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Sample records for relational spatial politics

  1. MAPPING CHILDREN’S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2015-01-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children’s geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively “always already” positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or “rational” speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children’s political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children’s politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau’s notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin’s concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children’s representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10–13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors. PMID:25642017

  2. The new spatial politics of (re)bordering and (re)ordering the state-education-citizen relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2011-08-01

    One outcome of more than three decades of social and political transformation around the world, the result of processes broadly referred to as globalisation, has been the emergence of a complex (and at first glance, contradictory) conceptual language in the social sciences that has sought to grasp hold of these developments. Throughout the 1990s, theorists began to emphasise a world in motion, deploying concepts like "liquid modernity" (Zygmunt Bauman) to signal rapid and profound changes at work in the social structures, relations, and spatialities of societies (Neil Brenner) that were reconfiguring state-citizen relations (Saskia Sassen). Recently, however, researchers have concentrated on the study of borders and containers as a corrective to the preoccupation with mobility, arguing it is not possible to imagine a world which is only borderless and de-territorialised, because the basic ordering of social groups and societies requires categories and compartments. This paper focuses attention on processes of bordering and ordering in contemporary education systems, suggesting that comparative educators - whose main intellectual project is to understand how (different) education processes are re/produced within and across time, space and societies - would get much greater purchase on transformations currently under way.

  3. The New Spatial Politics of (Re)bordering and (Re)ordering the State-Education-Citizen Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    One outcome of more than three decades of social and political transformation around the world, the result of processes broadly referred to as globalisation, has been the emergence of a complex (and at first glance, contradictory) conceptual language in the social sciences that has sought to grasp hold of these developments. Throughout the 1990s,…

  4. Spatial models of political competition with endogenous political parties.

    PubMed

    Laver, Michael; Schilperoord, Michel

    2007-09-29

    Two important human action selection processes are the choice by citizens of parties to support in elections and the choice by party leaders of policy 'packages' offered to citizens in order to attract this support. Having reviewed approaches analysing these choices and the reasons for doing this using the methodology of agent-based modelling, we extend a recent agent-based model of party competition to treat the number and identity of political parties as an output of, rather than an input to, the process of party competition. Party birth is modelled as an endogenous change of agent type from citizen to party leader, which requires describing citizen dissatisfaction with the history of the system. Endogenous birth and death of parties transforms into a dynamic system even in an environment where all agents have otherwise non-responsive adaptive rules. A key parameter is the survival threshold, with lower thresholds leaving citizens on average less dissatisfied. Paradoxically, the adaptive rule most successful for party leaders in winning votes makes citizens on average less happy than under other policy-selection rules.

  5. From left to right: processing acronyms referring to names of political parties activates spatial associations.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein T; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-11-01

    In line with previous studies, showing that abstract concepts like "power" or "god" implicitly activate spatial associations, in the present study we hypothesized that spatial associations are coactivated during the processing of acronyms referring to names of political parties as well. In four studies, it was found that the reading of these acronyms was accompanied by the implicit activation of spatial left-right associations. That is, participants responded faster to left-wing parties by means of a left-hand button press and vice versa for right-wing parties (Experiments 1 to 3), and participants responded faster when a political acronym was presented at the side of the screen corresponding to the political orientation of the acronym (Experiment 4). Interestingly, a correlation was observed between the effect size for left-wing parties and participants' political preferences, suggesting that the reaction time effects reflect the perceived distance of a party to one's own political orientation. Together these findings indicate that spatial representations activated in response to political acronyms do not simply reflect lexical-semantic associations or spatial metaphors, but representations of parties' political orientation relative to one's own sociopolitical position.

  6. Whose Citizenship Education? Hong Kong from a Spatial and Cultural Politics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Thomas Kwan-choi

    2007-01-01

    Citizenship (education) is "de facto" a political and spatial concept and should be considered in local, national, and global contexts. Adopting a spatial and cultural politics perspective and with the dynamic formation of Hong Kong's citizenship education as a case study, this article tries to illustrate the politics at three different levels. It…

  7. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  8. Interethnic Relations in a Changing Political Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Zaremba, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine evaluations of multiple groups by both ethnic majority-group (Dutch) and minority-group (Turkish-Dutch) members during a turbulent political period in the Netherlands, marked by the rapid rise and subsequent decline of a new-rightist, populist movement. The analysis of cross-sectional data from three periods…

  9. Some Spatial Politics of Queer-Feminist Research: Personal Reflections From the Field.

    PubMed

    Misgav, Chen

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses methodological issues emerging from research conducted with Trans in the Center, an LGBT activist group in Tel Aviv, Israel. It addresses some complex issues related to the politics and ethics of applying queer and feminist methodology to qualitative research in a trans, queer, and feminist community space. The focus is on two issues: the researcher's positionality vis-à-vis the participants and selecting the appropriate methodology in relation to the characteristics of the group under study. Such issues demonstrate how queer and feminist principles are articulated and interwoven in geographical-spatial research in two different dimensions: in the research practice and methodology and in the practices and the spaces created by the activity of the researched group itself. I conclude with insights arising from the attempt to apply feminist and queer paradigms in both theory and research, and I call for their integration into geographical research.

  10. Fostering nurses' political knowledges and practices: education and political activation in relation to lesbian health.

    PubMed

    MacDonnell, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative policy study focused on female nurses' activism in relation to lesbian health. Critical feminist analysis and comparative life history methodology were applied to career histories obtained from 10 diversely situated female nurses across Ontario, Canada. The findings show that nursing activist practices are informed by advocacy experiences that foster inclusive professional and community education plus formal education processes that shape their political socialization. Implications for nursing theory include the development of political knowledges and practices that support caring science, sociopolitical knowing, and primary healthcare nursing practice in a community context. PMID:19461232

  11. Notes on Political Philosophy and Contemporary International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)

  12. Energy Relations in Russia: Administration, Politics and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarychev, Andrey

    2005-01-01

    This chapter analyses energy relations through a prism of three interlinked concepts: administration, politics and security. This triad describes the basic approaches to questions about technical, politicised and securitised energy. These three concepts are logically linked to one another and represent an elementary matrix; a prism through which…

  13. Spatial Relation Predicates in Topographic Feature Semantics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Caro, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    Topographic data are designed and widely used for base maps of diverse applications, yet the power of these information sources largely relies on the interpretive skills of map readers and relational database expert users once the data are in map or geographic information system (GIS) form. Advances in geospatial semantic technology offer data model alternatives for explicating concepts and articulating complex data queries and statements. To understand and enrich the vocabulary of topographic feature properties for semantic technology, English language spatial relation predicates were analyzed in three standard topographic feature glossaries. The analytical approach drew from disciplinary concepts in geography, linguistics, and information science. Five major classes of spatial relation predicates were identified from the analysis; representations for most of these are not widely available. The classes are: part-whole (which are commonly modeled throughout semantic and linked-data networks), geometric, processes, human intention, and spatial prepositions. These are commonly found in the ‘real world’ and support the environmental science basis for digital topographical mapping. The spatial relation concepts are based on sets of relation terms presented in this chapter, though these lists are not prescriptive or exhaustive. The results of this study make explicit the concepts forming a broad set of spatial relation expressions, which in turn form the basis for expanding the range of possible queries for topographical data analysis and mapping.

  14. An Empirical Exploration of Factors Related to Adolescents' Political Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Brett L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Political scientists have found that one of the strongest predictors of political participation is political efficacy, the belief that individuals' actions can influence political processes. Prior research indicates that political efficacy increases through various experiences, such as discussions of public issues, but it does not explain why or…

  15. Statistical dispersion relation for spatially broadband fields.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingguang; Nastasa, Viorel; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    The dispersion relation is fundamental to a physical phenomenon that develops in both space and time. This equation connects the spatial and temporal frequencies involved in the dynamic process through the material constants. Electromagnetic plane waves propagating in homogeneous media are bound by simple dispersion relation, which sets the magnitude of the spatial frequency, k, as being proportional to the temporal frequency, ω, with the proportionality constant dependent on the refractive index, n, and the speed of light in vacuum, c. Here we show that, for spatially broadband fields, an analog dispersion relation can be derived, except in this case the k-vector variance is connected with the temporal frequency through the statistics of the refractive index fluctuations in the medium. We discuss how this relationship can be used to retrieve information about refractive index distributions in biological tissues. This result is particularly significant in measurements of angular light scattering and quantitative phase imaging of biological structures.

  16. Statistical dispersion relation for spatially broadband fields.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingguang; Nastasa, Viorel; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    The dispersion relation is fundamental to a physical phenomenon that develops in both space and time. This equation connects the spatial and temporal frequencies involved in the dynamic process through the material constants. Electromagnetic plane waves propagating in homogeneous media are bound by simple dispersion relation, which sets the magnitude of the spatial frequency, k, as being proportional to the temporal frequency, ω, with the proportionality constant dependent on the refractive index, n, and the speed of light in vacuum, c. Here we show that, for spatially broadband fields, an analog dispersion relation can be derived, except in this case the k-vector variance is connected with the temporal frequency through the statistics of the refractive index fluctuations in the medium. We discuss how this relationship can be used to retrieve information about refractive index distributions in biological tissues. This result is particularly significant in measurements of angular light scattering and quantitative phase imaging of biological structures. PMID:27244396

  17. Is the political system really related to health?

    PubMed

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-07-01

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new health measures, i.e., the health of individuals and the quality of the health care sector. Using a cross-country structural equation model with various economic and demographic control variables, we examine the relationship between the type of regime and political stability on the one hand and health on the other. The political variables and the control variables are measured as averages over the period 1980-1999. Our results suggest that democracy has a positive relationship with the health of individuals, while regime instability has a negative relationship with the health of individuals. Government instability is negatively related to individual health via its link with the quality of the health care sector, while democracy is positively related with individual health through its link with income. Our main findings are confirmed by the results of a panel model and various sensitivity tests.

  18. Spatial relation query based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chong; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Si, Wangli; Liu, Bao; Zhang, Dapeng

    2010-11-01

    The description of a spatial relation is the reflection of human's cognition of spatial objects. It is not only affected by topology and metric, but also affected by geographic semantics, such as the categories of geographic entities and contexts. Currently, the researches about language aspects of spatial relations mostly focus on natural-language formalization, parsing of query sentences, and natural-language query interface. However, geographic objects are not simple geometric points, lines or polygons. In order to get a sound answer according with human cognition in spatial relation queries, we have to take geographic semantics into account. In this paper, the functions of natural-language spatial terms are designed based on previous work on natural-language formalization and human-subject tests. Then, the paper builds a geographic knowledge base based on geographic ontology using Protégé for discriminating geographic semantics. Finally, using the geographic knowledge in the knowledge base, a prototype of a query system is implemented on GIS platform.

  19. Great apes' strategies to map spatial relations.

    PubMed

    Hribar, Alenka; Haun, Daniel; Call, Josep

    2011-07-01

    We investigated reasoning about spatial relational similarity in three great ape species: chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans. Apes were presented with three spatial mapping tasks in which they were required to find a reward in an array of three cups, after observing a reward being hidden in a different array of three cups. To obtain a food reward, apes needed to choose the cup that was in the same relative position (i.e., on the left) as the baited cup in the other array. The three tasks differed in the constellation of the two arrays. In Experiment 1, the arrays were placed next to each other, forming a line. In Experiment 2, the positioning of the two arrays varied each trial, being placed either one behind the other in two rows, or next to each other, forming a line. Finally, in Experiment 3, the two arrays were always positioned one behind the other in two rows, but misaligned. Results suggested that apes compared the two arrays and recognized that they were similar in some way. However, we believe that instead of mapping the left-left, middle-middle, and right-right cups from each array, they mapped the cups that shared the most similar relations to nearby landmarks (table's visual boundaries).

  20. The Politics of Confusion in International Relations Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Bradely C. S.

    1996-01-01

    Critiques Kenneth N. Waltz's "Theory of International Politics," a seminal work of political theory. Waltz argues for the necessity of constructing a system or theory for explaining the actions of nation-states. Watson counters that emphasis on a constructed theory often obscures a realistic examination of events. (MJP)

  1. The Effects of Politeness-Related Instruction on Medical Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromme, Rainer; Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Becker, Bettina-Maria; Jucks, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Tutors often fail to address learners' misconceptions. Although this may indicate a failure to grasp these misconceptions, it may simply be due to a wish to be polite and save the learner's face. In this study we examined whether instructing tutors about the pitfalls of politeness could increase the clarity and precision of their tutorial…

  2. Quantify spatial relations to discover handwritten graphical symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinpeng; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To model a handwritten graphical language, spatial relations describe how the strokes are positioned in the 2-dimensional space. Most of existing handwriting recognition systems make use of some predefined spatial relations. However, considering a complex graphical language, it is hard to express manually all the spatial relations. Another possibility would be to use a clustering technique to discover the spatial relations. In this paper, we discuss how to create a relational graph between strokes (nodes) labeled with graphemes in a graphical language. Then we vectorize spatial relations (edges) for clustering and quantization. As the targeted application, we extract the repetitive sub-graphs (graphical symbols) composed of graphemes and learned spatial relations. On two handwriting databases, a simple mathematical expression database and a complex flowchart database, the unsupervised spatial relations outperform the predefined spatial relations. In addition, we visualize the frequent patterns on two text-lines containing Chinese characters.

  3. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. PMID:25547207

  4. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations.

  5. Obama cares about visuo-spatial attention: perception of political figures moves attention and determines gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Mills, Mark; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Processing an abstract concept such as political ideology by itself is difficult but becomes easier when a background situation contextualizes it. Political ideology within American politics, for example, is commonly processed using space metaphorically, i.e., the political "left" and "right" (referring to Democrat and Republican views, respectively), presumably to provide a common metric to which abstract features of ideology can be grounded and understood. Commonplace use of space as metaphor raises the question of whether an inherently non-spatial stimulus (e.g., picture of the political "left" leader, Barack Obama) can trigger a spatially-specific response (e.g., attentional bias toward "left" regions of the visual field). Accordingly, pictures of well-known Democrats and Republicans were presented as central cues in peripheral target detection (Experiment 1) and saccadic free-choice (Experiment 2) tasks to determine whether perception of stimuli lacking a direct association with physical space nonetheless induce attentional and oculomotor biases in the direction compatible with the ideological category of the cue (i.e., Democrat/left and Republican/right). In Experiment 1, target detection following presentation of a Democrat (Republican) was facilitated for targets appearing to the left (right). In Experiment 2, participants were more likely to look left (right) following presentation of a Democrat (Republican). Thus, activating an internal representation of political ideology induced a shift of attention and biased choice of gaze direction in a spatially-specific manner. These findings demonstrate that the link between conceptual processing and spatial attention can be totally arbitrary, with no reference to physical or symbolic spatial information.

  6. Obama cares about visuo-spatial attention: perception of political figures moves attention and determines gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Mills, Mark; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Processing an abstract concept such as political ideology by itself is difficult but becomes easier when a background situation contextualizes it. Political ideology within American politics, for example, is commonly processed using space metaphorically, i.e., the political "left" and "right" (referring to Democrat and Republican views, respectively), presumably to provide a common metric to which abstract features of ideology can be grounded and understood. Commonplace use of space as metaphor raises the question of whether an inherently non-spatial stimulus (e.g., picture of the political "left" leader, Barack Obama) can trigger a spatially-specific response (e.g., attentional bias toward "left" regions of the visual field). Accordingly, pictures of well-known Democrats and Republicans were presented as central cues in peripheral target detection (Experiment 1) and saccadic free-choice (Experiment 2) tasks to determine whether perception of stimuli lacking a direct association with physical space nonetheless induce attentional and oculomotor biases in the direction compatible with the ideological category of the cue (i.e., Democrat/left and Republican/right). In Experiment 1, target detection following presentation of a Democrat (Republican) was facilitated for targets appearing to the left (right). In Experiment 2, participants were more likely to look left (right) following presentation of a Democrat (Republican). Thus, activating an internal representation of political ideology induced a shift of attention and biased choice of gaze direction in a spatially-specific manner. These findings demonstrate that the link between conceptual processing and spatial attention can be totally arbitrary, with no reference to physical or symbolic spatial information. PMID:25300469

  7. Childhood Geographies and Spatial Justice: Making Sense of Place and Space-Making as Political Acts in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie; Thiel, Jaye Johnson; Dávila, Denise; Pittard, Elizabeth; Woglom, James F.; Zhou, Xiaodi; Brown, Taryrn; Snow, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This post-qualitative research analyzes the spatialized practices of young people within a working-class community and how those guided the opening and facilitating of a local community center. Seeing place-making as a social and political act, the authors were inspired by Heath's classic study and argument that children's education might be…

  8. Political and Organizational Dynamics in Urban-State Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Roald F.; Wagstaff, Lonnie H.

    This chapter notes organizational and political constraints that have prevented productive urban-State relationships and suggests policies and strategies for eliminating these constraints. The report posits an emerging role for State education agencies in establishing collaboration relationships with cities. The authors suggest that those…

  9. Group Threat and Policy Change: The Spatial Dynamics of Prohibition Politics, 1890-1919.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kenneth T; Seguin, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The authors argue that group threat is a key driver of the adoption of new and controversial policies. Conceptualizing threat in spatial terms, they argue that group threat is activated through the joint occurrence of (1) proximity to threatening groups and (2) the population density of threatened groups. By analyzing the adoption of county and state "dry laws" banning alcohol from 1890 to 1919, they first show that prohibition victories were driven by the relative strength of supportive constituencies such as native whites and rural residents, vis-à-vis opponents such as Irish, Italian, or German immigrants or Catholics. Second, they show that threat contributed to prohibition victories: counties bordering large immigrant or urban populations, which did not themselves contain similar populations, were more likely to adopt dry laws. Threat arises primarily from interactions between spatially proximate units at the local level, and therefore higher-level policy change is not reducible to the variables driving local policy.

  10. Newborns' Perception of Left-Right Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gava, Lucia; Valenza, Eloisa; Turati, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Five experiments examined 79 newborns' ability to discriminate and categorize a spatial relation, defined by the left-right spatial position of a blinking object-target with respect to a vertical landmark-bar. Three-day-old infants discriminated the up versus low position of an object located on the same side of the landmark-bar (Experiment 1) and…

  11. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.

  12. Morality and its relation to political ideology: the role of promotion and prevention concerns.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, James F M; Higgins, E Tory

    2013-09-01

    Our research investigated whether promotion concerns with advancement and prevention concerns with security related to moral beliefs and political ideology. Study 1 found that chronic prevention and promotion focus had opposite relations to binding foundation endorsement (as measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), that is, positive for prevention and negative for promotion, and opposite relations to political ideology, that is, more conservative for prevention and more liberal for promotion, and the relation between focus and political ideology was partially mediated by binding foundation endorsement. Study 2 showed that promotion and prevention, even as situationally induced states, can contribute to differences in binding foundation endorsement, with prevention producing stronger endorsement (compared with a control) and promotion producing weaker endorsement.

  13. Political Socialization and Reactions to Immigration-Related Diversity in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimpel, James G.; Lay, J. Celeste

    2008-01-01

    We explore the roots of tolerance for immigration-related diversity from a political socialization perspective. Among rural adolescent respondents, we find that attitudes toward immigrants are surprisingly variable along a number of important dimensions: anticipated socioeconomic status, family longevity in the community, and employment in…

  14. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  15. Event-related potential evidence suggesting voters remember political events that never happened

    PubMed Central

    Federmeier, Kara D.; Gonsalves, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Voters tend to misattribute issue positions to political candidates that are consistent with their partisan affiliation, even though these candidates have never explicitly stated or endorsed such stances. The prevailing explanation in political science is that voters misattribute candidates’ issue positions because they use their political knowledge to make educated but incorrect guesses. We suggest that voter errors can also stem from a different source: false memories. The current study examined event-related potential (ERP) responses to misattributed and accurately remembered candidate issue information. We report here that ERP responses to misattributed information can elicit memory signals similar to that of correctly remembered old information—a pattern consistent with a false memory rather than educated guessing interpretation of these misattributions. These results suggest that some types of voter misinformation about candidates may be harder to correct than previously thought. PMID:23202775

  16. The relation between body semantics and spatial body representations.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-11-01

    The present study addressed the relation between body semantics (i.e. semantic knowledge about the human body) and spatial body representations, by presenting participants with word pairs, one below the other, referring to body parts. The spatial position of the word pairs could be congruent (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or incongruent (MOUTH / EYE) with respect to the spatial position of the words' referents. In addition, the spatial distance between the words' referents was varied, resulting in word pairs referring to body parts that are close (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or far in space (e.g. EYE / FOOT). A spatial congruency effect was observed when subjects made an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) but not when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1). In addition, when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1) reaction times increased with increased distance between the body parts but when making an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) reaction times decreased with increased distance. These findings suggest that the processing of body-semantics results in the activation of a detailed visuo-spatial body representation that is modulated by the specific task requirements. We discuss these new data with respect to theories of embodied cognition and body semantics.

  17. Language, Perception, and the Schematic Representation of Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual…

  18. The Development of Categorical and Coordinate Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullens, Jessue; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of spatial relations can be distinguished in between and within object representations. Kosslyn [Kosslyn, S. M. (1987). "Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres: A computational approach." "Psychological Review," 94, 148-175] suggested that the right hemisphere (RH) is specialized for processing coordinate (metric) spatial…

  19. Representations of interobject spatial relations in long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Rump, Björn; McNamara, Timothy P

    2013-02-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that human spatial memory is organized in terms of a small number of reference directions and that interobject spatial relations are represented in terms of these directions (e.g., McNamara, 2003). The goal of the present experiments was to investigate whether the selection of reference directions also affects the fidelity with which interobject spatial relations are represented in memory. In two experiments, participants memorized a layout of nine objects and then performed judgments of relative direction (e.g., "Imagine you are standing at the clock, facing the book. Point to the phone.") at a remote location. Imagined heading (e.g., at the clock, facing the book) and allocentric target direction (e.g., the direction from clock to phone in the allocentric frame of reference used to define imagined heading) were manipulated independently. The results of both experiments showed that the same directions that were benefited in imagined headings were also benefited in allocentric target directions. These findings indicate that interobject spatial relations are preferentially represented when they coincide with a reference direction.

  20. Spatial Relative Risk Patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah A.; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened areas of spatial relative risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or ASD hotspots, in Utah were identified using adaptive kernel density functions. Children ages four, six, and eight with ASD from multiple birth cohorts were identified by the Utah Registry of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Each ASD case was gender-matched to…

  1. Relating Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Polymorphisms to Spatial Attention in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants' attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined…

  2. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  3. Disentangling input and output-related components of spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Loetscher, Tobias; Nicholls, Michael E R; Brodtmann, Amy; Thomas, Nicole A; Brugger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a heterogeneous disorder with a multitude of manifestations and subtypes. Common clinical paper and pencil neglect tests fail to differentiate between these subtypes. For example, neglect patients typically bisect lines to the right. This bias can be caused by an underestimation of the left half of the line (input-related deficit), by the failure to direct actions toward the left side of space (output-related deficit), or by a mixture of these impairments. To disentangle these impairments, we used a test consisting of a line bisection task on a touch screen monitor (manual motor task) and the subsequent judgment of one's own bisection performance (visual perceptual task). It was hypothesized that patients with mainly output-related neglect should be better able to recognize their misbisected lines than patients with purely input-related neglect. In a group of 16 patients suffering from spatial neglect after right brain damage, we found that patients were three times more likely to suffer from a predominantly input-related than from an output-related subtype. The results thus suggest that neglect is typically an input-related impairment. Additional analysis of the line bisection task revealed that temporal (slowness in initiation and execution of contralateral movements) and spatial (insufficient movement amplitude toward the contralesional side) aspects of output-related neglect were mutually unrelated. This independence raises the possibility that a fine-grained differentiation of output-related neglect is required. That is, impairments in lateralized temporal and spatial aspects of movements may underlie different neglect subtypes.

  4. Disentangling input and output-related components of spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Loetscher, Tobias; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Brodtmann, Amy; Thomas, Nicole A.; Brugger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a heterogeneous disorder with a multitude of manifestations and subtypes. Common clinical paper and pencil neglect tests fail to differentiate between these subtypes. For example, neglect patients typically bisect lines to the right. This bias can be caused by an underestimation of the left half of the line (input-related deficit), by the failure to direct actions toward the left side of space (output-related deficit), or by a mixture of these impairments. To disentangle these impairments, we used a test consisting of a line bisection task on a touch screen monitor (manual motor task) and the subsequent judgment of one's own bisection performance (visual perceptual task). It was hypothesized that patients with mainly output-related neglect should be better able to recognize their misbisected lines than patients with purely input-related neglect. In a group of 16 patients suffering from spatial neglect after right brain damage, we found that patients were three times more likely to suffer from a predominantly input-related than from an output-related subtype. The results thus suggest that neglect is typically an input-related impairment. Additional analysis of the line bisection task revealed that temporal (slowness in initiation and execution of contralateral movements) and spatial (insufficient movement amplitude toward the contralesional side) aspects of output-related neglect were mutually unrelated. This independence raises the possibility that a fine-grained differentiation of output-related neglect is required. That is, impairments in lateralized temporal and spatial aspects of movements may underlie different neglect subtypes. PMID:22707937

  5. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  6. Incorporating spatial context into the analysis of salmonid habitat relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Baxter, Colden V.; Ebersole, J.L.; Gresswell, Bob; Church, Michael; Biron, Pascale M.; Roy, Andre G.

    2012-01-01

    In this response to the chapter by Lapointe (this volume), we discuss the question of why it is so difficult to predict salmonid-habitat relations in gravel-bed rivers and streams. We acknowledge that this cannot be an exhaustive treatment of the subject and, thus, identify what we believe are several key issues that demonstrate the necessity of incorporating spatial context into the analysis of fish-habitat data. Our emphasis is on spatial context (i.e., scale and location), but it is important to note that the same principles may be applied with some modification to temporal context, which is beyond the scope of this chapter.

  7. Characteristics of Haptic Peripersonal Spatial Representation of Object Relations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Haptic perception of space is known to show characteristics that are different to actual space. The current study extends on this line of research, investigating whether systematic deviations are also observed in the formation of haptic spatial representations of object-to-object relations. We conducted a haptic spatial reproduction task analogous to the parallelity task with spatial layouts. Three magnets were positioned to form corners of an isosceles triangle and the task of the participant was to reproduce the right angle corner. Weobserved systematic deviations in the reproduction of the right angle triangle. The systematic deviations were not observed when the task was conducted on the mid-sagittal plane. Furthermore, the magnitude of the deviation was decreased when non-informative vision was introduced. These results suggest that there is a deformation in spatial representation of object-to-object relations formed using haptics. However, as no systematic deviation was observed when the task was conducted on the mid-saggital plane, we suggest that the perception of object-to-object relations use a different egocentric reference frame to the perception of orientation. PMID:27462990

  8. Characteristics of Haptic Peripersonal Spatial Representation of Object Relations.

    PubMed

    Wako, Ryo; Ayabe-Kanamura, Saho

    2016-01-01

    Haptic perception of space is known to show characteristics that are different to actual space. The current study extends on this line of research, investigating whether systematic deviations are also observed in the formation of haptic spatial representations of object-to-object relations. We conducted a haptic spatial reproduction task analogous to the parallelity task with spatial layouts. Three magnets were positioned to form corners of an isosceles triangle and the task of the participant was to reproduce the right angle corner. Weobserved systematic deviations in the reproduction of the right angle triangle. The systematic deviations were not observed when the task was conducted on the mid-sagittal plane. Furthermore, the magnitude of the deviation was decreased when non-informative vision was introduced. These results suggest that there is a deformation in spatial representation of object-to-object relations formed using haptics. However, as no systematic deviation was observed when the task was conducted on the mid-saggital plane, we suggest that the perception of object-to-object relations use a different egocentric reference frame to the perception of orientation. PMID:27462990

  9. Spatial Kramers-Kronig relations and the reflection of waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, S. A. R.; Artoni, M.; La Rocca, G. C.

    2015-07-01

    When a planar dielectric medium has a permittivity profile that is an analytic function in the upper or lower half of the complex position plane x = x‧ + ix″ then the real and imaginary parts of its permittivity are related by the spatial Kramers-Kronig relations. We find that such a medium will not reflect radiation incident from one side, whatever the angle of incidence. Using the spatial Kramers-Kronig relations, one can derive a real part of a permittivity profile from some given imaginary part (or vice versa) such that the reflection is guaranteed to be zero. This result is valid for both scalar and vector wave theories and may have relevance for designing materials that efficiently absorb radiation or for the creation of a new type of anti-reflection surface.

  10. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  11. Six-Month-Old Infants’ Categorization of Containment Spatial Relations

    PubMed Central

    Casasola, Marianella; Cohen, Leslie B.; Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Six-month-old infants’ ability to form an abstract category of containment was examined using a standard infant categorization task. Infants were habituated to 4 pairs of objects in a containment relation. Following habituation, infants were tested with a novel example of the familiar containment relation and an example of an unfamiliar relation. Results indicate that infants look reliably longer at the unfamiliar versus familiar relation, indicating that they can form a categorical representation of containment. A second experiment demonstrated that infants do not rely on object occlusion to discriminate containment from a support or a behind spatial relation. Together, the results indicate that by 6 months, infants can recognize a containment relation from different angles and across different pairs of objects. PMID:12795384

  12. A step into the anarchist’s mind: examining political attitudes and ideology through event-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N = 12) and anarchists (N = 11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. PMID:21421734

  13. Spatially Locating Time-Lapsed Relative Velocity Changes in Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we examine temporal subsurface relative velocity variations in Yellowstone. This project region has a much larger spatial scaling, as well as a much longer, less abrupt, temporal change than most of the other active settings in which ambient noise temporal velocity variations are measured. By examining the time lag of the ambient Noise Correlation Function (NCF) for a given station pair, we can extract relative velocity variations. These changes represent either subsurface velocity changes (in active settings) or changes due to the seasonal variation in the ambient seismic field. We improve the temporal and spectral stability of the NCFs through a new filter (the adaptive covariance filter - ACF), which allows us to evaluate the main Rayleigh wave arrival rather than coda. By making use of the main arrival the spatial location of these changes can be better understood. We examine all of the available data near the Yellowstone National Park area, including the USArray and the NOISY networks. Using the ACF, we calculate robust NCFs for all station pairs (overlapping in time). We then obtain time-lag estimates of the main arrival for various calendar times throughout the data availability. These lags are then compared to the lags observed at all other spatial station pairs. Using these many combinations of station pairs and lags, we build and perform an inversion, where these relative velocities are compared to a background velocity at subsequently different times. The spatial location of the velocity changes can be observed over time, and it can be ascertained as to whether these observed velocity variations are due to subsurface changes (such as the inflationary uplift from 2004-2010 in Yellowstone), or whether the observed changes are more indicative of the regional changes in the ambient seismic field.

  14. An Exploration of Upper-Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners' Perception of Politeness Strategies and Power Relation in Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niroomand, Masoumeh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the ways power relations influence politeness strategies in disagreement. The study was an attempt to find out whether different power status of people influences the the choice of appropriate politeness strategies and speech act of disagreement by Iranian EFL learners, in a university setting. A Discourse…

  15. The Relation between Civic Education and Political Attitudes and Behavior: A Two-Year Panel Study among Belgian Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dassonneville, Ruth; Quintelier, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that civic education efforts will have a positive effect on the political attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. In the present study, we distinguish among formal civic education, an open classroom climate, and active learning strategies, and we explore their relation with political interest, efficacy,…

  16. Relating dopaminergic and cholinergic polymorphisms to spatial attention in infancy.

    PubMed

    Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2014-02-01

    Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants' attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined neurodevelopmental factors associated with attention orienting during infancy. The present study examined the relationship between normative genetic polymorphisms affecting dopamine and acetylcholine signaling and attention orienting in 7-month-old infants during a spatial cueing task. We focused on 3 genes, including the CHRNA4 C¹⁵⁴⁵T SNP (rs10344946), DAT1 3'UTR VNTR, and COMT Val¹⁵⁸Met SNP (rs4680), as previous adult research has linked spatial attention skills to these polymorphisms. Behavioral measures included both facilitation of orienting at the cued location as well as inhibition of return (IOR), in which attention orienting is suppressed at the cued location. Results indicated that COMT Val carriers showed robust IOR relative to infants with the Met/Met genotype. However, COMT was unrelated to infants' facilitation responses, and there were no effects of CHRNA4 or DAT1 on either facilitation or IOR. Overall, this study suggests that variations in dopamine signaling, likely in prefrontal cortex, contribute to individual differences in orienting during early development.

  17. Relating Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Polymorphisms to Spatial Attention in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants’ attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined neurodevelopmental factors associated with attention orienting during infancy. The present study examined the relationship between normative genetic polymorphisms affecting dopamine and acetylcholine signaling and attention orienting in 7-month-old infants during a spatial cueing task. We focused on 3 genes, including the CHRNA4 C1545T SNP (rs10344946), DAT1 3′ UTR VNTR, and COMT Val158Met SNP (rs4680), as previous adult research has linked spatial attention skills to these polymorphisms. Behavioral measures included both facilitation of orienting at the cued location as well as inhibition of return (IOR), in which attention orienting is suppressed at the cued location. Results indicated that COMT Val carriers showed robust IOR relative to infants with the Met/Met genotype. However, COMT was unrelated to infants’ facilitation responses, and there were no effects of CHRNA4 or DAT1 on either facilitation or IOR. Overall, this study suggests that variations in dopamine signaling, likely in prefrontal cortex, contribute to individual differences in orienting during early development. PMID:23731290

  18. Spatial reasoning with incomplete information on relative positioning.

    PubMed

    Dehak, Sidi Mohammed Réda; Bloch, Isabelle; Maître, Henri

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic method of inferring the position of a point with respect to a reference point knowing their relative spatial position to a third point. We address this problem in the case of incomplete information where only the angular spatial relationships are known. The use of probabilistic representations allows us to model prior knowledge. We derive exact formulae expressing the conditional probability of the position given the two known angles, in typical cases: uniform or Gaussian random prior distributions within rectangular or circular regions. This result is illustrated with respect to two different simulations: The first is devoted to the localization of a mobile phone using only angular relationships, the second, to geopositioning within a city. This last example uses angular relationships and some additional knowledge about the position. PMID:16173189

  19. Spatial distribution of Serengeti wildebeest in relation to resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmshurst, J.F.; Fryxell, J.M.; Farm, Brian P.; Sinclair, A.R.E.; Henschel, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of radio-marked wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) in the Serengeti ecosystem in relation to the distribution of their food resources, comparing patterns in the wet and dry seasons and at local and landscape spatial scales. A mechanistic model of ruminant energy optimization predicted that wildebeest should maximize energy intake on swards 3 cm high and maintain energy balance on swards between 3 and 10 cm high. At the ecosystem scale, wildebeest preferred short and intermediate-height grass of moderate greenness during both the wet and dry seasons. This was consistent with the model prediction which suggests that large-scale movements by wildebeest are motivated, at least partially, by an energy-maximizing strategy. At the local scale, however, wildebeest showed spatial selectivity only on the basis of grass greenness, not on grass height. This differed from model expectations and may have resulted from wildebeest exploiting ephemeral green flushes of grass caused by localized rainfall in their movement radius. According to these results, the influence of other nutritional or behavioural factors on wildebeest distributions is not rejected, yet they suggest the potentially important role of an energy intake maximizing strategy on movement patterns. Our findings show that wildebeest movements are broadly similar to those of other large herbivores that migrate in response to resource gradients.

  20. Uni- Versus Multidimensional Comparison of Political Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    Journalists view the left-right continuum as a dimension on which political entities array themselves in order to vie for a similarly arrayed public. Such a spatial measuring device is useful, since it allows journalists to compare political entities on a common scale that readers supposedly understand and on which they can relate their own…

  1. The spatial relation between EUV cavities and linear polarization signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak-Stȩślicka, Urszula; Gibson, Sarah E.; Fan, Yuhong; Bethge, Christian; Forland, Blake; Rachmeler, Laurel A.

    2014-01-01

    Solar coronal cavities are regions of rarefied density and elliptical cross-section. The Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) obtains daily full-Sun coronal observations in linear polarization, allowing a systematic analysis of the coronal magnetic field in polar-crown prominence cavities. These cavities commonly possess a characteristic ``lagomorphic'' signature in linear polarization that may be explained by a magnetic flux-rope model. We analyze the spatial relation between the EUV cavity and the CoMP linear polarization signature.

  2. Fluctuation-Dissipation Relation for Systems with Spatially Varying Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farago, Oded; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels

    2014-09-01

    When a particle diffuses in a medium with spatially dependent friction coefficient at constant temperature , it drifts toward the low friction end of the system even in the absence of any real physical force . This phenomenon, which has been previously studied in the context of non-inertial Brownian dynamics, is termed "spurious drift", although the drift is real and stems from an inertial effect taking place at the short temporal scales. Here, we study the diffusion of particles in inhomogeneous media within the framework of the inertial Langevin equation. We demonstrate that the quantity which characterizes the dynamics with non-uniform is not the displacement of the particle (where is the initial position), but rather , where is the primitive function of . We derive expressions relating the mean and variance of to , , and the duration of the dynamics . For a constant friction coefficient , these expressions reduce to the well known forms of the force-drift and fluctuation-dissipation relations. We introduce a very accurate method for Langevin dynamics simulations in systems with spatially varying , and use the method to validate the newly derived expressions.

  3. Spatial relative risk patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Utah

    PubMed Central

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Heightened areas of spatial relative risk for ASD, or ASD hotspots, in Utah were identified using adaptive kernel density functions. Children ages four, six and eight with ASD from multiple birth cohorts were identified by the Utah Registry of Autism and Developmental Disabilities (URADD). Each ASD case was gender-matched to 20 birth cohort controls. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of children born inside versus outside ASD hotspots were compared. ASD hotspots were found in the surveillance area for all but one birth cohort and age group sample; maximum relative risk in these hotspots ranged from 1.8 to 3.0. Associations were found between higher socioeconomic status (SES) and birth residence in an ASD hotspot in five out of six birth cohort and age group samples. PMID:25241009

  4. Temporal and spatial organization of gait-related electrocortical potentials.

    PubMed

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-07-10

    To advance gait rehabilitation research it is of great importance to understand the supraspinal control of walking. In this study, the temporal and spatial characteristics of averaged electrocortical activity during treadmill walking in healthy subjects was assessed. Electroencephalography data were recorded from 32 scalp locations, averaged across trials, and related to phases of the gait cycle based on the detection of left heel strike. A characteristic temporal pattern of positive and negative potentials, similar to movement-related cortical potentials, and related to the gait cycle was observed over the cortical leg representation area. Source localization analysis revealed that mainly the primary somatosensory, somatosensory association, primary motor and cingulate cortex were activated during walking. The negative peaks of the gait-related cortical potential were associated with activity predominantly in the cingulate and prefrontal cortex, while the primary motor, primary somatosensory and somatosensory association cortex were mainly active during the positive peaks. This study identified gait-related cortical potentials during walking. The results indicate a widely distributed cortical network involved in gait control.

