working memory.

  11. Active search for antecedents in cataphoric pronoun resolution

    PubMed Central

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Ruijgrok, Bobby; Cheng, Lisa L.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Cataphoric dependencies where a pronoun precedes its antecedent appear to call on different mechanisms in language comprehension from forward dependencies where the antecedent precedes the pronoun. Previous research has shown that the resolution of cataphoric dependencies involves predictive processes such as the active search mechanism, which hypothesizes the automatic search for an antecedent immediately after encountering a cataphoric pronoun. The current study employs gender mismatch to investigate whether the active search for an antecedent of a cataphoric pronoun is restricted only to grammatically licit positions. We present results from an event-related potential experiment on the reading comprehension of cataphoric dependencies in Dutch. Results show that gender mismatch gives rise to an anterior negativity at grammatically licit antecedent positions only. We hypothesize that this negativity reflects the prediction failure for an antecedent after encountering a pronoun, rather than a gender mismatch. We discuss the timing, topography and functionality of this negativity with respect to previous studies and how this relates to the ERPs elicited in the processing of structural constraints on pronoun resolution. PMID:26579023

  12. Development of Self-Recognition, Personal Pronoun Use, and Pretend Play During the 2nd Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation of visual self-recognition to personal pronoun use and pretend play. For a longitudinal sample (N66) at the ages when self-recognition was emerging (15, 18, and 21 months), self-recognition was related to personal pronoun use and pretend play such that children showing self-recognition used more personal pronouns…

  13. Science Communication in Teacher Personal Pronouns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2011-09-01

    In this study, I explore how personal pronouns used by elementary teachers during science inquiry discussions communicate science and frame teacher-student-science relations. A semiotic framework is adopted wherein teacher pronominal choices are viewed as symbolically expressing cognitive meanings (scientific thinking, forms of expression, and concepts) and indexically communicating social meanings (hidden messages about social and personal aspects of science-human agency, science membership, and gender). Through the construction of interactional maps and micro-ethnographic analysis of classroom video-recordings, I focus specifically on participant examples (oral descriptions of actual or hypothetical situations wherein the teacher presents herself and/or her students as characters to illustrate topics under discussion). This analysis revealed that the teacher use of the generalised you communicated to the students how to mean scientifically (i.e. to speak like a scientist), while I communicated scientific ways of thinking and reasoning. Furthermore, teacher pronouns communicated the social nature of science (NOS) (e.g. science as a human enterprise) as well as multiple teacher-student-science relational frames that were inclusive of some students (mainly boys) but excluded girls (i.e. positioned them as science outsiders). Exclusive use of he was taken as indicative of a gender bias. It is argued that science teachers should become more aware of the range of personal pronouns available for science instruction, their advantages and constraints for science discussions, their potential as instructional tools for humanising and personalising impersonal science curricula as well as the risk of 'NOS' miscommunication.

  14. Development of self-recognition, personal pronoun use, and pretend play during the 2nd year.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation of visual self-recognition to personal pronoun use and pretend play. For a longitudinal sample (N=66) at the ages when self-recognition was emerging (15, 18, and 21 months), self-recognition was related to personal pronoun use and pretend play such that children showing self-recognition used more personal pronouns and demonstrated more advanced pretend play than did children not showing self-recognition. The finding of a relation among these measures provides additional evidence that in the middle of the 2nd year of life a metarepresentation of self emerges in the human child.

  15. Effects of Psychological Attention on Pronoun Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Lao, Shin-Yi C.

    2015-01-01

    Pronoun comprehension is facilitated for referents that are focused in the discourse context. Discourse focus has been described as a function of attention, especially shared attention, but few studies have explicitly tested this idea. Two experiments used an exogenous capture cue paradigm to demonstrate that listeners’ visual attention at the onset of a story influences their preferences during pronoun resolution later in the story. In both experiments trial-initial attention modulated listeners’ transitory biases while considering referents for the pronoun, whether it was in response to the capture cue or not. These biases even had a small influence on listeners’ final interpretation of the pronoun. These results provide independently-motivated evidence that the listener’s attention influences the on-line processes of pronoun comprehension. Trial-initial attentional shifts were made on the basis of non-shared, private information, demonstrating that attentional effects on pronoun comprehension are not restricted to shared attention among interlocutors. PMID:26191533

  16. Neurotic Anxiety, Pronoun Usage, and Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)

  17. Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to…

  18. Coherent Discourse Solves the Pronoun Interpretation Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spenader, Jennifer; Smits, Erik-Jan; Hendriks, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Many comprehension studies have shown that children as late as age 6 ; 6 misinterpret object pronouns as co-referring with the referential subject about half the time. A recent review of earlier experiments testing children's interpretation of object pronouns in sentences with quantified subjects (Elbourne, 2005) also suggests that there is a…

  19. Pronouns in Catalan: Information, Discourse and Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayol, Laia

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the variation between null and overt pronouns in subject position in Catalan, a null subject language. I argue that null and overt subject pronouns are two resources that speakers efficiently deploy to signal their intended interpretation regarding antecedent choice or semantic meaning, and that communicative agents…

  20. Production and Comprehension of Unheralded Pronouns: A Corpus Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrig, Richard J.; Horton, William S.; Stent, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Theories of pronoun resolution often assume that pronouns' referents reside in the immediate discourse context. However, language users regularly produce and comprehend "unheralded pronouns" that violate that assumption. This article provides a taxonomy of unheralded pronouns that makes reference to speakers' and addressees' common ground. Data…

  1. Narcissism and the use of personal pronouns revisited.

    PubMed

    Carey, Angela L; Brucks, Melanie S; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Holtzman, Nicholas S; Große Deters, Fenne; Back, Mitja D; Donnellan, M Brent; Pennebaker, James W; Mehl, Matthias R

    2015-09-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 109(3) of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (see record 2015-37773-002). The authors erroneously reported the overall correlation, first stated in the abstract, between Narcissism and total first-person-singular use as .02 (.017) instead of .01 (.010). The misreporting of the overall correlation between Narcissism and total use of first-person singular does not change the results or interpretation in any way (i.e., the near-zero association between Narcissism and I-talk). The online version of this article has been corrected.] Among both laypersons and researchers, extensive use of first-person singular pronouns (i.e., I-talk) is considered a face-valid linguistic marker of narcissism. However, the assumed relation between narcissism and I-talk has yet to be subjected to a strong empirical test. Accordingly, we conducted a large-scale (N = 4,811), multisite (5 labs), multimeasure (5 narcissism measures) and dual-language (English and German) investigation to quantify how strongly narcissism is related to using more first-person singular pronouns across different theoretically relevant communication contexts (identity-related, personal, impersonal, private, public, and stream-of-consciousness tasks). Overall (r = .02, 95% CI [-.02, .04]) and within the sampled contexts, narcissism was unrelated to use of first-person singular pronouns (total, subjective, objective, and possessive). This consistent near-zero effect has important implications for making inferences about narcissism from pronoun use and prompts questions about why I-talk tends to be strongly perceived as an indicator of narcissism in the absence of an underlying actual association between the 2 variables. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Implicit Self-Importance in an Interpersonal Pronoun Categorization Task

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Adam K.; Robinson, Michael D.; Gilbertson, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Object relations theories emphasize the manner in which the salience/importance of implicit representations of self and other guide interpersonal functioning. Two studies and a pilot test (total N = 304) sought to model such representations. In dyadic contexts, the self is a “you” and the other is a “me”, as verified in a pilot test. Study 1 then used a simple categorization task and found evidence for implicit self-importance: The pronoun “you” was categorized more quickly and accurately when presented in a larger font size, whereas the pronoun “me” was categorized more quickly and accurately when presented in a smaller font size. Study 2 showed that this pattern possesses value in understanding individual differences in interpersonal functioning. As predicted, arrogant people scored higher in implicit self-importance in the paradigm. Findings are discussed from the perspective of dyadic interpersonal dynamics. PMID:25419089

  3. Pronoun case overextensions and paradigm building.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, M

    1994-02-01

    Pronoun case errors, or overextensions, like *me want it are characteristic of English child language. This paper explores a hypothesis that the morphological structure of a pronoun influences the pattern of these errors. The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) attempts to analyse English pronoun case forms into stems and affixes, but cannot because of their irregularity. Nevertheless the LAD extracts a phonetic core for each pronoun (e.g./m-/ for the 1st sg.,/h-/ for the 3rd masc. sg.). The phonetic core blocks the overextension of suppletive nominative forms like I and she. This hypothesis predicts strong differences in the frequency and types of errors between pronouns with suppletive nominatives and those without. Evidence for this hypothesis was found in a transcript database of twelve children, with data collected in one hour samples every month from 1;0 to 3;0. 20,908 pronouns were examined, 1347 of which were errors. Statistical analyses of these data provide support for this hypothesis. PMID:8006090

  4. Identity, causality, and pronoun ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Eyal; Rips, Lance J

    2014-10-01

    This article looks at the way people determine the antecedent of a pronoun in sentence pairs, such as: Albert invited Ron to dinner. He spent hours cleaning the house. The experiment reported here is motivated by the idea that such judgments depend on reasoning about identity (e.g., the identity of the he who cleaned the house). Because the identity of an individual over time depends on the causal-historical path connecting the stages of the individual, the correct antecedent will also depend on causal connections. The experiment varied how likely it is that the event of the first sentence (e.g., the invitation) would cause the event of the second (the house cleaning) for each of the two individuals (the likelihood that if Albert invited Ron to dinner, this would cause Albert to clean the house, versus cause Ron to clean the house). Decisions about the antecedent followed causal likelihood. A mathematical model of causal identity accounted for most of the key aspects of the data from the individual sentence pairs.

  5. Antecedent Frequency Effects during the Processing of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Majid, Asifa

    2004-01-01

    An eye-movement reading experiment investigated whether the ease with which pronouns are processed is affected by the lexical frequency of their antecedent. Reading times following pronouns with infrequent antecedents were faster than following pronouns with frequent antecedents. We argue that this is consistent with a saliency account, according…

  6. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  7. Physiological Studies of Violence-Related Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Meredith W.

    This paper reviews previous research and describes a study about the use of psychophysiological indicators (skin conductance response--SCR and heart rate--HR) to measure people's reactions to violence. The review of research describes attempts to gauge the association between people's attitudes, personality, and physiological responses when they…

  8. Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

    2007-01-01

    We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

  9. Taking Perspective: Personal Pronouns Affect Experiential Aspects of Literary Reading.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Franziska; Burke, Michael; Hagoort, Peter; Willems, Roel M

    2016-01-01

    Personal pronouns have been shown to influence cognitive perspective taking during comprehension. Studies using single sentences found that 3rd person pronouns facilitate the construction of a mental model from an observer's perspective, whereas 2nd person pronouns support an actor's perspective. The direction of the effect for 1st person pronouns seems to depend on the situational context. In the present study, we investigated how personal pronouns influence discourse comprehension when people read fiction stories and if this has consequences for affective components like emotion during reading or appreciation of the story. We wanted to find out if personal pronouns affect immersion and arousal, as well as appreciation of fiction. In a natural reading paradigm, we measured electrodermal activity and story immersion, while participants read literary stories with 1st and 3rd person pronouns referring to the protagonist. In addition, participants rated and ranked the stories for appreciation. Our results show that stories with 1st person pronouns lead to higher immersion. Two factors-transportation into the story world and mental imagery during reading-in particular showed higher scores for 1st person as compared to 3rd person pronoun stories. In contrast, arousal as measured by electrodermal activity seemed tentatively higher for 3rd person pronoun stories. The two measures of appreciation were not affected by the pronoun manipulation. Our findings underscore the importance of perspective for language processing, and additionally show which aspects of the narrative experience are influenced by a change in perspective. PMID:27192060

  10. Taking Perspective: Personal Pronouns Affect Experiential Aspects of Literary Reading

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael; Hagoort, Peter; Willems, Roel M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal pronouns have been shown to influence cognitive perspective taking during comprehension. Studies using single sentences found that 3rd person pronouns facilitate the construction of a mental model from an observer’s perspective, whereas 2nd person pronouns support an actor’s perspective. The direction of the effect for 1st person pronouns seems to depend on the situational context. In the present study, we investigated how personal pronouns influence discourse comprehension when people read fiction stories and if this has consequences for affective components like emotion during reading or appreciation of the story. We wanted to find out if personal pronouns affect immersion and arousal, as well as appreciation of fiction. In a natural reading paradigm, we measured electrodermal activity and story immersion, while participants read literary stories with 1st and 3rd person pronouns referring to the protagonist. In addition, participants rated and ranked the stories for appreciation. Our results show that stories with 1st person pronouns lead to higher immersion. Two factors—transportation into the story world and mental imagery during reading—in particular showed higher scores for 1st person as compared to 3rd person pronoun stories. In contrast, arousal as measured by electrodermal activity seemed tentatively higher for 3rd person pronoun stories. The two measures of appreciation were not affected by the pronoun manipulation. Our findings underscore the importance of perspective for language processing, and additionally show which aspects of the narrative experience are influenced by a change in perspective. PMID:27192060

  11. Young Children's Comprehension of Person Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steig, Janet B.; Arnold, Marjorie R.

    A study was conducted to test the validity of the Linguistic Features Hypothesis, which predicts that unmarked personal pronouns will be learned first by children, yielding the following order of acquisition: first person before second, followed by third; singular before plural; and subjective case before objective or genitive. A review of the…

  12. [Pneumodynamics: Respiratory Physiology Related to Anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Hiroko; Hirata, Haruhiko; Kijima, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Although pneumodynamics is the most basic research field in the respiratory management, the number of the researchers is rapidly decreasing in this century. This is not because of the maturing of pneumodynamics but because the conventional theory has been wrong. The authors have been investigating this area theoretically and experimentally for more than ten years and propsed novel pneumodynamics based on dynamic imaging technique during breathing and computational fluid dynamics. In this paper, we first indicate the dynamic collapse of the intra-mediastinal airway during maximum forced expiration in emphysematous patients visualized by 4D-CT images, and explain its mechanism in terms of fluid dynamics where the turbulence of airflow in the large airway plays an important role. Although conventional pneumodynamics is based on electric circuit analogy, it has a crucial defect that the turbulence of airflow is never contained. Then, we will introduce a 4D alveolar model which explains how the alveolar shape changes during breathing based on experimental images, and indicate that the essential morphological change in diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) is the alveolar collapse, which has been misrecognized as "thickening of the alveolar wall". The new era of respiratory physiology has just begun in Japan. PMID:27319089

  13. Resumptive Pronouns in English-Chinese and Arabic-Chinese Interlanguages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Boping; Zhao, Yang

    2005-01-01

    While resumptive pronouns (RPs) are generally not allowed in English relative clauses, Chinese allows the use of RPs in indirect object position and genitive position but not in subject and direct object positions. Arabic languages allow RPs in direct object position as well as in indirect object position and genitive position, although not in…

  14. Clitic pronouns reveal the time course of processing gender and number in a second language

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Eleonora; Kroll, Judith F.; Dussias, Paola E.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates grammatical gender and number processing marked on clitic pronouns in native Spanish speakers and in late English-Spanish bilinguals using ERPs. Spanish clitic pronouns were chosen as a critical grammatical structure which is absent in English, and which encodes both grammatical gender and number. Number, but not grammatical gender, is present in English, making this structure a prime one to investigate second language processing. Results reveal a P600 effect in native speakers for violations of both gender and number. Late but relatively proficient English-Spanish bilinguals show a P600 effect only for number violations occurring at the clitic pronoun, but not for gender violations. However a post-hoc analysis reveals that a subset of highly proficient late bilinguals does reveal sensitivity to violations of grammatical gender marked on clitic pronouns. Taken together these results suggest that native-like processing is possible for highly proficient late second language learners for grammatical features that are not present in the speakers' native language, even when those features are encoded on a grammatical morpheme which itself is absent in the speakers' native language. PMID:25036762

  15. Clitic pronouns reveal the time course of processing gender and number in a second language.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Eleonora; Kroll, Judith F; Dussias, Paola E

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates grammatical gender and number processing marked on clitic pronouns in native Spanish speakers and in late English-Spanish bilinguals using ERPs. Spanish clitic pronouns were chosen as a critical grammatical structure which is absent in English, and which encodes both grammatical gender and number. Number, but not grammatical gender, is present in English, making this structure a prime one to investigate second language processing. Results reveal a P600 effect in native speakers for violations of both gender and number. Late but relatively proficient English-Spanish bilinguals show a P600 effect only for number violations occurring at the clitic pronoun, but not for gender violations. However a post-hoc analysis reveals that a subset of highly proficient late bilinguals does reveal sensitivity to violations of grammatical gender marked on clitic pronouns. Taken together these results suggest that native-like processing is possible for highly proficient late second language learners for grammatical features that are not present in the speakers' native language, even when those features are encoded on a grammatical morpheme which itself is absent in the speakers' native language.

  16. When “He” Can Also Be “She”: An ERP Study of Reflexive Pronoun Resolution in Written Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jui-Ju; Molinaro, Nicola; Gillon-Dowens, Margaret; Tsai, Pei-Shu; Wu, Denise H.; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The gender information in written Chinese third person pronouns is not symmetrically encoded: the character for “he” (, with semantic radical , meaning human) is used as a default referring to every individual, while the character for “she” (, with semantic radical , meaning woman) indicates females only. This critical feature could result in different patterns of processing of gender information in text, but this is an issue that has seldom been addressed in psycholinguistics. In Chinese, the written forms of the reflexive pronouns are composed of a pronoun plus the reflexive “/self” (/himself and /herself). The present study focuses on how such gender specificity interacts with the gender type of an antecedent, whether definitional (proper name) or stereotypical (stereotypical role noun) during reflexive pronoun resolution. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, gender congruity between a reflexive pronoun and its antecedent was studied by manipulating the gender type of antecedents and the gender specificity of reflexive pronouns (default: /himself vs. specific: /herself). Results included a P200 “attention related” congruity effect for /himself and a P600 “integration difficulty” congruity effect for /herself. Reflexive pronoun specificity independently affected the P200 and N400 components. These results highlight the role of /himself as a default applicable to both genders and indicate that only the processing of /herself supports a two-stage model for anaphor resolution. While both reflexive pronouns are evaluated at the bonding stage, the processing of the gender-specific reflexive pronoun is completed in the resolution stage. PMID:26903939

  17. Learner Perception of Formal and Informal Pronouns in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, Lisa Dewaard

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates whether learners of Russian perceive the sociocultural weight of the two personal pronouns for "you", "ty" (informal/intimate) and "vy" (formal/polite) when they listen to native speech. Research on address pronoun use shows it to be an important sociocultural variable and, while there is some general consistency in use,…

  18. The Overt Pronoun Constraint across Three Dialects of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelormini-Lezama, Carlos; Huepe, David; Herrera, Eduar; Melloni, Margherita; Manes, Facundo; García, Adolfo M.; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    The overt pronoun constraint (OPC) states that, in null subject languages, overt pronoun subjects of embedded clauses cannot be bound by "wh-" or quantifier antecedents. Through the administration of two written questionnaires, we examined the OPC in 246 monolingual native speakers of three dialects of Spanish, spoken in Barranquilla…

  19. Gender Bender: Gender Errors in L2 Pronoun Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton-Mendez, Ines

    2010-01-01

    To address questions about information processing at the message level, pronoun errors of second language (L2) speakers of English were studied. Some L2 pronoun errors--"he/she" confusions by Spanish speakers of L2 English--could be due to differences in the informational requirements of the speakers' two languages, providing a window into the…

  20. Women and Men Have Different Discourse Biases for Pronoun Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examine how men and women interpret pronouns in discourse. Adults are known to show a strong "first-mention bias": When two characters are mentioned ("Michael played with William…"), comprehenders tend to interpret subsequent pronouns as coreferential with the first of the two characters and to find pronouns…

  1. Focusing on Pronouns: Consequences of Subjecthood, Pronominalisation, and Contrastive Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2011-01-01

    We report two visual-world eye-tracking experiments that investigated the effects of subjecthood, pronominalisation, and contrastive focus on the interpretation of pronouns in subsequent discourse. By probing the effects of these factors on real-time pronoun interpretation, we aim to contribute to our understanding of how topicality-related…

  2. A Pronoun Analysis of Couples’ Support Transactions

    PubMed Central

    Hinnekens, Céline; Lemmens, Gilbert; Vanhee, Gaëlle; Verhofstadt, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    The present study collected data about couples’ level of relationship quality and their usage of pronouns that express we-ness or separateness in the context of support interactions. The sample consisted of 48 couples in a long-term relationship who provided questionnaire data and participated in two videotaped social support interaction tasks. Couples’ videotaped interactions were subsequently coded for the number of personal pronouns—we-words (e.g., we, ours, ourselves) versus you and me-words (e.g., me, mine, you, yours)—used by both partners. PMID:26869976

  3. Emphatic or Reflexive? On the Endophoric Character of French "lui-meme" and Similar Complex Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zribi-Hertz, Anne

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the referential properties of a class of complex pronouns labelled M-Pronouns, exemplified by Old English "himself," French "lui-meme," and English "his own." It is shown that M-Pronouns exhibit some properties commonly taken as characterizing reflexive anaphors, and that they also occur as "intensive" pronouns. Contains 66…

  4. The Use of Sign Language Pronouns by Native-Signing Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We report the first study on pronoun use by an under-studied research population, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to American Sign Language from birth by their deaf parents. Personal pronouns cause difficulties for hearing children with ASD, who sometimes reverse or avoid them. Unlike speech pronouns, sign pronouns are…

  5. Nurses' workload and its relation with physiological stress reactions1

    PubMed Central

    Dalri, Rita de Cássia de Marchi Barcellos; da Silva, Luiz Almeida; Mendes, Aida Maria Oliveira Cruz; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relation between the workload and the physiological stress reactions among nurses working at a hospital service. METHODS: cross-sectional, correlational, quantitative study, involving 95 nurses, in 2011 and 2012. Spearman's bivariate Correlation Test was used. RESULTS: most subjects are female, between 23 and 61 years old and working between 21 and 78 hours per week. The most frequent physiological reactions were back pain, fatigue/exhaustion, stiff neck and stomach acidity, with 46.3% of the subjects presenting low and 42.1% moderate physiological stress responses. No correlation was found between the workload and the physiological stress responses. CONCLUSION: although most of the nurses work more than 36 hours/week, physiologically, they do not present high reaction levels in response to stress. These workers deal with conflicts in the vertical and horizontal relations between professionals, family members and patients. In that sense, taking care of professionals who offer health services can be a fundamental strategy, as good user care mainly depends on healthy teams. PMID:25591090

  6. The Overt Pronoun Constraint Across Three Dialects of Spanish.

    PubMed

    Gelormini-Lezama, Carlos; Huepe, David; Herrera, Eduar; Melloni, Margherita; Manes, Facundo; García, Adolfo M; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    The overt pronoun constraint (OPC) states that, in null subject languages, overt pronoun subjects of embedded clauses cannot be bound by wh- or quantifier antecedents. Through the administration of two written questionnaires, we examined the OPC in 246 monolingual native speakers of three dialects of Spanish, spoken in Barranquilla (Colombia), Santiago (Chile), and Buenos Aires (Argentina). We tested separately the predictions that overt pronouns cannot be bound by wh- antecedents (Experiment 1) and that they cannot be bound by quantifier antecedents (Experiment 2). We found that the OPC was not operative in any of these dialects. In Experiment 1, the percentage of bound answers was approximately the same as the percentage of anaphoric answers. In Experiment 2, the percentage of bound answers was significantly higher than the percentage of anaphoric answers. Implications both for theories of pronoun resolution in null subject languages and for theories of first and second language acquisition are discussed.

  7. The Overt Pronoun Constraint Across Three Dialects of Spanish.

    PubMed

    Gelormini-Lezama, Carlos; Huepe, David; Herrera, Eduar; Melloni, Margherita; Manes, Facundo; García, Adolfo M; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    The overt pronoun constraint (OPC) states that, in null subject languages, overt pronoun subjects of embedded clauses cannot be bound by wh- or quantifier antecedents. Through the administration of two written questionnaires, we examined the OPC in 246 monolingual native speakers of three dialects of Spanish, spoken in Barranquilla (Colombia), Santiago (Chile), and Buenos Aires (Argentina). We tested separately the predictions that overt pronouns cannot be bound by wh- antecedents (Experiment 1) and that they cannot be bound by quantifier antecedents (Experiment 2). We found that the OPC was not operative in any of these dialects. In Experiment 1, the percentage of bound answers was approximately the same as the percentage of anaphoric answers. In Experiment 2, the percentage of bound answers was significantly higher than the percentage of anaphoric answers. Implications both for theories of pronoun resolution in null subject languages and for theories of first and second language acquisition are discussed. PMID:27062640

  8. The HisMine-paradigm: a new paradigm to investigate self-awareness employing pronouns.

    PubMed

    Blume, Christine; Herbert, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Self-related stimuli such as the own name have been used to investigate self-awareness. The present study investigates a novel paradigm employing personal and possessive self-referential and non-self-referential pronouns (SRPs and NSRPs). Going beyond previous research, the robustness of the previously demonstrated self-reference effect was investigated for personal as well as possessive SRPs under passive and active processing conditions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as outcome measures. ERPs were recorded from 33 healthy participants during the presentation of SRPs "ich" and "mein" (German for "I"/"my") and NSRPs "er" and "sein" ("he"/"his"). Additionally, the role of the second person perspective (2PP) pronouns "du" and "dein" ("you"/"your") was explored. Stimuli were presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) design at frequencies of 2.5 and 1 Hz including a passive reading and two active counting instructions. The results demonstrate that SRPs were spontaneously processed preferentially compared to NSRPs during an initial processing stage. SRPs moreover specifically benefitted from allocation of attention during later processing stages. These results suggest that processes during which a stimulus is related to oneself or others take place very early. Differences in temporal processing of personal and possessive pronouns were not found. PMID:24517392

  9. The development of pronoun usage in the psychotic child.

    PubMed

    Silberg, J L

    1978-12-01

    Twenty-three psychotic children ranging in age from 5 to 16 were interviewed in half-hour play sessions. The play session comprised three activities designed to elicit statements using the pronouns I, you, and he to express the concepts of possession, action, and description. It was hypothesized that psychotic children would use the third-person pronoun he more readily than the first-person pronoun I (Hypothesis I), and that possession, action, and description statements would develop in an orderly sequence as predicted by Bosch (1962/1970) (Hypothesis II). Hypothesis I was not confirmed: Some of the least advanced psychotic children used the pronoun I, and only the most advanced children used you and he. Hypothesis II was confirmed: the least advanced children used pronouns correctly in statements expressing the concept of possession, whereas the most advanced children had mastered all three contexts of pronoun use. These results have implications for language therapy, and they are concordant with the language theories of Piaget and Werner and Kaplan.

  10. Rules of engagement: incomplete and complete pronoun resolution.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-07-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text and fail to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when these are unambiguous. In this paper we revisit those findings. In 11 recognition probe, priming, and self-report experiments, we manipulated Greene et al.'s stories to discover under what circumstances a pronoun's referent is automatically understood. We lengthened the stories from 4 to 8 lines. This simple manipulation led to automatic and correct resolution, which we attribute to readers' increased engagement with the stories. We found evidence of resolution even when the additional text did not mention the pronoun's referent. In addition, our results suggest that the pronoun temporarily boosts the referent's accessibility, an advantage that disappears by the end of the next sentence. Finally, we present evidence from memory experiments that supports complete pronoun resolution for the longer but not the shorter stories. PMID:21480757

  11. Rules of engagement: incomplete and complete pronoun resolution.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-07-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text and fail to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when these are unambiguous. In this paper we revisit those findings. In 11 recognition probe, priming, and self-report experiments, we manipulated Greene et al.'s stories to discover under what circumstances a pronoun's referent is automatically understood. We lengthened the stories from 4 to 8 lines. This simple manipulation led to automatic and correct resolution, which we attribute to readers' increased engagement with the stories. We found evidence of resolution even when the additional text did not mention the pronoun's referent. In addition, our results suggest that the pronoun temporarily boosts the referent's accessibility, an advantage that disappears by the end of the next sentence. Finally, we present evidence from memory experiments that supports complete pronoun resolution for the longer but not the shorter stories.

  12. Cancer-related fatigue: can exercise physiology assist oncologists?

    PubMed

    Lucía, Alejandro; Earnest, Conrad; Pérez, Margarita

    2003-10-01

    Most patients with cancer experience fatigue, a severe activity-limiting symptom with a multifactorial origin. To avoid cancer-related fatigue, patients are frequently advised to seek periods of rest and to reduce their amount of physical activity. This advice is reminiscent of that formerly given to patients with heart disease. However, such recommendations can paradoxically compound symptoms of fatigue, since sedentary habits induce muscle catabolism and thus cause a further decrease in functional capacity. By contrast, there is scientific evidence that an exercise programme of low to moderate intensity can substantially reduce cancer-related fatigue and improve the quality of life of these patients. Current knowledge, combined with findings soon to be published, could launch new opportunities for patients with cancer. In this new century, exercise physiology could soon prove to be very useful for oncologists.

  13. Salience and Contrast Effects in Reference Resolution: The Interpretation of Dutch Pronouns and Demonstratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2011-01-01

    We report three experiments on reference resolution in Dutch. The results of two off-line experiments and an eye-tracking study suggest that the interpretation of different referential forms--in particular, "emphatic" strong pronouns, weak pronouns, and demonstrative pronouns--cannot be satisfactorily explained in terms of a single feature of the…

  14. Effects of Contrast on Referential Form: Investigating the Distinction between Strong and Weak Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2010-01-01

    To further our understanding of the nature of the form-function mapping in anaphoric paradigms, this study investigated the referential properties of strong pronouns (long pronouns) in Estonian. Cross-linguistically, 2 main accounts of the long-short distinction have been proposed: the salience account (long pronouns refer to less salient…

  15. fMRI Evidence for Strategic Decision-Making during Resolution of Pronoun Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Corey T.; Clark, Robin; Gunawardena, Delani; Ryant, Neville; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Pronouns are extraordinarily common in daily language yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that support decisions about pronoun reference. We propose a large-scale neural network for resolving pronoun reference that consists of two components. First, a core language network in peri-Sylvian cortex supports syntactic and semantic…

  16. Use of Nonsexist Pronouns as a Function of One's Feminist Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Marsha B.; Insko, William, R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Study uses Spence and Helmreich's (1972) Attitudes toward Women Scale (AWS) and pronoun use questionnaire. Results show those with high scores on AWS chose nonsexist pronouns more frequently than those with low AWS scores. Less feminist trends in the pronoun choices are discussed. (Author/SA)

  17. Immediate sensitivity to structural constraints in pronoun resolution

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wing-Yee; Lewis, Shevaun; Phillips, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Real-time interpretation of pronouns is sometimes sensitive to the presence of grammatically-illicit antecedents and sometimes not. This occasional sensitivity has been taken as evidence that structural constraints do not immediately impact the initial antecedent retrieval for pronoun interpretation. We argue that it is important to separate effects that reflect the initial antecedent retrieval process from those that reflect later processes. We present results from five reading comprehension experiments. Both the current results and previous evidence support the hypothesis that agreement features and structural constraints immediately constrain the antecedent retrieval process for pronoun interpretation. Occasional sensitivity to grammatically-illicit antecedents may be due to repair processes triggered when the initial retrieval fails to return a grammatical antecedent. PMID:25018739

  18. [Physiology in Relation to Anesthesia Practice: Preface and Comments].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshitsugu

    2016-05-01

    It has been long recognized that anesthesia practice is profoundly based in physiology. With the advance of the technology of imaging, measurement and information, a serious gap has emerged between anesthesia mainly handling gross systemic parameters and molecular physiology. One of the main reasons is the lack of establishment of integration approach. This special series of reviews deals with systems physiology covering respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. It also includes metabolism, and fluid, acid-base, and electrolyte balance. Each review focuses on several physiological concepts in each area, explaining current understanding and limits of the concepts based on the new findings. They reaffirm the importance of applying physiological inference in anesthesia practice and underscore the needs of advancement of systems physiology. PMID:27319087

  19. Les relatives dans l'analyse linguistique de la surface textuelle: un cas de region-frontiere (The Relative Pronouns in the Linguistic Analysis of Surface Structure: a New Territory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresillon, Almuth

    1975-01-01

    Attempts to define the limitations of linguistic theory, and the possibilities of access at the discursive level, based on the hypothesis that there are two types of relatives. Examples are given in German; reference is made to the principles of machine discourse analysis. (Text is in French.) (Author/MSE)

  20. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Physiological procedures and instrumentation developed for the measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during prolonged periods of weightlessness are described along with the physiological response of monkeys to weightlessness. Specific areas examined include: cardiovascular studies; thyroid function; blood oxygen transport; growth and reproduction; excreta analysis for metabolic balance studies; and electrophoretic separation of creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes in human blood.

  1. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.

    1972-01-01

    The research is reported for establishing physiological base line data, and for developing procedures and instrumentation necessary for the automatic measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The work in the following areas is discussed: biochemistry, bioinstrumentation, nutrition, physiology, experimental surgery, and animal colony.

  2. Acquiring Constraints on Morphosyntactic Variation: Children's Spanish Subject Pronoun Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Naomi Lapidus

    2016-01-01

    Constraints on linguistic variation are consistent across adult speakers, yielding probabilistic and systematic patterns. Yet, little is known about the development of such patterns during childhood. This study investigates Spanish subject pronoun expression in naturalistic data from 154 monolingual children in Mexico, divided into four age…

  3. Rules of Engagement: Incomplete and Complete Pronoun Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text and fail to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when these are unambiguous. In…

  4. I, Pronoun: A Study of Formality in Online Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Alexander; Evans, Mary B.; McBride, Alicia A.; Queen, Matt; Spyridakis, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigated readers' perceptions of tone formality in online text passages. The study found that readers perceived text passages to be less formal when they contained personal pronouns, active voice verbs, informal punctuation, or verb contractions. The study reveals that professional…

  5. Deriving Silence through Dependent Reference: Focus on Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livitz, Inna G.

    2014-01-01

    The starting point of this dissertation is the observation that pronouns that are obligatorily dependent on a sufficiently local antecedent are persistently silent. The classical hypothesis has been that silence is a lexical property of such elements. The central claim of this dissertation is that silence is instead a product of syntax--of the way…

  6. Pronoun Case: Teaching Grammar within a Communicative Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salies, Tania Gastao

    A lesson designed to teach usage of pronoun case within a communicative paradigm in English as a Second Language is presented. The target population consists of adult, intermediate-level ESL students. The lesson begins with a chant to gain students' interest and create a relaxed learning atmosphere. Next follows a pantomime that illustrates the…

  7. In the Social Register: Pronoun Choice in Norwegian and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Carl

    Choice of second-person pronouns can help explain the intersection of language, personality, and culture. Changes in modern Norway are described in which the polite forms "de,""dem"/"dykk," and "deres"/"dykkar" have been replaced in all except commercial, government, or ultra-polite speech by the familiar terms "du,""deg"/"dae," and "din." Some…

  8. Address Pronouns in French: Variation within and outside the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article examines speakers' perceptions of and attitudes towards address pronoun usage in Paris and Toulouse. The data on which this article is based come from a comparative project based at the University of Melbourne, "Address in some western European languages, and were generated in focus groups in both Paris and Toulouse, as well as…

  9. Personal Pronouns in "About Us" Section of Online University Prospectus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bano, Zakia; Shakir, Aleem

    2015-01-01

    The university prospectus is supposed to be a forceful and pioneering text in promoting and marketing higher education. The present research will deal with the disparities in the frequencies of first and second person pronouns in online prospectuses in cross-cultural linguistics from marketing point of view. The research question is to which…

  10. Children's Use of Gesture in Ambiguous Pronoun Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich Smith, Whitney; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether children can use gesture to inform their interpretation of ambiguous pronouns. Specifically, we ask whether four- to eight-year-old English-speaking children are sensitive to information contained in co-referential localizing gestures in video narrations. The data show that the older (7-8 years of age) but not younger…

  11. Children Mix Direct and Indirect Speech: Evidence from Pronoun Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köder, Franziska; Maier, Emar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates children's acquisition of the distinction between direct speech (Elephant said, "I get the football") and indirect speech ("Elephant said that he gets the football"), by measuring children's interpretation of first, second, and third person pronouns. Based on evidence from various linguistic sources, we…

  12. ADAMs family and relatives in cardiovascular physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pu; Shen, Mengcheng; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Kassiri, Zamaneh

    2016-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of membrane-bound proteases. ADAM-TSs (ADAMs with thrombospondin domains) are a close relative of ADAMs that are present in soluble form in the extracellular space. Dysregulated production or function of these enzymes has been associated with pathologies such as cancer, asthma, Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. ADAMs contribute to angiogenesis, hypertrophy and apoptosis in a stimulus- and cell type-dependent manner. Among the ADAMs identified so far (34 in mouse, 21 in human), ADAMs 8, 9, 10, 12, 17 and 19 have been shown to be involved in cardiovascular development or cardiomyopathies; and among the 19 ADAM-TSs, ADAM-TS1, 5, 7 and 9 are important in development of the cardiovascular system, while ADAM-TS13 can contribute to vascular disorders. Meanwhile, there remain a number of ADAMs and ADAM-TSs whose function in the cardiovascular system has not been yet explored. The current knowledge about the role of ADAMs and ADAM-TSs in the cardiovascular pathologies is still quite limited. The most detailed studies have been performed in other cell types (e.g. cancer cells) and organs (nervous system) which can provide valuable insight into the potential functions of ADAMs and ADAM-TSs, their mechanism of action and therapeutic potentials in cardiomyopathies. Here, we review what is currently known about the structure and function of ADAMs and ADAM-TSs, and their roles in development, physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system.

  13. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Russell, F. A.; King, R.; Smillie, S.-J.; Kodji, X.; Brain, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide. Discovered 30 years ago, it is produced as a consequence of alternative RNA processing of the calcitonin gene. CGRP has two major forms (α and β). It belongs to a group of peptides that all act on an unusual receptor family. These receptors consist of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) linked to an essential receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) that is necessary for full functionality. CGRP is a highly potent vasodilator and, partly as a consequence, possesses protective mechanisms that are important for physiological and pathological conditions involving the cardiovascular system and wound healing. CGRP is primarily released from sensory nerves and thus is implicated in pain pathways. The proven ability of CGRP antagonists to alleviate migraine has been of most interest in terms of drug development, and knowledge to date concerning this potential therapeutic area is discussed. Other areas covered, where there is less information known on CGRP, include arthritis, skin conditions, diabetes, and obesity. It is concluded that CGRP is an important peptide in mammalian biology, but it is too early at present to know if new medicines for disease treatment will emerge from our knowledge concerning this molecule. PMID:25287861

  14. The Use of Sign Language Pronouns by Native-Signing Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-07-01

    We report the first study on pronoun use by an under-studied research population, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to American Sign Language from birth by their deaf parents. Personal pronouns cause difficulties for hearing children with ASD, who sometimes reverse or avoid them. Unlike speech pronouns, sign pronouns are indexical points to self and other. Despite this transparency, we find evidence from an elicitation task and parental report that signing children with ASD avoid sign pronouns in favor of names. An analysis of spontaneous usage showed that all children demonstrated the ability to point, but only children with better-developed sign language produced pronouns. Differences in language abilities and self-representation may explain these phenomena in sign and speech. PMID:25643865

  15. The Use of Sign Language Pronouns by Native-Signing Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We report the first study on pronoun use by an under-studied research population, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to American Sign Language (ASL) from birth by their deaf parents. Personal pronouns cause difficulties for hearing children with ASD, who sometimes reverse or avoid them. Unlike speech pronouns, sign pronouns are indexical points to self and other. Despite this transparency, we find evidence from an elicitation task and parental report that signing children with ASD avoid sign pronouns in favor of names. An analysis of spontaneous usage showed that all children demonstrated the ability to point, but only children with better-developed sign language produced pronouns. Differences in language abilities and self-representation may explain these phenomena in sign and speech. PMID:25643865

  16. Relative Clauses in Classical Nahuatl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langacker, Ronald W.

    1975-01-01

    Jane Rosenthal's paper on relative clauses in Classical Nahuatl is discussed, and it is argued that she misses an important generalization. An alternative analysis to a class of relative pronouns and new rules for the distribution of relative pronouns are proposed. (SC)

  17. Subject Pronoun Use by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novogrodsky, Rama

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, storytelling and story retelling by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed to explore ambiguous third-person pronoun use in narratives. Twenty-three children diagnosed with ASD aged 6;1 to 14;3 and 17 typically-developing (TD) children aged 5;11 to 14;4 participated in the study. In the retelling task, no…

  18. Perception of spectrally degraded reflexives and pronouns by children.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; van Rij, Jacolien; Ng, Zheng Yen; Free, Rolien; Hendriks, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Speech perception skills in cochlear-implant users are often measured with simple speech materials. In children, it is crucial to fully characterize linguistic development, and this requires linguistically more meaningful materials. The authors propose using the comprehension of reflexives and pronouns, as these specific skills are acquired at different ages. According to the literature, normal-hearing children show adult-like comprehension of reflexives at age 5, while their comprehension of pronouns only reaches adult-like levels around age 10. To provide normative data, a group of younger children (5 to 8 yrs old), older children (10 and 11 yrs old), and adults were tested under conditions without or with spectral degradation, which simulated cochlear-implant speech transmission with four and eight channels. The results without degradation confirmed the different ages of acquisition of reflexives and pronouns. Adding spectral degradation reduced overall performance; however, it did not change the general pattern observed with non-degraded speech. This finding confirms that these linguistic milestones can also be measured with cochlear-implanted children, despite the reduced quality of sound transmission. Thus, the results of the study have implications for clinical practice, as they could contribute to setting realistic expectations and therapeutic goals for children who receive a cochlear implant.

  19. Sport Physiology Research and Governing Gender in Sport--A Power-Knowledge Relation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    This article sets out to show how physiological knowledge about sex/gender relates to power issues within sport. The sport physiology research at the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Swedish acronym: GIH) during the twentieth century is analysed in relation to the political rationality concerning gender at GIH and within the Swedish…

  20. Personality drives physiological adjustments and is not related to survival

    PubMed Central

    Bijleveld, Allert I.; Massourakis, Georgina; van der Marel, Annemarie; Dekinga, Anne; Spaans, Bernard; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary function and maintenance of variation in animal personality is still under debate. Variation in the size of metabolic organs has recently been suggested to cause and maintain variation in personality. Here, we examine two main underlying notions: (i) that organ sizes vary consistently between individuals and cause consistent behavioural patterns, and (ii) that a more exploratory personality is associated with reduced survival. Exploratory behaviour of captive red knots (Calidris canutus, a migrant shorebird) was negatively rather than positively correlated with digestive organ (gizzard) mass, as well as with body mass. In an experiment, we reciprocally reduced and increased individual gizzard masses and found that exploration scores were unaffected. Whether or not these birds were resighted locally over the 19 months after release was negatively correlated with their exploration scores. Moreover, a long-term mark–recapture effort on free-living red knots with known gizzard masses at capture confirmed that local resighting probability (an inverse measure of exploratory behaviour) was correlated with gizzard mass without detrimental effects on survival. We conclude that personality drives physiological adjustments, rather than the other way around, and suggest that physiological adjustments mitigate the survival costs of exploratory behaviour. Our results show that we need to reconsider hypotheses explaining personality variation based on organ sizes and differential survival. PMID:24671971

  1. Slowed Speech Input has a Differential Impact on On-line and Off-line Processing in Children’s Comprehension of Pronouns

    PubMed Central

    Walenski, Matthew; Swinney, David

    2009-01-01

    The central question underlying this study revolves around how children process co-reference relationships—such as those evidenced by pronouns (him) and reflexives (himself)—and how a slowed rate of speech input may critically affect this process. Previous studies of child language processing have demonstrated that typical language developing (TLD) children as young as 4 years of age process co-reference relations in a manner similar to adults on-line. In contrast, off-line measures of pronoun comprehension suggest a developmental delay for pronouns (relative to reflexives). The present study examines dependency relations in TLD children (ages 5–13) and investigates how a slowed rate of speech input affects the unconscious (on-line) and conscious (off-line) parsing of these constructions. For the on-line investigations (using a cross-modal picture priming paradigm), results indicate that at a normal rate of speech TLD children demonstrate adult-like syntactic reflexes. At a slowed rate of speech the typical language developing children displayed a breakdown in automatic syntactic parsing (again, similar to the pattern seen in unimpaired adults). As demonstrated in the literature, our off-line investigations (sentence/picture matching task) revealed that these children performed much better on reflexives than on pronouns at a regular speech rate. However, at the slow speech rate, performance on pronouns was substantially improved, whereas performance on reflexives was not different than at the regular speech rate. We interpret these results in light of a distinction between fast automatic processes (relied upon for on-line processing in real time) and conscious reflective processes (relied upon for off-line processing), such that slowed speech input disrupts the former, yet improves the latter. PMID:19343495

  2. Relations between personality measures and physiological reactivity using a perceptual motor challenge.

    PubMed

    Randall, T; Crabtree, D; Antrim, L

    1989-12-01

    60 undergraduates participated in research designed to investigate the relations between psychological and physiological measures of personality under stress. Psychological assessments were elicited from responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey. Physiological assessments were elicited during 5 1-min. trials on the pursuit rotor, a perceptual motor task. Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses were consistent with the notion that psychological and physiological assessments yield contradictory information and that research is needed to develop valid methodologies with which to assess human stress.

  3. Ich, Dir, or Mir?: On the Acquisition of Pronouns in German Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Werner; Pechmann, Thomas

    1978-01-01

    The hypothesis that the linguis complexity of pronouns corresponds to the order in which children acquire them was studied. Linguistic complexity was defined by proximal-nonproximal, singular-nonsingular, and speaker-nonspeaker contrasts. Results showed a strong correspondence between the predicted and actual order of correct use of pronouns.…

  4. Why Keep Searching When It's Already "Their"? Reconsidering "Everybody's" Pronoun Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the logic, elegance, and history of using they, them, and their as singular indefinite pronouns. Notes that, as a solution to the pronoun problem, the strength of this solution is its vagueness. Offers numerous real-life examples from publications or broadcasts and lists why it is counterproductive for English teachers to exclude this…

  5. The Effect of an Expressive Writing Intervention on Pronouns: The Surprising Case of I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnack, Eric S.; Park, Crystal L.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have shown that expressive writing about a traumatic event leads to better outcomes. One explanation is that writing allows participants to successfully process the trauma. Pronoun use may be an important variable: One study demonstrated that pronoun usage in participants' narratives correlated with physical health. Results from the…

  6. When Production Precedes Comprehension: An Optimization Approach to the Acquisition of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, Petra; Spenader, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Data from child language comprehension show that children make errors in interpreting pronouns as late as age 6;6 yet correctly comprehend reflexives from the age of 3;0. On the other hand, data from child language production show that children correctly produce both pronouns and reflexives from the age of 2 or 3. Current explanations of this…

  7. [Age-related changes in swallowing. Physiology and pathophysiology].

    PubMed

    Muhle, P; Wirth, R; Glahn, J; Dziewas, R

    2015-04-01

    The term presbyphagia refers to all changes of swallowing physiology that are manifested with increasing age. Alterations in the pattern of deglutition that are part of healthy aging are called primary presbyphagia. Primary presbyphagia is not an illness in itself but contributes to a more pervasive naturally diminished functional reserve, making older adults more susceptible to dysphagia. If disorders in swallowing occur in the elderly as a comorbidity of a specific disease, for example stroke or neurodegenerative disorders, this is called secondary presbyphagia. Increasing age has an impact on each stage of deglutition. In the oral preparatory phase a diminished input for smell and taste as well as a usually multifactorial cause of dry mouth are the most important influencing factors. Sarcopenia, the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging, interferes in particular with the oropharyngeal phase. A decreased sensory feedback from the oropharyngeal mucosa leads to a delayed triggering of the swallowing reflex. Finally, a reduction in connective tissue elasticity and changes of the axial skeleton lead to various modifications of the swallowing pattern with advanced age.