  5. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  6. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  7. Gender differences in emotions, forgiveness and tolerance in relation to political violence.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Susana; Etxebarria, Itziar; Montero, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study, which forms part of a broader research project, analyzes gender differences in: the intensity of diverse emotions, the justification of violence, attitudes towards the terrorist group ETA, forgiveness and tolerance. Participants comprised 728 people (45.5% men and 54.5% women) resident in either Basque Country or Navarra (Spain), representative of all national identities and political ideologies existing in this context. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed and administered between November 2005 and February 2006, a short time before ETA declared a ceasefire. Women reported more intensity in fear for political reasons and scored higher in two of the six measures of empathy included in the study (empathy with prisoners and empathy with those who suffer and think like oneself). Men scored higher in positive emotionality, indifference and Schadenfreude. Women perceived apology and forgiveness as more necessary elements for achieving peace than men. These results suggest that it may be beneficial for women to play a more prominent role in relation to the resolution of intergroup conflicts such as the one existing in the Basque Country. PMID:25011407

  8. Gender differences in emotions, forgiveness and tolerance in relation to political violence.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Susana; Etxebarria, Itziar; Montero, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study, which forms part of a broader research project, analyzes gender differences in: the intensity of diverse emotions, the justification of violence, attitudes towards the terrorist group ETA, forgiveness and tolerance. Participants comprised 728 people (45.5% men and 54.5% women) resident in either Basque Country or Navarra (Spain), representative of all national identities and political ideologies existing in this context. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed and administered between November 2005 and February 2006, a short time before ETA declared a ceasefire. Women reported more intensity in fear for political reasons and scored higher in two of the six measures of empathy included in the study (empathy with prisoners and empathy with those who suffer and think like oneself). Men scored higher in positive emotionality, indifference and Schadenfreude. Women perceived apology and forgiveness as more necessary elements for achieving peace than men. These results suggest that it may be beneficial for women to play a more prominent role in relation to the resolution of intergroup conflicts such as the one existing in the Basque Country.

  9. Communicating Climate Uncertainties: Challenges and Opportunities Related to Spatial Scales, Extreme Events, and the Warming 'Hiatus'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casola, J. H.; Huber, D.

    2013-12-01

    Many media, academic, government, and advocacy organizations have achieved sophistication in developing effective messages based on scientific information, and can quickly translate salient aspects of emerging climate research and evolving observations. However, there are several ways in which valid messages can be misconstrued by decision makers, leading them to inaccurate conclusions about the risks associated with climate impacts. Three cases will be discussed: 1) Issues of spatial scale in interpreting climate observations: Local climate observations may contradict summary statements about the effects of climate change on larger regional or global spatial scales. Effectively addressing these differences often requires communicators to understand local and regional climate drivers, and the distinction between a 'signal' associated with climate change and local climate 'noise.' Hydrological statistics in Missouri and California are shown to illustrate this case. 2) Issues of complexity related to extreme events: Climate change is typically invoked following a wide range of damaging meteorological events (e.g., heat waves, landfalling hurricanes, tornadoes), regardless of the strength of the relationship between anthropogenic climate change and the frequency or severity of that type of event. Examples are drawn from media coverage of several recent events, contrasting useful and potentially confusing word choices and frames. 3) Issues revolving around climate sensitivity: The so-called 'pause' or 'hiatus' in global warming has reverberated strongly through political and business discussions of climate change. Addressing the recent slowdown in warming yields an important opportunity to raise climate literacy in these communities. Attempts to use recent observations as a wedge between climate 'believers' and 'deniers' is likely to be counterproductive. Examples are drawn from Congressional testimony and media stories. All three cases illustrate ways that decision

  10. Relating mesocarnivore relative abundance to anthropogenic land-use with a hierarchical spatial count model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crimmins, Shawn M.; Walleser, Liza R.; Hertel, Dan R.; McKann, Patrick C.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing need to develop models of spatial patterns in animal abundance, yet comparatively few examples of such models exist. This is especially true in situations where the abundance of one species may inhibit that of another, such as the intensively-farmed landscape of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the central United States, where waterfowl production is largely constrained by mesocarnivore nest predation. We used a hierarchical Bayesian approach to relate the distribution of various land-cover types to the relative abundances of four mesocarnivores in the PPR: coyote Canis latrans, raccoon Procyon lotor, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and striped skunk Mephitis mephitis. We developed models for each species at multiple spatial resolutions (41.4 km2, 10.4 km2, and 2.6 km2) to address different ecological and management-related questions. Model results for each species were similar irrespective of resolution. We found that the amount of row-crop agriculture was nearly ubiquitous in our best models, exhibiting a positive relationship with relative abundance for each species. The amount of native grassland land-cover was positively associated with coyote and raccoon relative abundance, but generally absent from models for red fox and skunk. Red fox and skunk were positively associated with each other, suggesting potential niche overlap. We found no evidence that coyote abundance limited that of other mesocarnivore species, as might be expected under a hypothesis of mesopredator release. The relationships between relative abundance and land-cover types were similar across spatial resolutions. Our results indicated that mesocarnivores in the PPR are most likely to occur in portions of the landscape with large amounts of agricultural land-cover. Further, our results indicated that track-survey data can be used in a hierarchical framework to gain inferences regarding spatial patterns in animal relative abundance.

  11. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino's petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa. PMID:27001141

  12. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H.; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino’s petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa. PMID:27001141

  13. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H.; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino’s petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa.

  14. Spatial Ability in Relatives of Reading-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Sadie N.

    A Study was conducted to test the hypothesis proposed by J. S. Symmes and J. L. Rapoport that a sex-linked recessive gene might account for the good spatial ability found among dyslexic readers, the familial pattern of the disorder, and the frequently reported sex ratio of three affected males to one female. Spatial/reasoning ability scores were…

  15. Cosmological evolution: spatial relativity and the speed of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Robert B.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2008-08-01

    Three recent discoveries support the existence of an extra-planetary, cometary biosphere that is capable of spanning the galaxy: 1) the discovery of ancient cyanobacterial fossils on carbonaceous chondrites, which are widely believed to be extinct comets, 2) the observations and theory that all short-period comets have irreversibly melted and undergo periodic remeltings, and, 3) the observation that comets can accrete inner solar-system material, including spores from other infected comets. While no direct observation of sub-cellular, fossilized viruses exist, their ubiquity and proximity with cyanobacteria, suggest that the proposed cometary biosphere also carries a full complement of bacteriophages. The recent work transcribing viral DNA of bacteriophages reveals an active horizontal transfer of genes though a vector that doesn't itself benefit from the genes. Thus the cometary biosphere is capable of transporting genes throughout the galaxy that are not themselves expressed in space. This suggests that evolution may occur not just in time, but in space as well, making the Earth and its history less significant for a cosmological theory of evolution. By analogy to relativity, we propose that the ratio of spatial to temporal evolution is more constant than either term alone, which we call the speed of life.

  16. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... publication, in an announcement or news story, or at a public meeting, regardless of whether the employee's... Political Science Association, the American Economic Association, the American Foreign Service...

  17. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... publication, in an announcement or news story, or at a public meeting, regardless of whether the employee's... Political Science Association, the American Economic Association, the American Foreign Service...

  18. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... publication, in an announcement or news story, or at a public meeting, regardless of whether the employee's... Political Science Association, the American Economic Association, the American Foreign Service...

  19. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... publication, in an announcement or news story, or at a public meeting, regardless of whether the employee's... Political Science Association, the American Economic Association, the American Foreign Service...

  20. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... publication, in an announcement or news story, or at a public meeting, regardless of whether the employee's... Political Science Association, the American Economic Association, the American Foreign Service...

  1. Spatial anxiety relates to spatial abilities as a function of working memory in children.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability is a strong predictor of students' pursuit of higher education in science and mathematics. However, very little is known about the affective factors that influence individual differences in spatial ability, particularly at a young age. We examine the role of spatial anxiety in young children's performance on a mental rotation task. We show that even at a young age, children report experiencing feelings of nervousness at the prospect of engaging in spatial activities. Moreover, we show that these feelings are associated with reduced mental rotation ability among students with high but not low working memory (WM). Interestingly, this WM × spatial anxiety interaction was only found among girls. We discuss these patterns of results in terms of the problem-solving strategies that boys versus girls use in solving mental rotation problems.

  2. Differential Mobility Spectrometer with Spatial Ion Detector and Methods Related Thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Kanik, Isik (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Differential mobility spectrometer with spatial ion detector and methods related thereto are disclosed. The use of one or more spatial detector within differential mobility spectrometry can provide for the identification and separation of ions with similar mobility and mass.

  3. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  4. Neuroelectrical Correlates of Trustworthiness and Dominance Judgments Related to the Observation of Political Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Toppi, Jlenia; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Astolfi, Laura; Mattia, Donatella; Colosimo, Alfredo; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigates the neurophysiological activity elicited by fast observations of faces of real candidates during simulated political elections. We used simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals as well as galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) as measurements of central and autonomic nervous systems. Twenty healthy subjects were asked to give judgments on dominance, trustworthiness, and a preference of vote related to the politicians' faces. We used high-resolution EEG techniques to map statistical differences of power spectral density (PSD) cortical activity onto a realistic head model as well as partial directed coherence (PDC) and graph theory metrics to estimate the functional connectivity networks and investigate the role of cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Behavioral results revealed that judgment of dominance trait is the most predictive of the outcome of the simulated elections. Statistical comparisons related to PSD and PDC values highlighted an asymmetry in the activation of frontal cortical areas associated with the valence of the judged trait as well as to the probability to cast the vote. Overall, our results highlight the existence of cortical EEG features which are correlated with the prediction of vote and with the judgment of trustworthy and dominant faces. PMID:25214884

  5. An Investigation of Iranian EFL Learners' Use of Politeness Strategies and Power Relations in Disagreement across Different Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnam, Biook; Niroomand, Masoumeh

    2011-01-01

    The speech act of disagreement has been one of the speech acts that receives the least attention in the field of pragmatics. This study investigates the ways power relations influence politeness strategies in disagreement. In order to determine whether and to what extent the realization of the speech act of disagreeing and the of appropriate…

  6. Social Studies: Economics, International Relations, and Political Science. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily

    These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…

  7. Education, Politics and Sino-Japanese Relations: Reflections on a Three-Year Project on "East Asian Images of Japan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a recent collaborative and interdisciplinary study of East Asian Images of Japan, this article discusses contemporary Chinese portrayals of Japan, their political context, and their significance for Sino-Japanese relations. It questions some widely-held assumptions concerning the extent of "thought control" in an authoritarian…

  8. "Acceptance of the Limits of Knowability in Oneself and Others": Performative Politics and Relational Ethics in the Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes up Judith Butler's calls to suspend the desire to completely know the other, and discusses these in relation to the pedagogic relationship in the classroom. It draws upon existing accounts of performative reinscription as a politics to disrupt exclusionary schooling practices and discusses these alongside Butler's theories of…

  9. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Joop T V M

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed. PMID:19883967

  10. Males Outperform Females in Translating Social Relations into Spatial Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that human males interact in groups, whereas females form one-on-one relationships. Whereas females excel in understanding intimate verbally-mediated social information, we hypothesized that males would be more sensitive to the spatial positions of friends within a group. In Study 1, we demonstrate that after a very brief…

  11. Exploring the Effects of Similarity on Mapping Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Bowers, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    Solving a map task requires transferring information acquired in one spatial context to another context, an ability that marks an important step in cognitive development. This study investigated how preschoolers' mapping performance was affected by the extent of similarity between spaces. Whereas prior work examined effects of similarity in tasks…

  12. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills…

  13. Does Changing the Reference Frame Affect Infant Categorization of the Spatial Relation BETWEEN?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Papafragou, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that variation in the target objects depicting a given spatial relation disrupts the formation of a category representation for that relation. In the current research, we asked whether changing the orientation of the referent frame depicting the spatial relation would also disrupt the formation of a category representation…

  14. Age-related effects on spatial memory across viewpoint changes relative to different reference frames.

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Sulpizio, Valentina; Galati, Gaspare; Committeri, Giorgia

    2015-07-01

    Remembering object positions across different views is a fundamental competence for acting and moving appropriately in a large-scale space. Behavioural and neurological changes in elderly subjects suggest that the spatial representations of the environment might decline compared to young participants. However, no data are available on the use of different reference frames within topographical space in aging. Here we investigated the use of allocentric and egocentric frames in aging, by asking young and older participants to encode the location of a target in a virtual room relative either to stable features of the room (allocentric environment-based frame), or to an unstable objects set (allocentric objects-based frame), or to the viewer's viewpoint (egocentric frame). After a viewpoint change of 0° (absent), 45° (small) or 135° (large), participants judged whether the target was in the same spatial position as before relative to one of the three frames. Results revealed a different susceptibility to viewpoint changes in older than young participants. Importantly, we detected a worst performance, in terms of reaction times, for older than young participants in the allocentric frames. The deficit was more marked for the environment-based frame, for which a lower sensitivity was revealed as well as a worst performance even when no viewpoint change occurred. Our data provide new evidence of a greater vulnerability of the allocentric, in particular environment-based, spatial coding with aging, in line with the retrogenesis theory according to which cognitive changes in aging reverse the sequence of acquisition in mental development. PMID:25037856

  15. Spatial relational learning in rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus).

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jonathan; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2006-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that animals can learn abstract spatial relationships, and successfully transfer this knowledge to novel situations. In this study, rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) were trained to feed from either the lower or the higher of two flowers. When presented with a test pair of flowers, one of which was at a novel height, they chose the flower in the appropriate spatial position rather than the flower at the correct height. This response may also have been influenced by a preference for taller flowers as acquisition of the task during experimental training occurred more readily when the reward flower was the taller of the pair. Thus, it appears that although learning abstract relationships may be a general phenomenon across contexts, and perhaps across species, the ease with which they are learned and the context in which they are subsequently used may not be the same.

  16. Energy density and spatial curvature in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, T.; Galloway, G.J.

    1981-04-01

    Positive energy density tends to limit the size of space. This effect is studied within several contexts. We obtain sufficient conditions (which involve the energy density in a crucial way) for the compactness of spatial hypersurfaces in space-time. We then obtain some results concerning static or, more generally, stationary space-times. The Schwarzchild solution puts an upper bound on the size of a static spherically symmetric fluid with density bounded from below. We derive a result of roughly the same nature which, however, requires no symmetry and allows for rotation. Also, we show that static or rotating universes with L = 0 require that the density along some spatial geodesic must fall off rapidly with distance from a point.

  17. Deconstructing building blocks: preschoolers' spatial assembly performance relates to early mathematical skills.

    PubMed

    Verdine, Brian N; Golinkoff, Roberta M; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S; Filipowicz, Andrew T; Chang, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematical performance. Finally, the relation between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower SES children were already lagging behind higher SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. PMID:24112041

  18. Power Versus Affiliation in Political Ideology: Robust Linguistic Evidence for Distinct Motivation-Related Signatures.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Boyd, Ryan L; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Posited motivational differences between liberals and conservatives have historically been controversial. This motivational interface has recently been bridged, but the vast majority of studies have used self-reports of values or motivation. Instead, the present four studies investigated whether two classic social motive themes--power and affiliation--vary by political ideology in objective linguistic analysis terms. Study 1 found that posts to liberal chat rooms scored higher in standardized affiliation than power, whereas the reverse was true of posts to conservative chat rooms. Study 2 replicated this pattern in the context of materials posted to liberal versus conservative political news websites. Studies 3 and 4, finally, replicated a similar interactive (ideology by motive type) pattern in State of the State and State of the Union addresses. Differences in political ideology, these results suggest, are marked by, and likely reflective of, mind-sets favoring affiliation (liberal) or power (conservative).

  19. Power Versus Affiliation in Political Ideology: Robust Linguistic Evidence for Distinct Motivation-Related Signatures.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Boyd, Ryan L; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Posited motivational differences between liberals and conservatives have historically been controversial. This motivational interface has recently been bridged, but the vast majority of studies have used self-reports of values or motivation. Instead, the present four studies investigated whether two classic social motive themes--power and affiliation--vary by political ideology in objective linguistic analysis terms. Study 1 found that posts to liberal chat rooms scored higher in standardized affiliation than power, whereas the reverse was true of posts to conservative chat rooms. Study 2 replicated this pattern in the context of materials posted to liberal versus conservative political news websites. Studies 3 and 4, finally, replicated a similar interactive (ideology by motive type) pattern in State of the State and State of the Union addresses. Differences in political ideology, these results suggest, are marked by, and likely reflective of, mind-sets favoring affiliation (liberal) or power (conservative). PMID:26101445

  20. On the identification and establishment of topological spatial relations by autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel-Tomé, Sergio; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Human beings use spatial relations to describe many daily tasks in their language. For a mobile robot to be useful in daily life, it is necessary to have navigation algorithms capable of identifying and establishing spatial relations. To date in robotics, the navigation problem has been thoroughly researched as a task of guiding a robot from one spatial coordinate to another. Therefore, there is a difference in degree of abstraction between the language of human beings and the algorithms used in robot navigation. This article introduces a piece of research performed on the use of topological relations for the formalisation of spatial relations and navigation. So far, topological relations have been applied widely in geographical information systems and also in spatial logics. There are some proposals in robot navigation which use them for planning but there is no research about making decision in robot navigation. Our research focuses on decision-making methods to establish spatial relations. The main result is a new heuristic, called the Heuristic of Topological Qualitative Semantics (HTQS), which allows the identification and establishment of spatial relations decision-making from a set of actions. To demonstrate its effectiveness, HTQS has been implemented in the form of agents that can move in a two-dimensional virtual environment. HTQS opens a new door to designing algorithms for navigation based on the identification and establishment of spatial relations.

  1. One Hidden Object, Two Spatial Codes: Young Children's Use of Relational and Vector Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; Sandstrom, Lisa B.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2006-01-01

    An important characteristic of mature spatial cognition is the ability to encode spatial locations in terms of relations among landmarks as well as in terms of vectors that include distance and direction. In this study, we examined children's use of the relation "middle" to code the location of a hidden toy, using a procedure adapted from prior…

  2. Spatial Relation between Microbleeds and Amyloid Deposits in Amyloid Angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dierksen, Gregory A; Skehan, Maureen E; Khan, Muhammad A; Jeng, Jed; Nandigam, RN Kaveer; Becker, John A; Kumar, Ashok; Neal, Krista L; Betensky, Rebecca A; Frosch, Matthew P; Rosand, Jonathan; Johnson, Keith A; Viswanathan, Anand; Salat, David H; Greenberg, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Advanced cerebrovascular β-amyloid deposition (cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CAA) is associated with cerebral microbleeds, but the precise relationship between CAA burden and microbleeds is undefined. We used T2*-weighted MRI and noninvasive amyloid imaging with Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) to analyze the spatial relationship between CAA and microbleeds. On co-registered PET and MRI images, PiB retention was increased at microbleed sites compared to simulated control lesions (p=0.002) and declined with increasing distance from the microbleed (p<0.0001). These findings indicate that microbleeds occur preferentially in local regions of concentrated amyloid and support therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing vascular amyloid deposition. PMID:20865701

  3. Facilitation of learning spatial relations among locations by visual cues: implications for theoretical accounts of spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Sturz, Bradley R; Brown, Michael F; Kelly, Debbie M

    2009-04-01

    Human participants searched in a real environment or interactive 3-D virtual environment open field for four hidden goal locations arranged in a 2 x 2 square configuration in a 5 x 5 matrix of raised bins. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: cues + pattern or pattern only. The participants experienced a training phase, followed by a testing phase. Visual cues specified the goal locations during training only for the cues + pattern group. Both groups were then tested in the absence of visual cues. The results in both environments indicated that the participants learned the spatial relations among goal locations. However, visual cues during training facilitated learning of the spatial relations among goal locations: In both environments, the participants trained with the visual cues made fewer errors during testing than did those trained only with the pattern. The results suggest that learning based on the spatial relations among locations may not be susceptible to cue competition effects and have implications for standard associative and dual-system accounts of spatial learning. PMID:19293099

  4. Mestiza Consciousness in Relation to Sustained Political Solidarity: A Chicana Feminist Interpretation of the Farmworker Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barvosa, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most significant themes in Chicana feminist thought are the character of mestiza consciousness and the view that political solidarity--that is, the uniting of diverse people in common cause--should build upon diversity among peoples rather than on a single shared identity. Numerous Chicana and Latina feminists have connected these two…

  5. A History of Black and Brown: Chicana/o-African American Cultural and Political Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Luis; Widener, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Rather than assume that ethnicity or race necessarily marks the edges of one's culture or politics, the contributors to this dossier highlight the messy, blurry, and often contradictory relationships that arise when Chicana/os and African Americans engage one another. The essays explore the complicated mix of cooperation and conflict that…

  6. Analog solar system model relates celestial bodies spatially

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerg, H. R.

    1966-01-01

    Portable analog planetarium indicates the relative time and space angular locations of the sun and planets. Distance measuring scales, angular direction indicators, and typical probe trajectories are included.

  7. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematics Skills

    PubMed Central

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematics skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematics performance. Finally, the relationship between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status, gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower-SES children were already lagging behind higher-SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower-SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. PMID:24112041

  8. Spatial Relevancies of Hybrid Systems Relates to Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Widastra, Fatahillah

    2015-05-01

    After S/F hybrid system from Martin Lange, of spatial modulation Superconductor-Electromagnet hybrids superconductor producing studies conclusion, for superconductor at large Hand/or T(i.e close to the phase transitionline), when the superfluid densitiy tends to 0. Further as for He3-B superfluid ``testing ground'', after sought extensometer for every materials testing application from , in K Matsumoto:``Flux pinning Engineering for Application of HTS'', 2013 quote Higgs boson , whereas it plays role as similar phenomena of Meissner effect, both involves magnet levitating. Accompanying Gosowong vein, US 16. 3 Million costed study-report who said the toxic waste also endangering biodiversity[Dini Septanti: ``The BUYAT Case: Straddling between Environmental Securitization & De-securitization'', herewith proposed the ``complexity systems'' comparison comprises also phase transition & ``directed polymer'' notions of JP Bouchaud et al: ``Wealth condensation in a simple model of economy''. Incredibles acknowledgment to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE.Mr.Ir. H. ABURIZAL BAKRIE.

  9. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  10. Individual Differences in Spatial Relation Processing: Effects of Strategy, Ability, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Borst, Gregoire

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the distinction between categorical and coordinate spatial relations. Categorical relations are propositional and abstract, and often related to a left hemisphere advantage. Coordinate relations specify the metric information of the relative locations of objects, and can be linked to right hemisphere processing.…

  11. Naming and gesturing spatial relations: Evidence from focal brain-injured individuals

    PubMed Central

    Göksun, Tilbe; Lehet, Matthew; Malykhina, Katsiaryna; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Spatial language helps us encode relations between objects and organize our thinking. Little is known about the neural instantiations of spatial language. Using voxel-lesion symptom mapping (VLSM), we tested the hypothesis that focal brain injured patients who had damage to left frontal-parietal peri-Sylvian regions would have difficulty in naming spatial relations between objects. We also investigated the relationship between impaired verbalization of spatial relations and spontaneous gesture production. Patients with left or right hemisphere damage and elderly control participants were asked to name static (e.g., an apple on a book) and dynamic (e.g., a pen moves over a box) locative relations depicted in brief video clips. The correct use of prepositions in each task and gestures that represent the spatial relations were coded. Damage to the left posterior middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left anterior superior temporal gyrus were related to impairment in naming spatial relations. Production of spatial gestures negatively correlated with naming accuracy, suggesting that gestures might help or compensate for difficulty with lexical access. Additional analyses suggested that left hemisphere patients who had damage to the left posterior middle frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gestured less than expected, if gestures are used to compensate for impairments in retrieving prepositions. PMID:23685196

  12. Age-related spatial working memory deficits in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent J; Hough, Gerald; Bingman, Verner P

    2014-12-01

    The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related degeneration that, like hippocampal lesions, is thought to lead to age-related decline in spatial memory and navigation. Lesions to the avian hippocampal formation (HF) also result in impaired spatial memory and navigation, but the relationship between aging and HF-dependent spatial cognition is unknown. To investigate possible age-related decline in avian spatial cognition, the current study investigated spatial working memory performance in older homing pigeons (10+ years of age). Pigeons completed a behavioral procedure nearly identical to the delayed spatial, win-shift procedure in a modified radial arm maze that has been previously used to study spatial working memory in rats and pigeons. The results revealed that the older pigeons required a greater number of choices to task completion and were less accurate with their first 4 choices as compared to younger pigeons (1-2 years of age). In addition, older pigeons were more likely to adopt a stereotyped sampling strategy, which explained in part their impaired performance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an age-related impairment of HF-dependent, spatial memory in birds. Implications and future directions of the findings are discussed.

  13. The relation between spatial skill and early number knowledge: the role of the linear number line.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L; Levine, Susan C

    2012-09-01

    Spatial skill is highly related to success in math and science (e.g., Casey, Nuttall, Pezaris, & Benbow, 1995). However, little work has investigated the cognitive pathways by which the relation between spatial skill and math achievement emerges. We hypothesized that spatial skill plays a crucial role in the development of numerical reasoning by helping children to create a spatially meaningful, powerful numerical representation-the linear number line. In turn, a strong linear number representation improves other aspects of numerical knowledge such as arithmetic estimation. We tested this hypothesis using 2 longitudinal data sets. First, we found that children's spatial skill (i.e., mental transformation ability) at the beginning of 1st and 2nd grades predicted improvement in linear number line knowledge over the course of the school year. Second, we found that children's spatial skill at age 5 years predicted their performance on an approximate symbolic calculation task at age 8 and that this relation was mediated by children's linear number line knowledge at age 6. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that spatial skill can improve children's development of numerical knowledge by helping them to acquire a linear spatial representation of numbers. PMID:22390659

  14. Generation of spatial filters by ICA for detecting motor-related oscillatory EEG.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, Shin'ichiro; Miyamoto, Ko-ichiro; Yoshinobu, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    To detect the imagined limb movement from EEG for the use in BCI, the increase (ERS) and decrease (ERD) of the band power of the EEG originated from the sensorimotor cortex are commonly used. A spatial filter using neighboring channels is generally applied to the measured EEG for detecting such brain activity related to the motor imagery. However, the configuration and location of the spatial filter have been selected by the empirical method on trial-and-error basis. In this study, we recorded the EEG during motor imagery of left hand, right hand and feet from five subjects, and the ICA (independent component analysis) was applied to discover the spatial filters for extracting event-related EEG components of the motor imagery. It was suggested that the application of ICA might offer the experimenters appropriate local spatial filters, or at least, the "initial guess" for designing or selecting custom local spatial filters. PMID:23366237

  15. [Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].

    PubMed

    Lima, B G

    2000-03-01

    Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.

  16. Spatial configuration of vertically related word pairs modulates the N400 component.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Tyler M; Magne, Cyrille; Langston, William

    2014-12-17

    This study examined the effect of spatial iconicity on the N400 component. Spatial iconicity is defined as the spatial arrangement of words on a screen relative to the spatial arrangement of their referents (e.g. attic-basement). In two experiments, electroencephalograms were recorded in 32 participants while performing a semantic relatedness judgment task on pairs of words that were either related or unrelated. All of the related word pairs were parts of objects that shared a vertical spatial relationship. In Experiment 1, the words of each pair were presented simultaneously on top of one another. Results showed that related word pairs presented in a spatial arrangement that mismatched the spatial relationship of their referents were associated with increased error rates as well as larger N400 components known to index semantic/conceptual processing cost. These findings thus suggest that the words automatically activated visuospatial simulations of their referents and that semantic/conceptual processing difficulty arose when the vertical arrangement of the word pairs was inconsistent with those simulations. In line with this interpretation, these effects were not present in Experiment 2 when the words of each pair were presented in succession in the middle of the screen. Overall, these results provide evidence that perceptual simulations contribute to some of the underlying processes of the N400 component (see video abstract, Supplemental digital content 1, http://links.lww.com/WNR/A304). PMID:25371283

  17. Exploration as a mediator of the relation between the attainment of motor milestones and the development of spatial cognition and spatial language.

    PubMed

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Leseman, Paul P M; Volman, M Chiel J M

    2015-09-01

    The embodied-cognition approach views cognition and language as grounded in daily sensorimotor child-environment interactions. Therefore, the attainment of motor milestones is expected to play a role in cognitive-linguistic development. Early attainment of unsupported sitting and independent walking indeed predict better spatial cognition and language at later ages. However, evidence linking these milestones with the development of spatial language and evidence regarding factors that might mediate this relation are scarce. The current study examined whether exploration of spatial-relational object properties (e.g., the possibility of containing or stacking) and exploration of the space through self-locomotion mediate the effect of, respectively, age of sitting and age of walking on spatial cognition and spatial language. Thus, we hypothesized that an earlier age of sitting and walking predicts, respectively, higher levels of spatial-relational object exploration and exploration through self-locomotion, which in turn, predict better spatial cognition and spatial language at later ages. Fifty-nine Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. A combination of tests, observations, and parental reports was used to measure motor development, exploratory behavior (age 20 months), spatial memory (age 24 months), spatial processing (age 32 months), and spatial language (age 36 months). Results show that attainment of sitting predicted spatial memory and spatial language, but spatial-relational object exploration did not mediate these effects. Attainment of independent walking predicted spatial processing and spatial language, and exploration through self-locomotion (partially) mediated these relations. These findings extend previous work and provide partial support for the hypotheses about the mediating role of exploration.

  18. Exploration as a mediator of the relation between the attainment of motor milestones and the development of spatial cognition and spatial language.

    PubMed

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Leseman, Paul P M; Volman, M Chiel J M

    2015-09-01

    The embodied-cognition approach views cognition and language as grounded in daily sensorimotor child-environment interactions. Therefore, the attainment of motor milestones is expected to play a role in cognitive-linguistic development. Early attainment of unsupported sitting and independent walking indeed predict better spatial cognition and language at later ages. However, evidence linking these milestones with the development of spatial language and evidence regarding factors that might mediate this relation are scarce. The current study examined whether exploration of spatial-relational object properties (e.g., the possibility of containing or stacking) and exploration of the space through self-locomotion mediate the effect of, respectively, age of sitting and age of walking on spatial cognition and spatial language. Thus, we hypothesized that an earlier age of sitting and walking predicts, respectively, higher levels of spatial-relational object exploration and exploration through self-locomotion, which in turn, predict better spatial cognition and spatial language at later ages. Fifty-nine Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. A combination of tests, observations, and parental reports was used to measure motor development, exploratory behavior (age 20 months), spatial memory (age 24 months), spatial processing (age 32 months), and spatial language (age 36 months). Results show that attainment of sitting predicted spatial memory and spatial language, but spatial-relational object exploration did not mediate these effects. Attainment of independent walking predicted spatial processing and spatial language, and exploration through self-locomotion (partially) mediated these relations. These findings extend previous work and provide partial support for the hypotheses about the mediating role of exploration. PMID:26192037

  19. Are Categorical Spatial Relations Encoded by Shifting Visual Attention between Objects?

    PubMed Central

    Uttal, David; Franconeri, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving not just values, but relations between values, is critical to human cognition. We tested the predictions of a proposed mechanism for processing categorical spatial relations between two objects—the shift account of relation processing—which states that relations such as ‘above’ or ‘below’ are extracted by shifting visual attention upward or downward in space. If so, then shifts of attention should improve the representation of spatial relations, compared to a control condition of identity memory. Participants viewed a pair of briefly flashed objects and were then tested on either the relative spatial relation or identity of one of those objects. Using eye tracking to reveal participants’ voluntary shifts of attention over time, we found that when initial fixation was on neither object, relational memory showed an absolute advantage for the object following an attention shift, while identity memory showed no advantage for either object. This result is consistent with the shift account of relation processing. When initial fixation began on one of the objects, identity memory strongly benefited this fixated object, while relational memory only showed a relative benefit for objects following an attention shift. This result is also consistent, although not as uniquely, with the shift account of relation processing. Taken together, we suggest that the attention shift account provides a mechanistic explanation for the overall results. This account can potentially serve as the common mechanism underlying both linguistic and perceptual representations of spatial relations. PMID:27695104

  20. What Space Makes of Us: Thirdspace, Identity Politics, and Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rick

    Space is related to power in that it is critical to the social production and reproduction of difference. This paper re-imagines a critical multiculturalism that embraces critical spatial theory and postmodern identity politics. In an overview of postmodern spatial theory, the works of Lefebvre (1974), E. Soja (1989, 1996), and M. Foucault (1986)…

  1. Scaling local species-habitat relations to the larger landscape with a hierarchical spatial count model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Knutson, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Much of what is known about avian species-habitat relations has been derived from studies of birds at local scales. It is entirely unclear whether the relations observed at these scales translate to the larger landscape in a predictable linear fashion. We derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundances for three forest bird species of eastern North America using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at three spatial scales. Our purpose was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create predictive abundance maps for purposes of conservation planning at a landscape scale given the constraint that the variables used in this exercise were derived from local-level studies. Our models indicated a substantial influence of landscape context for all species, many of which were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents. We found land cover composition provided the greatest contribution to the relative explained variance in counts for all three species; spatial structure was second in importance. No single spatial scale dominated any model, indicating that these species are responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. For purposes of conservation planning, areas of predicted high abundance should be investigated to evaluate the conservation potential of the landscape in their general vicinity. In addition, the models and spatial patterns of abundance among species suggest locations where conservation actions may benefit more than one species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  3. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population.

    PubMed

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  4. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population.

    PubMed

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  5. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population

    PubMed Central

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  6. A spatial analysis of factors relating to family planning in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Foggin, P M

    1983-06-01

    This paper focuses on whether there is an organized structural pattern in the spatial distribution of oral contraceptive usage in rural Thailand and, if so, how this spatial pattern is linked to other related socioeconomic variables. The data concern the year 1975. The results suggest that the location of the health services infrastructure seems to have the most significant effect on the differences in level of oral contraceptive use observed.

  7. Asymmetric Coding of Categorical Spatial Relations in Both Language and Vision

    PubMed Central

    Roth, J. C.; Franconeri, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    Describing certain types of spatial relationships between a pair of objects requires that the objects are assigned different “roles” in the relation, e.g., “A is above B” is different than “B is above A.” This asymmetric representation places one object in the “target” or “figure” role and the other in the “reference” or “ground” role. Here we provide evidence that this asymmetry may be present not just in spatial language, but also in perceptual representations. More specifically, we describe a model of visual spatial relationship judgment where the designation of the target object within such a spatial relationship is guided by the location of the “spotlight” of attention. To demonstrate the existence of this perceptual asymmetry, we cued attention to one object within a pair by briefly previewing it, and showed that participants were faster to verify the depicted relation when that object was the linguistic target. Experiment 1 demonstrated this effect for left-right relations, and Experiment 2 for above-below relations. These results join several other types of demonstrations in suggesting that perceptual representations of some spatial relations may be asymmetrically coded, and further suggest that the location of selective attention may serve as the mechanism that guides this asymmetry. PMID:23181036

  8. Relative Contribution of Perception/Cognition and Language on Spatial Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Soonja; Hattrup, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of perception/cognition and language-specific semantics in nonverbal categorization of spatial relations. English and Korean speakers completed a video-based similarity judgment task involving containment, support, tight fit, and loose fit. Both perception/cognition and language served as resources…

  9. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  10. On the relative contributions of multisensory integration and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention to multisensory response enhancement.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Spence, C; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Stigchel, S

    2015-11-01

    Two processes that can give rise to multisensory response enhancement (MRE) are multisensory integration (MSI) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention. It is, however, currently unclear what the relative contribution of each of these is to MRE. We investigated this issue using two tasks that are generally assumed to measure MSI (a redundant target effect task) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention (a spatial cueing task). One block of trials consisted of unimodal auditory and visual targets designed to provide a unimodal baseline. In two other blocks of trials, the participants were presented with spatially and temporally aligned and misaligned audiovisual (AV) targets (0, 50, 100, and 200ms SOA). In the integration block, the participants were instructed to respond to the onset of the first target stimulus that they detected (A or V). The instruction for the cueing block was to respond only to the onset of the visual targets. The targets could appear at one of three locations: left, center, and right. The participants were instructed to respond only to lateral targets. The results indicated that MRE was caused by MSI at 0ms SOA. At 50ms SOA, both crossmodal exogenous spatial attention and MSI contributed to the observed MRE, whereas the MRE observed at the 100 and 200ms SOAs was attributable to crossmodal exogenous spatial attention, alerting, and temporal preparation. These results therefore suggest that there may be a temporal window in which both MSI and exogenous crossmodal spatial attention can contribute to multisensory response enhancement.

  11. On the relative contributions of multisensory integration and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention to multisensory response enhancement.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Spence, C; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Stigchel, S

    2015-11-01

    Two processes that can give rise to multisensory response enhancement (MRE) are multisensory integration (MSI) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention. It is, however, currently unclear what the relative contribution of each of these is to MRE. We investigated this issue using two tasks that are generally assumed to measure MSI (a redundant target effect task) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention (a spatial cueing task). One block of trials consisted of unimodal auditory and visual targets designed to provide a unimodal baseline. In two other blocks of trials, the participants were presented with spatially and temporally aligned and misaligned audiovisual (AV) targets (0, 50, 100, and 200ms SOA). In the integration block, the participants were instructed to respond to the onset of the first target stimulus that they detected (A or V). The instruction for the cueing block was to respond only to the onset of the visual targets. The targets could appear at one of three locations: left, center, and right. The participants were instructed to respond only to lateral targets. The results indicated that MRE was caused by MSI at 0ms SOA. At 50ms SOA, both crossmodal exogenous spatial attention and MSI contributed to the observed MRE, whereas the MRE observed at the 100 and 200ms SOAs was attributable to crossmodal exogenous spatial attention, alerting, and temporal preparation. These results therefore suggest that there may be a temporal window in which both MSI and exogenous crossmodal spatial attention can contribute to multisensory response enhancement. PMID:26436587

  12. [Application of spatial relative risk estimation in communicable disease risk evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yewu; Guo, Qing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Su, Xuemei; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Chunxi

    2015-05-01

    This paper summaries the application of adaptive kernel density algorithm in the spatial relative risk estimation of communicable diseases by using the reported data of infectious diarrhea (other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid) in Ludian county and surrounding area in Yunnan province in 2013. Statistically significant fluctuations in an estimated risk function were identified through the use of asymptotic tolerance contours, and finally these data were visualized though disease mapping. The results of spatial relative risk estimation and disease mapping showed that high risk areas were in southeastern Shaoyang next to Ludian. Therefore, the spatial relative risk estimation of disease by using adaptive kernel density algorithm and disease mapping technique is a powerful method in identifying high risk population and areas.

  13. [Application of spatial relative risk estimation in communicable disease risk evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yewu; Guo, Qing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Su, Xuemei; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Chunxi

    2015-05-01

    This paper summaries the application of adaptive kernel density algorithm in the spatial relative risk estimation of communicable diseases by using the reported data of infectious diarrhea (other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid) in Ludian county and surrounding area in Yunnan province in 2013. Statistically significant fluctuations in an estimated risk function were identified through the use of asymptotic tolerance contours, and finally these data were visualized though disease mapping. The results of spatial relative risk estimation and disease mapping showed that high risk areas were in southeastern Shaoyang next to Ludian. Therefore, the spatial relative risk estimation of disease by using adaptive kernel density algorithm and disease mapping technique is a powerful method in identifying high risk population and areas. PMID:26080648

  14. The role of right frontal brain regions in integration of spatial relation.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiahui; Cao, Bihua; Cao, Yunfei; Gao, Heming; Li, Fuhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have explored the neural mechanisms of spatial reasoning on a two-dimensional (2D) plane; however, it remains unclear how spatial reasoning is conducted in a three-dimensional (3D) condition. In the present study, we presented 3D geometric objects to 16 adult participants, and asked them to process the spatial relationship between different corners of the geometric objects. In premise-1, the first two corners of a geometric shape (e.g., A vs. B) were displayed. In premise-2, the second and third corners (e.g., B vs. C) were displayed. After integrating the two premises, participants were required to infer the spatial relationship between the first and the third corners (e.g., A and C). Finally, the participants were presented with a conclusion object, and they were required to judge whether the conclusion was true or false based on their inference. The event-related potential evoked by premise-2 revealed that (1) compared with 2D spatial reasoning, 3D reasoning elicited a smaller P3b component, and (2) in the right frontal areas, increased negativities were found in the 3D condition during the N400 and late negative components (LNC). These findings imply that higher brain activity in the right frontal brain regions were related with the integration and maintenance of spatial information in working memory for reasoning.