  8. Are implicit causality pronoun resolution biases consistent across languages and cultures?

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; Sudo, Yasutada; Uruwashi, Miki

    2013-01-01

    The referent of a nonreflexive pronoun depends on context, but the nature of these contextual restrictions is controversial. For instance, in causal dependent clauses, the preferred referent of a pronoun varies systematically with the verb in the main clause (Sally frightens Mary because she … vs. Sally loves Mary because she …). Several theories claim that verbs with similar meanings across languages should show similar pronoun resolution effects, but these claims run contrary to recent analyses on which much of linguistic and nonlinguistic cognition is susceptible to cross-cultural variation, and in fact there is little data in the literature to decide the question one way or another. Analysis of data in eight languages representing four historically unrelated language families reveals consistent pronoun resolution biases for emotion verbs, suggesting that the information upon which implicit causality pronoun resolution biases are derived is stable across languages and cultures. PMID:23261949

  9. Physiology-driven adaptive virtual reality stimulation for prevention and treatment of stress related disorders.

    PubMed

    Cosić, Kresimir; Popović, Sinisa; Kukolja, Davor; Horvat, Marko; Dropuljić, Branimir

    2010-02-01

    The significant proportion of severe psychological problems related to intensive stress in recent large peacekeeping operations underscores the importance of effective methods for strengthening the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. Adaptive control of virtual reality (VR) stimulation presented in this work, based on estimation of the person's emotional state from physiological signals, may enhance existing stress inoculation training (SIT). Physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation can tailor the progress of stressful stimuli delivery to the physiological characteristics of each individual, which is indicated for improvement in stress resistance. Following an overview of physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation, its major functional subsystems are described in more detail. A specific algorithm of stimuli delivery applicable to SIT is outlined. PMID:20528296

  10. The Relations among Observational, Physiological, and Self-Report Measures of Children's Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Julie A.; Parker, Elizabeth H.; Ramsden, Sally R.; Flanagan, Kelly D.; Relyea, Nicole; Dearing, Karen F.; Smithmyer, Catherine M.; Simons, Robert F.; Hyde, Christopher T.

    2004-01-01

    Our first goal was to examine the relations among observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children's anger. Our second goal was to investigate whether these relations varied by reactive or proactive aggression. Children (272 second-grade boys and girls) participated in a procedure in which they lost a game and prize to a…

  11. Structural constraints on pronoun binding and coreference: evidence from eye movements during reading

    PubMed Central

    Cunnings, Ian; Patterson, Clare; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated how syntactic and non-syntactic constraints combine to cue memory retrieval during anaphora resolution. In this paper we investigate how syntactic constraints and gender congruence interact to guide memory retrieval during the resolution of subject pronouns. Subject pronouns are always technically ambiguous, and the application of syntactic constraints on their interpretation depends on properties of the antecedent that is to be retrieved. While pronouns can freely corefer with non-quantified referential antecedents, linking a pronoun to a quantified antecedent is only possible in certain syntactic configurations via variable binding. We report the results from a judgment task and three online reading comprehension experiments investigating pronoun resolution with quantified and non-quantified antecedents. Results from both the judgment task and participants' eye movements during reading indicate that comprehenders freely allow pronouns to corefer with non-quantified antecedents, but that retrieval of quantified antecedents is restricted to specific syntactic environments. We interpret our findings as indicating that syntactic constraints constitute highly weighted cues to memory retrieval during anaphora resolution. PMID:26157400

  12. Physiological Regulation and Fearfulness as Predictors of Young Children's Empathy-Related Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Haugen, R. G.; Kupfer, Anne; Reiser, Mark R.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Baham, Melinda E.

    2011-01-01

    Indices of physiological regulation (i.e., resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA] and RSA suppression) and observed fearfulness were tested as predictors of empathy-related reactions to an unfamiliar person's simulated distress within and across 18 (T1, N = 247) and 30 (T2, N = 216) months of age. Controlling for T1 helping, high RSA…

  13. Physiological responses related to moderate mental load during car driving in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Emma; Lindén, Per; Svanberg, Bo; Poom, Leo

    2015-05-01

    We measured physiological variables on nine car drivers to capture moderate magnitudes of mental load (ML) during driving in prolonged and repeated city and highway field conditions. Ecological validity was optimized by avoiding any artificial interference to manipulate drivers ML, drivers were alone in the car, they were free to choose their paths to the target, and the repeated drives familiarized drivers to the procedure. Our aim was to investigate if driver's physiological variables can be reliably measured and used as predictors of moderate individual levels of ML in naturally occurring unpredictably changing field conditions. Variables investigated were: heart-rate, skin conductance level, breath duration, blink frequency, blink duration, and eye fixation related potentials. After the drives, with support from video uptakes, a self-rating and a score made by external raters were used to distinguish moderately high and low ML segments. Variability was high but aggregated data could distinguish city from highway drives. Multivariate models could successfully classify high and low ML within highway and city drives using physiological variables as input. In summary, physiological variables have a potential to be used as indicators of moderate ML in unpredictably changing field conditions and to advance the evaluation and development of new active safety systems.

  14. Physiological responses related to moderate mental load during car driving in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Emma; Lindén, Per; Svanberg, Bo; Poom, Leo

    2015-05-01

    We measured physiological variables on nine car drivers to capture moderate magnitudes of mental load (ML) during driving in prolonged and repeated city and highway field conditions. Ecological validity was optimized by avoiding any artificial interference to manipulate drivers ML, drivers were alone in the car, they were free to choose their paths to the target, and the repeated drives familiarized drivers to the procedure. Our aim was to investigate if driver's physiological variables can be reliably measured and used as predictors of moderate individual levels of ML in naturally occurring unpredictably changing field conditions. Variables investigated were: heart-rate, skin conductance level, breath duration, blink frequency, blink duration, and eye fixation related potentials. After the drives, with support from video uptakes, a self-rating and a score made by external raters were used to distinguish moderately high and low ML segments. Variability was high but aggregated data could distinguish city from highway drives. Multivariate models could successfully classify high and low ML within highway and city drives using physiological variables as input. In summary, physiological variables have a potential to be used as indicators of moderate ML in unpredictably changing field conditions and to advance the evaluation and development of new active safety systems. PMID:25857673

  15. A Genre-based Analysis of English Research Article Abstracts and the Linguistic Feature of Personal Pronouns for Financial Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Zhen-ye

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of move structures and personal pronouns of fifty English RA (research article) abstracts based on the model of Bhatia (1990). It revealed that three other move patterns were ascertained besides ten out of the analyzed abstracts following his move order. The analysis of personal pronouns showed that…

  16. Three-Year-Olds Are Sensitive to Semantic Prominence during Online Language Comprehension: A Visual World Study of Pronoun Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyykkonen, Pirita; Matthews, Danielle; Jarvikivi, Juhani

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence from adult pronoun comprehension suggests that semantic factors such as verb transitivity affect referent salience and thereby anaphora resolution. We tested whether the same semantic factors influence pronoun comprehension in young children. In a visual world study, 3-year-olds heard stories that began with a sentence containing…

  17. Processing of Relative Clauses is Made Easier by Frequency of Occurrence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale corpus analysis indicating that pronominal object relative clauses are significantly more frequent than pronominal subject relative clauses when the embedded pronoun is personal. This difference was reversed when impersonal pronouns constituted the embedded noun phrase. This pattern of distribution provides a suitable…

  18. Within-litter differences in personality and physiology relate to size differences among siblings in cavies.

    PubMed

    Guenther, A; Trillmich, F

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits.

  19. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight. [hemodynamic and metabolic responses to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.

    1973-01-01

    Physiological base line data are established, and physiological procedures and instrumentation necessary for the automatic measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during prolonged periods of weightlessness are developed.

  20. Relative Importance of Social Status and Physiological Need in Determining Leadership in a Social Forager

    PubMed Central

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that ‘leading according to need’ is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure. PMID:23691258

  1. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    PubMed

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure. PMID:23691258

  2. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    PubMed

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

  3. Physiological stress reactivity and physical and relational aggression: the moderating roles of victimization, type of stressor, and child gender.

    PubMed

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lafko, Nicole; Burrows, Casey; Pitula, Clio; Ralston, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between physiological reactivity to peer stressors and physical and relational aggression. Potential moderation by actual experiences of peer maltreatment (i.e., physical and relational victimization) and gender were also explored. One hundred ninety-six children (M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.64) participated in a laboratory stress protocol during which their systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and skin conductance reactivity to recounting a relational stressor (e.g., threats to relationships) and an instrumental stressor (e.g., threats to physical well-being, dominance, or property) were assessed. Teachers provided reports of aggression and victimization. In both boys and girls, physical aggression was associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stress and heightened physiological reactivity to instrumental stress, particularly among youth higher in victimization. In girls, relational aggression was most robustly associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stressors, particularly among girls exhibiting higher levels of relational victimization. In boys, relational aggression was associated with heightened physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at higher levels of peer victimization and blunted physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at lower levels of victimization. Results underscore the shared and distinct emotional processes underlying physical and relational aggression in boys and girls.

  4. A Corpus-Based Sociolinguistic Study of Subject Pronoun Placement in Spanish in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana Risso, Rocio

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a variationist sociolinguistic study of the variable placement of subject personal pronouns before or after verbs in Spanish in New York City (e.g. "ella canta"; "canta ella", both "she sings"). It pursues a line of inquiry that partially replicates recent work by Otheguy & Zentella…

  5. Ambiguous Pronoun Use in Narratives of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novogrodsky, Rama; Edelson, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored pronoun production and general syntactic abilities in story retelling and story generation among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-four children diagnosed with ASD, ages 6;1-14;3 and 17 typically-developing (TD) children ages 5;11-14;4 participated in the study. The linguistic measures for general syntax…

  6. Indirect Anaphora in English and French: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Pronoun Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, F.; Garnham, A.; Cowles, H.W.; Fossard, M.; Andre, V.

    2005-01-01

    There is disagreement within both linguistics and psycholinguistics concerning the use of unaccented third person pronouns to refer to implicit referents. Some researchers (e.g., Erku & Gundel, 1987) argue that it is impossible or highly marked, while others (e.g., Yule, 1982) maintain that it is not only acceptable but commonly used in normal…

  7. The Semantics of Russian Indefinite Pronouns: Scope, Domain Widening, Specificity, and Proportionality and Their Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eremina, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this dissertation is to consider the different types of indefinites in Russian as a system and provide a semantic account for each of them that would be able to naturally explain their distribution. The four sets of so-called 'indefinite pronouns' ("-to," "-nibud'," "-libo," and…

  8. Spanish Subject Personal Pronoun Use by Monolinguals, Bilinguals and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Various studies analyzing pronominal subject expression in Spanish have found that switch-reference, the relationship between two consecutive subjects, is the factor that most commonly constrains speakers' choice of a null or explicit subject personal pronoun (SPP) (Cameron, 1995; Flores-Ferran, 2002). When the second subject in a sequence differs…

  9. The Use of Address Pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyblom, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use and choice of address pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish students in various situations. The study is based on a questionnaire on address usage distributed to university students in the city of Vaasa in Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate potential differences between the use of T and V in Finnish…

  10. The Development of NP Selection in School-Age Children: Reference and Spanish Subject Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Naomi Lapidus; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the development of the NP selection process, preferences for overt or null Spanish subject pronouns were elicited from 139 children (5;09 to 15;08) and 30 adults in Mexico. Participants were told stories in which consecutive grammatical subjects shared the same referent (same-reference), or did not (switch-reference). In the…

  11. How Output Affects Explicit and Implicit Knowledge of Spanish Indirect Object Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have suggested positive effects for speaking or output practice on L2 grammar development, the question of how speaking affects L2 grammar remains. This study specifically examines how output affects the explicit and implicit knowledge of Spanish indirect object pronouns (IOPs). It also investigates levels of L2 grammar…

  12. The Acquisition of Pronouns by French Children: A Parallel Study of Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesiger, Pascal; Zesiger, Laurence Chillier; Arabatzi, Marina; Baranzini, Lara; Cronel-Ohayon, Stephany; Franck, Julie; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Hamann, Cornelia; Rizzi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines syntactic and morphological aspects of the production and comprehension of pronouns by 99 typically developing French-speaking children aged 3 years, 5 months to 6 years, 5 months. A fine structural analysis of subject, object, and reflexive clitics suggests that whereas the object clitic chain crosses the subject chain, the…

  13. Pronoun Comprehension in Individuals with Down Syndrome: The Role of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have suggested that language in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may not be simply delayed compared with language in typically developing (TD) children, but deviant. The deviance has been detected in the comprehension of pronouns, and it has triggered proposals for the existence of a specific syntactic deficit in…

  14. Interpretation of Pronouns in VP-Ellipsis Constructions in Dutch Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasic, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the ability of Dutch agrammatic Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics to assign reference to possessive pronouns in elided VP constructions. The assumption is that the comprehension problems in these two populations have different sources that are revealed in distinct patterns of responses. The focus is primarily on the…

  15. The Battle of the Pronouns: Gigantic Clashes in a Book of Dinasaur Riddles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterne, Noelle

    1981-01-01

    The author of "Tyrannosaurus Wrecks: A Book of Dinosaur Riddles" discusses her difficulties in choosing appropriate male-female pronouns for the subjects of her riddles. The problems consisted of the necessity of using entrenched male stereotypes, avoiding damaging female stereotypes, and breaking through stereotypes. (KC)

  16. Pronouns of Address in Informal Contexts: A Comparison of Two Dialects of Colombian Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millan, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The paradigm of forms of address in Modern Spanish is subject to dialectal variation. Many Latin American varieties of Spanish, i.e. Costa Rican, Argentinean, Chilean, among others, display a tripartite system of second person pronouns comprised of "tú," "usted" and "vos." The case of Colombian Spanish is particularly…

  17. A Cross-Linguistic Study of the Acquisition of Clitic and Pronoun Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Belletti, Adriana; Costa, João; Friedmann, Naama; Gavarró, Anna; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Tuller, Laurice; Lobo, Maria; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argemí, Núria; Avram, Larisa; Berends, Sanne; Brunetto, Valentina; Delage, Hélène; Ezeizabarrena, María-José; Fattal, Iris; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; de López, Kristine Jensen; Katsos, Napoleon; Kologranic, Lana; Krstic, Nadezda; Kraljevic, Jelena Kuvac; Miekisz, Aneta; Nerantzini, Michaela; Queraltó, Clara; Radic, Zeljana; Ruiz, Sílvia; Sauerland, Uli; Sevcenco, Anca; Smoczynska, Magdalena; Theodorou, Eleni; van der Lely, Heather; Veenstra, Alma; Weston, John; Yachini, Maya; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    This study develops a single elicitation method to test the acquisition of third-person pronominal objects in 5-year-olds for 16 languages. This methodology allows us to compare the acquisition of pronominals in languages that lack object clitics ("pronoun languages") with languages that employ clitics in the relevant context…

  18. "So What Are "We" Working on?" Pronouns as a Way of Re-Examining Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantelides, Kate; Bartesaghi, Mariaelena

    2012-01-01

    The encounters of writing center tutors and clients, this essay argues, are tensional, asymmetrical, and productive negotiations of a coauthored "we". As authorship and authorization are discursive processes, we offer an empirical examination of how personal pronouns mark important shifts in the dynamic creation of a shared academic manuscript in…

  19. The influence of information status on pronoun resolution in Mandarin Chinese: evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pronoun resolution processes by the information status of the antecedent. Information status was manipulated by using a structurally based constraint (e.g., order of mention) as well as a pragmatically based constraint (i.e., topichood). We found that the pronouns referring to topic entities [the initial noun phrase (NP) in Subject–Object–Verb (SOV) structure in Experiment 1 and OSV structure in Experiment 2] elicited attenuated P600 responses compared to the pronouns referring to non-topic entities (the initial NP in SVO structure or the second NP in OSV structure in both experiments) when potential interference from structural constraints was controlled. The linear structural constraint, namely the order of mention, had no clear influence on the P600 effect when the syntactic structural constraint was held constant (i.e., when both entities were syntactic subjects), regardless of whether one (Experiment 1) or two (Experiment 2) animate antecedents were present. These findings suggest that pragmatically encoded features such as topichood and givenness can be processed separately from structural constraints such as order of mention to promote the salient status of a referent and thereby facilitate pronoun interpretation. PMID:26217248

  20. Strong and Clitic Pronouns in Monolingual and Bilingual Acquisition of French and Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katrin; Muller, Natascha

    2008-01-01

    The present article investigates the acquisition of the pronominal systems by French and Italian monolingual children and by bilingual German-French and German-Italian children, demonstrating a stable asymmetry: object and reflexive clitics are acquired later than nominative clitics and strong subject and object pronouns. We will widen the scope…

  1. Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers' Use of Gestures to Interpret Ambiguous Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yow, W. Quin

    2015-01-01

    Young children typically do not use order-of-mention to resolve ambiguous pronouns, but may do so if given additional cues, such as gestures. Additionally, this ability to utilize gestures may be enhanced in bilingual children, who may be more sensitive to such cues due to their unique language experience. We asked monolingual and bilingual…

  2. Social huddling and physiological thermoregulation are related to melanism in the nocturnal barn owl.

    PubMed

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Séchaud, Robin; Béziers, Paul; Villain, Nicolas; Genoud, Michel; Almasi, Bettina; Jenni, Lukas; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Endothermic animals vary in their physiological ability to maintain a constant body temperature. Since melanin-based coloration is related to thermoregulation and energy homeostasis, we predict that dark and pale melanic individuals adopt different behaviours to regulate their body temperature. Young animals are particularly sensitive to a decrease in ambient temperature because their physiological system is not yet mature and growth may be traded-off against thermoregulation. To reduce energy loss, offspring huddle during periods of cold weather. We investigated in nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) whether body temperature, oxygen consumption and huddling were associated with melanin-based coloration. Isolated owlets displaying more black feather spots had a lower body temperature and consumed more oxygen than those with fewer black spots. This suggests that highly melanic individuals display a different thermoregulation strategy. This interpretation is also supported by the finding that, at relatively low ambient temperature, owlets displaying more black spots huddled more rapidly and more often than those displaying fewer spots. Assuming that spot number is associated with the ability to thermoregulate not only in Swiss barn owls but also in other Tytonidae, our results could explain geographic variation in the degree of melanism. Indeed, in the northern hemisphere, barn owls and allies are less spotted polewards than close to the equator, and in the northern American continent, barn owls are also less spotted in colder regions. If melanic spots themselves helped thermoregulation, we would have expected the opposite results. We therefore suggest that some melanogenic genes pleiotropically regulate thermoregulatory processes.

  3. The use of anaphoric pronouns by French children in narrative: evidence from constrained text production.

    PubMed

    Millogo, Victor Emmanuel

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the acquisition of the 3rd person pronoun 'il/elle' (he, she, it) in seven to twelve-year-old French children (N = 58), in written production. An experiment was conducted to examine the relationship between the use of this anaphoric pronoun and the accessibility of the memory-trace of the corresponding referent in the texts. Referential accessibility in short texts was varied according to three factors: referential distance, thematization of the agent role (first sentence subject), and discourse focus. We found that the children were sensitive to the distance factor as early as 7;0, i.e. they used fewer personal pronouns when the referential distance increased. However, children of different ages differed in their weighting of the discourse focus factor and the thematization factor: the seven-year-olds (N = 18) and the eleven-year-olds (N = 20) were sensitive to variation of the discourse focus but not the thematization factor, while for the nine-year-olds (N = 20) it was the reverse. The main results suggest: (a) when seven and nine-year-olds use the pronoun 'il/elle', they do not comply with the constraints associated with the accessibility of the memory-trace of the referent; (b) memory constraints have an effect from the age of 7;0, but only when the discourse focus is maintained. It was concluded that the discourse management of the French personal pronoun 'il/elle' is not totally mastered at 11;0: children cannot operationally integrate the whole array of constraints implied in anaphoric management. PMID:16045259

  4. The use of anaphoric pronouns by French children in narrative: evidence from constrained text production.

    PubMed

    Millogo, Victor Emmanuel

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the acquisition of the 3rd person pronoun 'il/elle' (he, she, it) in seven to twelve-year-old French children (N = 58), in written production. An experiment was conducted to examine the relationship between the use of this anaphoric pronoun and the accessibility of the memory-trace of the corresponding referent in the texts. Referential accessibility in short texts was varied according to three factors: referential distance, thematization of the agent role (first sentence subject), and discourse focus. We found that the children were sensitive to the distance factor as early as 7;0, i.e. they used fewer personal pronouns when the referential distance increased. However, children of different ages differed in their weighting of the discourse focus factor and the thematization factor: the seven-year-olds (N = 18) and the eleven-year-olds (N = 20) were sensitive to variation of the discourse focus but not the thematization factor, while for the nine-year-olds (N = 20) it was the reverse. The main results suggest: (a) when seven and nine-year-olds use the pronoun 'il/elle', they do not comply with the constraints associated with the accessibility of the memory-trace of the referent; (b) memory constraints have an effect from the age of 7;0, but only when the discourse focus is maintained. It was concluded that the discourse management of the French personal pronoun 'il/elle' is not totally mastered at 11;0: children cannot operationally integrate the whole array of constraints implied in anaphoric management.

  5. Induction of phenolic metabolites and physiological changes in chamomile plants in relation to nitrogen nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj

    2014-01-01

    Alternative tools, such as the manipulation of mineral nutrition, may affect secondary metabolite production and thus the nutritional value of food/medicinal plants. We studied the impact of nitrogen (N) nutrition (nitrate/NO3(-) or ammonium/NH4(+) nitrogen) and subsequent nitrogen deficit on phenolic metabolites and physiology in Matricaria chamomilla plants. NH4(+)-fed plants revealed a strong induction of selected phenolic metabolites but, at the same time, growth, Fv/Fm, tissue water content and soluble protein depletion occurred in comparison with NO3(-)-fed ones. On the other hand, NO3(-)-deficient plants also revealed an increase in phenolic metabolites but growth depression was not observed after the given exposure period. Free amino acids were more accumulated in NH4(+)-fed shoots (strong increase in arginine and proline mainly), while the pattern of roots' accumulation was independent of N form. Among phenolic acids, NH4(+) strongly elevated mainly the accumulation of chlorogenic acid. Within flavonoids, flavonols decreased while flavones strongly increased in response to N deficiency. Coumarin-related metabolites revealed a similar increase in herniarin glucosidic precursor in response to N deficiency, while herniarin was more accumulated in NO3(-)- and umbelliferone in NH4(+)-cultured plants. These data indicate a negative impact of NH4(+) as the only source of N on physiology, but also a higher stimulation of some valuable phenols. Nitrogen-induced changes in comparison with other food/crop plants are discussed.

  6. Physiological profile in relation to playing position of elite college Gaelic footballers

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, M; Hall, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the physiological profile, and its relation to playing position, of elite college Gaelic footballers. Method: The subjects were 28 elite Gaelic footballers (12 backs, 12 forwards, and four midfielders; mean (SD) age 21 (1.67) years), who won a major intervarsity tournament (Sigerson Cup) three times in succession. Results: There was general similarity among the members of the team, probably the result of a typical, common training programme. The team means for stature (1.81 (0.05) m), body mass index (81.6 (6.5)) and percentage body fat (14.5 (3.1)%), power output by Wingate test (absolute power 912 (152) W or 10.72 (1.6) W/kg) and sit and reach test (22.3 (5.5) cm) displayed no significant differences when analysed according to playing position. However, midfielders did have significantly larger body mass than backs (p<0.05) and greater maximal oxygen consumption (p<0.01) and greater vertical jumping ability than backs and forwards (vertical jump power output, p<0.01; vertical jump, p<0.01). Midfielders also had greater absolute handgrip strength (p<0.01). Conclusion: The differences exhibited by midfielders despite identical training suggests that they stem from physiological adaptation to competition rather than training. PMID:15849287

  7. Intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure alters physiological but not mood related parameters in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Adori, Csaba; Zelena, Dóra; Tímár, Júlia; Gyarmati, Zsuzsa; Domokos, Agnes; Sobor, Melinda; Fürst, Zsuzsanna; Makara, Gábor; Bagdy, György

    2010-01-20

    The recreational party drug "ecstasy" (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA) is particularly popular among young adults who are in the childbearing age and thus there is a substantial risk of prenatal MDMA exposure. We applied an intermittent treatment protocol with an early first injection on pregnant Wistar rats (15 mg/kg MDMA s.c. on the E4, E11 and E18 days of gestation) to examine the potential physiological, endocrine and behavioral effects on adult male and female offspring. Prenatal MDMA-treatment provoked reduced body weight of offspring from the birth as far as the adulthood. Adult MDMA-offspring had a reduced blood-glucose concentration and hematocrit, altered relative spleen and thymus weight, had lower performance on wire suspension test and on the first trial of rotarod test. In contrast, no alteration in the locomotor activity was found. Anxiety and depression related behavioral parameters in elevated plus maze, sucrose preference or forced swimming tests were normal. MDMA-offspring had elevated concentration of the ACTH-precursor proopiomelanocortin and male MDMA-offspring exhibited elevated blood corticosterone concentration. No significant alteration was detected in the serotonergic marker tryptophan-hydroxylase and the catcholaminergic marker tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive fiber densities in MDMA-offspring. The mothers exhibited reduced densities of serotonergic but not catecholaminergic fibers after the MDMA treatment. Our findings suggest that an intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure with an early first injection and a relatively low cumulative dose provokes mild but significant alterations in physical-physiological parameters and reduces motor skill learning in adulthood. In contrast, these adult offspring do not produce anxiety or depression like behavior. PMID:19782105

  8. Naphthalene metabolism in relation to target tissue anatomy, physiology, cytotoxicity and tumorigenic mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, Kenneth T.; Benson, Janet M.; Yost, Garold S.; Morris, John B.; Dahl, Alan R.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Krishnan, Kannan; Omiecinski, Curtis J.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a summary of deliberations conducted under the charge for members of Module C Panel participating in the Naphthalene State-of-the-Science Symposium (NS3), Monterey, CA, October 9–12, 2006. The panel was charged with reviewing the current state of knowledge and uncertainty about naphthalene metabolism in relation to anatomy, physiology and cytotoxicity in tissues observed to have elevated tumor incidence in these rodent bioassays. Major conclusions reached concerning scientific claims of high confidence were that: (1) rat nasal tumor occurrence was greatly enhanced, if not enabled, by adjacent, histologically related focal cellular proliferation; (2) elevated incidence of mouse lung tumors occurred at a concentration (30 ppm) cytotoxic to the same lung region at which tumors occurred, but not at a lower and less cytotoxic concentration (tumorigenesis NOAEL = 10 ppm); (3) naphthalene cytotoxicity requires metabolic activation (unmetabolized naphthalene is not a proximate cause of observed toxicity or tumors); (4) there are clear regional and species differences in naphthalene bioactivation; and (5) target tissue anatomy and physiology is sufficiently well understood for rodents, non-human primates and humans to parameterize species-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for nasal and lung effects. Critical areas of uncertainty requiring resolution to enable improved human cancer risk assessment were considered to be that: (1) cytotoxic naphthalene metabolites, their modes of cytotoxic action, and detailed low-dose dose–response need to be clarified, including in primate and human tissues, and neonatal tissues; (2) mouse, rat, and monkey inhalation studies are needed to better define in vivo naphthalene uptake and metabolism in the upper respiratory tract; (3) in vivo validation studies are needed for a PBPK model for monkeys exposed to naphthalene by inhalation, coupled to cytotoxicity studies referred to above; and (4

  9. Regulation of kallikrein-related peptidases in the skin - from physiology to diseases to therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J; Meyer-Hoffert, U

    2013-09-01

    Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) constitute a family of 15 highly conserved serine proteases, which show a tissue-specific expression profile. This made them valuable tumour expression markers. It became evident that KLKs are involved in many physiological processes like semen liquefaction and skin desquamation. More recently, we have learnt that they are involved in many pathophysiological conditions and diseases making them promising target of therapeutic intervention. Therefore, regulation of KLKs raised the interest of numerous reports. Herein, we summarise the current knowledge on KLKs regulation with an emphasis on skin-relevant KLKs regulation processes. Regulation of KLKs takes place on the level of transcription, on protease activation and on protease inactivation. A variety of protease inhibitors has been described to interact with KLKs including the irreversible serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs) and the reversible serine protease inhibitors of Kazal-type (SPINKs). In an attempt to integrate current knowledge, we propose that KLK regulation has credentials as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Nota didattica sulle forme pronominali toniche dell'italiano (Pedagogical Note on the Disjunctive Pronoun Forms in Italian)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanini, Ruggero

    1976-01-01

    Presents a scheme directed towards Italian language Teaching Assistants teaching subject and object pronouns, and discusses the etymology and diachronic development of these forms. (Text is in Italian.) (AM)

  11. Relations Between Trait Impulsivity, Behavioral Impulsivity, Physiological Arousal, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Derefinko, Karen J.; Peters, Jessica R.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Walsh, Erin C.; Adams, Zachary W.; Lynam, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming. PMID:24958252

  12. Social huddling and physiological thermoregulation are related to melanism in the nocturnal barn owl.

    PubMed

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Séchaud, Robin; Béziers, Paul; Villain, Nicolas; Genoud, Michel; Almasi, Bettina; Jenni, Lukas; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Endothermic animals vary in their physiological ability to maintain a constant body temperature. Since melanin-based coloration is related to thermoregulation and energy homeostasis, we predict that dark and pale melanic individuals adopt different behaviours to regulate their body temperature. Young animals are particularly sensitive to a decrease in ambient temperature because their physiological system is not yet mature and growth may be traded-off against thermoregulation. To reduce energy loss, offspring huddle during periods of cold weather. We investigated in nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) whether body temperature, oxygen consumption and huddling were associated with melanin-based coloration. Isolated owlets displaying more black feather spots had a lower body temperature and consumed more oxygen than those with fewer black spots. This suggests that highly melanic individuals display a different thermoregulation strategy. This interpretation is also supported by the finding that, at relatively low ambient temperature, owlets displaying more black spots huddled more rapidly and more often than those displaying fewer spots. Assuming that spot number is associated with the ability to thermoregulate not only in Swiss barn owls but also in other Tytonidae, our results could explain geographic variation in the degree of melanism. Indeed, in the northern hemisphere, barn owls and allies are less spotted polewards than close to the equator, and in the northern American continent, barn owls are also less spotted in colder regions. If melanic spots themselves helped thermoregulation, we would have expected the opposite results. We therefore suggest that some melanogenic genes pleiotropically regulate thermoregulatory processes. PMID:26552377

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Scrippsiella trochoidea CCMP 3099 Reveals Physiological Changes Related to Nitrate Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Joshua T.; Sinclair, Geoffrey A.; Wawrik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a major component of marine phytoplankton and many species are recognized for their ability to produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). Scrippsiella trochoidea is a non-toxic, marine dinoflagellate that can be found in both cold and tropic waters where it is known to produce “red tide” events. Little is known about the genomic makeup of S. trochoidea and a transcriptome study was conducted to shed light on the biochemical and physiological adaptations related to nutrient depletion. Cultures were grown under N and P limiting conditions and transcriptomes were generated via RNAseq technology. De novo assembly reconstructed 107,415 putative transcripts of which only 41% could be annotated. No significant transcriptomic response was observed in response to initial P depletion, however, a strong transcriptional response to N depletion was detected. Among the down-regulated pathways were those for glutamine/glutamate metabolism as well as urea and nitrate/nitrite transporters. Transcripts for ammonia transporters displayed both up- and down-regulation, perhaps related to a shift to higher affinity transporters. Genes for the utilization of DON compounds were up-regulated. These included transcripts for amino acids transporters, polyamine oxidase, and extracellular proteinase and peptidases. N depletion also triggered down regulation of transcripts related to the production of Photosystems I & II and related proteins. These data are consistent with a metabolic strategy that conserves N while maximizing sustained metabolism by emphasizing the relative contribution of organic N sources. Surprisingly, the transcriptome also contained transcripts potentially related to secondary metabolite production, including a homolog to the Short Isoform Saxitoxin gene (sxtA) from Alexandrium fundyense, which was significantly up-regulated under N-depletion. A total of 113 unique hits to Sxt genes, covering 17 of the 34 genes found in C. raciborskii were detected

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Scrippsiella trochoidea CCMP 3099 Reveals Physiological Changes Related to Nitrate Depletion.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Joshua T; Sinclair, Geoffrey A; Wawrik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a major component of marine phytoplankton and many species are recognized for their ability to produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). Scrippsiella trochoidea is a non-toxic, marine dinoflagellate that can be found in both cold and tropic waters where it is known to produce "red tide" events. Little is known about the genomic makeup of S. trochoidea and a transcriptome study was conducted to shed light on the biochemical and physiological adaptations related to nutrient depletion. Cultures were grown under N and P limiting conditions and transcriptomes were generated via RNAseq technology. De novo assembly reconstructed 107,415 putative transcripts of which only 41% could be annotated. No significant transcriptomic response was observed in response to initial P depletion, however, a strong transcriptional response to N depletion was detected. Among the down-regulated pathways were those for glutamine/glutamate metabolism as well as urea and nitrate/nitrite transporters. Transcripts for ammonia transporters displayed both up- and down-regulation, perhaps related to a shift to higher affinity transporters. Genes for the utilization of DON compounds were up-regulated. These included transcripts for amino acids transporters, polyamine oxidase, and extracellular proteinase and peptidases. N depletion also triggered down regulation of transcripts related to the production of Photosystems I & II and related proteins. These data are consistent with a metabolic strategy that conserves N while maximizing sustained metabolism by emphasizing the relative contribution of organic N sources. Surprisingly, the transcriptome also contained transcripts potentially related to secondary metabolite production, including a homolog to the Short Isoform Saxitoxin gene (sxtA) from Alexandrium fundyense, which was significantly up-regulated under N-depletion. A total of 113 unique hits to Sxt genes, covering 17 of the 34 genes found in C. raciborskii were detected

  15. Physiological Awareness Is Negatively Related to Inhibitory Functioning in Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Clare M; Rickards, Hugh E; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2014-03-01

    In Tourette syndrome (TS), tics are characteristically preceded by subjective bodily experiences referred to as premonitory sensations. Premonitory sensory phenomena play a key role in behavior therapy for tics, the success of which has also been suggested to be related to inhibitory functioning. We investigated whether TS was associated with altered internal physiological awareness and how this may interact with the neuropsychological characteristics of TS. We compared the awareness of bodily sensations and inhibitory functioning in 18 adult patients with uncomplicated TS and 18 healthy controls. We also explored relationships between these factors, tic severity, and premonitory sensations. Patients with TS exhibited significantly higher scores on the Private Body Consciousness (PBC) scale and inhibitory deficits on traditional and emotional Stroop tests. PBC scores were not correlated with premonitory sensations or tic severity. However, inhibitory functioning was negatively related to PBC scores and premonitory sensations. Relationships between inhibitory performance and tic severity were complex. In conclusion, patients with TS exhibit increased PBC in addition to inhibitory deficits. Aspects of inhibitory functioning are related to PBC, premonitory sensations, and tic severity. Complex interplay between neuropsychological and neurophysiological mechanisms could therefore determine tic severity and the success of behavioral treatments.

  16. Emerging roles of aquaporins in relation to the physiology of blood-feeding arthropods.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Hansen, Immo A; Szuter, Elise M; Drake, Lisa L; Burnett, Denielle L; Attardo, Geoffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteins that span plasma membranes allowing the movement of water and small solutes into or out of cells. The type, expression levels and activity of AQPs play a major role in the relative permeability of each cell to water or other solutes. Research on arthropod AQPs has expanded in the last 10 years due to the completion of several arthropod genome projects and the increased availability of genetic information accessible through other resources such as de novo transcriptome assemblies. In particular, there has been significant advancement in elucidating the roles that AQPs serve in relation to the physiology of blood-feeding arthropods of medical importance. The focus of this review is upon the significance of AQPs in relation to hematophagy in arthropods. This will be accomplished via a narrative describing AQP functions during the life history of hematophagic arthropods that includes the following critical phases: (1) Saliva production necessary to blood feeding, (2) Intake and excretion of water during blood digestion, (3) Reproduction and egg development and (4) Off-host environmental stress tolerance. The concentration on these phases will highlight known vulnerabilities in the biology of hematophagic arthropods that could be used to develop novel control strategies as well as research topics that have yet to be examined.

  17. Nearshore Satellite Data as Relative Indicators of Intertidal Organism Physiological Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzelle, A.; Helmuth, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2011-12-01

    The physiological performance of intertidal and shallow subtidal invertebrates and algae is significantly affected by water temperature, and so the ability to measure and model onshore water temperatures is critical for ecological and biogeographic studies. Because of the localized influences of processes such as upwelling, mixing, and surface heating from solar radiation, nearshore water temperatures can differ from those measured directly offshore by buoys and satellites. It remains an open question what the magnitude of the differences in these temperatures are, and whether "large pixel" measurements can serve as an effective proxy for onshore processes, particularly when extrapolating from laboratory physiological studies to field conditions. We compared 9 years of nearshore (~10km) MODIS (Terra and Aqua overpasses) SST data against in situ measurements of water temperature conducted at two intertidal sites in central Oregon- Boiler Bay and Strawberry Hill. We collapsed data into increasingly longer temporal averages to address the correlation and absolute differences between onshore and nearshore temperatures over daily, weekly and monthly timescales. Results indicate that nearshore SST is a reasonable proxy for onshore water temperature, and that the strength of the correlation increases with decreasing temporal resolution. Correlations between differences in maxima are highest, followed by average and minima, and were lower at a site with regular upwelling. While average differences ranged from ~0.199-1.353°C, absolute differences across time scales were ~0.446-6.906°C, and were highest for cold temperatures. The results suggest that, at least at these two sites, SST can be used as a relative proxy for general trends only, especially over longer time scales.

  18. Gender-related differences in physiologic color space: a functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous color contrast and color constancy are memory processes associated with color vision, however, the gender-related differences of 'physiologic color space' remains unknown. Color processing was studied in 16 (8 men and 8 women) right-handed healthy subjects using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) technique. Mean flow velocity (MFV) was recorded in both right (RMCA) and left (LMCA) middle cerebral arteries in dark and white light conditions, and during color (blue and yellow) stimulations. The data was plotted in a 3D quadratic curve fit to derive a 'physiologic color space' showing the effects of luminance and chromatic contrasts. In men, wavelength-differencing of opponent pairs (yellow-blue) was adjudged by changes in the RMCA MFV for Yellow plotted on the Y-axis, and the RMCA MFV for Blue plotted on the X-axis. In women, frequency-differencing for opponent pairs (blue-yellow) was adjudged by changes in the LMCA MFV for Yellow plotted on the Y-axis, and the LMCA MFV for Blue plotted on the X-axis. The luminance effect on the LMCA MFV in response to white light with the highest luminous flux, was plotted on the (Z - axis), in both men and women. The 3D-color space for women was a mirror-image of that for men, and showed enhanced color constancy. The exponential function model was applied to the data in men, while the logarithmic function model was applied to the data in women. Color space determination may be useful in the study of color memory, adaptive neuroplasticity, cognitive impairment in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21310045

  19. The processing role of structural constraints on the interpretation of pronouns and anaphors.

    PubMed

    Badecker, William; Straub, Kathleen

    2002-07-01

    The authors report 6 self-paced word-by-word reading studies of how morphosyntactic agreement, focus status, and the structural constraints of binding theory apply and interact during the online interpretation of pronouns (e.g., him, her) and anaphors (e.g., himself, each other). Previous studies held that structural conditions on coreference work as interpretive filters that impose exceptionless limits on which antecedent candidates can be evaluated by subsequent, content-based processes. These experiments instead support an interactive-parallel-constraint model, in which multiple weighted constraints (including constraints on binding) simultaneously influence the net activation of a candidate during preselection stages of antecedent evaluation. Accordingly, structurally inaccessible candidates can interfere with antecedent selection if they are both prominent in focus structure and gender-number compatible with the pronoun or anaphor.

  20. Referential choice across the lifespan: why children and elderly adults produce ambiguous pronouns.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Petra; Koster, Charlotte; Hoeks, John C J

    2014-05-01

    In this study, children, young adults and elderly adults were tested in production and comprehension tasks assessing referential choice. Our aims were (1) to determine whether speakers egocentrically base their referential choice on the preceding linguistic discourse or also take into account the perspective of a hypothetical listener and (2) whether the possible impact of perspective taking on referential choice changes with increasing age, with its associated changes in cognitive capacity. In the production task, participants described picture-based stories featuring two characters of the same gender, making it necessary to use unambiguous forms; in the comprehension task, participants interpreted potentially ambiguous pronouns at the end of similar orally presented stories. Young adults (aged 18-35) were highly sensitive to the informational needs of hypothetical conversational partners in their production and comprehension of referring expressions. In contrast, children (aged 4-7) did not take into account possible conversational partners and tended to use pronouns for all given referents, leading to the production of ambiguous pronouns that are unrecoverable for a listener. This was mirrored in the outcome of the comprehension task, where children were insensitive to the shift of discourse topic marked by the speaker. The elderly adults (aged 69-87) behaved differently from both young adults and children. They showed a clear sensitivity to the other person's perspective in both production and comprehension, but appeared to lack the necessary cognitive capacities to keep track of the prominence of discourse referents, producing more potentially ambiguous pronouns than young adults, though fewer than children. In conclusion then, referential choice seems to depend on perspective taking in language, which develops with increasing linguistic experience and cognitive capacity, but also on the ability to keep track of the prominence of discourse referents, which is

  1. Referential choice across the lifespan: why children and elderly adults produce ambiguous pronouns

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra; Koster, Charlotte; Hoeks, John C.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, children, young adults and elderly adults were tested in production and comprehension tasks assessing referential choice. Our aims were (1) to determine whether speakers egocentrically base their referential choice on the preceding linguistic discourse or also take into account the perspective of a hypothetical listener and (2) whether the possible impact of perspective taking on referential choice changes with increasing age, with its associated changes in cognitive capacity. In the production task, participants described picture-based stories featuring two characters of the same gender, making it necessary to use unambiguous forms; in the comprehension task, participants interpreted potentially ambiguous pronouns at the end of similar orally presented stories. Young adults (aged 18–35) were highly sensitive to the informational needs of hypothetical conversational partners in their production and comprehension of referring expressions. In contrast, children (aged 4–7) did not take into account possible conversational partners and tended to use pronouns for all given referents, leading to the production of ambiguous pronouns that are unrecoverable for a listener. This was mirrored in the outcome of the comprehension task, where children were insensitive to the shift of discourse topic marked by the speaker. The elderly adults (aged 69–87) behaved differently from both young adults and children. They showed a clear sensitivity to the other person's perspective in both production and comprehension, but appeared to lack the necessary cognitive capacities to keep track of the prominence of discourse referents, producing more potentially ambiguous pronouns than young adults, though fewer than children. In conclusion then, referential choice seems to depend on perspective taking in language, which develops with increasing linguistic experience and cognitive capacity, but also on the ability to keep track of the prominence of discourse referents

  2. Integrative Care Therapies and Physiological and Pain-related Outcomes in Hospitalized Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, Elizabeth E.; Luberto, Christina M.; Bogenschutz, Lois H.; Geiss, Sue; Wasson, Rachel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pain management is a frequent problem in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Few studies examining effects of integrative care therapies on pain-related outcomes in neonates have included physiological outcomes or investigated the use of such therapies in a practice-based setting. Objective: The purpose of this practice-based retrospective study was to examine the associations between integrative care therapies, particularly massage and healing touch, and pain-related outcomes among hospitalized infants. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of a clinical database from a level III NICU regularly delivering integrative care therapies. Paired-samples t-tests were used to examine associations between integrative care therapies and 4 pre-post outcome measures: therapist-rated pain and presentation (ranging from asleep to agitated) and neonates' heart rate and oxygen saturation. Results: Of 186 patients (Mage=68 days), 58% were male and 67% were Caucasian. Sixty-two percent received both massage and healing touch; the remainder received a single therapy. From pre-post therapy, statistically significant changes were observed in infants' heart rate (Mpre=156 vs Mpost=140 per minute; P<.001), oxygen saturation (Mpre=95.0% vs.Mpost=97.4%; P<.001), and therapist-reported pain (Mpre=2.8 vs Mpost=0.2; P<.001) and presentation (Mpre=3.2 vs. Mpost=1.0; P<.001). Conclusion: Observed improvements in pain-related outcomes suggest that massage and healing touch may be useful integrative therapies to consider as pain management options in the NICU. PMID:26331102

  3. Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-07-01

    Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

  4. Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary Tract: Relation to Host Defense and Microbial Infection

    PubMed Central

    HICKLING, DUANE R.; SUN, TUNG-TIEN; WU, XUE-RU

    2015-01-01

    The urinary tract exits to a body surface area that is densely populated by a wide range of microbes. Yet, under most normal circumstances, it is typically considered sterile, i.e., devoid of microbes, a stark contrast to the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts where many commensal and pathogenic microbes call home. Not surprisingly, infection of the urinary tract over a healthy person’s lifetime is relatively infrequent, occurring once or twice or not at all for most people. For those who do experience an initial infection, the great majority (70% to 80%) thankfully do not go on to suffer from multiple episodes. This is a far cry from the upper respiratory tract infections, which can afflict an otherwise healthy individual countless times. The fact that urinary tract infections are hard to elicit in experimental animals except with inoculum 3–5 orders of magnitude greater than the colony counts that define an acute urinary infection in humans (105 cfu/ml), also speaks to the robustness of the urinary tract defense. How can the urinary tract be so effective in fending off harmful microbes despite its orifice in a close vicinity to that of the microbe-laden gastrointestinal tract? While a complete picture is still evolving, the general consensus is that the anatomical and physiological integrity of the urinary tract is of paramount importance in maintaining a healthy urinary tract. When this integrity is breached, however, the urinary tract can be at a heightened risk or even recurrent episodes of microbial infections. In fact, recurrent urinary tract infections are a significant cause of morbidity and time lost from work and a major challenge to manage clinically. Additionally, infections of the upper urinary tract often require hospitalization and prolonged antibiotic therapy. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract with an emphasis on their specific roles in host defense. We also highlight the

  5. Age and temperature related changes in behavioral and physiological performance in the Peromyscus leucopus mouse.

    PubMed

    Duffy, P H; Feuers, R J; Pipkin, J L; Turturro, A; Hart, R W

    1997-04-01

    Age-related and ambient temperature-related changes in motor activity, body temperature, body weight (b.w.), and food consumption were studied in the long-lived Peromyscus leucopus mouse at environmental temperatures of 29 and 21 degrees C. Major changes in physiological performance were observed between the young (6 months) and old (60-72 month) age groups. The number of daily activity episodes, and total activity output was significantly lower in old mice. Maximum, average and minimum daily body temperature was lower in the old mice and a significant ambient temperature-by-age interaction was found. Maximum, minimum, and average daily b.w. was higher in old mice. Motor activity was evenly distributed over the active (night) phase in young mice but in old mice activity was significantly greater in the late night partition of the active cycle than in the early night partition. Both groups were significantly more active at night than during the day. Most of the food consumption in both groups occurred at night, but young mice consumed significantly more during the late night partition than the early night partition, and the consumption rates for old mice were not significantly different between early and late night partitions. The percentage of activity episodes involved with food consumption in both groups was significantly higher during the night partition, but the percentage during the early night partition was significantly higher in old mice than in young mice. Significant episodes of circadian torpor occurred in a high percentage of old mice at 06:00, on consecutive days, at both environmental temperatures, but young mice expressed no evidence of torpor.

  6. Age-related changes in intraventricular kinetic energy: a physiological or pathological adaptation?

    PubMed

    Wong, James; Chabiniok, Radomir; deVecchi, Adelaide; Dedieu, Nathalie; Sammut, Eva; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza

    2016-03-15

    Aging has important deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system. We sought to compare intraventricular kinetic energy (KE) in healthy subjects of varying ages with subjects with ventricular dysfunction to understand if changes in energetic momentum may predispose individuals to heart failure. Four-dimensional flow MRI was acquired in 35 healthy subjects (age: 1-67 yr) and 10 patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (age: 28-79 yr). Healthy subjects were divided into age quartiles (1st quartile: <16 yr, 2nd quartile: 17-32 yr, 3rd quartile: 33-48 yr, and 4th quartile: 49-64 yr). KE was measured in the LV throughout the cardiac cycle and indexed to ventricular volume. In healthy subjects, two large peaks corresponding to systole and early diastole occurred during the cardiac cycle. A third smaller peak was seen during late diastole in eight adults. Systolic KE (P = 0.182) and ejection fraction (P = 0.921) were preserved through all age groups. Older adults showed a lower early peak diastolic KE compared with children (P < 0.0001) and young adults (P = 0.025). Subjects with LV dysfunction had reduced ejection fraction (P < 0.001) and compared with older healthy adults exhibited a similar early peak diastolic KE (P = 0.142) but with the addition of an elevated KE in diastasis (P = 0.029). In healthy individuals, peak diastolic KE progressively decreases with age, whereas systolic peaks remain constant. Peak diastolic KE in the oldest subjects is comparable to those with LV dysfunction. Unique age-related changes in ventricular diastolic energetics might be physiological or herald subclinical pathology.

  7. Age-related changes in intraventricular kinetic energy: a physiological or pathological adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, James; Chabiniok, Radomir; deVecchi, Adelaide; Dedieu, Nathalie; Sammut, Eva; Schaeffter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Aging has important deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system. We sought to compare intraventricular kinetic energy (KE) in healthy subjects of varying ages with subjects with ventricular dysfunction to understand if changes in energetic momentum may predispose individuals to heart failure. Four-dimensional flow MRI was acquired in 35 healthy subjects (age: 1–67 yr) and 10 patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (age: 28–79 yr). Healthy subjects were divided into age quartiles (1st quartile: <16 yr, 2nd quartile: 17–32 yr, 3rd quartile: 33–48 yr, and 4th quartile: 49–64 yr). KE was measured in the LV throughout the cardiac cycle and indexed to ventricular volume. In healthy subjects, two large peaks corresponding to systole and early diastole occurred during the cardiac cycle. A third smaller peak was seen during late diastole in eight adults. Systolic KE (P = 0.182) and ejection fraction (P = 0.921) were preserved through all age groups. Older adults showed a lower early peak diastolic KE compared with children (P < 0.0001) and young adults (P = 0.025). Subjects with LV dysfunction had reduced ejection fraction (P < 0.001) and compared with older healthy adults exhibited a similar early peak diastolic KE (P = 0.142) but with the addition of an elevated KE in diastasis (P = 0.029). In healthy individuals, peak diastolic KE progressively decreases with age, whereas systolic peaks remain constant. Peak diastolic KE in the oldest subjects is comparable to those with LV dysfunction. Unique age-related changes in ventricular diastolic energetics might be physiological or herald subclinical pathology. PMID:26747496

  8. A Pilot Study of Physiological Reactivity in Children and Maternal Figures Who Lost Relatives in a Terrorist Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Allen, James R.; Hammond, Donna R.; Whittlesey, Suzanne W.; Vinekar, Shreekumar S.; Feng, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Trauma is thought to interfere with normal grief by superimposing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This exploratory pilot study examined the association between traumatic grief and objectively measured physiological reactivity to a trauma interview in 13 children who lost relatives in the Oklahoma City bombing as well as a potential link…

  9. Drug-Related Hospital Visits and Admissions Associated with Laboratory or Physiologic Abnormalities—A Systematic-Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, Kerry; Hazi, Huda; El-Bedawi, Aya

    2013-01-01

    Countless studies have demonstrated that many emergency-room visits and hospital admissions are drug-related and that a significant proportion of these drug-related visits (DRVs) are preventable. It has not been previously studied which DRVs could be prevented through enhanced monitoring of therapy. The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of DRVs attributed to laboratory or physiologic abnormalities. Three authors independently performed comprehensive searches in relevant health care databases using pre-determined search terms. Articles discussing DRV associated with poisoning, substance abuse, or studied among existing in-patient populations were excluded. Study country, year, sample, design, duration, DRV identification method, proportion of DRVs associated with laboratory or physiologic abnormalities and associated medications were extracted. The three authors independently assessed selected relevant articles according to the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) as applicable according to the studies' methodology. The initial literature search yielded a total of 1,524 articles of which 30 articles meeting inclusion criteria and reporting sufficient laboratory or physiologic data were included in the overall analysis. Half employed prospective methodologies, which included both chart review and patient interview; however, the overwhelming majority of identified studies assessed only adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as a drug-related cause for DRV. The mean (range) prevalence of DRVs found in all studies was 15.4% (0.44%–66.7%) of which an association with laboratory or physiologic abnormalities could be attributed to a mean (range) of 29.4% (4.3%–78.1%) of cases. Most laboratory-associated DRVs could be linked to immunosuppressant, antineoplastic, anticoagulant and diabetes therapy, while physiologic-associated DRVs were attributed to cardiovascular therapies and NSAIDs. Significant proportions of

  10. [Physiological functions of sigma-1 receptors and its relation to psychic dependence].

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Yoshizawa, Kazumi; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2012-12-01

    Sigma-1 receptors had been believed as a one of the opioid receptors. Recent reports have demonstrated that the sigma-1 receptor is a nonopioid receptor that resides specifically at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion interface and has been shown to be protective against neurodegeneration as an ER chaperone. In this review, we review the molecular mechanism on the cytoprotective effects of sigma-1 receptors. Furthermore, we summarize the effects of sigma-1 receptor ligand on the behavioral effects, especially on the reward-related behaviors induced by psychostimulants. The ER is a major locus for the synthesis of proteins. Under physiological conditions, the overall protein level in the ER is maintained by a balance between the protein synthesis and degradation. When the balance is perturbed, signaling pathways (the unfolded protein response (UPR) caused by ER stress or the ER overload response (EOR)) are activated to regulate the cell survival/death signalings. Sigma-1 receptor could be upregulated by ER stress and EOR, and that upregulated sigma-1 receptors attenuate UPR and EOR by increasing the chaperone activity of sigma-1 receptors and attenuation of prossessed NF-kappaB activity, respectively. On the other hand, even sigma-1 receptor could be upregulated by self-administration of methamphetamine in the ventral tegmental area, exact mechanism how sigma-1 receptor chaperone affect the behavioral effects induced by psychostimulants is not yet cleared. However, the prototypic sigma-1 receptor agonist SKF10,047 induces psychotomimetic effects, and psychotomimetic-like discriminative stimulus effects are at least in part mediated by sigma-1 receptors. Recent research showed that endogenous hallucinogen (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) might be a sigma-1 receptor regulator, indicating that sigma-1 receptor is crosely related to psychotomimetic effects. Furthermore, sigma-1 receptor agonist can enhance the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulants, and

  11. Microcalorimetric monitoring of growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: osmotolerance in relation to physiological state.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, A; Larsson, C; Gustafsson, L

    1988-10-01

    The importance of the physiological state of a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for tolerance to sudden osmotic dehydration was studied, and it was investigated whether specific osmotolerance factors were demonstrable. The microcalorimeter was used to monitor growth, and different physiological states of the culture were selected and their osmotolerance was tested. In addition to cells in the stationary phase, cells from the transition phase between respirofermentative and respiratory catabolism were osmotolerant. S. cerevisiae exhibited ever-changing metabolism during batch growth on either glucose or ethanol as the carbon source. Instantaneous heat production per biomass formation (dQ/dX) and specific activity of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) (EC 1.1.1.8) were shown to differ for different physiological states. Neither high respiratory activity nor low total cellular activity, nor factors involved in osmoregulation, i.e., intracellular glycerol or activity of GPDH, correlated with the osmotolerant phenotype.

  12. Heterogeneity in vascular smooth muscle cell embryonic origin in relation to adult structure, physiology, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.; Bader, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Regional differences in vascular physiology and disease response exist throughout the vascular tree. While these differences in physiology and disease correspond to regional vascular environmental conditions, there is also compelling evidence that the embryonic origins of the smooth muscle inherent to the vessels may play a role. Here we review what is known regarding the role of embryonic origin of vascular smooth muscle cells during vascular development. The focus of this review is to highlight the heterogeneity in the origins of vascular smooth muscle cells and the resulting regional physiologies of the vessels. Our goal is to stimulate future investigation into this area and provide a better understanding of vascular organogenesis and disease. PMID:25546231

  13. Japanese Terms of Address: Some Usages of the First and Second Person Pronouns. Papers in Japanese Linguistics, Vol. 1, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurokawa, Shozo

    This paper examines the following points: (1) how Japanese personal pronouns are used according to the speakers' social constraints, and (2) differences between males and females of the same occupational group in their use of personal pronouns. The dialect analyzed is the speech of Japanese faculty members at the University of Hawaii. A speaker of…

  14. At the Intersection Between Grammar and Pragmatics: A Contrastive Study of Personal Pronouns and Other Forms of Address in Dutch and Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, C.; Bargiela-Chiappini, F.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on personal pronouns in business discourse, using data from four business meetings: formal and informal, in Dutch and in Italian. The article focuses on the pronouns "I" and "we," commenting on the frequency of Dutch inclusive "we," absent from the Italian data. The article also discusses indexical and nonindexical uses of first-person…

  15. The Production of Pronouns in Dutch Children with Developmental Language Disorders: A Comparison between Children with SLI, Hearing Impairment, and Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Gerard W.; Kasparian, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The production of pronouns in spontaneous language was investigated in three groups of children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD): children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), children with hearing impairment (HI), and children with Down's syndrome (DS). The results were compared to the production of pronouns in typically developing…

  16. The Comprehension and Production of the Anaphoric Pronouns "He, She, Him, Her" in Normal and Linguistically Deviant Children. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Brendan O'Connor; Ingram, David

    Research was conducted to study systematically the comprehension and production of the pronouns "he, she, him, her" in the language of normal and linguistically deviant children. The purposes of the study were to: observe the manner in which normal children comprehend and produce these four pronouns, in terms of both their use and their…

  17. Sex-related differences in stress tolerance in dioecious plants: a critical appraisal in a physiological context.

    PubMed

    Juvany, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-10-01

    Sex-related differences in reproductive effort can lead to differences in vegetative growth and stress tolerance. However, do all dioecious plants show sex-related differences in stress tolerance? To what extent can the environmental context and modularity mask sex-related differences in stress tolerance? Finally, to what extent can physiological measurements help us understand secondary sexual dimorphism? This opinion paper aims to answer these three basic questions with special emphasis on developments in research in this area over the last decade. Compelling evidence indicates that dimorphic species do not always show differences in stress tolerance between sexes; and when sex-related differences do occur, they seem to be highly species-specific, with greater stress tolerance in females than males in some species, and the opposite in others. The causes of such sex-related species-specific differences are still poorly understood, and more physiological studies and diversity of plant species that allow comparative analyses are needed. Furthermore, studies performed thus far demonstrate that the expression of dioecy can lead to sex-related differences in physiological traits-from leaf gas exchange to gene expression-but the biological significance of modularity and sectoriality governing such differences has been poorly investigated. Future studies that consider the importance of modularity and sectoriality are essential for unravelling the mechanisms underlying stress adaptation in male and female plants growing in their natural habitat. PMID:26163697

  18. Early Cognitive Development and Its Relation to Maternal Physiologic and Behavioral Responsiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, W. L.; Leavitt, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-two mothers whose physiologic responses to infant signals had been recorded at an earlier date were videotaped with their infants during a feeding session when the infant was 9 months of age. Infants' development of the object concept was assessed at 15 months. (JMB)

  19. Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions.

    PubMed

    Munck, A; Guyre, P M; Holbrook, N J

    1984-01-01

    Almost any kind of threat to homeostasis or stress will cause plasma glucocorticoid levels to rise. The increased levels have traditionally been ascribed the physiological function of enhancing the organism's resistance to stress, a role well recognized in glucocorticoid therapy. How the known physiological and pharmacological effects of glucocorticoids might accomplish this function, however, remains a mystery. A generalization that is beginning to emerge is that many of these effects may be secondary to modulation by glucocorticoids of the actions of numerous intercellular mediators, including established hormones, prostaglandins and other arachidonic acid metabolites, certain secreted neutral proteinases, lymphokines, and a variety of bioactive peptides. These mediators participate in physiological mechanisms--endocrine, renal, immune, neural, etc.--that mount a first line of defense against such challenges to homeostasis as hemorrhage, metabolic disturbances, infection, anxiety, and others. Contrary to the traditional view that glucocorticoids enhance these defense mechanisms, however, it has become increasingly clear that glucocorticoids at moderate to high levels generally suppress them. This paradox, which first emerged when glucocorticoids were discovered to be antiinflammatory agents, remains a major obstacle to a unified picture of glucocorticoid function. We propose that stress-induced increases in glucocorticoid levels protect not against the source of stress itself but rather against the body's normal reactions to stress, preventing those reactions from overshooting and themselves threatening homeostasis. This hypothesis, the seeds of which are to be found in many discussions of particular glucocorticoid effects, immediately accounts for the paradox noted above. Furthermore, it provides glucocorticoid physiology with a unified conceptual framework that can accommodate such apparently unrelated physiological and pharmacological effects as those on

  20. Introducing a gender-neutral pronoun in a natural gender language: the influence of time on attitudes and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Bäck, Emma A.; Lindqvist, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of gender fair language is often associated with negative reactions and hostile attacks on people who propose a change. This was also the case in Sweden in 2012 when a third gender-neutral pronoun hen was proposed as an addition to the already existing Swedish pronouns for she (hon) and he (han). The pronoun hen can be used both generically, when gender is unknown or irrelevant, and as a transgender pronoun for people who categorize themselves outside the gender dichotomy. In this article we review the process from 2012 to 2015. No other language has so far added a third gender-neutral pronoun, existing parallel with two gendered pronouns, that actually have reached the broader population of language users. This makes the situation in Sweden unique. We present data on attitudes toward hen during the past 4 years and analyze how time is associated with the attitudes in the process of introducing hen to the Swedish language. In 2012 the majority of the Swedish population was negative to the word, but already in 2014 there was a significant shift to more positive attitudes. Time was one of the strongest predictors for attitudes also when other relevant factors were controlled for. The actual use of the word also increased, although to a lesser extent than the attitudes shifted. We conclude that new words challenging the binary gender system evoke hostile and negative reactions, but also that attitudes can normalize rather quickly. We see this finding very positive and hope it could motivate language amendments and initiatives for gender-fair language, although the first responses may be negative. PMID:26191016

  1. Task-related BOLD responses and resting-state functional connectivity during physiological clamping of end-tidal CO(2).

    PubMed

    Madjar, C; Gauthier, C J; Bellec, P; Birn, R M; Brooks, J C W; Hoge, R D

    2012-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a potent vasodilator, is known to have a significant impact on the blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. With the growing interest in studying synchronized BOLD fluctuations during the resting state, the extent to which the apparent synchrony is due to variations in the end-tidal pressure of CO(2) (PETCO(2)) is an important consideration. CO(2)-related fluctuations in BOLD signal may also represent a potential confound when studying task-related responses, especially if breathing depth and rate are affected by the task. While previous studies of the above issues have explored retrospective correction of BOLD fluctuations related to arterial PCO(2), here we demonstrate an alternative approach based on physiological clamping of the arterial CO(2) level to a near-constant value. We present data comparing resting-state functional connectivity within the default-mode-network (DMN), as well as task-related BOLD responses, acquired in two conditions in each subject: 1) while subject's PETCO(2) was allowed to vary spontaneously; and 2) while controlling subject's PETCO(2) within a narrow range. Strong task-related responses and areas of maximal signal correlation in the DMN were not significantly altered by suppressing fluctuations in PETCO(2). Controlling PETCO(2) did, however, improve the performance of retrospective physiological noise correction techniques, allowing detection of additional regions of task-related response and resting-state connectivity in highly vascularized regions such as occipital cortex. While these results serve to further rule out systemic physiological fluctuations as a significant source of apparent resting-state network connectivity, they also demonstrate that fluctuations in arterial CO(2) are one of the factors limiting sensitivity in task-based and resting-state fMRI, particularly in regions of high vascular density. This must be considered when comparing subject groups who might exhibit differences in

  2. Antibiotics induce redox-related physiological alterations as part of their lethality.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Daniel J; Belenky, Peter A; Yang, Jason H; MacDonald, I Cody; Martell, Jeffrey D; Takahashi, Noriko; Chan, Clement T Y; Lobritz, Michael A; Braff, Dana; Schwarz, Eric G; Ye, Jonathan D; Pati, Mekhala; Vercruysse, Maarten; Ralifo, Paul S; Allison, Kyle R; Khalil, Ahmad S; Ting, Alice Y; Walker, Graham C; Collins, James J

    2014-05-20

    Deeper understanding of antibiotic-induced physiological responses is critical to identifying means for enhancing our current antibiotic arsenal. Bactericidal antibiotics with diverse targets have been hypothesized to kill bacteria, in part by inducing production of damaging reactive species. This notion has been supported by many groups but has been challenged recently. Here we robustly test the hypothesis using biochemical, enzymatic, and biophysical assays along with genetic and phenotypic experiments. We first used a novel intracellular H2O2 sensor, together with a chemically diverse panel of fluorescent dyes sensitive to an array of reactive species to demonstrate that antibiotics broadly induce redox stress. Subsequent gene-expression analyses reveal that complex antibiotic-induced oxidative stress responses are distinct from canonical responses generated by supraphysiological levels of H2O2. We next developed a method to quantify cellular respiration dynamically and found that bactericidal antibiotics elevate oxygen consumption, indicating significant alterations to bacterial redox physiology. We further show that overexpression of catalase or DNA mismatch repair enzyme, MutS, and antioxidant pretreatment limit antibiotic lethality, indicating that reactive oxygen species causatively contribute to antibiotic killing. Critically, the killing efficacy of antibiotics was diminished under strict anaerobic conditions but could be enhanced by exposure to molecular oxygen or by the addition of alternative electron acceptors, indicating that environmental factors play a role in killing cells physiologically primed for death. This work provides direct evidence that, downstream of their target-specific interactions, bactericidal antibiotics induce complex redox alterations that contribute to cellular damage and death, thus supporting an evolving, expanded model of antibiotic lethality.

  3. Anorexia in human and experimental animal models: physiological aspects related to neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia, a loss of appetite for food, can be caused by various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, firstly, clinical aspects of anorexia nervosa are summarized in brief. Secondly, hypothalamic neuropeptides responsible for feeding regulation in each hypothalamic nucleus are discussed. Finally, three different types of anorexigenic animal models; dehydration-induced anorexia, cisplatin-induced anorexia and cancer anorexia-cachexia, are introduced. In conclusion, hypothalamic neuropeptides may give us novel insight to understand and find effective therapeutics strategy essential for various kinds of anorexia.

  4. Alternatives to Using Masculine Pronouns When Referring to the Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halon-Soto, Debbie; And Others

    This paper reviews three studies designed to assess the impact of gender-related terms. The first study examined 144 male and female undergraduate students' preferences for and performance on tasks using alternatives to the standard English forms, "his/hers" and "him/her." The second study attempted to replicate the original study and to prove…

  5. Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Chambers, J.L.; Pezeshki, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

  6. A chemical signal possibly related to physiology in fossil cells detected by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, X

    2006-02-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) is a widely used tool employed to detect elemental composition and its spatial distribution in a sample without causing damage. Charcoalified cytoplasm is a new type of fossil material that came to people's attention only recently. In this paper, EDXMA is used for the first time to detect the spatial elemental distribution in charcoalified cytoplasm of two fossil plants that are more than 100 million years old. The results demonstrate certain elemental distribution patterns within charcoalified cytoplasm and the surrounding cell walls. Based on the results from cytological studies of extant material, the heterogeneous spatial elemental distribution within the charcoalified cytoplasm has the potential to be related to the maturation of cells, the presence of certain organelles, and the physiology of these organelles. This is the first chemical signal detected in cytoplasm residue that can possibly be related to plant physiology. This paves the way for further research on fossil cytoplasm, which will better our understanding on the physiology of fossil plants.

  7. Does This "He" or "She" Business Really Make a Difference? The Effect of Masculine Pronouns as Generics on Job Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stericker, Anne

    1981-01-01

    Undergraduates read job descriptions referring to jobholders as "he,""he or she," or "they" and indicated their interest and estimated how difficult it would be to forget different groups of people. Results for females, but not males, supported the notion that generic use of masculine pronouns narrows readers' attitudes. (Author/MK)

  8. Language Impairment in Less Skilled Comprehenders: The On-Line Processing of Anaphoric Pronouns in a Listening Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megherbi, Hakima; Ehrlich, Marie-France

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment, conducted with second-grade children (mean age: 7;8), was to examine the hypothesis that less skilled comprehenders in a reading situation suffer an impairment in spoken language comprehension and, more specifically, in the on-line processing of anaphoric pronouns. Skilled and less skilled comprehenders performed a…

  9. A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Two Methods of Teaching Resumptive Pronouns in Writing: TBLT and Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajabi, Bahar; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Resumptive pronouns (RPs) are one of the most challenging grammatical points for EFL learners because this structure is different in their L1. We aimed to examine whether blended learning/TBLT are useful to teach RPs. We examined the extent to which such methods improve performance on the posttest. Forty learners took part in the study who were…

  10. Coadaptive changes in physiological and biophysical traits related to thermal stress in web spiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoko; Takasago, Makoto; Omasa, Kenji; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2008-12-01

    Web spiders are considered to have expanded their habitats from dim to bright environments during the evolutionary history. Because they are sedentary predators exposed to the sun, they may have developed a suite of adaptive traits to cope with thermal stress. We examined the critical thermal maximum, spectral reflectance of solar energy by the body surface, and surface-volume ratio (SVR) for 11 spider species. Analysis of the four genera having a pair of species inhabiting both bright and dim environments showed that species in bright environments exhibited higher lethal temperatures, but spectral reflectance and SVR did not differ. Independent contrasts using the 11 species indicated that critical thermal maximum was positively correlated with spectral reflectance and spectral reflectance was negatively correlated with SVR. These results suggest that physiological tolerance to high temperatures and a biophysical mechanism to reduce heat gain evolved jointly during the history of habitat expansion in araneoid spiders.

  11. Physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of the cerebral cortex in relation to musical instrument performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramo, Mark Jude

    2001-05-01

    The acquisition and maintenance of fine-motor skills underlying musical instrument performance rely on the development, integration, and plasticity of neural systems localized within specific subregions of the cerebral cortex. Cortical representations of a motor sequence, such as a sequence of finger movements along the keys of a saxophone, take shape before the figure sequence occurs. The temporal pattern and spatial coordinates are computed by networks of neurons before and during the movements. When a finger sequence is practiced over and over, performance gets faster and more accurate, probably because cortical neurons generating the sequence increase in spatial extent, their electrical discharges become more synchronous, or both. By combining experimental methods such as single- and multi-neuron recordings, focal stimulation, microanatomical tracers, gross morphometry, evoked potentials, and functional imaging in humans and nonhuman primates, neuroscientists are gaining insights into the cortical physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of musical instrument performance.

  12. Coadaptive changes in physiological and biophysical traits related to thermal stress in web spiders.

    PubMed

    Kato, Naoko; Takasago, Makoto; Omasa, Kenji; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2008-12-01

    Web spiders are considered to have expanded their habitats from dim to bright environments during the evolutionary history. Because they are sedentary predators exposed to the sun, they may have developed a suite of adaptive traits to cope with thermal stress. We examined the critical thermal maximum, spectral reflectance of solar energy by the body surface, and surface-volume ratio (SVR) for 11 spider species. Analysis of the four genera having a pair of species inhabiting both bright and dim environments showed that species in bright environments exhibited higher lethal temperatures, but spectral reflectance and SVR did not differ. Independent contrasts using the 11 species indicated that critical thermal maximum was positively correlated with spectral reflectance and spectral reflectance was negatively correlated with SVR. These results suggest that physiological tolerance to high temperatures and a biophysical mechanism to reduce heat gain evolved jointly during the history of habitat expansion in araneoid spiders.

  13. Psychoneurometric operationalization of threat sensitivity: Relations with clinical symptom and physiological response criteria.

    PubMed

    Yancey, James R; Venables, Noah C; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative calls for the incorporation of neurobiological approaches and findings into conceptions of mental health problems through a focus on biobehavioral constructs investigated across multiple domains of measurement (units of analysis). Although the constructs in the RDoC system are characterized in "process terms" (i.e., as functional concepts with brain and behavioral referents), these constructs can also be framed as dispositions (i.e., as dimensions of variation in biobehavioral functioning across individuals). Focusing on one key RDoC construct, acute threat or "fear," the current article illustrates a construct-oriented psychoneurometric strategy for operationalizing this construct in individual difference terms-as threat sensitivity (THT+). Utilizing data from 454 adult participants, we demonstrate empirically that (a) a scale measure of THT+ designed to tap general fear/fearlessness predicts effectively to relevant clinical problems (i.e., fear disorder symptoms), (b) this scale measure shows reliable associations with physiological indices of acute reactivity to aversive visual stimuli, and (c) a cross-domain factor reflecting the intersection of scale and physiological indicators of THT+ predicts effectively to both clinical and neurophysiological criterion measures. Results illustrate how the psychoneurometric approach can be used to create a dimensional index of a biobehavioral trait construct, in this case THT+, which can serve as a bridge between phenomena in domains of psychopathology and neurobiology. Implications and future directions are discussed with reference to the RDoC initiative and existing report-based conceptions of psychological traits.

  14. Physiological, Diurnal and Stress-Related Variability of Cadmium-Metallothionein Gene Expression in Land Snails

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Niederwanger, Michael; Kopp, Renate; Schnegg, Raimund; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial Roman snail Helix pomatia has successfully adapted to strongly fluctuating conditions in its natural soil habitat. Part of the snail’s stress defense strategy is its ability to express Metallothioneins (MTs). These are multifunctional, cysteine-rich proteins that bind and inactivate transition metal ions (Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu+) with high affinity. In Helix pomatia a Cadmium (Cd)-selective, inducible Metallothionein Isoform (CdMT) is mainly involved in detoxification of this harmful metal. In addition, the snail CdMT has been shown to also respond to certain physiological stressors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological and diurnal variability of CdMT gene expression in snails exposed to Cd and non-metallic stressors such as desiccation and oxygen depletion. CdMT gene expression was upregulated by Cd exposure and desiccation, whereas no significant impact on the expression of CdMT was measured due to oxygen depletion. Overall, Cd was clearly more effective as an inducer of the CdMT gene expression compared to the applied non-metallic stressors. In unexposed snails, diurnal rhythmicity of CdMT gene expression was observed with higher mRNA concentrations at night compared to daytime. This rhythmicity was severely disrupted in Cd-exposed snails which exhibited highest CdMT gene transcription rates in the morning. Apart from diurnal rhythmicity, feeding activity also had a strong impact on CdMT gene expression. Although underlying mechanisms are not completely understood, it is clear that factors increasing MT expression variability have to be considered when using MT mRNA quantification as a biomarker for environmental stressors. PMID:26935042

  15. Mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells under physiological hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Tolba, Emad; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiological energy-rich polymer with multiple phosphoric anhydride bonds. In cells such as bone-forming osteoblasts, glycolysis is the main pathway generating metabolic energy in the form of ATP. In the present study, we show that, under hypoxic culture conditions, the growth/viability of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is not impaired. The addition of polyP to those cells, administered as amorphous calcium polyP nanoparticles (aCa-polyP-NP; approximate size 100 nm), significantly increased the proliferation of the cells. In the presence of polyP, the cells produce significant levels of lactate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Under those conditions, an eight-fold increase in the steady-state level of the membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX is found, as well as a six-fold induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Consequently, biomineral formation onto the SaOS-2 cells decreases under low oxygen tension. If the polyP nanoparticles are added to the cells, the degree of mineralization is enhanced. These changes had been measured also in human mesenchymal stem cells. The assumption that the bicarbonate, generated by the carbonic anhydrase in the presence of polyP under low oxygen, is deposited as a constituent of the bioseeds formed during initial hydroxyapatite formation is corroborated by the identification of carbon besides of calcium, oxygen and phosphorus in the initial biomineral deposit onto the cells using the sensitive technology of high-resolution energy dispersive spectrometry mapping. Based on these data, we conclude that polyP is required for the supply of metabolic energy during bone mineral formation under physiological, hypoxic conditions, acting as a 'metabolic fuel' for the cells to grow.

  16. Attention biases in female survivors of chronic interpersonal violence: relationship to trauma-related symptoms and physiology

    PubMed Central

    DePierro, Jonathan; D'Andrea, Wendy; Pole, Nnamdi

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to chronic interpersonal violence (IPV) has been associated with psychiatric impairment; however, few studies have investigated attention processes and psychophysiology in this population. Objective We investigated self-report and physiological correlates of attention biases in 27 IPV-exposed women. Method Participants completed self-report measures of trauma history, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and dissociation; were monitored physiologically during baseline; and responded to an emotional dot probe task. Results Participants showed bias away from positive and anxiety words, and toward IPV words. Lower baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and higher skin conductance levels were associated with bias away from anxiety cues. Greater total PTSD symptoms were associated with bias toward IPV cues, and greater PTSD intrusion and avoidance symptoms were associated with lower RSA. Individuals exposed to more types of trauma had lower heart rates. Conclusions These data extend the research on emotion–cognition interactions in PTSD and other anxiety disorders to chronic IPV survivors, in part confirming avoidance and intrusion symptom and attention bias relations found in studies. The present work also draws attention to a group that tends to experience a range of severe symptoms associated with apparent blunting in autonomic activity, and suggests that self-report may not be sensitive to physiological and attention alterations in chronic IPV samples. PMID:23467318

  17. Relative importance of photosynthetic physiology and biomass allocation for tree seedling growth across a broad light gradient.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Rebecca

    2004-02-01

    Studies of tree seedling physiology and growth under field conditions provide information on the mechanisms underlying inter- and intraspecific differences in growth and survival at a critical period during forest regeneration. I compared photosynthetic physiology, growth and biomass allocation in seedlings of three shade-tolerant tree species, Virola koschynii Warb., Dipteryx panamensis (Pittier) Record & Mell and Brosimum alicastrum Swartz., growing across a light gradient created by a forest-pasture edge (0.5 to 67% diffuse transmittance (%T)). Most growth and physiological traits showed nonlinear responses to light availability, with the greatest changes occurring between 0.5 and 20 %T. Specific leaf area (SLA) and nitrogen per unit leaf mass (N mass) decreased, maximum assimilation per unit leaf area (A area) and area-based leaf N concentration (N area) increased, and maximum assimilation per unit leaf mass (A mass) did not change with increasing irradiance. Plastic responses in SLA were important determinants of leaf N and A area across the gradient. Species differed in magnitude and plasticity of growth; B. alicastrum had the lowest relative growth rates (RGR) and low plasticity. Its final biomass varied only 10-fold across the light gradient. In contrast, the final biomass of D. panamensis and V. koschynii varied by 100- and 50-fold, respectively, and both had higher RGR than B. alicastrum. As light availability increased, all species decreased biomass allocation to leaf tissue (mass and area) and showed a trade-off between allocation to leaf area at a given plant mass (LAR) and net gain in mass per unit leaf area (net assimilation rate, NAR). This trade-off largely reflected declines in SLA with increasing light. Finally, A area was correlated with NAR and both were major determinants of intraspecific variation in RGR. These data indicate the importance of plasticity in photosynthetic physiology and allocation for variation in tree seedling growth among

  18. Glycated hemoglobin as a physiological measure of stress and its relations to some psychological stress indicators.

    PubMed

    Schuck, P

    1998-01-01

    A counterbalanced design with two groups of nondiabetic medical students, each serving the other as a control when undergoing examination, was used to evaluate the diagnostic importance of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as a measure of chronic stress. As previous studies suggested, significant statistical differences were found for the group conditions, but no time effects. Closer examination showed a considerable overlap of the two frequency distributions, however. Using the cross point of the two curves as a cutoff, sensitivity of diagnostic decisions based on the HbA1c scores alone would be about .6 and specificity about .7 As with most physiological measures of acute stress, the correlation coefficients of the used psychological inventories and the HbA1c scores were generally low. Among the scales specific for the situation, only control and competence expectancy reached significance (r = -.31); among the personality traits, only anxiety and the blunting scores of the Miller Behavioral Style Scale met the significance criterion. PMID:9695900

  19. Models of Physiology/Cognition Relations: Their Prevalence in the Literature and Their Utility in Examining the Effect of Blood Pressure on Vocabulary and Memory for Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

    Interest in physiology/cognition relations is increasing, in step with the realization that the individual ages as a whole, adaptive, living system. If a physiological system declines, a person's cognitive abilities may be reduced, unless some compensatory mechanism operates. Understanding this set of relationships permits potential interventions.…

  20. Deconvolution of pigment and physiologically related photochemical reflectance index variability at the canopy scale over an entire growing season.

    PubMed

    Hmimina, G; Merlier, E; Dufrêne, E; Soudani, K

    2015-08-01

    The sensitivity of the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) to leaf pigmentation and its impacts on its potential as a proxy for light-use efficiency (LUE) have recently been shown to be problematic at the leaf scale. Most leaf-to-leaf and seasonal variability can be explained by such a confounding effect. This study relies on the analysis of PRI light curves that were generated at the canopy scale under natural conditions to derive a precise deconvolution of pigment-related and physiologically related variability in the PRI. These sources of variability were explained by measured or estimated physiologically relevant variables, such as soil water content, that can be used as indicators of water availability and canopy chlorophyll content. The PRI mainly reflected the variability in the pigment content of the canopy. However, the corrected PRI, which was obtained by subtracting the pigment-related seasonal variability from the PRI measurement, was highly correlated with the upscaled LUE measurements. Moreover, the sensitivity of the PRI to the leaf pigment content may mask the PRI versus LUE relationship or result in an artificial relationship that reflects the relationship of chlorophyll versus LUE, depending on the species phenology.

  1. Acute Physiological Stress Down-Regulates mRNA Expressions of Growth-Related Genes in Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O. B.; Beckman, Brian R.; Iwama, George K.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish. PMID:23990952

  2. Menstrual Cycle-Related Variation in Physiological Sleep in Women in the Early Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R.; Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Colrain, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Most studies show sleep homeostasis and continuity remain stable across the menstrual cycle in young women. The influence of the menstrual cycle on physiological sleep in midlife women is unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of menstrual cycle phase on the polysomnogram and electroencephalographic (EEG) features of sleep in midlife women, accounting for the presence of an insomnia disorder. Design and Participants: This was a laboratory study of 20 women in the early menopausal transition (48.8 ± 2.9 y), 11 with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, diagnosis of insomnia, studied on one night each in the follicular and luteal menstrual cycle phases. Main Outcome Measures: Polysomnographic and sleep EEG indices were measured. Results: Both groups of women had more awakenings (P = .003) and arousals (P = .025) per hour of sleep and less percentage slow wave sleep (P = .024) when progesterone was raised (≥3 ng/mL−1) during the luteal compared with the follicular phase. Both groups had greater spindle density (P = .007), longer spindles (P = .037), and increased 14–17 Hz EEG activity in the luteal phase (P < .05), although for the 15- to 16-Hz bin, this effect was significant only in women without insomnia (P < .001). Women with insomnia had a shorter sleep duration (P = .012), more wakefulness after sleep onset (P = .031), and a lower sleep efficiency (P = .034) than women without insomnia, regardless of menstrual cycle phase. Conclusion: Sleep is more disrupted in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase in midlife women, whether or not they have an insomnia disorder. There is a prominent increase in sleep spindles and spindle frequency activity in the luteal phase, likely an effect of progesterone and/or its neuroactive metabolites acting on sleep regulatory systems. PMID:26079775

  3. Digestive physiological outcomes related to polydextrose and soluble maize fibre consumption by healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Boler, Brittany M Vester; Serao, Mariana C Rossoni; Bauer, Laura L; Staeger, Michael A; Boileau, Thomas W; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate digestive physiological outcomes elicited by functional fibres fed to healthy adult men. A total of twenty-one healthy adult men were utilised in a cross-over design. Each subject received polydextrose (PDX) or soluble maize fibre (SCF) (21 g/d) or no supplemental fibre (no fibre control; NFC) in a snack bar. Periods were 21 d and faeces were collected during the last 5 d of each period. Food intake, including fibre intake, did not differ among treatments. Flatulence (P = 0·001) and distention (P = 0·07) were greatest when subjects consumed PDX or SCF. Reflux was greater (P = 0·04) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. All tolerance scores were low ( < 2·5), indicating only slight discomfort. Faecal ammonia, 4-methylphenol, indole and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased (P < 0·01) when subjects consumed the functional fibre sources compared with NFC. Faecal acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations were lower (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed PDX compared with SCF and NFC. Faecal pH was lower (P = 0·01) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC, while PDX was intermediate. Faecal wet weight was greatest (P = 0·03) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. Faecal dry weight tended to be greater (P = 0·07) when subjects consumed PDX compared with NFC. The functional fibres led to 1·4 and 0·9 g (PDX and SCF, respectively) increases in faecal dry mass per g supplemental fibre intake. Bifidobacterium spp. concentrations were greater (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. These functional fibres appear to be beneficial to gut health while leading to minimal gastrointestinal upset. PMID:21736814

  4. Physiological asymmetry in etiolated pea epicotyls: relation to patterns of auxin distribution and phototropic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, H.; Galston, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Etiolated pea seedlings require transformation of Pr phytochrome to Pfr before they display optimal phototropic response to unilateral blue light. This study investigates the possible role of auxin transport in explaining these phenomena. Labeled [2-14C]IAA applied to the intact terminal buds of dark-grown and red light-treated pea seedlings was measured 210 min later on the shaded and illuminated sides of the epicotyl as a function of direction and duration of irradiation with blue light. Totally darkened epicotyls show an asymmetry in distribution of radioactivity in the upper growth zone of the epicotyl, in favor of the side under the concave part of the apical hook. Red light, which greatly potentiates curvature toward subsequent unilateral blue light, lowers this asymmetry. Blue light directed to the epicotyl of red-pretreated plants in a plane parallel to the hook and from the side bearing the convex portion of the hook induces positive phototropic curvature as well as a surplus of radioactivity on the illuminated side of the upper epicotyl and on the shaded side of the lower growth zone of the epicotyl. Light directed to the side bearing the concave part of the hook also causes an accumulation of counts in the upper part of the lighted side but produces neither curvature of the epicotyl nor accumulation of counts in the lower shaded side. Because of this built-in physiological asymmetry in the growth zone just below the apical hook, it is difficult to explain the effects of red and blue light on curvature in terms of patterns of auxin distribution alone.

  5. Developing Elementary Teachers' Understandings of Hedges and Personal Pronouns in Inquiry-Based Science Classroom Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of introducing elementary teachers to the scholarly literature on personal pronouns and hedges in classroom discourse, a professional development strategy adopted during a summer institute to enhance teachers’ social understanding (i.e., their understanding of the social functions of language in science discussions). Teachers became aware of how hedges can be employed to remain neutral toward students’ oral contributions to classroom discussions, invite students to share their opinions and articulate their own ideas, and motivate students to inquire. Teachers recognized that the combined use of I and you can render their feedback authoritative, you can shift the focus from the investigation to students’ competence, and we can lead to authority loss. It is argued that explicitness, reflectivity, and contextualization are essential features of professional development programs aimed at improving teachers’ understandings of the social dimension of inquiry-based science classrooms and preparing teachers to engage in inquiry-based teacher-student interactions.

  6. Cognitive architectures and language acquisition: a case study in pronoun comprehension.

    PubMed

    VAN Rij, Jacolien; VAN Rijn, Hedderik; Hendriks, Petra

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we discuss a computational cognitive model of children's poor performance on pronoun interpretation (the so-called Delay of Principle B Effect, or DPBE). This cognitive model is based on a theoretical account that attributes the DPBE to children's inability as hearers to also take into account the speaker's perspective. The cognitive model predicts that child hearers are unable to do so because their speed of linguistic processing is too limited to perform this second step in interpretation. We tested this hypothesis empirically in a psycholinguistic study, in which we slowed down the speech rate to give children more time for interpretation, and in a computational simulation study. The results of the two studies confirm the predictions of our model. Moreover, these studies show that embedding a theory of linguistic competence in a cognitive architecture allows for the generation of detailed and testable predictions with respect to linguistic performance.

  7. Los pronombres de cortesia: su tratamiento en espanol y en otros idiomas, El adverbio (Pronouns of Courtesy: Their Treatment in Spanish and Other Languages, the Adverbs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1973-01-01

    Compares use of pronouns and adverbs in Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, English, German, Rumanian, and Slavic languages. Excerpted from the book Fisonomia del y de las lenguas modernas'' ( Features of Modern Languages''). (DS)

  8. PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of heat stress related to bovine ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Roth, Z

    2015-05-01

    In light of the intensive genetic selection for high milk production and the onset of global warming, it seems that the reduced fertility of lactating cows during the summer will worsen in coming years. Although not entirely clear, the mechanism appears to be multifactorial in nature. It includes alterations in follicular development, depression of follicular dominance, and impairment of steroidogenesis and gonadotropin secretion. Heat-induced perturbations in the physiology of the follicle-enclosed oocyte have also been documented, expressed by impaired cleavage rate and reduced developmental competence. With respect to the oocyte, alterations include an increase in PUFA in the membrane, reactive oxygen species, ceramide formation and caspase activity, and induction of apoptosis via the sphingomyelin and/or mitochondrial pathways. New insight into cellular and molecular alterations has revealed that heat induces perturbations in both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation events, such as resumption of meiosis, metaphase II plate formation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, and translocation of cortical granules. Alterations in mitochondrial distribution (i.e., low proportion of category I mitochondria) and function (i.e., low membrane potential) have recently been reported for oocytes collected during the summer. These were associated with impaired expression of both nuclear (succinate dehydrogenase subunit [SDHD], adenosine triphosphate [ATP] synthase subunit beta [ATP5B]), mitochondrially NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), and mitochondiral (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II [MT-CO2] and cytochrome b [MT-CYB]) genes that are crucial in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In addition, season-induced alteration in the stored maternal mRNA has been documented, expressed by reduced transcript levels (oocyte maturation factor MOS [C-MOS], growth differentiation factor 9 [GDF9], POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 [POU5F1], and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

  9. Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Erp, Jan B. F.

    2014-01-01

    While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 min segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz. PMID:25352774

  10. Inflammation reduces physiological tissue tolerance in the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ann E; Barbe, Mary F

    2004-02-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) cause substantial worker discomfort, disability and loss of productivity. Due to the difficulty in analyzing the tissues of patients in the early stages of work-related MSD, there is controversy concerning the pathomechanisms of the development of these disorders. The pathophysiology of work-related MSD can be studied more easily in animal models. The purpose of this review is to relate theories of the development of tissue injury due to repeated motion to findings of recent investigations in animals that address the role of the inflammatory response in propagating tissue injury and contributing to chronic or recurring tissue injury. These tissue effects are related to behavioral indicators of discomfort and movement dysfunction with the aim of clarifying key time points for specific intervention approaches. The results from animal models of MSD are discussed in the light of findings in patients, whose tissues are examined at a much later phase of MSD development. Finally, a conceptual model of the potentially negative impact of inflammation on tissue tolerance is proposed along with suggestions for future research directions.

  11. Physiological and environmental factors related to carbon isotopic variations in mollusc shell carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, D.E.; Williams, D.F.; Jones, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of mollusc shell carbonate has been used as a general environmental indicator in numerous studies, but relatively little is known of the factors which affect within-shell variation. Primary control of delta/sup 13/C values in shell carbonate comes from the dissolved bicarbonate source, particularly as related to marine versus fresh water. Present models explain cyclic variations in the delta/sup 13/C profiles of mollusc shells due to upwelling, phytoplankton productivity and stratification, disequilibrium with rapid shell growth, and infaunal versus epifaunal habitat. Carbon and oxygen isotopic profiles in this study were obtained from specimens of Spisula solidissima (surf clam) and Placopecten magellanicus (sea scallop) collected alive from 14 to 57 m water depths off the Virginia coast. Three main factors appear to affect the delta/sup 13/C profiles in these specimens. Isotopically light values commonly associated with the spring and occasionally the fall correspond with seasonal phytoplankton productivity. A significant negative delta/sup 13/C offset of the infaunal Spisula relative to the epifaunal Placopecten probably relates to the inclusion of isotopically more negative pore-water bicarbonate by Spisula. Additionally, occasional transient spikes in both the delta/sup 18/O and delta/sup 13/C profiles correspond to intrusion of reduced-salinity water.

  12. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha is a key factor related to depression and physiological homeostasis in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Kyosuke; Doe, Nobutaka; Sumida, Miho; Watanabe, Yuko; Yoshida, Momoko; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Xu, Yunfeng; Li, Wen; Yamanishi, Hiromichi; Okamura, Haruki; Matsunaga, Hisato

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that involves marked disabilities in global functioning, anorexia, and severe medical comorbidities. MDD is associated with not only psychological and sociocultural problems, but also pervasive physical dysfunctions such as metabolic, neurobiological and immunological abnormalities. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between these factors have yet to be determined in detail. The aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the interactions between MDD and dysregulation of physiological homeostasis, including immunological function as well as lipid metabolism, coagulation, and hormonal activity in the brain. We generated depression-like behavior in mice using chronic mild stress (CMS) as a model of depression. We compared the gene expression profiles in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of CMS and control mice using microarrays. We subsequently categorized genes using two web-based bioinformatics applications: Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and The Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery. We then confirmed significant group-differences by analyzing mRNA and protein expression levels not only in the PFC, but also in the thalamus and hippocampus. These web tools revealed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (Hnf4a) may exert direct effects on various genes specifically associated with amine synthesis, such as genes involved in serotonin metabolism and related immunological functions. Moreover, these genes may influence lipid metabolism, coagulation, and hormonal activity. We also confirmed the significant effects of Hnf4a on both mRNA and protein expression levels in the brain. These results suggest that Hnf4a may have a critical influence on physiological homeostasis under depressive states, and may be associated with the mechanisms responsible for the interactions between MDD and the dysregulation of physiological homeostasis

  13. Melatonin in Retinal Physiology and Pathology: The Case of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Russel J.; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, an indoleamine, is synthesized mainly in the pineal gland in a circadian fashion, but it is produced in many other organs, including the retina, which seems to be especially important as the eye is a primary recipient of circadian signals. Melatonin displays strong antioxidative properties, which predispose it to play a protective role in many human pathologies associated with oxidative stress, including premature aging and degenerative disease. Therefore, melatonin may play a role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease affecting photoreceptors, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with an established role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Several studies have shown that melatonin could exert the protective effect against damage to RPE cells evoked by reactive oxygen species (ROS), but it has also been reported to increase ROS-induced damage to photoreceptors and RPE. Melatonin behaves like synthetic mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, which concentrate in mitochondria at relatively high levels; thus, melatonin may prevent mitochondrial damage in AMD. The retina contains telomerase, an enzyme implicated in maintaining the length of telomeres, and oxidative stress inhibits telomere synthesis, while melatonin overcomes this effect. These features support considering melatonin as a preventive and therapeutic agent in the treatment of AMD.

  14. Melatonin in Retinal Physiology and Pathology: The Case of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Russel J.; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, an indoleamine, is synthesized mainly in the pineal gland in a circadian fashion, but it is produced in many other organs, including the retina, which seems to be especially important as the eye is a primary recipient of circadian signals. Melatonin displays strong antioxidative properties, which predispose it to play a protective role in many human pathologies associated with oxidative stress, including premature aging and degenerative disease. Therefore, melatonin may play a role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease affecting photoreceptors, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with an established role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Several studies have shown that melatonin could exert the protective effect against damage to RPE cells evoked by reactive oxygen species (ROS), but it has also been reported to increase ROS-induced damage to photoreceptors and RPE. Melatonin behaves like synthetic mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, which concentrate in mitochondria at relatively high levels; thus, melatonin may prevent mitochondrial damage in AMD. The retina contains telomerase, an enzyme implicated in maintaining the length of telomeres, and oxidative stress inhibits telomere synthesis, while melatonin overcomes this effect. These features support considering melatonin as a preventive and therapeutic agent in the treatment of AMD. PMID:27688828

  15. Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

  16. Physiological ecology of desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) eggs: temperature and water relations

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, A.

    1980-12-01

    The soil environment imposes constraints on the timing of oviposition and the location of suitable sites for egg burrows of the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). The effects of temperature and water potential on the developmental period and hatching success of eggs were determined. Eggs hatch normally between 28/sup 0/ and 38/sup 0/C at environmental water potentials between -50 and -1500 kPa. Predictions were derived for the timing and placement of egg clutches based on soil water potential and temperature profiles measured in the field and on the results of laboratory incubation experiments. The results suggest that egg burrows should be located at depths >22 cm in washes or possibly in sparsely vegetated areas away from creosote bushes. The biogeography of desert iguanas within the United States is discussed in relation to soil environments and tolerances of eggs. The physical factors affecting incubation may limit the geographical range of desert iguanas.