  15. Spatial measures in special relativity do not empirically determine simultaneity relations: A reply to Coleman and Korté

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ronald; Stedman, Geoffrey E.

    1994-06-01

    Coleman and Korté have restated and defended an earlier attempt to refute the traditional thesis of the conventionality of simultaneity within special relativity. Here we argue their attempt still fails and respond to criticisms of a paper in which we addressed the inadequacies of their earlier paper. The spatial criterion they use to argue for standard synchronization throughout an inertial frame is merely a definition and provides no demonstration that a unique distant simultaneity relation exists in nature.

  16. Quantitative analysis of properties and spatial relations of fuzzy image regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnapuram, Raghu; Keller, James M.; Ma, Yibing

    1992-01-01

    Properties of objects and spatial relations between objects play an important role in rule-based approaches for high-level vision. The partial presence or absence of such properties and relationships can supply both positive and negative evidence for region labeling hypotheses. Similarly, fuzzy labeling of a region can generate new hypotheses pertaining to the properties of the region, its relation to the neighboring regions, and finally, the labels of the neighboring regions. In this paper, we present a unified methodology to characterize properties and spatial relationships of object regions in a digital image. The proposed methods can be used to arrive at more meaningful decisions about the contents of the scene.

  17. Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

  18. The relative influence of habitat amount and configuration on genetic structure across multiple spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Millette, Katie L; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong interest in understanding how habitat spatial structure shapes the genetics of populations, the relative importance of habitat amount and configuration for patterns of genetic differentiation remains largely unexplored in empirical systems. In this study, we evaluate the relative influence of, and interactions among, the amount of habitat and aspects of its spatial configuration on genetic differentiation in the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi. Larvae of this species are found exclusively within the water-filled leaves of pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) in a system that is naturally patchy at multiple spatial scales (i.e., leaf, plant, cluster, peatland). Using generalized linear mixed models and multimodel inference, we estimated effects of the amount of habitat, patch size, interpatch distance, and patch isolation, measured at different spatial scales, on genetic differentiation (FST) among larval samples from leaves within plants, plants within clusters, and clusters within peatlands. Among leaves and plants, genetic differentiation appears to be driven by female oviposition behaviors and is influenced by habitat isolation at a broad (peatland) scale. Among clusters, gene flow is spatially restricted and aspects of both the amount of habitat and configuration at the focal scale are important, as is their interaction. Our results suggest that both habitat amount and configuration can be important determinants of genetic structure and that their relative influence is scale dependent. PMID:25628865

  19. High cognitive reserve is associated with a reduced age-related deficit in spatial conflict resolution

    PubMed Central

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies support the existence of a specific age-related difficulty in suppressing potentially distracting information. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether spatial conflict resolution is selectively affected by aging. The way aging affects individuals could be modulated by many factors determined by the socieconomic status: we investigated whether factors such as cognitive reserve (CR) and years of education may play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in the spatial domain. A spatial Stroop task with no feature repetitions was administered to a sample of 17 non-demented older adults (69–79 years-old) and 18 younger controls (18–34 years-old) matched for gender and years of education. The two age groups were also administered with measures of intelligence and CR. The overall spatial Stroop effect did not differ according to age, neither for speed nor for accuracy. The two age groups equally showed sequential effects for congruent trials: reduced response times (RTs) if another congruent trial preceded them, and accuracy at ceiling. For incongruent trials, older adults, but not younger controls, were influenced by congruency of trialn−1, since RTs increased with preceding congruent trials. Interestingly, such an age-related modulation negatively correlated with CR. These findings suggest that spatial conflict resolution in aging is predominantly affected by general slowing, rather than by a more specific deficit. However, a high level of CR seems to play a compensatory role for both factors. PMID:23248595

  20. Language supports young children's use of spatial relations to remember locations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hilary E; Patterson, Rebecca; Simmering, Vanessa R

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of language in children's spatial recall performance. In particular, we assessed whether selecting an intrinsic reference frame could be improved through verbal encoding. Selecting an intrinsic reference frame requires remembering locations relative to nearby objects independent of one's body (egocentric) or distal environmental (allocentric) cues, and does not reliably occur in children under 5 years of age (Nardini, Burgess, Breckenridge, & Atkinson, 2006). The current studies tested the relation between spatial language and 4-year-olds' selection of an intrinsic reference frame in spatial recall. Experiment 1 showed that providing 4-year-olds with location-descriptive cues during (Exp. 1a) or before (Exp. 1b) the recall task improved performance both overall and specifically on trials relying most on an intrinsic reference frame. Additionally, children's recall performance was predicted by their verbal descriptions of the task space (Exp. 1a control condition). Non-verbally highlighting relations among objects during the recall task (Exp. 2) supported children's performance relative to the control condition, but significantly less than the location-descriptive cues. These results suggest that the ability to verbally represent relations is a potential mechanism that could account for developmental changes in the selection of an intrinsic reference frame during spatial recall. PMID:26896902

  1. An age-related deficit in spatial-feature reference memory in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent J; Flaim, Mary E; Carney, Samantha N; Bingman, Verner P

    2015-03-01

    Age-related memory decline in mammals has been well documented. By contrast, very little is known about memory decline in birds as they age. In the current study we trained younger and older homing pigeons on a reference memory task in which a goal location could be encoded by spatial and feature cues. Consistent with a previous working memory study, the results revealed impaired acquisition of combined spatial-feature reference memory in older compared to younger pigeons. Following memory acquisition, we used cue-conflict probe trials to provide an initial assessment of possible age-related differences in cue preference. Both younger and older pigeons displayed a similarly modest preference for feature over spatial cues.

  2. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, N.; Riley, E.P.; Mattson, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Method Fifty-six children (29 AE, 27 CON) were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory and visual memory data were entered together on step 1 followed by group on step 2, and the interaction terms on step 3. Results Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures, however, model fit improved with the addition of group on step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. Conclusions These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PMID:25000323

  3. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  4. Use of Self-to-Object and Object-to-Object Spatial Relations in Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chengli; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    In 8 experiments, the authors examined the use of representations of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial relations during locomotion. Participants learned geometrically regular or irregular layouts of objects while standing at the edge or in the middle and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in 3 conditions: before turning (baseline),…

  5. Qualitative Differences in the Representation of Spatial Relations for Different Object Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Eric E.; Brooks, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the representations used for animal, produce, and object recognition code spatial relations in a similar manner. Experiment 1 tested the effects of planar rotation on the recognition of animals and nonanimal objects. Response times for recognizing animals followed an inverted U-shaped function, whereas those…

  6. Spatializing Marxist Educational Theory: School, the Built Environment, Fixed Capital and (Relational) Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, educational theory has begun to incorporate analyses of space where formerly temporal considerations dominated. In this article, Marxist educational theory is spatialized by considering the school as (1) a form of fixed capital, (2) a crucial aspect of the built environment and (3) a relational space. The author begins…

  7. Sex Differences in the Relation between Math Performance, Spatial Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…

  8. Design of a spatial data structure using the relational normal forms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Roessel, Jan W.

    1987-01-01

    In previous work, a relational data structure aimed at the exchange of spatial data between systems was developed. As this data structure was relational it was of first normal form, but compliance with the higher normal forms was not investigated. Recently, a new procedural method for composing fully normalized data structures from the basic data fields has been developed by H. C. Smith, as an alternative to the process of non-loss decomposition which is difficult to understand. Smith's method has been applied to data fields required to store points, lines and polygons in a chain-node spatial data model. When geographic domain, coverage layer and map are also considered, the procedure naturally leads to a catalogue model, needed for the exchange of spatial data. Although the method produces a fully normalized data structure, it is not as easy to identify which normal forms are responsible for the ultimate arrangement of the data fields into relations, but the benefits of these criteria for data base development also apply to spatial data structures and related ancillary data.

  9. Exploring the relation between spatial configuration of buildings and remotely sensed temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myint, S. W.; Zheng, B.; Kaplan, S.; Huang, H.

    2013-12-01

    While the relationship between fractional cover of buildings and the UHI has been well studied, relationships of how spatial arrangements (e.g., clustered, dispersed) of buildings influence urban warming are not well understood. Since a diversity of spatial patterns can be observed under the same percentage of buildings cover, it is of great interest and importance to investigate the amount of variation in certain urban thermal feature such as surface temperature that is accounted for by the inclusion of spatial arrangement component. The various spatial arrangements of buildings cover can give rise to different urban thermal behaviors that may not be uncovered with the information of buildings fraction only, but can be captured to some extent using spatial analysis. The goal of this study is to examine how spatial arrangements of buildings influence and shape surface temperature in different urban settings. The study area selected is the Las-Vegas metropolitan area in Nevada, located in the Mojave Desert. An object-oriented approach was used to identify buildings using a Geoeye-1 image acquired on October 12, 2011. A spatial autocorrelation technique (i.e., Moran's I) that can measure spatial pattern (clustered, dispersed) was used to determine spatial configuration of buildings. A daytime temperature layer in degree Celsius, generated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image, was integrated with Moran's I values of building cover and building fractions to achieve the goals set in the study. To avoid uncertainty and properly evaluate if spatial pattern of buildings has an impact on urban warming, the relation between Moran's I values and surface temperatures was observed at different levels according to their fractions (e.g., 0-0.1, 0.5-0.6, 0.9-1). There is a negative correlation exists between spatial pattern of buildings and surface temperatures implying that dispersed building arrangements elevate surface temperatures

  10. Where music meets space: Children's sensitivity to pitch intervals is related to their mental spatial transformation skills.

    PubMed

    Möhring, Wenke; Ramsook, Kizzann Ashana; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Golinkoff, Roberta M; Newcombe, Nora S

    2016-06-01

    Relations have been found among various continuous dimensions, including space and musical pitch. To probe the nature and development of space-pitch mappings, we tested 5- to 7-year-olds and adults (N=69), who heard pitch intervals and were asked to choose the corresponding spatial representation. Results showed that children and adults both mapped pitches continuously onto space, although effects were stronger in older than younger children. Additionally, children's spatial and numerical skills were tested, showing a relation between children's spatial and pitch-matching skills, and between their spatial and numerical skills. However, pitch and number were not related, suggesting spatial underpinnings for pitch and number.

  11. Spatial Relationships of Auroral Particle Acceleration Relative to High Latitude Plasma Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghielmetti, Arthur G.

    1997-01-01

    This final report describes the activities under NASA contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. It covers the period from 10-1-94 to 12-31-97. The objective of this investigation is to identify and characterize the spatial relationships of auroral particle acceleration features relative to the characteristic transition features in the surrounding polar ionospheric plasmas. Due to the reduced funding level approved for this contract, the original scope of the proposed work was readjusted with the focus placed on examining spatial relationships with respect to particle structures.

  12. The Politics of Drug Trafficking in Mexican and Mexico-Related Narconovelas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaversich, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This essay traces the emergence of the Mexican and Mexico-related narconovela. It examines perspectives on drug trafficking and traffickers expressed in novels by Elmer Mendoza, Leonides Alfaro, Gerardo Cornejo, Homero Aridjis, Arturo Perez-Reverte, and Paul Flores. The variety of positions taken refutes the tendency of the Mexican mainstream…

  13. Hierarchical spatial models for predicting pygmy rabbit distribution and relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, T.L.; Odei, J.B.; Hooten, M.B.; Edwards, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Conservationists routinely use species distribution models to plan conservation, restoration and development actions, while ecologists use them to infer process from pattern. These models tend to work well for common or easily observable species, but are of limited utility for rare and cryptic species. This may be because honest accounting of known observation bias and spatial autocorrelation are rarely included, thereby limiting statistical inference of resulting distribution maps. We specified and implemented a spatially explicit Bayesian hierarchical model for a cryptic mammal species (pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis). Our approach used two levels of indirect sign that are naturally hierarchical (burrows and faecal pellets) to build a model that allows for inference on regression coefficients as well as spatially explicit model parameters. We also produced maps of rabbit distribution (occupied burrows) and relative abundance (number of burrows expected to be occupied by pygmy rabbits). The model demonstrated statistically rigorous spatial prediction by including spatial autocorrelation and measurement uncertainty. We demonstrated flexibility of our modelling framework by depicting probabilistic distribution predictions using different assumptions of pygmy rabbit habitat requirements. Spatial representations of the variance of posterior predictive distributions were obtained to evaluate heterogeneity in model fit across the spatial domain. Leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted to evaluate the overall model fit. Synthesis and applications. Our method draws on the strengths of previous work, thereby bridging and extending two active areas of ecological research: species distribution models and multi-state occupancy modelling. Our framework can be extended to encompass both larger extents and other species for which direct estimation of abundance is difficult. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 British Ecological Society.

  14. Spatial Partitioning of miRNAs Is Related to Sequence Similarity in Overall Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Seffens, William; Abebe, Fisseha; Evans, Chad; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2016-01-01

    RNAs have been shown to exhibit differential enrichment between nuclear, cytoplasmic, and exosome fractions. A current fundamental question asks why non-coding RNA partition into different spatial compartments. We report on the analysis of cellular compartment models with miRNA data sources for spatial-mechanistic modeling to address the broad area of multi-scalar cellular communication by miRNAs. We show that spatial partitioning of miRNAs is related to sequence similarity to the overall transcriptome. This has broad implications in biological informatics for gene regulation and provides a deeper understanding of nucleotide sequence structure and RNA language meaning for human pathologies resulting from changes in gene expression. PMID:27338352

  15. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km2) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 h, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic-related

  16. Spatial Resolution Requirements for Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposure Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km(2)) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9,700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 hr, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic-related

  17. Investigation on Temporal Changes of Relative Variables to Forest Fire using Spatial Statistical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, H.; Kim, M.; Lee, W.; Won, M.; Koo, K.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze spatial and temporal changes of forest fire. The most important characteristic of forest fire occurrence in South Korea is that all fires are human-caused. It is very difficult to estimating the relationship between human and a fire occurrence using general method, such as GIS, statistics and process modeling, since forest fire is related to spatial condition as well as temporal variety of climate factors. And the situation related to fire occurrence is being changed through time passes. Thus, integration of analysis on space and time can be a key in terms of a method. However, before this integration, to examine which factors have more relation to forest fire is very important to estimate the occurrence. And spatial autocorrelation is also important to estimate the occurrence of forest fire in South Korea because the forest fires have strong spatial dependency according to previous studies. In this study, we tried to examine the varieties on coefficients of independent variables of statistical model consider spatial autocorrelation. We used generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) which can consider spatial autocorrelation as the series of temporal variation changes. The variables which are used in this statistical model can be classified four categories, human accessibility, topography, forest cover and meteorological factors. The meteorological factors are used to know changes of fire occurrence pattern from the temporal variations. Time scale is set up by 10-days data. In the result, it showed that the range of spatial autocorrelation was changed by the temporal variance. The more fire occurs the more spatial autocorrelation showed. The estimated coefficients of fixed factors are also changed by the temporal series. In April, the significances of factors of human accessibility were increased. These result is attributed to the fact that national and traditional holidays in April made people visit mountain. However, the

  18. Political Violence and Adolescent Out-group Attitudes and Prosocial Behaviors: Implications for Positive Inter-group Relations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    The negative impact of political violence on adolescent adjustment is well-established. Less is known about factors that affect adolescents’ positive outcomes in ethnically-divided societies, especially influences on prosocial behaviors toward the outgroup, which may promote constructive relations. For example, understanding how intergroup experiences and attitudes motivate outgroup helping may foster intergroup cooperation and help to consolidate peace. The current study investigated adolescents’ overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors across two time points in Belfast, Northern Ireland (N = 714 dyads; 49% male; Time 1: M = 14.7, SD = 2.0, years old). Controlling for Time 1 prosocial behaviors, age and gender, multivariate structural equation modeling showed that experience with intergroup sectarian threat predicted fewer outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2 at the trend level. On the other hand, greater experience of intragroup nonsectarian threat at Time 1 predicted more overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2. Moreover, positive outgroup attitudes strengthened the link between intragroup threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors one year later. Finally, experience with intragroup nonsectarian threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 1 was related to more positive outgroup attitudes at Time 2. The implications for youth development and intergroup relations in post-accord societies are discussed. PMID:26457005

  19. Research on Extension of Sparql Ontology Query Language Considering the Computation of Indoor Spatial Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zhu, X.; Guo, W.; Liu, Y.; Huang, H.

    2015-05-01

    A method suitable for indoor complex semantic query considering the computation of indoor spatial relations is provided According to the characteristics of indoor space. This paper designs ontology model describing the space related information of humans, events and Indoor space objects (e.g. Storey and Room) as well as their relations to meet the indoor semantic query. The ontology concepts are used in IndoorSPARQL query language which extends SPARQL syntax for representing and querying indoor space. And four types specific primitives for indoor query, "Adjacent", "Opposite", "Vertical" and "Contain", are defined as query functions in IndoorSPARQL used to support quantitative spatial computations. Also a method is proposed to analysis the query language. Finally this paper adopts this method to realize indoor semantic query on the study area through constructing the ontology model for the study building. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively support complex indoor space semantic query.

  20. Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Letícia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assunção, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities. PMID:24244776

  1. The politics of protection: aid, human rights discourse, and power relations in Kyaka II settlement, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Clark-Kazak, Christina R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualisation and application of 'protection' by the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR), Ugandan government, and Congolese refugees in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Analysing the origins and consequences of a demonstration against school fees, and drawing on other ethnographic data, it explores how different interpretations of this incident reflect different conceptions of, and approaches to, protection. Ugandan government officials viewed the demonstration as a security incident; Congolese and Ugandan adults responded with increased monitoring and 'sheltering' of children and young people; students justified the demonstration as a legitimate manifestation of their rights; while UNHCR promoted assistance and resettlement. The paper argues that prevailing protection responses, including 'sensitisation', sheltering, and resettlement, are de-contextualised from daily realities and fail to address the underlying power relations that undermine protection. It concludes with recommendations on how international refugee agencies can reorient assistance to address protection concerns in refugee contexts.

  2. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations.

  3. Relations between political violence and child adjustment: a four-wave test of the role of emotional insecurity about community.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-12-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children's trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age, and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children's emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children's adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time.

  4. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2015-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children’s emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a four-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the four-waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children’s trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children’s emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children’s adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time. PMID:23527495

  5. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, J.W.; Wolock, D.M.; Terziotti, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported.

  7. Digital hydrologic networks supporting applications related to spatially referenced regression modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, John W.; Wolock, David M.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based ⁄ statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling.

  8. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. PMID:23890692

  9. High Resolution Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Harbin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle traffic is one of the most significant emission sources of air pollutants in urban areas. While the influence of mobile source emissions is felt throughout an urban area, concentrations from mobile emissions can be highest near major roadways. At present, information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns and the share of pollution attributable to traffic-related air pollutants is limited, in part due to concentrations that fall sharply with distance from roadways, as well as the few monitoring sites available in cities. This study uses a newly developed dispersion model (RLINE) and a spatially and temporally resolved emissions inventory to predict hourly PM2.5 and NOx concentrations across Detroit (MI, USA) at very high spatial resolution. Results for annual averages and high pollution days show contrasting patterns, the need for spatially resolved analyses, and the limitations of surrogate metrics like proximity or distance to roads. Data requirements, computational and modeling issues are discussed. High resolution pollutant data enable the identification of pollutant “hotspots”, “project-level” analyses of transportation options, development of exposure measures for epidemiology studies, delineation of vulnerable and susceptible populations, policy analyses examining risks and benefits of mitigation options, and the development of sustainability indicators integrating environmental, social, economic and health information. PMID:25837345

  10. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling1

    PubMed Central

    Brakebill, JW; Wolock, DM; Terziotti, SE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling. PMID:22457575

  11. Dynamics of the spatial scale of visual attention revealed by brain event-related potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Y. J.; Greenwood, P. M.; Parasuraman, R.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of the spatial scaling of attention during visual search were examined by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). A total of 16 young participants performed a search task in which the search array was preceded by valid cues that varied in size and hence in precision of target localization. The effects of cue size on short-latency (P1 and N1) ERP components, and the time course of these effects with variation in cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), were examined. Reaction time (RT) to discriminate a target was prolonged as cue size increased. The amplitudes of the posterior P1 and N1 components of the ERP evoked by the search array were affected in opposite ways by the size of the precue: P1 amplitude increased whereas N1 amplitude decreased as cue size increased, particularly following the shortest SOA. The results show that when top-down information about the region to be searched is less precise (larger cues), RT is slowed and the neural generators of P1 become more active, reflecting the additional computations required in changing the spatial scale of attention to the appropriate element size to facilitate target discrimination. In contrast, the decrease in N1 amplitude with cue size may reflect a broadening of the spatial gradient of attention. The results provide electrophysiological evidence that changes in the spatial scale of attention modulate neural activity in early visual cortical areas and activate at least two temporally overlapping component processes during visual search.

  12. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake": Japanese Americans and the…

  13. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  14. When I equals we: exploring the relation between social and personal identity of extreme right-wing political party members.

    PubMed

    Baray, Gamze; Postmes, Tom; Jetten, Jolanda

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces the concept of self-defining groups to explain how personal and social aspects of identity relate to each other among members of an extreme right-wing political party. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 examined how affiliation with a social group that has clear-cut, rigid norms and values affects the personal and social self-concept. Participants were members of a (self-defining) Turkish nationalist organisation (N=66) and a control group of Turkish university students (N=58). Paradoxically, high levels of national identification were associated with stronger personal identity. Study 2 used the same participant population (N=177) and manipulated self-focused attention by means of a mirror. Self-aware members reported the highest levels of identification with the nationalist organisation. Results suggest that members of this groups show no signs of 'vanishing individuality': although boundaries between personal and social identities are blurred, extremist group members retain a distinct and strengthened sense of personal identity. This raises some interesting questions for the concept of personal identity and how it can be informed by the content of one's social identity.

  15. Summer spatial patterning of chukars in relation to free water in Western Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, R.T.; Bissonette, J.A.; Flinders, J.T.; Hooten, M.B.; Wilson, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Free water is considered important to wildlife in arid regions. In the western United States, thousands of water developments have been built to benefit wildlife in arid landscapes. Agencies and researchers have yet to clearly demonstrate their effectiveness. We combined a spatial analysis of summer chukar (Alectoris chukar) covey locations with dietary composition analysis in western Utah. Our specific objectives were to determine if chukars showed a spatial pattern that suggested association with free water in four study areas and to document summer dietary moisture content in relation to average distance from water. The observed data for the Cedar Mountains study area fell within the middle of the random mean distance to water distribution suggesting no association with free water. The observed mean distance to water for the other three areas was much closer than expected compared to a random spatial process, suggesting the importance of free water to these populations. Dietary moisture content of chukar food items from the Cedar Mountains (59%) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that of birds from Box Elder (44%) and Keg-Dugway (44%). Water developments on the Cedar Mountains are likely ineffective for chukars. Spatial patterns on the other areas, however, suggest association with free water and our results demonstrate the need for site-specific considerations. Researchers should be aware of the potential to satisfy water demand with pre-formed and metabolic water for a variety of species in studies that address the effects of wildlife water developments. We encourage incorporation of spatial structure in model error components in future ecological research. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  16. Positive politics.

    PubMed

    Saberton, S

    1990-05-01

    The term "playing politics" usually brings to mind undesirable qualities such as manipulation, power abuse and overt self-interest. Yet politics is a constant in daily life and indeed is very necessary in gaining support for both personal and corporate projects. This article discusses how, through communication and leadership, political skills can be used to realize common goals in an organization.

  17. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77-7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24-3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04-35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  18. Water quality changes in response to urban expansion: spatially varying relations and determinants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang; Shu, Yunqiao; Li, Yangfan

    2015-11-01

    Urban expansion is an important stressor to water bodies, and the spatial variations of their relations are increasingly highlighted by recent studies. What remain unclear, however, are the underlying drivers to the spatial variability. The paper was not limited to modeling spatially varying linkages but also drew attention to the local anthropogenic influential factors that shape land-water relations. We employed geographically weighted regression to examine the relationships between urban expansion (measured by land use change intensity) and water quality changes (focusing on six water quality indicators) in a recently fast-growing Chinese city, Lianyungang. Specifically, we analyzed how the local characteristics including urbanization level, environmental management, industrial zone expansion, and land use composition, attributed to the varying responses of water quality changes. Results showed that urbanization level significantly affects land-water linkages. Remarkable water quality improvement was accompanied by urbanization in highly developed watersheds, primarily due to strong influence from extensive water management practices (particularly for COD, BOD, NH3-N, and TP). By contrast, water qualities of less-urbanized watersheds were more sensitive and negatively responsive to land use changes. Clustering industrial activities acted as distinct contributor to Hg contamination, while boosted organic pollution control in highly urbanized areas. The approach proposed in the study can locate and further zoom into the hot-spots of human-water interactions, thereby contributing to better solutions for mitigating undesirable impacts of urbanization on water environment.

  19. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77-7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24-3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04-35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region.

  20. ICTs and Political Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbin, Alice; Courtright, Christina; Davis, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to information and communications technologies (ICTs): (1) theories of ICTs and how they frame political life; (2) normative democratic theory and concepts; (3) e-political life; and (4) research on e-government, e-governance, and e-democracy; (Contains 276 references.) (MES)

  1. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  2. Dusky damselfish Stegastes fuscus relational learning: evidences from associative and spatial tasks.

    PubMed

    Silveira, M M; Oliveira, J J; Luchiari, A C

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of the dusky damselfish Stegastes fuscus to associate conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (single CS-US) and to find a specific place in a clueless ambiece (spatial learning). After tested for colour preference and showing no specific colour attractively, the fish were trained to associate a colour cue with a stimulus fish (conspecific). Fish were then challenged to locate the exact place where the stimulus fish was presented. Stegastes fuscus spent most time close to the zone where stimulus was presented, even without obvious marks for orientation. The results confirm that S. fuscus show single CS-US learning and suggest the fish ability for spatial orientation. Stegastes fuscus appears to use multiple senses (sight and lateral line) for cues association and recall, and appear to perform relational learning similar to mammals. These data suggest the importance of cognitive skill for reef fishes that may have contributed to their establishment and evolutionary success in such complex environment.

  3. Teaching Politically without Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…

  4. Home-School-Community Relations as a Political Process: Four Exploratory Case Studies of the Implementation of Individually Guided Education (IGE) and Home-School-Community Relations. Technical Report No. 360, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.

    The research had four objectives: (1) to describe home-school-community relations in selected IGE schools; (2) to explain the home-school-community relations and the implementation of IGE political terms using issue analysis and policy acceptance analysis; (3) to generate hypotheses from the data gathered through objectives 1 and 2, and relate…

  5. Spatial filtering based on canonical correlation analysis for classification of evoked or event-related potentials in EEG data.

    PubMed

    Spüler, Martin; Walter, Armin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Classification of evoked or event-related potentials is an important prerequisite for many types of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). To increase classification accuracy, spatial filters are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the brain signals and thereby facilitate the detection and classification of evoked or event-related potentials. While canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has previously been used to construct spatial filters that increase classification accuracy for BCIs based on visual evoked potentials, we show in this paper, how CCA can also be used for spatial filtering of event-related potentials like P300. We also evaluate the use of CCA for spatial filtering on other data with evoked and event-related potentials and show that CCA performs consistently better than other standard spatial filtering methods.

  6. Spatial Coding of Eye Movements Relative to Perceived Orientations During Roll Tilt with Different Gravitoinertial Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott; Clement, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt relative to perceived orientations while free-floating during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight or during head tilt in normal gravity. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from six subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the aircraft and head orientations. Both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased during roll tilt compared to the upright position. The saccades were less accurate during parabolic flight compared to measurements obtained in normal gravity. The trajectories of saccades along perceived horizontal orientations tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt, while the deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived vertical orientations deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. Although subjects were instructed to look off in the distance while performing the eye movements, fixation distance varied with vertical gaze direction independent of whether the saccades were made along perceived aircraft or head orientations. This coupling of horizontal vergence with vertical gaze is in a consistent direction with the vertical slant of the horopter. The increased errors in gaze trajectories along both perceived orientations during microgravity can be attributed to the otolith's role in spatial coding of eye movements.

  7. Key Spatial Relations-based Focused Crawling (KSRs-FC) for Borderlands Situation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, D. Y.; Wu, H.; Chen, J.; Li, R.

    2013-11-01

    Place names play an important role in Borderlands Situation topics, while current focused crawling methods treat them in the same way as other common keywords, which may lead to the omission of many useful web pages. In the paper, place names in web pages and their spatial relations were firstly discussed. Then, a focused crawling method named KSRs-FC was proposed to deal with the collection of situation information about borderlands. In this method, place names and common keywords were represented separately, and some of the spatial relations related to web pages crawling were used in the relevance calculation between the given topic and web pages. Furthermore, an information collection system for borderlands situation analysis was developed based on KSRs-FC. Finally, F-Score method was adopted to quantitatively evaluate this method by comparing with traditional method. Experimental results showed that the F-Score value of the proposed method increased by 11% compared to traditional method with the same sample data. Obviously, KSRs-FC method can effectively reduce the misjudgement of relevant webpages.

  8. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing.

  9. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing. PMID:27392755

  10. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  11. 'Our struggles are bigger than the World Cup': civic activism, state-society relations and the socio-political legacies of the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Scarlett

    2012-06-01

    South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup saw a large number of public demonstrations, strikes and other forms of civic campaigning. World Cup activism was both preceded and followed by extensive and intensifying public unrest and industrial action that in the period before the tournament, threatened to derail the event. This paper assesses the motivations, forms and implications of the activism during South Africa's staging of the FIFA finals and interprets them against the larger context of shifting state-society relations in the country. There are two purposes to the analysis. First, to explore the underlying internal social forces that gave shape to the protests at the time, and the possible influence of the exogenous politics of mega-event social mobilization. Second, the implications and outcomes of these dynamics for longer term socio-political processes in the country are considered. The activism displayed many of the features of the politics of contestation of sport mega-events today. Importantly, however, the activism stemmed from a particular systemic dynamic and reflected changing relations in the post-apartheid political community. Therefore, while the World Cup was used as a strategic opportunity by many advocacy groups, it was one that rather fleetingly and ambivalently presented an additional platform to such groups in an otherwise on-going set of political battles. Rather than a strong case study of sport's transformative capacity, the civic campaigning during South Africa's World Cup demonstrates the way a sport mega-event can be used as a strategic entry point by civil society groups in their engagement with the state, although this can occur with greater or lesser success.

  12. Neonatal anoxia in rats: hippocampal cellular and subcellular changes related to cell death and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Takada, S H; dos Santos Haemmerle, C A; Motta-Teixeira, L C; Machado-Nils, A V; Lee, V Y; Takase, L F; Cruz-Rizzolo, R J; Kihara, A H; Xavier, G F; Watanabe, I-S; Nogueira, M I

    2015-01-22

    Neonatal anoxia in rodents has been used to understand brain changes and cognitive dysfunction following asphyxia. This study investigated the time-course of cellular and subcellular changes and hippocampal cell death in a non-invasive model of anoxia in neonatal rats, using Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) to reveal DNA fragmentation, Fluoro-Jade® B (FJB) to show degenerating neurons, cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect cells undergoing apoptosis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal fine ultrastructural changes related to cell death. Anoxia was induced by exposing postnatal day 1 (P1) pups to a flow of 100% gaseous nitrogen for 25 min in a chamber maintained at 37 °C. Control rats were similarly exposed to this chamber but with air flow instead of nitrogen. Brain changes following anoxia were evaluated at postnatal days 2, 14, 21 and 60 (P2, P14, P21 and P60). In addition, spatial reference memory following anoxia and control treatments was evaluated in the Morris water maze, starting at P60. Compared to their respective controls, P2 anoxic rats exhibited (1) higher TUNEL labeling in cornus ammonis (CA) 1 and the dentate gyrus (DG), (2) higher FJB-positive cells in the CA2-3, and (3) somato-dendritic swelling, mitochondrial injury and chromatin condensation in irregular bodies, as well as other subcellular features indicating apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and excitotoxicity in the CA1, CA2-3 and DG, as revealed by TEM. At P14, P21 and P60, both groups showed small numbers of TUNEL-positive and FJB-positive cells. Stereological analysis at P2, P14, P21 and P60 revealed a lack of significant differences in cleaved caspase-3 IHC between anoxic and control subjects. These results suggest that the type of hippocampal cell death following neonatal anoxia is likely independent of caspase-3 activation. Neonatal anoxia induced deficits in acquisition and performance of spatial reference

  13. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Gerlotto, François; Bertrand, Sophie; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Alza, Luis; Chipollini, Andres; Díaz, Erich; Espinoza, Pepe; Ledesma, Jesús; Quesquén, Roberto; Peraltilla, Salvador; Chavez, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    The Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) supports the highest worldwide fishery landings and varies in space and time over many scales. Here we present the first comprehensive sub-mesocale study of anchoveta distribution in relation to the environment. During November 2004, we conducted a behavioural ecology survey off central Peru and used a series of observational and sampling tools including SST and CO 2 sensors, Niskin bottles, CTD probes, zooplankton sampling, stomach content analysis, echo-sounder, multibeam sonar, and bird observations. The sub-mesoscale survey areas were chosen from mesoscale acoustic surveys. A routine coast-wide (∼2000 km) acoustic survey performed just after the sub-mesoscale surveys, provided information at an even larger population scale. The availability of nearly concurrent sub-mesoscale, mesoscale and coast-wide information on anchoveta distribution allowed for a unique multi-scale synthesis. At the sub-mesoscale (100s m to km) physical processes (internal waves and frontogenesis) concentrated plankton into patches and determined anchoveta spatial distribution. At the mesoscale (10s km) location relative to the zone of active upwelling (and age of the upwelled water) and the depth of the oxycline had strong impacts on the anchoveta. Finally, over 100s km the size of the productive area, as defined by the upwelled cold coastal waters, was the determining factor. We propose a conceptual view of the relative importance of social behaviour and environmental (biotic and abiotic) processes on the spatial distribution of anchoveta. Our ecological space has two y-axis; one based on self-organization (social behaviour), and the other based on the environmental processes. At scales from the individual (10s cm), to the nucleus (m), social behaviour (e.g. the need to school) drives spatial organization. At scales larger than the school, environmental forces are the main driver of fish distribution. The conceptual ecosystem

  14. Neonatal anoxia in rats: hippocampal cellular and subcellular changes related to cell death and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Takada, S H; dos Santos Haemmerle, C A; Motta-Teixeira, L C; Machado-Nils, A V; Lee, V Y; Takase, L F; Cruz-Rizzolo, R J; Kihara, A H; Xavier, G F; Watanabe, I-S; Nogueira, M I

    2015-01-22

    Neonatal anoxia in rodents has been used to understand brain changes and cognitive dysfunction following asphyxia. This study investigated the time-course of cellular and subcellular changes and hippocampal cell death in a non-invasive model of anoxia in neonatal rats, using Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) to reveal DNA fragmentation, Fluoro-Jade® B (FJB) to show degenerating neurons, cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect cells undergoing apoptosis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal fine ultrastructural changes related to cell death. Anoxia was induced by exposing postnatal day 1 (P1) pups to a flow of 100% gaseous nitrogen for 25 min in a chamber maintained at 37 °C. Control rats were similarly exposed to this chamber but with air flow instead of nitrogen. Brain changes following anoxia were evaluated at postnatal days 2, 14, 21 and 60 (P2, P14, P21 and P60). In addition, spatial reference memory following anoxia and control treatments was evaluated in the Morris water maze, starting at P60. Compared to their respective controls, P2 anoxic rats exhibited (1) higher TUNEL labeling in cornus ammonis (CA) 1 and the dentate gyrus (DG), (2) higher FJB-positive cells in the CA2-3, and (3) somato-dendritic swelling, mitochondrial injury and chromatin condensation in irregular bodies, as well as other subcellular features indicating apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and excitotoxicity in the CA1, CA2-3 and DG, as revealed by TEM. At P14, P21 and P60, both groups showed small numbers of TUNEL-positive and FJB-positive cells. Stereological analysis at P2, P14, P21 and P60 revealed a lack of significant differences in cleaved caspase-3 IHC between anoxic and control subjects. These results suggest that the type of hippocampal cell death following neonatal anoxia is likely independent of caspase-3 activation. Neonatal anoxia induced deficits in acquisition and performance of spatial reference

  15. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  16. Age-Related Effects of Study Time Allocation on Memory Performance in a Verbal and a Spatial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Lacy E.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was…

  17. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children’s Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children’s motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds’ spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children’s understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children’s balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence. PMID:26793157

  18. Spatial dynamics of Fabiana imbricata shrublands in northwestern Patagonia in relation to natural fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddi, F. J.; Dudinszky, N.; Ghermandi, L.

    2010-05-01

    Fire is a critical disturbance in the structuring and functioning of most Mediterranean ecosystems. In northwestern Patagonia, vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by fire and environmental heterogeneity. Dendroecology, together with satellite imagery and GIS, have been demonstrated to be useful tools in studies that relate to fire effects with patches, patterns and species dynamics at landscape scale. Such studies can be approached from landscape ecology, which has evolved in the last years supported by the development of remote sensing and GIS technologies. This study evaluates the spatial dynamic of F. imbricata in response to fire using remote sensing, GIS and dendrochronology techniques, at landscape scale. Two sites were evaluated and one of them was affected by fire in the year 1999. The digital processing images (using the NBR spectral index) and the dendroecological analysis verified this. A fire, occurring in 1978, was also detected by the analysis of F. imbricata growth rings. The relation between F. imbricata shrubland dynamics and spatial configuration with fire, land topography and hydrography was established in the study area.

  19. The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

  20. THE STAR-FORMATION RELATION FOR REGIONS IN THE GALACTIC PLANE: THE EFFECT OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Evans II, Neal J.; Battersby, Cara

    2014-12-20

    We examined the relations between molecular gas surface density and star-formation rate surface density in an 11 deg{sup 2} region of the Galactic plane. Dust continua at 1.1 mm from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and 22 μm emission from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey were used as tracers of molecular gas and the star-formation rate, respectively, across the Galactic longitude of 31.5 ≥ l ≥ 20.5 and Galactic latitude of 0.5 ≥ b ≥ –0.5. The relation was studied over a range of resolutions from 33'' to 20' by convolving images to larger scales. The pixel-by-pixel correlation between 1.1 mm and 22 μm increases rapidly at small scales and levels off at the scale of 5'-8'. We studied the star-formation relation based on a pixel-by-pixel analysis and on an analysis of the 1.1 mm and 22 μm peaks. The star-formation relation was found to be nearly linear with no significant changes in the form of the relation across all spatial scales, and it lies above the extragalactic relation from Kennicutt. The average gas-depletion time is ≈200 Myr and does not change significantly at different scales, but the scatter in the depletion time decreases as the scale increases.