  17. Post-feeding physiology in Rhodnius prolixus: the possible role of FGLamide-related allatostatins.

    PubMed

    Zandawala, Meet; Orchard, Ian

    2013-12-01

    Allatostatins (ASTs) are neuropeptides that were first identified as inhibitors of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the corpora allata of some insect species. The FGLamide-related ASTs (FGLa/ASTs) belong to one of three families of insect ASTs. Previously, we showed that Rhodnius prolixus FGLa/ASTs (Rhopr-FGLa/ASTs) are present throughout the R. prolixus central nervous system and are associated with 5 dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons in the mesothoracic ganglionic mass. A similar set of neurons contain serotonin which is a diuretic hormone in R. prolixus. Rhopr-FGLa/ASTs inhibit both spontaneous contractions of the anterior midgut and leucokinin-1-induced hindgut contractions. Since these tissues are involved with post-feeding diuresis, these data suggest a possible role for FGLa/ASTs in events associated with feeding, and a possible interaction with serotonin. To investigate this possibility, we have examined the DUM neurons in more detail with regard to their peptide content, examined the potential release of Rhopr-FGLa/ASTs into the haemolymph following feeding, and further investigated the effects of Rhopr-FGLa/ASTs on feeding-related tissues. There are 10 DUM neurons in the abdominal neuromeres, 5 of which express serotonin-like immunoreactivity and the other 5 express FGLa/AST-like immunoreactivity. FGLa/AST-like immunoreactivity is reduced in the 5 DUM neuron cell bodies and their neurohaemal sites on abdominal nerves at 3-5 h post feeding. Rhopr-FGLa/ASTs do not inhibit serotonin-stimulated anterior midgut absorption or Malpighian tubule secretion but do inhibit hindgut contractions induced by an endogenous kinin, suggesting that they may only indirectly affect post-feeding diuresis in R. prolixus. PMID:24161751

  18. Physiological Responses in Relation to Performance during Competition in Elite Synchronized Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara; Iglesias, Xavier; Barrero, Anna; Chaverri, Diego; Erola, Pau; Rodríguez, Ferran A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to characterize the cardiovascular, lactate and perceived exertion responses in relation to performance during competition in junior and senior elite synchronized swimmers. Methods 34 high level senior (21.4±3.6 years) and junior (15.9±1.0) synchronized swimmers were monitored while performing a total of 96 routines during an official national championship in the technical and free solo, duet and team competitive programs. Heart rate was continuously monitored. Peak blood lactate was obtained from serial capillary samples during recovery. Post-exercise rate of perceived exertion was assessed using the Borg CR-10 scale. Total competition scores were obtained from official records. Results Data collection was complete in 54 cases. Pre-exercise mean heart rate (beats·min−1) was 129.1±13.1, and quickly increased during the exercise to attain mean peak values of 191.7±8.7, with interspersed bradycardic events down to 88.8±28.5. Mean peak blood lactate (mmol·L−1) was highest in the free solo (8.5±1.8) and free duet (7.6±1.8) and lowest at the free team (6.2±1.9). Mean RPE (0–10+) was higher in juniors (7.8±0.9) than in seniors (7.1±1.4). Multivariate analysis revealed that heart rate before and minimum heart rate during the routine predicted 26% of variability in final total score. Conclusions Cardiovascular responses during competition are characterized by intense anticipatory pre-activation and rapidly developing tachycardia up to maximal levels with interspersed periods of marked bradycardia during the exercise bouts performed in apnea. Moderate blood lactate accumulation suggests an adaptive metabolic response as a result of the specific training adaptations attributed to influence of the diving response in synchronized swimmers. Competitive routines are perceived as very to extremely intense, particularly in the free solo and duets. The magnitude of anticipatory heart rate activation and bradycardic response appear to be related to

  19. Structure–Function Relations, Physiological Roles, and Evolution of Mammalian ER-Resident Selenoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Shchedrina, Valentina A.; Zhang, Yan; Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Selenium is an essential trace element in mammals. The major biological form of this micronutrient is the amino acid selenocysteine, which is present in the active sites of selenoenzymes. Seven of 25 mammalian selenoproteins have been identified as residents of the endoplasmic reticulum, including the 15-kDa selenoprotein, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase and selenoproteins K, M, N, S, and T. Most of these proteins are poorly characterized. However, recent studies implicate some of them in quality control of protein folding in the ER, retrotranslocation of misfolded proteins from the ER to the cytosol, metabolism of the thyroid hormone, and regulation of calcium homeostasis. In addition, some of these proteins are involved in regulation of glucose metabolism and inflammation. This review discusses evolution and structure–function relations of the ER-resident selenoproteins and summarizes recent findings on these proteins, which reveal the emerging important role of selenium and selenoproteins in ER function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 839–849. PMID:19747065

  20. Current considerations related to physiological differences between the sexes and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Delia; Gebhardt, Deborah L; Gaskill, Steven E; Roy, Tanja C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2016-06-01

    The use of physical employment standards (PES) has helped ensure that workers have the physical attributes necessary to complete their jobs in a safe and efficient manner. However, PES used in the selection processes have not always reflected the critical physical requirements of the job tasks. Women generally have smaller anthropometric stature than men, less muscle mass, and therefore less strength, power, and endurance, particularly in the upper body. Nonetheless, these attributes in themselves are not valid grounds for exclusion from employment in physically demanding occupations. Selection standards based upon size or strength, irrespective of the job requirements, have resulted in the barring of capable women from physically demanding jobs, claims of gender bias, and costly litigations. To ensure all individuals are provided with equal access to employment, accurate characterization of the critical physical requirements of the job is paramount. This paper summarizes the existing research related to disparities between the sexes that contribute to sex differences in job performance in physically demanding occupations including physical and legal factors. Strategies for mitigating these differences in the setting of PES and the meeting of minimum employment standards are discussed. Where available, injury rates for women and men in physically demanding occupations are presented and the etiology considered. Finally, areas for further research are identified. PMID:27277561

  1. Effect of temperature on enzymatic and physiological factors related to chilling injury in carambola fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tello, G O; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Briceño-Torres, B O; Martinez-Tellez, M A

    2001-10-01

    Three groups of carambola fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.) were stored at 2 and 10 degrees C (85-90% relative humidity). The major physicochemical, physiological, and enzymatic responses of fruit were measured in each group over a 30-day period: chilling injury index (CII), decay (%), intracuticular waxes, cuticle permeability, pulp firmness, weight loss, sucrose, fructose and glucose contents, ion electrolyte leakage in pulp (%), ethylene and carbon dioxide production rates, and the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzymes. CII values were statistically different at 2 and 10 degrees C, showing high significance with respect to sucrose content and weight loss (P < 0.05). Chilling injury included darkened ribs and skin desiccation. According to the CI symptom development, a possible relationship of POD and PPO activities was found at 2 degrees C. A significant sucrose content increase was observed at 10 degrees C. CI symptoms were associated with POD and PAL activities.

  2. Is Baseline Cardiac Autonomic Modulation Related to Performance and Physiological Responses Following a Supramaximal Judo Test?

    PubMed Central

    Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Martínez-Navarro, Ignacio; Mateo-March, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Little research exists concerning Heart Rate (HR) Variability (HRV) following supramaximal efforts focused on upper-body explosive strength-endurance. Since they may be very demanding, it seems of interest to analyse the relationship among performance, lactate and HR dynamics (i.e. HR, HRV and complexity) following them; as well as to know how baseline cardiac autonomic modulation mediates these relationships. The present study aimed to analyse associations between baseline and post-exercise HR dynamics following a supramaximal Judo test, and their relationship with lactate, in a sample of 22 highly-trained male judoists (20.70±4.56 years). A large association between the increase in HR from resting to exercise condition and performance suggests that individuals exerted a greater sympathetic response to achieve a better performance (Rating of Perceived Exertion: 20; post-exercise peak lactate: 11.57±2.24 mmol/L; 95.76±4.13 % of age-predicted HRmax). Athletes with higher vagal modulation and lower sympathetic modulation at rest achieved both a significant larger ∆HR and a faster post-exercise lactate removal. A enhanced resting parasympathetic modulation might be therefore related to a further usage of autonomic resources and a better immediate metabolic recovery during supramaximal exertions. Furthermore, analyses of variance displayed a persistent increase in α1 and a decrease in lnRMSSD along the 15 min of recovery, which are indicative of a diminished vagal modulation together with a sympathovagal balance leaning to sympathetic domination. Eventually, time-domain indices (lnRMSSD) showed no lactate correlations, while nonlinear indices (α1 and lnSaEn) appeared to be moderate to strongly correlated with it, thus pointing to shared mechanisms between neuroautonomic and metabolic regulation. PMID:24205273

  3. Do telomeres adapt to physiological stress? Exploring the effect of exercise on telomere length and telomere-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Andrew T; Ludlow, Lindsay W; Roth, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with a tissue degeneration phenotype marked by a loss of tissue regenerative capacity. Regenerative capacity is dictated by environmental and genetic factors that govern the balance between damage and repair. The age-associated changes in the ability of tissues to replace lost or damaged cells is partly the cause of many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and sarcopenia. A well-established marker of the aging process is the length of the protective cap at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and with increasing chronological age and short telomeres have been associated with a range of age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., exercise training) is associated with telomere length maintenance; however, recent evidence points out several controversial issues concerning tissue-specific telomere length responses. The goals of the review are to familiarize the reader with the current telomere dogma, review the literature exploring the interactions of exercise with telomere phenotypes, discuss the mechanistic research relating telomere dynamics to exercise stimuli, and finally propose future directions for work related to telomeres and physiological stress.

  4. Acute physiological responses to castration-related pain in piglets: the effect of two local anesthetics with or without meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Bonastre, C; Mitjana, O; Tejedor, M T; Calavia, M; Yuste, A G; Úbeda, J L; Falceto, M V

    2016-09-01

    Methods to reduce castration-related pain in piglets are still issues of concern and interest for authorities and producers. Our objectives were to estimate the effectiveness of two protocols of local anesthesia (lidocaine and the combination of lidocaine+bupivacaine) as well as the use of meloxicam as a postoperative analgesic in alleviating castration-related pain, measured by acute physiological responses. Eight groups (15 piglets/group) were included in the study: (1) castration without anesthesia or analgesia, without meloxicam (TRAD WITHOUT), (2) castration without anesthesia or analgesia, but with meloxicam (TRAD WITH), (3) handling without meloxicam (SHAM WITHOUT), (4) handling with meloxicam (SHAM WITH), (5) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine but without meloxicam (LIDO WITHOUT), (6) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine and meloxicam (LIDO WITH), (7) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine+bupivacaine without meloxicam (LIDO+BUPI WITHOUT), (8) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine+bupivacaine and meloxicam (LIDO+BUPI WITH). Acute physiological responses measured included skin surface temperature and serum glucose and cortisol concentrations. On days 4 and 11 post-castration BW was recorded and average daily gain was calculated over this period. Furthermore, piglet mortality was recorded over the 11-day post-castration period. Administration of local anesthetic or meloxicam did not prevent the decrease in skin surface temperature associated with castration. Lidocaine reduced the increase in glucose concentration associated with castration. For castrated pigs, the joint use of lidocaine and meloxicam caused a significant decrease in cortisol concentration; the combination of intratesticular lidocaine and bupivacaine did not seem to be more effective than lidocaine alone. No effect of treatments on mortality and growth were detected. PMID:27080170

  5. The physiological resilience of fern sporophytes and gametophytes: advances in water relations offer new insights into an old lineage

    PubMed Central

    Pittermann, Jarmila; Brodersen, Craig; Watkins, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Ferns are some of the oldest vascular plants in existence and they are the second most diverse lineage of tracheophytes next to angiosperms. Recent efforts to understand fern success have focused on the physiological capacity and stress tolerance of both the sporophyte and the gametophyte generations. In this review, we examine these insights through the lens of plant water relations, focusing primarily on the form and function of xylem tissue in the sporophyte, as well as the tolerance to and recovery from drought and desiccation stress in both stages of the fern life cycle. The absence of secondary xylem in ferns is compensated by selection for efficient primary xylem composed of large, closely arranged tracheids with permeable pit membranes. Protection from drought-induced hydraulic failure appears to arise from a combination of pit membrane traits and the arrangement of vascular bundles. Features such as tracheid-based xylem and variously sized megaphylls are shared between ferns and more derived lineages, and offer an opportunity to compare convergent and divergent hydraulic strategies critical to the success of xylem-bearing plants. Fern gametophytes show a high degree of desiccation tolerance but new evidence shows that morphological attributes in the gametophytes may facilitate water retention, though little work has addressed the ecological significance of this variation. We conclude with an emergent hypothesis that selection acted on the physiology of both the sporophyte and gametophyte generations in a synchronous manner that is consistent with selection for drought tolerance in the epiphytic niche, and the increasingly diverse habitats of the mid to late Cenozoic. PMID:23935601

  6. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%.

  7. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: a physiological Aβ homeostatic mechanism with multiple therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Sagare, Abhay P.; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2012-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is the main cell surface receptor involved in brain and systemic clearance of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) toxin amyloid-beta (Aβ). In plasma, a soluble form of LRP1 (sLRP1) is the major transport protein for peripheral Aβ. LRP1 in brain endothelium and mural cells mediates Aβ efflux from brain by providing a transport mechanism for A across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). sLRP1 maintains a plasma ‘sink’ activity for Aβ through binding of peripheral Aβ which in turn inhibits re-entry of free plasma Aβ into the brain. LRP1 in the liver mediates systemic clearance of Aβ. In AD, LRP1 expression at the BBB is reduced and Aβ binding to circulating sLRP1 is compromised by oxidation. Cell surface LRP1 and circulating sLRP1 represent druggable targets which can be therapeutically modified to restore the physiological mechanisms of brain Aβ homeostasis. In this review, we discuss how increasing LRP1 expression at the BBB and liver with lifestyle changes, statins, plant-based active principles and/or gene therapy on one hand, and how replacing dysfunctional plasma sLRP1 on the other regulate Aβ clearance from brain ultimately controlling the onset and/or progression of AD. PMID:22820095

  8. Physiological lipid composition is vital for homotypic ER membrane fusion mediated by the dynamin-related GTPase Sey1p

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Shintaro; Mima, Joji

    2016-01-01

    Homotypic fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is required for generating and maintaining the characteristic reticular ER membrane structures. This organelle membrane fusion process depends on the ER-bound dynamin-related GTPases, such as atlastins in animals and Sey1p in yeast. Here, to investigate whether specific lipid molecules facilitate GTPase-dependent ER membrane fusion directly, we comprehensively evaluated membrane docking and lipid mixing of reconstituted proteoliposomes bearing purified Sey1p and a set of ER-mimicking lipids, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and ergosterol. Remarkably, we revealed that each specific lipid species contributed little to membrane docking mediated by Sey1p. Nevertheless, Sey1p-dependent lipid mixing was strongly reduced by omitting three major acidic lipids from the ER-mimicking set and, moreover, was entirely abolished by omitting either phosphatidylethanolamine or ergosterol. Our reconstitution studies thus established that physiological lipid composition is vital for lipid bilayer rearrangements in GTPase-mediated homotypic ER membrane fusion. PMID:26838333

  9. Assessing stimulus and subject influences on auditory evoked potentials and their relation to peripheral physiology in green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea)

    PubMed Central

    Buerkle, Nathan P.; Schrode, Katrina M.; Bee, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Anurans (frogs and toads) are important models for comparative studies of communication, auditory physiology, and neuroethology, but to date, most of our knowledge comes from in-depth studies of a relatively small number of model species. Using the well-studied green treefrog (Hyla cinerea), this study sought to develop and evaluate the use of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) as a minimally invasive tool for investigating auditory sensitivity in a larger diversity of anuran species. The goals of the study were to assess the effects of frequency, signal level, sex, and body size on auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes and latencies, characterize gross ABR morphology, and generate an audiogram that could be compared to several previously published audiograms for green treefrogs. Increasing signal level resulted in larger ABR amplitudes and shorter latencies, and these effects were frequency dependent. There was little evidence for an effect of sex or size on ABRs. Analyses consistently distinguished between responses to stimuli in the frequency ranges of the three previously-described populations of afferents that innervate the two auditory end organs in anurans. The overall shape of the audiogram shared prominent features with previously published audiograms. This study highlights the utility of AEPs as a valuable tool for the study of anuran auditory sensitivity. PMID:25151643

  10. Physiological characteristics of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I ice hockey players and their relation to game performance.

    PubMed

    Peyer, Karissa L; Pivarnik, James M; Eisenmann, Joey C; Vorkapich, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Previous ice hockey research has focused on physiological profiles and determinants of skating speed, but few studies have examined the association of preseason player evaluations with a measure of season-long performance. Understanding which tests are most predictive of player performance could help coaches organize practice and training more effectively. The purpose of this study was to describe physical characteristics and skill levels of 24 members of an NCAA Division I men's ice hockey team and relate them to game performance over the course of a season as measured by plus/minus (+/-) score. Subjects performed a battery of preseason tests including treadmill maximal aerobic capacity, body fat, leg press, push-ups, bench press, chin-ups, and sprinting ability both on and off ice. Pearson and Spearman correlations were used to examine correlations between preseason measures and +/- score. One coach also subjectively grouped the top and bottom 6 players, and analysis of variance was used to examine any differences in preseason measures and +/- score between these 2 groups. Leg press, chin-ups, bench press, and repeat sprint performance were significantly correlated with +/- score (r = 0.554, 0.462, 0.499, and -0.568, respectively). Teams with limited time and resources may choose to perform these tests to evaluate player potential efficiently. Only +/- score differed between top and bottom players suggesting that +/- accurately reflected the coach's perception of player success in this sample. PMID:21478763

  11. TRPA1 Channels in Drosophila and Honey Bee Ectoparasitic Mites Share Heat Sensitivity and Temperature-Related Physiological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Guangda; Kashio, Makiko; Li, Tianbang; Dong, Xiaofeng; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) is conserved between many arthropods, and in some has been shown to function as a chemosensor for noxious compounds. Activation of arthropod TRPA1 channels by temperature fluctuations has been tested in only a few insect species, and all of them were shown to be activated by heat. The recent identification of chemosensitive TRPA1 channels from two honey bee ectoparasitic mite species (VdTRPA1 and TmTRPA1) have provided an opportunity to study the temperature-dependent activation and the temperature-associated physiological functions of TRPA1 channels in non-insect arthropods. We found that both mite TRPA1 channels are heat sensitive and capable of rescuing the temperature-related behavioral defects of a Drosophila melanogaster trpA1 mutant. These results suggest that heat-sensitivity of TRPA1 could be conserved between many arthropods despite its amino acid sequence diversity. Nevertheless, the ankyrin repeats (ARs) 6 and 7 are well-conserved between six heat-sensitive arthropod TRPA1 channels and have critical roles for the heat activation of VdTRPA1. PMID:27761115

  12. Assessing stimulus and subject influences on auditory evoked potentials and their relation to peripheral physiology in green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea).

    PubMed

    Buerkle, Nathan P; Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Anurans (frogs and toads) are important models for comparative studies of communication, auditory physiology, and neuroethology, but to date, most of our knowledge comes from in-depth studies of a relatively small number of model species. Using the well-studied green treefrog (Hyla cinerea), this study sought to develop and evaluate the use of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) as a minimally invasive tool for investigating auditory sensitivity in a larger diversity of anuran species. The goals of the study were to assess the effects of frequency, signal level, sex, and body size on auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes and latencies, characterize gross ABR morphology, and generate an audiogram that could be compared to several previously published audiograms for green treefrogs. Increasing signal level resulted in larger ABR amplitudes and shorter latencies, and these effects were frequency dependent. There was little evidence for an effect of sex or size on ABRs. Analyses consistently distinguished between responses to stimuli in the frequency ranges of the three previously-described populations of afferents that innervate the two auditory end organs in anurans. The overall shape of the audiogram shared prominent features with previously published audiograms. This study highlights the utility of AEPs as a valuable tool for the study of anuran auditory sensitivity. PMID:25151643

  13. Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ya-jing; Hu, Jin; Wang, Xian-ju; Shao, Chen-xia

    2009-06-01

    Low temperature stress during germination and early seedling growth is an important constraint of global production of maize. The effects of seed priming with 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% (w/v) chitosan solutions at 15 degrees C on the growth and physiological changes were investigated using two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, HuangC (chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive). While seed priming with chitosan had no significant effect on germination percentage under low temperature stress, it enhanced germination index, reduced the mean germination time (MGT), and increased shoot height, root length, and shoot and root dry weights in both maize lines. The decline of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative permeability of the plasma membrane and the increase of the concentrations of soluble sugars and proline, peroxidase (POD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity were detected both in the chilling-sensitive and chilling-tolerant maize seedlings after priming with the three concentrations of chitosan. HuangC was less sensitive to responding to different concentrations of chitosan. Priming with 0.50% chitosan for about 60 approximately 64 h seemed to have the best effects. Thus, it suggests that seed priming with chitosan may improve the speed of germination of maize seed and benefit for seedling growth under low temperature stress.

  14. Assessing stimulus and subject influences on auditory evoked potentials and their relation to peripheral physiology in green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea).

    PubMed

    Buerkle, Nathan P; Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Anurans (frogs and toads) are important models for comparative studies of communication, auditory physiology, and neuroethology, but to date, most of our knowledge comes from in-depth studies of a relatively small number of model species. Using the well-studied green treefrog (Hyla cinerea), this study sought to develop and evaluate the use of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) as a minimally invasive tool for investigating auditory sensitivity in a larger diversity of anuran species. The goals of the study were to assess the effects of frequency, signal level, sex, and body size on auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes and latencies, characterize gross ABR morphology, and generate an audiogram that could be compared to several previously published audiograms for green treefrogs. Increasing signal level resulted in larger ABR amplitudes and shorter latencies, and these effects were frequency dependent. There was little evidence for an effect of sex or size on ABRs. Analyses consistently distinguished between responses to stimuli in the frequency ranges of the three previously-described populations of afferents that innervate the two auditory end organs in anurans. The overall shape of the audiogram shared prominent features with previously published audiograms. This study highlights the utility of AEPs as a valuable tool for the study of anuran auditory sensitivity.

  15. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    turn, predicted earlier initiation of alcohol by age 16. Among boys, there also existed a significant baseline RSA by baseline cortisol interaction. Boys with low baseline RSA and high baseline cortisol had the highest levels of behavioral dysregulation. This increase in behavioral dysregulation was in turn related to initiation of alcohol use by age 16 and lower age of first sexual intercourse. We found sex-specific pathways to the initiation of alcohol use and risky sexual behavior through the combined activity of parasympathetic and neuroendocrine functioning. The study of multiple physiological systems may suggest new pathways to the study of age of onset of substance use and engagement in risky sexual behavior in adolescents.

  16. Physiological Correlates of Neurobehavioral Disinhibition that Relate to Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescents with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.; Lester, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    turn, predicted earlier initiation of alcohol by age 16. Among boys, there also existed a significant baseline RSA by baseline Cortisol interaction. Boys with low baseline RSA and high baseline Cortisol had the highest levels of behavioral dysregulation. This increase in behavioral dysregulation was in turn related to initiation of alcohol use by age 16 and lower age of first sexual intercourse. We found sex-specific pathways to the initiation of alcohol use and risky sexual behavior through the combined activity of parasympathetic and neuroendocrine functioning. The study of multiple physiological systems may suggest new pathways to the study of age of onset of substance use and engagement in risky sexual behavior in adolescents. PMID:25033835

  17. Physiological preparedness and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in relation to behavioural salinity preferences and thresholds.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Zydlewski, G B; Zydlewski, J D

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the relationships between behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts to saltwater (SW) exposure and physiological characteristics of smolts in laboratory experiments. It concurrently described the behaviour of acoustically tagged smolts with respect to SW and tidal cycles during estuary migration. Salmo salar smolts increased their use of SW relative to fresh water (FW) from April to June in laboratory experiments. Mean preference for SW never exceeded 50% of time in any group. Preference for SW increased throughout the course of smolt development. Maximum continuous time spent in SW was positively related to gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and osmoregulatory performance in full-strength SW (measured as change in gill NKA activity and plasma osmolality). Smolts decreased depth upon reaching areas of the Penobscot Estuary where SW was present, and all fish became more surface oriented during passage from head of tide to the ocean. Acoustically tagged, migrating smolts with low gill NKA activity moved faster in FW reaches of the estuary than those with higher gill NKA activity. There was no difference in movement rate through SW reaches of the estuary based on gill NKA activity. Migrating fish moved with tidal flow during the passage of the lower estuary based on the observed patterns in both vertical and horizontal movements. The results indicate that smolts select low-salinity water during estuary migration and use tidal currents to minimize energetic investment in seaward migration. Seasonal changes in osmoregulatory ability highlight the importance of the timing of stocking and estuary arrival.

  18. Physiological preparedness and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in relation to behavioural salinity preferences and thresholds.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Zydlewski, G B; Zydlewski, J D

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the relationships between behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts to saltwater (SW) exposure and physiological characteristics of smolts in laboratory experiments. It concurrently described the behaviour of acoustically tagged smolts with respect to SW and tidal cycles during estuary migration. Salmo salar smolts increased their use of SW relative to fresh water (FW) from April to June in laboratory experiments. Mean preference for SW never exceeded 50% of time in any group. Preference for SW increased throughout the course of smolt development. Maximum continuous time spent in SW was positively related to gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and osmoregulatory performance in full-strength SW (measured as change in gill NKA activity and plasma osmolality). Smolts decreased depth upon reaching areas of the Penobscot Estuary where SW was present, and all fish became more surface oriented during passage from head of tide to the ocean. Acoustically tagged, migrating smolts with low gill NKA activity moved faster in FW reaches of the estuary than those with higher gill NKA activity. There was no difference in movement rate through SW reaches of the estuary based on gill NKA activity. Migrating fish moved with tidal flow during the passage of the lower estuary based on the observed patterns in both vertical and horizontal movements. The results indicate that smolts select low-salinity water during estuary migration and use tidal currents to minimize energetic investment in seaward migration. Seasonal changes in osmoregulatory ability highlight the importance of the timing of stocking and estuary arrival. PMID:26693828

  19. Physiological preparedness and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in relation to behavioural salinity preferences and thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stich, D.S.; Zydlewski, G.B.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon Salmo salarsmolts to saltwater (SW) exposure and physiological characteristics of smolts in laboratory experiments. It concurrently described the behaviour of acoustically tagged smolts with respect to SW and tidal cycles during estuary migration. Salmo salar smolts increased their use of SW relative to fresh water (FW) from April to June in laboratory experiments. Mean preference for SW never exceeded 50% of time in any group. Preference for SW increased throughout the course of smolt development. Maximum continuous time spent in SW was positively related to gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and osmoregulatory performance in full-strength SW (measured as change in gill NKA activity and plasma osmolality). Smolts decreased depth upon reaching areas of the Penobscot Estuary where SW was present, and all fish became more surface oriented during passage from head of tide to the ocean. Acoustically tagged, migrating smolts with low gill NKA activity moved faster in FW reaches of the estuary than those with higher gill NKA activity. There was no difference in movement rate through SW reaches of the estuary based on gill NKA activity. Migrating fish moved with tidal flow during the passage of the lower estuary based on the observed patterns in both vertical and horizontal movements. The results indicate that smolts select low-salinity water during estuary migration and use tidal currents to minimize energetic investment in seaward migration. Seasonal changes in osmoregulatory ability highlight the importance of the timing of stocking and estuary arrival.

  20. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    PubMed

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  1. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  2. Cosmic ray variations of solar origin in relation to human physiological state during the December 2006 solar extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Vassilaki, A.; Kelesidis, K. M.; Mertzanos, G. A.; Petropoulos, B.

    2009-02-01

    There is an increasing amount of evidence linking biological effects to solar and geomagnetic disturbances. A series of studies is published referring to the changes in human physiological responses at different levels of geomagnetic activity. In this study, the possible relation between the daily variations of cosmic ray intensity, measured by the Neutron Monitor at the Cosmic Ray Station of the University of Athens (http://cosray.phys.uoa.gr) and the average daily and hourly heart rate variations of persons, with no symptoms or hospital admission, monitored by Holter electrocardiogram, is considered. This work refers to a group of persons admitted to the cardiological clinic of the KAT Hospital in Athens during the time period from 4th to 24th December 2006 that is characterized by extreme solar and geomagnetic activity. A series of Forbush decreases started on 6th December and lasted until the end of the month and a great solar proton event causing a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) of the cosmic ray intensity on 13th December occurred. A sudden decrease of the cosmic ray intensity on 15th December, when a geomagnetic storm was registered, was also recorded in Athens Neutron Monitor station (cut-off rigidity 8.53 GV) with amplitude of 4%. It is noticed that during geomagnetically quiet days the heart rate and the cosmic ray intensity variations are positively correlated. When intense cosmic ray variations, like Forbush decreases and relativistic proton events produced by strong solar phenomena occur, cosmic ray intensity and heart rate get minimum values and their variations, also, coincide. During these events the correlation coefficient of these two parameters changes and follows the behavior of the cosmic ray intensity variations. This is only a small part of an extended investigation, which has begun using data from the year 2002 and is still in progress.

  3. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    PubMed

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  4. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  5. Cadmium-induced ultramorphological and physiological changes in leaves of two transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative.

    PubMed

    Daud, M K; Variath, M T; Ali, Shafaqat; Najeeb, U; Jamil, Muhammad; Hayat, Y; Dawood, M; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Zaffar, M; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Tong, X H; Zhu, Shuijin

    2009-09-15

    The present study describes cadmium-induced alterations in the leaves as well as at the whole plant level in two transgenic cotton cultivars (BR001 and GK30) and their wild relative (Coker 312) using both ultramorphological and physiological indices. With elevated levels of Cd (i.e. 10, 100, 1000 microM), the mean lengths of root, stem and leaf and leaf width as well as their fresh and dry biomasses linearly decreased over their respective controls. Moreover, root, stem and leaf water absorption capacities progressively stimulated, which were high in leaves followed by roots and stems. BR001 accumulated more cadmium followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Root and shoot cadmium uptakes were significantly and directly correlated with each other as well as with leaf, stem and root water absorption capacities. The ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll cells were triggered with increase in Cd stress regime. They were more obvious in BR001 followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Changes in morphology of chloroplast, increase in number and size of starch grains as well as increase in number of plastoglobuli were the noticed qualitative effects of Cd on photosynthetic organ. Cd in the form of electron dense granules could be seen inside the vacuoles and attached to the cell walls in all these cultivars. From the present experiment, it can be well established that both apoplastic and symplastic bindings are involved in Cd detoxification in these cultivars. Absence of tonoplast invagination reveals that Cd toxic levels did not cause water stress in any cultivars. Additionally, these cultivars possess differential capabilities towards Cd accumulation and its sequestration.

  6. Overwinter survival of juvenile lake herring in relation to body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Kevin L.; Sutton, Trent M.; Kinnunen, Ronald E.; Hoff, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Populations of lake herring Coregonus artedi in Lake Superior have exhibited high recruitment variability over the past three decades. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms which influence year-class strength, we conducted a 225-d laboratory experiment to evaluate the effects of body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration on the winter survival of age-0 lake herring. Small (total length (TL) range = 60–85 mm) and large (TL range = 86–110 mm) fish were maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size-class were maintained at two feeding treatments: brine shrimp Artemiaspp. ad libitum and no food. The mortality of large lake herring (fed, 3.8%; starved, 20.1%) was significantly less than that of small fish (fed, 11.7%; starved, 32.0%). Body condition and crude lipid content declined for all fish over the experiment; however, these variables were significantly greater for large fed (0.68% and 9.8%) and small fed (0.65% and 7.3%) fish than large starved (0.49% and 5.7%) and small starved (0.45% and 4.8%) individuals. Final crude protein and gross energy contents were also significantly greater in large fed lake herring (17.6% and 1,966 cal/g), followed by small fed (17.1% and 1,497 cal/g), large starved (15.4% and 1,125 cal/g), and small starved (13.2% and 799 cal/g) fish. Lake herring that died during the experiment had significantly lower body condition and energy stores relative to those of the surviving fish. These results suggest that the depletion of energy stores contributes to greater winter mortality of small lake herring with limited energy uptake and may partially explain the variability in recruitment observed in Lake Superior.

  7. Activity profile and physiological requirements of junior elite basketball players in relation to aerobic-anaerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Castagna, Carlo; Jabri, Imed; Battikh, Tahar; El Fazaa, Saloua; El Ati, Jalila

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the demands of competitive basketball games and to study the relationship between athletes' physical capability and game performance. Physical and physiological game demands and the association of relevant field test with game performance were examined in 18 male junior basketball players. Computerized time-motion analysis, heart rate (HR), and blood-lactate concentration [BL] measurements were performed during 6 basketball games. Players were also measured for explosive power, speed, agility, and maximal-strength and endurance performance. During the games, players covered 7,558 +/- 575 m, of which 1,743 +/- 317; 1,619 +/- 280; and 2,477 +/- 339 m were performed at high, moderate, and low intensities, respectively. The 19.3 +/- 3.5 and 56.0 +/- 6.3% of the playing time was spent above 95% and at 85-95% of maximal HR, respectively. Average and mean peak [BL] were 5.75 +/- 1.25 and 6.22 +/- 1.34 mmolxL, respectively. Distances covered at maximal- and high-speed running significantly (p < 0.01) decreased during the second half. Game maximal- and high-speed running were significantly correlated with endurance performance (r = 0.52, p < 0.05 and r = 0.49, p < 0.05, respectively). High-intensity shuffling distance resulted in being negatively related with agility (r = -0.68, p < 0.05). This study showed that basketball players experience fatigue as game time progresses and suggests the potential benefit of aerobic and agility conditioning in junior basketball.

  8. USE OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR CHLOROFORM IN RATS TO DETERMINE AGE-RELATED TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    USE OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR CHLOROFORM IN RATS TO DETERMINE AGE-RELATED TOXICITY.
    CR Eklund, MV Evans, and JE Simmons. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD,PKB, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Chloroform (CHCl3) is a disinfec...

  9. "I Was Told That My First Duty Was to Forget Physiology, Which Had No Relation to Medicine"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    There has been much recent commentary on integration in health care professional education. This commentary is of importance to physiology education as integration often touches on integration between preclinical and clinical sciences. There are different forms of integration, from horizontal to vertical to spiral, and different theories underpin…

  10. Molecular subdivision of the marine diatom Thalassiosira rotula in relation to geographic distribution, genome size, and physiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Marine phytoplankton drift passively with currents, have high dispersal potentials and can be comprised of morphologically cryptic species. To examine molecular subdivision in the marine diatom Thalassiosira rotula, variations in rDNA sequence, genome size, and growth rate were examined among isolates collected from the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. Analyses of rDNA included T. gravida because morphological studies have argued that T. rotula and T. gravida are conspecific. Results Culture collection isolates of T. gravida and T. rotula diverged by 7.0 ± 0.3% at the ITS1 and by 0.8 ± 0.03% at the 28S. Within T. rotula, field and culture collection isolates were subdivided into three lineages that diverged by 0.6 ± 0.3% at the ITS1 and 0% at the 28S. The predicted ITS1 secondary structure revealed no compensatory base pair changes among lineages. Differences in genome size were observed among isolates, but were not correlated with ITS1 lineages. Maximum acclimated growth rates of isolates revealed genotype by environment effects, but these were also not correlated with ITS1 lineages. In contrast, intra-individual variation in the multi-copy ITS1 revealed no evidence of recombination amongst lineages, and molecular clock estimates indicated that lineages diverged 0.68 Mya. The three lineages exhibited different geographic distributions and, with one exception, each field sample was dominated by a single lineage. Conclusions The degree of inter- and intra-specific divergence between T. gravida and T. rotula suggests they should continue to be treated as separate species. The phylogenetic distinction of the three closely-related T. rotula lineages was unclear. On the one hand, the lineages showed no physiological differences, no consistent genome size differences and no significant changes in the ITS1 secondary structure, suggesting there are no barriers to interbreeding among lineages. In contrast, analysis of intra-individual variation in the

  11. On the Use of Demonstrative Pronouns and Determiners as Cohesive Devices: A Focus on Sentence-Initial "This/These" in Academic Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    A key concern for writers is the creation of cohesion in a text, and writers are told by style manuals to avoid the use of demonstratives ("this," "that," "these," "those") as pronouns in order to maintain cohesion. However, previous corpus-based investigations have already revealed that authors of academic texts use demonstratives as both…

  12. Morphological Variability in Interlanguage Grammars: New Evidence from the Acquisition of Gender and Number in Italian Determiner Phrases and Direct Object Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the phenomenon of morphological variability in the production of Italian determiners, descriptive adjectives, and direct object pronouns by adult English learners of Italian to determine whether morphological errors are the result of computational or representational difficulties. Second language acquisitionists do…

  13. Using Self-Referential Pronouns in Writing: The Effect of Explicit Instruction on L2 Writers at Two Levels of Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbuhl, Rebekha

    2012-01-01

    Skilled writers have at their disposal a range of rhetorical strategies for positioning themselves as competent members of a particular discourse community, including the judicious use of self-referential pronouns (e.g. "I," "she," "he") to overtly signal authorial presence. However, while researchers routinely recommend that second language (L2)…

  14. Ideology, Gender Roles, and Pronominal Choice: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of the Use of English Third Person Generic Pronouns by Native Speakers of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abudalbuh, Mujdey

    2012-01-01

    This study is a sociolinguistic investigation of the use of four English generic pronouns ("he," "she," "he or she," singular "they") by Arabic-speaking second language learners of English. This study takes a different approach to the investigation of second language (L2) acquisition and use by examining the…

  15. "We Do Not Seem to Have a Theory ... The Theory I Present Here Attempts to Fill This Gap": Inclusive and Exclusive Pronouns in Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative and quantitative corpus-based study of how academic writers use the personal pronouns I and inclusive and exclusive we. Using a multidisciplinary corpus comprising of journal research articles (RAs) from the fields of Business and Management, Computing Science, Economics, and Physics, I present data extracts which…

  16. Exploring the Cause of English Pronoun Gender Errors by Chinese Learners of English: Evidence from the Self-Paced Reading Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yanping; Wen, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomeng; Ji, Yifei

    2015-01-01

    To locate the underlying cause of biological gender errors of oral English pronouns by proficient Chinese-English learners, two self-paced reading experiments were conducted to explore whether the reading time for each "he" or "she" that matched its antecedent was shorter than that in the corresponding mismatch situation, as…

  17. Quantitative Differences in Nourishment Affect Caste-Related Physiology and Development in the Paper Wasp Polistes metricus

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Timothy M.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Hernandez, Edgar Javier; Choudhury, Talbia; Hunt, James H.

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between worker and reproductive castes of social insects is receiving increased attention from a developmental rather than adaptive perspective. In the wasp genus Polistes, colonies are founded by one or more females, and the female offspring that emerge in that colony are either non-reproducing workers or future reproductives of the following generation (gynes). A growing number of studies now indicate that workers emerge with activated reproductive physiology, whereas the future reproductive gynes do not. Low nourishment levels for larvae during the worker-rearing phase of the colony cycle and higher nourishment levels for larvae when gynes are reared are now strongly suspected of playing a major role in this difference. Here, we present the results of a laboratory rearing experiment in which Polistes metricus single foundresses were held in environmental conditions with a higher level of control than in any previously published study, and the amount of protein nourishment made available to feed larvae was the only input variable. Three experimental feeding treatments were tested: restricted, unrestricted, and hand-supplemented. Analysis of multiple response variables shows that wasps reared on restricted protein nourishment, which would be the case for wasps reared in field conditions that subsequently become workers, tend toward trait values that characterize active reproductive physiology. Wasps reared on unrestricted and hand-supplemented protein, which replicates higher feeding levels for larvae in field conditions that subsequently become gynes, tend toward trait values that characterize inactive reproductive physiology. Although the experiment was not designed to test for worker behavior per se, our results further implicate activated reproductive physiology as a developmental response to low larval nourishment as a fundamental aspect of worker behavior in Polistes. PMID:25706417

  18. Cognitive and physiological responses in humans exposed to a TETRA base station signal in relation to perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) technology ("Airwave") has led to public concern because of its potential interference with electrical activity in the brain. The present study is the first to examine whether acute exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on cognitive functioning and physiological responses. Participants were exposed to a 420 MHz TETRA signal at a power flux density of 10 mW/m(2) as well as sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions. Fifty-one people who reported a perceived sensitivity to electromagnetic fields as well as 132 controls participated in a double-blind provocation study. Forty-eight sensitive and 132 control participants completed all three sessions. Measures of short-term memory, working memory, and attention were administered while physiological responses (blood volume pulse, heart rate, skin conductance) were monitored. After applying exclusion criteria based on task performance for each aforementioned cognitive measure, data were analyzed for 36, 43, and 48 sensitive participants for these respective tasks and, likewise, 107,125, and 129 controls. We observed no differences in cognitive performance between sham and TETRA exposure in either group; physiological response also did not differ between the exposure conditions. These findings are similar to previous double-blind studies with other mobile phone signals (900-2100 MHz), which could not establish any clear evidence that mobile phone signals affect health or cognitive function.

  19. Relating sub-surface ice features to physiological stress in a climate sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps).

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Jennifer L; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without) and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM). We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features.

  20. Relating Sub-Surface Ice Features to Physiological Stress in a Climate Sensitive Mammal, the American Pika (Ochotona princeps)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkening, Jennifer L.; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without) and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM). We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features. PMID:25803587

  1. Differences in the thermal physiology of adult Yarrow's spiny lizards (Sceloporus jarrovii) in relation to sex and body size

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Martin S; Lattanzio, Matthew S; Miles, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often assumed to reflect the phenotypic consequences of differential selection operating on each sex. Species that exhibit SSD may also show intersexual differences in other traits, including field-active body temperatures, preferred temperatures, and locomotor performance. For these traits, differences may be correlated with differences in body size or reflect sex-specific trait optima. Male and female Yarrow's spiny lizards, Sceloporus jarrovii, in a population in southeastern Arizona exhibit a difference in body temperature that is unrelated to variation in body size. The observed sexual variation in body temperature may reflect divergence in thermal physiology between the sexes. To test this hypothesis, we measured the preferred body temperatures of male and female lizards when recently fed and fasted. We also estimated the thermal sensitivity of stamina at seven body temperatures. Variation in these traits provided an opportunity to determine whether body size or sex-specific variation unrelated to size shaped their thermal physiology. Female lizards, but not males, preferred a lower body temperature when fasted, and this pattern was unrelated to body size. Larger individuals exhibited greater stamina, but we detected no significant effect of sex on the shape or height of the thermal performance curves. The thermal preference of males and females in a thermal gradient exceeded the optimal temperature for performance in both sexes. Our findings suggest that differences in thermal physiology are both sex- and size-based and that peak performance at low body temperatures may be adaptive given the reproductive cycles of this viviparous species. We consider the implications of our findings for the persistence of S. jarrovii and other montane ectotherms in the face of climate warming. PMID:25540684

  2. Validation of physiological tests in relation to competitive performances in elite male distance cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Magnus; Carlsson, Tomas; Hammarström, Daniel; Tiivel, Toomas; Malm, Christer; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish which physiological test parameters reflects the distance performances in the Swedish National Championships in cross-country skiing (SNC) and the International Ski Federation's ranking points for distance performances (FISdist). The present study also aimed to create multiple regression models to describe skiing performance for the SNC distance races and International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking. Twelve male, Swedish, national elite, cross-country skiers (maximal oxygen consumption [·VO₂max] = 5.34 ± 0.34 L·min⁻¹) volunteered to participate in the study. Their results in the 2008 SNC (15 km race [SNC15] and 30 km race [SNC30]) and FISdist points were used as performance data. On the week preceding the Championship, subjects completed a test battery consisting of 7 physiological tests: isokinetic knee extension peak torque (PT), vertical jumps (VJ), lactate threshold (LT), ·VO₂max, and 3 double poling tests of different durations (DP20, DP60, and DP360). Correlations were established using Pearson's correlation analysis, and models to describe skiing performance were created using standard multiple linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between the performance parameters and test parameters derived from LT, ·VO₂max, and DP60 tests. No correlations with any performance parameter were found for PT, VJ, DP20, and DP360 tests. For FISdist and SNC15, the models explain 81% and 78% of the variance in performance, respectively. No statistically valid regression model was found for SNC30. The results of this study imply that the physiological demands in male elite distance cross-country skiing performances are different in different events. To adequately evaluate a skier's performance ability in distance cross-country skiing, it is necessary to use test parameters and regression models that reflect the specific performance.

  3. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  4. Acanthocephalan-related variation in the pattern of energy storage of a behaviorally and physiologically modified host: field data.

    PubMed

    Korkofigas, Evan; Park, Tracey; Sparkes, Timothy C

    2016-01-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Acanthocephalus dirus infects the freshwater isopod Caecidotea intermedius as an intermediate host before completing its life cycle in a fish. Transmission to the definitive host occurs after the parasite has reached the cystacanth stage, and development into this stage is associated with changes in several behavioral and physiological traits of the host. Given the potential importance of host energy availability to trait modification, we examined the relationship between cystacanth-stage infection and energy storage of adult isopods. Six samples of infected and uninfected male C. intermedius were collected from a population in March, April, and May during which time cystacanth-stage A. dirus dominate infections and modification of behavior and physiology occurs in nature. Biochemical assays revealed that infected male C. intermedius contained more glycogen and more lipid than uninfected males and that this difference was present throughout the sampling period, which represents the entire adult phase of the host's life. Additional analysis revealed that infected and uninfected males differed in their pattern of allocation to each energy source and that host lipid levels were negatively correlated with parasite intensity. We propose that the typical pattern of allocation and storage of host energy appears to be disrupted by A. dirus infection and that the changes are more likely to favor the parasite than the host.

  5. Physiological responses related to increased grain yield under drought in the first biotechnology-derived drought-tolerant maize.

    PubMed

    Nemali, Krishna S; Bonin, Christopher; Dohleman, Frank G; Stephens, Mike; Reeves, William R; Nelson, Donald E; Castiglioni, Paolo; Whitsel, Joy E; Sammons, Bernard; Silady, Rebecca A; Anstrom, Donald; Sharp, Robert E; Patharkar, Osric R; Clay, David; Coffin, Marie; Nemeth, Margaret A; Leibman, Mark E; Luethy, Michael; Lawson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) is highly susceptible to drought stress. This work focused on whole-plant physiological mechanisms by which a biotechnology-derived maize event expressing bacterial cold shock protein B (CspB), MON 87460, increased grain yield under drought. Plants of MON 87460 and a conventional control (hereafter 'control') were tested in the field under well-watered (WW) and water-limited (WL) treatments imposed during mid-vegetative to mid-reproductive stages during 2009-2011. Across years, average grain yield increased by 6% in MON 87460 compared with control under WL conditions. This was associated with higher soil water content at 0.5 m depth during the treatment phase, increased ear growth, decreased leaf area, leaf dry weight and sap flow rate during silking, increased kernel number and harvest index in MON 87460 than the control. No consistent differences were observed under WW conditions. This indicates that MON 87460 acclimated better under WL conditions than the control by lowering leaf growth which decreased water use during silking, thereby eliciting lower stress under WL conditions. These physiological responses in MON 87460 under WL conditions resulted in increased ear growth during silking, which subsequently increased the kernel number, harvest index and grain yield compared to the control.

  6. Acanthocephalan-related variation in the pattern of energy storage of a behaviorally and physiologically modified host: field data.

    PubMed

    Korkofigas, Evan; Park, Tracey; Sparkes, Timothy C

    2016-01-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Acanthocephalus dirus infects the freshwater isopod Caecidotea intermedius as an intermediate host before completing its life cycle in a fish. Transmission to the definitive host occurs after the parasite has reached the cystacanth stage, and development into this stage is associated with changes in several behavioral and physiological traits of the host. Given the potential importance of host energy availability to trait modification, we examined the relationship between cystacanth-stage infection and energy storage of adult isopods. Six samples of infected and uninfected male C. intermedius were collected from a population in March, April, and May during which time cystacanth-stage A. dirus dominate infections and modification of behavior and physiology occurs in nature. Biochemical assays revealed that infected male C. intermedius contained more glycogen and more lipid than uninfected males and that this difference was present throughout the sampling period, which represents the entire adult phase of the host's life. Additional analysis revealed that infected and uninfected males differed in their pattern of allocation to each energy source and that host lipid levels were negatively correlated with parasite intensity. We propose that the typical pattern of allocation and storage of host energy appears to be disrupted by A. dirus infection and that the changes are more likely to favor the parasite than the host. PMID:26424730

  7. Rowing Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  8. The biological properties of aspartame. V. Effects on a variety of physiological parameters related to inflammation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aspinall, R L; Saunders, R N; Pautsch, W F; Nutting, E F

    1980-01-01

    Aspartame (APM), L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, is a low calorie sweetening agent 180 times sweeter than sucrose. As part of a series of studies designed to determine the potential effects of ingestion of excesses of APM on a wide spectrum of physiological processes, experiments were conducted in which high multiples (mg/kg basis) of the projected maximum daily human intake (20 mg/kg) were administered intragastrically to laboratory rats. Doses up to 16 times the maximum intake had no effect on inflammation parameters including carrageenin-induced paw edema, connective tissue formation and adjuvant arthritis. APM, likewise, showed no antihistamine activity in vitro. Even higher multiples (up to 103 times) of the maximum intake had no effect on various parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These results indicate that APM ingested in great excess would not be expected to significantly impair inflammatory processes nor influence carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

  9. Decreased glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta levels and related physiological changes in Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-treated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy E; Salles, Isabelle I; Voth, Daniel E; Ortiz-Leduc, William; Wang, Han; Dozmorov, Igor; Centola, Michael; Ballard, Jimmy D

    2003-08-01

    The lethal factor (LF) component of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LeTx) cleaves mitogen activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) in a variety of different cell types, yet only macrophages are rapidly killed by this toxin. The reason for this selective killing is unclear, but suggests other factors may also be involved in LeTx intoxication. In the current study, DNA membrane arrays were used to identify broad changes in macrophage physiology after treatment with LeTx. Expression of genes regulated by MAPKK activity did not change significantly, yet a series of genes under glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (GSK-3beta) regulation changed expression following LeTx treatment. Correlating with these transcriptional changes GSK-3beta was found to be below detectable levels in toxin-treated cells and an inhibitor of GSK-3beta, LiCl, sensitized resistant IC-21 macrophages to LeTx. In addition, zebrafish embryos treated with LeTx showed signs of delayed pigmentation and cardiac hypertrophy; both processes are subject to regulation by GSK-3beta. A putative compensatory response to loss of GSK-3beta was indicated by differential expression of three motor proteins following toxin treatment and Kif1C, a motor protein involved in sensitivity to LeTx, increased expression in toxin-sensitive cells yet decreased in resistant cells following toxin treatment. Differential expression of microtubule-associating proteins and a decrease in the level of cellular tubulin were detected in LeTx-treated cells, both of which can result from loss of GSK-3beta activity. These data provide new information on LeTx's overall influence on macrophage physiology and suggest loss of GSK-3beta contributes to cytotoxicity. PMID:12864812

  10. A Simulation Study on the Importance of Size‐related Changes in Leaf Morphology and Physiology for Carbon Gain in an Epiphytic Bromeliad

    PubMed Central

    ZOTZ, GERHARD; REICHLING, PETER; VALLADARES, FERNANDO

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the question of how size‐related changes in leaf morphology and physiology influence light absorption and carbon gain of the epiphytic bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta. A geometrically based computer model, Y‐plant, was used for the three‐dimensional reconstruction of entire plants and for calculation of whole plant light interception and carbon gain. Plants of different sizes were reconstructed, and morphological and physiological attributes of young and old leaves, and small and large plants were combined to examine the individual effects of each factor on light absorption and carbon gain of the plant. The influence of phyllotaxis on light absorption was also explored. Departure of measured divergence angles between successive leaves from the ideal 137·5° slightly decreased light absorption. The only morphological parameter that consistently changed with plant size was leaf shape: larger plants produced more slender foliage, which substantially reduced self‐shading. Nevertheless, self‐shading increased with plant size. While the maximum rate of net CO2 uptake of leaves increased linearly with plant size by a factor of two from the smallest to the largest individual, the potential plant carbon gain (based on total foliage area) showed a curvilinear relationship, but with similar numerical variation. We conclude that leaf physiology has a greater impact on plant carbon gain than leaf and plant morphology in this epiphytic bromeliad. PMID:12324266

  11. The Association between Valuing Popularity and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Effects of Actual Popularity and Physiological Reactivity to Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulberg, Erin K.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2011-01-01

    The association between having a reputation for valuing popularity and relational aggression was assessed in a sample of 126 female children and adolescents (mean age=12.43 years) at a 54-day residential summer camp for girls. Having a reputation for valuing popularity was positively related to relational aggression. This association was moderated…

  12. Individual variation in migration speed of upriver-migrating sockeye salmon in the Fraser River in relation to their physiological and energetic status at marine approach.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kyle C; Cooke, Steven J; Hinch, Scott G; Crossin, Glenn T; Patterson, David A; English, Karl K; Donaldson, Michael R; Shrimpton, J Mark; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Farrell, Anthony P

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined individual variation in migration speeds of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in natural river systems or attempted to link migratory behavior with physiological and energetic status on a large spatial scale in the wild. As a model, we used three stocks of summer-run sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, to test the hypothesis that individual variation in migration speed is determined by a combination of environmental factors (i.e., water temperature), intrinsic biological differences (sex and population), and physiological and energetic condition. Before the freshwater portion of the migration, sockeye salmon (Quesnel, Chilcotin, and Nechako stock complexes) were captured in Johnstone Strait ( approximately 215 km from river entry), gastrically implanted with radio transmitters, and sampled for blood, gill tissue, and energetic status before release. Analyses focused solely on individuals that successfully reached natal subwatersheds. Migration speeds were assessed by an extensive radiotelemetry array. Individuals from the stock complex that migrated the longest distance (Nechako) traveled at speeds slower than those of other stock complexes. Females traveled slower than males. An elevated energetic status of fish in the ocean was negatively correlated with migration speed in most river segments. During the transition from the ocean to the river, migration speed was negatively correlated with mean maximum water temperature; however, for the majority of river segments, it was positively correlated with migration speed. Physiological status measured in the ocean did not explain among-individual variability in river migration speeds. Collectively, these findings suggest that there could be extensive variation in migration behavior among individuals, sexes, and populations and that physiological condition in the ocean explained little of this variation relative to in-river environmental

  13. The relative role of patient physiology and device optimisation in cardiac resynchronisation therapy: A computational modelling study.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Andrew; Blazevic, Bojan; Lamata, Pablo; Plank, Gernot; Ginks, Matthew; Duckett, Simon; Sohal, Manav; Shetty, Anoop; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Razavi, Reza; Smith, Nicolas P; Niederer, Steven A

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for heart failure, however the effective selection of patients and optimisation of therapy remain controversial. While extensive research is ongoing, it remains unclear whether improvements in patient selection or therapy planning offers a greater opportunity for the improvement of clinical outcomes. This computational study investigates the impact of both physiological conditions that guide patient selection and the optimisation of pacing lead placement on CRT outcomes. A multi-scale biophysical model of cardiac electromechanics was developed and personalised to patient data in three patients. These models were separated into components representing cardiac anatomy, pacing lead location, myocardial conductivity and stiffness, afterload, active contraction and conduction block for each individual, and recombined to generate a cohort of 648 virtual patients. The effect of these components on the change in total activation time of the ventricles (ΔTAT) and acute haemodynamic response (AHR) was analysed. The pacing site location was found to have the largest effect on ΔTAT and AHR. Secondary effects on ΔTAT and AHR were found for functional conduction block and cardiac anatomy. The simulation results highlight a need for a greater emphasis on therapy optimisation in order to achieve the best outcomes for patients.

  14. Anatomy & Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  15. The Trauma of Peer Abuse: Effects of Relational Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety Disorder on Physiological and Affective Reactions to Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Iffland, Benjamin; Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Catani, Claudia; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social exclusion elicits emotional distress, negative mood, and physiological stress. Recent studies showed that these effects were more intense and persisting in socially anxious subjects. The present study examined whether the abnormal reactions of socially anxious subjects can be traced back to previous experiences of relational peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants (N = 74) were patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as well as healthy controls. The patient and control groups were subdivided into two subgroups according to the subject’s reports about previous relational peer victimization. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate) and affective reactions to a simulated social exclusion in a ball-toss game (Cyberball) were recorded. Results: Overall, subjects’ immediate reactions to social exclusion were an increase in skin conductance and a reduction of positive affect. Regardless of the diagnostic status, subjects with a history of relational peer victimization showed a more intense self-reported affective change that was accompanied by a blunted skin conductance response. However, the mood of the subjects with a history of peer victimization recovered during a 15 min waiting period. A diagnosis of social anxiety disorder did not affect the reactions to social exclusion on any measure. Conclusion: Findings indicate that stress reactions to social exclusion depend more on previous experiences of peer victimization than on a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that memories of negative social experiences can determine the initial stress reaction to social threats. PMID:24672491

  16. 41 CFR 304-1.1 - To whom do the pronouns “I”, “you”, and their variants refer throughout this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... âIâ, âyouâ, and their variants refer throughout this part? 304-1.1 Section 304-1.1 Public Contracts... SOURCE EMPLOYEE'S ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE FOR TRAVEL EXPENSES 1-AUTHORITY § 304-1.1 To whom do the pronouns “I”, “you”, and their variants refer throughout this part? Use of...

  17. 41 CFR 304-1.1 - To whom do the pronouns “I”, “you”, and their variants refer throughout this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... âIâ, âyouâ, and their variants refer throughout this part? 304-1.1 Section 304-1.1 Public Contracts... SOURCE EMPLOYEE'S ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE FOR TRAVEL EXPENSES 1-AUTHORITY § 304-1.1 To whom do the pronouns “I”, “you”, and their variants refer throughout this part? Use of...

  18. Referential processing in the human brain: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) study.

    PubMed

    Barkley, C; Kluender, R; Kutas, M

    2015-12-10

    A substantial body of ERP research investigating the processing of syntactic long-distance dependencies has shown that, across languages and construction types, the second element in such configurations typically elicits phasic left anterior negativity (LAN). We hypothesized that these effects are not specific to syntactic dependencies, but rather index a more general cognitive operation in which the second (dependent) element in sentence-level linguistic long-distance relationships triggers a process of association with the first element. We tested this hypothesis with straightforward referential dependencies, comparing pronouns with proper name antecedents to those without, and proper names with and without preceding co-referring pronouns. We predicted phasic LAN effects in response to the second referential element in both comparisons, but observed them only in response to pronouns with antecedents; no differences were observed between responses to proper names with and without preceding co-referring pronouns. We argue that LAN effects observed at the pronoun index the cognitive operations necessary for the association of a pronoun with its antecedent, on which it depends for its reference. Similar but non-identical responses were elicited by the main clause verb following the gap position in object relative clause constructions compared to coordinate clause controls in an orthogonal manipulation. LAN effects were thus elicited by the second dependent element in both construction types, suggesting that long-distance syntactic and referential dependencies pose similar processing challenges. These findings help to clarify the cognitive processes indexed by anterior negative responses to associated dependent elements in a variety of language contexts.

  19. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Kawashima, Takaharu; Nohara, Keiko; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  20. Physiological breeding.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  1. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  2. Molecular and Physiological Properties Associated with Zebra Complex Disease in Potatoes and Its Relation with Candidatus Liberibacter Contents in Psyllid Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Veria Y.; Odokonyero, Denis; Duncan, Olivia; Mirkov, T. Erik; Scholthof, Herman B.

    2012-01-01

    Zebra complex (ZC) disease on potatoes is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLs), an α-proteobacterium that resides in the plant phloem and is transmitted by the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc). The name ZC originates from the brown striping in fried chips of infected tubers, but the whole plants also exhibit a variety of morphological features and symptoms for which the physiological or molecular basis are not understood. We determined that compared to healthy plants, stems of ZC-plants accumulate starch and more than three-fold total protein, including gene expression regulatory factors (e.g. cyclophilin) and tuber storage proteins (e.g., patatins), indicating that ZC-affected stems are reprogrammed to exhibit tuber-like physiological properties. Furthermore, the total phenolic content in ZC potato stems was elevated two-fold, and amounts of polyphenol oxidase enzyme were also high, both serving to explain the ZC-hallmark rapid brown discoloration of air-exposed damaged tissue. Newly developed quantitative and/or conventional PCR demonstrated that the percentage of psyllids in laboratory colonies containing detectable levels of CLs and its titer could fluctuate over time with effects on colony prolificacy, but presumed reproduction-associated primary endosymbiont levels remained stable. Potato plants exposed in the laboratory to psyllid populations with relatively low-CLs content survived while exposure of plants to high-CLs psyllids rapidly culminated in a lethal collapse. In conclusion, we identified plant physiological biomarkers associated with the presence of ZC and/or CLs in the vegetative potato plant tissue and determined that the titer of CLs in the psyllid population directly affects the rate of disease development in plants. PMID:22615987

  3. Molecular and physiological properties associated with zebra complex disease in potatoes and its relation with Candidatus Liberibacter contents in psyllid vectors.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Veria Y; Odokonyero, Denis; Duncan, Olivia; Mirkov, T Erik; Scholthof, Herman B

    2012-01-01

    Zebra complex (ZC) disease on potatoes is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLs), an α-proteobacterium that resides in the plant phloem and is transmitted by the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc). The name ZC originates from the brown striping in fried chips of infected tubers, but the whole plants also exhibit a variety of morphological features and symptoms for which the physiological or molecular basis are not understood. We determined that compared to healthy plants, stems of ZC-plants accumulate starch and more than three-fold total protein, including gene expression regulatory factors (e.g. cyclophilin) and tuber storage proteins (e.g., patatins), indicating that ZC-affected stems are reprogrammed to exhibit tuber-like physiological properties. Furthermore, the total phenolic content in ZC potato stems was elevated two-fold, and amounts of polyphenol oxidase enzyme were also high, both serving to explain the ZC-hallmark rapid brown discoloration of air-exposed damaged tissue. Newly developed quantitative and/or conventional PCR demonstrated that the percentage of psyllids in laboratory colonies containing detectable levels of CLs and its titer could fluctuate over time with effects on colony prolificacy, but presumed reproduction-associated primary endosymbiont levels remained stable. Potato plants exposed in the laboratory to psyllid populations with relatively low-CLs content survived while exposure of plants to high-CLs psyllids rapidly culminated in a lethal collapse. In conclusion, we identified plant physiological biomarkers associated with the presence of ZC and/or CLs in the vegetative potato plant tissue and determined that the titer of CLs in the psyllid population directly affects the rate of disease development in plants. PMID:22615987

  4. Molecular and physiological properties associated with zebra complex disease in potatoes and its relation with Candidatus Liberibacter contents in psyllid vectors.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Veria Y; Odokonyero, Denis; Duncan, Olivia; Mirkov, T Erik; Scholthof, Herman B

    2012-01-01

    Zebra complex (ZC) disease on potatoes is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLs), an α-proteobacterium that resides in the plant phloem and is transmitted by the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc). The name ZC originates from the brown striping in fried chips of infected tubers, but the whole plants also exhibit a variety of morphological features and symptoms for which the physiological or molecular basis are not understood. We determined that compared to healthy plants, stems of ZC-plants accumulate starch and more than three-fold total protein, including gene expression regulatory factors (e.g. cyclophilin) and tuber storage proteins (e.g., patatins), indicating that ZC-affected stems are reprogrammed to exhibit tuber-like physiological properties. Furthermore, the total phenolic content in ZC potato stems was elevated two-fold, and amounts of polyphenol oxidase enzyme were also high, both serving to explain the ZC-hallmark rapid brown discoloration of air-exposed damaged tissue. Newly developed quantitative and/or conventional PCR demonstrated that the percentage of psyllids in laboratory colonies containing detectable levels of CLs and its titer could fluctuate over time with effects on colony prolificacy, but presumed reproduction-associated primary endosymbiont levels remained stable. Potato plants exposed in the laboratory to psyllid populations with relatively low-CLs content survived while exposure of plants to high-CLs psyllids rapidly culminated in a lethal collapse. In conclusion, we identified plant physiological biomarkers associated with the presence of ZC and/or CLs in the vegetative potato plant tissue and determined that the titer of CLs in the psyllid population directly affects the rate of disease development in plants.

  5. Phosphate Limitation Induces Drastic Physiological Changes, Virulence-Related Gene Expression, and Secondary Metabolite Production in Pseudovibrio sp. Strain FO-BEG1

    PubMed Central

    González, José M.; Bondarev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is a vital nutrient for living organisms and is obtained by bacteria primarily via phosphate uptake. However, phosphate is often scarcely accessible in nature, and there is evidence that in many areas of the ocean, its concentration limits bacterial growth. Surprisingly, the phosphate starvation response has been extensively investigated in different model organisms (e.g., Escherichia coli), but there is a dearth of studies on heterotrophic marine bacteria. In this work, we describe the response of Pseudovibrio sp. strain FO-BEG1, a metabolically versatile alphaproteobacterium and potential symbiont of marine sponges, to phosphate limitation. We compared the physiology, protein expression, and secondary metabolite production under phosphate-limited conditions to those under phosphate surplus conditions. We observed that phosphate limitation had a pleiotropic effect on the physiology of the strain, triggering cell elongation, the accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate, the degradation of polyphosphate, and the exchange of membrane lipids in favor of phosphorus-free lipids such as sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols. Many proteins involved in the uptake and degradation of phospho-organic compounds were upregulated, together with subunits of the ABC transport system for phosphate. Under conditions of phosphate limitation, FO-BEG1 secreted compounds into the medium that conferred an intense yellow coloration to the cultures. Among these compounds, we identified the potent antibiotic tropodithietic acid. Finally, toxin-like proteins and other proteins likely involved in the interaction with the eukaryotic host were also upregulated. Altogether, our data suggest that phosphate limitation leads to a pronounced reorganization of FO-BEG1 physiology, involving phosphorus, carbon, and sulfur metabolism; cell morphology; secondary metabolite production; and the expression of virulence-related genes. PMID:25769826

  6. Relative vascular permeability and vascularity across different regions of the rat nasal mucosa: implications for nasal physiology and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niyanta N; Gautam, Mohan; Lochhead, Jeffrey J; Wolak, Daniel J; Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Thorne, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported. Here, we determined that the relative capillary permeability to hydrophilic macromolecule tracers is significantly greater in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Mean capillary density in the nasal mucosa was also approximately 5-fold higher in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Applying capillary pore theory and normalization to our permeability data yielded mean pore diameter estimates ranging from 13-17 nm for the nasal respiratory vasculature compared to <10 nm for the vasculature in olfactory regions. The results suggest lymphatic drainage for CNS immune responses may be favored in olfactory regions due to relatively lower clearance to the bloodstream. Lower blood clearance may also provide a reason to target the olfactory area for drug delivery to the brain. PMID:27558973

  7. Relative vascular permeability and vascularity across different regions of the rat nasal mucosa: implications for nasal physiology and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Niyanta N.; Gautam, Mohan; Lochhead, Jeffrey J.; Wolak, Daniel J.; Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Thorne, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported. Here, we determined that the relative capillary permeability to hydrophilic macromolecule tracers is significantly greater in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Mean capillary density in the nasal mucosa was also approximately 5-fold higher in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Applying capillary pore theory and normalization to our permeability data yielded mean pore diameter estimates ranging from 13–17 nm for the nasal respiratory vasculature compared to <10 nm for the vasculature in olfactory regions. The results suggest lymphatic drainage for CNS immune responses may be favored in olfactory regions due to relatively lower clearance to the bloodstream. Lower blood clearance may also provide a reason to target the olfactory area for drug delivery to the brain. PMID:27558973

  8. Predicting the Relative Bioavailability of DDT and Its Metabolites in Historically Contaminated Soils Using a Tenax-Improved Physiologically Based Extraction Test (TI-PBET).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Sun, Hongjie; Juhasz, Albert L; Cui, Xinyi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    Due to their static nature, physiologically based in vitro assays often fail to provide sufficient sorption capacity for hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). The addition of a sorption sink to in vitro intestinal solution has the potential to mimic dynamic intestinal uptake for HOCs, thereby increasing their desorption from soil. However, the effectiveness of sorption sinks for improving in vitro assays needs to be compared with in vivo data. In this study, Tenax was added as a sorption sink into the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), while DDT and its metabolites (DDTr) were investigated as typical HOCs. Tenax added at 0.01-0.2 g to the PBET intestinal solution sorbed ∼100% of DDTr in 6.3-19 min, indicating its ability as an effective sorption sink. DDTr bioaccessibility in six contaminated soils using Tenax-improved PBET (TI-PBET; 27-56%) was 3.4-22 fold greater than results using the PBET (1.2-15%). In vivo DDTr relative bioavailability (RBA) was measured using a mouse adipose model with values of 17.9-65.4%. The inclusion of Tenax into PBET improved the in vivo-in vitro correlation from r(2) = 0.36 (slope = 2.1 for PBET) to r(2) = 0.62 (slope = 1.2 for TI-PBET), illustrating that the inclusion of Tenax as a sorption sink improved the in vitro prediction of DDTr RBA in contaminated soils. PMID:26716472

  9. Predicting the Relative Bioavailability of DDT and Its Metabolites in Historically Contaminated Soils Using a Tenax-Improved Physiologically Based Extraction Test (TI-PBET).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Sun, Hongjie; Juhasz, Albert L; Cui, Xinyi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    Due to their static nature, physiologically based in vitro assays often fail to provide sufficient sorption capacity for hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). The addition of a sorption sink to in vitro intestinal solution has the potential to mimic dynamic intestinal uptake for HOCs, thereby increasing their desorption from soil. However, the effectiveness of sorption sinks for improving in vitro assays needs to be compared with in vivo data. In this study, Tenax was added as a sorption sink into the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), while DDT and its metabolites (DDTr) were investigated as typical HOCs. Tenax added at 0.01-0.2 g to the PBET intestinal solution sorbed ∼100% of DDTr in 6.3-19 min, indicating its ability as an effective sorption sink. DDTr bioaccessibility in six contaminated soils using Tenax-improved PBET (TI-PBET; 27-56%) was 3.4-22 fold greater than results using the PBET (1.2-15%). In vivo DDTr relative bioavailability (RBA) was measured using a mouse adipose model with values of 17.9-65.4%. The inclusion of Tenax into PBET improved the in vivo-in vitro correlation from r(2) = 0.36 (slope = 2.1 for PBET) to r(2) = 0.62 (slope = 1.2 for TI-PBET), illustrating that the inclusion of Tenax as a sorption sink improved the in vitro prediction of DDTr RBA in contaminated soils.

  10. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  11. Lipoarabinomannan and related glycoconjugates: structure, biogenesis and role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis physiology and host-pathogen interaction.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arun K; Driessen, Nicole N; Appelmelk, Ben J; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2011-11-01

    Approximately one third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This bacterium has an unusual lipid-rich cell wall containing a vast repertoire of antigens, providing a hydrophobic impermeable barrier against chemical drugs, thus representing an attractive target for vaccine and drug development. Apart from the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex, mycobacteria possess several immunomodulatory constituents, notably lipomannan and lipoarabinomannan. The availability of whole-genome sequences of M. tuberculosis and related bacilli over the past decade has led to the identification and functional characterization of various enzymes and the potential drug targets involved in the biosynthesis of these glycoconjugates. Both lipomannan and lipoarabinomannan possess highly variable chemical structures, which interact with different receptors of the immune system during host-pathogen interactions, such as Toll-like receptors-2 and C-type lectins. Recently, the availability of mutants defective in the synthesis of these glycoconjugates in mycobacteria and the closely related bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, has paved the way for host-pathogen interaction studies, as well as, providing attenuated strains of mycobacteria for the development of new vaccine candidates. This review provides a comprehensive account of the structure, biosynthesis and immunomodulatory properties of these important glycoconjugates.

  12. Discourse accessibility constraints in children’s processing of object relative clauses

    PubMed Central

    Haendler, Yair; Kliegl, Reinhold; Adani, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Children’s poor performance on object relative clauses has been explained in terms of intervention locality. This approach predicts that object relatives with a full DP head and an embedded pronominal subject are easier than object relatives in which both the head noun and the embedded subject are full DPs. This prediction is shared by other accounts formulated to explain processing mechanisms. We conducted a visual-world study designed to test the off-line comprehension and on-line processing of object relatives in German-speaking 5-year-olds. Children were tested on three types of object relatives, all having a full DP head noun and differing with respect to the type of nominal phrase that appeared in the embedded subject position: another full DP, a 1st- or a 3rd-person pronoun. Grammatical skills and memory capacity were also assessed in order to see whether and how they affect children’s performance. Most accurately processed were object relatives with 1st-person pronoun, independently of children’s language and memory skills. Performance on object relatives with two full DPs was overall more accurate than on object relatives with 3rd-person pronoun. In the former condition, children with stronger grammatical skills accurately processed the structure and their memory abilities determined how fast they were; in the latter condition, children only processed accurately the structure if they were strong both in their grammatical skills and in their memory capacity. The results are discussed in the light of accounts that predict different pronoun effects like the ones we find, which depend on the referential properties of the pronouns. We then discuss which role language and memory abilities might have in processing object relatives with various embedded nominal phrases. PMID:26157410

  13. Sex-Related Differences in Self-Paced All Out High-Intensity Intermittent Cycling: Mechanical and Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Julio, Ursula F.; França, Vanessa; Lira, Fabio S.; Hofmann, Peter; Takito, Monica Y.; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sex-related responses to a self-paced all out high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE). 9 women and 10 men were submitted to a maximal incremental test (to determine maximum aerobic power - MAP and VO2peak), and an HIIE cycling (60x8s:12s, effort:pause). During the protocol the mean value of V̇O2 and heart rate for the entire exercise (VO2total and HRtotal) as well as the values only in the effort or pause (V̇O2effort, VO2pause and HReffort and HRpause) relative to VO2peak were measured. Anaerobic power reserve (APR), blood lactate [La] and the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were also measured. These variables were compared between men and women using the unpaired t test. Men used greater APR (109 ± 12%MAP vs 92 ± 6%MAP) with similar V̇O2total (74 ± 7 vs 78 ± 8% VO2peak), however, when effort and pause were analysed separately, V̇O2effort (80 ± 9 vs 80 ± 5%VO2peak) was similar between sexes, while V̇O2pause was lower in men (69 ± 6% vs 77 ± 11% VO2peak, respectively). Women presented lower power decrement (30 ± 11 vs 11 ± 3%), RER (1.04 ± 0.03 vs 1.00 ± 0.02) and [La]peak (8.6 ± 0.9 vs 5.9 ± 2.3 mmol.L-1). Thus, we can conclude that men self-paced HIIE at higher APR but with the same cardiovascular/aerobic solicitation as women. Key points Men self-paced high-intensity intermittent exercise at higher intensities than women. Men utilized greater anaerobic power reserve than women. Men and women had same cardiovascular solicitation. PMID:27274678

  14. Adding and Subtracting Alternation: Resumption and Prepositional Phrase Chopping in Spanish Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerron-Palomino Lopez, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies considered RP explanations based on difficulty of processing (Hawkins, 1994), while Spanish-specific quantitative studies proposed a number of…

  15. Different Anaphoric Expressions Are Investigated by Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streb, Judith; Hennighausen, Erwin; Rosler, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded to substantiate the claim of a distinct psycholinguistic status of (a) pronouns vs. proper names and (b) ellipses vs. proper names. In two studies 41 students read sentences in which the number of intervening words between the anaphor and its antecedent was either small or large. Comparing the far with the…

  16. The Effects of Production Demands on Grammatical Weaknesses in Specific Language Impairment: The Case of Clitic Pronouns in Italian

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Dispaldro, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Extended optional use of direct object clitic pronouns (e.g., la in Paula la vede “Paula sees her”) appears to be a clinical marker for specific language impairment (SLI) in Italian. In this study, we examined whether sentence production demands might influence the degree to which Italian-speaking children with SLI produced clitics. Method Preschool-age children with SLI (N = 15) and two groups of younger typically developing children (N = 15 each) participated. Production demands were varied through use of a syntactic priming task. Results The children with SLI were more likely than the comparison children to omit the clitic in a control condition in which they had to describe a target picture without the benefit of a preceding sentence prime. The children with SLI were also more likely to describe target pictures using a default clitic or a clitic that had appeared in the preceding prime sentence but was inappropriate for the target. Conclusions The findings suggest that children with SLI have difficulty generating a sentence containing a grammatical slot for a clitic when production demands are increased, and when they succeed in generating such a sentence, they often cannot at the same time retrieve the appropriate clitic form. PMID:23785189

  17. The active microbial diversity drives ecosystem multifunctionality and is physiologically related to carbon availability in Mediterranean semi-arid soils.

    PubMed

    Bastida, Felipe; Torres, Irene F; Moreno, José L; Baldrian, Petr; Ondoño, Sara; Ruiz-Navarro, Antonio; Hernández, Teresa; Richnow, Hans H; Starke, Robert; García, Carlos; Jehmlich, Nico

    2016-09-01

    Biogeochemical processes and ecosystemic functions are mostly driven by soil microbial communities. However, most methods focus on evaluating the total microbial community and fail to discriminate its active fraction which is linked to soil functionality. Precisely, the activity of the microbial community is strongly limited by the availability of organic carbon (C) in soils under arid and semi-arid climate. Here, we provide a complementary genomic and metaproteomic approach to investigate the relationships between the diversity of the total community, the active diversity and ecosystem functionality across a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) gradient in southeast Spain. DOC correlated with the ecosystem multifunctionality index composed by soil respiration, enzyme activities (urease, alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase) and microbial biomass (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). This study highlights that the active diversity (determined by metaprotoemics) but not the diversity of the whole microbial community (evaluated by amplicon gene sequencing) is related to the availability of organic C and it is also connected to the ecosystem multifunctionality index. We reveal that DOC shapes the activities of bacterial and fungal populations in Mediterranean semi-arid soils and determines the compartmentalization of functional niches. For instance, Rhizobales thrived at high-DOC sites probably fuelled by metabolism of one-C compounds. Moreover, the analysis of proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of carbohydrates revealed that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota occupied different nutritional niches. The functional mechanisms for niche specialization were not constant across the DOC gradient. PMID:27481114

  18. The active microbial diversity drives ecosystem multifunctionality and is physiologically related to carbon availability in Mediterranean semi-arid soils.

    PubMed

    Bastida, Felipe; Torres, Irene F; Moreno, José L; Baldrian, Petr; Ondoño, Sara; Ruiz-Navarro, Antonio; Hernández, Teresa; Richnow, Hans H; Starke, Robert; García, Carlos; Jehmlich, Nico

    2016-09-01

    Biogeochemical processes and ecosystemic functions are mostly driven by soil microbial communities. However, most methods focus on evaluating the total microbial community and fail to discriminate its active fraction which is linked to soil functionality. Precisely, the activity of the microbial community is strongly limited by the availability of organic carbon (C) in soils under arid and semi-arid climate. Here, we provide a complementary genomic and metaproteomic approach to investigate the relationships between the diversity of the total community, the active diversity and ecosystem functionality across a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) gradient in southeast Spain. DOC correlated with the ecosystem multifunctionality index composed by soil respiration, enzyme activities (urease, alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase) and microbial biomass (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). This study highlights that the active diversity (determined by metaprotoemics) but not the diversity of the whole microbial community (evaluated by amplicon gene sequencing) is related to the availability of organic C and it is also connected to the ecosystem multifunctionality index. We reveal that DOC shapes the activities of bacterial and fungal populations in Mediterranean semi-arid soils and determines the compartmentalization of functional niches. For instance, Rhizobales thrived at high-DOC sites probably fuelled by metabolism of one-C compounds. Moreover, the analysis of proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of carbohydrates revealed that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota occupied different nutritional niches. The functional mechanisms for niche specialization were not constant across the DOC gradient.

  19. Me, myself, and I: self-referent word use as an indicator of self-focused attention in relation to depression and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Zimmermann, Johannes; Kulessa, Dominika; Hautzinger, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Herzog, Wolfgang; Backenstrass, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Self-focused attention (SFA) is considered a cognitive bias that is closely related to depression. However, it is not yet well understood whether it represents a disorder-specific or a trans-diagnostic phenomenon and which role the valence of a given context is playing in this regard. Computerized quantitative text-analysis offers an integrative psycho-linguistic approach that may help to provide new insights into these complex relationships. The relative frequency of first-person singular pronouns in natural language is regarded as an objective, linguistic marker of SFA. Here we present two studies that examined the associations between SFA and symptoms of depression and anxiety in two different contexts (positive vs. negative valence), as well as the convergence between pronoun-use and self-reported aspects of SFA. In the first study, we found that the use of first-person singular pronouns during negative but not during positive memory recall was positively related to symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with anorexia nervosa with varying levels of co-morbid depression and anxiety. In the second study, we found the same pattern of results in non-depressed individuals. In addition, use of first-person singular pronouns during negative memory recall was positively related to brooding (i.e., the assumed maladaptive sub-component of rumination) but not to reflection. These findings could not be replicated in two samples of depressed patients. However, non-chronically depressed patients used more first-person singular pronouns than healthy controls, irrespective of context. Taken together, the findings lend partial support to theoretical models that emphasize the effects of context on self-focus and consider SFA as a relevant trans-diagnostic phenomenon. In addition, the present findings point to the construct validity of pronoun-use as a linguistic marker of maladaptive self-focus. PMID:26500601

  20. Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes. PMID:25012031

  1. Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes.

  2. Evidence that the negative relationship between seed mass and relative growth rate is not physiological but linked to species identity: a within-family analysis of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Castro, Jorge; Reich, Peter B; Sánchez-Miranda, Angela; Guerrero, Juan D

    2008-07-01

    Seed mass and relative growth rate (RGR) are important determinants of early seedling growth, and hence seedling establishment. Although a positive interspecific relationship between seed mass and seedling dry mass is well established, much less is known about the relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within species. We examined relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within and among maternal plant lines of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). To assess the effects of seed mass and maternal origin on RGR, individual seeds from two seed crops (years 2004 and 2005) of ten maternal plants growing under nursery conditions were weighed and then germinated. Seed mass was strongly determined by maternal plant, and seedling mass was largely determined by seed mass, with a positive correlation between these variables both across and within maternal plants. In contrast, RGR was weakly related to seed mass, with no consistent pattern in the sign of the relationship. It is well known that species differ in RGR and that RGR is related to seed mass across species. Lack of consistent evidence for this relationship within maternal lines, and for Scots pine overall, suggests that the relationship is not directly causal, but reflects consistent evolutionary covariation in these two physiologically independent traits. PMID:18450572

  3. Genetic and Physiological Analysis of Germination Efficiency in Maize in Relation to Nitrogen Metabolism Reveals the Importance of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Limami, Anis M.; Rouillon, Clothilde; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Gallais, André; Hirel, Bertrand

    2002-01-01

    We have developed an approach combining physiology and quantitative genetics to enhance our understanding of nitrogen (N) metabolism during kernel germination. The physiological study highlighted the central role of glutamine (Gln) synthetase (GS) and Gln synthesis during this developmental process because a concomitant increase of both the enzyme activity and the amino acid content was observed. This result suggests that Gln is acting either as a sink for ammonium released during both storage protein degradation and amino acid deamination or as a source for amino acid de novo synthesis by transamination. In the two parental lines used for the quantitative genetics approach, we found that the increase in Gln occurred earlier in Io compared with F2, a result consistent with its faster germinating capacity. The genetic study was carried out on 140 F6 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross between F2 and Io. Quantitative trait locus mapping identified three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to germination trait (T50, time at which 50% of the kernels germinated) that explain 18.2% of the phenotypic variance; three QTLs related to a trait linked to germination performance, kernel size/weight (thousand kernels weight), that explain 17% of the phenotypic variance; two QTLs related to GS activity at early stages of germination that explain 17.7% of the phenotypic variance; and one QTL related to GS activity at late stages of germination that explains 7.3% of the phenotypic variance. Coincidences of QTL for germination efficiency and its components with genes encoding cytosolic GS (GS1) and the corresponding enzyme activity were detected, confirming the important role of the enzyme during the germination process. A triple colocalization on chromosome 4 between gln3 (a structural gene encoding GS1) and a QTL for GS activity and T50 was found; whereas on chromosome 5, a QTL for GS activity and thousand kernels weight colocalized with gln4, another structural

  4. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for carbofuran in Sprague-Dawley rats using the exposure-related dose estimating model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Tsang, Andy M; Okino, Miles S; Power, Frederick W; Knaak, James B; Harrison, Lynda S; Dary, Curtis C

    2007-12-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate), a broad spectrum N-methyl carbamate insecticide, and its metabolite, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, exert their toxicity by reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). To characterize AChE inhibition from carbofuran exposure, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed in the Exposure-Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM) platform for the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. Experimental estimates of physiological, biochemical, and physicochemical model parameters were obtained or based on data from the open literature. The PBPK/PD model structure included carbofuran metabolism in the liver to 16 known metabolites, enterohepatic circulation of glucuronic acid conjugates, and excretion in urine and feces. Bolus doses by ingestion of 50 microg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg carbofuran were simulated for the blood and brain AChE activity. The carbofuran ERDEM simulated a half-life of 5.2 h for urinary clearance, and the experimental AChE activity data were reproduced for the blood and brain. Thirty model parameters were found influential to the model outputs and were chosen for perturbation in Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the impact of their variability on the model predictions. Results of the simulation runs indicated that the minimum AChE activity in the blood ranged from 29.3 to 79.0% (as 5th and 95th percentiles) of the control level with a mean of 55.9% (standard deviation = 15.1%) compared to an experimental value of 63%. The constructed PBPK/PD model for carbofuran in the SD rat provides a foundation for extrapolating to a human model that can be used for future risk assessment.

  5. [Aviation physiology].

    PubMed

    Frank, P W

    1999-10-01

    Aviation physiology should be known at least in parts by the physicians advising air travellers. Due to reducing atmospheric pressure at altitude gas volume in body cavities expands (Boyle's law). This might not be a problem during ascend since air can disappear easily through natural ways. However, air must return to body cavities during descend and a person with a cold may suffer from painful barotitis. Hypoxia is mostly due to a reduced pO2 in high altitude (Daltons's Law). This may be prevented by an aircraft cabin or supplemented oxygen. Decompression sickness is very rare in aviation but divers should comply to a dive free interval before flying. PMID:10568247

  6. Patterns of water use and the tissue water relations in the dioecious shrub, Salix arctica: the physiological basis for habitat partitioning between the sexes.

    PubMed

    Dawson, T E; Bliss, L C

    1989-05-01

    Within the high arctic of Canada, Salix arctica, a dioecious, dwarf willow exhibits significant spatial segregation of the sexes. The overall sex ratio is female-biased and female plants are especially common in wet, higher nutrient, but lower soil temperature habitats. In contrast, male plants predominate in more xeric and lower nutrient habitats with higher soil temperatures that can be drought prone. Associated with the sex-specific habitat differences were differences in the seasonal and diurnal patterns of water use as measured by stomatal conductance to water vapor and the bulk tissue water relations of each gender. Within the wet habitats, female plants maintained higher rates of stomatal conductance (g) than males when soil and root temperatures were low (<4° C). In contrast, within the xeric habitats, male plants maintained higher g and had lower leaf water potentials Ψleaf at low soil water potentials and a high leaf-to-air vapor pressure gradient (Δw) when compared to females. Female plants had more positive carbon isotope ratios than males indicating a lower internal leaf carbon dioxide concentration and possibly higher water use efficiency relative to males. Tissue osmotic and elastic properties also differed between the sexes. Male plants demonstrated lower tissue osmotic potentials near full tissue hydration and at the turgor loss point and a lower bulk tissue elastic modulus (higher tissue elasticity) than female plants. Males also demonstrated a greater ability to osmotically adjust on a diurnal basis than females. These properties allowed male plants to maintain higher tissue turgor pressures at lower tissue water contents and Ψsoil over the course of the day. The sex-specific distributional and ecophysiological characteristics were also correlated with greater total plant growth and higher fecundity of females in wet habitats, and males in xeric habitats respectively. The intersexual differences in physiology persisted in all habitats. These

  7. [Eco-physiological responses and related adjustment mechanisms of Artemisia ordosica and Caragana korshinskii under different configuration modes to precipitation variation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Yan; Wang, Ying-Jue; Fan, Fan; Fan, Heng-Wen

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied the community characteristics of two sand-fixing plants (Artemisia ordosica and Caragana korshinskii) under different configuration modes (1 m x 1 m and 2 m x 2 m) in the Shapotou region of Northwest China as well as the water relation, gas exchange, and their adjustment mechanisms of the plants under natural and artificial precipitation conditions. With the variation of soil water content, the physiological water consumption and growth characteristics of A. ordosica differed from those of C. korshinskii. A. ordosica presented obvious fluctuation in the stomatal conductance, water potential, transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate, and rapid growth, and had higher water consumption than C. korshinskii. However, the variations of the above-mentioned indices of C. korshinskii were relatively slow and more constant. The C. korshinskii had a lower photosynthetic rate but a very high accumulated biomass over years than A. ordosica. The response procedures and adjustment mechanisms of the two plants under water stress differed, with a water-conserving mechanism for A. ordosica and a water-saving mechanism for C. korshinskii. In extremely drought years, the C. korshinskii had stronger capabilities of water-saving and stress tolerance than A. ordosica. It was suggested that the selection of sand-fixing plants should have a view to the benefits in water saving and sand fixation, and also, to the stability of sand-fixing forest.

  8. Stress-related psycho-physiological disorders: randomized single blind placebo controlled naturalistic study of psychometric evaluation using a radio electric asymmetric treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a radio electric asymmetric treatment on psycho-physiological disorders (PPD). PPD are often stress related and are under the unconscious control of the patient and cannot be traced back to any serious physical disease. The brain stimulation treatment protocol used is called Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization (NPPO) with a Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) device. Methods Psychological stress and PPD were measured for a group of 888 subjects using the Psychological Stress Measure (PSM) test, a self-administered questionnaire. Data were collected immediately before and after the 4-weeks of REAC treatment cycle. Results This study showed a significant reduction in scores measuring subjective perceptions of stress for subjects treated with a cycle of NPPO REAC treatment. At the end-point the number of subjects reporting symptoms of stress-related PPD on the PSM test was significantly reduced, whereas in the placebo group the difference was not significant. Conclusion A cycle of NPPO treatment with REAC was shown to reduce subjective perceptions of stress measured by the PSM test and in particular on PPD. Trial Registration This trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) with the number: ACTRN12607000463471. PMID:21771304

  9. Morphological features of the ovaries during Oogenesis of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel) in relation to the physiological age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of physiological state (age?) in insects is useful in furthering our understanding of how insect behavior changes with age. Central to this determination is the identification of characters that allow assessment of physiological age. While non-destructive measures are the most desired ...

  10. Physiological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  11. Emission of short chained organic acids, aldehydes and monoterpenes from Quercus ilex L. and Pinus pinea L. in relation to physiological activities, carbon budget and emission algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Bode, K.; Hofmann, U.; Müller, H.; Schäfer, L.; Wolf, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Frattoni, M.; Foster, P.; Ferrari, C.; Jacob, V.; Fugit, J. L.; Dutaur, L.; Simon, V.; Torres, L.

    We report on the emission of monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes from Mediterranean oak ( Quercus ilex L.) and pine (Pinus pinea L.). All studies were done with dynamic cuvettes enclosing intact branches at the top of the canopy flushed with ambient air. Daily trends are compared with the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature and the physiological activities of the enclosed branches, i.e. assimilation and transpiration, with special attention on the carbon budget. Oak emits monoterpenes in high amounts, up to 2% of the assimilated carbon. As compared with monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes are of minor importance for oak. However, on a leaf dry-weight basis equal amounts of acids and aldehydes are released from oak and pine. As pine emitted only low amounts of terpenes (below 0.2% of the assimilated carbon) the release of terpenes and oxygenated compounds is of equal importance for this species. A comparison of a modelled light and temperature driven emission with the observed volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions showed good agreement for monoterpenes as well as for organic acids emitted in the case of oak. For pine only the release of acids showed an adequate relation to the algorithm data, whereas the terpene emissions seemed to be dominated by temperature effects.

  12. [Nobel Prize winning laureates in physiology or medicine for the year 2000--a few comments on discoveries related to signal transduction].

    PubMed

    Klenerová, V; Hynie, S

    2001-05-01

    The Nobel Assembly awarded The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2000 jointly to Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. On the examples of their predecessors we attempted to demonstrate how results of basic research serve as building blocks for new discoveries and for the application of research results into the praxis. We presented not only the basic discoveries of laureates of Nobel Prize for year 2000 (biological role of dopamine, regulation of cell functions by phosphorylation of proteins, changes in transduction of signals during processes of memory), but we also mentioned previous discoveries that helped in the research of the last laureates. These discoveries concerned not only the storage and metabolism of transmitters, formulation of the concept of cyclic AMP as a second messenger of hormonal action, the role of G-proteins in transduction processes in receptor-effector complexes, processes of phosphorylation of proteins as regulators of cell functions, but we also mentioned the discovery of other second messengers and substances functioning as local hormones (prostaglandins and related compounds). Most of the described discoveries have not only the value as stones that can help to fill still incomplete mosaic of our present knowledge, but they also represent the immediate basis for the development and use of very important remedies, such as are antiparkinsonics, antidepressive drugs, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, etc.

  13. Cardiac Physiology of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    May, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Although the physiology of the heart and vascular system has not changed, there are many things we have learned and are still learning today. Research related to heart adaptations during pregnancy has been performed since the 1930s. Since the mid-1950s, researchers began to look at changes in the maternal cardiovascular system during exercise while pregnant. Research related to exercise during pregnancy and offspring heart development began and has continued since the 1970s. We will review the normal female cardiovascular system adaptations to pregnancy in general. Additionally, topics related to maternal cardiac adaptations to pregnancy during acute exercise, as well as the chronic conditioning response from exercise training will be explored. Since physical activity during pregnancy influences fetal development, the fetal cardiac development will be discussed in regards to acute and chronic maternal exercise. Similarly, the influence of various types of maternal exercise on acute and chronic fetal heart responses will be described. Briefly, the topics related to how and if there is maternal-fetal synchrony will be explained. Lastly, the developmental changes of the fetal cardiovascular system that persist after birth will be explored. Overall, the article will discuss maternal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal pregnancy, and exercise during pregnancy, as well as fetal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal development, and exercise during pregnancy as well as developmental changes in offspring after birth.

  14. Locomotory behaviour and post-exercise physiology in relation to swimming speed, gait transition and metabolism in free-swimming smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    PubMed

    Peake, Stephan J; Farrell, Anthony P

    2004-04-01

    We examined swimming behaviour, gait recruitment and post-exercise muscle glycogen, muscle lactate, plasma lactate and oxygen consumption in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu; 24-38 cm fork length) that voluntarily ascended a 25 m raceway against water velocities ranging from 40 to 120 cm s(-1). Physiological parameters were referenced to additional measurements made following exhaustive exercise in a static tank and aerobic exercise in a swim tunnel. Maximum speeds maintained exclusively using a steady gait in the raceway ranged from 53.6 to 97.3 cm s(-1) and scaled positively with fish length. Minimum swimming speeds maintained exclusively through recruitment of an unsteady gait were also positively correlated to fish length and ranged from 81.4 to 122.9 cm s(-1). Fish switched between steady and unsteady swimming at intermediate speeds. Smallmouth bass always maintained a positive ground speed in the raceway; however, those that primarily swam using a steady gait to overcome low to moderate water velocities (20-50 cm s(-1)) maintained mean ground speeds of approximately 20 cm s(-1). By contrast, mean ground speeds of fish that primarily recruited an unsteady locomotory gait increased significantly with water velocity, which resulted in an inverse relationship between exercise intensity and duration. We interpret this behaviour as evidence that unsteady swimming was being fuelled by the limited supply of anaerobic substrates in the white muscle. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that unsteady swimming fish showed significantly lower muscle glycogen levels, higher lactate concentrations (muscle and plasma) and higher post-exercise oxygen consumption rates compared with fish that used a steady gait. The reduction in passage time achieved by fish using an unsteady gait allowed them to ascend the raceway with relatively minor post-exercise metabolic imbalances, relative to individuals chased to exhaustion.

  15. Effects of environmental parameters, leaf physiological properties and leaf water relations on leaf water delta18O enrichment in different Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Kahmen, Ansgar; Simonin, Kevin; Tu, Kevin P; Merchant, Andrew; Callister, Andrew; Siegwolf, Rolf; Dawson, Todd E; Arndt, Stefan K

    2008-06-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (delta18O) have become a valuable tool in the plant and ecosystem sciences. The interpretation of delta18O values in plant material is, however, still complicated owing to the complex interactions among factors that influence leaf water enrichment. This study investigated the interplay among environmental parameters, leaf physiological properties and leaf water relations as drivers of the isotopic enrichment of leaf water across 17 Eucalyptus species growing in a common garden. We observed large differences in maximum daily leaf water delta18O across the 17 species. By fitting different leaf water models to these empirical data, we determined that differences in leaf water delta18O across species are largely explained by variation in the Péclet effect across species. Our analyses also revealed that species-specific differences in transpiration do not explain the observed differences in delta18O while the unconstrained fitting parameter 'effective path length' (L) was highly correlated with delta18O. None of the leaf morphological or leaf water related parameters we quantified in this study correlated with the L values we determined even though L was typically interpreted as a leaf morphological/anatomical property. A sensitivity analysis supported the importance of L for explaining the variability in leaf water delta18O across different species. Our investigation highlighted the importance of future studies to quantify the leaf properties that influence L. Obtaining such information will significantly improve our understanding of what ultimately determines the delta18O values of leaf water across different plant species. PMID:18208514

  16. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  17. Generic Pronouns and Gender-Inclusive Language Reform in the English of Singapore and the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Anne; Winter, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    The concurrent trends of globalisation and "indigenisation" affecting the English language (varieties) around the world pose some interesting questions for language planning and reform issues (e.g. Phillipson, 1992; Pennycook, 1994; Crystal, 1997). With this project we examine the impact of these competing trends on "corpus planning" relating to…

  18. Processing Biological Gender and Number Information during Chinese Pronoun Resolution: ERP Evidence for Functional Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaodong; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of behavioral and neural studies on the processing of syntactic gender and number agreement information, marked by different morpho-syntactic features during sentence comprehension. By using the event-related potential (ERP) technique, the present study investigated whether the processing of semantic gender information and…

  19. Swimming physiology.

    PubMed

    Holmér, I

    1992-05-01

    Swimming takes place in a medium, that presents different gravitational and resistive forces, respiratory conditions and thermal stress compared to air. The energy cost of propulsion in swimming is high, but a considerable reduction occurs at a given velocity as result of regular swim training. In medley swimmers the energy cost is lowest for front crawl, followed by backstroke, butterfly and breast-stroke. Cardiac output is probably not limiting for performance since swimmers easily achieve higher values during running. Maximal heart rate, however, is lowered by approx. 10 beats/min during swimming compared to running. Most likely active muscle mass is smaller and rate of power production lesser in swimming. Local factors, such as peripheral circulation, capillary density, perfusion pressure and metabolic capacity of active muscles, are important determinants of the power production capacity and emphasize the role of swim specific training movements. Improved swimming technique and efficiency are likely to explain much of the continuous progress in performance. Rational principles based on improved understanding of the biomechanics and physiology of swimming should be guidelines for swimmers and coaches in their efforts to explore the limits of human performance. PMID:1642724

  20. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  1. Physiological Condition of Juvenile Wading Birds in Relation to Multiple Landscape Stressors in the Florida Everglades: Effects of Hydrology, Prey Availability, and Mercury Bioaccumulation

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gawlik, Dale E.; Beerens, James M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks. PMID:25184221

  2. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gawlik, Dale E.; Beerens, James M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  3. Real-Time Comprehension of Gender and Number in Four- to Seven-Year-Old Children: A Study of the Relationship between Italian Clitic Pronouns and Visual Picture Referents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispaldro, Marco; Ruggiero, Anna; Scali, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The gender and number of a direct object clitic pronoun are based on the gender and number of the noun to which it refers. Grammatical gender is an intrinsic property of the lexical item that is independent from the natural sex of referents, whereas number is a non-intrinsic feature of nouns based on the conceptual level of quantity. The aim of…

  4. Leaf morphological and physiological adaptations of a deciduous oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) to the Mediterranean climate: a comparison with a closely related temperate species (Quercus robur L.).