  1. The Globalization of Economics and How It's Changing Domestic Politics, International Relations, and Our Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Teaching economics at the preK-12 level has always been one of the most difficult aspects of social studies education notes C. Frederick Risinger, yet, throughout his teaching career economic issues and events were the drivers of most historical, political, and sociological trends and topics and even human slavery was driven and maintained by…

  2. Indigenous Political Difference, Colonial Perspectives and the Challenge of Diplomatic Relations: Toward a Decolonial Diplomacy in Multicultural Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how diplomacy can be refined and amplified within the field of multicultural education. Focusing on Native American peoples in particular, I argue that the multiculturalist emphasis on cultural diplomacy overlooks the political difference of First Nations peoples. In contrast to a multiculturalist cultural diplomacy, the…

  3. Individual differences in relational motives interact with the political context to produce terrorism and terrorism-support.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Lotte; Obaidi, Milan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Kteily, Nour; Sidanius, Jim

    2014-08-01

    The psychology of suicide terrorism involves more than simply the psychology of suicide. Individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) interact with the socio-structural, political context to produce support for group-based dominance among members of both dominant and subordinate groups. This may help explain why, in one specific context, some people commit and endorse terrorism, whereas others do not.

  4. Working-memory performance is related to spatial breadth of attention.

    PubMed

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    Working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Models of working memory often incorporate an attention component, and some even equate working memory and attentional control. Although some attention-related processes, including inhibitory control of response conflict and interference resolution, are strongly associated with working memory, for other aspects of attention the link is less clear. We examined the association between working-memory performance and attentional breadth, the ability to spread attention spatially. If the link between attention and working memory is broader than inhibitory and interference resolution processes, then working-memory performance might also be associated with other attentional abilities, including attentional breadth. We tested 123 participants on a variety of working-memory and attentional-breadth measures, finding a strong correlation between performances on these two types of tasks. This finding demonstrates that the link between working memory and attention extends beyond inhibitory processes.

  5. Working-memory performance is related to spatial breadth of attention.

    PubMed

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    Working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Models of working memory often incorporate an attention component, and some even equate working memory and attentional control. Although some attention-related processes, including inhibitory control of response conflict and interference resolution, are strongly associated with working memory, for other aspects of attention the link is less clear. We examined the association between working-memory performance and attentional breadth, the ability to spread attention spatially. If the link between attention and working memory is broader than inhibitory and interference resolution processes, then working-memory performance might also be associated with other attentional abilities, including attentional breadth. We tested 123 participants on a variety of working-memory and attentional-breadth measures, finding a strong correlation between performances on these two types of tasks. This finding demonstrates that the link between working memory and attention extends beyond inhibitory processes. PMID:25468209

  6. [Spatial distribution of accidents, incidents and diseases related to work in Peru, 2012-2014].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Santero, Marilina

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed geospatially accidents, incidents and diseases related to work of regional reports in Peru (2012-2014). The 52887 events were classified as work related accidents (93%), dangerous incidents (5.1%), occupational diseases (1%) and fatal accidents (0.9%). The highest rates of fatal accidents were reported in Pasco, Callao, Lima, Moquegua and Arequipa. Callao and Lima are the regions with the highest rates of occupational accidents. The highest rates of dangerous incidents were reported in Arequipa, Callao, Lima, Ica and Piura. Occupational diseases are distributed with high rates in Huancavelica, Ancash, Pasco, Callao and Cusco. The economic activities that reported most of the occupational diseases were mining and quarrying (49.2%); followed by manufacturing industry (23.4%); and construction (8%). It is concluded that there are high rates and common spatial patterns of laboral accidents in Peru that could be used by decision makers to focus interventions. PMID:27384629

  7. [Spatial distribution of accidents, incidents and diseases related to work in Peru, 2012-2014].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Santero, Marilina

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed geospatially accidents, incidents and diseases related to work of regional reports in Peru (2012-2014). The 52887 events were classified as work related accidents (93%), dangerous incidents (5.1%), occupational diseases (1%) and fatal accidents (0.9%). The highest rates of fatal accidents were reported in Pasco, Callao, Lima, Moquegua and Arequipa. Callao and Lima are the regions with the highest rates of occupational accidents. The highest rates of dangerous incidents were reported in Arequipa, Callao, Lima, Ica and Piura. Occupational diseases are distributed with high rates in Huancavelica, Ancash, Pasco, Callao and Cusco. The economic activities that reported most of the occupational diseases were mining and quarrying (49.2%); followed by manufacturing industry (23.4%); and construction (8%). It is concluded that there are high rates and common spatial patterns of laboral accidents in Peru that could be used by decision makers to focus interventions.

  8. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  9. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  10. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  11. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  12. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  13. Spatial coding of eye movements relative to perceived earth and head orientations during static roll tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during static roll tilt (up to +/-45 degrees) relative to perceived earth and head orientations. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from eight subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the true earth and head orientations. We found that both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased with roll tilt. The trajectories of eye movements made along the perceived earth-horizontal (PEH) were more accurate than movements along the perceived head-horizontal (PHH). The trajectories of both PEH and PHH saccades tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt. The deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived earth-vertical (PEV) and perceived head-vertical (PHV) were both similar to the PHH orientation, except that saccades along the PEV deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. The magnitude of deviations along the PEV, PHH, and PHV corresponded to perceptual overestimations of roll tilt obtained from verbal reports. Both PEV gaze trajectories and perceptual estimates of tilt orientation were different following clockwise rather than counterclockwise tilt rotation; however, the PEH gaze trajectories were less affected by the direction of tilt rotation. Our results suggest that errors in gaze trajectories along PEV and perceived head orientations increase during roll tilt in a similar way to perceptual errors of tilt orientation. Although PEH and PEV gaze trajectories became nonorthogonal during roll tilt, we conclude that the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt is overall more accurate for the perceived earth reference frame than for the perceived head reference frame.

  14. Spatial coding of eye movements relative to perceived earth and head orientations during static roll tilt.

    PubMed

    Wood, S J; Paloski, W H; Reschke, M F

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during static roll tilt (up to +/-45 degrees) relative to perceived earth and head orientations. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from eight subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the true earth and head orientations. We found that both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased with roll tilt. The trajectories of eye movements made along the perceived earth-horizontal (PEH) were more accurate than movements along the perceived head-horizontal (PHH). The trajectories of both PEH and PHH saccades tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt. The deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived earth-vertical (PEV) and perceived head-vertical (PHV) were both similar to the PHH orientation, except that saccades along the PEV deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. The magnitude of deviations along the PEV, PHH, and PHV corresponded to perceptual overestimations of roll tilt obtained from verbal reports. Both PEV gaze trajectories and perceptual estimates of tilt orientation were different following clockwise rather than counterclockwise tilt rotation; however, the PEH gaze trajectories were less affected by the direction of tilt rotation. Our results suggest that errors in gaze trajectories along PEV and perceived head orientations increase during roll tilt in a similar way to perceptual errors of tilt orientation. Although PEH and PEV gaze trajectories became nonorthogonal during roll tilt, we conclude that the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt is overall more accurate for the perceived earth reference frame than for the perceived head reference frame.

  15. Discrimination of spatial relations and features in faces: Effects of inversion and viewing duration.

    PubMed

    Barton, Jason J. S.; Keenan, Julian P.; Bass, Trevor

    2001-08-01

    We studied discrimination of changes in eye position, mouth position, and eye colour at viewing durations ranging from 1 second to unlimited time. With upright faces, perception was rapid and did not improve above 2 seconds viewing time. Face inversion impaired discrimination of mouth position significantly, eye position slightly, but not eye colour. The 'inversion effect' for mouth position decreased with increasing stimulus duration, and disappeared when the subject knew that the only change in a trial was in mouth position. A subsequent experiment showed that the inversion impairment in the mouth region was not specific to spatial position but affected mouth colour to a lesser degree. When the mouth region was made more salient by increasing the frequency of mouth change trials, the inversion effect for mouth position decreased, and correlated with an increase in inversion effect for eye position but not eye colour. We conclude that the dominant effect of face inversion upon perception is decreased discrimination in less salient facial regions, that this impairment lessens with increasing viewing time, and that it affects both features and their spatial relations, though the effect on the latter is greater. These results are consistent with greater dependence on a serial component search strategy in inverted faces.

  16. Discrimination of spatial relations and features in faces: effects of inversion and viewing duration.

    PubMed

    Barton, J J; Keenan, J P; Bass, T

    2001-08-01

    We studied discrimination of changes in eye position, mouth position, and eye colour at viewing durations ranging from 1 second to unlimited time. With upright faces, perception was rapid and did not improve above 2 seconds viewing time. Face inversion impaired discrimination of mouth position significantly, eye position slightly, but not eye colour. The 'inversion effect' for mouth position decreased with increasing stimulus duration, and disappeared when the subject knew that the only change in a trial was in mouth position. A subsequent experiment showed that the inversion impairment in the mouth region was not specific to spatial position but affected mouth colour to a lesser degree. When the mouth region was made more salient by increasing the frequency of mouth change trials, the inversion effect for mouth position decreased, and correlated with an increase in inversion effect for eye position but not eye colour. We conclude that the dominant effect of face inversion upon perception is decreased discrimination in less salient facial regions, that this impairment lessens with increasing viewing time, and that it affects both features and their spatial relations, though the effect on the latter is greater. These results are consistent with greater dependence on a serial component search strategy in inverted faces.

  17. An Event-related Potential Study on the Interaction between Lighting Level and Stimulus Spatial Location

    PubMed Central

    Carretié, Luis; Ruiz-Padial, Elisabeth; Mendoza, María T.

    2015-01-01

    Due to heterogeneous photoreceptor distribution, spatial location of stimulation is crucial to study visual brain activity in different light environments. This unexplored issue was studied through occipital event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from 40 participants in response to discrete visual stimuli presented at different locations and in two environmental light conditions, low mesopic (L, 0.03 lux) and high mesopic (H, 6.5 lux), characterized by a differential photoreceptor activity balance: rod > cone and rod < cone, respectively. Stimuli, which were exactly the same in L and H, consisted of squares presented at fixation, at the vertical periphery (above or below fixation) or at the horizontal periphery (left or right). Analyses showed that occipital ERPs presented important L vs. H differences in the 100 to 450 ms window, which were significantly modulated by spatial location of stimulation: differences were greater in response to peripheral stimuli than to stimuli presented at fixation. Moreover, in the former case, significance of L vs. H differences was even stronger in response to stimuli presented at the horizontal than at the vertical periphery. These low vs. high mesopic differences may be explained by photoreceptor activation and their retinal distribution, and confirm that ERPs discriminate between rod– and cone-originated visual processing. PMID:26635588

  18. Frames of reference and categorical/coordinate spatial relations in a "what was where" task.

    PubMed

    Ruotolo, Francesco; Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Postma, Albert

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how people use egocentric (i.e., with respect to their body) and allocentric (i.e., with respect to another element in the environment) references in combination with coordinate (metric) or categorical (abstract) spatial information to identify a target element. Participants were asked to memorize triads of 3D objects or 2D figures, and immediately or after a delay of 5 s, they had to verbally indicate what was the object/figure: (1) closest/farthest to them (egocentric coordinate task); (2) on their right/left (egocentric categorical task); (3) closest/farthest to another object/figure (allocentric coordinate task); (4) on the right/left of another object/figure (allocentric categorical task). Results showed that the use of 2D figures favored categorical judgments over the coordinate ones with either an egocentric or an allocentric reference frame, whereas the use of 3D objects specifically favored egocentric coordinate judgments rather than the allocentric ones. Furthermore, egocentric judgments were more accurate than allocentric judgments when the response was Immediate rather than delayed and 3D objects rather than 2D figures were used. This pattern of results is discussed in the light of the functional roles attributed to the frames of reference and spatial relations by relevant theories of visuospatial processing. PMID:27180248

  19. Explore spatial-temporal relations: transient super-resolution with PMD sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chaosheng; Lin, Xing; Lin, Jingyu; Yan, Chenggang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Transient imaging provides a direct view of how light travel in the scene, which leads to exciting applications such as looking around corners. Low-budget transient imagers, adapted from Time-of-Fight (ToF) cameras, reduce the barrier of entry for performing research of this new imaging modality. However, the image quality is far from satisfactory due to the limited resolution of PMD sensors. In this paper, we improve the resolution of transient images by modulating the illumination. We capture the scene under three linearly independent lighting conditions, and derive a theoretical model for the relationship between the time-profile and the corresponding 3D details of each pixel. Our key idea is that the light flight time in each pixel patch is proportional to the cross product of the illuminating direction and the surface normal. First we capture and reconstruct transient images by Fourier analysis at multiple illumination locations, and then fuse the data of acquired low-spatial resolution images to calculate the surface normal. Afterwards, we use an optimization procedure to split the pixels and finally enhance the image quality. We show that we can not only reveal the fine structure of the object but may also uncover the reflectance properties of different materials. We hope the idea of utilizing spatial-temporal relations will give new insights to the research and applications of transient imaging.

  20. Temporal and spatial variability in the aviation NOx-related O3 impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Christopher K.; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Koo, Jamin; Wang, Qiqi

    2013-09-01

    Aviation NOx emissions promote tropospheric ozone formation, which is linked to climate warming and adverse health effects. Modeling studies have quantified the relative impact of aviation NOx on O3 in large geographic regions. As these studies have applied forward modeling techniques, it has not been possible to attribute O3 formation to individual flights. Here we apply the adjoint of the global chemistry-transport model GEOS-Chem to assess the temporal and spatial variability in O3 production due to aviation NOx emissions, which is the first application of an adjoint to this problem. We find that total aviation NOx emitted in October causes 40% more O3 than in April and that Pacific aviation emissions could cause 4-5 times more tropospheric O3 per unit NOx than European or North American emissions. Using this sensitivity approach, the O3 burden attributable to 83 000 unique scheduled civil flights is computed individually. We find that the ten highest total O3-producing flights have origins or destinations in New Zealand or Australia. The top ranked O3-producing flights normalized by fuel burn cause 157 times more normalized O3 formation than the bottom ranked ones. These results show significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental impacts of aviation NOx emissions.

  1. Dwarf Galaxies with Ionizing Radiation Feedback. II. Spatially Resolved Star Formation Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 1011 M ⊙, we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of lsim75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  2. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2016-06-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  3. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-01-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994–2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  4. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-03-04

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994-2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects.

  5. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  6. Spatial distribution of large-scale solar magnetic fields and their relation to the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial organization of the observed photospheric magnetic field as well as its relation to the polarity of the IMF have been studied using high resolution magnetograms from the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Systematic patterns in the large scale field are due to contributions from both concentrated flux and more diffuse flux. The polarity of the photospheric field, determined on various spatial scales, correlates with the polarity of the IMF. Analyses based on several spatial scales in the photosphere suggest that new flux in the interplanetary medium is often due to relatively small photospheric features which appear in the photosphere up to one month before they are manifest at the earth.

  7. Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling.

    PubMed

    Van der Heyden, H; Dutilleul, P; Brodeur, L; Carisse, O

    2014-06-01

    Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to fungicide resistance was studied for Botrytis cinerea populations in vineyards and for B. squamosa populations in onion fields. Heterogeneity in this distribution was characterized by performing geostatistical analyses based on semivariograms and through the fitting of discrete probability distributions. Two SNPs known to be responsible for boscalid resistance (H272R and H272Y), both located on the B subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase gene, and one SNP known to be responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S) were chosen for B. cinerea in grape. For B. squamosa in onion, one SNP responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S homologous) was chosen. One onion field was sampled in 2009 and another one was sampled in 2010 for B. squamosa, and two vineyards were sampled in 2011 for B. cinerea, for a total of four sampled sites. Cluster sampling was carried on a 10-by-10 grid, each of the 100 nodes being the center of a 10-by-10-m quadrat. In each quadrat, 10 samples were collected and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or allele specific PCR. Mean SNP incidence varied from 16 to 68%, with an overall mean incidence of 43%. In the geostatistical analyses, omnidirectional variograms showed spatial autocorrelation characterized by ranges of 21 to 1 m. Various levels of anisotropy were detected, however, with variograms computed in four directions (at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° from the within-row direction used as reference), indicating that spatial autocorrelation was prevalent or characterized by a longer range in one direction. For all eight data sets, the β-binomial distribution was found to fit the data better than the binomial distribution. This indicates local aggregation of fungicide resistance among sampling units, as supported by estimates of the parameter θ of the β-binomial distribution of 0.09 to 0.23 (overall median value = 0

  8. Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling.

    PubMed

    Van der Heyden, H; Dutilleul, P; Brodeur, L; Carisse, O

    2014-06-01

    Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to fungicide resistance was studied for Botrytis cinerea populations in vineyards and for B. squamosa populations in onion fields. Heterogeneity in this distribution was characterized by performing geostatistical analyses based on semivariograms and through the fitting of discrete probability distributions. Two SNPs known to be responsible for boscalid resistance (H272R and H272Y), both located on the B subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase gene, and one SNP known to be responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S) were chosen for B. cinerea in grape. For B. squamosa in onion, one SNP responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S homologous) was chosen. One onion field was sampled in 2009 and another one was sampled in 2010 for B. squamosa, and two vineyards were sampled in 2011 for B. cinerea, for a total of four sampled sites. Cluster sampling was carried on a 10-by-10 grid, each of the 100 nodes being the center of a 10-by-10-m quadrat. In each quadrat, 10 samples were collected and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or allele specific PCR. Mean SNP incidence varied from 16 to 68%, with an overall mean incidence of 43%. In the geostatistical analyses, omnidirectional variograms showed spatial autocorrelation characterized by ranges of 21 to 1 m. Various levels of anisotropy were detected, however, with variograms computed in four directions (at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° from the within-row direction used as reference), indicating that spatial autocorrelation was prevalent or characterized by a longer range in one direction. For all eight data sets, the β-binomial distribution was found to fit the data better than the binomial distribution. This indicates local aggregation of fungicide resistance among sampling units, as supported by estimates of the parameter θ of the β-binomial distribution of 0.09 to 0.23 (overall median value = 0

  9. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  10. Reaction time inconsistency in a spatial stroop task: age-related differences through childhood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Williams, Benjamin R; Strauss, Esther H; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    Age-related differences in inconsistency of reaction time (RT) across the life span were examined on a task with differing levels of demand on executive control. A total of 546 participants, aged 5 to 76 years, completed a spatial Stroop task that permitted observations under three conditions (congruent, incongruent, and neutral) according to the correspondence between the required response (based on stimulus direction) and stimulus location. An interference effect was observed across all ages. Analyses of neutral condition data replicated previous research demonstrating RT inconsistency follows a U-shaped developmental curve across the life span. The relationship between age and inconsistency, however, depended on condition: inconsistency in the congruent condition was higher than inconsistency in both the neutral and incongruent conditions across middle-aged groups. Reaction time inconsistency may reflect processing efficiency that is maximal in young adulthood and may also be sensitive to fluctuations in performance that reflect momentarily highly efficient responding.

  11. "So, is that your 'relative' or mine?" A political-ecological critique of census-based area deprivation indices.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-10-01

    Census-based deprivation indices have been widely used in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and UK to measure area-based socio-economic inequalities. This paper examines the indicators used in census-based area deprivation indices using a political ecology approach. We question whether the current indicators of deprivation derived from census data are meaningful for the all age groups and minority groups in the population, with a particular focus on deprivation indicators used in New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom. We comparatively reviewed methodological papers and reports that describe the indicators of deprivation in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and the UK from 1975 to 2014. We consider the relationship between the notion of standards of living and measurements of deprivation and explore how hegemonic cultural constructs are implicit in measures of deprivation that privilege a Eurocentric, ageist and gender normative construction of statistics. We argue for more political ecological analyses to studying the relationship between social inequalities, geographies, health inequities and political economy to transform structures of oppression and inequality. This requires turning the analytical gaze on the wealthy and privileged instead of defaulting into deficit models to account for inequality. Studies of deprivation and inequality would benefit from understanding the processes and operations of power in the (re)production of socio-economic and health inequities to inform holistic strategies for social justice. PMID:26282706

  12. "So, is that your 'relative' or mine?" A political-ecological critique of census-based area deprivation indices.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-10-01

    Census-based deprivation indices have been widely used in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and UK to measure area-based socio-economic inequalities. This paper examines the indicators used in census-based area deprivation indices using a political ecology approach. We question whether the current indicators of deprivation derived from census data are meaningful for the all age groups and minority groups in the population, with a particular focus on deprivation indicators used in New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom. We comparatively reviewed methodological papers and reports that describe the indicators of deprivation in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and the UK from 1975 to 2014. We consider the relationship between the notion of standards of living and measurements of deprivation and explore how hegemonic cultural constructs are implicit in measures of deprivation that privilege a Eurocentric, ageist and gender normative construction of statistics. We argue for more political ecological analyses to studying the relationship between social inequalities, geographies, health inequities and political economy to transform structures of oppression and inequality. This requires turning the analytical gaze on the wealthy and privileged instead of defaulting into deficit models to account for inequality. Studies of deprivation and inequality would benefit from understanding the processes and operations of power in the (re)production of socio-economic and health inequities to inform holistic strategies for social justice.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Impervious Cover Relative to Watershed Stream Location

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of spatial pattern on ecological processes is a guiding principle of landscape ecology. The guiding principle of spatial pattern was used for a U.S. nationwide assessment of impervious cover (IC). Spatial pattern was measured by comparing IC concentration near strea...

  14. Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

  15. Spatial relations between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Spatial relations between coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on a 360-km2 area in North Dakota were studied during 1977-78. Coyote families occupied large (mean = 61.2 km2), relatively exclusive territories that encompassed about one-half of the study area. Fox families occupied much smaller (mean = 11.9 km2), relatively exclusive, territories that overlapped perimeters of coyote territories and/or encompassed area unoccupied by coyotes. No fox family lived totally within a coyote territory, but 3 fox families lived within the 153.6-km2 home range of an unattached yearling male coyote. Both coyotes and foxes, from families with overlapping territories, tended to use their overlap areas less than was expected by amount of overlap. Encounters between radio-equipped coyotes and foxes from families with overlapping territories occurred less often than was expected by chance. Foxes living near coyotes exhibited considerable tenacity to their territories, and no monitored fox was killed by coyotes during 2,518 fox-days of radio surveillance. A hypothesis for coyote-induced fox population declines, based largely on fox avoidance mechanisms, is presented.

  16. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  17. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  18. The Neighborhood-Based Politics of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Harry L.

    Viewing neighborhoods as political units, this book proposes: (1) that a style of political action operates in every neighborhood school setting; (2) that the political style varies in relation to the unique qualities of each neighborhood; and, (3) that all neighborhoods share a number of political characteristics regardless of their variations in…

  19. A Partially Annotated Political Communication Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barbara C.

    This 63-page annotated bibliography contains available materials in the area of political communication, a relatively new field of political science. Political communication includes facets of the election process and interaction between political parties and the voter. A variety of materials dating from 1960 to 1972 include books, pamphlets,…

  20. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The patterns of relative variability differ by transect and horizon. The N–S transect A-horizon soils show significant between-40-km scale variability for 29 elements, with only 4 elements (Ca, Mg, Pb and Sr) showing in excess of 50% of their variability at the within-40-km and ‘at-site’ scales. In contrast, the C-horizon data demonstrate significant between-40-km scale variability for 26 elements, with 21 having in excess of 50% of their variability at the within-40-km and ‘at-site’ scales. In 36 instances, the ‘at-site’ variability is statistically significant in terms of the sample preparation and analysis variability. It is postulated that this contrast between the A- and C- horizons along the N–S transect, that is dominated by agricultural land uses, is due to the local homogenization of Ap-horizon soils by tillage reducing the ‘at-site’ variability. The spatial variability is distributed similarly between scales for the A- and C-horizon soils of the E–W transect. For all elements, there is significant variability at the within-40-km scale. Notwithstanding this, there is significant between-40-km variability for 28 and 20 of the elements in the A- and C-horizon data, respectively. The differences between the two transects are attributed to (1) geology, the N–S transect runs generally parallel to regional strikes, whereas the E–W transect runs across regional structures and lithologies; and (2) land use, with agricultural tillage dominating along the N–S transect. The spatial analysis of the transect data indicates that continental-scale maps demonstrating statistically significant patterns of geochemical variability may be prepared for many elements from data on soil samples collected on a 40 x 40 km grid or similar sampling designs resulting in a sample density of 1 site per 1600 km2.

  1. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal assemblages in a monospecific forest in relation to host tree genotype.

    PubMed

    Lang, Christa; Finkeldey, Reiner; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (EcM) are important for soil exploration and thereby may shape belowground interactions of roots. We investigated the composition and spatial structures of EcM assemblages in relation to host genotype in an old-growth, monospecific beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. We hypothesized that neighboring roots of different beech individuals are colonized by similar EcM assemblages if host genotype had no influence on the fungal colonization and that the similarity would decrease with increasing distance of the sampling points. The alternative was that the EcM species showed preferences for distinct beech genotypes resulting in intraspecific variation of EcM-host assemblages. EcM species identities, abundance and exploration type as well as the genotypes of the colonized roots were determined in each sampling unit of a 1 L soil core (r = 0.04 m, depth 0.2 m). The Morisita-Horn similarity indices (MHSI) based on EcM species abundance and multiple community comparisons were calculated. No pronounced variation of MHSI with increasing distances of the sampling points within a plot was found, but variations between plots. Very high similarities and no between plot variation were found for MHSI based on EcM exploration types suggesting homogenous soil foraging in this ecosystem. The EcM community on different root genotypes in the same soil core exhibited high similarity, whereas the EcM communities on the root of the same tree genotype in different soil cores were significantly dissimilar. This finding suggests that spatial structuring of EcM assemblages occurs within the root system of an individual. This may constitute a novel, yet unknown mechanism ensuring colonization by a diverse EcM community of the roots of a given host individual.

  2. Wave reflection in dielectric media obeying spatial Kramers-Kronig relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In a recent work, Horsley and coworkers (Nat. Photon., 9 (2015) 436) showed rather interestingly that planar dielectric media, for which the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity are related by spatial Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations, are one-way reflectionless, whatever the angle of incidence. Such a fascinating property, besides extending our comprehension of the fundamental phenomenon of reflection, may offer new ways for the design of antireflection surfaces and thin materials with efficient light absorption. However, KK dielectric media are generally described by slowly decaying complex permittivity profiles which may introduce some subtle issues in the study of the scattering problem. Here we provide a condition on the imaginary part of the dielectric profile that ensures the existence of proper scattering states and present a proof of the one-way reflectionless property in KK dielectric media which is free from loopholes. Finally, we show that instabilities might arise at the interface of KK dielectric media when the medium is not purely dissipative.

  3. Relative spatial frequency tuning and its contrast dependency in human perception.

    PubMed

    Naito, Tomoyuki; Suematsu, Naofumi; Matsumoto, Eriko; Sato, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Several physiological studies in cats and monkeys have reported that the spatial frequency (SF) tuning of visual neurons varies depending on the luminance contrast and size of stimulus. However, comparatively little is known about the effect of changing the stimulus contrast and size on SF tuning in human perception. In the present study, we investigated the effects of stimulus size and luminance contrast on human SF tuning using the subspace-reverse-correlation method. Measuring SF tunings at six different stimulus sizes and three different luminance contrast conditions (90%, 10%, and 1%), we found that human perception exhibits significant stimulus-size-dependent SF tunings. At 90% and 10% contrast, participants exhibited relative SF tuning (cycles/image) rather than absolute SF tuning (cycles/°) at response peak latency. On the other hand, at 1% contrast, the magnitude of the size-dependent-peak SF shift was too small for strictly relative SF tuning. These results show that human SF tuning is not fixed, but varies depending on the stimulus size and contrast. This dependency may contribute to size-invariant object recognition within an appropriate contrast rage. PMID:25413628

  4. Medication communication during ward rounds on medical wards: Power relations and spatial practices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2013-03-01

    Communication plays a crucial role in the management of medications. Ward rounds are sites where health professionals from different disciplines and patients come together to exchange medication information and make treatment decisions. This article examines power relations and spatial practices surrounding medication communication between patients and health professionals including doctors, nurses and pharmacists during ward rounds. Data were collected in two medical wards of a metropolitan teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Data collection methods involved participant observations, field interviews, video-recordings, together with individual and group reflexive interviews. A critical discourse analysis was undertaken to identify the location sites where power relations were reproduced or challenged in ward rounds. Findings demonstrated that traditional medical hierarchies constructed the ways in which doctors communicated about medications during ward rounds. Nurses and pharmacists ventured into the ward round space by using the discourse of preparation and occupying a peripheral physical position. Doctors privileged the discourse of medication rationalization in their ward round discussions, competing with the discourse of inquiry taken up by patients and families. Ward rounds need to be restructured to provide opportunities for nurses and pharmacists to speak at dedicated times and in strategic locations. By critically reflecting upon the complex process of medication communication during ward rounds, greater opportunities exist for enhanced team communication among health professionals. PMID:22674748

  5. Medication communication during ward rounds on medical wards: Power relations and spatial practices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2013-03-01

    Communication plays a crucial role in the management of medications. Ward rounds are sites where health professionals from different disciplines and patients come together to exchange medication information and make treatment decisions. This article examines power relations and spatial practices surrounding medication communication between patients and health professionals including doctors, nurses and pharmacists during ward rounds. Data were collected in two medical wards of a metropolitan teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Data collection methods involved participant observations, field interviews, video-recordings, together with individual and group reflexive interviews. A critical discourse analysis was undertaken to identify the location sites where power relations were reproduced or challenged in ward rounds. Findings demonstrated that traditional medical hierarchies constructed the ways in which doctors communicated about medications during ward rounds. Nurses and pharmacists ventured into the ward round space by using the discourse of preparation and occupying a peripheral physical position. Doctors privileged the discourse of medication rationalization in their ward round discussions, competing with the discourse of inquiry taken up by patients and families. Ward rounds need to be restructured to provide opportunities for nurses and pharmacists to speak at dedicated times and in strategic locations. By critically reflecting upon the complex process of medication communication during ward rounds, greater opportunities exist for enhanced team communication among health professionals.

  6. "Taking the problem to the people": traffic safety from public relations to political theory, 1937-1954.

    PubMed

    Bernardin, Stève

    2015-04-01

    The slogan "taking the problem to the people" nicely summarizes U.S. traffic safety campaigns of the 1950s. It refers to the goal of awareness and self-discipline for drivers through education and law enforcement. A detailed analysis of the campaigns, however, shows a subtler objective of the motor interests that promoted it. They wanted to overcome political indifference through a civic mobilization of drivers as citizens, persuading drivers to lobby for traffic control. The analysis of their efforts leads us to question the role-or lack of role-of politicians in scientific and technological controversies.

  7. "Taking the problem to the people": traffic safety from public relations to political theory, 1937-1954.

    PubMed

    Bernardin, Stève

    2015-04-01

    The slogan "taking the problem to the people" nicely summarizes U.S. traffic safety campaigns of the 1950s. It refers to the goal of awareness and self-discipline for drivers through education and law enforcement. A detailed analysis of the campaigns, however, shows a subtler objective of the motor interests that promoted it. They wanted to overcome political indifference through a civic mobilization of drivers as citizens, persuading drivers to lobby for traffic control. The analysis of their efforts leads us to question the role-or lack of role-of politicians in scientific and technological controversies. PMID:26005086

  8. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector. PMID:18938291

  9. Political involvement in nursing--politics, ethics, and strategic action.

    PubMed

    Des Jardin, K

    2001-11-01

    Political apathy in the nursing profession can be attributed to numerous factors, including a perceived ethical conflict between professional values and political involvement, as well as a lack of strategy for political action. Differences in personal and professional ethics, conflicting loyalties, and a negative image of politics create ethical tension for nurses. Political-ethical conflicts can mean choosing between job, patient care, and personal ideals. Many nurses never have considered it their place to challenge the structure of the health care system or the rules guiding that system. Supporting political action that demands change in the system, therefore, can cause tension among nurses. The political-ethical dilemma for nurses is related to outdated images of nursing, repression, fear of power, and lack of knowledge. Many guidelines exist to help nurses understand why they should get involved in the political process. By using these guidelines, nurses can evaluate issues and use a valid method to assess problems, plan for action, and evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of specific strategies. In the second of this two-part series on political involvement in nursing, political-ethical conflict is explored, along with strategies for political action.

  10. Parental Socioeconomic Status and the Neural Basis of Arithmetic: Differential Relations to Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relation of parental socioeconomic status (SES) to the neural bases of subtraction in school-age children (9- to 12-year-olds). We independently localized brain regions subserving verbal versus visuo-spatial representations to determine whether the parental SES-related differences in children's reliance on these neural…

  11. Motor Asymmetry and Substantia Nigra Volume Are Related to Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Erin R.; Black, Kevin J.; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Hershey, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest motor deficit asymmetry may help predict the pattern of cognitive impairment in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). We tested this hypothesis using a highly validated and sensitive spatial memory task, spatial delayed response (SDR), and clinical and neuroimaging measures of PD asymmetry. We predicted SDR performance would be…

  12. Spatial Cueing in Time-Space Synesthetes: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teuscher, Ursina; Brang, David; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.; Coulson, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Some people report that they consistently and involuntarily associate time events, such as months of the year, with specific spatial locations; a condition referred to as time-space synesthesia. The present study investigated the manner in which such synesthetic time-space associations affect visuo-spatial attention via an endogenous cuing…

  13. Single-trial classification of event-related potentials in rapid serial visual presentation tasks using supervised spatial filtering.

    PubMed

    Cecotti, Hubert; Eckstein, Miguel P; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-11-01

    Accurate detection of single-trial event-related potentials (ERPs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a difficult problem that requires efficient signal processing and machine learning techniques. Supervised spatial filtering methods that enhance the discriminative information in EEG data are commonly used to improve single-trial ERP detection. We propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) with a layer dedicated to spatial filtering for the detection of ERPs and with training based on the maximization of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The CNN is compared with three common classifiers: 1) Bayesian linear discriminant analysis; 2) multilayer perceptron (MLP); and 3) support vector machines. Prior to classification, the data were spatially filtered with xDAWN (for the maximization of the signal-to-signal-plus-noise ratio), common spatial pattern, or not spatially filtered. The 12 analytical techniques were tested on EEG data recorded in three rapid serial visual presentation experiments that required the observer to discriminate rare target stimuli from frequent nontarget stimuli. Classification performance discriminating targets from nontargets depended on both the spatial filtering method and the classifier. In addition, the nonlinear classifier MLP outperformed the linear methods. Finally, training based AUC maximization provided better performance than training based on the minimization of the mean square error. The results support the conclusion that the choice of the systems architecture is critical and both spatial filtering and classification must be considered together.

  14. Spatial and temporal age-related spectral alterations in benign human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theophilou, Georgios; Fogarty, Simon W.; Trevisan, Júlio; Strong, Rebecca J.; Heys, Kelly A.; Patel, Imran I.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that cancers attributable to exogenous carcinogenic agents may appear decades after initiating exposures. Environmental factors including lifestyle and/or diet have been implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. Breast tissue undergoes continuous molecular and morphological changes from the time of thelarche to menopause and thereafter. These alterations are both cyclical and longitudinal, and can be influenced by several environmental factors including exposure to oestrogens. Research into the latent period leading to breast carcinogenesis has been mostly limited to when hyperplastic lesions are present. Investigations to identify a biomarker of commitment to disease in normal breast tissue are hindered by the molecular and histological diversity of disease-free breast tissue. Benign tissue from reduction mammoplasties provides an opportunity to study biochemical differences between women of similar ages as well as alterations with advancing age. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to examine the terminal ductal lobular epithelium (TDLU) and, intra- and inter-lobular epithelium to identify spatial and temporal changes within these areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis of mid-infrared spectra revealed unambiguous inter-individual as well as age-related differences in each histological compartment interrogated. Moreover, exploratory PCA of luminal and myoepithelial cells within the TDLU indicated the presence of specific cells, potentially stem cells. Understanding alterations within benign tissue may assist in the identification of alterations in latent pre-clinical stages of breast cancer.

  15. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Social Media Data Related to Nepal Earthquake 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, L.

    2016-06-01

    Social Medias these days have become the instant communication platform to share anything; from personal feelings to the matter of public concern, these are the easiest and aphoristic way to deliver information among the mass. With the development of Web 2.0 technologies, more and more emphasis has been given to user input in the web; the concept of Geoweb is being visualized and in the recent years, social media like Twitter, Flicker are among the popular Location Based Social Medias with locational functionality enabled in them. Nepal faced devastating earthquake on 25 April, 2015 resulting in the loss of thousands of lives, destruction in the historical-archaeological sites and properties. Instant help was offered by many countries around the globe and even lots of NGOs, INGOs and people started the rescue operations immediately; concerned authorities and people used different communication medium like Frequency Modulation Stations, Television, and Social Medias over the World Wide Web to gather information associated with the Quake and to ease the rescue activities. They also initiated campaign in the Social Media to raise the funds and support the victims. Even the social medias like Facebook, Twitter, themselves announced the helping campaign to rebuild Nepal. In such scenario, this paper features the analysis of Twitter data containing hashtag related to Nepal Earthquake 2015 together with their temporal characteristics, when were the message generated, where were these from and how these spread spatially over the internet?

  16. Spatial and seasonal changes of arsenic species in Lake Taihu in relation to eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Yan, Changzhou; Che, Feifei; Zeng, Liqing; Wang, Zaosheng; Du, Miaomiao; Wei, Qunshan; Wang, Zhenhong; Wang, Dapeng; Zhen, Zhuo

    2016-09-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of arsenic species in Lake Taihu (including Zhushan Bay, Meiliang Bay, Gonghu Bay, and Southern Taihu) were investigated. Relatively high levels of total arsenic (TAs) and arsenate (As(V)) were observed in hyper-eutrophic regions during summer and autumn, which is attributed to exogenous contamination and seasonal endogenous release from sediments. The distributions of TAs and As(V) were significantly affected by total phosphorus, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon. Arsenite (As(III)) and methylarsenicals (the sum of monomethylarsenic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA(V))), mainly from biotransformation of As(V), were affected by temperature-controlled microalgae activities and local water quality parameters, exhibiting significantly higher concentrations and proportions in hyper-eutrophic and middle eutrophic regions during summer compared to mesotrophic region. The eutrophic environment, which induces changes in the main water quality parameters such as phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon, can favor the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in the aquatic systems. PMID:27152991

  17. Scale-Free Brain Networks Based on the Event-Related Potential during Visual Spatial Attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Jin, Zhen-Lan

    2011-04-01

    The human brain is thought of as one of the most complex dynamical systems in the universe. The network view of the dynamical system has emerged since the discovery of scale-free networks. Brain functional networks, which represent functional associations among brain regions, are extracted by measuring the temporal correlations from electroencephalogram data. We measure the topological properties of the brain functional network, including degree distribution, average degree, clustering coefficient and the shortest path length, to compare the networks of multi-channel event-related potential activity between visual spatial attention and unattention conditions. It is found that the degree distribution of the brain functional networks under both the conditions is a power law distribution, which reflects a scale-free property. Moreover, the scaling exponent of the attention condition is significantly smaller than that of the unattention condition. However, the degree distribution of equivalent random networks does not follow the power law distribution. In addition, the clustering coefficient of these random networks is smaller than those of brain networks, and the shortest path length of these random networks is large and comparable with those of brain networks. Our results, typical of scale-free networks, indicate that the scaling exponent of brain activity could reflect different cognitive processes.

  18. Race, Charter Schools, and Conscious Capitalism: On the Spatial Politics of Whiteness as Property (and the Unconscionable Assault on Black New Orleans)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buras, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Kristen L. Buras examines educational policy formation in New Orleans and the racial, economic, and spatial dynamics shaping the city's reconstruction since 2005. More specifically, Buras draws on the critical theories of whiteness as property, accumulation by dispossession, and urban space economy to describe the strategic…

  19. Is the political animal politically ignorant? Applying evolutionary psychology to the study of political attitudes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2012-12-20

    As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.

  20. Relative role of deterministic and stochastic determinants of soil animal community: a spatially explicit analysis of oribatid mites.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Tancredi; Taormina, Mauro; Migliorini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    1. Ecologists are debating the relative role of deterministic and stochastic determinants of community structure. Although the high diversity and strong spatial structure of soil animal assemblages could provide ecologists with an ideal ecological scenario, surprisingly little information is available on these assemblages. 2. We studied species-rich soil oribatid mite assemblages from a Mediterranean beech forest and a grassland. We applied multivariate regression approaches and analysed spatial autocorrelation at multiple spatial scales using Moran's eigenvectors. Results were used to partition community variance in terms of the amount of variation uniquely accounted for by environmental correlates (e.g. organic matter) and geographical position. Estimated neutral diversity and immigration parameters were also applied to a soil animal group for the first time to simulate patterns of community dissimilarity expected under neutrality, thereby testing neutral predictions. 3. After accounting for spatial autocorrelation, the correlation between community structure and key environmental parameters disappeared: about 40% of community variation consisted of spatial patterns independent of measured environmental variables such as organic matter. Environmentally independent spatial patterns encompassed the entire range of scales accounted for by the sampling design (from tens of cm to 100 m). This spatial variation could be due to either unmeasured but spatially structured variables or stochastic drift mediated by dispersal. Observed levels of community dissimilarity were significantly different from those predicted by neutral models. 4. Oribatid mite assemblages are dominated by processes involving both deterministic and stochastic components and operating at multiple scales. Spatial patterns independent of the measured environmental variables are a prominent feature of the targeted assemblages, but patterns of community dissimilarity do not match neutral predictions

  1. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  2. Exploring spatial distributions of larval yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and their prey in relation to wind.

    PubMed

    Kaemingk, M A; Jolley, J C; Willis, D W; Graeb, B D S

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine if spatial differences existed between zooplankton, larval yellow perch Perca flavescens and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus (<13 mm total length, L(T)) in Pelican Lake (332 ha), NE, U.S.A. It was hypothesized that wind could act as a transport mechanism for larval fishes in this shallow lake, because strong winds are common at this geographic location. Potential spatial differences were explored, relating to zooplankton densities, size structure and densities of larval P. flavescens and L. macrochirus. Density differences (east v. west side of the lake) were detected for small- (two occasions), medium- (two occasions) and large-sized (one occasion) L. macrochirus larvae. No density differences were detected for small P. flavescens larvae; however, densities of medium- and large-sized P. flavescens were each higher on the west side of the lake on two occasions. There was no evidence that larval P. flavescens and L. macrochirus distributions were related to wind because they were not associated with large wind events. Likewise, large wind event days did not result in any detectable spatial differences of larval P. flavescens and L. macrochirus densities. There appeared to be no spatial mismatch between larval densities and associated prey in the years examined. Thus, wind was not apparently an influential mechanism for zooplankton and larval P. flavescens and L. macrochirus transport within Pelican Lake, and spatial differences in density may instead be related to vegetation and habitat complexities or spawning locations within this shallow lake.

  3. The Construction of Visual-spatial Situation Models in Children's Reading and Their Relation to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Faulkner, Heather; Denton, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Readers construct mental models of situations described by text to comprehend what they read, updating these situation models based on explicitly described and inferred information about causal, temporal, and spatial relations. Fluent adult readers update their situation models while reading narrative text based in part on spatial location information that is consistent with the perspective of the protagonist. The current study investigates whether children update spatial situation models in a similar way, whether there are age-related changes in children's formation of spatial situation models during reading, and whether measures of the ability to construct and update spatial situation models are predictive of reading comprehension. Typically-developing children from ages 9 through 16 years (n=81) were familiarized with a physical model of a marketplace. Then the model was covered, and children read stories that described the movement of a protagonist through the marketplace and were administered items requiring memory for both explicitly stated and inferred information about the character's movements. Accuracy of responses and response times were evaluated. Results indicated that: (a) location and object information during reading appeared to be activated and updated not simply from explicit text-based information but from a mental model of the real world situation described by the text; (b) this pattern showed no age-related differences; and (c) the ability to update the situation model of the text based on inferred information, but not explicitly stated information, was uniquely predictive of reading comprehension after accounting for word decoding. PMID:24315376

  4. Spatially heterogeneous dynamics and the Adam-Gibbs relation in the Dzugutov liquid.

    PubMed

    Gebremichael, Yeshitila; Vogel, Michael; Bergroth, Magnus N J; Starr, Francis W; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2005-08-11

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of a one-component glass-forming liquid and use the inherent structure formalism to test the predictions of the Adam-Gibbs (AG) theory and to explore the possible connection between these predictions and spatially heterogeneous dynamics. We calculate the temperature dependence of the average potential energy of the equilibrium liquid and show that it obeys the Rosenfeld-Tarazona T(3/5) law for low temperature T, while the average inherent structure energy is found to be inversely proportional to temperature at low T, consistent with a Gaussian distribution of potential energy minima. We investigate the shape of the basins around the local minima in configuration space via the average basin vibrational frequency and show that the basins become slightly broader upon cooling. We evaluate the configurational entropy S(conf), a measure of the multiplicity of potential energy minima sampled by the system, and test the validity of the AG relation between S(conf) and the bulk dynamics. We quantify the dynamically heterogeneous motion by analyzing the motion of particles that are mobile on short and intermediate time scales relative to the characteristic bulk relaxation time. These mobile particles move in one-dimensional "strings", and these strings form clusters with a well-defined average cluster size. The AG approach predicts that the minimum size of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR) of molecules is inversely proportional to S(conf), and recently (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2003, 90, 085506) it has been shown that the mobile-particle clusters are consistent with the CRR envisaged by Adam and Gibbs. We test the possibility that the mobile-particle strings, rather than clusters, may describe the CRR of the Adam-Gibbs approach. We find that the strings also follow a nearly inverse relation with S(conf). We further show that the logarithm of the time when the strings and clusters are maximum, which occurs in the late

  5. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Bogota - Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. A.; Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Néstor Y. Rojas, N. Y.

    2011-12-01

    As a result of rapid urbanization during the last 60 years, 75% of the Colombian population now lives in cities. Urban areas are net sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute significantly to national GHG emission inventories. The development of scientifically-sound GHG mitigation strategies require accurate GHG source and sink estimations. Disaggregated inventories are effective mitigation decision-making tools. The disaggregation process renders detailed information on the distribution of emissions by transport mode, and the resulting a priori emissions map allows for optimal definition of sites for GHG flux monitoring, either by eddy covariance or inverse modeling techniques. Fossil fuel use in transportation is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bogota. We present estimates of CO2 emissions from road traffic in Bogota using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference method, and a spatial and temporal disaggregation method. Aggregated CO2 emissions from mobile sources were estimated from monthly and annual fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas - CNG) consumption statistics, and estimations of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel use. Although bio-fuel CO2 emissions are considered balanced over annual (or multi-annual) agricultural cycles, we included them since CO2 generated by their combustion would be measurable by a net flux monitoring system. For the disaggregation methodology, we used information on Bogota's road network classification, mean travel speed and trip length for each vehicle category and road type. The CO2 emission factors were taken from recent in-road measurements for gasoline- and CNG-powered vehicles and also estimated from COPERT IV. We estimated emission factors for diesel from surveys on average trip length and fuel consumption. Using IPCC's reference method, we estimate Bogota's total transport-related CO2 emissions for 2008 (reference year) at 4.8 Tg CO2. The disaggregation method estimation is

  6. A three-dimensional point process model for the spatial distribution of disease occurrence in relation to an exposure source.

    PubMed

    Grell, Kathrine; Diggle, Peter J; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Schüz, Joachim; Cardis, Elisabeth; Andersen, Per K

    2015-10-15

    We study methods for how to include the spatial distribution of tumours when investigating the relation between brain tumours and the exposure from radio frequency electromagnetic fields caused by mobile phone use. Our suggested point process model is adapted from studies investigating spatial aggregation of a disease around a source of potential hazard in environmental epidemiology, where now the source is the preferred ear of each phone user. In this context, the spatial distribution is a distribution over a sample of patients rather than over multiple disease cases within one geographical area. We show how the distance relation between tumour and phone can be modelled nonparametrically and, with various parametric functions, how covariates can be included in the model and how to test for the effect of distance. To illustrate the models, we apply them to a subset of the data from the Interphone Study, a large multinational case-control study on the association between brain tumours and mobile phone use.

  7. An application of GIS and Bayesian network in studying spatial-causal relations between enterprises and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tiyan; Li, Xi; Li, Maiqing

    2009-10-01

    The paper intends to employ Geographic Information System (GIS) and Bayesian Network to discover the spatial causality between enterprises and environmental factors in Beijing Metropolis. The census data of Beijing was spatialized by means of GIS in the beginning, and then the training data was made using density mapping technique. Base on the training data, the structure of a Bayesian Network was learnt with the help of Maximum Weight Spanning Tree. Eight direct relations were discussed in the end, of which, the most exciting discovery, "Enterprise-Run Society", as the symbol of the former planned economy, was emphasized in the spatial relations between heavy industry and schools. Though the final result is not so creative in economic perspective, it is of significance in technique view due to all discoveries were drawn from data, therefore leading to the realization of the importance of GIS and data mining to economic geography research.

  8. Patterns of species richness in relation to temperature, taxonomy and spatial scale in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Mingfei; Fan, Zhexuan; Deng, Jianming

    2011-07-01

    The species richness increases with area is well known in ecology. However, the Metabolic Theory of Biodiversity (MTB) is used to predict diversity patterns without taking account of the area covered by the community addressed. In this study, we developed a new model to integrate the temperature and community area based on the MTB. We collected plant species distribution information from 270 natural reserves and 11 floristic regions in eastern China, including that of three main plant divisions: pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms, and five broadly distributed angiosperm families, to explore the patterns of species richness in relation to temperature and community area size at two spatial scales (floristic region and nature reserve). Our results show that at the floristic region scale, the species richness is independent of the area size of the community and the regression slopes of the natural logarithm of richness vs. the inverse transformed temperature are close to the theoretical value of -0.65 for the three main plant divisions as well as the five angiosperm families. However, at the nature reserve scale, the number of species depends significantly upon the area size of nature reserves, and the regression slopes deviate strongly from the expected slope for all the taxonomic groups, except the pteridophyte division. Therefore, the MTB would be fairly robust only under a presumption that the area size of the community addressed has no significant effect on species richness (e.g. at the floristic region scale). Otherwise, the predictions of diversity patterns by MTB tend to be inaccurate (e.g. at the nature reserve scale).

  9. Joint spatial modeling to identify shared patterns among chronic related potentially preventable hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations (PPH) are used to evaluate access of territorially delimited populations to high quality ambulatory care. A common geographic pattern of several PPH would reflect the performance of healthcare providers. This study is aimed at modeling jointly the geographical variation in six chronic PPH conditions in one Spanish Autonomous Community for describing common and discrepant patterns, and to assess the relative weight of the common pattern on each condition. Methods Data on the 39,970 PPH hospital admissions for diabetes short term complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, dehydration, angina admission and adult asthma, between 2007 and 2009 were extracted from the Hospital Discharge Administrative Databases and assigned to one of the 240 Basic Health Zones. Rates and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios per geographic unit were estimated. The spatial analysis was carried out jointly for PPH conditions using Shared Component Models (SCM). Results The component shared by the six PPH conditions explained about the 36% of the variability of each PPH condition, ranging from the 25.9 for dehydration to 58.7 for COPD. The geographical pattern found in the latent common component identifies territorial clusters with particularly high risk. The specific risk pattern that each isolated PPH does not share with the common pattern for all six conditions show many non-significant areas for most PPH, but with some exceptions. Conclusions The geographical distribution of the risk of the PPH conditions is captured in a 36% by a unique latent pattern. The SCM modeling may be useful to evaluate healthcare system performance. PMID:24899214

  10. A multivariate statistical and data mining analysis of spatial memory-related behaviour following bilateral vestibular loss in the rat.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Haslett, Stephen; Zheng, Yiwen

    2013-06-01

    Vestibular dysfunction in animals and humans is associated with a variety of cognitive and anxiety disorders, and it has been difficult to determine how the different symptoms may be related to one another. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the spatial memory deficits that occur following bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD) in rats can be attributed to other behavioural symptoms. Spatial memory was measured using a spatial T maze alternation task (STM), while locomotor activity and anxiety were measured using open field, elevated plus and T mazes, respectively. Using multiple linear and random forest regression, we determined that the best predictors of performance in the STM were whether the animals had received a BVD or sham lesion, and the duration of rearing. Using linear discriminant analysis, random forest classification, support vector machines and cluster analysis, we found that BVD animals could be clearly distinguished from sham controls by their behavioural syndrome, in particular their decreased duration of rearing in the open field maze (suggesting reduced exploration), decreased time spent in the outer zone of the open field maze ('reduced thigmotaxis', suggesting increased risk taking), and spatial memory deficits in the STM. These results suggest that the poor performance of rats with BVD in spatial memory tasks is largely due to spatial memory deficits themselves rather than a result of other changes in locomotor activity or anxiety.

  11. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages.

  12. Distinct Discrimination Learning Strategies and Their Relation with Spatial Memory and Attentional Control in 4- to 14-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmittmann, Verena D.; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuropsychological studies have revealed large developmental differences in various learning paradigms where learning from positive and negative feedback is essential. The differences are possibly due to the use of distinct strategies that may be related to spatial working memory and attentional control. In…

  13. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  14. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  15. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  16. Implementation of object-oriented GIS data model with topological relations between spatial objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youliang; Wang, Zhaoru; Chen, Zhicheng

    2013-03-01

    Traditional GIS (Geographical Information System) data models are focused on the description of the data organizational structure and constraints from single aspect, which are the absence or little relevance of the hierarchy and connotation of data objects. These data models do not match the natural concept of humans about geographical spatial data and also failed to fully consider the spatial relationships and arithmetic operations with the relationship between geographic objects. Object-oriented technology mimics the human way of thinking as much as possible, it appears to overcome the shortcomings of traditional software design methods and improve the stability and reusability of the software systems. Based on the existing GIS data model, this paper introduces the basic idea of object-oriented GIS data model combined the object-oriented methods and the vectorial expression of spatial entities, and describes the definition and implementation of the object-oriented GIS data model. Furthermore, the topological operations between spatial objects have been defined in the paper for the importance of topological relationships among spatial relationships. The topological operations are directly defined in geometry classes by means of methods, and they include Touch, Disjoint, Cross, Contains, Overlaps, and Intersects and so on.

  17. Age and gender-related differences in a spatial memory task in humans.

    PubMed

    León, Irene; Tascón, Laura; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive skills decline with age. Our ability to keep oriented in our surrounding environment was demonstrated to be influenced by factors like age and gender. Introduction of virtual reality based tasks improved assessment of spatial memory in humans. In this study, spatial orientation was assessed in a virtual memory task in order to determine the effect of aging and gender on navigational skills. Subjects from 45 to 74 years of age were organized in three groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years old). Two levels of difficulty were considered. Results showed that males outperformed females in 65-74 years-old group. In addition to this, females showed a more noticeable poor performance in spatial memory than males, since memory differences appeared between all age groups. On the other hand, 65-74 year-old males showed an impaired performance in comparison with 45-54 year-old group. These results support that spatial memory becomes less accurate as we age and gender is an important factor influencing spatial orientation skills.

  18. Maternal inflammation linearly exacerbates offspring age-related changes of spatial learning and memory, and neurobiology until senectitude.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Wei; Cao, Lei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Qi-Gang; Tong, Jing-Jing; Li, Xue-Yan; Chen, Gui-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy can elevate the risk of neurodegenerative disorders in offspring. However, how it affects age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory and changes in the neurobiological indictors in the offspring in later adulthood is still elusive. In this study, the CD-1 mice with maternal gestational inflammation due to receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS, i.p. 50 or 25μg/kg) were divided into 3-, 12-, 18-, and 22-month-old groups. The spatial learning and memory were evaluated using a six-radial arm water maze and the levels of presynaptic proteins (synaptotagmin-1 and syntaxin-1) and histone acetylation (H3K9ac and H4K8ac) in the dorsal hippocampus were detected using the immunohistochemical method. The results indicated that there were significant age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory, decreased levels of H4K8ac, H3K9ac, and syntaxin-1, and increased levels of synaptotagmin-1 in the offspring mice from 12 months old to 22 months old compared to the same-age controls. Maternal LPS treatment significantly exacerbated the offspring impairments of spatial learning and memory, the reduction of H3K9ac, H4K8ac, and syntaxin-1, and the increment of synaptotagmin-1 from 12 months old to 22 months old compared to the same-age control groups. The changes in the neurobiological indicators significantly correlated with the impairments of spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, this correlation, besides the age and LPS-treatment effects, also showed a dose-dependent effect. Our results suggest that maternal inflammation during pregnancy could exacerbate age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory, and neurobiochemical indicators in the offspring CD-1 mice from midlife to senectitude.

  19. Spatial distribution of oak mistletoe as it relates to habits of oak woodland frugivores.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ethan A; Sullivan, Patrick J; Dickinson, Janis L

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the underlying spatial distribution of oak mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum, a hemi-parasitic plant that provides a continuous supply of berries for frugivorous birds overwintering the oak savanna habitat of California's outer coast range. As the winter community of birds consuming oak mistletoe varies from group-living territorial species to birds that roam in flocks, we asked if mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated at the scale of persistent territories or whether the patterns predicted by long-term territory use by western bluebirds are overcome by seed dispersal by more mobile bird species. The abundance of mistletoe was mapped on trees within a 700 ha study site in Carmel Valley, California. Spatial autocorrelation of mistletoe volume was analyzed using the variogram method and spatial distribution of oak mistletoe trees was analyzed using Ripley's K and O-ring statistics. On a separate set of 45 trees, mistletoe volume was highly correlated with the volume of female, fruit-bearing plants, indicating that overall mistletoe volume is a good predictor of fruit availability. Variogram analysis showed that mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated up to approximately 250 m, a distance consistent with persistent territoriality of western bluebirds and philopatry of sons, which often breed next door to their parents and are more likely to remain home when their parents have abundant mistletoe. Using Ripley's K and O-ring analyses, we showed that mistletoe trees were aggregated for distances up to 558 m, but for distances between 558 to 724 m the O-ring analysis deviated from Ripley's K in showing repulsion rather than aggregation. While trees with mistletoe were aggregated at larger distances, mistletoe was spatially correlated at a smaller distance, consistent with what is expected based on persistent group territoriality of western bluebirds in winter and the extreme philopatry of their sons. PMID:25389971

  20. Age-Related Differences in Spatial Frequency Processing during Scene Categorization.

    PubMed

    Ramanoël, Stephen; Kauffmann, Louise; Cousin, Emilie; Dojat, Michel; Peyrin, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Visual analysis of real-life scenes starts with the parallel extraction of different visual elementary features at different spatial frequencies. The global shape of the scene is mainly contained in low spatial frequencies (LSF), and the edges and borders of objects are mainly contained in high spatial frequencies (HSF). The present fMRI study investigates the effect of age on the spatial frequency processing in scenes. Young and elderly participants performed a categorization task (indoor vs. outdoor) on LSF and HSF scenes. Behavioral results revealed performance degradation for elderly participants only when categorizing HSF scenes. At the cortical level, young participants exhibited retinotopic organization of spatial frequency processing, characterized by medial activation in the anterior part of the occipital lobe for LSF scenes (compared to HSF), and the lateral activation in the posterior part of the occipital lobe for HSF scenes (compared to LSF). Elderly participants showed activation only in the anterior part of the occipital lobe for LSF scenes (compared to HSF), but not significant activation for HSF (compared to LSF). Furthermore, a ROI analysis revealed that the parahippocampal place area, a scene-selective region, was less activated for HSF than LSF for elderly participants only. Comparison between groups revealed greater activation of the right inferior occipital gyrus in young participants than in elderly participants for HSF. Activation of temporo-parietal regions was greater in elderly participants irrespective of spatial frequencies. The present findings indicate a specific low-contrasted HSF deficit for normal elderly people, in association with an occipito-temporal cortex dysfunction, and a functional reorganization of the categorization of filtered scenes. PMID:26288146

  1. Age-Related Differences in Spatial Frequency Processing during Scene Categorization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Visual analysis of real-life scenes starts with the parallel extraction of different visual elementary features at different spatial frequencies. The global shape of the scene is mainly contained in low spatial frequencies (LSF), and the edges and borders of objects are mainly contained in high spatial frequencies (HSF). The present fMRI study investigates the effect of age on the spatial frequency processing in scenes. Young and elderly participants performed a categorization task (indoor vs. outdoor) on LSF and HSF scenes. Behavioral results revealed performance degradation for elderly participants only when categorizing HSF scenes. At the cortical level, young participants exhibited retinotopic organization of spatial frequency processing, characterized by medial activation in the anterior part of the occipital lobe for LSF scenes (compared to HSF), and the lateral activation in the posterior part of the occipital lobe for HSF scenes (compared to LSF). Elderly participants showed activation only in the anterior part of the occipital lobe for LSF scenes (compared to HSF), but not significant activation for HSF (compared to LSF). Furthermore, a ROI analysis revealed that the parahippocampal place area, a scene-selective region, was less activated for HSF than LSF for elderly participants only. Comparison between groups revealed greater activation of the right inferior occipital gyrus in young participants than in elderly participants for HSF. Activation of temporo-parietal regions was greater in elderly participants irrespective of spatial frequencies. The present findings indicate a specific low-contrasted HSF deficit for normal elderly people, in association with an occipito-temporal cortex dysfunction, and a functional reorganization of the categorization of filtered scenes. PMID:26288146

  2. Relating spatial perspective taking to the perception of other's affordances: providing a foundation for predicting the future behavior of others

    PubMed Central

    Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Gagnon, Kyle T.; Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what another agent can see relates functionally to the understanding of what they can do. We propose that spatial perspective taking and perceiving other's affordances, while two separate spatial processes, together share the common social function of predicting the behavior of others. Perceiving the action capabilities of others allows for a common understanding of how agents may act together. The ability to take another's perspective focuses an understanding of action goals so that more precise understanding of intentions may result. This review presents an analysis of these complementary abilities, both in terms of the frames of reference and the proposed sensorimotor mechanisms involved. Together, we argue for the importance of reconsidering the role of basic spatial processes to explain more complex behaviors. PMID:24068992

  3. Elevated dynorphin in the hippocampal formation of aged rats: Relation to cognitive impairment on a spatial learning task

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Hannkuang; Owyang, V.; Hong, Jaushyong; Gallagher, M. )

    1989-04-01

    Radioimmunoassay revealed increased dynorphin A(1-8)-like immunoreactivity (dynA(1-8)LI) in the aged rat brain. Among a number of brain regions examined, an age-related dynA(1-8)LI elevation was found only in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex. Moreover, the increase in dynA(1-8)LI in the aged hippocampus was associated with a decline in spatial learning ability: dynA(1-8)LI distinguished aged rats that were behaviorally impaired from aged cohorts that learned the spatial task as rapidly as younger animals. Northern blot hybridization using a {sup 32}P-labeled complementary RNA probe encoding rat prodynorphin indicated that the abundance of prodynorphin mRNA was also significantly increased in the hippocampal formation of aged rats with identified spatial learning impairments.

  4. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming from the…

  5. ``Political'' Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  6. The Political Economy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    1985-01-01

    The political economy of education treats education as a factor shaped by the power relations between different economic, political, and social groups. Specific topics discussed include the economic value of education, education as an allocator of economic roles, education and social class, education and income distribution, and education and…

  7. Aberrant Parietal Cortex Developmental Trajectories in Girls With Turner Syndrome and Related Visual–Spatial Cognitive Development: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Tamar; Chromik, Lindsay C.; Mazaika, Paul K.; Fierro, Kyle; Raman, Mira M.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Hong, David S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) arises from partial or complete absence of the X-chromosome in females. Girls with TS show deficits in visual–spatial skills as well as reduced brain volume and surface area in the parietal cortex which supports these cognitive functions. Thus, measuring the developmental trajectory of the parietal cortex and the associated visual–spatial cognition in TS may provide novel insights into critical brain-behavior associations. In this longitudinal study, we acquired structural MRI data and assessed visual–spatial skills in 16 (age: 8.23 ±2.5) girls with TS and 13 age-matched controls over two time-points. Gray and white matter volume, surface area and cortical thickness were calculated from surfaced based segmentation of bilateral parietal cortices, and the NEPSY Arrows subtest was used to assess visual–spatial ability. Volumetric and cognitive scalars were modeled to obtain estimates of age-related change. The results show aberrant growth of white matter volume (P =0.011, corrected) and surface area (P =0.036, corrected) of the left superior parietal regions during childhood in girls with TS. Other parietal sub-regions were significantly smaller in girls with TS at both time-points but did not show different growth trajectories relative to controls. Furthermore, we found that visual–spatial skills showed a widening deficit for girls with TS relative to controls (P =0.003). Young girls with TS demonstrate an aberrant trajectory of parietal cortical and cognitive development during childhood. Elucidating aberrant neurodevelopmental trajectories in this population is critical for determining specific stages of brain maturation that are particularly dependent on TS-related genetic and hormonal factor. PMID:25044604

  8. Effects of the Global and Local Attention on the Processing of Categorical and Coordinate Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michimata, Chikashi; Saneyoshi, Ayako; Okubo, Matia; Laeng, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Participants made categorical or coordinate spatial judgments on the global or local elements of shapes. Stimuli were composed of a horizontal line and two dots. In the Categorical task, participants judged whether the line was above or below the dots. In the Coordinate task, they judged whether the line would fit between the dots. Stimuli were…

  9. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  10. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wanderer, Thomas Herle, Stefan

    2015-04-15

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology.

  11. Geometric Figure-Rotation Task and Face Representation in Dyslexia: Role of Spatial Relations and Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Anneliese A.

    1981-01-01

    Compared to normal readers, the dyslexic children not only drew significantly more "neolithic faces" but also made more errors of spatial displacement (up/down or right/left) on parts of asymmetric figures, while among both groups there were similar percentages who made no errors in the global rotation of figures. (Author/SJL)

  12. Failure to engage the public in issues related to inland fishes and fisheries: strategies for building public and political will to promote meaningful conservation.

    PubMed

    Cooke, S J; Lapointe, N W R; Martins, E G; Thiem, J D; Raby, G D; Taylor, M K; Beard, T D; Cowx, I G

    2013-10-01

    Generating awareness of environmental conservation issues among the public is essential if there is an expectation of them to alter their behaviour, facilitate informed decisions and engage governments or regulatory authorities to take action. There are, however, exceedingly few public engagement success stories related to inland fishes and fisheries policy and resource allocation decisions. Inland aquatic resources and their associated fisheries provide employment, recreation, culture and, in developing regions, a considerable proportion of human nutrition and food security. Freshwater fishes are incredibly diverse but are among the most endangered organisms globally. Many threats to inland fisheries are driven largely by externalities to inland fisheries. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the role and plight of inland fishes and fisheries, and the need to generate the public and political will necessary to promote meaningful conservation. With this paper, the extent to which the scientific and environmental management communities have failed to engage the public in issues related to inland fishes and fisheries is characterized. Next, the barriers or factors that serve as the basis for the problem with public engagement are identified. The paper concludes by identifying strategies, including those focused on environmental education initiatives, for building the public and political will necessary to promote meaningful conservation of inland fishes and fisheries in developed and developing countries. Scientists, environmental managers, non-governmental organizations, politicians, regulatory authorities and the media all have important roles to play in overcoming challenges to inland fisheries. Failure to engage the public in freshwater conservation and management issues will impede efforts to stem the loss of freshwater habitats, fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. Thankfully, there are opportunities to learn from success stories related to other

  13. Failure to engage the public in issues related to inland fishes and fisheries: strategies for building public and political will to promote meaningful conservation.

    PubMed

    Cooke, S J; Lapointe, N W R; Martins, E G; Thiem, J D; Raby, G D; Taylor, M K; Beard, T D; Cowx, I G

    2013-10-01

    Generating awareness of environmental conservation issues among the public is essential if there is an expectation of them to alter their behaviour, facilitate informed decisions and engage governments or regulatory authorities to take action. There are, however, exceedingly few public engagement success stories related to inland fishes and fisheries policy and resource allocation decisions. Inland aquatic resources and their associated fisheries provide employment, recreation, culture and, in developing regions, a considerable proportion of human nutrition and food security. Freshwater fishes are incredibly diverse but are among the most endangered organisms globally. Many threats to inland fisheries are driven largely by externalities to inland fisheries. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the role and plight of inland fishes and fisheries, and the need to generate the public and political will necessary to promote meaningful conservation. With this paper, the extent to which the scientific and environmental management communities have failed to engage the public in issues related to inland fishes and fisheries is characterized. Next, the barriers or factors that serve as the basis for the problem with public engagement are identified. The paper concludes by identifying strategies, including those focused on environmental education initiatives, for building the public and political will necessary to promote meaningful conservation of inland fishes and fisheries in developed and developing countries. Scientists, environmental managers, non-governmental organizations, politicians, regulatory authorities and the media all have important roles to play in overcoming challenges to inland fisheries. Failure to engage the public in freshwater conservation and management issues will impede efforts to stem the loss of freshwater habitats, fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. Thankfully, there are opportunities to learn from success stories related to other

  14. Explaining local-scale species distributions: relative contributions of spatial autocorrelation and landscape heterogeneity for an avian assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Blank, Peter J.; Sauer, John R.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

  16. Explaining Local-Scale Species Distributions: Relative Contributions of Spatial Autocorrelation and Landscape Heterogeneity for an Avian Assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Blank, Peter J.; Sauer, John R.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition. PMID:23393564

  17. Where am I? Who am I? The Relation Between Spatial Cognition, Social Cognition and Individual Differences in the Built Environment

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Michael J.; Todorov, Orlin S.; Taylor Aiken, Amanda; de Sousa, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing who we are, and where we are, are two fundamental aspects of our physical and mental experience. Although the domains of spatial and social cognition are often studied independently, a few recent areas of scholarship have explored the interactions of place and self. This fits in with increasing evidence for embodied theories of cognition, where mental processes are grounded in action and perception. Who we are might be integrated with where we are, and impact how we move through space. Individuals vary in personality, navigational strategies, and numerous cognitive and social competencies. Here we review the relation between social and spatial spheres of existence in the realms of philosophical considerations, neural and psychological representations, and evolutionary context, and how we might use the built environment to suit who we are, or how it creates who we are. In particular we investigate how two spatial reference frames, egocentric and allocentric, might transcend into the social realm. We then speculate on how environments may interact with spatial cognition. Finally, we suggest how a framework encompassing spatial and social cognition might be taken in consideration by architects and urban planners. PMID:26903893

  18. Apolipoprotein E ϵ4 is positively related to spatial performance but unrelated to hippocampal volume in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Stening, Eva; Persson, Jonas; Eriksson, Elias; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Zetterberg, Henrik; Söderlund, Hedvig

    2016-02-15

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ϵ4 allele is known to be a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been linked to especially episodic memory decline and hippocampal atrophy in both healthy and demented elderly populations. In young adults, ϵ4 carriers have shown better performance in episodic memory compared to non-carriers. Spatial memory, however, has not been thoroughly assessed in relation to APOE in spite of its dependence on the hippocampus. In this study, we assessed the effect of APOE genotype on a variety of spatial and episodic memory tasks as well as hippocampal volume assessed through manual tracing in a sample of young adults (N=123). We also assessed whether potential effects were modulated by sex. The presence of one or more ϵ4 alleles had positive effects on spatial function and memory and object location memory, but no effect on word recognition. Men were superior to women in spatial function and memory but there were no sex differences in the other tasks. In spite of APOE ϵ4 carriers having superior performance in several memory tasks, no difference was found as a function of APOE genotype in hippocampal volume. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that APOE ϵ4 has a positive effect on spatial ability in young adults.

  19. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  20. The Racial Dimension in Urban Political Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainstein, Susan S.; Fainstein, Norman I.

    1989-01-01

    Blacks in cities remain segregated and economically disadvantaged. Differences between races are far more important than social stratification in Blacks' deteriorating economic condition. Because the spatial and political containment of Black populations has actually reduced their effect on cities' economic fortunes, political strategies for Black…

  1. Political leadership and the politics of nursing.

    PubMed

    Davies, Celia

    2004-07-01

    This article provides a critical examination of the concept of political leadership as it has recently developed in the field of nursing, arguing that despite its undoubted usefulness, there are important issues that it obscures. Using five guiding questions, it is proposed that a focus on political leadership is inward-looking and individualizing. It encourages a view of the profession as immature and it emphasizes separation instead of alliance formation. An alternative perspective starting from an assumption that nursing operates in a position of cultural and structural disadvantage is proposed. A close analysis of the government's strategy for nursing in England confirms the continuing cultural ambiguity that surrounds nursing. This enables a number of questions to be posed concerning where nursing fits in relation to current health policy on workforce change and raises doubts about just how far the historical neglect of nursing in policy arenas has been overcome.

  2. Environmental Health Related Socio-Spatial Inequalities: Identifying "Hotspots" of Environmental Burdens and Social Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Rehana; Flacke, Johannes; Martinez, Javier; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Differential exposure to multiple environmental burdens and benefits and their distribution across a population with varying vulnerability can contribute heavily to health inequalities. Particularly relevant are areas with high cumulative burdens and high social vulnerability termed as "hotspots". This paper develops an index-based approach to assess these multiple burdens and benefits in combination with vulnerability factors at detailed intra-urban level. The method is applied to the city of Dortmund, Germany. Using non-spatial and spatial methods we assessed inequalities and identified "hotspot" areas in the city. We found modest inequalities burdening higher vulnerable groups in Dortmund (CI = -0.020 at p < 0.05). At the detailed intra-urban level, however, inequalities showed strong geographical patterns. Large numbers of "hotspots" exist in the northern part of the city compared to the southern part. A holistic assessment, particularly at a detailed local level, considering both environmental burdens and benefits and their distribution across the population with the different vulnerability, is essential to inform environmental justice debates and to mobilize local stakeholders. Locating "hotspot" areas at this detailed spatial level can serve as a basis to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups to ensure a health conducive equal environment. PMID:27409625

  3. Functional brain mapping of the macaque related to spatial working memory as revealed by PET.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masato; Mikami, Akichika; Ando, Ichiro; Tsukada, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    To define the cortical areas that subserve spatial working memory in a nonhuman primate, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with [(15)O]H(2)O and positron emission tomography while monkeys performed a visually guided saccade (VGS) task and an oculomotor delayed-response (ODR) task. Both Statistical Parametric Mapping and regions of interest-based analyses revealed an increase of rCBF in the area surrounding the principal sulcus (PS), the superior convexity, the anterior bank of the arcuate sulcus (AS), the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), the frontal pole (FP), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus (lIPS) and the prestriate cortex. In the prefrontal cortex (PS, superior convexity, AS, lOFC and FP), rCBF values correlated positively with ODR task performance scores. From the hippocampus, rCBF values correlated negatively with ODR task performance. From the AS, superior convexity, lOFC, FP, ACC and lIPS, rCBF values of the PS correlated positively with rCBF values and negatively with hippocampus rCBF values. These results suggest that neural circuitry in the prefrontal cortex directly contributes the spatial working memory processes and that, in spatial working memory processes, the posterior parietal cortex and hippocampus have a different role to the prefrontal cortex. PMID:14654462

  4. Spatial learning-related changes in metabolic activity of limbic structures at different posttask delays.

    PubMed

    Méndez-López, M; Méndez, M; Sampedro-Piquero, P; Arias, J L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the functional contribution of brain limbic system regions at different moments after the acquisition of a short-term spatial memory task performed in the Morris water maze. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to a matching-to-sample procedure with a hidden platform. The trials were made up of two daily identical visits to the platform, sample (swim-1) and retention (swim-2). To study oxidative metabolic activity, we applied cytochrome oxidase (COx) histochemistry. Densitometric measurements were taken at 1.5, 6, 24, and 48 hr posttask. An untrained group was added to explore the COx changes not specific to the learning process. The brain regions studied showed a different pattern of metabolic activity at different time points after the spatial memory task. Specifically, a significant increase of COx was found in the septal dentate gyrus, anteromedial thalamus, medial mammillary nucleus, and entorhinal cortex at early moments after learning. The entorhinal cortex maintained an increase of COx at later stages of the posttask period. In addition, an increase of COx activity was found in the supramammillary nucleus and the retrosplenial, perirhinal, and parietal cortices a long time after learning. These findings suggest that diencephalic and cortical regions are involved in this spatial learning and contribute at different moments to process this information.

  5. Testing the social identity relative deprivation (SIRD) model of social change: the political rise of Scottish nationalism.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Grant, Peter R

    2012-12-01

    We tested a social-identity relative deprivation (SIRD) model predicting Scottish nationalist beliefs and intention to vote for the separatist Scottish Nationalist Party (SNP). Data were from a survey of a large and representative sample of Scottish teenagers administered in the late 1980s. The SIRD model distinguishes effects of group-based and personal relative deprivation, which should be independent of one another. Importantly, social change beliefs should mediate the effects of both collective relative deprivation and group identification on protest intentions (in this case intention to vote for the SNP). Egoistic relative deprivation should be the strongest predictor of feelings of depression. Using structural equation modelling, the results strongly support this model and replicate in two different cohorts. PMID:21649666

  6. Testing the social identity relative deprivation (SIRD) model of social change: the political rise of Scottish nationalism.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Grant, Peter R

    2012-12-01

    We tested a social-identity relative deprivation (SIRD) model predicting Scottish nationalist beliefs and intention to vote for the separatist Scottish Nationalist Party (SNP). Data were from a survey of a large and representative sample of Scottish teenagers administered in the late 1980s. The SIRD model distinguishes effects of group-based and personal relative deprivation, which should be independent of one another. Importantly, social change beliefs should mediate the effects of both collective relative deprivation and group identification on protest intentions (in this case intention to vote for the SNP). Egoistic relative deprivation should be the strongest predictor of feelings of depression. Using structural equation modelling, the results strongly support this model and replicate in two different cohorts.