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    'White oaks'--one of the main groups of the genus Quercus L.--are represented in western Eurasia by the 'roburoid oaks', a deciduous and closely related genetic group that should have an Arcto-Tertiary origin under temperate-nemoral climates. Nowadays, roburoid oak species such as Quercus robur L. are still present in these temperate climates in Europe, but others are also present in southern Europe under Mediterranean-type climates, such as Quercus faginea Lam. We hypothesize the existence of a coordinated functional response at the whole-shoot scale in Q. faginea under Mediterranean conditions to adapt to more xeric habitats. The results reveal a clear morphological and physiological segregation between Q. robur and Q. faginea, which constitute two very contrasting functional types in response to climate dryness. The most outstanding divergence between the two species is the reduction in transpiring area in Q. faginea, which is the main trait imposed by the water deficit in Mediterranean-type climates. The reduction in leaf area ratio in Q. faginea should have a negative effect on carbon gain that is partially counteracted by a higher inherent photosynthetic ability of Q. faginea when compared with Q. robur, as a consequence of higher mesophyll conductance, higher maximum velocity of carboxylation and much higher stomatal conductance (gs). The extremely high gs of Q. faginea counteracts the expected reduction in gs imposed by the stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit, allowing this species to diminish water losses maintaining high net CO2 assimilation values along the vegetative period under nonlimiting soil water potential values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Q. faginea can be regarded as an example of adaptation of a deciduous oak to Mediterranean-type climates.

  5. The role of defoliation and root rot pathogen infection in driving the mode of drought-related physiological decline in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Aguadé, D; Poyatos, R; Gómez, M; Oliva, J; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2015-03-01

    Drought-related tree die-off episodes have been observed in all vegetated continents. Despite much research effort, however, the multiple interactions between carbon starvation, hydraulic failure and biotic agents in driving tree mortality under field conditions are still not well understood. We analysed the seasonal variability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in four organs (leaves, branches, trunk and roots), the vulnerability to embolism in roots and branches, native embolism (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC)) in branches and the presence of root rot pathogens in defoliated and non-defoliated individuals in a declining Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population in the NE Iberian Peninsula in 2012, which included a particularly dry and warm summer. No differences were observed between defoliated and non-defoliated pines in hydraulic parameters, except for a higher vulnerability to embolism at pressures below -2 MPa in roots of defoliated pines. No differences were found between defoliation classes in branch PLC. Total NSC (TNSC, soluble sugars plus starch) values decreased during drought, particularly in leaves. Defoliation reduced TNSC levels across tree organs, especially just before (June) and during (August) drought. Root rot infection by the fungal pathogen Onnia P. Karst spp. was detected but it did not appear to be associated to tree defoliation. However, Onnia infection was associated with reduced leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and sapwood depth, and thus contributed to hydraulic impairment, especially in defoliated pines. Infection was also associated with virtually depleted root starch reserves during and after drought in defoliated pines. Moreover, defoliated and infected trees tended to show lower basal area increment. Overall, our results show the intertwined nature of physiological mechanisms leading to drought-induced mortality and the inherent difficulty of isolating their contribution under field conditions. PMID

  6. A review of the physiological effects of α2-agonists related to the clinical use of medetomidine in small animal practice

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Melissa D.

    2003-01-01

    Medetomidine is a relatively new sedative analgesic drug that is approved for use in dogs in Canada. It is the most potent α2-adrenoreceptor available for clinical use in veterinary medicine and stimulates receptors centrally to produce dose-dependent sedation and analgesia. Significant dose sparing properties occur when medetomidine is combined with other anesthetic agents correlating with the high affinity of this drug to the α2-adrenoreceptor. Hypoventilation occurs with medetomidine sedation in dogs; however, respiratory depression becomes most significant when given in combination with other sedative or injectable agents. The typical negative cardiovascular effects produced with other α2-agonists (bradycardia, bradyarrhythmias, a reduction in cardiac output, hypertension ± hypotension) are also produced with medetomidine, warranting precautions when it is used and necessitating appropriate patient selection (young, middle-aged healthy animals). While hypotension may occur, sedative doses of medetomidine typically raise the blood pressure, due to the effect on peripheral α2-adrenoreceptors. Anticholinergic premedication has been recommended with α2-agonists to prevent bradyarrhythmias and, potentially, the reduction in cardiac output produced by these agents; however, current research does not demonstrate a clear improvement in cardio vascular function. Negatively, the anticholinergic induced increase in heart rate potentiates the α2-agonist mediated hypertension and may increase myocardial oxygen tension, demand, and workload. Overall, reversal with the specific antagonist atipamezole is recommended when significant cardiorespiratory complications occur. Other physiological effects of medetomidine sedation include; vomiting, increased urine volumes, changes to endocrine function and uterine activity, decreased intestinal motility, decreased intraocular pressure and potentially hypothermia, muscle twitching, and cyanosis. Decreased doses of medetomidine

  7. Physiology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2000-07-01

    Studies of physiology in microgravity are remarkably recent, with almost all the data being obtained in the past 40 years. The first human spaceflight did not take place until 1961. Physiological measurements in connection with the early flights were crude, but, in the past 10 years, an enormous amount of new information has been obtained from experiments on Spacelab. The United States and Soviet/Russian programs have pursued different routes. The US has mainly concentrated on relatively short flights but with highly sophisticated equipment such as is available in Spacelab. In contrast, the Soviet/Russian program concentrated on first the Salyut and then the Mir space stations. These had the advantage of providing information about long-term exposure to microgravity, but the degree of sophistication of the measurements in space was less. It is hoped that the International Space Station will combine the best of both approaches. The most important physiological changes caused by microgravity include bone demineralization, skeletal muscle atrophy, vestibular problems causing space motion sickness, cardiovascular problems resulting in postflight orthostatic intolerance, and reductions in plasma volume and red cell mass. Pulmonary function is greatly altered but apparently not seriously impaired. Space exploration is a new frontier with long-term missions to the moon and Mars not far away. Understanding the physiological changes caused by long-duration microgravity remains a daunting challenge.

  8. The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high-school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Schade, Ryan L; Bradford, T Jason; McIntyre, Joseph S; DeRenne, Coop; Madsen, Nels H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relation between anthropometric and physiological variables to linear bat swing velocity (BV) of 2 groups of high-school baseball players before and after completing a 12-week periodized resistance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups using a stratified sampling technique. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 d·wk-1, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Fourteen variables were measured or calculated before and after 12 weeks of training. Anthropometric and physiological variables tested were height, body mass, percent body fat, lean body mass (LBM), dominant torso rotational strength (DTRS) and nondominant torso rotational strength (NDTRS), sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength measured by a medicine ball hitter's throw (MBHT), estimated 1 repetition maximum parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP), vertical jump (VJ), estimated peak power, angular hip velocity (AHV), and angular shoulder velocity (ASV). The baseball-specific skill of linear BV was also measured. Statistical analysis indicated a significant moderately high positive relationship (p ≤ 0.05) between prelinear BV and pre-NDTRS for group 1, pre-LBM, DTRS, NDTRS, peak power, and ASV for group 2; moderate positive relationship between prelinear BV and preheight, LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, PS, and ASV for group 1, preheight, body mass, MBHT, BP, and PS for group 2. Significantly high positive relationships were indicated between postlinear BV and post-NDTRS for group 1, post-DTRS and NDTRS for group 2; moderately high positive relationships between postlinear BV and post-LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, and PS for group 1, postheight, LBM, VJ, peak power for group 2; moderate positive relationships between

  9. The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high-school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Schade, Ryan L; Bradford, T Jason; McIntyre, Joseph S; DeRenne, Coop; Madsen, Nels H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relation between anthropometric and physiological variables to linear bat swing velocity (BV) of 2 groups of high-school baseball players before and after completing a 12-week periodized resistance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups using a stratified sampling technique. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 d·wk-1, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Fourteen variables were measured or calculated before and after 12 weeks of training. Anthropometric and physiological variables tested were height, body mass, percent body fat, lean body mass (LBM), dominant torso rotational strength (DTRS) and nondominant torso rotational strength (NDTRS), sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength measured by a medicine ball hitter's throw (MBHT), estimated 1 repetition maximum parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP), vertical jump (VJ), estimated peak power, angular hip velocity (AHV), and angular shoulder velocity (ASV). The baseball-specific skill of linear BV was also measured. Statistical analysis indicated a significant moderately high positive relationship (p ≤ 0.05) between prelinear BV and pre-NDTRS for group 1, pre-LBM, DTRS, NDTRS, peak power, and ASV for group 2; moderate positive relationship between prelinear BV and preheight, LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, PS, and ASV for group 1, preheight, body mass, MBHT, BP, and PS for group 2. Significantly high positive relationships were indicated between postlinear BV and post-NDTRS for group 1, post-DTRS and NDTRS for group 2; moderately high positive relationships between postlinear BV and post-LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, and PS for group 1, postheight, LBM, VJ, peak power for group 2; moderate positive relationships between

  10. Increased leaf mesophyll porosity following transient retinoblastoma-related protein silencing is revealed by microcomputed tomography imaging and leads to a system-level physiological response to the altered cell division pattern

    PubMed Central

    Dorca-Fornell, Carmen; Pajor, Radoslaw; Lehmeier, Christoph; Pérez-Bueno, Marísa; Bauch, Marion; Sloan, Jen; Osborne, Colin; Rolfe, Stephen; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha; Fleming, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The causal relationship between cell division and growth in plants is complex. Although altered expression of cell-cycle genes frequently leads to altered organ growth, there are many examples where manipulation of the division machinery leads to a limited outcome at the level of organ form, despite changes in constituent cell size. One possibility, which has been under-explored, is that altered division patterns resulting from manipulation of cell-cycle gene expression alter the physiology of the organ, and that this has an effect on growth. We performed a series of experiments on retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR), a well characterized regulator of the cell cycle, to investigate the outcome of altered cell division on leaf physiology. Our approach involved combination of high-resolution microCT imaging and physiological analysis with a transient gene induction system, providing a powerful approach for the study of developmental physiology. Our investigation identifies a new role for RBR in mesophyll differentiation that affects tissue porosity and the distribution of air space within the leaf. The data demonstrate the importance of RBR in early leaf development and the extent to which physiology adapts to modified cellular architecture resulting from altered cell-cycle gene expression. PMID:24118480

  11. Physiological differentiation of viridans streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Facklam, R R

    1977-01-01

    Twelve hundred and twenty-seven clinical isolates and eighty stock strains of viridans streptococci were tested for serological and physiological characteristics. Because the serological reactions of these strains varied, a differentiation scheme could not be based on these reactions. For the same reason, there could be no correlation of serological characteristics with physiological characteristics. Nearly 97% of the clinical isolates were speciated by differences in physiological characteristics. Ten different physiological species were recognized. The physiological speciation scheme was based on stable enzymatic reactions rather than on results of tolerance tests. The study included air-tolerant anaerobic streptococcal strains as well as viridans streptococcal strains not normally found in humans. The differentiation scheme and nomenclature of the author are related to those of other investigators. Differences in the distribution of species isolated from different clinical sources and human infections were also noted. A key for the differentiation of human isolates of viridans streptococci is proposed. PMID:845245

  12. Exploring the Cause of English Pronoun Gender Errors by Chinese Learners of English: Evidence from the Self-paced Reading Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanping; Wen, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomeng; Ji, Yifei

    2015-12-01

    To locate the underlying cause of biological gender errors of oral English pronouns by proficient Chinese-English learners, two self-paced reading experiments were conducted to explore whether the reading time for each 'he' or 'she' that matched its antecedent was shorter than that in the corresponding mismatch situation, as with native speakers of English. The critical manipulation was to see whether highlighting the gender information of an antecedent with a human picture would make a difference. The results indicate that such manipulation did make a difference. Since oral Chinese does not distinguish 'he' and 'she', the findings suggest that Chinese speakers probably do not usually process biological gender for linguistic purposes and the mixed use of 'he' and 'she' is probably a result of deficient processing of gender information in the conceptualizer. Theoretical and pedagogical implications are discussed.

  13. Physiologic regulation in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, S M

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit thermoregulatory responses, neuroendocrine, neurochemical modulations, and behavioral reactions. These physiologic regulatory processes are exquisitely tuned, interrelated functions that constitute sensitive indicators of organismic responses to radiofrequency energy absorption (the radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum includes as one part microwaves). Assessment of the integration and correlation of these functions relative to the thermal inputs and homeokinetic reactions of the individual subjected to radiofrequency energy should permit differentiation between potential hazards that might compromise the individual's ability to maintain normal physiologic function and effects that are compensated by physiologic redundancy.

  14. Physiologic regulation in electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit thermoregulatory responses, neuroendocrine, neurochemical modulations, and behavioral reactions. These physiologic regulatory processes are exquisitely tuned, interrelated functions that constitute sensitive indicators of organismic responses to radiofrequency energy absorption (the radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum includes as one part microwaves). Assessment of the integration and correlation of these functions relative to the thermal inputs and homeokinetic reactions of the individual subjected to radiofrequency energy should permit differentiation between potential hazards that might compromise the individual's ability to maintain normal physiologic function and effects that are compensated by physiologic redundancy.

  15. Physiological anthropology and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Karelović, D; Ognjenović, M; Cekić-Arambasin, A; Tadin, I

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is the greatest computer network with many services like Web, FTP, Gopher, E-mail Discussion Groups, and Usenet Discussion Groups, that provides a rapid and the cheapest exchange of information. The benefits to anthropologists of using the Internet are growing rapidly, as the Internet becomes easier to use and ever more anthropological resources become available on line. Physiological anthropology is concerned with the evolution and biological features of human population and it's sources on the Internet are growing continuously. However, in that enormous number of data, is not easy to find a needed information. Currently, number of indexed physiological anthropology related sites on Web only is 233990 (October 98). This paper provides informations about Internet and needed hardware and software for using it. It also describes and lists the most important physiological anthropology addresses, together with physiological anthropology-related journals on the Internet, as well as the ways of searching them. PMID:9951133

  16. Physiological anthropology and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Karelović, D; Ognjenović, M; Cekić-Arambasin, A; Tadin, I

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is the greatest computer network with many services like Web, FTP, Gopher, E-mail Discussion Groups, and Usenet Discussion Groups, that provides a rapid and the cheapest exchange of information. The benefits to anthropologists of using the Internet are growing rapidly, as the Internet becomes easier to use and ever more anthropological resources become available on line. Physiological anthropology is concerned with the evolution and biological features of human population and it's sources on the Internet are growing continuously. However, in that enormous number of data, is not easy to find a needed information. Currently, number of indexed physiological anthropology related sites on Web only is 233990 (October 98). This paper provides informations about Internet and needed hardware and software for using it. It also describes and lists the most important physiological anthropology addresses, together with physiological anthropology-related journals on the Internet, as well as the ways of searching them.

  17. Applied physiology of triathlon.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, M L; Douglas, P S

    1995-04-01

    The triathlon is a 3-event endurance sport in which athletes compete sequentially in swimming, cycling and running. The primary determinant of success is the ability to sustain a high rate of energy expenditure for prolonged periods of time. Exercise training-induced physiological adaptations in virtually all systems of the body allow the athlete to accomplish this. Aerobic capacity (measured as maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max), economy of motion (submaximal VO2) and fractional utilisation of maximal capacity (%VO2max) reflect the integrated responses of these physiological adaptations. Numerous studies have reported relatively high mean VO2max values for various groups of triathletes that are comparable to those reported for athletes in single-event endurance sports and clearly above those reported for untrained individuals. In shorter distance triathlons and in studies using recreational (rather than elite) triathletes, VO2max is related to performance in the corresponding event of the triathlon (e.g. tethered swimming VO2max with swim time). In longer events and with more elite triathletes, VO2max correlates less well with performance. The physiological adaptations that correspond to and facilitate improved VO2max occur centrally in the cardiovascular system, centred on increased maximal cardiac output, and peripherally in the metabolic systems, centred around increased arterio-venous O2 (a-v O2) difference. While a high VO2max in individuals is clearly of importance to triathlon performance, energy output must be sustained for long periods of time, making economy of motion also very important. Studies suggests that competitive swimmers have better swimming economy than triathletes. However, since many triathletes have previously been competitive swimmers this finding is questionable. The finding suggests that triathletes from nonswimming backgrounds would benefit from improving swimming technique rather than concentrating training workouts solely on distance. In

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL ONTOGENY

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Henry A.

    1925-01-01

    As this paper goes to press a complete review of the chemistry of the fertile egg will be appearing (19). The author, Mr. J. Needham, was kind enough to allow me to inspect his manuscript and thus avail myself of the comprehensive bibliography and discussion. It is surprising that no biochemists have estimated the changing water content of the egg during incubation. Many of the analyses reported in Needham's review were expressed in per cent of total weight or per cent of dry solid, and consequently are of questionable value, since these latter functions are themselves changing; the former due to water evaporation and the latter through the addition of shell constituents and the burning of oxidizable organic compounds. Moreover, there has been no statistical treatment of the results, and the reliability of the average, figures obtained has consequently been difficult to estimate. Tangl's work, quoted throughout this paper, except for its lack of statistical treatment is more enlightening. However, his concept of the so called "Energy of Embryogenesis" which he propounds, seems to me misleading and unwarranted. What Tangl measured was the amount and the caloric value of the solid material burned and thus the quantity of energy lost during the embryonic period. The latter is equivalent to the usual measurements of catabolism. In the case of the embryo it is not basal metabolism which is being estimated, since the conditions are not basal. The embryo is absorbing and assimilating nutriment all the while at a relatively rapid rate. The calorific value of the oxidized solid, which is in truth the amount of energy lost during a certain chosen interval, in Tangl's judgment stands for the energy of embryogenesis; i.e., the energy of development (growth + differentiation). We believe that this conception is erroneous. The two processes, anabolism and catabolism, occur together and undoubtedly have some relationship, but surely one is not a measure of the other. In a

  19. Separating foliar physiology from morphology reveals the relative roles of vertically structured transpiration factors within red maple crowns and limitations of larger scale models.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, William L; Bowden, Joseph D

    2011-08-01

    A spatially explicit mechanistic model, MAESTRA, was used to separate key parameters affecting transpiration to provide insights into the most influential parameters for accurate predictions of within-crown and within-canopy transpiration. Once validated among Acer rubrum L. genotypes, model responses to different parameterization scenarios were scaled up to stand transpiration (expressed per unit leaf area) to assess how transpiration might be affected by the spatial distribution of foliage properties. For example, when physiological differences were accounted for, differences in leaf width among A. rubrum L. genotypes resulted in a 25% difference in transpiration. An in silico within-canopy sensitivity analysis was conducted over the range of genotype parameter variation observed and under different climate forcing conditions. The analysis revealed that seven of 16 leaf traits had a ≥5% impact on transpiration predictions. Under sparse foliage conditions, comparisons of the present findings with previous studies were in agreement that parameters such as the maximum Rubisco-limited rate of photosynthesis can explain ∼20% of the variability in predicted transpiration. However, the spatial analysis shows how such parameters can decrease or change in importance below the uppermost canopy layer. Alternatively, model sensitivity to leaf width and minimum stomatal conductance was continuous along a vertical canopy depth profile. Foremost, transpiration sensitivity to an observed range of morphological and physiological parameters is examined and the spatial sensitivity of transpiration model predictions to vertical variations in microclimate and foliage density is identified to reduce the uncertainty of current transpiration predictions.

  20. Temperature relations of aerial and aquatic physiological performance in a mid-intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma: adaptation to rapid changes in thermal stress during emersion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiongwei; Wang, Tifeng; Ye, Ziwen; Han, Guodong; Dong, Yunwei

    2015-01-01

    The physiological performance of a mid-intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma was determined to study the physiological adaptation of intertidal animals to rapid changes and extreme temperatures during emersion. The relationship between the Arrhenius breakpoint temperature (ABT) and in situ operative body temperature was studied to predict the possible impact of climate change on the species. The temperature coefficient (Q10) of emersed animals was higher than that of submersed animals and the ratio of aerial: aquatic heart rate rose with increasing temperature. The ABTs of submersed and emersed animals were 30.2 and 34.2°C, respectively. The heart rate and levels of molecular biomarkers (hsps, ampkα, ampkβ and sirt1 mRNA) were determined in 48 h simulated semi-diurnal tides. There were no obvious changes of heart rate and gene expression during the transition between emersion and submersion at room temperature, although expressions of hsp70 and hsp90 were induced significantly after thermal stress. These results indicate that C. toreuma can effectively utilize atmospheric oxygen, and the higher Q10 and ABT of emersed animals are adaptations to the rapid change and extreme thermal stress during emersion. However, the in situ operative body temperature frequently exceeds the aerial ABT of C. toreuma, indicating the occurrence of large-scale mortality of C. toreuma in summer, and this species should be sensitive to increasing temperature in the scenario of climate change.

  1. The decrease in the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane after nitrogen fertilization is related to plant physiology in split root experiments.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Andrade, Osvaldo; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis E; Morales-García, Yolanda E; Molina-Romero, Dalia; Bustillos-Cristales, María R; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca D; Muñoz-Rojas, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that a decrease in the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus associated with sugarcane occurs after nitrogen fertilization. This fact could be due to a direct influence of NH(4)NO(3) on bacterial cells or to changes in plant physiology after fertilizer addition, affecting bacterial establishment. In this work, we observed that survival of G. diazotrophicus was directly influenced when 44.8mM of NH(4)NO(3) (640mgN/plant) was used for in vitro experiments. Furthermore, micropropagated sugarcane plantlets were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and used for split root experiments, in which both ends of the system were fertilized with a basal level of NH(4)NO(3) (0.35mM; 10mgN/plant). Twenty days post inoculation (dpi) one half of the plants were fertilized with a high dose of NH(4)NO(3) (6.3mM; 180 mgN/plant) on one end of the system. This nitrogen level was lower than that directly affecting G. diazotrophicus cells; however, it caused a decrease in the bacterial population in comparison with control plants fertilized with basal nitrogen levels. The decrease in the population of G. diazotrophicus was higher in pots fertilized with a basal nitrogen level when compared with the corresponding end supplied with high levels of NH4NO3 (100dpi; 80 days post fertilization) of the same plant system. These observations suggest that the high nitrogen level added to the plants induce systemic physiological changes that affect the establishment of G. diazotrophicus.

  2. Physiological responses and endogenous cytokinin profiles of tissue-cultured 'Williams' bananas in relation to roscovitine and an inhibitor of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (INCYDE) treatments.

    PubMed

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Bairu, Michael W; Novák, Ondřej; Plačková, Lenka; Zatloukal, Marek; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Strnad, Miroslav; Van Staden, Johannes

    2012-12-01

    The effect of supplementing either meta-topolin (mT) or N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) requiring cultures with roscovitine (6-benzylamino-2-[1(R)-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]amino-9-isopropylpurine), a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and N-glucosylation inhibitor, and INCYDE (2-chloro-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)aminopurine), an inhibitor of cytokinin (CK) degradation, on the endogenous CK profiles and physiology of banana in vitro was investigated. Growth parameters including multiplication rate and biomass were recorded after 42 days. Endogenous CK levels were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS while the photosynthetic pigment and phenolic contents were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The highest regeneration rate (93 %) was observed in BA + roscovitine while mT + INCYDE plantlets produced most shoots. Treatment with BA + roscovitine had the highest shoot length and biomass. Although not significant, there was a higher proanthocyanidin level in BA + roscovitine treatments compared to the control (BA). The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were significantly higher in mT + roscovitine treatment than in the mT-treated regenerants. The presence of roscovitine and/or INCYDE had no significant effect on the photosynthetic pigments of the banana plantlets. Forty-seven aromatic and isoprenoid CKs categorized into nine CK-types were detected at varying concentrations. The presence of mT + roscovitine and/or INCYDE increased the levels of O-glucosides while 9-glucosides were higher in the presence of BA. Generally, the underground parts had higher CK levels than the aerial parts; however, the presence of INCYDE increased the level of CK quantified in the aerial parts. From a practical perspective, the use of roscovitine and INCYDE in micropropagation could be crucial in the alleviation of commonly observed in vitro-induced physiological abnormalities.

  3. The decrease in the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane after nitrogen fertilization is related to plant physiology in split root experiments.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Andrade, Osvaldo; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis E; Morales-García, Yolanda E; Molina-Romero, Dalia; Bustillos-Cristales, María R; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca D; Muñoz-Rojas, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that a decrease in the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus associated with sugarcane occurs after nitrogen fertilization. This fact could be due to a direct influence of NH(4)NO(3) on bacterial cells or to changes in plant physiology after fertilizer addition, affecting bacterial establishment. In this work, we observed that survival of G. diazotrophicus was directly influenced when 44.8mM of NH(4)NO(3) (640mgN/plant) was used for in vitro experiments. Furthermore, micropropagated sugarcane plantlets were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and used for split root experiments, in which both ends of the system were fertilized with a basal level of NH(4)NO(3) (0.35mM; 10mgN/plant). Twenty days post inoculation (dpi) one half of the plants were fertilized with a high dose of NH(4)NO(3) (6.3mM; 180 mgN/plant) on one end of the system. This nitrogen level was lower than that directly affecting G. diazotrophicus cells; however, it caused a decrease in the bacterial population in comparison with control plants fertilized with basal nitrogen levels. The decrease in the population of G. diazotrophicus was higher in pots fertilized with a basal nitrogen level when compared with the corresponding end supplied with high levels of NH4NO3 (100dpi; 80 days post fertilization) of the same plant system. These observations suggest that the high nitrogen level added to the plants induce systemic physiological changes that affect the establishment of G. diazotrophicus. PMID:26652262

  4. Physiology of man and animals in the Tenth Five-Year Plan: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Congress of the I. P. Pavlov All-Union Physiological Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Research in the field of animal and human physiology is reviewed. The following topics on problems of physiological science and related fields of knowledge are discussed: neurophysiology and higher nervous activity, physiology of sensory systems, physiology of visceral systems, evolutionary and ecological physiology, physiological cybernetics, computer application in physiology, information support of physiological research, history and theory of development of physiology. Also discussed were: artificial intelligence, physiological problems of reflex therapy, correlation of structure and function of the brain, adaptation and activity, microcirculation, and physiological studies in nerve and mental diseases.

  5. Natural selection and glucocorticoid physiology.

    PubMed

    Patterson, S H; Hahn, T P; Cornelius, J M; Breuner, C W

    2014-02-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are considered potent modulators of trade-offs between reproduction and survival. As such, selection should affect glucocorticoid physiology, although relatively little is known about how selection may act on glucocorticoid profiles. In general, the evolution of physiology is less studied and less well understood than morphological or life history traits. Here, we used a long-term data set from a population of mountain white-crowned sparrows to estimate natural selection on glucocorticoid profiles. Our study suggests that survival selection favours higher hormone concentrations for multiple components of glucocorticoid physiology (both baseline and stress-induced glucocorticoid levels). Fecundity selection varies depending on the component of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal physiology; greater reproductive output was associated with higher baseline glucocorticoid levels, but lower stress-induced glucocorticoid levels. Additionally, the selection gradient was greater for glucocorticoids than for a morphological trait (wing length). These results support the hypothesis that stress-induced glucocorticoids increase survival over reproduction within a wild population (the CORT-trade-off hypothesis). Taken together, these results add to our knowledge of how selection operates on physiological traits and also provide an evolutionary and ecological perspective on several key open issues in the field of glucocorticoid physiology.

  6. The physiologic climate of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people. PMID:22610082

  7. The physiologic climate of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  8. The physiologic climate of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  9. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  10. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  11. Carl Ludwig's (1847) and Pavel Petrovich Einbrodt's (1860) physiological research and its implications for modern cardiovascular science: translator's notes relating to the English translation of two seminal papers.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jochen; Lohff, Brigitte; Dittmer, Janke Jörn

    2014-08-01

    Respiratory interactions with the heart have remained a challenging physiological phenomenon since their discovery more than two hundred and fifty years ago. In the course of translating the seminal publications of Carl Ludwig and his disciple Pavel Petrovich Einbrodt into English, we became aware of some under-appreciated aspects of their work that contain useful insights into the history of the phenomenon now called respiratory arrhythmia. Ludwig observed arrhythmic effects of respiratory movements in experiments on dogs and horses and published his findings in 1847. He subsequently undertook further work on this problem, together with Einbrodt. Already in 1847 Ludwig had mentioned an exciting observation on the possible role of mechanical factors of the respiratory movements on the action of the heart in a dog in whom he had artificially induced bouts of coughing. Einbrodt decided to systematically develop methods to increase or decrease the pressure of the air the animal had to breathe. He observed that this procedure led to a greater or lesser degree of compression or decompression of all the organs in the thoracic cavity without apparently causing harmful consequences during the time of its application. How the mechanical influence of breathing affects cardiac activity during respiratory arrhythmia has been the subject of scientific discussions and controversies over a period of more than 150 years and is still unresolved. Recent publications suggest that cardiac mechano-electrical coupling plays an important role in the emergence of cardio-respiratory interdependence.

  12. Physiologic discrimination of stop consonants relates to phonological skills in pre-readers: a biomarker for subsequent reading ability?†

    PubMed Central

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading development builds upon the accurate representation of the phonological structure of spoken language. This representation and its neural foundations have been studied extensively with respect to reading due to pervasive performance deficits on basic phonological tasks observed in children with dyslexia. The subcortical auditory system – a site of intersection for sensory and cognitive input – is exquisitely tuned to code fine timing differences between phonemes, and so likely plays a foundational role in the development of phonological processing and, eventually, reading. This temporal coding of speech varies systematically with reading ability in school age children. Little is known, however, about subcortical speech representation in pre-school age children. We measured auditory brainstem responses to the stop consonants [ba] and [ga] in a cohort of 4-year-old children and assessed their phonological skills. In a typical auditory system, brainstem responses to [ba] and [ga] are out of phase (i.e., differ in time) due to formant frequency differences in the consonant-vowel transitions of the stimuli. We found that children who performed worst on the phonological awareness task insufficiently code this difference, revealing a physiologic link between early phonological skills and the neural representation of speech. We discuss this finding in light of existing theories of the role of the auditory system in developmental dyslexia, and argue for a systems-level perspective for understanding the importance of precise temporal coding for learning to read. PMID:24399956

  13. [Evolution of evolutionary physiology].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V

    2008-09-01

    In 19th century and at the beginning 20th century, reports appeared in the field of comparative and ontogenetic physiology and the value of these methods for understanding of evolution of functions. The term "evolutionary physiology" was suggested by A. N. Severtsov in 1914. In the beginning of 30s, in the USSR, laboratories for researches in problems of evolutionary physiology were created, the results of these researches having been published. In 1956 in Leningrad, the Institute of Evolutionary Physiology was founded by L. A. Orbeli. He formulates the goals and methods of evolutionary physiology. In the following half a century, the evolutionary physiology was actively developed. The evolutionary physiology solves problems of evolution of function of functions evolution, often involving methods of adjacent sciences, including biochemistry, morphology, molecular biology.

  14. The effect of dystocia on physiological and behavioral characteristics related to vitality and passive transfer of immunoglobulins in newborn Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christine F; Veira, Doug M; Nadalin, Audrey L; Haines, Deborah M; Jackson, Marion L; Pearl, David L; Leslie, Ken E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of calving difficulty or dystocia on the vitality of newborn calves and its association with blood pH, the apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption (AEA), and weight gain. A total of 45 calving events (N = 48 calves) were monitored from the first sight of fetal membranes. All calves were assessed at the time of first attaining sternal recumbency (SR), at 2 and 24 h, and at 7 and 14 d of age. Measurements included time to SR, rectal temperature, respiration and heart rate, analysis of blood gases and other blood measures, suckling response, time to standing, passive transfer of IgG, and weight gain. Calves were separated from their dam 2 h after birth and fed a commercial colostrum replacer containing 180 g of IgG by esophageal tube feeder. Calves born following dystocia had lower venous blood pH and took longer to attain SR and attempt to stand than those born unassisted. Duration of calving interacted with the number of people required to extract the calf by pulling as a significant predictor of pH at SR. No association was found between pH at SR and AEA. However, reduced AEA was found in calves that were female and in calves that did not achieve SR within 15 min of birth. A longer calving duration, being born in July or August rather than June, and a shorter time spent standing in the first 2 d of life were significantly associated with reduced weight gain to 14 d. It was concluded that factors at calving impact the physiology, vitality, and subsequent weight gain of newborn calves.

  15. The effect of dystocia on physiological and behavioral characteristics related to vitality and passive transfer of immunoglobulins in newborn Holstein calves

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Christine F.; Veira, Doug M.; Nadalin, Audrey L.; Haines, Deborah M.; Jackson, Marion L.; Pearl, David L.; Leslie, Ken E.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of calving difficulty or dystocia on the vitality of newborn calves and its association with blood pH, the apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption (AEA), and weight gain. A total of 45 calving events (N = 48 calves) were monitored from the first sight of fetal membranes. All calves were assessed at the time of first attaining sternal recumbency (SR), at 2 and 24 h, and at 7 and 14 d of age. Measurements included time to SR, rectal temperature, respiration and heart rate, analysis of blood gases and other blood measures, suckling response, time to standing, passive transfer of IgG, and weight gain. Calves were separated from their dam 2 h after birth and fed a commercial colostrum replacer containing 180 g of IgG by esophageal tube feeder. Calves born following dystocia had lower venous blood pH and took longer to attain SR and attempt to stand than those born unassisted. Duration of calving interacted with the number of people required to extract the calf by pulling as a significant predictor of pH at SR. No association was found between pH at SR and AEA. However, reduced AEA was found in calves that were female and in calves that did not achieve SR within 15 min of birth. A longer calving duration, being born in July or August rather than June, and a shorter time spent standing in the first 2 d of life were significantly associated with reduced weight gain to 14 d. It was concluded that factors at calving impact the physiology, vitality, and subsequent weight gain of newborn calves. PMID:25852226

  16. The effect of dystocia on physiological and behavioral characteristics related to vitality and passive transfer of immunoglobulins in newborn Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christine F; Veira, Doug M; Nadalin, Audrey L; Haines, Deborah M; Jackson, Marion L; Pearl, David L; Leslie, Ken E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of calving difficulty or dystocia on the vitality of newborn calves and its association with blood pH, the apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption (AEA), and weight gain. A total of 45 calving events (N = 48 calves) were monitored from the first sight of fetal membranes. All calves were assessed at the time of first attaining sternal recumbency (SR), at 2 and 24 h, and at 7 and 14 d of age. Measurements included time to SR, rectal temperature, respiration and heart rate, analysis of blood gases and other blood measures, suckling response, time to standing, passive transfer of IgG, and weight gain. Calves were separated from their dam 2 h after birth and fed a commercial colostrum replacer containing 180 g of IgG by esophageal tube feeder. Calves born following dystocia had lower venous blood pH and took longer to attain SR and attempt to stand than those born unassisted. Duration of calving interacted with the number of people required to extract the calf by pulling as a significant predictor of pH at SR. No association was found between pH at SR and AEA. However, reduced AEA was found in calves that were female and in calves that did not achieve SR within 15 min of birth. A longer calving duration, being born in July or August rather than June, and a shorter time spent standing in the first 2 d of life were significantly associated with reduced weight gain to 14 d. It was concluded that factors at calving impact the physiology, vitality, and subsequent weight gain of newborn calves. PMID:25852226

  17. Autonomic physiological data associated with simulator discomfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James C.; Sharkey, Thomas J.; Graham, Glenna A.; Mccauley, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    A physiological monitoring capability was developed for the Army's Crew Station Research and Development Facility (CSRDF), a research simulator for advanced rotorcraft. Preliminary physiological data are reported from studies of simulator-induced sickness. Our objective was to demonstrate sensitivity of physiological measures relative to self-reports of simulator sickness severity. The data suggested that heart period, tachygastria, and skin conductance level were more sensitive to simulator sickness than were vagal tone and normal myoelectrical gastric activity.

  18. Applied physiology of tennis performance

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, M S

    2006-01-01

    Competitive tennis play requires a combination of the major physiological variables; however, the specifics of these variables have yet to be determined appropriately. General strength and flexibility training have been suggested as being beneficial for performance and injury prevention, yet specific guidelines are lacking. This paper provides a review of specific studies that relate to competitive tennis, and highlights the need for tennis‐specific training as opposed to generalised physical training. It identifies specific studies that support the premise that tennis has physiological requirements which need to be understood when designing training and research programmes. PMID:16632565

  19. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  20. Physiology of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gregory M.; Berney, Michael; Gebhard, Susanne; Heinemann, Matthias; Cox, Robert A.; Danilchanka, Olga; Niederweis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a prototrophic, metabolically flexible bacterium that has achieved a spread in the human population that is unmatched by any other bacterial pathogen. The success of M. tuberculosis as a pathogen can be attributed to its extraordinary stealth and capacity to adapt to environmental changes throughout the course of infection. These changes include: nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, various exogenous stress conditions and, in the case of the pathogenic species, the intraphagosomal environment. Knowledge of the physiology of M. tuberculosis during this process has been limited by the slow growth of the bacterium in the laboratory and other technical problems such as cell aggregation. Advances in genomics and molecular methods to analyse the M. tuberculosis genome have revealed that adaptive changes are mediated by complex regulatory networks and signals, resulting in temporal gene expression coupled to metabolic and energetic changes. An important goal for bacterial physiologists will be to elucidate the physiology of M. tuberculosis during the transition between the diverse conditions encountered by M. tuberculosis. This review covers the growth of the mycobacterial cell and how environmental stimuli are sensed by this bacterium. Adaptation to different environments is described from the viewpoint of nutrient acquisition, energy generation and regulation. To gain quantitative understanding of mycobacterial physiology will require a systems biology approach and recent efforts in this area are discussed. “It is now 100 years since the first mycobacterium was isolated by Hansen (1874). Somewhat ironically, this was the leprosy bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae, which even today is still resisting all attempts to cultivate it in the laboratory. The tubercle bacillus, M. tuberculosis was not discovered until eight years later (Koch, 1882) and this has remained an object of intensive investigation ever since. The widespread interest in the

  1. Cosmic Rays Variations and Human Physiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2009-12-01

    It was obtained in our previous investigations that geomagnetic activity as an indirect indicator of solar activity correlates with some human physiological and psycho-physiological parameters. A lot of studies indicate that other parameters of space weather like cosmic rays Forbush decreases affect myocardial infarction, brain stroke, car accidents, etc. The purpose of that work was to study the effect of cosmic rays variations on human physiological status. It was established that the decrease in cosmic rays intensity was related to an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints in healthy volunteers.

  2. Chewing over physiology integration.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion.

  3. Chewing over physiology integration.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion. PMID:15718383

  4. EXPOSURE RELATED DOSE ESTIMATING MODEL ( ERDEM ) A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC ( PBPK/PD ) MODEL FOR ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE AND RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM) is a PBPK/PD modeling system that was developed by EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). The ERDEM framework provides the flexibility either to use existing models and to build new PBPK and PBPK/PD models to address...

  5. Physiologic tremor and microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Harwell, R C; Ferguson, R L

    1983-01-01

    Physiologic tremor hampers the ability of students to learn microsurgical technique. An understanding of normal tremor both as to origin and methods of control would be of help. Physiological tremor arises from both mechanical and neuromuscular sources and is made worse by a number of factors. The "size principle of motoneuron recruitment" is an important physiologic consideration, and the use of biofeedback techniques enables the student to confirm his understanding of the principle. Knowledge of the factors which aggravate physiological tremor allows the microsurgeon to control his own tremor both in the laboratory and in the operating room.

  6. Physiology in conservation translocations.

    PubMed

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R; Munn, Adam J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining 'success' as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall under a

  7. Combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report using virtual reality graded exposure therapy with physiological monitoring with a female Seabee.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dennis Patrick; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer; Center, Kristy; McLay, Robert; Koffman, Robert; Johnston, Scott; Spira, James; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2009-11-01

    In this report we describe virtual reality graded exposure therapy (VRGET) for the treatment of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, we summarize the outcomes of a case study, from an Office Of Naval Research (ONR)-funded project of VRGET with an active duty female Seabee who completed three combat tours to Iraq. Details of the collaborative program involving this ONR-funded project at Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD) and Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton (NHCP) are also discussed. PMID:19960832

  8. Auditory Brainstem Gap Responses Start to Decline in Middle Age Mice: A Novel Physiological Biomarker for Age-Related Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Tanika T.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.; Frisina, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The CBA/CaJ mouse strain's auditory function is normal during the early phases of life and gradually declines over its lifespan, much like human age-related hearing loss (ARHL), but on a mouse life cycle “time frame”. This pattern of ARHL is relatively similar to that of most humans: difficult to clinically diagnose at its onset, and currently not treatable medically. To address the challenge of early diagnosis, CBA mice were used for the present study to analyze the beginning stages and functional onset biomarkers of ARHL. The results from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiogram and Gap-in-noise (GIN) ABR tests were compared for two groups of mice of different ages, young adult and middle age. ABR peak components from the middle age group displayed minor changes in audibility, but had a significantly higher prolonged peak latency and decreased peak amplitude in response to temporal gaps in comparison to the young adult group. The results for the younger subjects revealed gap thresholds and recovery rates that were comparable to previous studies of auditory neural gap coding. Our findings suggest that age-linked degeneration of the peripheral and brainstem auditory system is already beginning in middle age, allowing for the possibility of preventative biomedical or hearing protection measures to be implemented as a possibility for attenuating further damage to the auditory system due to ARHL. PMID:25307161

  9. Food selection, growth and physiology in relation to dietary sodium chloride content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under chronic waterborne Cu exposure.

    PubMed

    Niyogi, S; Kamunde, C N; Wood, C M

    2006-05-01

    Waterborne Cu is toxic to Na(+) and Cl(-) regulation in freshwater fish, and Cu is taken up, at least in part, via the Na(+)-transport pathway in the gills. Therefore, we hypothesized that freshwater fish may mitigate the toxic effects of waterborne Cu by selecting a NaCl-enriched diet over a normal diet. We tested this hypothesis in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by offering them the choice between NaCl-enriched (1.9 mmol g(-1)Na(+)) and normal (0.2 mmol g(-1)Na(+)) diets under a chronic waterborne Cu exposure of 55 microg L(-1) for a period of 28 days. Contrary to expectation, trout exhibited a preference for NaCl-enriched diet under control conditions, while exposure to chronic waterborne Cu severely disrupted their normal feeding pattern with an accompanying loss of preference for the NaCl-enriched diet. Waterborne Cu exposure also severely affected appetite and growth. Both appetite and growth gradually recovered with time, but remained significantly impaired relative to Cu-unexposed fish until the end of the exposure. Waterborne Cu exposure also significantly increased Cu accumulations in target organs (gill, liver, and gut), plasma and whole body. However, Cu accumulation decreased substantially towards the end of the exposure in target organs and whole body as well as in plasma in Cu-exposed fish with dietary choice relative to Cu-exposed fish with normal diet. These adjustments were concurrent with the gradual recovery of appetite, which also led to increased ingestion of the NaCl-enriched diet. Interestingly, this elevated dietary uptake of NaCl produced significant stimulation of Na(+) efflux in Cu-exposed fish. Subsequently, it also led to significant elevation of Na(+) levels in target organs and whole body, and restored the decrease of plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) levels in Cu-exposed fish. The NaCl supplemented diet appeared to be beneficial in compensating Na(+) and Cl(-) losses from the body induced by waterborne Cu. Overall, these results

  10. Microbial physiology vol. 29

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.H. ); Tempest, D.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Hydrogen metabolism in Rhizobium: energetics, regulation, enzymology and genetics; The physiology and biochemistry of pili; Carboxysomes and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; Archaebacteria: the comparative enzymology of their central metabolic pathways; and Physiology of lipoteichoic acids in bacteria.

  11. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  12. Physiology of chimpanzees in orbit. Part 1: Scientific Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, A.; Mcnew, J.

    1972-01-01

    Major achievements and accomplishments are reported for the Physiology of Chimpanzees in Orbit Program. Scientific studies relate to behavior and physiology, and engineering studies cover telemetry, behavioral training, systems tests, life support subsystems, and program plan.

  13. Physiological effects of heat stress on Hawaiian picture-wing Drosophila: genome-wide expression patterns and stress-related traits

    PubMed Central

    Uy, Karen L.; LeDuc, R.; Ganote, C.; Price, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is compounding the threats to the future of biodiversity, already impacted by habitat loss, invasive species and diseases. In the Hawaiian Islands, many of the endemic species have narrow habitat ranges that make them especially vulnerable to climate change. The Hawaiian Drosophila, a remarkably diverse group of species with 11 listed as federally endangered, are thought to be sensitive to temperature changes. To examine the species differences in sensitivity of Hawaiian picture-wing Drosophila to temperature changes, wild populations of Drosophila sproati, a relatively common species, and Drosophila silvestris, a rare species, were collected from two locations on Hawaii Island and bred in common laboratory conditions. Adult flies were exposed to hot and cold temperatures and compared with adult flies at control temperatures. Drosophila silvestris adults were less tolerant to heat stress than D. sproati for both survival and sperm mobility. In contrast, D. silvestris adults were more tolerant to cold stress than D. sproati for adult survival. The expression of 4950 Gene Ontology annotated gene transcripts was also analysed in high-temperature-treated and control males to identify candidate genes related to heat tolerance. There were more than twice as many transcripts differentially expressed after high temperature treatment for D. silvestris (246 transcripts) as for D. sproati (106 transcripts), with 13 Gene Ontology terms enriched between temperatures for D. silvestris and merely three in D. sproati. The combined results are consistent with D. sproati occurring more widely today as well as occurring at lower elevations than D. silvestris and with a genetically based temperature response, which is more severe in D. silvestris at high temperatures than that in D. sproati. These experiments demonstrate the potential for different capacities of species to adapt to future climate change conditions as well as providing an explanation for historical

  14. The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Warneke, Wiebke; Klaus, Susanne; Fink, Heidrun; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging experimental evidence that hyper-energetic diets not only cause obesity but also impact on behaviour in rodents. A hyper-energetic comfort diet/cafeteria diet (CD) fed during early development programmes anxiety-related behaviour in adult age, but little is known how an obesogenic CD impacts on behaviour when fed at a later age. To this end we fed CD to Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at either 6 weeks or 12 months old, for a period of 6 weeks. Anxiety-related behaviour was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field (OF). A glucose tolerance test was performed and metabolic indices, body weight and fat were measured. CD-fed young adult females, but not males, had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of carbohydrates and fats. Only in adult CD-fed rats of both sexes did this overconsumption led to increased weight gain. Protein intake was reduced in all CD groups. Fat mass (subcutaneous, perirenal, gonadal) increased in most CD groups, whereas brown fat increased only in adults. Triacylglycerol, free fatty acid and total cholesterol concentrations increased predominantly in adult CD-fed rats. Glucose tolerance was only impaired in adult males. CD-fed adult males showed fewer entries into the aversive open arms and groomed more on the EPM, whereas adult females spent more time on these arms. In the OF, CD-fed females of both ages visited the inner zone more frequently and travelled a longer distance. The behavioural data suggests anxiolysis in CD-fed females and signs of increased anxiety in adult males. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that feeding CD leads to both obesity and behavioural changes in rats. Overall, these effects were more pronounced in older rats, with the behavioural effects being particularly gender dependent.