  7. Spatial distribution of fishes in a Northwest Atlantic ecosystem in relation to risk of predation by a marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Swain, Douglas P; Benoît, Hugues P; Hammill, Mike O

    2015-09-01

    1. Numerous studies have shown that, at spatial scales of metres to several kilometres, animals balance the trade-off between foraging success and predation mortality by increasing their use of safer but less profitable habitats as predation risk increases. However, it is less clear whether prey respond similarly at the larger spatiotemporal scales of many ecosystems. 2. We determine whether this behaviour is evident in a large marine ecosystem, the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence (sGSL, 75 000 km(2) ) over a 42-year period. This ecosystem is characterized by a recent increase in the abundance of a large marine predator, the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius), by more than an order of magnitude. 3. We compared changes in spatial distribution over the 1971-2012 period between important prey of grey seals (Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.; white hake, Urophycis tenuis Mitchill; and thorny skate, Amblyraja radiata Donovan) and non-prey fishes. 4. Distribution was modelled using generalized additive models incorporating spatially variable effects of predation risk, density dependence and water temperature. Distributions of cod, hake and skate were strongly related to risk of predation by seals, with distribution shifting into lower risk areas as predation risk increased. Non-prey species did not show similar changes in habitat use. Spatial variation in fish condition suggests that these low-risk areas are also less profitable for cod and skate in terms of food availability. The effects of density dependence and water temperature were also important in models, but did not account for the changes in habitat use as the risk of predation increased. 5. These results indicate that these fish are able to assess and respond to spatial variation in predation risk at very large spatial scales. They also suggest that non-consumptive 'risk' effects may be an important component of the declines in productivity of seal prey in this ecosystem, and of the indirect effects at lower

  8. Site fidelity in the Canary Islands stonechat Saxicola dacotiae in relation to spatial and temporal patterns of habitat suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Díaz, Mario

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the degree of territory faithfulness of the Canary Islands stonechat Saxicola dacotiae, an endemic bird species of the semi-arid island of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain), and the spatial and temporal variability of habitat traits related to its breeding success over its whole distribution range. Between 1998 and 2003 we monitored the spatial location of individually marked birds to determine whether they were site faithful. We also analysed the spatial and temporal variability of the abiotic (rainfall) and biotic (food availability, abundance of avian predators and competitors, and nest predation) factors that may influence breeding success in this species. Canary Islands stonechats were strongly site faithful. Out of 106 individuals, 86 (81.0%) were re-sighted during the whole study period, and most re-sightings (76; 88.4%) were in the territory where they were initially caught. Dispersal events were rare both within (1%) and between (≤6%) consecutive years, and detectability of colour-ringed birds was as high as 87%. No significant spatial variation of abiotic and biotic factors affecting success was found at a range of spatial scales. Low spatial variance in the habitat characteristics determining reproductive success could have favoured site fidelity in this species, as costs associated with changing site would not be compensated for by significant increases in survival or breeding prospects in new territories. Strict protection of the areas already occupied by this "Endangered" narrow range endemic bird would be the most effective way of preserving it, due to its strict habitat and microhabitat requirements and its strong site fidelity.

  9. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  10. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide emissions and their soil-related determining factors in an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Junta; Sawamoto, Takuji; Oe, Taku; Kusa, Kanako; Yamakawa, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Naganawa, Takahiko; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Ryusuke; Kosaki, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate spatial variability of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and to elucidate their determining factors on a field-scale basis, N2O fluxes and various soil properties were evaluated in a 100- x 100-m onion (Allium cepa L.) field. Nitrous oxide fluxes were determined by a closed chamber method from the one-hundred 10- x 10-m plots. Physical (e.g., bulk density and water content), chemical (e.g., total N and pH), and biological (e.g., microbial biomass C and N) properties were determined from surface soil samples (0-0.1 m) of each plot. Geostatistical analysis was performed to examine spatial variability of both N2O fluxes and soil properties. Multivariate analysis was also conducted to elucidate relationships between soil properties and observed fluxes. Nitrous oxide fluxes were highly variable (average 331 microg N m(-2) h(-1), CV 217%) and were log-normally distributed. Log-transformed N2O fluxes had moderate spatial dependence with a range of >75 m. High N2O fluxes were observed at sites with relatively low elevation. Multivariate analysis indicated that an organic matter factor and a pH factor of the principal component analysis were the main soil-related determining factors of log-transformed N2O fluxes. By combining multivariate analysis with geostatistics, a map of predicted N2O fluxes closely matched the spatial pattern of measured fluxes. The regression equation based on the soil properties explained 56% of the spatially structured variation of the log-transformed N2O fluxes. Site-specific management to regulate organic matter content and water status of a soil could be a promising means of reducing N2O emissions from agricultural fields. PMID:14674518

  11. Meanings of political participation among black and white women: political identity and social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Cole, E R; Stewart, A J

    1996-07-01

    This study examined the correlates of midlife political participation among 64 Black and 107 White women of the college classes of 1967-1973. Compared with White women, Black women scored higher on political participation, generativity, power discontent, and politicization. Factor analysis of personality and political attitude variables yielded three factors labeled Political Identity, Power Discontent, and Social Responsibility. Adult political participation was regressed on level of student activism and index scores of political identity, power discontent, and social responsibility. For both racial groups, social responsibility was associated with midlife political participation. For White women, political identity was also related; for Black women, student activism bore a significant relationship. The findings suggest that Black and White women's historical and political contexts imbued their political activities with different meanings.

  12. Factors related to spatial patterns of rural land fragmentation in Texas.

    PubMed

    Kjelland, Michael E; Kreuter, Urs P; Clendenin, George A; Wilkins, R Neal; Wu, X Ben; Afanador, Edith Gonzalez; Grant, William E

    2007-08-01

    Fragmentation of family-owned farms and ranches has been identified as the greatest single threat to wildlife habitat, water supply, and the long-term viability of agriculture in Texas. However, an integrative framework for insights into the pathways of land use change has been lacking. The specific objectives of the study are to test the hypotheses that the nonagricultural value (NAV) of rural land is a reliable indicator of trends in land fragmentation and that NAV in Texas is spatially correlated with population density, and to explore the idea that recent changes in property size patterns are better represented by a categorical model than by one that reflects incremental changes. We propose that the State-and-Transition model, developed to describe the dynamics of semi-arid ecosystems, provides an appropriate conceptual framework for characterizing categorical shifts in rural property patterns. Results suggest that changes in population density are spatially correlated with NAV and farm size, and that rural property size is spatially correlated with changes in NAV. With increasing NAV, the proportion of large properties tends to decrease while the area represented by small properties tends to increase. Although a correlation exists between NAV and population density, it is the trend in NAV that appears to be a stronger predictor of land fragmentation. The empirical relationships established herein, viewed within the conceptual framework of the State-and-Transition model, can provide a useful tool for evaluating land use policies for maintaining critical ecosystem services delivered from privately owned land in private land states, such as Texas.

  13. Factors Related to Spatial Patterns of Rural Land Fragmentation in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjelland, Michael E.; Kreuter, Urs P.; Clendenin, George A.; Wilkins, R. Neal; Wu, X. Ben; Afanador, Edith Gonzalez; Grant, William E.

    2007-08-01

    Fragmentation of family-owned farms and ranches has been identified as the greatest single threat to wildlife habitat, water supply, and the long-term viability of agriculture in Texas. However, an integrative framework for insights into the pathways of land use change has been lacking. The specific objectives of the study are to test the hypotheses that the nonagricultural value (NAV) of rural land is a reliable indicator of trends in land fragmentation and that NAV in Texas is spatially correlated with population density, and to explore the idea that recent changes in property size patterns are better represented by a categorical model than by one that reflects incremental changes. We propose that the State-and-Transition model, developed to describe the dynamics of semi-arid ecosystems, provides an appropriate conceptual framework for characterizing categorical shifts in rural property patterns. Results suggest that changes in population density are spatially correlated with NAV and farm size, and that rural property size is spatially correlated with changes in NAV. With increasing NAV, the proportion of large properties tends to decrease while the area represented by small properties tends to increase. Although a correlation exists between NAV and population density, it is the trend in NAV that appears to be a stronger predictor of land fragmentation. The empirical relationships established herein, viewed within the conceptual framework of the State-and-Transition model, can provide a useful tool for evaluating land use policies for maintaining critical ecosystem services delivered from privately owned land in private land states, such as Texas.

  14. Spatial-scale effects on relative importance of physical habitat predictors of stream health.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Sutton, Trent M; Engel, Bernard A; Simon, Thomas P

    2005-12-01

    A common theme in recent landscape studies is the comparison of riparian and watershed land use as predictors of stream health. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of reach-scale habitat and remotely assessed watershed-scale habitat as predictors of stream health over varying spatial extents. Stream health was measured with scores on a fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) using data from 95 stream reaches in the Eastern Corn Belt Plain (ECBP) ecoregion of Indiana. Watersheds hierarchically nested within the ecoregion were used to regroup sampling locations to represent varying spatial extents. Reach habitat was represented by metrics of a qualitative habitat evaluation index, whereas watershed variables were represented by riparian forest, geomorphology, and hydrologic indices. The importance of reach- versus watershed-scale variables was measured by multiple regression model adjusted-R2 and best subset comparisons in the general linear statistical framework. Watershed models had adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.25 to 0.93 and reach models had adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.86. Better-fitting models were associated with smaller spatial extents. Watershed models explained about 15% more variation in IBI scores than reach models on average. Variety of surficial geology contributed to decline in model predictive power. Results should be interpreted bearing in mind that reach habitat was qualitatively measured and only fish assemblages were used to measure stream health. Riparian forest and length-slope (LS) factor were the most important watershed-scale variables and mostly positively correlated with IBI scores, whereas substrate and riffle-pool quality were the important reach-scale variables in the ECBP.

  15. Severe wind flow of small spatial and temporal scales: The microburst and related phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Rita D.; Mccarthy, John

    1985-01-01

    Low-altitude winds on the meso- and microscale are the primary focus of study for the Research Applications Program (RAP) of NCAR. Local weather features such as microbursts, microburst lines, gust fronts, and convergent wind boundaries have been observed and documented extensively. A microburst is a strong, small-scale convective storm outflow which diverges horizontally in all directions upon impact with the ground (Fujita, 1981). A microburst line is composed of two or more microbursts which occur either simultaneously or consecutively, and subsequently form a diverging line of outflow. The temporal and spatial scales of these phenomena are shown. Microbursts and microburst lines generally occur on both the meso- and microscale, while gust fronts and convergent wind boundaries overlap into the mesoscale. Microbursts, in particular, not only are small spatially but are also a short-lived phenomenon. Clearly, some of these features are on a much smaller spatial and temporal scale than can be resolved by a global wind measurement. During the past three years, three experiments were held in the Denver, CO, area to observe boundary-layer winds. Their main objectives were observation and documentation of those weather features discussed above. The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project, which ran in the summer of 1982, was set up to study microbursts. The Convective Initiation Project (1984) was designed to document clear-air convergent wind boundaries, including gust fronts, and their role in convective storm initiation. This project was immediately followed by the Classify, Locate, and Avoid Wind Shear experiment that expanded upon the work done in JAWS. Details on the scales of these weather features are presented. The wind sensors used to detect these phenomena are also discussed. Concluding comments address the usefulness of a global wind measurement system as it pertains to our local scale of interest.

  16. Climate and peat type in relation to spatial variation of the peatland carbon mass in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packalen, Maara S.; Finkelstein, Sarah A.; McLaughlin, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Northern peatlands store ~500 Pg of carbon (C); however, controls on the spatial distribution of the stored C may differ regionally, owing to the complex interaction among climate, ecosystem processes, and geophysical controls. As a globally significant C sink, elucidation of controls on the distribution of C in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada (HBL), is of particular importance. Although peat age is related to timing of land emergence and peat depth in the HBL, considerable variation in the total C mass (kg m-2) among sites of similar peat age suggests that other factors may explain spatial patterns in C storage (Pg) and sequestration. Here we quantify the role of two key factors in explaining the spatial distribution of the C mass in the HBL (n = 364 sites), (i) climate variability and (ii) peat lithology, for two major peatland classes in the HBL (bogs and fens). We find that temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration each explained nearly half of the C mass variability. Regions characterized by warmer and wetter conditions stored the most C as peat. Our results show that bogs and fens store similar amounts of C within a given climate domain, although via distinct storage mechanisms. Namely, fen peats tend to be shallower and more C dense (kg m-3) compared to bogs. Following geophysical controls on the timing of peat initiation, our results reveal that both the widespread bog-fen patterning and variability in regional climate contribute to explaining the spatial distribution of the peat C mass in the HBL.

  17. Landsat Thematic Mapper studies of land cover spatial variability related to hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, S.; Ormsby, J.; Salomonson, V.; Mulligan, P.

    1984-01-01

    Past accomplishments involving remote sensing based land-cover analysis for hydrologic applications are reviewed. Ongoing research in exploiting the increased spatial, radiometric, and spectral capabilities afforded by the TM on Landsats 4 and 5 is considered. Specific studies to compare MSS and TM for urbanizing watersheds, wetlands, and floodplain mapping situations show that only a modest improvement in classification accuracy is achieved via statistical per pixel multispectral classifiers. The limitations of current approaches to multispectral classification are illustrated. The objectives, background, and progress in the development of an alternative analysis approach for defining inputs to urban hydrologic models using TM are discussed.

  18. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics.

  19. Mutual information spectrum for selection of event-related spatial components. Application to eloquent motor cortex mapping

    PubMed Central

    Ossadtchi, Alexei; Pronko, Platon; Baillet, Sylvain; Pflieger, Mark E.; Stroganova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Spatial component analysis is often used to explore multidimensional time series data whose sources cannot be measured directly. Several methods may be used to decompose the data into a set of spatial components with temporal loadings. Component selection is of crucial importance, and should be supported by objective criteria. In some applications, the use of a well defined component selection criterion may provide for automation of the analysis. In this paper we describe a novel approach for ranking of spatial components calculated from the EEG or MEG data recorded within evoked response paradigm. Our method is called Mutual Information (MI) Spectrum and is based on gauging the amount of MI of spatial component temporal loadings with a synthetically created reference signal. We also describe the appropriate randomization based statistical assessment scheme that can be used for selection of components with statistically significant amount of MI. Using simulated data with realistic trial to trial variations and SNR corresponding to the real recordings we demonstrate the superior performance characteristics of the described MI based measure as compared to a more conventionally used power driven gauge. We also demonstrate the application of the MI Spectrum for the selection of task-related independent components from real MEG data. We show that the MI spectrum allows to identify task-related components reliably in a consistent fashion, yielding stable results even from a small number of trials. We conclude that the proposed method fits naturally the information driven nature of ICA and can be used for routine and automatic ranking of independent components calculated from the functional neuroimaging data collected within event-related paradigms. PMID:24478692

  20. Absorbance of retinal oil droplets of the budgerigar: sex, spatial and plumage morph-related variation.

    PubMed

    Knott, Ben; Bowmaker, James K; Berg, Mathew L; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in photoreceptor physiology is known in several vertebrate taxa, but is currently unknown in birds, despite many avian traits varying intraspecifically, and avian visual ecology encompassing a wide range of environments and visual stimuli, which might influence spectral sensitivity. Avian retinal photoreceptors contain light absorbing carotenoid-rich oil droplets that affect vision. Carotenoids are also important plumage components. However, our understanding of the regulation of carotenoids in oil droplets remains rudimentary. Among birds, Melopsittacus undulatus has probably the best-studied colour vision, shows profound intraspecific variation in plumage colour, and increased plasma carotenoids during moult. We used microspectrophotometry to determine whether a relationship exists between oil droplet carotenoid concentration and plumage pigmentation, and tested for sex and spatial variation in droplet absorbance across the retina. Absorbance of one variety of P-type droplets was higher in males. No relationship was found between droplet absorbance and plumage colour. We found a spatial pattern of droplets absorbance across the retina that matched a pattern found in another parrot, and other avian species. Our work provides insights into the development and maintenance of retinal oil droplets and suggests a common mechanism and function for carotenoid deposition in the retina across bird species. PMID:21979102

  1. Paternal treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning and memory related to hippocampus among male offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L

    2013-09-15

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring. PMID:23916757

  2. Spatial association of apoptosis-related gene expression and cellular death in clinical neuroblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, J. C.; Gestblom, C.; Olsen, L.; PÃ¥hlman, S.

    1997-01-01

    Several unique features of neuroblastoma (NB), including the capacity for spontaneous regression and maturation to benign pathology, suggest that genes that regulate cellular proliferation, survival and differentiation may be involved in directing clinical tumour aggressiveness. The in situ expression of Bcl-2, Rb, p21, p53 and Bax proteins, as well as the proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunocytochemically in a selection of 38 stage- and outcome-identified NB tumours. Apoptotic cells were identified morphologically and by a DNA fragmentation labelling technique (TUNEL). Although the tumour cell density of Bcl-2, p53, Bax, PCNA and TUNEL positivity correlated with patient survival, a spatially organized expression pattern was further recognized in stroma-poor differentiating tumours. Immature tumour cells adjacent to thin fibrovascular stroma are proliferating, as evidenced by PCNA positivity, and often express Bcl-2. At increasing distance from this fibrovascular stroma, intermediately differentiated tumour cells express Rb, while with more advanced differentiation, proliferation ceases and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity is lost. The most differentiated tumour cells, which often express p53, and occasionally p21 and Bax, lie adjacent to TUNEL-positive, morphologically apoptotic cells. This spatial organization in favourable outcome NB tumours suggests that physiological regulation of differentiation and apoptosis may be involved in tumour regression. Images Figure 2 PMID:9099968

  3. Bayesian spatial modeling of disease risk in relation to multivariate environmental risk fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-in; Lawson, Andrew B; McDermott, Suzanne; Aelion, C Marjorie

    2010-01-15

    The relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy and early childhood development is an important issue that has a spatial risk component. In this context, we have examined mental retardation and developmental delay (MRDD) outcome measures for children in a Medicaid population in South Carolina and sampled measures of soil chemistry (e.g. As, Hg, etc.) on a network of sites that are misaligned to the outcome residential addresses during pregnancy. The true chemical concentration at the residential addresses is not observed directly and must be interpolated from soil samples. In this study, we have developed a Bayesian joint model that interpolates soil chemical fields and estimates the associated MRDD risk simultaneously. Having multiple spatial fields to interpolate, we have considered a low-rank Kriging method for the interpolation that requires less computation than the Bayesian Kriging. We performed a sensitivity analysis for a bivariate smoothing, changing the number of knots and the smoothing parameter. These analyses show that a low-rank Kriging method can be used as an alternative to a full-rank Kriging, reducing the computational burden. However, the number of knots for the low-rank Kriging model needs to be selected with caution as a bivariate surface estimation can be sensitive to the choice of the number of knots.

  4. Paternal treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning and memory related to hippocampus among male offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L

    2013-09-15

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring.

  5. The Effects of Face Inversion on the Perception of Long-Range and Local Spatial Relations in Eye and Mouth Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekunova, Alla; Barton, Jason J. S.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study hypothesized a configurational anisotropy in the face inversion effect, with vertical relations more difficult to process. However, another difference in the stimuli of that report was that the vertical but not horizontal shifts lacked local spatial references. Difficulty processing long-range spatial relations might also be…

  6. Dissociating effects of movement preparation and spatial attention on visual processing: evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Ley, Pia; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether effects of movement preparation and visual spatial attention on visual processing can be dissociated. Movement preparation and visual spatial attention were manipulated orthogonally in a dual-task design. Ten participants covertly prepared unimanual lateral arm movements to one hemifield, while attending to visual stimuli presented either in the same or in the hemifield opposite to the movement goal. Event-related potentials to task-irrelevant visual stimuli were analysed. Both joint and distinct modulations of visual ERPs by visual spatial attention and movement preparation were observed: The latencies of all analysed peaks (P1, N1, P2) were shorter for matching (in terms of direction of attention and movement) versus non-matching sensory-motor conditions. The P1 amplitude, as well, depended on the sensory-motor matching: The P1 was larger for non-matching compared to matching conditions. By contrast, the N1 amplitude showed additive effects of sensory attention and movement preparation: with attention and movement preparation directed towards the visual stimulus the N1 was largest, with both directed opposite to the stimulus the N1 was smallest. P2 amplitudes, instead, were only modulated by sensory attention. The present data show that movement preparation and sensory spatial attention are tightly linked and interrelated, showing joint modulations throughout stimulus processing. At the same time, however, our data argue against the idea of identity of the two systems. Instead, sensory spatial attention and movement preparation seem to be processed at least partially independently, though still exerting a combined influence on visual stimulus processing.

  7. A three-dimensional point process model for the spatial distribution of disease occurrence in relation to an exposure source.

    PubMed

    Grell, Kathrine; Diggle, Peter J; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Schüz, Joachim; Cardis, Elisabeth; Andersen, Per K

    2015-10-15

    We study methods for how to include the spatial distribution of tumours when investigating the relation between brain tumours and the exposure from radio frequency electromagnetic fields caused by mobile phone use. Our suggested point process model is adapted from studies investigating spatial aggregation of a disease around a source of potential hazard in environmental epidemiology, where now the source is the preferred ear of each phone user. In this context, the spatial distribution is a distribution over a sample of patients rather than over multiple disease cases within one geographical area. We show how the distance relation between tumour and phone can be modelled nonparametrically and, with various parametric functions, how covariates can be included in the model and how to test for the effect of distance. To illustrate the models, we apply them to a subset of the data from the Interphone Study, a large multinational case-control study on the association between brain tumours and mobile phone use. PMID:26011698

  8. Neuroticism and self-evaluation measures are related to the ability to form cognitive maps critical for spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Burles, Ford; Guadagni, Veronica; Hoey, Felecia; Arnold, Aiden E G F; Levy, Richard M; O'Neill, Thomas; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Trait neuroticism is suggested to be related to measures of volume and function of the hippocampus, a brain structure located in the medial temporal lobe that is critical for human navigation and orientation. In this study, we assessed whether measures of trait neuroticism and self-concept are correlated with the human ability to orient by means of cognitive maps (i.e. mental representations of an environment that include landmarks and their spatial relationships). After controlling for gender differences, which are well-known in spatial orientation abilities, we found that measures of neuroticism (i.e. negative affect, emotional stability) and self-concept (i.e. self-esteem) were correlated with individual differences in the rate at which cognitive maps were formed; the same measures were generally unrelated to the ability to make use of cognitive maps, as well as the ability to orient using visual path integration. The relationships (and lack thereof) between personality traits and the spatial orientation skills, as reported in the present study, are consistent with specific neural correlates underlying these factors, and may have important implications for treatment of disorders related to them.

  9. Characterizing fire-related spatial patterns in fire-prone ecosystems using optical and microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Mary Catherine

    The use of active and passive remote sensing systems for relating forest spatial patterns to fire history was tested over one of the Arizona Sky Islands. Using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C), and data fusion I examined the relationship between landscape metrics and a range of fire history characteristics. Each data type (TM, SIR-C, and fused) was processed in the following manner: each band, channel, or derived feature was simplified to a thematic layer and landscape statistics were calculated for plots with known fire history. These landscape metrics were then correlated with fire history characteristics, including number of fire-free years in a given time period, mean fire-free interval, and time since fire. Results from all three case studies showed significant relationships between fire history and forest spatial patterns. Data fusion performed as well or better than Landsat TM alone, and better than SIR-C alone. These comparisons were based on number and strength of significant correlations each method achieved. The landscape metric that was most consistent and obtained the greatest number of significant correlations was Shannon's Diversity Index. Results also agreed with field-based research that has linked higher fire frequency to increased landscape diversity and patchiness. An additional finding was that the fused data seem to detect fire-related spatial patterns over a range of scales.

  10. High-spatial-resolution microwave and related observations as diagnostics of coronal loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1986-01-01

    High spatial resolution microwave observations of coronal loops, together with theoretical models for the loop emission, can provide detailed information about the temperature, density, and magnetic field within the loop, as well as the environment around the loop. The capability for studying magnetic fields is particularly important, since there is no comparable method for obtaining direct information about coronal magnetic fields. Knowledge of the magnetic field strength and structure in coronal loops is important for understanding both coronal heating and flares. With arc-second-resolution microwave observations from the Very Large Array (VLA), supplemental high-spectral-resolution microwave data from a facility such as the Owens Valley frequency-agile interferometer, and the ability to obtain second-of-arc resolution EUV aor soft X ray images, the capability already exists for obtaining much more detailed information about coronal plasma and magnetic structures than is presently available. This capability is discussed.

  11. Spatially localized structure-function relations in the elastic properties of sheared articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Jesse; Bonassar, Lawrence; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Contemporary developments in therapeutic tissue engineering have been enabled by basic research efforts in the field of biomechanics. Further integration of technology in medicine requires a deeper understanding of the mechanical properties of soft biological materials and the structural origins of their response under extreme stresses and strains. Drawing on the science generated by the ``Extreme Mechanics'' community, we present experimental results on the mechanical properties of articular cartilage, a hierarchically structured soft biomaterial found in the joints of mammalian long bones. Measurements of the spatially localized structure and mechanical properties will be compared with theoretical descriptions based on networks of deformed rods, poro-visco-elasticity, and standard continuum models. Discrepancies between experiment and theory will be highlighted, and suggestions for how models can be improved will be given.

  12. [Spatial distribution pattern of soil nitrogen in Huanghuadianzi watershed and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Yao, Yun-feng; Qin, Fu-cang; Gao, Yu-han; Zhang, Mei-li

    2015-05-01

    This research was conducted in Huanghuadianzi watershed in Aohan, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia. Geostatistic was used to study the spatial distribution of soil nitrogen and their affecting factors. The results showed that the soil nitrogen contents in all layers distributed as an island shape, and the high value areas were mainly distributed in the northwest of the watershed as an obvious fertile island shape, while the low value areas were mainly distributed in the south of the watershed. Nitrogen was mainly concentrated in the surface soil, and its content decreased with the increase of soil depth. The soil nitrogen content at first increased then decreased with the altitude, decreased with the slope, and showed the order of shady slope>semi-shady slope>semi-sunny slope> sunny slope in different aspects. The average soil nitrogen contents in different land use types ranked as cropland >woodland > grassland.

  13. Distinct discrimination learning strategies and their relation with spatial memory and attentional control in 4- to 14-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Schmittmann, Verena D; van der Maas, Han L J; Raijmakers, Maartje E J

    2012-04-01

    Behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuropsychological studies have revealed large developmental differences in various learning paradigms where learning from positive and negative feedback is essential. The differences are possibly due to the use of distinct strategies that may be related to spatial working memory and attentional control. In this study, strategies in performing a discrimination learning task were distinguished in a cross-sectional sample of 302 children from 4 to 14 years of age. The trial-by-trial accuracy data were analyzed with mathematical learning models. The best-fitting model revealed three learning strategies: hypothesis testing, slow abrupt learning, and nonlearning. The proportion of hypothesis-testing children increased with age. Nonlearners were present only in the youngest age group. Feature preferences for the irrelevant dimension had a detrimental effect on performance in the youngest age group. The executive functions spatial working memory and attentional control significantly predicted posterior learning strategy probabilities after controlling for age.

  14. Occurrence and spatial distribution of 158 pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse and related metabolites in offshore seawater.

    PubMed

    Alygizakis, Nikiforos A; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Borova, Viola L; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-01-15

    The occurrence and spatial distribution of 158 pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse were studied in seawater of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Saronikos Gulf and Elefsis Bay in central Aegean Sea). This area is affected by various anthropogenic pressures as it receives the treated wastewater of the greatest Athens area and off-shore input fluxes. This study constitutes the largest one in terms of number of analytes in this environmental compartment. It provides the first evidence on the occurrence of several pharmaceuticals in marine environment including amoxicillin, lidocaine, citalopram or tramadol, among others. 22 samples were collected at three different depths in 9 sampling stations in order to assess the presence and the spatial distribution of the target compounds. A multi-residue method based on solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of the 158 target substances and validated for seawater sample analysis. 38 out of the 158 target compounds were detected, 15 of them with frequencies of detection equal to or higher than 50%. The highest detected values corresponded to amoxicillin, caffeine and salicylic acid, with concentrations in the range of < 5.0-127.8 ng L(-1); 5.2-78.2 ng L(-1) and < 0.4-53.3 ng L(-1), respectively. Inputs from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Athens revealed to be the main source of pollution in the Inner Saronikos Gulf, whereas, other anthropogenic pressures such as contamination from shipping activity, industrial effluents, dredging and/or inputs from land proved to be also relevant. Τhe concentrations of some compounds varied significantly with depth suggesting that currents play an important role in the dilution of the target compounds. PMID:26473711

  15. American Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  16. Nuclear politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranson, John

    2009-04-01

    The sentiments expressed by Sidney Drell in his forum article "The nuclear threat: a new start" (February pp16-17) are laudable, but it was disappointing to find this almost entirely political story in isolation. The article, which outlined the prospects for reducing weapons stockpiles under the new US administration, would have been more pertinent as an introduction to a series describing the technology used in detecting nuclear-testing activity. It would have been interesting to discuss the specific equipment and methods used, together with the analysis and correlation techniques - along with an indication of how sensitive and reliable they are (if the information is not classified). It is far easier to detect an explosive event than it is to detect and quantify weapons stores, which is a key factor for any negotiated solution. Apart from deductions based on actual inspection and satellite surveillance, are there other techniques that can be applied to this issue?

  17. The Differential Relations between Verbal, Numerical and Spatial Working Memory Abilities and Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakhill, Jane; Yuill, Nicola; Garnham, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relations between children's reading skills and working memory (WM) abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading…

  18. Exploration of ecological factors related to the spatial heterogeneity of tuberculosis prevalence in P. R. China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Background The current prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in the People's Republic of China (P. R. China) demonstrates geographical heterogeneities, which show that the TB prevalence in the remote areas of Western China is more serious than that in the coastal plain of Eastern China. Although a lot of ecological studies have been applied in the exploration on the regional difference of disease risks, there is still a paucity of ecological studies on TB prevalence in P. R. China. Objective To understand the underlying factors contributing to the regional inequity of TB burden in P. R. China by using an ecological approach and, thus, aiming to provide a basis to eliminate the TB spatial heterogeneity in the near future. Design Latent ecological variables were identified by using exploratory factor analysis from data obtained from four sources, i.e. the databases of the National TB Control Programme (2001–2010) in P. R. China, the China Health Statistical Yearbook during 2002–2011, the China Statistical Yearbook during 2002–2011, and the provincial government websites in 2013. Partial least squares path modelling was chosen to construct the structural equation model to evaluate the relationship between TB prevalence and ecological variables. Furthermore, a geographically weighted regression model was used to explore the local spatial heterogeneity in the relationships. Results The latent ecological variables in terms of ‘TB prevalence’, ‘TB investment’, ‘TB service’, ‘health investment’, ‘health level’, ‘economic level’, ‘air quality’, ‘climatic factor’ and ‘geographic factor’ were identified. With the exception of TB service and health levels, other ecological factors had explicit and significant impacts on TB prevalence to varying degrees. Additionally, each ecological factor had different impacts on TB prevalence in different regions significantly. Conclusion Ecological factors that were found predictive of TB prevalence in P

  19. Spatial and sustained attention in relation to smoking status: behavioural performance and brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Vossel, Simone; Warbrick, Tracy; Mobascher, Arian; Winterer, Georg; Fink, Gereon R

    2011-11-01

    Nicotine enhances attentional functions. Since chronic nicotine exposure through smoking induces neuroadaptive changes in the brain at a structural and molecular level, the present functional MRI (fMRI) study aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms underlying visuospatial and sustained attention in smokers and non-smokers. Visuospatial attention was assessed with a location-cueing paradigm, while sustained attention was measured by changes in response speed over time. During invalid trials, neural activity within the basal forebrain was selectively enhanced in smokers and higher basal forebrain activity was associated with increased parietal cortex activation. Moreover, higher levels of expired carbon monoxide in smokers before scanning were associated with higher parietal cortex activation and faster responses to invalidly cued targets. Smokers showed a slowing of responses and additionally recruited an area within the right supramarginal gyrus with increasing time on task. Activity decreases over time were observed in visual areas in smokers. The data provide evidence for altered attentional functions in smokers as compared with non-smokers, which were partly modulated by residual nicotine levels and were observed at a behavioural level for sustained and at a neural level for spatial and sustained attention.

  20. Testing spatial symmetry using contingency tables based on nearest neighbor relations.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Elvan

    2014-01-01

    We consider two types of spatial symmetry, namely, symmetry in the mixed or shared nearest neighbor (NN) structures. We use Pielou's and Dixon's symmetry tests which are defined using contingency tables based on the NN relationships between the data points. We generalize these tests to multiple classes and demonstrate that both the asymptotic and exact versions of Pielou's first type of symmetry test are extremely conservative in rejecting symmetry in the mixed NN structure and hence should be avoided or only the Monte Carlo randomized version should be used. Under RL, we derive the asymptotic distribution for Dixon's symmetry test and also observe that the usual independence test seems to be appropriate for Pielou's second type of test. Moreover, we apply variants of Fisher's exact test on the shared NN contingency table for Pielou's second test and determine the most appropriate version for our setting. We also consider pairwise and one-versus-rest type tests in post hoc analysis after a significant overall symmetry test. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the tests, prove their consistency under appropriate null hypotheses, and investigate finite sample performance of them by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The methods are illustrated on a real-life ecological data set.

  1. EEG functional network properties related to visually induced unrecognized spatial disorientation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xiaoning; Yang, Yang; Li, Jing; Hao, Chenru; Li, Minggao; Pu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Unrecognized spatial disorientation (SD) which is intimately linked with brain cognitive function is always a fatal issue for the safety of pilots. To explore its effects on human brain cognitive functions, electroencephalography (EEG) functional network analysis methods were adopted to examine topological changes in the connection of cognitive regions when experiencing unrecognized SD. Twelve male pilots participated in the study. They were subjected to a SD scene, namely visual rotation, which evoked unrecognized SD. For the main EEG frequency intervals, the phase lag index (PLI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) were calculated to quantify the EEG data. Then weighted connectivity networks were constructed and their properties were characterized in terms of an average clustering coefficient and global efficiency. A T-test was performed to compare PLI, NMI and network measures under unrecognized SD and non-SD conditions. It indicated a weak functional connectivity level in the theta band under unrecognized SD based on the significant decrease of mean values of PLI and NMI (p<0.05). Meanwhile, both the average clustering coefficient and global efficiency in the theta band reduced under the unrecognized SD condition. The decrease of the average clustering coefficient and global efficiency demonstrates a lack of small-world characteristics and a decline in processing efficiency of brain cognitive regions. All the experimental results show that unrecognized SD may have a negative effect on brain functional networks in the theta band. PMID:26405869

  2. Spatial and rainfall related patterns of bacterial contamination in Sydney Harbour estuary.

    PubMed

    Hose, Grant C; Gordon, Geoff; McCullough, Fiona E; Pulver, Nicholas; Murray, Brad R

    2005-12-01

    Water quality in recreational areas in Sydney Harbour, Australia, was analysed first to identify spatial patterns in faecal coliform and enterococci densities, and then to determine the relationship between bacterial densities and catchment rainfall. Non-metric multidimensional scaling separated sites closest to the mouth of the harbour from those further up the harbour's west and north-west arms. Sites closest to the harbour mouth generally had lower frequencies of high bacterial densities that exceeded median water quality guideline values. We attribute this to greater tidal flushing at sites closer to the harbour mouth. Eight site groups were identified within the harbour. Within each group, multiple regression analyses indicated rainfall accounted for between 15 and 66% of the variability in the bacterial densities. Variation in bacterial densities explained by rainfall was lower for sites closer to the harbour mouth where tidal flushing is greatest. Thus, our findings indicate that simple rainfall-based regression models are appropriate for predicting bacterial concentrations when flushing at a site is limited. More complex models incorporating a suite of environmental variables may improve the ability to predict bacterial concentrations at well-flushed sites, but even then, their predictive ability may be low.

  3. Investigation of the Relative Effects of Insolation, Groundwater, and Spatial Variability in Temperature Dynamics of Two Headwater Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belica, L.; Caldwell, P. V.; Mitasova, H.; McCarter, J. B.; Smith, J.; Nelson, S. A. C.

    2015-12-01

    methods. Combined with the longitudinal water temperature study the results were used to examine the relative influences of solar radiation and groundwater inflow, and better understand the role of spatial variation of the two heat fluxes, on the temperature dynamics of the headwater streams.

  4. Dispersion relations and the nonlinear generation of C1-surface exciton polaritons in spatially dispersive ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, M.; So, V. C.-Y.; Stegeman, G. I.

    1980-07-01

    The recent experiments of DeMartini, Colocci, Kohn, and Shen [

    Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223 (1977)
    ] on the nonlinear generation of C1- (n=1 in the series) surface exciton polaritons in spatially dispersive ZnO are analyzed. It is shown for a prism-air-sample geometry that the air-gap thickness plays an important role in determining the polariton attenuation, and to a lesser degree the polariton energy. Reasonably good agreement with the experimental dispersion relations of DeMartini and co-workers is obtained by including spatial dispersion via the additional boundary condition (ABC) ∂P→ex/∂z=0 for the excitonic polarization P→ex at the surface: The ABC P→ex=0 does not yield a good fit. The theory of the nonlinear generation of surface exciton polaritons in isotropic, spatially dispersive media is developed and applied to angle- and frequency-scanning experimental geometries. Numerical estimates of both the power radiated out via the prism (in the absence of surface roughness) and the line shape were also found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment for the ABC ∂P→ex/∂x=0, but not for P→ex=0.

  5. Altered Hippocampal Transcript Profile Accompanies an Age-Related Spatial Memory Deficit in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Yonan, Amanda L.; Malleret, Gael; Kandel, Eric R.; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Pavlidis, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a global survey of age-related changes in mRNA levels in the 57BL/6NIA mouse hippocampus and found a difference in the hippocampal gene expression profile between 2-month-old young mice and 15-month-old middle-aged mice correlated with an age-related cognitive deficit in hippocampal-based explicit memory formation. Middle-aged…

  6. Large-scale spatial variation in feather corticosterone in invasive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Mexico is related to climate

    PubMed Central

    Treen, Gillian D; Hobson, Keith A; Marchant, Tracy A; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists frequently use physiological tools to understand how organisms cope with their surroundings but rarely at macroecological scales. This study describes spatial variation in corticosterone (CORT) levels in feathers of invasive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) across their range in Mexico and evaluates CORT–climate relationships with a focus on temperature and precipitation. Samples were collected from 49 sites across Mexico. Feather CORT (CORTf) was measured using methanol-based extraction and radioimmunoassay. Relationships between CORTf and spatial and climate variables were examined using simple linear regressions. Ordination was used on climate data, CORTf was plotted against the resulting axes, and univariate regression trees were used to identify important predictors of CORTf. Universal kriging interpolation was used to illustrate spatial variation in CORTf across Mexico. Correlations with ordination axes showed that high CORTf was associated with low precipitation during the rainy season and low dry season temperatures. Specifically, CORTf was negatively related to May precipitation and January and July minimum temperatures, and positively related to April deuterium excess and June minimum temperatures. CORTf was higher in second-year birds compared to after-hatch years and after-second years. House sparrows had higher CORTf levels in the hot, dry, north-central region of Mexico, and CORTf was negatively related to temperature and precipitation. House sparrows molt primarily from August–September but climate conditions throughout the year were important predictors of CORTf, suggesting that conditions outside of molt can carry over to influence energetics during feather growth. These data suggest that dry conditions are challenging for house sparrows in Mexico, supporting previous work showing that precipitation is an important predictor of broad-scale CORT variation. This work highlights the utility of CORTf for evaluating the influence of

  7. Understanding China in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part I, U.S. and Japanese Relations with China: Case Studies of Cooperation and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Moore, Carey; Young, Jocelyn; Cheng, Amy; Fairbrother, Greg

    This curriculum unit is part one of a three-part series. The unit introduces students to policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with China at the beginning of the 21st century. By identifying and examining these options, students gain an awareness of U.S., Japanese, and Chinese perspectives on political, economic, and security issues.…

  8. Development of exploration of spatial-relational object properties in the second and third years of life.

    PubMed

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Boom, Jan; Volman, M Chiel J M; Leseman, Paul P M

    2016-06-01

    Within a perception-action framework, exploration is seen as a driving force in young children's development. Through exploration, children become skilled in perceiving the affordances in their environment and acting on them. Using a perception-action framework, the current study examined the development of children's exploration of the spatial-relational properties of objects such as the possibility of containing or stacking. A total of 61 children, belonging to two age cohorts, were followed from 9 to 24 months and from 20 to 36 months of age, respectively. Exploration of a standard set of objects was observed in five home visits in each cohort conducted every 4 months. A cohort-sequential augmented growth model for categorical data, incorporating assumptions of item response theory, was constructed that fitted the data well, showing that the development of exploration of spatial-relational object properties follows an overlapping waves pattern. This is in line with Siegler's model (Emerging Minds, 1996), which suggested that skill development can be seen as ebbing and flowing of alternative (simple and advanced) behaviors. Although the probability of observing the more complex forms of exploration increased with age, the simpler forms did not disappear altogether but only became less probable. Findings support a perception-action view on development. Individual differences in observed exploration and their relations with other variables, as well as future directions for research, are discussed. PMID:26950506

  9. Chronic [D-Ala2]-growth hormone-releasing hormone administration attenuates age-related deficits in spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Thornton, P L; Ingram, R L; Sonntag, W E

    2000-02-01

    The age-related decline in growth hormone is one of the most robust endocrine markers of biological aging and has been hypothesized to contribute to the physiological deficits observed in aged animals. However, there have been few studies of the impact of this hormonal decline on brain aging. In this study, the effect of long-term subcutaneous administration of [D-Ala2]-growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) on one measure of brain function, memory, was investigated. Animals were injected daily with 2.3 microg of [D-Ala2]-GHRH or saline from 9 to 30 months of age, and the spatial learning and reference memory of animals were assessed by using the Morris water maze and compared with those of 6-month-old animals. Results indicated that spatial memory decreased with age and that chronic [D-Ala2]-GHRH prevented this age-related decrement (24% improvement in the annulus-40 time and 23% improvement in the number of platform crossings compared with saline treated, age-matched controls; p < .05 each). No changes were noted in sensorimotor performance. [D-Ala2]-GHRH attenuated the age-related decline in plasma concentrations of insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (p <.05). These data suggest that growth hormone and IGF-1 have important effects on brain function, that the decline in growth hormone and IGF-1 with age contributes to impairments in reference memory, and that these changes can be reversed by the chronic administration of GHRH.

  10. Persistence of Gender Related-Effects on Visuo-Spatial and Verbal Working Memory in Right Brain-Damaged Patients.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, Laura; Matano, Alessandro; D'Antuono, Giovanni; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Incoccia, Chiara; Verde, Paola; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if gender differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory would persist following right cerebral lesions. To pursue our aim we investigated a large sample (n. 346) of right brain-damaged patients and healthy participants (n. 272) for the presence of gender effects in performing Corsi and Digit Test. We also assessed a subgroup of patients (n. 109) for the nature (active vs. passive) of working memory tasks. We tested working memory (WM) administering the Corsi Test (CBT) and the Digit Span (DS) using two different versions: forward (fCBT and fDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the same order that they were presented; and backward (bCBT and bDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the opposite order of presentation. In this way, passive storage and active processing of working memory were assessed. Our results showed the persistence of gender-related effects in spite of the presence of right brain lesions. We found that men outperformed women both in CBT and DS, regardless of active and passive processing of verbal and visuo-spatial stimuli. The presence of visuo-spatial disorders (i.e., hemineglect) can affect the performance on Corsi Test. In our sample, men and women were equally affected by hemineglect, therefore it did not mask the gender effect. Generally speaking, the persistence of the men's superiority in visuo-spatial tasks may be interpreted as a protective factor, at least for men, within other life factors such as level of education or kind of profession before retirement. PMID:27445734

  11. Persistence of Gender Related-Effects on Visuo-Spatial and Verbal Working Memory in Right Brain-Damaged Patients

    PubMed Central

    Piccardi, Laura; Matano, Alessandro; D’Antuono, Giovanni; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Incoccia, Chiara; Verde, Paola; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if gender differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory would persist following right cerebral lesions. To pursue our aim we investigated a large sample (n. 346) of right brain-damaged patients and healthy participants (n. 272) for the presence of gender effects in performing Corsi and Digit Test. We also assessed a subgroup of patients (n. 109) for the nature (active vs. passive) of working memory tasks. We tested working memory (WM) administering the Corsi Test (CBT) and the Digit Span (DS) using two different versions: forward (fCBT and fDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the same order that they were presented; and backward (bCBT and bDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the opposite order of presentation. In this way, passive storage and active processing of working memory were assessed. Our results showed the persistence of gender-related effects in spite of the presence of right brain lesions. We found that men outperformed women both in CBT and DS, regardless of active and passive processing of verbal and visuo-spatial stimuli. The presence of visuo-spatial disorders (i.e., hemineglect) can affect the performance on Corsi Test. In our sample, men and women were equally affected by hemineglect, therefore it did not mask the gender effect. Generally speaking, the persistence of the men’s superiority in visuo-spatial tasks may be interpreted as a protective factor, at least for men, within other life factors such as level of education or kind of profession before retirement. PMID:27445734

  12. Spatial vulnerability of fine particulate matter relative to the geographic disparities of adult's diabetes prevalence in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hassanat; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-04-01

    Potentially larger regional effects of climate change have been revealed on the elevation of fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 µg in diameter; PM2.5) in the U.S. In addition, recent research supports a link between diabetes and PM2.5 in both laboratory and epidemiology studies. However, research investigating the potential relationship of the spatial vulnerability of diabetes to concomitant PM2.5 levels is still sparse, and the level of diabetes geographic disparities attributed to PM2.5 levels has yet to be evaluated. We conducted a Bayesian structured additive regression modeling approach to determine whether long-term exposure to PM2.5 is spatially associated with diabetes prevalence after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of county residents. This study utilizes the following data sources from 2004-2010: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the American Community Survey, and the Environmental Protection Agency. We also conducted spatial comparisons with low, median-low, median-high, and high levels of PM2.5 concentrations. When PM2.5 concentrations increased 1 µg/m3, the increase in the relative risk percentage for diabetes ranged from -5.47% (95% credible interval = -6.14, -4.77) to 2.34% (95% CI = 2.01, 2.70), where 1,323 of 3,109 counties (42.55%) displayed diabetes vulnerability with significantly positive relative risk percentages. These vulnerable counties are more likely located in the Southeast, Central, and South Regions of the U.S. A similar spatial vulnerability pattern for concentrations of low PM2.5 levels was also present in these same three regions. A clear cluster of vulnerable counties at median-high PM2.5 level was found in Michigan. This study identifies the spatial vulnerability of diabetes prevalence associated with PM2.5, and thereby provides the evidence needed to prompt and establish enhanced surveillance that can monitor diabetes vulnerability in areas with low PM2.5 pollution.

  13. Teaching Youngsters About Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunkins, Francis P.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses four possible approaches for teaching political science in the classroom, including analyzing the classroom as a political arena, employing case studies, using simulation games, and orchestrating encounters with political figures. (Author/JG)

  14. Human-Related Factors Regulate the Spatial Ecology of Domestic Cats in Sensitive Areas for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joaquim P.; Leitão, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy

    2011-01-01

    Background Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights), while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms). All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km), using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved). In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. Conclusions The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes. PMID:22043298

  15. Developmental Changes in Young Children's Spatial Memory and Language in Relation to Landmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Alycia M.; Naroleski, Amber R.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated how young children and adults understand whether objects are "by" a landmark and remember their locations. Three- and 4-year-old children and adults were asked to judge whether several blocks were "by" a landmark. The blocks were arranged so that their absolute and relative distances from the landmark varied. Later,…

  16. The Relative Importance of Janzen-Connell Effects in Influencing the Spatial Patterns at the Gutianshan Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Getzin, Stephan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Ren, Haibao; Ma, Keping

    2013-01-01

    The Janzen-Connell hypothesis is among the most important theories put forward to explain species coexistence in species-rich communities. However, the relative importance of Janzen-Connell effects with respect to other prominent mechanisms of community assembly, such as dispersal limitation, self-thinning due to competition, or habitat association, is largely unresolved. Here we use data from a 24-ha Gutianshan subtropical forest to address it. First we tested for significant associations of adults, juveniles, and saplings with environmental variables. Second we evaluated if aggregation decreased with life stage. In a third analysis we approximately factored out the effect of habitat association and comprehensively analyzed the spatial associations of intraspecific adults and offspring (saplings, juveniles) of 46 common species at continuous neighborhood distances. We found i) that, except for one, all species were associated with at least one environmental variable during at least one of their life stages, but the frequency of significant habitat associations declined with increasing life stage; ii) a decline in aggregation with increasing life stage that was strongest from juveniles to adults; and iii) intraspecific adult-offspring associations were dominated by positive relationships at neighborhood distances up to 10 m. Our results suggest that Janzen-Connell effects were not the dominant mechanisms in structuring the spatial patterns of established trees in the subtropical Gutianshan forest. The spatial patterns may rather reflect the joint effects of size-dependent self-thinning, dispersal limitation and habitat associations. Our findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of Janzen-Connell effects in influencing plant community structure under strong topographic heterogeneity. PMID:24040283

  17. Spatial backward planar projection in absorbing media possessing an arbitrary dispersion relation

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Gregory T.

    2011-01-01

    Planar projection methods have been shown to rapidly relate fields between two planes. Such an approach is particularly useful for characterizing transducers, since only a single plane needs to be measured in order to characterize an entire field. The present work considers the same approach in the presence of an arbitrary dispersion relation. Unlike traditional methods that use Fourier solutions of the time-domain wave equation, the approach starts from a frequency-domain Helmholtz equation for waves in a dispersive medium. It is shown that a transfer function similar to that derived from time domain equations can be utilized. Both the forward- and backward-projection behaviors are examined and it is demonstrated that the approach is invariant to propagation direction. PMID:21611135

  18. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  19. Spatial Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Functions and Services using Human Relating Factors for SDG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.; Kim, T.; Lim, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Application of ecosystem service concept in environmental related decision making could be numerical and objective standard for policy maker between preserving and developing perspective of environment. However, pursuing maximum benefit from natural capital through ecosystem services caused failure by losing ecosystem functions through its trade-offs. Therefore, difference between ecosystem functions and services were demonstrated and would apply human relating perspectives. Assessment results of ecosystem functions and services can be divided 3 parts. Tree growth per year set as the ecosystem function factor and indicated through so called pure function map. After that, relating functions can be driven such as water conservation, air pollutant purification, climate change regulation, and timber production. Overall process and amount are numerically quantified. These functional results can be transferred to ecosystem services by multiplying economic unit value, so function reflecting service maps can be generated. On the other hand, above services, to implement more reliable human demand, human reflecting service maps are also be developed. As the validation, quantified ecosystem functions are compared with former results through pixel based analysis. Three maps are compared, and through comparing difference between ecosystem function and services and inversed trends in function based and human based service are analysed. In this study, we could find differences in PF, FRS, and HRS in relation to based ecosystem conditions. This study suggests that the differences in PF, FRS, and HRS should be understood in the decision making process for sustainable management of ecosystem services. Although the analysis is based on in sort existing process separation, it is important to consider the possibility of different usage of ecosystem function assessment results and ecosystem service assessment results in SDG policy making. Furthermore, process based functional approach

  20. Structural plasticity in hippocampal cells related to the facilitative effect of intracranial self-stimulation on a spatial memory task.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-López, Jacobo; Miguéns, Miguel; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Selvas, Abraham; Cabané-Cucurella, Alberto; Aldavert-Vera, Laura; DeFelipe, Javier; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2015-12-01

    Posttraining intracranial self-stimulation (SS) in the lateral hypothalamus facilitates the acquisition and retention of several implicit and explicit memory tasks. Here, intracellular injections of Lucifer yellow were used to assess morphological changes in hippocampal neurons that might be specifically related to the facilitative posttraining SS effect upon the acquisition and retention of a distributed spatial task in the Morris water maze. We examined the structure, size and branching complexity of cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) cells, and the spine density of CA1 pyramidal neurons and granular cells of the dentate gyrus (DG). Animals that received SS after each acquisition session performed faster and better than Sham ones--an improvement that was also evident in a probe trial 3 days after the last training session. The neuromorphological analysis revealed an increment in the size and branching complexity in apical CA1 dendritic arborization in SS-treated subjects as compared with Sham animals. Furthermore, increased spine density was observed in the CA1 field in SS animals, whereas no effects were observed in DG cells. Our results support the hypothesis that the facilitating effect of SS on the acquisition and retention of a spatial memory task could be related to structural plasticity in CA1 hippocampal cells. PMID:26501173

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation over Iraq and its relation with global sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhalidi, Jasim; Stefan, Sabina; Dima, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    In this study we have examined the spatial and temporal variability of mean temperature (0C) and precipitation (mm) in winter (DJF) and spring (MAM) in Iraq. The data used were recorded at 12 stations for temperature and 18stations for precipitation over the period 1981-2010. An empirical orthogonal function (EOFs) and principal component (PCs) analysis were employed to characterize the spatial variability of the climatological parameters. The first EOF of temperature has the most variance (80%) and it is monopolar. This means it is related with large scale patterns. The first EOF of precipitation has variance (70%) lower than that of EOF1 for temperature, because the precipitation is a local phenomenon. The analysis of PCS for temperature showed different trends for the different time intervals. In addition, the relation between the global sea surface temperature (SST) and the temperature and precipitation PCs was analyzed. The results derived through correlations maps indicate links between Iraq climate and El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), large scale patterns.

  2. Google Flu Trends Spatial Variability Validated Against Emergency Department Influenza-Related Visits

    PubMed Central

    Jalalpour, Mehdi; Levin, Scott; Washington, Raynard E; Pines, Jesse M; Rothman, Richard E; Dugas, Andrea Freyer

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza is a deadly and costly public health problem. Variations in its seasonal patterns cause dangerous surges in emergency department (ED) patient volume. Google Flu Trends (GFT) can provide faster influenza surveillance information than traditional CDC methods, potentially leading to improved public health preparedness. GFT has been found to correlate well with reported influenza and to improve influenza prediction models. However, previous validation studies have focused on isolated clinical locations. Objective The purpose of the study was to measure GFT surveillance effectiveness by correlating GFT with influenza-related ED visits in 19 US cities across seven influenza seasons, and to explore which city characteristics lead to better or worse GFT effectiveness. Methods Using Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project data, we collected weekly counts of ED visits for all patients with diagnosis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases 9) codes for influenza-related visits from 2005-2011 in 19 different US cities. We measured the correlation between weekly volume of GFT searches and influenza-related ED visits (ie, GFT ED surveillance effectiveness) per city. We evaluated the relationship between 15 publically available city indicators (11 sociodemographic, two health care utilization, and two climate) and GFT surveillance effectiveness using univariate linear regression. Results Correlation between city-level GFT and influenza-related ED visits had a median of .84, ranging from .67 to .93 across 19 cities. Temporal variability was observed, with median correlation ranging from .78 in 2009 to .94 in 2005. City indicators significantly associated (P<.10) with improved GFT surveillance include higher proportion of female population, higher proportion with Medicare coverage, higher ED visits per capita, and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusions GFT is strongly correlated with ED influenza-related visits at the city level, but unexplained

  3. Political Correctness and Political Science: An Exploratory Study of New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, John D.; Bowers, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that the issue of political correctness has gained wide coverage in the press as it relates to higher education academic policy. Reports on a survey of 196 New York State political scientists. Finds that they perceive political correctness as an issue on their college campus and in the discipline, but not in their departments. (CFR)

  4. Spatial variation in microbial controls on soil organic matter turnover relative to preferential flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masue-Slowey, Y.; Dhiman, K.; McMurdie, P. J.; Fendorf, S.; Chadwick, O.

    2012-12-01

    -ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical extraction. Taken together, differential C age is not due to chemical (mineralogical) and biochemical protection mechanisms. Microbial diversity, community structure and microbial metabolisms were evaluated as potential control mechanisms using quantitative PCR of functional genes and high throughput illumnia sequencing of bacterial 16srRNA. We found significant changes in microbial community, diversity, or metabolic pathways orthogonal to the flow paths. For example, the abundance of nirK gene (normalized to mass of DNA), which is responsible for denitrification, decreased as a function of distance from the flow paths. Our study shows the critical need to consider the spatial variability associated with soil architecture when assessing SOM turnover rates, and micro-scale variation in chemical environment leading to anaerobic metabolisms is likely linked to soil C turnover rate.

  5. Differentiating Event-Related Potential Components Sensitive to Emotion in Middle Childhood: Evidence from Temporal-Spatial PCA

    PubMed Central

    Kujawa, Autumn; Weinberg, Anna; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) may be particularly useful for examining emotional processing across development. Though a number of ERP components are sensitive to emotional content in adults, previous studies have yet to systematically examine the components sensitive to emotion in children. The current study used temporal-spatial principal components analysis (PCA) to identify ERP components in response to complex emotional images in nine-year-old children. Three components were modulated by emotional content and were similar to those previously observed in adults, including: the early posterior negativity, the P300, and a sustained relative positivity similar to the late positive potential (LPP). Compared to those previously observed in adults, the components sensitive to emotion in children were maximal over more occipital regions and the LPP component appeared to be less protracted in time, perhaps indicative of less elaborative processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:22692816

  6. Conserved Quantities in General Relativity: From the Quasi-Local Level to Spatial Infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Ning; Wang, Mu-Tao; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2015-08-01

    We define quasi-local conserved quantities in general relativity by using the optimal isometric embedding in Wang and Yau (Commun Math Phys 288(3):919-942, 2009) to transplant Killing fields in the Minkowski spacetime back to the 2-surface of interest in a physical spacetime. To each optimal isometric embedding, a dual element of the Lie algebra of the Lorentz group is assigned. Quasi-local angular momentum and quasi-local center of mass correspond to pairing this element with rotation Killing fields and boost Killing fields, respectively. They obey classical transformation laws under the action of the Poincaré group. We further justify these definitions by considering their limits as the total angular momentum and the total center of mass of an isolated system. These expressions were derived from the Hamilton-Jacobi analysis of the gravitational action and thus satisfy conservation laws. As a result, we obtained an invariant total angular momentum theorem in the Kerr spacetime. For a vacuum asymptotically flat initial data set of order 1, it is shown that the limits are always finite without any extra assumptions. We also study these total conserved quantities on a family of asymptotically flat initial data sets evolving by the vacuum Einstein evolution equation. It is shown that the total angular momentum is conserved under the evolution. For the total center of mass, the classical dynamical formula relating the center of mass, energy, and linear momentum is recovered, in the nonlinear context of initial data sets evolving by the vacuum Einstein evolution equation. The definition of quasi-local angular momentum provides an answer to the second problem in classical general relativity on Penrose's list (Proc R Soc Lond Ser A 381(1780):53-63, 1982).

  7. Spatial and temporal characteristics of error-related activity in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Neta, Maital; Miezin, Francis M; Nelson, Steven M; Dubis, Joseph W; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have focused on the role of specific brain regions, such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during trials on which participants make errors, whereas others have implicated a host of more widely distributed regions in the human brain. Previous work has proposed that there are multiple cognitive control networks, raising the question of whether error-related activity can be found in each of these networks. Thus, to examine error-related activity broadly, we conducted a meta-analysis consisting of 12 tasks that included both error and correct trials. These tasks varied by stimulus input (visual, auditory), response output (button press, speech), stimulus category (words, pictures), and task type (e.g., recognition memory, mental rotation). We identified 41 brain regions that showed a differential fMRI BOLD response to error and correct trials across a majority of tasks. These regions displayed three unique response profiles: (1) fast, (2) prolonged, and (3) a delayed response to errors, as well as a more canonical response to correct trials. These regions were found mostly in several control networks, each network predominantly displaying one response profile. The one exception to this "one network, one response profile" observation is the frontoparietal network, which showed prolonged response profiles (all in the right hemisphere), and fast profiles (all but one in the left hemisphere). We suggest that, in the place of a single localized error mechanism, these findings point to a large-scale set of error-related regions across multiple systems that likely subserve different functions.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Error-Related Activity in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Miezin, Francis M.; Nelson, Steven M.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Dosenbach, Nico U.F.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have focused on the role of specific brain regions, such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during trials on which participants make errors, whereas others have implicated a host of more widely distributed regions in the human brain. Previous work has proposed that there are multiple cognitive control networks, raising the question of whether error-related activity can be found in each of these networks. Thus, to examine error-related activity broadly, we conducted a meta-analysis consisting of 12 tasks that included both error and correct trials. These tasks varied by stimulus input (visual, auditory), response output (button press, speech), stimulus category (words, pictures), and task type (e.g., recognition memory, mental rotation). We identified 41 brain regions that showed a differential fMRI BOLD response to error and correct trials across a majority of tasks. These regions displayed three unique response profiles: (1) fast, (2) prolonged, and (3) a delayed response to errors, as well as a more canonical response to correct trials. These regions were found mostly in several control networks, each network predominantly displaying one response profile. The one exception to this “one network, one response profile” observation is the frontoparietal network, which showed prolonged response profiles (all in the right hemisphere), and fast profiles (all but one in the left hemisphere). We suggest that, in the place of a single localized error mechanism, these findings point to a large-scale set of error-related regions across multiple systems that likely subserve different functions. PMID:25568119

  9. Assessing dynamics, spatial scale, and uncertainty in task-related brain network analyses.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Emily P; Lepage, Kyle Q; Eden, Uri T; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin; Brumberg, Jonathan S; Guenther, Frank H; Kramer, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a complex network of interconnected elements, whose interactions evolve dynamically in time to cooperatively perform specific functions. A common technique to probe these interactions involves multi-sensor recordings of brain activity during a repeated task. Many techniques exist to characterize the resulting task-related activity, including establishing functional networks, which represent the statistical associations between brain areas. Although functional network inference is commonly employed to analyze neural time series data, techniques to assess the uncertainty-both in the functional network edges and the corresponding aggregate measures of network topology-are lacking. To address this, we describe a statistically principled approach for computing uncertainty in functional networks and aggregate network measures in task-related data. The approach is based on a resampling procedure that utilizes the trial structure common in experimental recordings. We show in simulations that this approach successfully identifies functional networks and associated measures of confidence emergent during a task in a variety of scenarios, including dynamically evolving networks. In addition, we describe a principled technique for establishing functional networks based on predetermined regions of interest using canonical correlation. Doing so provides additional robustness to the functional network inference. Finally, we illustrate the use of these methods on example invasive brain voltage recordings collected during an overt speech task. The general strategy described here-appropriate for static and dynamic network inference and different statistical measures of coupling-permits the evaluation of confidence in network measures in a variety of settings common to neuroscience. PMID:24678295

  10. Assessing dynamics, spatial scale, and uncertainty in task-related brain network analyses

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Emily P.; Lepage, Kyle Q.; Eden, Uri T.; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin; Brumberg, Jonathan S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Kramer, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a complex network of interconnected elements, whose interactions evolve dynamically in time to cooperatively perform specific functions. A common technique to probe these interactions involves multi-sensor recordings of brain activity during a repeated task. Many techniques exist to characterize the resulting task-related activity, including establishing functional networks, which represent the statistical associations between brain areas. Although functional network inference is commonly employed to analyze neural time series data, techniques to assess the uncertainty—both in the functional network edges and the corresponding aggregate measures of network topology—are lacking. To address this, we describe a statistically principled approach for computing uncertainty in functional networks and aggregate network measures in task-related data. The approach is based on a resampling procedure that utilizes the trial structure common in experimental recordings. We show in simulations that this approach successfully identifies functional networks and associated measures of confidence emergent during a task in a variety of scenarios, including dynamically evolving networks. In addition, we describe a principled technique for establishing functional networks based on predetermined regions of interest using canonical correlation. Doing so provides additional robustness to the functional network inference. Finally, we illustrate the use of these methods on example invasive brain voltage recordings collected during an overt speech task. The general strategy described here—appropriate for static and dynamic network inference and different statistical measures of coupling—permits the evaluation of confidence in network measures in a variety of settings common to neuroscience. PMID:24678295

  11. Dietary and spatial overlap between sympatric ursids relative to salmon use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortin, Jennifer K.; Farley, Sean D.; Rode, Karyn D.; Robbins, Charles T.

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that there would be minimal dietary overlap between sympatric brown bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) relative tosalmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) utilization when alternative foods (e.g., fruits) are abundant. To maximize the chance that we would reject this hypothesis, we examined the diets of brown and black bears known to have visited salmon streams. Species, sex, and individual identification of bears visiting salmon streams were determined by DNA analysis of hair and feces collected in 2002-2004 along those streams. Diets were estimated from fecal residues and stable isotope analyses of hair. Assimilated diets of brown bears were 66.0% (SD = 16.7%) salmon, 13.9% (SD = 7.5%) terrestrial animal matter, and 20.1% (SD = 17.2%) plant matter. Assimilated diets of black bears were 8.0% (SD = 5.4%)salmon, 8.4% (SD = 9.7%) terrestrial animal matter, and 83.6% (SD = 7.7%) plant matter. Male and female brown bears did not differ in either the proportion of dietary salmon, terrestrial animal matter, or plant matter. The relative amounts of fruit residues in the feces of brown bears (87.0%, SD = 15.2%) and black bears (91.8%, SD = 7.2%) did not differ. Both sexes of brown bears visited salmon streams and consumed significant amounts of salmon, but only male American black bears visited streams and then consumed minimal amounts of salmon. Thus, brown bears were largely carnivorous and black bears were largely herbivorous and frugivorous. This reduced dietary overlap relative to salmon and fruit use is understandable in light of the concentrated, defendable nature of salmon in small streams, the widely dispersed, non-defendable nature of abundant fruits, the dominance of brown over black bears, the higher energy requirement of the larger brown bear, and, therefore, the differing ability of the species to efficiently exploit different food resources.

  12. The relation of motion sickness to the spatial-temporal properties of velocity storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Mingjia; Kunin, Mikhail; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard; Young, L. R. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Tilting the head in roll to or from the upright while rotating at a constant velocity (roll while rotating, RWR) alters the position of the semicircular canals relative to the axis of rotation. This produces vertical and horizontal nystagmus, disorientation, vertigo, and nausea. With recurrent exposure, subjects habituate and can make more head movements before experiencing overpowering motion sickness. We questioned whether promethazine lessened the vertigo or delayed the habituation, whether habituation of the vertigo was related to the central vestibular time constant, i.e., to the time constant of velocity storage, and whether the severity of the motion sickness was related to deviation of the axis of eye velocity from gravity. Sixteen subjects received promethazine and placebo in a double-blind, crossover study in two consecutive 4-day test series 1 month apart, termed series I and II. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded with video-oculography while subjects performed roll head movements of approx. 45 degrees over 2 s to and from the upright position while being rotated at 138 degrees /s around a vertical axis. Motion sickness was scaled from 1 (no sickness) to an endpoint of 20, at which time the subject was too sick to continue or was about to vomit. Habituation was determined by the number of head movements that subjects made before reaching the maximum motion sickness score of 20. Head movements increased steadily in each session with repeated testing, and there was no difference between the number of head movements made by the promethazine and placebo groups. Horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) time constants declined in each test, with the declines being closely correlated to the increase in the number of head movements. The strength of vertiginous sensation was associated with the amount of deviation of the axis of eye velocity from gravity; the larger the deviation of the eye velocity axis from gravity, the

  13. Spatial variability of surface temperature as related to cropping practice with implications for irrigation management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Reginato, R. J.; Jackson, R. D.; Idso, S. B.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Goettelman, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Crop stress measured using thermal infrared emission is evaluated with the stress-degree-day (SDD) concept. Throughout the season, the accumulation of SDD during the reproductive stage of growth is inversely related to yield. This relationship is shown for durum wheat, hard red winter wheat, barley, grain sorghum and soybeans. It is noted that SDD can be used to schedule irrigations for maximizing yields and for applying remotely sensed data to management of water resources. An airborne flight with a thermal-IR scanner was used to examine the variability in temperature that may exist from one field to another and to determine realistic within-field temperature variations. It was found that the airborne and the ground-based data agreed very well and that there was less variability in the fields that were completely covered with crops than those of bare soil.

  14. Spatial reconstruction by patients with hippocampal damage is dominated by relational memory errors

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Patrick D.; Voss, Joel L.; Warren, David E.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal damage causes profound yet circumscribed memory impairment across diverse stimulus types and testing formats. Here, within a single test format involving a single class of stimuli, we identified different performance errors to better characterize the specifics of the underlying deficit. The task involved study and reconstruction of object arrays across brief retention intervals. The most striking feature of patients’ with hippocampal damage performance was that they tended to reverse the relative positions of item pairs within arrays of any size, effectively “swapping” pairs of objects. These “swap errors” were the primary error type in amnesia, almost never occurred in healthy comparison participants, and actually contributed to poor performance on more traditional metrics (such as distance between studied and reconstructed location). Patients made swap errors even in trials involving only a single pair of objects. The selectivity and severity of this particular deficit creates serious challenges for theories of memory and hippocampus. PMID:23418096

  15. Spatial and Temporal Properties for Same Series of Relatively Strong Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Marekova, Elisaveta

    2010-01-21

    Series of relatively large earthquakes in different regions of the Earth are studied. The regions chooses are of a high seismic activity and has a good contemporary network for recording of the seismic events along them. The main purpose of this investigation is the attempt to describe analytically the seismic process in the space and time. We are considering the statistical distributions the distances and the times between consecutive earthquakes (so called pair analysis). Studies conducted on approximating the statistical distribution of the parameters of consecutive seismic events indicate the existence of characteristic functions that describe them best. Such a mathematical description allows the distributions of the examined parameters to be compared to other model distributions.

  16. Embodiment of abstract categories in space… grounding or mere compatibility effects? The case of politics.

    PubMed

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2016-05-01

    In two experiments, the role played by stimulus response compatibility in driving the spatial grounding of abstract concepts is examined. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to classify politics-related words appearing to the left or the right side of a computer monitor as socialist or conservative. Responses were given by pressing vertically aligned keys and thus orthogonal to the spatial information that may have been implied by the words. Responses given by left or right index finger were counterbalanced. In Experiment 2, a lexical decision task, participants categorized political words or non-words presented to the left or the right auditory channels, by pressing the top/bottom button of a response box. The response category labels (word or non-word) were also orthogonal to the spatial information that may have been implied by the stimulus words. In both experiments, responses were faster when socialism-related words were presented on the left and conservatism-related words were presented on the right, irrespective of the reference of the response keys or labels. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial grounding of abstract concepts (or at least politics-related ones) is independent of experimentally driven stimulus-response compatibility effects. PMID:27043255

  17. Embodiment of abstract categories in space… grounding or mere compatibility effects? The case of politics.

    PubMed

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2016-05-01

    In two experiments, the role played by stimulus response compatibility in driving the spatial grounding of abstract concepts is examined. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to classify politics-related words appearing to the left or the right side of a computer monitor as socialist or conservative. Responses were given by pressing vertically aligned keys and thus orthogonal to the spatial information that may have been implied by the words. Responses given by left or right index finger were counterbalanced. In Experiment 2, a lexical decision task, participants categorized political words or non-words presented to the left or the right auditory channels, by pressing the top/bottom button of a response box. The response category labels (word or non-word) were also orthogonal to the spatial information that may have been implied by the stimulus words. In both experiments, responses were faster when socialism-related words were presented on the left and conservatism-related words were presented on the right, irrespective of the reference of the response keys or labels. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial grounding of abstract concepts (or at least politics-related ones) is independent of experimentally driven stimulus-response compatibility effects.

  18. Spatial Patterns of Soil Organic Carbon Relative to Tree Size and Canopy Distribution in a Semi-Desert Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, H. L.; Archer, S.

    2004-12-01

    The abundance of woody species in grasslands and savannas has increased globally over the past century. Recent estimates suggest that this proliferation of woody plants may account for a significant fraction of the Northern Hemisphere C sink, although a large degree of uncertainty exists in the magnitude and spatial distribution of these plant and soil pools. While field-based inventories have made progress in assessing the role of aboveground woody growth in ecosystem C inventories, the effect of woody proliferation on soil organic carbon (SOC) remains controversial, despite the fact that the majority of ecosystem C in these systems is typically belowground. Elevated levels of SOC underneath woody plant canopies have been widely reported, but little is known about the spatial distribution of SOC relative to tree canopies. Understanding the spatial distribution of SOC is critical, however, to developing accurate landscape-scale assessments of woody proliferation impacts on ecosystem C pools. We quantified the influence of encroaching mesquite trees (Fabaceae: Prosopis velutina) on the concentration of SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in a semi-desert grassland in southern Arizona. SOC concentrations near the boles of large trees (basal diameter 85-102 cm) were approximately double that of SOC in intercanopy zones (0.9% vs. 0.4% SOC by weight). SOC declined moving out from the bole to the canopy edge, at which point it was equivalent to inter-canopy spaces. Small to medium-sized trees (basal diameters less than 85 cm) had minimal influence on SOC concentrations. Patterns of TN values mirrored those of SOC in all cases, although TN values were roughly an order of magnitude lower than SOC values. These data suggest that accurate accounting of landscape-level SOC stocks will require developing area-weighting algorithms that account for tree size and bole-to-canopy gradients.

  19. Spatial Variation of Surface Soil Available Phosphorous and Its Relation with Environmental Factors in the Chaohu Lake Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yongnian; Gao, Junfeng; Chen, Jiongfeng

    2011-01-01

    The study presented in this paper attempts to evaluate the spatial pattern of soil available phosphorus, as well as the relation between soil available phosphorus and environment factors including elevation, slope, precipitation, percentage of cultivated land, percentage of forest land, percentage of construction land and NDVI using statistical methods and GIS spatial analysis techniques. The results showed that the Spline Tension method performed the best in the prediction of soil available phosphorus in the Chaohu Lake watershed. The spatial variation of surface soil available phosphorus was high in Chaohu Lake watershed and the upstream regions around Chaohu Lake, including the west of Chaohu lake (e.g., southwest of Feixi county, east of Shucheng county and north of Lujiang county) and to the north of Chaohu Lake (e.g., south of Hefei city, south of Feidong county, southwest of Juchao district), had the highest soil available phosphorus content. The mean and standard deviation of soil available phosphorus content gradually decreased as the elevation or slope increased. The cultivated land comprised 60.11% of the watershed and of that land 65.63% belonged to the medium to very high SAP level classes, and it played a major role in SAP availability within the watershed and a potential source of phosphorus to Chaohu Lake resulting in eutrophication. Among the land use types, paddy fields have some of the highest maximum values and variation of coefficients. Subwatershed scale soil available phosphorus was significantly affected by elevation, slope, precipitation, percentage of cultivated land and percentage of forest land and was decided by not only these environmental factors but also some other factors such as artificial phosphorus fertilizer application. PMID:21909308

  20. Spatial differentiation of coral species related to wave energy along the Changqi coast, Hainan island, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao-ru, Wang; Yuan-chao, Li; Jian-xin, Lan

    2013-04-01

    The regularities of the composition and the spatial distribution of hermatypic coral community is an essential aspect of coral reef ecosystem studies. The relationship between the structure and spatial distribution of hermatypic coral communities and hydrodynamics and wave energy, along the Changqi coast, are investigated. Differences in abundance of hermatypic coral species, at different depths, were found; these were related mainly to the varying influence of waves. Under average weather conditions, the wave energy was dissipated regularly at a depth of 2 m. Here, the coral cover was the lowest of all of the depths. However, corals growing in that area is adapted to the conditions; therefore, wave damage was low. The areas at 5-6 m water depth were influenced by waves primarily during episodes of extreme weather, with high wave energy resulting in severe damage of the corals. The coral cover in this depth was the highest observed, but the corals were generally smaller and had a short growth period. These findings indicate that the strong waves damaged particularly the weak corals, such as Acropora sp. and Montipora sp., during these short term events. Nevertheless, upon the return of normal conditions, coral communities can grow back and reproduce asexually in the damaged areas. As a result of this regrowth, Acropora sp. and Montipora sp. were highly abundant in areas at a depth of 5 m. It appears that knowledge on the physical setting, i.e. the relationship between wave properties and the spatial distribution patterns of corals, is essential for understanding coral reef succession rules; likewise, protection and recovery mechanisms of the coral reef ecosystem.

  1. Spatial and temporal relations of the ophiolites and the metamorphic soles along the Tauride belt, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlak, Osman; Simsek, Emrah; Ezgi Ozturk, Selena; Simsek, Gokce; Simsek, Tugce; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht; Köpke, Jürgen; Karaoglan, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    The Tauride belt ophiolites were generated above an intra-oceanic subduction zone and emplaced in the Late Cretaceous over the Tauride carbonate platform. The Tauride ophiolites are underlain by well-preserved metamorphic soles that have a constant structural position between the ophiolitic mélange, below and harzburgitic mantle tec- tonites, above. The dynamothermal metamorphic soles display a typical inverted metamorphic sequence, grading from amphibolite facies directly beneath the highly sheared harzburgitic tectonite to greenschist facies close to the melange contact. They display variable structural thickness (up to 500 m). The metamorphic soles beneath the Tauride ophiolites are interpreted to relate to the initiation of subduction and emplacement processes. The metamorphic soles are intruded by isolated post-metamorphic diabase dikes, derived from island arc tholeiitic magmas. In some places along the Tauride belt (Koycegiz and Pozanti-Karsanti regions), the contact between the metamorphic sole and the overlying serpentinized harzburgites is characterized by a 1.5-2 m thick zone of sheared serpentinized harzburgitic mantle tectonites, intercalated with amphibolites. These lithologies are cut by thick mafic dikes (7-8 m thick, individually) which postdate intraoceanic metamorphism and high-temperature ductile deformation. This contact is interpreted as an intra-oceanic decoupling surface along which volcanics in the upper levels of the down-going plate were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies and accreted to the base of the hanging wall plate. The geochemistry of the metamorphic sole amphibolites suggests their derivation from different geochemical environments; i.e. seamount-type alkaline basalts, mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) and island arc basalts. Zircon and rutile separates from the crustal rocks (gabbro and diabase) and from the metamorphic soles of the Tauride ophiolites have been dated by U-Pb SIMS (Edinburgh University) and LA-MC-ICP-MS (ETH Zurich

  2. The genetic basis of political sophistication.

    PubMed

    Arceneaux, Kevin; Johnson, Martine; Maes, Hermine H

    2012-02-01

    Political sophistication is a concept that encompasses political reasoning, the coherence of people's issue attitudes, and their knowledge of political processes. To what extent is political sophistication affected by genes and environments? Do these distinct but related measures of sophistication share a common genetic structure? We analyze survey data collected from participants in the Minnesota Twin Registry to estimate influences of genes and environments on variables used to measure political sophistication. Additive genetic factors explain 48-76% of the variation in educational attainment, political interest, and political knowledge, while dominance genetics influence 28% of the variance of ideological consistency. Multivariate analyses show that, although these measures share common genetic and unique environmental factors to a modest extent, much of the variance is explained by specific genetic and unique environmental factors. Ideological consistency appears to be mostly distinct from the other measures, as it is strongly accounted for by unique environmental influences.