  15. Relative effectiveness of kinetic analysis vs single point readings for classifying environmental samples based on community-level physiological profiles (CLPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.; Young, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of average-well-color-development-normalized single-point absorbance readings (AWCD) vs the kinetic parameters mu(m), lambda, A, and integral (AREA) of the modified Gompertz equation fit to the color development curve resulting from reduction of a redox sensitive dye from microbial respiration of 95 separate sole carbon sources in microplate wells was compared for a dilution series of rhizosphere samples from hydroponically grown wheat and potato ranging in inoculum densities of 1 x 10(4)-4 x 10(6) cells ml-1. Patterns generated with each parameter were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) to test relative resolving power. Samples of equivalent cell density (undiluted samples) were correctly classified by rhizosphere type for all parameters based on DFA analysis of the first five PC scores. Analysis of undiluted and 1:4 diluted samples resulted in misclassification of at least two of the wheat samples for all parameters except the AWCD normalized (0.50 abs. units) data, and analysis of undiluted, 1:4, and 1:16 diluted samples resulted in misclassification for all parameter types. Ordination of samples along the first principal component (PC) was correlated to inoculum density in analyses performed on all of the kinetic parameters, but no such influence was seen for AWCD-derived results. The carbon sources responsible for classification differed among the variable types with the exception of AREA and A, which were strongly correlated. These results indicate that the use of kinetic parameters for pattern analysis in CLPP may provide some additional information, but only if the influence of inoculum density is carefully considered. c2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relative effectiveness of kinetic analysis vs single point readings for classifying environmental samples based on community-level physiological profiles (CLPP).

    PubMed

    Garland, J L; Mills, A L; Young, J S

    2001-06-01

    The relative effectiveness of average-well-color-development-normalized single-point absorbance readings (AWCD) vs the kinetic parameters mu(m), lambda, A, and integral (AREA) of the modified Gompertz equation fit to the color development curve resulting from reduction of a redox sensitive dye from microbial respiration of 95 separate sole carbon sources in microplate wells was compared for a dilution series of rhizosphere samples from hydroponically grown wheat and potato ranging in inoculum densities of 1 x 10(4)-4 x 10(6) cells ml-1. Patterns generated with each parameter were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) to test relative resolving power. Samples of equivalent cell density (undiluted samples) were correctly classified by rhizosphere type for all parameters based on DFA analysis of the first five PC scores. Analysis of undiluted and 1:4 diluted samples resulted in misclassification of at least two of the wheat samples for all parameters except the AWCD normalized (0.50 abs. units) data, and analysis of undiluted, 1:4, and 1:16 diluted samples resulted in misclassification for all parameter types. Ordination of samples along the first principal component (PC) was correlated to inoculum density in analyses performed on all of the kinetic parameters, but no such influence was seen for AWCD-derived results. The carbon sources responsible for classification differed among the variable types with the exception of AREA and A, which were strongly correlated. These results indicate that the use of kinetic parameters for pattern analysis in CLPP may provide some additional information, but only if the influence of inoculum density is carefully considered.

  17. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  18. Linguistic characteristics in a non-trauma-related narrative task are associated with PTSD diagnosis and symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Papini, Santiago; Yoon, Patricia; Rubin, Mikael; Lopez-Castro, Teresa; Hien, Denise A

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic characteristics of trauma narratives have been linked to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it remains unclear if linguistic markers of PTSD exist beyond the scope of trauma narratives. This study used ambiguous visual prompts to elicit spontaneous narratives from trauma-exposed individuals with (n = 23) and without PTSD (n = 30). Individuals with PTSD used more singular pronouns and death-related words, and fewer plural pronouns. Within the PTSD group, increased severity of reexperiencing symptoms was associated with greater use of singular pronouns and lower use of cognitive words; increased severity of avoidance symptoms was associated with lower use of death words; and increased severity of hyperarousal symptoms was associated with less frequent use of anxiety words. Together, these linguistic variables accounted for 53% of the variance in total PTSD symptom severity. These findings are consistent with previous research suggesting that language use is a strong predictor of PTSD psychopathology, and extend the evidence to include the linguistic characteristics of non-trauma-related narratives. PMID:25961121

  19. Exploring the microbially-mediated soil H2 sink: A lab-based study of the physiology and related H2 consumption of isolates from the Harvard Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D.; Meredith, L. K.; Bosak, T.; Hansel, C. M.; Ono, S.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric hydrogen (H2) is a secondary greenhouse gas because it attenuates the removal of methane (CH4) from the atmosphere. The largest and most uncertain term in the H2 biogeochemical cycle, microbe-mediated soil uptake, is responsible for about 80% of Earth's tropospheric H2 sink. Recently, the first H2-oxidizing soil microorganisms were discovered (genus Streptomyces) whose low-threshold, high-affinity NiFe-hydrogenase functions at ambient H2 levels (approx. 530 ppb). To better understand the ecological function of this hydrogenase, we conducted a controlled laboratory study of the H2 uptake behavior in accordance with the complex life cycle development of the streptomycetes. Several strains of the genus Streptomyces containing a high-affinity NiFe- hydrogenase were isolated from soil at the Harvard Forest. The presence of this hydrogenase, detected by PCR amplification of the hydrogenase large subunit, predicted H2 uptake behavior in wild-type streptomycetes and in phylogenetically different organisms containing more distantly related versions of the gene. H2 uptake depended on the streptomyces' life cycle, reaching a maximum during spore formation. These findings reveal connections between environmental conditions, organismal life cycle, and H2 uptake. With the rise of H2-based energy sources and a potential change in the tropospheric concentration of H2, understanding the sources and sinks of this trace gas is important for the future.

  20. Auditory brainstem gap responses start to decline in mice in middle age: a novel physiological biomarker for age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Tanika T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    The auditory function of the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is normal during the early phases of life and gradually declines over its lifespan, much like human age-related hearing loss (ARHL) but within the "time frame" of a mouse life cycle. This pattern of ARHL is similar to that of most humans: difficult to diagnose clinically at its onset and currently not treatable medically. To address the challenge of early diagnosis, we use CBA mice to analyze the initial stages and functional onset biomarkers of ARHL. The results from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiogram and Gap-in-noise (GIN) ABR tests were compared for two groups of mice of different ages, namely young adult and middle age. ABR peak components from the middle age group displayed minor changes in audibility but had a significantly higher prolonged peak latency and decreased peak amplitude in response to temporal gaps in comparison with the young adult group. The results for the younger subjects revealed gap thresholds and recovery rates that were comparable with previous studies of auditory neural gap coding. Our findings suggest that age-linked degeneration of the peripheral and brainstem auditory system begins in middle age, allowing for the possibility of preventative biomedical or hearing protection measures to be implemented in order to attenuate further damage to the auditory system attributable to ARHL.

  1. Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping of QTL for Yield Components, Plant Height and Yield-Related Physiological Traits in the Chinese Wheat Cross Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fengmei; Wen, Weie; Liu, Jindong; Rasheed, Awais; Yin, Guihong; Xia, Xianchun; Wu, Xiaoxia; He, Zhonghu

    2015-01-01

    Identification of genes for yield components, plant height (PH), and yield-related physiological traits and tightly linked molecular markers is of great importance in marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding. In the present study, 246 F8 RILs derived from the cross of Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring were genotyped using the high-density Illumina iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. Field trials were conducted at Zhengzhou and Zhoukou of Henan Province, during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 cropping season under irrigated conditions, providing data for four environments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of agronomic and physiological traits revealed significant differences (P < 0.01) among RILs, environments, and RILs × environments interactions. Broad-sense heritabilities of all traits including thousand kernel weight (TKW), PH, spike length (SL), kernel number per spike (KNS), spike number/m(2) (SN), normalized difference in vegetation index at anthesis (NDVI-A) and at 10 days post-anthesis (NDVI-10), SPAD value of chlorophyll content at anthesis (Chl-A) and at 10 days post-anthesis (Chl-10) ranged between 0.65 and 0.94. A linkage map spanning 3609.4 cM was constructed using 5636 polymorphic SNP markers, with an average chromosome length of 171.9 cM and marker density of 0.64 cM/marker. A total of 866 SNP markers were newly mapped to the hexaploid wheat linkage map. Eighty-six QTL for yield components, PH, and yield-related physiological traits were detected on 18 chromosomes except 1D, 5D, and 6D, explaining 2.3-33.2% of the phenotypic variance. Ten stable QTL were identified across four environments, viz. QTKW.caas-6A.1, QTKW.caas-7AL, QKNS.caas-4AL, QSN.caas-1AL.1, QPH.caas-4BS.2, QPH.caas-4DS.1, QSL.caas-4AS, QSL.caas-4AL.1, QChl-A.caas-5AL, and QChl-10.caas-5BL. Meanwhile, 10 QTL-rich regions were found on chromosome 1BS, 2AL (2), 3AL, 4AL (2), 4BS, 4DS, 5BL, and 7AL exhibiting pleiotropic effects. These QTL or QTL clusters are tightly linked

  2. Physiological assessment of bacteria using fluorochromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Yu, F. P.; Pyle, B. H.; Stewart, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    This minireview focuses on the application of fluorogenic compounds in the detection of bacteria with particular emphasis on the assessment of physiological activity using epifluorescence microscopy. Microbiological applications of several related methods will also be reviewed.

  3. Physiology of circadian entrainment.

    PubMed

    Golombek, Diego A; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2010-07-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are controlled by endogenous biological oscillators, including a master clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Since the period of this oscillation is of approximately 24 h, to keep synchrony with the environment, circadian rhythms need to be entrained daily by means of Zeitgeber ("time giver") signals, such as the light-dark cycle. Recent advances in the neurophysiology and molecular biology of circadian rhythmicity allow a better understanding of synchronization. In this review we cover several aspects of the mechanisms for photic entrainment of mammalian circadian rhythms, including retinal sensitivity to light by means of novel photopigments as well as circadian variations in the retina that contribute to the regulation of retinal physiology. Downstream from the retina, we examine retinohypothalamic communication through neurotransmitter (glutamate, aspartate, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) interaction with SCN receptors and the resulting signal transduction pathways in suprachiasmatic neurons, as well as putative neuron-glia interactions. Finally, we describe and analyze clock gene expression and its importance in entrainment mechanisms, as well as circadian disorders or retinal diseases related to entrainment deficits, including experimental and clinical treatments. PMID:20664079

  4. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  5. Physiology of vitreous surgery.

    PubMed

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-02-01

    Vitreous surgery has various physiological and clinical consequences, both beneficial and harmful. Vitrectomy reduces the risk of retinal neovascularization, while increasing the risk of iris neovascularization, reduces macular edema and stimulates cataract formation. These clinical consequences may be understood with the help of classical laws of physics and physiology. The laws of Fick, Stokes-Einstein and Hagen-Poiseuille state that molecular transport by diffusion or convection is inversely related to the viscosity of the medium. When the vitreous gel is replaced with less viscous saline, the transport of all molecules, including oxygen and cytokines, is facilitated. Oxygen transport to ischemic retinal areas is improved, as is clearance of VEGF and other cytokines from these areas, thus reducing edema and neovascularization. At the same time, oxygen is transported faster down a concentration gradient from the anterior to the posterior segment, while VEGF moves in the opposite direction, making the anterior segment less oxygenated and with more VEGF, stimulating iris neovascularization. Silicone oil is the exception that proves the rule: it is more viscous than vitreous humour, re-establishes the transport barrier to oxygen and VEGF, and reduces the risk for iris neovascularization in the vitrectomized-lentectomized eye. Modern vitreous surgery involves a variety of treatment options in addition to vitrectomy itself, such as photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids and release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and improves retinal hemodynamics. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and the permeability effect of VEGF reduced with corticosteroids

  6. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    PubMed

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    effects of sleep could be objectively differentiated from the effects of rest and recumbency. Furthermore, the specific effects of sleep onset and termination, and the effects of different sleep stages, could be assessed. Technological advances, with consequently enhanced and relatively non-invasive approaches to cardiovascular regulation, have greatly broadened our understanding of the effects of sleep stage on cardiovascular function. Continuous monitoring of simultaneous measures of polysomnographic and cardiovascular variables enables characterization of the effects of dynamic changes and rapid transitions in sleep stage, such as arousals. The capacity for measuring acute and immediate changes in autonomic, EEG and hemodynamic responses to sleep and arousal on a continuous basis has played an important role in enabling us to understand the interplay between changes in EEG and changes in the more peripheral measurements of neural and circulatory variables, such as sympathetic nerve traffic, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) (8-10), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) (11-16), and intraneural measurement of sympathetic nerve traffic to muscle (MSNA) (17-22) and skin (SSNA) (23-24) have further advanced our understanding of mechanisms linking sleep and cardiovascular physiology.

  7. Curriculum Guidelines for Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Physiology of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are presented. Primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, and specific behavioral objectives are discussed. (MLW)

  8. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  9. Metabolic Physiology in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassain, Asim

    2016-09-01

    The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation. However, late gestational period is better named as a catabolic phase with reduced insulin sensitivity. The placenta plays a role as a sensor between mother and foetus physiology and acclimatizes the needs of the foetus to adequate growth and development. During pregnancy the female body changes its physiological and homeostatic mechanisms to meet the physiological needs of the foetus. However, if the maternal metabolic physiology during pregnancy is disturbed, it can cause hormonal imbalance, fat accumulation, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased insulin resistance and even gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27582161

  10. Metabolic Physiology in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassain, Asim

    2016-09-01

    The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation. However, late gestational period is better named as a catabolic phase with reduced insulin sensitivity. The placenta plays a role as a sensor between mother and foetus physiology and acclimatizes the needs of the foetus to adequate growth and development. During pregnancy the female body changes its physiological and homeostatic mechanisms to meet the physiological needs of the foetus. However, if the maternal metabolic physiology during pregnancy is disturbed, it can cause hormonal imbalance, fat accumulation, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased insulin resistance and even gestational diabetes mellitus.

  11. The Physiology of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Keith G; Nemergut, Edward C; Yannopoulos, Demetris; Sweeney, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Outcomes after cardiac arrest remain poor more than a half a century after closed chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was first described. This review article is focused on recent insights into the physiology of blood flow to the heart and brain during CPR. Over the past 20 years, a greater understanding of heart-brain-lung interactions has resulted in novel resuscitation methods and technologies that significantly improve outcomes from cardiac arrest. This article highlights the importance of attention to CPR quality, recent approaches to regulate intrathoracic pressure to improve cerebral and systemic perfusion, and ongoing research related to the ways to mitigate reperfusion injury during CPR. Taken together, these new approaches in adult and pediatric patients provide an innovative, physiologically based road map to increase survival and quality of life after cardiac arrest.

  12. Phase transitions in physiologic coupling

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Penzel, Thomas; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated physiological systems, such as the cardiac and the respiratory system, exhibit complex dynamics that are further influenced by intrinsic feedback mechanisms controlling their interaction. To probe how the cardiac and the respiratory system adjust their rhythms, despite continuous fluctuations in their dynamics, we study the phase synchronization of heartbeat intervals and respiratory cycles. The nature of this interaction, its physiological and clinical relevance, and its relation to mechanisms of neural control is not well understood. We investigate whether and how cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS) responds to changes in physiological states and conditions. We find that the degree of CRPS in healthy subjects dramatically changes with sleep-stage transitions and exhibits a pronounced stratification pattern with a 400% increase from rapid eye movement sleep and wake, to light and deep sleep, indicating that sympatho-vagal balance strongly influences CRPS. For elderly subjects, we find that the overall degree of CRPS is reduced by approximately 40%, which has important clinical implications. However, the sleep-stage stratification pattern we uncover in CRPS does not break down with advanced age, and surprisingly, remains stable across subjects. Our results show that the difference in CRPS between sleep stages exceeds the difference between young and elderly, suggesting that sleep regulation has a significantly stronger effect on cardiorespiratory coupling than healthy aging. We demonstrate that CRPS and the traditionally studied respiratory sinus arrhythmia represent different aspects of the cardiorespiratory interaction, and that key physiologic variables, related to regulatory mechanisms of the cardiac and respiratory systems, which influence respiratory sinus arrhythmia, do not affect CRPS. PMID:22691492

  13. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    PubMed

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  14. Applied physiology of swimming.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  15. Applied physiology of swimming.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  16. Human physiology in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  17. Human physiology in space.

    PubMed

    Vernikos, J

    1996-12-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  18. Applied physiology of ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Cox, M H; Miles, D S; Verde, T J; Rhodes, E C

    1995-03-01

    Today's elite hockey players are physically bigger and have improved levels of physiological fitness when compared with their predecessors. Correspondingly, previous ice hockey studies that have become widely referenced may have little relevance to current players and the way the game is presently played. A great need exists to apply exercise science to the game of ice hockey. Although much has been written about the physiology of ice hockey, there is little information based on well controlled studies. Particularly, there is a paucity of knowledge concerning optimal training schedules, training specificity, recovery profiles and seasonal detraining. Moreover, the reports that do exist have attempted to make comparisons across all levels of skill and talent. Thus, fundamental questions remain as to actual physiological exercise response and specialised training programmes for ice hockey players, particularly at the elite level. There is a demand for new properly designed experiments to find answers pertaining to the appropriate training methods for today's ice hockey players. Future research directions should consider the relationships between performance and such variables as neuromuscular skills, strength, power, peripheral adaptations, travel, hydration, detraining and sport-specific training programmes. Incidence and severity of injury among ice hockey players in relation to fatigue and fitness must also be investigated. Much of the information currently used in ice hockey will remain speculative and anecdotal until these studies are conducted. PMID:7784758

  19. Who Is He? Children with ASD and ADHD Take the Listener into Account in Their Production of Ambiguous Pronouns

    PubMed Central

    Kuijper, Sanne J. M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hendriks, Petra

    2015-01-01

    During conversation, speakers constantly make choices about how specific they wish to be in their use of referring expressions. In the present study we investigate whether speakers take the listener into account or whether they base their referential choices solely on their own representation of the discourse. We do this by examining the cognitive mechanisms that underlie the choice of referring expression at different discourse moments. Furthermore, we provide insights into how children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) use referring expressions and whether their use differs from that of typically developing (TD) children. Children between 6 and 12 years old (ASD: n=46; ADHD: n=37; TD: n=38) were tested on their production of referring expressions and on Theory of Mind, response inhibition and working memory. We found support for the view that speakers take the listener into account when choosing a referring expression: Theory of Mind was related to referential choice only at those moments when speakers could not solely base their choice on their own discourse representation to be understood. Working memory appeared to be involved in keeping track of the different referents in the discourse. Furthermore, we found that TD children as well as children with ASD and children with ADHD took the listener into account in their choice of referring expression. In addition, children with ADHD were less specific than TD children in contexts with more than one referent. The previously observed problems with referential choice in children with ASD may lie in difficulties in keeping track of longer and more complex discourses, rather than in problems with taking into account the listener. PMID:26147200

  20. Who Is He? Children with ASD and ADHD Take the Listener into Account in Their Production of Ambiguous Pronouns.

    PubMed

    Kuijper, Sanne J M; Hartman, Catharina A; Hendriks, Petra

    2015-01-01

    During conversation, speakers constantly make choices about how specific they wish to be in their use of referring expressions. In the present study we investigate whether speakers take the listener into account or whether they base their referential choices solely on their own representation of the discourse. We do this by examining the cognitive mechanisms that underlie the choice of referring expression at different discourse moments. Furthermore, we provide insights into how children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) use referring expressions and whether their use differs from that of typically developing (TD) children. Children between 6 and 12 years old (ASD: n=46; ADHD: n=37; TD: n=38) were tested on their production of referring expressions and on Theory of Mind, response inhibition and working memory. We found support for the view that speakers take the listener into account when choosing a referring expression: Theory of Mind was related to referential choice only at those moments when speakers could not solely base their choice on their own discourse representation to be understood. Working memory appeared to be involved in keeping track of the different referents in the discourse. Furthermore, we found that TD children as well as children with ASD and children with ADHD took the listener into account in their choice of referring expression. In addition, children with ADHD were less specific than TD children in contexts with more than one referent. The previously observed problems with referential choice in children with ASD may lie in difficulties in keeping track of longer and more complex discourses, rather than in problems with taking into account the listener.

  1. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology, and disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Riddhi M; Pinto, Jayant M

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system is an essential part of human physiology, with a rich evolutionary history. Although humans are less dependent on chemosensory input than are other mammals (Niimura 2009, Hum. Genomics 4:107-118), olfactory function still plays a critical role in health and behavior. The detection of hazards in the environment, generating feelings of pleasure, promoting adequate nutrition, influencing sexuality, and maintenance of mood are described roles of the olfactory system, while other novel functions are being elucidated. A growing body of evidence has implicated a role for olfaction in such diverse physiologic processes as kin recognition and mating (Jacob et al. 2002a, Nat. Genet. 30:175-179; Horth 2007, Genomics 90:159-175; Havlicek and Roberts 2009, Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:497-512), pheromone detection (Jacob et al. 200b, Horm. Behav. 42:274-283; Wyart et al. 2007, J. Neurosci. 27:1261-1265), mother-infant bonding (Doucet et al. 2009, PLoS One 4:e7579), food preferences (Mennella et al. 2001, Pediatrics 107:E88), central nervous system physiology (Welge-Lüssen 2009, B-ENT 5:129-132), and even longevity (Murphy 2009, JAMA 288:2307-2312). The olfactory system, although phylogenetically ancient, has historically received less attention than other special senses, perhaps due to challenges related to its study in humans. In this article, we review the anatomic pathways of olfaction, from peripheral nasal airflow leading to odorant detection, to epithelial recognition of these odorants and related signal transduction, and finally to central processing. Olfactory dysfunction, which can be defined as conductive, sensorineural, or central (typically related to neurodegenerative disorders), is a clinically significant problem, with a high burden on quality of life that is likely to grow in prevalence due to demographic shifts and increased environmental exposures.

  2. Use Of Absolute Function And Its Associates In Formation And `Redevelopment' Of Mathematical Models In Some Plant-Related Quantitative Physiology: Salinity Effects On Leaf Development Of Schefflera arboricola And Harvest Index In Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selamat, Ahmad; Awang, Yahya; Mohamed, Mahmud T. M.; Wahab, Zakaria; Osman, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    The roles of quantitative physiology are becoming more apparent and crucial in the era of ICT recently. As based on the rate-related variables, most of the mathematical models are in the form of `non-linear' function in describing the responses or the observed within-plant processes outcomes versus time. Even though if some responses change in a drastic manner at certain response point within a biological unit or space of a plant system, the response curve `should' be dependent on a continuous independent variable range in a specified period of determination where biologically `should not' functioned by independent variable range having `IF' statement(s). Subjected to nutrient concentration of high salinity (6.0 mS cm-1), the leaf turgidity (measured as leaf surface area) of S. arboricola which initially was described by one form of the logistic growth functions [(y = 1/(a+be-cx)] abruptly reduced as explained by a model having terms of Absolute function (ABS) containing tan-1(x) and its parameter of leaf life expectancy as affected by high salinity growing medium at a certain point of days after planting. This yielded an overall function of y = 1/(a+be-cx)-A[tan-1{(x-B)/D}+ABS(tan-1{(x-B)/D})]E, where a, b, c, A, B, D, and E are constants that most of them can be `biologically' interpreted. The constant B is the point similar to `IF statement' as normally used in other mathematical functions. Plants subjected to lower salinity status (<3.0 mS cm-1) were only having function of y = 1/(a+be-cx). In the harvest index or HI (economic yield/above ground biomass) study of 20 rice varieties grown over two planting seasons, the long flattened tails at both sides of a peak in the middle of function of y = R+B(T+ABS(B-x))e-k(T+ABS(B-x)) had indicated that those varieties maturing at 123 to 133 days after transplanting were having high HI values. In our observation, Absolute (ABS) function coupled with some terms could be used in the formation of some mathematical functions

  3. Physiologic mastectomy via flank laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Barrington, George M; Parish, Steve M

    2008-11-01

    Physiologic mastectomy can be used as a salvage procedure in cases of chronic suppurative mastitis, gangrenous mastitis, or chronic, severe mastitis associated with organisms liberating endotoxin or exotoxin. The surgical technique involves ligation of the major arterial blood supply (external pudendal artery) to the corresponding half of the mammary gland, which results in decreased systemic absorption of toxins and gland atrophy. The technique is performed with the cow standing, and it is relatively atraumatic. This procedure is a simple, yet effective alternative to radical mastectomy for unresponsive mastitis cases in genetically or otherwise valuable cattle.

  4. Research on gravitational physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of gravitational plant physiology was studied through aspects of plant development (in ARABIDOPSIS) and of behavior (in HELIANTHUS) as these were affected by altered g experience. The effect of increased g levels on stem polarity (in COLEUS) was also examined.

  5. Physiology of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  6. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  7. Physiology of Breastfeeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

  8. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  9. The Physiology of Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellar, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    A theory of the physiology of motivation is presented. The basic assumption is that the amount of motivated behavior is a direct function of the amount of activity in certain excitatory centers of the hypothalamus. Activities of these centers are determined by factors in four general classes. (SLD)

  10. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  11. Applied physiology of diving.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y C

    1988-01-01

    Recreational diving is a popular sport, although human ability to stay in and under water is severely limited physiologically. An understanding of these limitations enhances safety and enjoyment of sports diving. Breath-hold diving involves head-out water immersion, apnoea and submersion, exercise, cold stress, and pressure exposure. Each of these components, by itself, elicits prominent and specific physiological effects. Combination of these factors produces a unique and interesting physiological response generally known as diving reflex. Humans display weak diving responses, but exhibit no oxygen conservation function. Nevertheless, application of diving-induced physiological changes is now finding its way into clinical practice. Apnoea, face immersion, and head-out water immersion all show promise of clinical application. There are several spin-offs from diving research worth noting. Diuresis, enhancement of cardiac performance, and redistribution of blood flow, all produced by head-out water immersion, have been shown to be clinically useful, besides providing physiological data useful to space travel. Results from investigations on apnoea have been shown to be relevant to the following: treating some forms of cardiac arrhythmias; understanding drowning, sudden infant death syndrome and sleep apnoea; and confirming hyperventilation as the major cause of drowning. In comparison to marine mammals, humans are poor divers because of severe physiological constraints which limit their breath-hold time, diving depth, and ability to conserve body heat. Although under special circumstances humans can achieve unusually long breath-hold time and reach exceptional depth with a single breath, the sustainable working time and depth are only about 1 minute and 5 metres, respectively. Hypothermia inevitably results in divers working in the ocean. Without thermal protection, the intolerable limit of 35 degrees C is reached within 30 minutes in winter (10 degrees C) water and

  12. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  13. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  14. The Tour de France: a physiological review.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Earnest, Conrad; Arribas, Carlos

    2003-10-01

    On 5 July 2003, the Tour de France (TDF) has celebrated 100th running. Instead of a chimney sweep competing during his free time (as in 1903), the recent winner is a highly trained, professional cyclist whose entire life-style has been dedicated to reach his pinnacle during this event. The TDF has been held successfully for 100 years, but the application of the physiologic sciences to the sport is a relatively recent phenomenon. Although some historical reports help to understand the unique physiological characteristics of this race, scientific studies were not available in Sports Science/Applied Physiology journals until the 1990s. The aim of this article is to review the history of the TDF. Special emphasis is placed on the last decade where classic physiology has been integrated into applied scientific cycling data.

  15. Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine.

    PubMed

    Boldyrev, Alexander A; Aldini, Giancarlo; Derave, Wim

    2013-10-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) was discovered in 1900 as an abundant non-protein nitrogen-containing compound of meat. The dipeptide is not only found in skeletal muscle, but also in other excitable tissues. Most animals, except humans, also possess a methylated variant of carnosine, either anserine or ophidine/balenine, collectively called the histidine-containing dipeptides. This review aims to decipher the physiological roles of carnosine, based on its biochemical properties. The latter include pH-buffering, metal-ion chelation, and antioxidant capacity as well as the capacity to protect against formation of advanced glycation and lipoxidation end-products. For these reasons, the therapeutic potential of carnosine supplementation has been tested in numerous diseases in which ischemic or oxidative stress are involved. For several pathologies, such as diabetes and its complications, ocular disease, aging, and neurological disorders, promising preclinical and clinical results have been obtained. Also the pathophysiological relevance of serum carnosinase, the enzyme actively degrading carnosine into l-histidine and β-alanine, is discussed. The carnosine system has evolved as a pluripotent solution to a number of homeostatic challenges. l-Histidine, and more specifically its imidazole moiety, appears to be the prime bioactive component, whereas β-alanine is mainly regulating the synthesis of the dipeptide. This paper summarizes a century of scientific exploration on the (patho)physiological role of carnosine and related compounds. However, far more experiments in the fields of physiology and related disciplines (biology, pharmacology, genetics, molecular biology, etc.) are required to gain a full understanding of the function and applications of this intriguing molecule. PMID:24137022

  16. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-04-01

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting. PMID:27065168

  17. Pavlov and integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Smith, G P

    2000-09-01

    Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was the first physiologist to win the Nobel Prize. The Prize was given in 1904 for his research on the neural control of salivary, gastric, and pancreatic secretion. A major reason for the success and novelty of his research was the use of unanesthetized dogs surgically prepared with chronic fistulas or gastric pouches that permitted repeated experiments in the same animal for months. Pavlov invented this chronic method because of the limitations he perceived in the use of acute anesthetized animals for investigating physiological systems. By introducing the chronic method and by showing its experimental advantages, Pavlov founded modern integrative physiology. This paper reviews Pavlov's journey from his birthplace in a provincial village in Russia to Stockholm to receive the Prize. It begins with childhood influences, describes his training and mentors, summarizes the major points of his research by reviewing his book Lectures on the Work of the Digestive Glands, and discusses his views on the relationship between physiology and medicine.

  18. Pavlov and integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Smith, G P

    2000-09-01

    Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was the first physiologist to win the Nobel Prize. The Prize was given in 1904 for his research on the neural control of salivary, gastric, and pancreatic secretion. A major reason for the success and novelty of his research was the use of unanesthetized dogs surgically prepared with chronic fistulas or gastric pouches that permitted repeated experiments in the same animal for months. Pavlov invented this chronic method because of the limitations he perceived in the use of acute anesthetized animals for investigating physiological systems. By introducing the chronic method and by showing its experimental advantages, Pavlov founded modern integrative physiology. This paper reviews Pavlov's journey from his birthplace in a provincial village in Russia to Stockholm to receive the Prize. It begins with childhood influences, describes his training and mentors, summarizes the major points of his research by reviewing his book Lectures on the Work of the Digestive Glands, and discusses his views on the relationship between physiology and medicine. PMID:10956230

  19. Neonatal cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Hines, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    The pediatric surgeon deals with a large number and variety of congenital defects in neonates that frequently involve early surgical intervention and care. Because the neonatal cardiac physiology is unique, starting with the transition from fetal circulation and including differences in calcium metabolism and myocardial microscopic structure and function, it serves the pediatric surgeon well to have a sound understanding of these principles and how they directly and indirectly affect their plans and treatments. In addition, many patients will have associated congenital heart disease that can also dramatically influence not only the surgical and anesthetic care but also the timing and planning of procedures. Finally, the pediatric surgeon is often called upon to treat conditions and complications associated with complex congenital heart disease such as feeding difficulties, bowel perforations, and malrotation in heterotaxy syndromes. In this article, we will review several unique aspects of neonatal cardiac physiology along with the basic physiology of the major groups of congenital heart disease to better prepare the training and practicing pediatric surgeon for care of these complex and often fragile patients.

  20. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  1. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  2. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  3. Physiology of Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M.; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. ‘Ironomics’ certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  4. Characterization of the relative contributions from systemic physiological noise to whole-brain resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy data using single-channel independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Aarabi, Ardalan; Huppert, Theodore J

    2016-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique used to measure changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) in the brain. In this study, we present a decomposition approach based on single-channel independent component analysis (scICA) to investigate the contribution of physiological noise to fNIRS signals during rest. Single-channel ICA is an underdetermined decomposition method, which separates a single time series into components containing nonredundant spectral information. Using scICA, fNIRS signals from a total of 17 subjects were decomposed into the constituent physiological components. The percentage contribution of the classes of physiology to the fNIRS signals including low-frequency (LF) fluctuations, respiration, and cardiac oscillations was estimated using spectral domain classification methods. Our results show that LF oscillations accounted for 40% to 55% of total power of both the oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb signals. Respiration and its harmonics accounted for 10% to 30% of the power, and cardiac pulsations and cardio-respiratory components accounted for 10% to 30%. We describe this scICA method for decomposing fNIRS signals, which unlike other approaches to spatial covariance reduction is applicable to both single- or multiple-channel fNIRS signals and discuss how this approach allows functionally distinct sources of noise with disjoint spectral support to be separated from obscuring systemic physiology. PMID:27335886

  5. Physiologic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic monitoring systems monitor vital physiologic parameters so that clinicians can be informed of changes in a patient's condition. For this study, we evaluated systems from six monitoring suppliers--Dräger Medical, GE Healthcare, Nihon Kohden, Philips Medical Systems, Spacelabs Medical, and Welch Allyn. The intent of this study is to help facilities choose not just the most appropriate system, but also the most appropriate version of that system--the combination of components that will best suit the facility's needs. Our testing focused primarily on adaptability, alarm implementation, and human factors design. We rated the systems based on their capabilities and performance for each of seven care settings: critical care unit, emergency department, intermediate care unit and general medical/surgical floor, operating room (with separate ratings for use during conscious sedation and general anesthesia), postanesthesia care unit, and transport. The systems performed well against the majority of our criteria. Nevertheless, we found notable differences in specific features and performance areas. These differences will have varying levels of significance for different hospitals. PMID:15794523

  6. Photrodes for physiological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, Stuart A.; Sriram, Sriram; Pollick, Andrea; Marsh, John

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes a paradigm shift in the technology for sensing electro-physiological signals. In recent years, SRICO has been developing small lithium niobate photonic electrodes, otherwise called "Photrodes" for measuring EEG and ECG signals. These extrinsic fiber-optic sensing devices exploit the extremely high electrical input impedance of Mach-Zehnder Intensity (MZI) electro-optic modulators to detect microvolt and millivolt physiological signals. Voltage levels associated with electrocardiograms are typically on the order of several millivolts, and such signals can be detected by capacitive pickup through clothing, i.e., the Photrode may be used in a non-contact mode. Electroencephalogram signals, which typically have an amplitude of several microvolts, require direct contact with the skin. However, this contact may be dry, eliminating the need for conductive gels. The electrical bandwidth of this photonic electrode system stretches from below 0.1 Hz to many tens of kHz and is constrained mainly by the signal processing electronics, not by the Photrode itself. The paper will describe the design and performance of Photrode systems and the challenging aspects of this new technology.

  7. Thermal physiology in a changing thermal world

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Michal; Kenny, Glen P; McAllen, Robin M; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2015-01-01

    This editorial focuses on articles submitted to the Temperature call “Thermal Physiology in a Changing Thermal World.” It highlights an array of topics related to thermoregulatory and metabolic functions in adverse environments, and the complexity and adaptability of the systems to changing climatic conditions, at various levels of body organization. PMID:27226998

  8. Physiological mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    MacIver, David H; Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, Iain R; Revell, Alistair; Zhang, Henggui

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is usually related to obstruction of pulmonary blood flow at the level of the pulmonary arteries (eg, pulmonary embolus), pulmonary arterioles (idiopathic pulmonary hypertension), pulmonary veins (pulmonary venoocclusive disease) or mitral valve (mitral stenosis and regurgitation). Pulmonary hypertension is also observed in heart failure due to left ventricle myocardial diseases regardless of the ejection fraction. Pulmonary hypertension is often regarded as a passive response to the obstruction to pulmonary flow. We review established fluid dynamics and physiology and discuss the mechanisms underlying pulmonary hypertension. The important role that the right ventricle plays in the development and maintenance of pulmonary hypertension is discussed. We use principles of thermodynamics and discuss a potential common mechanism for a number of disease states, including pulmonary edema, through adding pressure energy to the pulmonary circulation. PMID:27659877

  9. Neuroanatomy and physiology of cognition.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Larry

    2015-07-01

    Research into the neuroanatomy and physiology of cognition is a growing field with applications for the treatment of major depressive disorder. The most common cognitive impairments in people with depression are related to executive function, memory, attention, and processing speed along with negative bias. Based on data from improved imaging technology, many cognitive functions once assumed to be localized in specific areas of the brain are now thought to result from deficits in 3 key networks (the central executive network, the salience network, and the default mode network) and their interactions with each other and other brain areas. New discoveries in the connections and functions of brain networks and regions may provide novel treatment targets for cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder. PMID:26231020

  10. Physiological Disorders in Closed, Controlled Environment Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the physiological disorders that affect crops grown in closed controlled environments. A physiological disorder is understood to be a problem resulting from the influence of environmental and horticultural factors on plan development other than a problem caused by a pathogen or some other abiotic cause. The topics that are addressed are: (1) Calcium-Related Disorders (2) Oedema (Intumescence) (3) Long-Photoperiod Injury (4) Light Spectral Quality Effects (5) Super-Elevated CO2 Injuries (6) Ethylene (7) Other Disorders (8) Considerations for Closed Space Environments. Views of plant with the disorders are shown.

  11. [Physiological behavior of Cantilever].

    PubMed

    Feeldman, I; Frugone, R; Vládilo, N T

    1990-11-01

    The prosthetic rehabilitation is common of the integral treatment of patients that integral treatment of patients that have lost one or several dental pieces as a consequence of periodontal diseases. It has been demonstrated that plural fixed prothesis to extention, plovide a distribution pattern and magnitude of favourable forces to the periodontal during the different functions of the stomathologic apparatus, that justify rehabilitation based to it patients periodontically affected. The physiological behaviour of cantilever was basically analized on report on different investigation studies performed on patients periodontically diminis hed treated with plural fixed prothesis of crossed are with two unit or bilateral vear cantilever units, dento supported or fixed in place on implants. It is important to emphasize that favourable results previously analized in base to this type of rehabilitation in its different varieties have been obtained through record done on patients in which considerations of indications, design and occlusion stability have been optimized. PMID:2075270

  12. Newborn Physiological Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Fabrellas-Padrés, Núria; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Hurtado-Pardos, Bárbara; Martí-Cavallé, Montserrat; Gironès-Nogué, Marta; García-Berman, Rosa-Maria; Alonso-Fernandez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most standardized nursing care plans for healthy neonates include multiple nursing diagnoses to reflect nurses' judgments on the infant's status; however scientific literature concerning this issue is scarce. Newborn physiological immaturity is a concept in the ATIC terminology (architecture, terminology, interface, information, nursing [infermeria], and knowledge [coneixement]) to represent the natural status of vulnerability of the healthy neonate. Purpose: To identify the essential attributes of the concept and provide its conceptual and operational definition, using the Wilsonian approach. Findings: The concept under analysis embeds a natural cluster of vulnerabilities and environmental interactions that enhance the evolving maturation process. Implications for Practice: The use of this diagnosis may simplify the process of charting the nursing care plans and reduce time needed for documentation while maintaining the integrity of the information. Implications for Research: Consistent development and use of nursing concepts is essential for knowledge building. Studies on the actual use of nursing diagnoses are needed to inform decision making. PMID:25822514

  13. Physiological training in Jordan.

    PubMed

    al-Wedyan, I A; Shahin, B H; Abu Ghosh, H M; al-Aqqad, S S; al-Qura'an, M S

    1996-09-01

    The hypobaric chamber is designed as a teaching aid in providing orientation for some of the physiological stresses in flight. Reactions during chamber training vary from mild ear block to neurocirculatory collapse. This is a retrospective study on reactions from 1986-94 in the hypobaric chamber training unit at King Hussien Medical Centre in Jordan; 39 cases were reported among 705 trainees in a 12-person rectangular hypobaric chamber. We analyzed the various reactions according to type, severity and altitude of occurrence. The most common reactions were found to be ear block (65%) and sinus block (25%). These were treated on the spot and followed for 48 h without sequelae. We did not have any moderate or severe reaction; we found that all reactions were minor, which reflects the efficacy of safety measures taken prior to and during training.

  14. [Physiological function of osteocytes].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kyoji

    2007-10-01

    Osteocytes produce DMP1 (dentin matrix protein 1), FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) and sclerostin. FGF23 is a phosphate-regulating hormone that links bone to kidney. DMP1 is a matrix protein that is involved in mineralization. Patients with DMP1 mutations exhibit increased FGF23 and hypophosphatemia, suggesting that DMP1 negatively regulates FGF23 in osteocytes. Sclerostin is secreted by osteocytes and negatively regulates osteoblastic function, and its neutralizing antibody is being developed as a new treatment for osteoporosis. A mouse model that enables targeted ablation of osteocytes tells us about the physiologic and pathologic functions of osteocytes in regulating bone remodeling in response to mechanical environment. PMID:17906408

  15. Single Cell Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Pierre; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Kettunen, Petronella; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    The possibility to control at specific times and specific places the activity of biomolecules (enzymes, transcription factors, RNA, hormones, etc.) is opening up new opportunities in the study of physiological processes at the single cell level in a live organism. Most existing gene expression systems allow for tissue specific induction upon feeding the organism with exogenous inducers (e.g., tetracycline). Local genetic control has earlier been achieved by micro-injection of the relevant inducer/repressor molecule, but this is an invasive and possibly traumatic technique. In this chapter, we present the requirements for a noninvasive optical control of the activity of biomolecules and review the recent advances in this new field of research.

  16. [Physiology of the neuropeptides].

    PubMed

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez- Expósito, M J

    In the present review, the characteristics of mammalian neuropeptides have been studied. Neuropeptides are widely distributed not only in the nervous system but also in the periphery. They are synthesised by neurons as large precursor molecules (pre propeptides) which have to be cleaved and modified in order to form the mature neuropeptides. Neuropeptides may exert actions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and/or neurohormones. In the neurons, they coexist with classic transmitters and often with other peptides. After their releasing, they bind to especific receptors to exert their action in the target cell. Most of these receptors belongs to a family of G protein coupled receptors. Finally, peptidases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of neuropeptides. Conclusions. In the last years, the number of known neuropeptides and the understanding of their functions have been increased. With these data, present investigations are looking for the treatment of different pathologies associated with alterations in the physiology of neuropeptides.

  17. Everest Physiology Pre-2008.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2016-01-01

    When Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit of Mt. Everest in 1953, it was the culmination of many attempts beginning in 1921. Alexander Kellas had actually predicted as early as 1920 that the mountain could be climbed, but the extreme altitude of 8848 m with the consequent oxygen deprivation had foiled previous attempts. One reason for the success of the 1953 expedition was the work done by the British physiologist Griffith Pugh in 1952 when he studied many of the physiological factors at high altitude including the oxygen requirements. Seven years later, Pugh and Hillary teamed up again for the Silver Hut Expedition in 1960-1961 that elucidated many of the problems of very high altitude. A group of physiologists spent several months at an altitude of 5800 m in a prefabricated hut and studied many aspects of exercise, pulmonary gas exchange, control of ventilation, and blood changes. Maximal exercise was measured as high as 7440 m and raised anew the question of whether Everest could ever be climbed without supplementary oxygen. The answer was shown to be yes in 1978 by Messner and Habeler, and 3 years later the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest clarified the physiological adaptations that allow humans to reach the highest point on earth. Five people reached the summit, the barometric pressure there was measured for the first time, and alveolar gas samples from the summit showed the critical importance of the extreme hyperventilation. However, the maximal oxygen consumption for the summit inspired PO2 of 43 mmHg was shown to be only about 1 l min(-1). In other words, the highest point on earth is very close to the limit of human tolerance to oxygen deprivation. As we celebrate the anniversary of Charles Darwin, it would be nice to have an evolutionary explanation for this, but in fact it is a cosmic coincidence.

  18. Everest Physiology Pre-2008.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2016-01-01

    When Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit of Mt. Everest in 1953, it was the culmination of many attempts beginning in 1921. Alexander Kellas had actually predicted as early as 1920 that the mountain could be climbed, but the extreme altitude of 8848 m with the consequent oxygen deprivation had foiled previous attempts. One reason for the success of the 1953 expedition was the work done by the British physiologist Griffith Pugh in 1952 when he studied many of the physiological factors at high altitude including the oxygen requirements. Seven years later, Pugh and Hillary teamed up again for the Silver Hut Expedition in 1960-1961 that elucidated many of the problems of very high altitude. A group of physiologists spent several months at an altitude of 5800 m in a prefabricated hut and studied many aspects of exercise, pulmonary gas exchange, control of ventilation, and blood changes. Maximal exercise was measured as high as 7440 m and raised anew the question of whether Everest could ever be climbed without supplementary oxygen. The answer was shown to be yes in 1978 by Messner and Habeler, and 3 years later the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest clarified the physiological adaptations that allow humans to reach the highest point on earth. Five people reached the summit, the barometric pressure there was measured for the first time, and alveolar gas samples from the summit showed the critical importance of the extreme hyperventilation. However, the maximal oxygen consumption for the summit inspired PO2 of 43 mmHg was shown to be only about 1 l min(-1). In other words, the highest point on earth is very close to the limit of human tolerance to oxygen deprivation. As we celebrate the anniversary of Charles Darwin, it would be nice to have an evolutionary explanation for this, but in fact it is a cosmic coincidence. PMID:27343114

  19. [The role of physiology in modern surgery].

    PubMed

    2006-04-01

    Through the analysis of recent achievements in the field of surgery we have demonstrated convincingly that physiological studies in both humans and animal models are the keystone of modern surgery. Physiological studies of blood circulation, respiration, digestion and other functions have laid the foundations for major fields of surgery. Their role is the most evident in the development of cardiac surgery. Notably, one of the outstanding breakthroughs in the medical science of the 20th century--the extracorporeal blood circulation--was made by the Russian physiologist S. S. Bryukhovenko. We have shown that noninvasive diagnostic procedures such as echocardiography are of outmost significance on all stages of the surgical treatment (pre- and intraoperational diagnostics and medical rehabilitation). The great impact of physiology on the development of surgery has also led to the progress of related fields of medicine--anesthesiology, intensive care, functional diagnostics, transplantation, rehabilitation, and many others.

  20. COMPARATIVE GUT PHYSIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Comparative physiology of digestion.

    PubMed

    Furness, J B; Cottrell, J J; Bravo, D M

    2015-02-01

    The digestive systems of all species have been shaped by environmental pressures over long evolutionary time spans. Nevertheless, all digestive systems must achieve the same end points, the ingestion of biological material and its conversion to molecules that serve as energy substrates and structural components of tissues. A range of strategies to extract nutrients, including for animals reliant primarily on foregut fermentation, hindgut fermentation, and enzymatic degradation, have evolved. Moreover, animals have adapted to different foodstuffs as herbivores (including frugivores, folivores, granivores, etc.), carnivores, and omnivores. We present evidence that humans have diverged from other omnivores because of the long history of consumption of cooked or otherwise prepared food. We consider them to be cucinivores. We present examples to illustrate that the range of foodstuffs that can be efficiently assimilated by each group or species is limited and is different from that of other groups or species. Differences are reflected in alimentary tract morphology. The digestive systems of each group and of species within the groups are adaptable, with constraints determined by individual digestive physiology. Although overall digestive strategies and systems differ, the building blocks for digestion are remarkably similar. All vertebrates have muscular tubular tracts lined with a single layer of epithelial cells for most of the length, use closely related digestive enzymes and transporters, and control the digestive process through similar hormones and similarly organized nerve pathways. Extrapolations among species that are widely separated in their digestive physiologies are possible when the basis for extrapolation is carefully considered. Divergence is greatest at organ or organismal levels, and similarities are greatest at the cell and molecular level.

  1. COMPARATIVE GUT PHYSIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Comparative physiology of digestion.

    PubMed

    Furness, J B; Cottrell, J J; Bravo, D M

    2015-02-01

    The digestive systems of all species have been shaped by environmental pressures over long evolutionary time spans. Nevertheless, all digestive systems must achieve the same end points, the ingestion of biological material and its conversion to molecules that serve as energy substrates and structural components of tissues. A range of strategies to extract nutrients, including for animals reliant primarily on foregut fermentation, hindgut fermentation, and enzymatic degradation, have evolved. Moreover, animals have adapted to different foodstuffs as herbivores (including frugivores, folivores, granivores, etc.), carnivores, and omnivores. We present evidence that humans have diverged from other omnivores because of the long history of consumption of cooked or otherwise prepared food. We consider them to be cucinivores. We present examples to illustrate that the range of foodstuffs that can be efficiently assimilated by each group or species is limited and is different from that of other groups or species. Differences are reflected in alimentary tract morphology. The digestive systems of each group and of species within the groups are adaptable, with constraints determined by individual digestive physiology. Although overall digestive strategies and systems differ, the building blocks for digestion are remarkably similar. All vertebrates have muscular tubular tracts lined with a single layer of epithelial cells for most of the length, use closely related digestive enzymes and transporters, and control the digestive process through similar hormones and similarly organized nerve pathways. Extrapolations among species that are widely separated in their digestive physiologies are possible when the basis for extrapolation is carefully considered. Divergence is greatest at organ or organismal levels, and similarities are greatest at the cell and molecular level. PMID:26020739

  2. Lung evolution as a cipher for physiology

    PubMed Central

    Torday, J. S.; Rehan, V. K.

    2009-01-01

    In the postgenomic era, we need an algorithm to readily translate genes into physiologic principles. The failure to advance biomedicine is due to the false hope raised in the wake of the Human Genome Project (HGP) by the promise of systems biology as a ready means of reconstructing physiology from genes. like the atom in physics, the cell, not the gene, is the smallest completely functional unit of biology. Trying to reassemble gene regulatory networks without accounting for this fundamental feature of evolution will result in a genomic atlas, but not an algorithm for functional genomics. For example, the evolution of the lung can be “deconvoluted” by applying cell-cell communication mechanisms to all aspects of lung biology development, homeostasis, and regeneration/repair. Gene regulatory networks common to these processes predict ontogeny, phylogeny, and the disease-related consequences of failed signaling. This algorithm elucidates characteristics of vertebrate physiology as a cascade of emergent and contingent cellular adaptational responses. By reducing complex physiological traits to gene regulatory networks and arranging them hierarchically in a self-organizing map, like the periodic table of elements in physics, the first principles of physiology will emerge. PMID:19366785

  3. The Graphical Representation of the Digital Astronaut Physiology Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briers, Demarcus

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes my internship project with the NASA Digital Astronaut Project to analyze the Digital Astronaut (DA) physiology backbone model. The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) applies integrated physiology models to support space biomedical operations, and to assist NASA researchers in closing knowledge gaps related to human physiologic responses to space flight. The DA physiology backbone is a set of integrated physiological equations and functions that model the interacting systems of the human body. The current release of the model is HumMod (Human Model) version 1.5 and was developed over forty years at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC). The physiology equations and functions are scripted in an XML schema specifically designed for physiology modeling by Dr. Thomas G. Coleman at UMMC. Currently it is difficult to examine the physiology backbone without being knowledgeable of the XML schema. While investigating and documenting the tags and algorithms used in the XML schema, I proposed a standard methodology for a graphical representation. This standard methodology may be used to transcribe graphical representations from the DA physiology backbone. In turn, the graphical representations can allow examination of the physiological functions and equations without the need to be familiar with the computer programming languages or markup languages used by DA modeling software.

  4. Molecular and Physiological Mechanisms of Membrane Receptor Systems Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Severin, E.S.; Savvateeva, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular physiology is a new interdisciplinary field of knowledge that looks into how complicated biological systems function. The living cell is a relatively simple, but at the same time very sophisticated biological system. After the sequencing of the human genome, molecular physiology has endeavored to investigate the systems of cellular interactions at a completely new level based on knowledge of the spatial organization and functions of receptors, their ligands, and protein-protein interactions. In recent years, the achievements in molecular physiology have centered on the study of sensor reception mechanisms and intercellular data transfer, as well as the immune system physiology, amongst other processes. PMID:22649671

  5. Physiological Studies of the Brain: Implications for Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.

    1982-01-01

    Speculates that physiological changes resulting from repeated, long-term stimulation in human and laboratory animal brains are related to short- and long-term memory processes. Describes a physiological-based model which may explain many current learning theory principles and can serve as a foundation for developing new learning theories based on…

  6. Biomechanics, Exercise Physiology, and the 75th Anniversary of RQES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Joseph; Haymes, Emily M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the biomechanics and exercise physiology studies published in the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) over the past 75 years. Studies in biomechanics, a relatively new subdiscipline that evolved from kinesiology, first appeared in the journal about 40 years ago. Exercise physiology studies have…

  7. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  8. Brain Physiology: Research and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.

    1982-01-01

    Indicates how research about the physiology and chemistry of the brain verifies the educational applications of Piaget's theory. Discusses maturation, experience, social transmission, and equilibration. (Author/DC)

  9. Physiology Considerations in Geriatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Alvis, Bret D; Hughes, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Physiology changes at the structural, functional, and molecular levels as people age, and every major organ system experiences physiologic change with time. The changes to the nervous system result mostly in cognitive impairments, the cardiovascular system develops higher blood pressures with lower cardiac output, the respiratory system undergoes a reduction of arterial oxyhemoglobin levels, the gastrointestinal system experiences delayed gastric emptying and reduction of hepatic metabolism, and the renal system experiences a diminished glomerular filtration rate. Combined, these changes create a complex physiologic condition. This unique physiology must be taken into consideration for geriatric patients undergoing general anesthesia. PMID:26315630

  10. The Physiology Teacher: Abstracts of Educational Materials in Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents the third annual collection of abstracts of educational materials presented by the Educational Materials Review Board of the American Physiological Society. Board members have submitted abstracts of review articles, papers, textbooks, books, manuals, handbooks and symposia which they have found valuable in teaching physiology. (Author/CP)

  11. Physiology of Oil Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ketring, D. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1971-01-01

    Germination, ethylene production, and carbon dioxide production by dormant Virginia-type peanuts were determined during treatments with plant growth regulators. Kinetin, benzylaminopurine, and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid induced extensive germination above the water controls. Benzylaminopurine and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid increased the germination of the more dormant basal seeds to a larger extent above the controls than the less dormant apical seeds. Coumarin induced a slight stimulation of germination while abscisic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide did not stimulate germination above the controls. In addition to stimulating germination, the cytokinins also stimulated ethylene production by the seeds. In the case of benzylaminopurine, where the more dormant basal seeds were stimulated to germinate above the control to a larger extent than the less dormant apical seeds, correspondingly more ethylene production was induced in the basal seeds. However, the opposite was true of kinetin for both germination and ethylene production. When germination was extensively stimulated by the cytokinins, maximal ethylene and carbon dioxide evolution occurred at 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Abscisic acid inhibited ethylene production and germinaton of the seeds while carbon dioxide evolution was comparatively high. The crucial physiological event for germination of dormant peanut seeds was enhancement of ethylene production by the seeds. PMID:16657647

  12. Polyamines in plant physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  13. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  14. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  15. Physiology of Volition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Mark

    The idea of free will is a conscious awareness of the brain concerning the nature of the movement that it produces. There is no evidence for it to be a driving force in movement generation. This review considers the physiology of movement generation and how the concepts of willing and agency might arise. Both the anatomical substrates and the timing of events are considered. Movement initiation and volition are not necessarily linked, and one line of evidence comes from consideration of patients with disorders of volition. Movement is generated subconsciously, and the conscious sense of willing the movement comes later, but the exact time of this event is difficult to assess because of the potentially illusory nature of introspection. The evidence suggests that movement is initiated in frontal lobe, particularly the mesial areas, and the sense of volition arises as the result of a corollary discharge from premotor and motor areas likely involving the parietal lobe. Agency probably involves a similar region in the parietal lobe and requires both the sense of volition and movement feedback.

  16. Polyamines in plant physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Galston, A W; Sawhney, R K

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing. PMID:11537482

  17. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. PMID:26628666

  18. The Neural Basis of Deictic Shifting in Linguistic Perspective-Taking in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuno, Akiko; Liu, Yanni; Williams, Diane L.; Keller, Timothy A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    Personal pronouns, such as "I" and "you", require a speaker/listener to continuously re-map their reciprocal relation to their referent, depending on who is saying the pronoun. This process, called "deictic shifting", may underlie the incorrect production of these pronouns, or "pronoun reversals", such as referring to oneself with the pronoun…

  19. Grammatical number agreement processing using the visual half-field paradigm: An event-related brain potential study

    PubMed Central

    Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; Kutas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Despite indications in the split-brain and lesion literatures that the right hemisphere is capable of some syntactic analysis, few studies have investigated right hemisphere contributions to syntactic processing in people with intact brains. Here we used the visual half-field paradigm in healthy adults to examine each hemisphere’s processing of correct and incorrect grammatical number agreement marked either lexically, e.g., antecedent/reflexive pronoun (“The grateful niece asked herself/*themselves…”) or morphologically, e.g., subject/verb (“Industrial scientists develop/*develops…”). For reflexives, response times and accuracy of grammaticality decisions suggested similar processing regardless of visual field of presentation. In the subject/verb condition, we observed similar response times and accuracies for central and right visual field (RVF) presentations. For left visual field (LVF) presentation, response times were longer and accuracy rates were reduced relative to RVF presentation. An event-related brain potential (ERP) study using the same materials revealed similar ERP responses to the reflexive pronouns in the two visual fields, but very different ERP effects to the subject/verb violations. For lexically marked violations on reflexives, P600 was elicited by stimuli in both the LVF and RVF; for morphologically marked violations on verbs, P600 was elicited only by RVF stimuli. These data suggest that both hemispheres can process lexically marked pronoun agreement violations, and do so in a similar fashion. Morphologically marked subject/verb agreement errors, however, showed a distinct LH advantage. PMID:24326084

  20. Causality in physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F; Penzel, Thomas; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Health is one of the most important non-material assets and thus also has an enormous influence on material values, since treating and preventing diseases is expensive. The number one cause of death worldwide today originates in cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons the aim of understanding the functions and the interactions of the cardiovascular system is and has been a major research topic throughout various disciplines for more than a hundred years. The purpose of most of today's research is to get as much information as possible with the lowest possible effort and the least discomfort for the subject or patient, e.g. via non-invasive measurements. A family of tools whose importance has been growing during the last years is known under the headline of coupling measures. The rationale for this kind of analysis is to identify the structure of interactions in a system of multiple components. Important information lies for example in the coupling direction, the coupling strength, and occurring time lags. In this work, we will, after a brief general introduction covering the development of cardiovascular time series analysis, introduce, explain and review some of the most important coupling measures and classify them according to their origin and capabilities in the light of physiological analyses. We will begin with classical correlation measures, go via Granger-causality-based tools, entropy-based techniques (e.g. momentary information transfer), nonlinear prediction measures (e.g. mutual prediction) to symbolic dynamics (e.g. symbolic coupling traces). All these methods have contributed important insights into physiological interactions like cardiorespiratory coupling, neuro-cardio-coupling and many more. Furthermore, we will cover tools to detect and analyze synchronization and coordination (e.g. synchrogram and coordigram). As a last point we will address time dependent couplings as identified using a recent approach employing ensembles of time series. The

  1. Physiological correlates of mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the basis of and techniques for physiological assessment of mental workload. The study findings reviewed had shortcomings involving one or more of the following basic problems: (1) physiologic arousal can be easily driven by nonworkload factors, confounding any proposed metric; (2) the profound absence of underlying physiologic models has promulgated a multiplicity of seemingly arbitrary signal processing techniques; (3) the unspecified multidimensional nature of physiological "state" has given rise to a broad spectrum of competing noncommensurate metrics; and (4) the lack of an adequate definition of workload compels physiologic correlations to suffer either from the vagueness of implicit workload measures or from the variance of explicit subjective assessments. Using specific studies as examples, two basic signal processing/data reduction techniques in current use, time and ensemble averaging are discussed.

  2. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill).

  3. Cassava biology and physiology.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  4. Disentangling calcium-driven astrocyte physiology.

    PubMed

    Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2015-04-01

    Astrocytes seem to rely on relatively sluggish and spatially blurred Ca(2+) waves to communicate with fast and point-precise neural circuits. This apparent discrepancy could, however, reflect our current inability to understand the microscopic mechanisms involved. Difficulties in detecting and interpreting astrocyte Ca(2+) signals may have led to some prominent controversies in the field. Here, we argue that a deeper understanding of astrocyte physiology requires a qualitative leap in our experimental and analytical strategies.

  5. [The physiology of gas exchange in divers].

    PubMed

    Rieder, H U

    1989-04-01

    After a short reminder of Boyle's law and the physiology of oxygen and nitrogen, a mathematical model will be discussed (without formulas). Its limitations are shown in relation to the calculation of partial gas pressures in different human organs. Such models are already used in closed circuit anesthesia delivery systems and valuable insights can be obtained by this way, which enable us to calculate better nitrogen decompression tables. PMID:2727653

  6. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  7. Physiology and psychology of dreams.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Alan S

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming and development of sleep laboratory techniques ushered in a new era in the study of dreams. For the first time, direct and systematic investigation could be made of such topics as the occurrence, qualities, recollection, and childhood development of dreaming. Experimental methodologies permitted investigation of the responsiveness of dreams to external stimulation and the effects of deprivation of REM sleep. Much effort was devoted to searching for parallels between physiological aspects of REM sleep and characteristics of associated dreams, with modest results. The leading theory of dreaming in the early decades of this research was the psychoanalytic, which views dreams as highly meaningful reflections of unconscious mental functioning. With developments in understanding of the neurophysiology of REM sleep, new theories of dreaming were proposed. The most prominent, the activation-synthesis hypothesis, derived its view of dreaming directly from the neurophysiology of REM sleep, in particular the role of the brain stem, and in its original form regarded dreams as not essentially meaningful. Further developments in neurobiological research, including lesion and brain imaging studies, have established a clearer view of the functional neuroanatomy of REM sleep and dreaming. To what degree, and in what way, implications can be drawn from these findings for the psychology of dreaming is controversial. Some more recent theories of dreaming emphasize an adaptive function related to emotion and a role in learning and memory consolidation.

  8. Virtual physiological human: training challenges.

    PubMed

    Lawford, Patricia V; Narracott, Andrew V; McCormack, Keith; Bisbal, Jesus; Martin, Carlos; Bijnens, Bart; Brook, Bindi; Zachariou, Margarita; Freixa, Jordi Villà I; Kohl, Peter; Fletcher, Katherine; Diaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2010-06-28

    The virtual physiological human (VPH) initiative encompasses a wide range of activities, including structural and functional imaging, data mining, knowledge discovery tool and database development, biomedical modelling, simulation and visualization. The VPH community is developing from a multitude of relatively focused, but disparate, research endeavours into an integrated effort to bring together, develop and translate emerging technologies for application, from academia to industry and medicine. This process initially builds on the evolution of multi-disciplinary interactions and abilities, but addressing the challenges associated with the implementation of the VPH will require, in the very near future, a translation of quantitative changes into a new quality of highly trained multi-disciplinary personnel. Current strategies for undergraduate and on-the-job training may soon prove insufficient for this. The European Commission seventh framework VPH network of excellence is exploring this emerging need, and is developing a framework of novel training initiatives to address the predicted shortfall in suitably skilled VPH-aware professionals. This paper reports first steps in the implementation of a coherent VPH training portfolio. PMID:20478909

  9. [Anatomy and physiology of sexuality].

    PubMed

    Cour, F; Droupy, S; Faix, A; Methorst, C; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of male and female sexuality has advanced considerably. Initially there is always desire with its biological neuroendocrine components and its emotional field which is particularly marked in women. There is a distinction between "spontaneous" sexual desire related to intrinsic affective, cognitive stimuli, and fantasies, and "reactive" sexual desire in response to physical arousal. There are similarities between men and women concerning the activation of cerebral zones in sexual arousal contexts in laboratory conditions. The neural pathways for sexual arousal are similar between men and women, bringing into play the sympathetic centres of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and, at the sacral level, the parasympathetic center and the motoneurons controlling the muscular contractions of the pelviperineal striated muscles. Genital sensitivity is mainly transmitted by the pudendal nerve in both men and women. Sexual arousal in men consists of penile erection, and ejaculation accompanied with orgasm. In women, sexual arousal causes increase in blood to flow to the vagina leading to lubrication and to the vulva leading to the erection of the clitoris and vulvar hyperaemia. The orgasm which can be multiple in women is accompanied by contractions of the striated perineal muscles. Several neurotransmitters are closely involved in the control of sexuality at the central level: dopamine, ocytocin, serotonin, and peripheral: nitric oxide and noradrenaline in men, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y in women. PMID:23830249

  10. State of the interface between conservation and physiology: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary conservation science benefits from the perspectives of a variety of different disciplines, including a recent synergy with physiology, an interface known as 'conservation physiology'. To evaluate the degree of interaction between conservation and animal/plant physiology, we conducted three bibliometric analyses. We first pursued the use of the term 'conservation physiology' since its first definition in 2006 to determine how frequently it has been used and in which publications. Secondly, we evaluated the occurrence of conservation terms in animal and plant physiology journals, physiological terms in conservation journals, and a combination of terms in ecology journals. Thirdly, we explored trends in a subset of conservation physiology articles published between 2006 and 2012. We identified a surge in the use of the term 'conservation physiology' in 2012, after only a slow increase in usage between 2006 and 2011. Conservation journals tend to have been significantly more active in publishing conservation physiology than animal physiology, plant physiology or ecology journals. However, we found evidence that ecology and animal physiology journals began to incorporate more conservation physiology after 2006, while conservation- and plant physiology-themed journals did not. Among 299 conservation physiology articles that we identified, vertebrate taxa have been over-represented in conservation physiology compared with their relative taxonomic abundance, invertebrate taxa have been under-represented, and plants have been represented in proportion to their relative taxonomic abundance; however, those findings are reasonably consistent with publication trends in conservation biology. Diffuse distribution of conservation physiology papers throughout the literature may have been a barrier to the growth of the subdiscipline when the interface was emerging. The introduction of the focused journal Conservation Physiology in 2013 may address that deficiency

  11. Physiological Aging and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Wayne

    This paper explores the nature of the aging process by providing an overview of the available evidence relating to the body systems that are most critical to biological function. Each system is treated separately to more clearly describe various aspects of the aging process and then integrated in a discussion of the theories of biological aging.…

  12. Sex differences in the physiology of eating.

    PubMed

    Asarian, Lori; Geary, Nori

    2013-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating.

  13. Sex differences in the physiology of eating

    PubMed Central

    Asarian, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  14. Acoustic sensor array extracts physiology during movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2001-08-01

    An acoustic sensor attached to a person's neck can extract heart and breath sounds, as well as voice and other physiology related to their health and performance. Soldiers, firefighters, law enforcement, and rescue personnel, as well as people at home or in health care facilities, can benefit form being remotely monitored. ARLs acoustic sensor, when worn around a person's neck, picks up the carotid artery and breath sounds very well by matching the sensor's acoustic impedance to that of the body via a gel pad, while airborne noise is minimized by an impedance mismatch. Although the physiological sounds have high SNR, the acoustic sensor also responds to motion-induced artifacts that obscure the meaningful physiology. To exacerbate signal extraction, these interfering signals are usually covariant with the heart sounds, in that as a person walks faster the heart tends to beat faster, and motion noises tend to contain low frequency component similar to the heart sounds. A noise-canceling configuration developed by ARL uses two acoustic sensor on the front sides of the neck as physiology sensors, and two additional acoustic sensor on the back sides of the neck as noise references. Breath and heart sounds, which occur with near symmetry and simultaneously at the two front sensor, will correlate well. The motion noise present on all four sensor will be used to cancel the noise on the two physiology sensors. This report will compare heart rate variability derived from both the acoustic array and from ECG data taken simultaneously on a treadmill test. Acoustically derived breath rate and volume approximations will be introduced as well. A miniature 3- axis accelerometer on the same neckband provides additional noise references to validate footfall and motion activity.

  15. A continuous physiological data collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    COP-DAC system utilizes oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers, gas-flow meter, gas breathe-through system, analog computer, and data storage system to provide actual rather than average measurements of physiological and metabolic functions.

  16. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  17. Physiological Feedback Method and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Severance, Kurt E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method and system provide physiological feedback for a patient and/or physician. At least one physiological effect experienced by a body part of a patient is measured noninvasively. A three-dimensional graphics model serving as an analogous representation of the body part is altered in accordance with the measurements. A binocular image signal representative of the three-dimensional graphics model so-altered is displayed for the patient and/or physician in a virtual reality environment.

  18. Use of artificial intelligence and simple mathematics to analyze a physiological model

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate a methodology for design and use of a physiological model in a computer program that suggests medical decisions. This methodology uses a physiological model based on first principles and facts of physiology and anatomy. The model includes inference rules for analysis of causal relations between physiological events. The model is used to analyze physiological behavior, identify the effects of abnormalities, identify appropriate therapies, and predict the results of therapy. This methodology integrates heuristic knowledge traditionally used in artificial intelligence programs with mathematical knowledge traditionally used in mathematical modeling programs. A vocabulary for representing a physiological model is proposed.

  19. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  20. Physiologically relevant organs on chips.

    PubMed

    Yum, Kyungsuk; Hong, Soon Gweon; Healy, Kevin E; Lee, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in integrating microengineering and tissue engineering have generated promising microengineered physiological models for experimental medicine and pharmaceutical research. Here we review the recent development of microengineered physiological systems, or also known as "ogans-on-chips", that reconstitute the physiologically critical features of specific human tissues and organs and their interactions. This technology uses microengineering approaches to construct organ-specific microenvironments, reconstituting tissue structures, tissue-tissue interactions and interfaces, and dynamic mechanical and biochemical stimuli found in specific organs, to direct cells to assemble into functional tissues. We first discuss microengineering approaches to reproduce the key elements of physiologically important, dynamic mechanical microenvironments, biochemical microenvironments, and microarchitectures of specific tissues and organs in microfluidic cell culture systems. This is followed by examples of microengineered individual organ models that incorporate the key elements of physiological microenvironments into single microfluidic cell culture systems to reproduce organ-level functions. Finally, microengineered multiple organ systems that simulate multiple organ interactions to better represent human physiology, including human responses to drugs, is covered in this review. This emerging organs-on-chips technology has the potential to become an alternative to 2D and 3D cell culture and animal models for experimental medicine, human disease modeling, drug development, and toxicology.

  1. Physiological demands of downhill mountain biking.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jamie F; Drury, C Taylor; Ivey, Adam C; Warburton, Darren E R

    2012-12-01

    Mountain biking is a popular recreational pursuit and the physiological demands of cross-country style riding have been well documented. However, little is known regarding the growing discipline of gravity-assisted downhill cycling. We characterised the physiological demands of downhill mountain biking under typical riding conditions. Riding oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) were measured on 11 male and eight female experienced downhill cyclists and compared with data during a standardised incremental to maximum (VO(2max)) exercise test. The mean VO(2) while riding was 23.1 ± 6.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) or 52 ± 14% of VO(2max) with corresponding heart rates of 146 ± 11 bpm (80 ± 6% HRmax). Over 65% of the ride was in a zone at or above an intensity level associated with improvements in health-related fitness. However, the participants' heart rates and ratings of perceived exertion were artificially inflated in comparison with the actual metabolic demands of the downhill ride. Substantial muscular fatigue was evident in grip strength, which decreased 5.4 ± 9.4 kg (5.5 ± 11.2%, P = 0.03) post-ride. Participation in downhill mountain biking is associated with significant physiological demands, which are in a range associated with beneficial effects on health-related fitness.

  2. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  3. Physiology of central pathways.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K E

    2016-01-01

    The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement. Similarly, relatively direct pathways between the labyrinth and spinal cord control vestibulospinal reflexes. A second distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that the first stage of central processing is strongly multimodal. This is because the vestibular nuclei receive inputs from a wide range of cortical, cerebellar, and other brainstem structures in addition to direct inputs from the vestibular nerve. Recent studies in alert animals have established how extravestibular signals shape these "simple" reflexes to meet the needs of current behavioral goal. Moreover, multimodal interactions at higher levels, such as the vestibular cerebellum, thalamus, and cortex, play a vital role in ensuring accurate self-motion and spatial orientation perception. PMID:27638060

  4. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  5. The applied physiology of American football.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R

    2008-09-01

    American football is the most popular sport in the United States. Its popularity is likely related to the intense, fast-paced, physical style of play. The importance of strength and conditioning to success in football has been long understood. In fact, the strength and conditioning profession in North America can take its roots from American football. However, only recently has scientific study confirmed the positive relationships between strength, speed, and power to success in this sport. Although strength and conditioning are integral to every American football program, the collaboration with sport scientists has not been as fruitful. Only limited studies are available examining the physiological effects of actual competition and physiological adaptations or maladaptations during a season of competition. Most studies on American football have primarily focused on physical performance characteristics of these athletes and how various training paradigms can be used to improve performance.

  6. Multimodal physiological sensor for motion artefact rejection.

    PubMed

    Goverdovsky, Valentin; Looney, David; Kidmose, Preben; Mandic, Danilo P

    2014-01-01

    This work introduces a novel physiological sensor, which combines electrical and mechanical modalities in a co-located arrangement, to reject motion-induced artefacts. The mechanically sensitive element consists of an electret condenser microphone containing a light diaphragm, allowing it to detect local mechanical displacements and disregard large-scale whole body movements. The electrically sensitive element comprises a highly flexible membrane, conductive on one side and insulating on the other. It covers the sound hole of the microphone, thereby forming an isolated pocket of air between the membrane and the diaphragm. The co-located arrangement of the modalities allows the microphone to sense mechanical disturbances directly through the electrode, thus providing an accurate proxy to artefacts caused by relative motion between the skin and the electrode. This proxy is used to reject such artefacts in the electrical physiological signals, enabling enhanced recording quality in wearable health applications.

  7. Clinically Oriented Physiology Teaching: Strategy for Developing Critical-Thinking Skills in Undergraduate Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Upadhya, Subramanya; Torke, Sharmila; Ramnarayan, K.

    2004-01-01

    Medicine is an applied science, interpreting evidence and applying it to real life by using clinical reasoning skills and experience. COPT (clinically oriented physiology teaching) was incorporated in physiology instruction aiming to relate the study of physiology to real-life problems, to generate enthusiasm and motivation for learning, and to…

  8. First-Year Medical Students' Naïve Beliefs about Respiratory Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Silvia; Abrahams, Amaal; Bugarith, Kishor; Friedling, Jacqui; Gunston, Geney; Kelly-Laubscher, Roisin; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the nature and frequency of physiology naïve beliefs by investigating novices' understanding of the respiratory system. Previous studies have shown considerable misconceptions related to physiology but focused mostly on specific physiological processes of normal respiration. Little is known about novices' broader…

  9. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  10. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  11. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  12. [Physiological processes in organism: nanomechanism].

    PubMed

    Chekman, I S

    2010-01-01

    Physiologically active substances by nanosizes are divided into 4 groups. The first group includes substances up to 100 nm: leukocytes, erythrocytes, cell components (nucleus, mitochondria), cancer cells, bacteria and bacteriophages. The second group consists of nanoparticles with size from 10 to 100 nm. These are antibody, ribosomes, glycogen granules, liposomes, and others. The third group of substances has sizes from 10 to 1 nm. This group includes: albumin, hemoglobin, membrane cells, fibrixogen, receptors (serotonin, beta-adrenergic receptor and others), insulin, fat soluble vitamins (ergocalciferol, retinol), folic acid, drugs (digoxin, quetcitin), chlorophyll plants, fullerenes. The fourth group consists of matter smaller than 1 nm, in particular: ATP, fructose, mediators (acetyl-choline, adrenaline, noradrenaline), phenylephrine, amino acids, water molecules, CO2, NO, oxygen atoms, hydrogen. The existence in the body of physiological processes based on natural nanotechnology may be proved by the following facts. 1. Physiologically active substances have nanosizes. 2. Cell membranes, the capillary wall have also nanosizes, promoting effective physiological processes involving biologically active substances with nanosizes. 3. Due to the small size of nanoparticles can penetrate through cell membranes and be distributed in the body. 4. From the position of modern nanoscience functioning organs, cells, subcellular structures, calcium channels, sodium-potassium pump is under the laws of natural nanomechanisms. 5. Summarising the literature data and own research, we can argue that the body's physiological processes based on natural nanomechanisms require more detailed, in-depth research. Nanophysiology studies peculiarities of the physiological processes in the body from the position of nanoscience and the impact of nanoparticles on the function of cells and organs. The author accepts the fact that not all ideas reported in this article have experimental

  13. Tools for Physiology Labs: Inexpensive Equipment for Physiological Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Land, Bruce R.; Johnson, Bruce R.; Wyttenbach, Robert A.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design of inexpensive equipment and software for physiological stimulation in the neurobiology teaching laboratory. The core component is a stimulus isolation unit (SIU) that uses DC-DC converters, rather than expensive high-voltage batteries, to generate isolated power at high voltage. The SIU has no offset when inactive and produces pulses up to 100 V with moderately fast (50 μs) rise times. We also describe two methods of stimulus timing control. The first is a simplified conventional, stand-alone analog pulse generator. The second uses a digital microcontroller interfaced with a personal computer. The SIU has performed well and withstood intensive use in our undergraduate physiology laboratory. This project is part of our ongoing effort to make reliable low-cost physiology equipment available for both student teaching and faculty research laboratories. PMID:23493817

  14. Cardiac Physiology for Radiologists: Review of Relevant Physiology for Interpretation of Cardiac MR Imaging and CT.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Pooja J; Danton, Gary H; Siegel, Yoel; Kardon, Richard E; Infante, Juan C; Ghersin, Eduard; Fishman, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provide clinicians with important insights into cardiac physiology and pathology. However, not all radiologists understand the language and concepts of cardiac physiology that are used daily by cardiologists. This review article covers basic cardiac physiology as it relates to cardiac CT and MR imaging. Topics include a review of the cardiac cycle and left ventricular pressure-volume loops as they relate to different pathologic states, evaluation of cardiac function, and calculation of key parameters such as left ventricular volumes and the ejection fraction. The hemodynamics of cardiac shunts are covered, with an emphasis on factors important to cardiologists, including the ratio of pulmonary flow to systemic flow. Additionally, valvular physiologic function is reexamined, with a focus on understanding pressure gradients within the heart and also the changes associated with valvular pathologic conditions, including measurement of regurgitant fractions in patients with valvular insufficiency. Understanding these basic concepts will help radiologists tailor the reporting of cardiac studies to clinically relevant information.

  15. Molecular bases of circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bonny, Olivier; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Gumz, Michelle L.; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    The physiological processes that maintain body homeostasis oscillate during the day. Diurnal changes characterize kidney functions, comprising regulation of hydro-electrolytic and acid-base balance, reabsorption of small solutes and hormone production. Renal physiology is characterized by 24-h periodicity and contributes to circadian variability of blood pressure levels, related as well to nychthemeral changes of sodium sensitivity, physical activity, vascular tone, autonomic function and neurotransmitter release from sympathetic innervations. The circadian rhythmicity of body physiology is driven by central and peripheral biological clockworks and entrained by the geophysical light/dark cycle. Chronodisruption, defined as the mismatch between environmental–social cues and physiological–behavioral patterns, causes internal desynchronization of periodic functions, leading to pathophysiological mechanisms underlying degenerative, immune related, metabolic and neoplastic diseases. In this review we will address the genetic, molecular and anatomical elements that hardwire circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and subtend disarray of time–dependent changes in renal pathology. PMID:23901050

  16. [The 2008 Nobel Prizes in medicine and physiology].

    PubMed

    Valdespino, José Luis; Ponce-de-León, Samuel; de Lourdes Garcia, María

    2009-01-01

    For the last century, the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine has been awarded worldwide to significant discoveries. The prize allows the dissemination of information on the achievements of recipients, promotes understanding of scientific knowledge among the public and attracts young students to biomedical research. This paper briefly describes the prizes granted to the fields of physiology and medicine, emphasizing those that related to development of vaccines. PMID:19685833

  17. Physiological regeneration of skin appendages and implications for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Randall, Valerie A; Widelitz, Randall B.; Wu, Ping; Jiang, Ting-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The concept of regenerative medicine is relatively new, but animals are well known to remake their hair and feathers regularly by normal regenerative physiological processes. Here we focus on 1) how extra-follicular environments can regulate hair and feather stem cell activities and 2) how different configurations of stem cells can shape organ forms in different body regions to fulfil changing physiological needs. PMID:22505663

  18. The mosaic acquisition of grammatical relations.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, M

    1991-10-01

    The view that grammatical relations have substantial essence, designated as 'subject' or 'object' has difficulty in accounting for the variety of naturally acquirable grammatical relations. The acquisition of grammatical relations is examined from a theoretical framework, ROLE AND REFERENCE GRAMMAR, in which grammatical relations are decomposed into two separate types of structure: logical (semantic) structure and information (pragmatic) structure. The acquisition of grammatical relations from four languages is compared: (1) the definite accusative suffix and pragmatically motivated word order of Turkish; (2) Kaluli verb agreement, case and focus marking postpositions, and pragmatically motivated word order; (3) Hungarian definite and indefinite verb conjunction; and (4) Italian participial agreement and anaphoric, accusative case pronouns. Two conditions on structures are found to cause difficulty: the neutralization of a semantic or pragmatic distinction by interfering structures (e.g. Kaluli and Italian), and global case marking which forces the child to discover relevant semantic characteristics of both the actor and the undergoer (e.g. Hungarian and Kaluli). Structures that encode semantic or pragmatic distinctions independently are more easily acquired (e.g. Turkish). Piecing together discrete structures in a mosaic fashion, the child can acquire the great variety of grammatical relations that exist in human languages.

  19. Centrifuges in gravitational physiology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Davies, Phil; Fuller, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Data from space flight and ground based experiments have clearly demonstrated the importance of Earth gravity for normal physiological function in man and animals. Gravitational Physiology is concerned with the role and influence of gravity on physiological systems. Research in this field examines how we perceive and respond to gravity and the mechanisms underlying these responses. Inherent in our search for answers to these questions is the ability to alter gravity, which is not physically possible without leaving Earth. However, useful experimental paradigms have been to modify the perceived force of gravity by changing either the orientation of subjects to the gravity vector (i.e., postural changes) or by applying inertial forces to augment the magnitude of the gravity vector. The later technique has commonly been used by applying centripetal force via centrifugation.

  20. Physical and physiological profiles of taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Craig A; Ferreira da Silva Santos, Jonatas; Chaabène, Helmi; Pieter, Willy; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-06-01

    Taekwondo has evolved into a modern-day Olympic combat sport. The physical and physiological demands of modern-day taekwondo competition require athletes to be competent in several aspects of fitness. This review critically explores the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes and presents implications for training and research. International taekwondo athletes possess low levels of body fat and a somatotype that characterises a blend of moderate musculoskeletal tissue and relative body linearity. While there is some variation in the maximum oxygen uptake of taekwondo athletes, moderate to high levels of cardio-respiratory fitness are necessary to support the metabolic demands of fighting and to facilitate recovery between consecutive matches. Taekwondo athletes demonstrate high peak anaerobic power characteristics of the lower limbs and this attribute appears to be conducive to achieving success in international competition. The ability to generate and sustain power output using both concentric and 'stretch-shortening cycle' muscle actions of the lower limbs may be important to support the technical and tactical actions in combat. Taekwondo competitors also display moderate to high maximum dynamic strength characteristics of the lower and upper extremities, and moderate endurance properties of the trunk and hip flexor musculature. The dynamic nature of the technical and tactical actions in the sport demand high flexibility of the lower limbs. More extensive research is required into the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes to extend existing knowledge and to permit specialised conditioning for different populations within the sport.

  1. Physical and physiological profiles of taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Craig A; Ferreira da Silva Santos, Jonatas; Chaabène, Helmi; Pieter, Willy; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-06-01

    Taekwondo has evolved into a modern-day Olympic combat sport. The physical and physiological demands of modern-day taekwondo competition require athletes to be competent in several aspects of fitness. This review critically explores the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes and presents implications for training and research. International taekwondo athletes possess low levels of body fat and a somatotype that characterises a blend of moderate musculoskeletal tissue and relative body linearity. While there is some variation in the maximum oxygen uptake of taekwondo athletes, moderate to high levels of cardio-respiratory fitness are necessary to support the metabolic demands of fighting and to facilitate recovery between consecutive matches. Taekwondo athletes demonstrate high peak anaerobic power characteristics of the lower limbs and this attribute appears to be conducive to achieving success in international competition. The ability to generate and sustain power output using both concentric and 'stretch-shortening cycle' muscle actions of the lower limbs may be important to support the technical and tactical actions in combat. Taekwondo competitors also display moderate to high maximum dynamic strength characteristics of the lower and upper extremities, and moderate endurance properties of the trunk and hip flexor musculature. The dynamic nature of the technical and tactical actions in the sport demand high flexibility of the lower limbs. More extensive research is required into the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes to extend existing knowledge and to permit specialised conditioning for different populations within the sport. PMID:24549477

  2. Sleep and Rest Requirements: Physiological Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Sleep is a vital physiological need which must be met to insure optimal functioning. A single night of significantly shortened sleep negatively impacts performance, alertness, and mood. Restricted sleep studies have shown that even a relatively small amount of sleep loss over several consecutive days can be additive and result in a cumulative sleep debt with similar detrimental effects. Compounding the problem of sleep loss in the operational environment is the poor correlation between subjective reports of sleepiness and objective measures of physiological sleep need. Some of the factors determining how sleepy an individual is at a given point in time are: (1) individual characteristics (e.g., amount of prior sleep and wakefulness, circadian phase, age), (2) environmental conditions (e.g., noise, temperature, amount of social interaction), and (3) task variables (e.g., signal rate, workload). Although sleep need can be masked with medications, the only way to reduce it is with sleep itself. The timing of the sleep period can affect sleep duration and quality and thus its restorative strength. The data are clear that increasing sleep time results in improved alertness. This paper will briefly review the scientific findings on sleep need, the effects of sleep loss, napping strategies, and the implications of incorporating physiologically sound sleep and rest strategies into the operational aviation environment.

  3. Respirator physiological effects under simulated work conditions.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Siddharth; Harber, Philip; Yun, David; Liu, David; Liu, Yihang; Wu, Samantha; Ng, David; Santiago, Silverio

    2009-04-01

    This study compared the physiological impacts of two respirator types in simulated work conditions. Fifty-six subjects included normal volunteers and persons with mild respiratory impairments (chronic rhinitis, mild COPD, and mild asthma). Respiratory parameters and electrocardiogram were measured using respiratory inductive plethysmography while performing eight work tasks involving low to moderate exertion using two respirators: (1) a dual cartridge half face mask (HFM) respirator, and (2) the N95. Mixed model regression analyses evaluating the effect of task and respirator type showed that task affected tidal volume, minute ventilation, breathing frequency and heart rate; all were greater in heavier tasks. Although respirator type did not affect respiratory volume parameters and flow rates, the HFM led to increase in the inspiratory time, reduction of the expiratory time, and increase in the duty cycle in comparison with the N95. The magnitude of differences was relatively small. The results suggest that most individuals, including persons with mild respiratory impairments, will physiologically tolerate either type of respirator at low to moderate exertion tasks. However, because effective protection depends on proper use, differences in subjective effect may have greater impact than physiological differences. Using respirators may be feasible on a widespread basis if necessary for maintaining essential services in the face of widespread concern about an infectious or terrorist threat. PMID:19180375

  4. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  5. From the "physiologus" to physiology.

    PubMed

    Karasszon, Dénes

    2013-06-01

    The roots of physiology - on the basis of anatomical thinking and mind, which is fundamental idea of the European medicine - go back to Reformation. The following short data from the abundant history of physiology from the ancient speculative natural philosophers to the modern experimental science of our days shows that the history of Reformation and Protestantism on the one side, and the significance of Protestant physicians in the history of Reformation and Protestantism on the other side, deserve our special attention in the history of medicine.

  6. Fractals in physiology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; West, Bruce J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how the nonlinear concepts of fractals, as applied in physiology and medicine, can provide an insight into the organization of such complex structures as the tracheobronchial tree and heart, as well as into the dynamics of healthy physiological variability. Particular attention is given to the characteristics of computer-generated fractal lungs and heart and to fractal pathologies in these organs. It is shown that alterations in fractal scaling may underlie a number of pathophysiological disturbances, including sudden cardiac death syndromes.

  7. Physiological profile of elite Chinese female wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Zi-Hong, He; Lian-Shi, Feng; Hao-Jie, Zhang; Kui-Yuan, Xu; Feng-Tang, Chi; Da-Lang, Tao; Ming-Yi, Liu; Lucia, Alejandro; Fleck, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the physiological profile of elite, senior Chinese female wrestlers. Twenty-five elite wrestlers, nationally ranked in the top 3 of their weight class, participated in this study. The subjects included Olympic and world champion medalists. The physiological profile included testing of running maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 3,200-m run time, 400-m run time, 30-second Wingate anaerobic power and capacity, shoulder, elbow, knee, and trunk isokinetic torque, and 1 repetition maximums (1RMs) in specified exercises. The major results (mean ± SD) were VO2max: 50.58 ± 3.33 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); 3,200-m run: 14 minutes 1 second ± 49 seconds; 400-m run: 1 minute 11 seconds ± 4 seconds; Wingate maximal anaerobic power: 495.21 ± 79.13 W and mean power: 262.97 ± 52.39 W; 1RM deadlift: 124 ± 19 kg; 1RM deep squat: 98 ± 11 kg; 1RM prone rowing: 72 ± 8 kg; 1RM power clean: 76 ± 12 kg; and 1RM hold and squat: 109 ± 17 kg. In absolute terms in the majority of measures, the heavier weight classes had greater values than the lighter weight classes, but relative to body mass, there were few differences in measures between the weight classes. The Olympic and World Championship medalist had the best value or was at the upper end of a measure's range for the strength and power measures. The results indicate that female wrestling success is not dependent on one physiological characteristic, but that a variety of physiological profiles can result in success. These data on elite female wrestlers can be compared with other wrestlers to help determine individual weaknesses or strengths and to design training programs that result in wrestling success. PMID:23238092

  8. Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and Its Relationship to Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thyfault, John P; Du, Mengmeng; Kraus, William E; Levine, James A; Booth, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on the findings and recommendations of the “Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and its Relationship to Health Outcomes” group, a part of a larger workshop entitled Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities sponsored by the National Heart, and Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging, which aimed to establish sedentary behavior research priorities. Methods The discussion within our workshop lead to the formation of critical physiological research objectives related to sedentary behaviors, that if appropriately researched would greatly impact our overall understanding of human health and longevity. Results and Conclusions Primary questions are related to physiological “health outcomes” including the influence of physical activity vs. sedentary behavior on function of a number of critical physiological systems (aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle metabolism and function, telomeres/genetic stability, and cognitive function). The group also derived important recommendations related to the “central and peripheral mechanisms” that govern sedentary behavior and how energy balance has a role in mediating these processes. General recommendations for future sedentary physiology research efforts include that studies of sedentary behavior, including that of sitting time only, should focus on the physiological impact of a “lack of human movement” in contradistinction to the effects of physical movement and that new models or strategies for studying sedentary behavior induced adaptations and links to disease development are needed to elucidate underlying mechanism(s). PMID:25222820

  9. Amphibians as animal models for laboratory research in physiology.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Warburton, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The concept of animal models is well honored, and amphibians have played a prominent part in the success of using key species to discover new information about all animals. As animal models, amphibians offer several advantages that include a well-understood basic physiology, a taxonomic diversity well suited to comparative studies, tolerance to temperature and oxygen variation, and a greater similarity to humans than many other currently popular animal models. Amphibians now account for approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of lower vertebrate and invertebrate research, and this proportion is especially true in physiological research, as evident from the high profile of amphibians as animal models in Nobel Prize research. Currently, amphibians play prominent roles in research in the physiology of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, reproductive, and sensory systems. Amphibians are also used extensively in physiological studies aimed at generating new insights in evolutionary biology, especially in the investigation of the evolution of air breathing and terrestriality. Environmental physiology also utilizes amphibians, ranging from studies of cryoprotectants for tissue preservation to physiological reactions to hypergravity and space exploration. Amphibians are also playing a key role in studies of environmental endocrine disruptors that are having disproportionately large effects on amphibian populations and where specific species can serve as sentinel species for environmental pollution. Finally, amphibian genera such as Xenopus, a genus relatively well understood metabolically and physiologically, will continue to contribute increasingly in this new era of systems biology and "X-omics."

  10. Intracellular pH in sperm physiology.

    PubMed

    Nishigaki, Takuya; José, Omar; González-Cota, Ana Laura; Romero, Francisco; Treviño, Claudia L; Darszon, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation is essential for cell function. Notably, several unique sperm ion transporters and enzymes whose elimination causes infertility are either pHi dependent or somehow related to pHi regulation. Amongst them are: CatSper, a Ca(2+) channel; Slo3, a K(+) channel; the sperm-specific Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and the soluble adenylyl cyclase. It is thus clear that pHi regulation is of the utmost importance for sperm physiology. This review briefly summarizes the key components involved in pHi regulation, their characteristics and participation in fundamental sperm functions such as motility, maturation and the acrosome reaction.

  11. Role of quercetin in vascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    A recent paper in the Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology has shown that quercetin has a vascular protective effect associated with eNOS up-regulation, blood GSH redox ratio, and reduction of oxidative stress. Recent reports have recommended the consumption of quercetin, as it may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms by which quercetin exerts its action have not been fully elucidated. The majority of these mechanisms have been identified with models using animals treated with quercetin, and relatively few have been corroborated in human studies, which indicates the need for further investigation.

  12. MEGen: A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Generator

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, George; Hogg, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are being used in an increasing number of different areas. However, they are perceived as complex, data hungry, resource intensive, and time consuming. In addition, model validation and verification are hindered by the relative complexity of the equations. To begin to address these issues a web application called MEGen for the rapid construction and documentation of bespoke deterministic PBPK model code is under development. MEGen comprises a parameter database and a model code generator that produces code for use in several commercial software packages and one that is freely available. Here we present an overview of the current capabilities of MEGen, and discuss future developments. PMID:22084631

  13. Hydroceles identified prenatally: common physiologic phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Pretorius, D H; Halsted, M J; Abels, W; Catanzarite, V A; Kaplan, G

    1998-01-01

    Though the reported frequency of infant hydrocele has varied, the frequency of hydrocele in the fetus has not been studied. Our purpose was to determine the frequency of fetal hydrocele in the third trimester and subsequent outcome. Of the 123 fetuses studied, 19 fetuses had hydroceles. Of these, 14 babies were normal at follow-up, one baby had a persistent hydrocele, and four babies were lost to follow-up. Our study suggests that hydrocele is a relatively common finding in the third trimester in utero. Moreover, it suggests that parents can be reassured that, in the absence of other abnormalities, a hydrocele is usually a physiologic finding which resolves spontaneously.

  14. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  15. Cardiovascular physiology: mechanisms of control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Jonathan A.

    2001-10-01

    In order to maintain homeostasis, the heart must pump blood commensurate with the metabolic needs of the body and do so at a pressure that is adequate to perfuse the vital organs. Basic cardiovascular physiology is reviewed and emphasis is place on those factors that are important in the control of cardiac output, heart rate and blood pressure.

  16. Physiological Measurement in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Ralph R.

    1970-01-01

    The importance of effective communication compels investigators to seek new ways of measuring physiological responses and to practice the science of psychophysiology. The main objective of psychophysiological research is to describe the systems in organisms which transfer information between the subsystems of soma and psyche. Results should lead…

  17. Medical Electronics and Physiological Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, T.

    1989-01-01

    Described are developments in medical electronics and physiological measurement. Discussed are electrocardiology, audiology, and urology as mature applications; applied potential tomography, magnetic stimulation of nerves, and laser Doppler flowmetry as new techniques; and optical sensors, ambulatory monitoring, and biosensors as future…

  18. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  19. Physiological Control of Germline Development

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, E. Jane Albert; Korta, Dorota Z.; Dalfó, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The intersection between developmental programs and environmental conditions that alter physiology is a growing area of research interest. The C. elegans germ line is emerging as a particularly sensitive and powerful model for these studies. The germ line is subject to environmentally regulated diapause points that allow worms to withstand harsh conditions both prior to and after reproduction commences. It also responds to more subtle changes in physiological conditions. Recent studies demonstrate that different aspects of germ line development are sensitive to environmental and physiological changes and that conserved signaling pathways such as the AMPK, Insulin/IGF, TGFβ, and TOR-S6K, and nuclear hormone receptor pathways mediate this sensitivity. Some of these pathways genetically interact with but appear distinct from previously characterized mechanisms of germline cell fate control such as Notch signaling. Here, we review several aspects of hermaphrodite germline development in the context of “feasting,” “food-limited,” and “fasting” conditions. We also consider connections between lifespan, metabolism and the germ line, and we comment on special considerations for examining germline development under altered environmental and physiological conditions. Finally, we summarize the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:22872476

  20. A conceptual framework for the emerging discipline of conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Coristine, Laura E.; Robillard, Cassandra M.; Kerr, Jeremy T.; O'Connor, Constance M.; Lapointe, Dominique; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Current rates of biodiversity decline are unprecedented and largely attributed to anthropogenic influences. Given the scope and magnitude of conservation issues, policy and management interventions must maximize efficiency and efficacy. The relatively new field of conservation physiology reveals the physiological mechanisms associated with population declines, animal–environment relationships and population or species tolerance thresholds, particularly where these relate to anthropogenic factors that necessitate conservation action. We propose a framework that demonstrates an integrative approach between physiology, conservation and policy, where each can inform the design, conduct and implementation of the other. Each junction of the conservation physiology process has the capacity to foster dialogue that contributes to effective implementation, monitoring, assessment and evaluation. This approach enables effective evaluation and implementation of evidence-based conservation policy and management decisions through a process of ongoing refinement, but may require that scientists (from the disciplines of both physiology and conservation) and policy-makers bridge interdisciplinary knowledge gaps. Here, we outline a conceptual framework that can guide and lead developments in conservation physiology, as well as promote innovative research that fosters conservation-motivated policy. PMID:27293654