  3. Spatial variation in the littoral vertebrate community of a reservoir relative to physical and biological gradients

    PubMed Central

    Soski, Jessica J.; Roosenburg, Willem M.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs possess gradients in conditions and resources along their long (deep-shallow) axis, but the response of littoral vertebrates (fish and turtles) to these gradients is poorly understood. We have quantified the littoral vertebrate communities throughout a small reservoir in Southeastern Ohio during July and August using traps, and related community composition to environmental variables using NMDS ordination. Ordination revealed that fish and turtles were broadly separated in ordination space, and three distinctly different environmental gradients were significantly associated with the underlying observed species abundances. Observed turtle abundance was explained by measurements of bathymetry, turbidity, and benthic resources, but none of these environmental variables were a reliable predictor of observed fish abundance. Temperature was a poor predictor of observed abundance for both fish and turtles independently, but when fish and turtles were considered together, it became apparent that there were cold areas of the reservoir where observed fish and turtle abundances were different than in other areas of the reservoir. These results suggest that the predictor (environmental) variables we used were appropriate for investigating turtle ecology in reservoirs, but that observed fish abundance is mediated by factors that were not modeled. The efficacy of using traps, the ecological implications of considering fish and turtles together as sympatric and potentially competing species, and directions for future study are discussed. PMID:25538870

  4. Language and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  5. Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge…

  6. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Drought in the Western United States in Relation to Oceanic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, L.; Scuderi, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Drought, a natural phenomenon that has affected western North America for millennia, is characterized by significant changes in precipitation with rapid shifts between wet and dry states. General Circulation Model projections indicate increased aridity in the 21st century for the Western U.S., and as such the impact of drought will likely become more significant on the environment and the economy. In the pursuit of improving drought predictability, as well as increasing our ability to better characterize the onset of drought, we ask whether defined climate regime shift signals can be identified and if there are variations in this signal for different drought periods, and if so, whether these shifts may be periodic. Annual growth rings of precipitation sensitive trees in the upper and lower Colorado River Basin regions are analyzed using 1) edge detection filters to determine the timing and significance of climate regime induced precipitation shifts, 2) digital filters to identify long and short-term precipitation variability within the site mean chronologies, and 3) wavelet analysis to determine the presence of significant periodicities in the chronologies. Results show that the edge detection algorithms are successful in identifying significant shifts in climatic regimes, and wavelet analysis indicates that some of these shifts may be periodic, suggesting larger scale atmospheric circulation forcing on timescales of decades to centuries. These results are used to identify specific patterns and timing of drought over the upper and lower Colorado River Basins in relation to oceanic oscillations such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and El Nino Southern Oscillation. Establishing a relationship between the timing and pattern of the drought and the timing of the oceanic oscillations can lead to improved drought predictability in this region and increase our ability to respond to the environmental and economic impacts of drought.

  7. Evidence of a relational spatial strategy in learning the centre of enclosures in human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Luca; Giuliano, Alda

    2014-07-01

    Three- to five-year-old children were trained to localize a sensor hidden underneath the floor, in the centre of a square-shaped enclosure (1.5m×1.5m). Walking over the sensor caused a pleasant music to be played in the environment, thus engaging children in a playful spatial search. Children easily learned to find the centre of the training environment starting from random positions. After training, children were tested in enclosures of different size and/or shape: a larger square-shaped enclosure (3m×3m), a rectangle-shaped enclosure (1.5m×3m), an equilateral triangle-shaped enclosure (side 3m) and an isosceles triangle-shaped enclosure (base 1.5m; sides 3m). Children searched in the central region of the enclosures, their precision varying as a function of the similarity of the testing enclosure's shape to the shape of the training enclosure. This suggests that a relational spatial strategy was used, and that it depended on the encoding of geometrical shape. This result highlights a distinctive role of the geometric centre of enclosed spaces in place learning in children, as already observed in nonhuman species.

  8. Exploration as a Mediator of the Relation between the Attainment of Motor Milestones and the Development of Spatial Cognition and Spatial Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The embodied-cognition approach views cognition and language as grounded in daily sensorimotor child-environment interactions. Therefore, the attainment of motor milestones is expected to play a role in cognitive-linguistic development. Early attainment of unsupported sitting and independent walking indeed predict better spatial cognition and…

  9. Politics and abortion.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1985-01-01

    The legalization of abortion in the United States by the Supreme Court in 1973 bypassed the political process in the majority of the states. Since then, however, political controversy and agitation in relation to abortion has become nationwide. From largely Catholic-based opposition, it has grown to encompass religious fundamentalists and to be a major part of the New Right's agenda. Abortion is now, pro and con, part of the platform of both political parties. The sweeping nature of the Supreme Court's decisions leaves the opposition with very little room to restrict abortion, short of overturning the decisions through a constitutional amendment. Such an amendment requires a two-thirds majority of Congress and passage is unlikely. However, funding bans on scores of federal programmes have succeeded in restricting access to abortion for the poor, the young and minorities. These restrictions are part of a long-term strategy to educate the public as to the evils of abortion with the aim of making it illegal again, either through the adoption of a constitutional amendment or by obtaining a reversal by a hoped-for change in membership of the Supreme Court.

  10. Detecting Bedform Migration in Portsmouth Harbor, New Hampshire, USA on Relatively Short Spatial and Temporal Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzenberg, J. A.; Ward, L. G.; Rzhanov, Y.; Irish, J. D.; Mayer, L. A.

    2008-12-01

    Multibeam echosounder (MBES) systems have enjoyed recent popularity as a tool in bedform-migration studies due to their ability to produce high-resolution seafloor imagery with complete bottom coverage. Although shallow-water MBES systems may achieve decimeter-scale data resolution, the use of MBES to successfully detect and quantify bedform migration on short time-scales (days to weeks) where the migration distance is relatively small (< 1 m) remains limited by positioning uncertainty. In this study we evaluate short-term bedform migration and sediment transport in a bedform field at the entrance to Portsmouth Harbor, New Hampshire, USA. Bedform dynamics over 24-hour and multi-day periods were determined from high-resolution bathymetry (0.25 m grid resolution) acquired with a Kongsberg EM3002D MBES system. Position, heading and attitude data were acquired with an Applanix POS/MV system with integrated real-time kinematic GPS correctors, providing a horizontal positioning uncertainty of < 0.1 m at the GPS receiver. MBES surveys were conducted on June 8, 14 and 15 in 2007 and July 3 and 9 in 2008. Acoustic current meters were deployed at two stations within the survey area in 2008 to provide simultaneous observations of current velocities at a height of 1 m above the bottom. A new approach was developed and used for detecting and quantifying bedform migration from the bathymetry. Our approach utilizes a ridge-extraction algorithm to derive a binary map of dune-crest positions from the bathymetric surface, and then calculates the displacements of small (6.25 m2) subsets of dune crest. Preliminary results indicate that bedform migrations of ≥ 0.1 m were successfully resolved. Morphology of the bedform field is dominated by medium and large, two-dimensional, asymmetrical subaqueous dunes (0.4 to 0.8 m height, 8 to 16 m wavelength). Small, two-dimensional, ebb-oriented subaqueous dunes (0.3 m height, 5 m wavelength) line the eastern margin of the bedform field, which

  11. Spatiotemporal and Spatial Threshold Models for Relating UV Exposures and Skin Cancer in the Central United States.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Laura A; Hoffbeck, Richard W; Alexander, Bruce H; Carlin, Bradley P

    2009-06-15

    The exact mechanisms relating exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and elevated risk of skin cancer remain the subject of debate. For example, there is disagreement on whether the main risk factor is duration of the exposure, its intensity, or some combination of both. There is also uncertainty regarding the form of the dose-response curve, with many authors believing only exposures exceeding a given (but unknown) threshold are important. In this paper we explore methods to estimate such thresholds using hierarchical spatial logistic models based on a sample of a cohort of x-ray technologists for whom we have self-reports of time spent in the sun and numbers of blistering sunburns in childhood. A preliminary goal is to explore the temporal pattern of UV exposure and its gradient. Changes here would imply that identical exposure self-reports from different calendar years may correspond to differing cancer risks. PMID:20161236

  12. Can Language Do the Driving? The Effect of Linguistic Input on Infants’ Categorization of Support Spatial Relations

    PubMed Central

    Casasola, Marianella

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments explored the effect of linguistic input on 18-month-olds’ ability to form an abstract categorical representation of support. Infants were habituated to 4 support events (i.e., one object placed on another) and were tested with a novel support and a novel containment event. Infants formed an abstract category of support (i.e., looked significantly longer at the novel than familiar relation) when hearing the word “on” during habituation but not when viewing the events in silence (Experiment 1) or when hearing general phrases or a novel word (Experiment 2). Results indicate that a familiar word can facilitate infants’ formation of an abstract spatial category, leading them to form a category that they do not form in the absence of the word. PMID:15656748

  13. Spatiotemporal and Spatial Threshold Models for Relating UV Exposures and Skin Cancer in the Central United States.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Laura A; Hoffbeck, Richard W; Alexander, Bruce H; Carlin, Bradley P

    2009-06-15

    The exact mechanisms relating exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and elevated risk of skin cancer remain the subject of debate. For example, there is disagreement on whether the main risk factor is duration of the exposure, its intensity, or some combination of both. There is also uncertainty regarding the form of the dose-response curve, with many authors believing only exposures exceeding a given (but unknown) threshold are important. In this paper we explore methods to estimate such thresholds using hierarchical spatial logistic models based on a sample of a cohort of x-ray technologists for whom we have self-reports of time spent in the sun and numbers of blistering sunburns in childhood. A preliminary goal is to explore the temporal pattern of UV exposure and its gradient. Changes here would imply that identical exposure self-reports from different calendar years may correspond to differing cancer risks.

  14. Spectrum reconstruction using relative-deviation-based kernel regression in temporally and spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fengzhen; Yuan, Yan; Li, Jingzhen; Cao, Jun

    2015-08-01

    During the temporally and spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer push-broom scanning process, the motion state of the spectrometer platform can vary. Thus, the target interferogram obtained from the image sequence deviates from the ideal interferogram obtained using high platform stability. The recovered target spectrum will not reflect the true target characteristics. We adopted target tracking to acquire the target position in the image sequence via a proposed kernel regression, with a relative deviation method for determining the target intensities, and the recovery of the spectrogram using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform algorithm. We tested our algorithm on simulated and experimentally obtained aerial images and, from comparison with accurate spectrograms, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Training Young Children on Sequential Relations among Numbers and Spatial Decomposition: Differential Transfer to Number Line and Mental Transformation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Chang; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Are there differential benefits of training sequential number knowledge versus spatial skills for children's numerical and spatial performance? Three- to five-year-old children (N = 84) participated in 1 session of either sequential training (e.g., what comes before and after the number 5?) or non-numerical spatial training (i.e., decomposition of…

  16. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Lü, Liang; Wang, Feng-Yan; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zou, Si-Si; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Song, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae) along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation) gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011-2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles. PMID:27138752

  17. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Activity during a Visuo-Spatial Working Memory Task with Facial Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Belham, Flávia Schechtman; Satler, Corina; Garcia, Ana; Tomaz, Carlos; Gasbarri, Antonella; Rego, Artur; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H.

    2013-01-01

    Emotion, importantly displayed by facial expressions, is one of the most significant memory modulators. The interaction between memory and the different emotional valences change across lifespan, while young adults (YA) are expected to better recall negative events (Negativity Bias Hypothesis), older adults (OA) tend to focus on positive stimuli (Positivity Effect Hypothesis). This research work aims at verifying whether cortical electrical activity of these two age groups would also be differently influenced by emotional valences in a visuo-spatial working memory task. 27 YA (13 males) and 25 OA (14 males), all healthy volunteers, underwent electroencephalographic recordings (21 scalp electrodes montage), while performing the Spatial Delayed Recognition Span Task using a touch screen with different stimuli categories: neutral, positive and negative faces and geometric pictures. YA obtained higher scores than OA, and showed higher activation of theta and alpha bands in the frontal and midline regions, besides a more evident right-hemispheric asymmetry on alpha band when compared to OA. For both age groups, performance in the task was worse for positive faces than to negative and to neutral faces. Facial stimuli induced a better performance and higher alpha activation on the pre-frontal region for YA, and on the midline, occipital and left temporal regions for OA when compared to geometric figures. The superior performance of YA was expected due to the natural cognitive deficits connected to ageing, as was a better performance with facial stimuli due to the evolutionary importance of faces. These results were related to cortical activity on areas of importance for action-planning, decision making and sustained attention. Taken together, they are in accordance with the Negativity Bias but do not support the Positivity Effect. The methodology used was able to identify age-related differences in cortical activity during emotional mnemonic processing and may be

  18. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Lü, Liang; Wang, Feng-Yan; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zou, Si-Si; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Song, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae) along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation) gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011–2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles. PMID:27138752

  19. Institutions, Politics, and Mental Health Parity

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Elaine M.; Uggen, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Mental health parity laws require insurers to extend comparable benefits for mental and physical health care. Proponents argue that by placing mental health services alongside physical health services, such laws can help ensure needed treatment and destigmatize mental illness. Opponents counter that such mandates are costly or unnecessary. The authors offer a sociological account of the diffusion and spatial distribution of state mental health parity laws. An event history analysis identifies four factors as especially important: diffusion of law, political ideology, the stability of mental health advocacy organizations and the relative health of state economies. Mental health parity is least likely to be established during times of high state unemployment and under the leadership of conservative state legislatures. PMID:24353902

  20. The relation between children’s constructive play activities, spatial ability, and mathematical word problem-solving performance: a mediation analysis in sixth-grade students

    PubMed Central

    Oostermeijer, Meike; Boonen, Anton J. H.; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature shows that constructive play activities are positively related to children’s spatial ability. Likewise, a close positive relation is found between spatial ability and mathematical word problem-solving performances. The relation between children’s constructive play and their performance on mathematical word problems is, however, not reported yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial ability acted as a mediator in the relation between constructive play and mathematical word problem-solving performance in 128 sixth-grade elementary school children. This mediating role of spatial ability was tested by utilizing the current mediation approaches suggested by Preacher and Hayes (2008). Results showed that 38.16% of the variance in mathematical word problem-solving performance is explained by children’s constructive play activities and spatial ability. More specifically, spatial ability acted as a partial mediator, explaining 31.58% of the relation between constructive play and mathematical word problem-solving performance. PMID:25101038

  1. Spatial and temporal changes of coastal demersal assemblages in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Spain) in relation to environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, I. A.; Jiménez, M. T.; Alconchel, J. I.; Prieto, L.; Muñoz, J. L.

    2006-06-01

    Changes in space and time in "global values" (numerical abundance, biomass, diversity ( H', Shannon-Wiener), number of species ( S)) and in the structure of demersal assemblages were studied in a coastal fringe of the Gulf of Cadiz between the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir rivers. Further, the seasonal patterns in length-frequency histograms and the percentage of juveniles of 10 selected species were calculated based on literature data on length at first maturity ( Lm). Twenty-four successive monthly demersal fishery surveys were conducted between March 2002 and February 2004 at eight fixed stations between 5 and 30 m depth, from which 175 hauls were analysed. Fifty-seven taxa belonging to four orders of fish, cephalopods and crustaceans were selected for analysis. Environmental characterisation included the variables depth, sediment type, bottom temperature (BT), total bottom chlorophyll (BChl), and bottom suspended solids (BSS). Relationships among environmental variables as well as their spatial and temporal changes were explored through Spearman rank correlation ( Rs) and Kruskall-Wallis tests. Their relation to global values was assessed through Rs. Differences in global values with respect to space (station) and time (year and season) was assessed through ANOVA techniques via GLM. Spatial and temporal differences in demersal structure were analysed through different multivariate routines from PRIMER including between-matrix correlation analysis (RELATE), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), species contributions to similarity/dissimilarity (SIMPER), non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and group-average cluster analysis. The degree of match between species-similarity matrices (Bray-Curtis, root-root transformed) and environmental similarity matrices (Euclidean distance) was assessed through the BIO-ENV approach also from PRIMER. Individual Rs correlations between selected species and environmental variables also were performed at each station. A strong

  2. The Politics of Management Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Stewart R., Ed.; Palmer, Gill, Ed.

    This book recognizes the political nature of management knowledge, as a discourse produced from, and reproducing, power processes within and between organizations. Critical examinations of certain current management theories--lean production, excellence, entrepreneurship--are examples of relations of power that intermingle with relations of…

  3. Natural landscape features, human-related attractants, and conflict hotspots: A spatial analysis of human-grizzly bear conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Burchfield, J.A.; Belsky, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a long history of conflict in the western United States between humans and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) involving agricultural attractants. However, little is known about the spatial dimensions of this conflict and the relative importance of different attractants. This study was undertaken to better understand the spatial and functional components of conflict between humans and grizzly bears on privately owned agricultural lands in Montana. Our investigations focused on spatial associations of rivers and creeks, livestock pastures, boneyards (livestock carcass dump sites), beehives, and grizzly bear habitat with reported human-grizzly bear conflicts during 1986-2001. We based our analysis on a survey of 61 of 64 livestock producers in our study in the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana. With the assistance of livestock and honey producers, we mapped the locations of cattle and sheep pastures, boneyards, and beehives. We used density surface mapping to identify seasonal clusters of conflicts that we term conflict hotspots. Hotspots accounted for 75% of all conflicts and encompassed approximately 8% of the study area. We also differentiated chronic (4 or more years of conflicts) from non-chronic hotspots (fewer than 4 years of conflict). The 10 chronic hotpots accounted for 58% of all conflicts. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we found that conflict locations were most strongly associated with rivers and creeks followed by sheep lambing areas and fall sheep pastures. Conflicts also were associated with cattle calving areas, spring cow-calf pastures, summer and fall cattle pastures, and boneyards. The Monte Carlo simulations indicated associations between conflict locations and unprotected beehives at specific analysis scales. Protected (fenced) beehives were less likely to experience conflicts than unprotected beehives. Conflicts occurred at a greater rate in riparian and wetland vegetation than would be expected. The majority of conflicts occurred in a

  4. Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Wheeldon, Tyler J

    2012-12-01

    Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Accordingly, we studied resident wolves and coyotes in and adjacent to APP to identify distinct Canis types, clarify the extent of the APP eastern wolf population beyond the park boundaries and investigate fine-scale spatial genetic structure and landscape-genotype associations in the hybrid zone. We documented three genetically distinct Canis types within the APP region that also differed morphologically, corresponding to putative gray wolves, eastern wolves and coyotes. We also documented a substantial number of hybrid individuals (36%) that were admixed between 2 or 3 of the Canis types. Breeding eastern wolves were less common outside of APP, but occurred in some unprotected areas where they were sympatric with a diverse combination of coyotes, gray wolves and hybrids. We found significant spatial genetic structure and identified a steep cline extending west from APP where the dominant genotype shifted abruptly from eastern wolves to coyotes and hybrids. The genotypic pattern to the south and northwest was a more complex mosaic of alternating genotypes. We modelled genetic ancestry in response to prey availability and human disturbance and found that individuals with greater wolf ancestry occupied areas of higher moose density and fewer roads. Our results clarify the structure of the Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP and provide unique insight into environmental conditions influencing hybridization dynamics between

  5. Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Wheeldon, Tyler J

    2012-12-01

    Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Accordingly, we studied resident wolves and coyotes in and adjacent to APP to identify distinct Canis types, clarify the extent of the APP eastern wolf population beyond the park boundaries and investigate fine-scale spatial genetic structure and landscape-genotype associations in the hybrid zone. We documented three genetically distinct Canis types within the APP region that also differed morphologically, corresponding to putative gray wolves, eastern wolves and coyotes. We also documented a substantial number of hybrid individuals (36%) that were admixed between 2 or 3 of the Canis types. Breeding eastern wolves were less common outside of APP, but occurred in some unprotected areas where they were sympatric with a diverse combination of coyotes, gray wolves and hybrids. We found significant spatial genetic structure and identified a steep cline extending west from APP where the dominant genotype shifted abruptly from eastern wolves to coyotes and hybrids. The genotypic pattern to the south and northwest was a more complex mosaic of alternating genotypes. We modelled genetic ancestry in response to prey availability and human disturbance and found that individuals with greater wolf ancestry occupied areas of higher moose density and fewer roads. Our results clarify the structure of the Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP and provide unique insight into environmental conditions influencing hybridization dynamics between

  6. Geostatistical modeling of the spatial variability and risk areas of southern root-knot nematodes in relation to soil properties

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, B.V.; Perry, C.; Goovaerts, P.; Vellidis, G.; Sullivan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying the spatial variability and risk areas for southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] (RKN) is key for site-specific management (SSM) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the soil properties that influence RKN occurrence at different scales; and (ii) delineate risk areas of RKN by indicator kriging. The study site was a cotton field located in the southeastern coastal plain region of the USA. Nested semivariograms indicated that RKN samples, collected from a 50×50 m grid, exhibited a local and regional scale of variation describing small and large clusters of RKN population density. Factorial kriging decomposed RKN and soil properties variability into different spatial components. Scale dependent correlations between RKN data showed that the areas with high RKN population remained stable though the growing season. RKN data were strongly correlated with slope (SL) at local scale and with apparent soil electrical conductivity deep (ECa-d) at both local and regional scales, which illustrate the potential of these soil physical properties as surrogate data for RKN population. The correlation between RKN data and soil chemical properties was soil texture mediated. Indicator kriging (IK) maps developed using either RKN, the relation between RKN and soil electrical conductivity or a combination of both, depicted the probability for RKN population to exceed the threshold of 100 second stage juveniles/100 cm3 of soil. Incorporating ECa-d as soft data improved predictions favoring the reduction of the number of RKN observations required to map areas at risk for high RKN population. PMID:20717481

  7. DL-/PO-phosphatidylcholine restores restraint stress-induced depression-related behaviors and spatial memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DL-PC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PO-PC) on depression-related behaviors and spatial memory impairment in mice subjected to restraint stress. The immobility time in forced-swim and tail-suspension tests for mice subjected to restraint stress was significantly longer than that for nonstressed control mice, and oral coadministration of DL-PC and PO-PC (DL-/PO-PC; DL-PC : PO-PC=1 : 1) shortened the prolonged immobility time in a dose (0.1-5 mg/kg)-dependent manner. In the water maze test, the retention latency for stressed mice was significantly longer than that for control mice and DL-/PO-PC (1 mg/kg, per os) reversed the prolonged latency to control levels. Phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) in the hypothalamus of stressed mice was significantly reduced compared with that for control mice, and DL-/PO-PC (1 mg/kg, per os) recovered the reduced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β. The results of the present study indicate that DL-/PO-PC has the potential to ameliorate stress-induced depression-related behaviors and memory impairment, possibly by activating Akt and inhibiting GSK-3β.

  8. Politicizing science: conceptions of politics in science and technology studies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.

  9. Adolescent Political Education and Political Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewellen, James R.

    This research report studies the impact of informal extracurricular activities and formal social studies curriculum on the political socialization process of high school students. The hypothesis is that involvement in extracurricular activities, school partisan political activities, and exposure to formal course work in social studies is…

  10. Real-time appraisal of the spatially distributed heat related health risk and energy demand of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T.; Sismanidis, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is an adverse environmental effect of urbanization that increases the energy demand of cities, impacts the human health, and intensifies and prolongs heatwave events. To facilitate the study of UHIs the Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (IAASARS/NOA) has developed an operational real-time system that exploits remote sensing image data from Meteosat Second Generation - Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (MSG-SEVIRI) and generates high spatiotemporal land surface temperature (LST) and 2 m air temperature (TA) time series. These datasets form the basis for the generation of higher value products and services related to energy demand and heat-related health issues. These products are the heatwave hazard (HZ); the HUMIDEX (i.e. an index that describes the temperature felt by an individual exposed to heat and humidity); and the cooling degrees (CD; i.e. a measure that reflects the energy needed to cool a building). The spatiotemporal characteristics of HZ, HUMIDEX and CD are unique (1 km/5 min) and enable the appraisal of the spatially distributed heat related health risk and energy demand of cities. In this paper, the real time generation of the high spatiotemporal HZ, HUMIDEX and CD products is discussed. In addition, a case study corresponding to Athens' September 2015 heatwave is presented so as to demonstrate their capabilities. The overall aim of the system is to provide high quality data to several different end users, such as health responders, and energy suppliers. The urban thermal monitoring web service is available at http://snf-652558.vm.okeanos.grnet.gr/treasure/portal/info.html.

  11. Spatial variations in the concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in indoor and outdoor air in Huddersfield, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingham, Simon; Briggs, David; Elliott, Paul; Fischer, Paul; Lebret, Erik

    As part of the Small Area Variations in Air Quality and Health (SAVIAH-2) study, monitoring was carried out for a number of traffic related pollutants (mass and absorbance of PM 10 and PM 2.5, benzene, B(a)P and PAHs) indoors and outdoors of homes in an area of Huddersfield, England. Homes were selected on the basis of their distance from nearby major roads. Monitoring was conducted during two 2-week periods. On each occasion, pollution levels were measured in paired `proximity' (within 50 m of the main road) and `background' (>50 m from the main road) homes, for a 24 h period, using active pump samplers. Spatial variations in pollutant concentrations were modest and in most cases did not show significant associations either with distance from road or modelled NO 2 concentrations. Neither of these commonly used measures would thus seem to provide reliable indicators for these traffic-related pollutants in this study area. Several of the measured pollutants showed significant inter-correlations, but overall absorbance of the fine particulate fraction displayed the strongest correlations, and would appear to provide the best general marker for these pollutants, perhaps reflecting the importance of diesel vehicles as a major emission source. Indoor-outdoor ratios of PM 10, PM 2.5 and absorbance of these fractions were below 1, but other pollutants did not show significant differences between indoor and outdoor concentrations. However, all the pollutants showed significant positive correlations between indoor and outdoor concentrations, strongest correlations being seen for the absorbance measures of the particulate fraction. This suggests that outdoor concentrations may give a useful measure of exposures to traffic-related pollutants for use in epidemiological studies.

  12. Morality and politics: Comparing alternate theories.

    PubMed

    Miles, Andrew; Vaisey, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Debates about the American "culture wars" have led scholars to develop several theories relating morality to political attitudes and behaviors. However, researchers have not adequately compared these theories, nor have they examined the overall contribution of morality to explaining political variation. This study uses nationally representative data to compare the utility of 19 moral constructs from four research traditions - associated with the work of Hunter, Lakoff, Haidt, and Schwartz - for predicting political orientation (liberalism/conservatism). Results indicate that morality explains a third of the variation in political orientation - more than basic demographic and religious predictors - but that no one theory provides a fully adequate explanation of this phenomenon. Instead, political orientation is best predicted by selected moral constructs that are unique to each of the four traditions, and by two moral constructs that crosscut them. Future work should investigate how these moral constructs can be synthesized to create a more comprehensive theory of morality and politics. PMID:26188452

  13. Morality and politics: Comparing alternate theories.

    PubMed

    Miles, Andrew; Vaisey, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Debates about the American "culture wars" have led scholars to develop several theories relating morality to political attitudes and behaviors. However, researchers have not adequately compared these theories, nor have they examined the overall contribution of morality to explaining political variation. This study uses nationally representative data to compare the utility of 19 moral constructs from four research traditions - associated with the work of Hunter, Lakoff, Haidt, and Schwartz - for predicting political orientation (liberalism/conservatism). Results indicate that morality explains a third of the variation in political orientation - more than basic demographic and religious predictors - but that no one theory provides a fully adequate explanation of this phenomenon. Instead, political orientation is best predicted by selected moral constructs that are unique to each of the four traditions, and by two moral constructs that crosscut them. Future work should investigate how these moral constructs can be synthesized to create a more comprehensive theory of morality and politics.

  14. Fluid/Spatial and Crystallized Intelligence in Relation to Domain-Specific Working Memory: A Latent-Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haavisto, Marja-Leena; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2005-01-01

    Fluid/spatial intelligence, crystallized intelligence and their relationships to verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) were studied. A total of 120 Finnish Air Force recruits participated in this study. Fluid/spatial intelligence was assessed using four different tasks, while crystallized intelligence was defined with the help of test scores…

  15. Teaching Politically Correct Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsehelska, Maryna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…

  16. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  17. What is Political Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  18. Political Education in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  19. Relation between clinical mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood and their spatial label free scattering patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Li

    2016-07-01

    A single living cell's light scattering pattern (LSP) in the horizontal plane, which has been denoted as the cell's "2D fingerprint," may provide a powerful label-free detection tool in clinical applications. We have recently studied the LSP in spatial scattering planes, denoted as the cell's "3D fingerprint," for mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood. The effects of membrane size, morphology, and the existence of the nucleus on the spatial LSP are discussed. In order to distinguish clinical label-free mature and immature lymphocytes, the special features of the spatial LSP are studied by statistical method in both the spatial and frequency domains. Spatial LSP provides rich information on the cell's morphology and contents, which can distinguish mature from immature lymphocyte cells and hence ultimately it may be a useful label-free technique for clinical leukemia diagnosis.

  20. Vertical position of Chinese power words influences power judgments: Evidence from spatial compatibility task and event-related Potentials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangci; Jia, Huibin; Wang, Enguo; Du, Chenguang; Wu, Xianghua; Dang, Caiping

    2016-04-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the influence of vertical position on power judgments. Participants were asked to identify whether a Chinese word represented a powerful or powerless group (e.g., "king" or "servant"), which was presented in the top or bottom of the screen. The behavioral analysis showed that judging the power of powerful words were significantly faster when they were presented at the top position, compared with when they were presented at the bottom position. The ERP analysis showed enhanced N1 amplitude for congruent trials (i.e., the powerful words in the top and the powerless words in the bottom of the screen) and larger P300 and LPC amplitude for incongruent trials (i.e., the powerful words in the bottom and the powerless words in the top of the screen). The present findings provide further electrophysiological evidence that thinking about power can automatically activate the underlying spatial up-down (verticality) image schema and that the influence of vertical position on the power judgments not only occurs at the early perceptual stage of power word processing, but also at the higher cognitive stage (i.e., allocation of attention resources, conflict solving and response selection). This study revealed the neural underpinnings of metaphor congruent effect which have great significance to our understanding of the abstract concept power.

  1. Vertical position of Chinese power words influences power judgments: Evidence from spatial compatibility task and event-related Potentials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangci; Jia, Huibin; Wang, Enguo; Du, Chenguang; Wu, Xianghua; Dang, Caiping

    2016-04-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the influence of vertical position on power judgments. Participants were asked to identify whether a Chinese word represented a powerful or powerless group (e.g., "king" or "servant"), which was presented in the top or bottom of the screen. The behavioral analysis showed that judging the power of powerful words were significantly faster when they were presented at the top position, compared with when they were presented at the bottom position. The ERP analysis showed enhanced N1 amplitude for congruent trials (i.e., the powerful words in the top and the powerless words in the bottom of the screen) and larger P300 and LPC amplitude for incongruent trials (i.e., the powerful words in the bottom and the powerless words in the top of the screen). The present findings provide further electrophysiological evidence that thinking about power can automatically activate the underlying spatial up-down (verticality) image schema and that the influence of vertical position on the power judgments not only occurs at the early perceptual stage of power word processing, but also at the higher cognitive stage (i.e., allocation of attention resources, conflict solving and response selection). This study revealed the neural underpinnings of metaphor congruent effect which have great significance to our understanding of the abstract concept power. PMID:26975719

  2. The relative importance of factors determining genetic drift: mating system, spatial genetic structure, habitat and census size in Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Willi, Yvonne; Määttänen, Kirsti

    2011-03-01

    • The mating system, dispersal and census size are predicted to determine the magnitude of genetic drift, but little is known about their relative importance in nature. • We estimated the contributions of several population-level features to genetic drift in 18 populations of Arabidopsis lyrata. The factors were outcrossing rate, within-population spatial genetic structure, census size and substrate type. The expected heterozygosity (H(E)) at 10 microsatellite loci was taken to reflect the effective population size (N(e)) and the strength of genetic drift. • The mating system explained most of the variation in H(E) (60%), followed by substrate (10%), genetic structure (9%) and census size (6%). The most outcrossing population had a +0.32 higher predicted H(E) than the most selfing population; the estimated N(e) of selfing populations was less than half that of outcrossing populations. Rocky outcrops supported populations with a +0.14 higher H(E) than did sandy substrates. The most structured population had a +0.24 higher H(E) than the least structured population, and the largest population had a +0.18 higher H(E) than the smallest population. • This study illustrates the importance of outcrossing, genetic structure and the physical environment--together with census size--in maintaining H(E), and suggests that multiple population-level characteristics influence N(e) and the action of genetic drift.

  3. Political Discourse and Its Sociolinguistic Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Rodriguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Linguistically, political discourses have generally been discussed within qualitative approaches (e.g., Blackledge, 2005; Chilton, 2004; Chomsky, 2004; van Dijk, 2005; Wodak, 2002). This paper presents tools to design a quantitative research relating political speech with sociolinguistic variables. Notions such as Accommodation Theory (Giles &…

  4. Women in Politics: Images and Voter Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gary B.

    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to investigate the general image of women who are active in politics and compare that image with the general image of men who are politically active, (2) to examine the general area of sex-related voting patterns when a major woman condidate is involved, and (3) to determine whether or not a female…

  5. Teaching Introduction to International Politics with Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeriano, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This article is an overview of a comprehensive film-based course that covers basic topics appropriate for an introduction to international relations (or world politics) course. Film provides a new and novel perspective by which to view international interactions. I explore how various aspects of international politics are covered by movies with…

  6. Performing Refugee Policy in Politics and Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David

    2008-01-01

    This essay provides a brief account of selected performances of Australian refugee policy in the domains of politics and theatre. In the domain of politics, it considers rhetorical performances by government ministers and military personnel in relation to the so-called "children overboard" scandal of 2001, and the scandal's parliamentary…

  7. Got political skill? The impact of justice on the importance of political skill for job performance.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Martha C; Kacmar, K Michele; Harris, Kenneth J

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of procedural and distributive justice on the relationships between political skill and task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among 175 supervisor-subordinate dyads of a government organization. Using Mischel's (1968) situationist perspective, high justice conditions were considered "strong situations," whereas low justice conditions were construed as "weak situations." We found that when both procedural and distributive justice were low, political skill was positively related to performance. Under conditions of both high procedural and high distributive justice, political skill was negatively related to performance. Finally, under conditions of low distributive justice, political skill was positively related to OCB, whereas under conditions of high distributive justice, political skill had little effect on OCB. These results highlight the importance of possessing political skill in weak but not strong situations. PMID:19916653

  8. Got political skill? The impact of justice on the importance of political skill for job performance.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Martha C; Kacmar, K Michele; Harris, Kenneth J

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of procedural and distributive justice on the relationships between political skill and task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among 175 supervisor-subordinate dyads of a government organization. Using Mischel's (1968) situationist perspective, high justice conditions were considered "strong situations," whereas low justice conditions were construed as "weak situations." We found that when both procedural and distributive justice were low, political skill was positively related to performance. Under conditions of both high procedural and high distributive justice, political skill was negatively related to performance. Finally, under conditions of low distributive justice, political skill was positively related to OCB, whereas under conditions of high distributive justice, political skill had little effect on OCB. These results highlight the importance of possessing political skill in weak but not strong situations.

  9. Age-Related Wayfinding Differences in Real Large-Scale Environments: Detrimental Motor Control Effects during Spatial Learning Are Mediated by Executive Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Taillade, Mathieu; Sauzéon, Hélène; Arvind Pala, Prashant; Déjos, Marie; Larrue, Florian; Gross, Christian; N’Kaoua, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate motor control activity (active vs. passive condition) with regards to wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties in large-scale spaces for older adults. We compared virtual reality (VR)-based wayfinding and spatial memory (survey and route knowledge) performances between 30 younger and 30 older adults. A significant effect of age was obtained on the wayfinding performances but not on the spatial memory performances. Specifically, the active condition deteriorated the survey measure in all of the participants and increased the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances. Importantly, the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances, after an active condition, were further mediated by the executive measures. All of the results relative to a detrimental effect of motor activity are discussed in terms of a dual task effect as well as executive decline associated with aging. PMID:23843992

  10. Spatial distribution of the b value under the Popocatepetl volcano and its relation with the structure of the magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza-Girón, R.; Zuniga, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the b value under volcanoes and other tectonic environments is not uniform but it rather shows pockets of anomalies related to different phenomena. We analyzed the frequency-magnitude distribution of the 2191 best located volcano-tectonic events with MD ≥ 2.1 under the Popocatepetl volcano and performed 2D and 3D maps using a griding technique. For the 3D mapping we used samples of 100 events within spherical volumes with radii ≤ 3 km. Also, only volumes with σ ≤ 0.3 were taken into account. Three main anomalies with b ≥ 2.2 were detected within a normal crust (b ≤ 1.6). The first anomaly is observed north of the crater summit at depths 4-8 km and comprises a volume of approximately 15 km3. The second lies slightly to the E and SE of the crater at depths between 2 and 5 km, and the third and latter anomaly is located SE of the summit at depths of 6-12 km and spans over a volume of 40 km3 (or greater). In any case, we interpret our high b values anomalies as regions were high pore pressures (low effective stresses), high thermal gradients and/or high heterogeneity take place due to the presence of a magmatic body nearby. Whilst we cannot know with certainty if the source of the anomaly located N of the crater is a dyke complex or a shallow magma chamber, we infer that the shallowest volume mapped is related to Popocatepetl's plumbing system. The greatest anomalous volume located at the SE is thought to represent the main shallow magma chamber, since it is located at depths similar to those found in other volcanoes in the world and correlates with previous geophysical studies carried out at Popocatepetl.

  11. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  12. Orwell on Language and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Newspeak, the engineered language of George Orwell's novel "Nineteen Eighty-Four," is discussed in the context of Orwell's wider views on language and politics and the need for linguistic intervention as part of the struggle against tyranny, and the related or opposed ideas of some of Orwell's contemporaries and Saussure. Orwell worried that…

  13. Special Language and Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Jenny

    1994-01-01

    This article looks at the way in which the language used in relation to special education needs has changed and evolved since the 1960s, based on articles published in the British special education literature. Vocabulary, images, and attitudes are discussed in the context of political correctness and its impact on behavior. (DB)

  14. Political Parody and Public Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hariman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…

  15. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War. PMID:10643131

  16. Perspectives on Political Geography in AP® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leib, Jonathan; Smothers-Marcello, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Two trends have remade the field of political geography over the past quarter-century. First, a revision of taken-for-granted concepts that amounted to "spatial determinism." Second, pioneering many new and emerging concepts such as political ecology. Both trends are important contributions to the evolving section of the AP Human…

  17. The Political Organization of Space, Resource Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Edward W.

    This resource paper on political geography is part of a series designed to supplement undergraduate geography courses. Starting with a broad outline of the relationship between human spatial and societal organization, it examines cross-cultural perspectives on the political organization of space and the emergence of the nation-state as a…

  18. Wet and dry deposition of mineral dust particles in Japan: factors related to temporal variation and spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, K.; Ura, S.; Kagawa, M.; Mikami, M.; Tanaka, T. Y.; Matoba, S.; Aoki, K.; Shinoda, M.; Kurosaki, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Shimizu, A.; Uematsu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent ground networks and satellite remote-sensing observations have provided useful data related to spatial and vertical distributions of mineral dust particles in the atmosphere. However, measurements of temporal variations and spatial distributions of mineral dust deposition fluxes are limited in terms of their duration, location, and processes of deposition. To ascertain temporal variations and spatial distributions of mineral dust deposition using wet and dry processes, weekly deposition samples were obtained at Sapporo, Toyama, Nagoya, Tottori, Fukuoka, and Cape Hedo (Okinawa) in Japan during October 2008-December 2010 using automatic wet and dry separating samplers. Mineral dust weights in water-insoluble residue were estimated from Fe contents measured using an X-ray fluorescence analyser. Wet and dry deposition fluxes of mineral dusts were both high in spring and low in summer, showing similar seasonal variations to frequency of aeolian dust events (Kosa) in Japan. For wet deposition, highest and lowest annual dust fluxes were found at Toyama (9.6 g m-2 yr-1) and at Cape Hedo (1.7 g m-2 yr-1) as average values in 2009 and 2010. Higher wet deposition fluxes were observed at Toyama and Tottori, where frequent precipitation (> 60% days per month) was observed during dusty seasons. For dry deposition among Toyama, Tottori, Fukuoka, and Cape Hedo, the highest and lowest annual dust fluxes were found respectively at Fukuoka (5.2 g m-2 yr-1) and at Cape Hedo (2.0 g m-2 yr-1) as average values in 2009 and 2010. The average ratio of wet and dry deposition fluxes was the highest at Toyama (3.3) and the lowest at Hedo (0.82), showing a larger contribution of the dry process at western sites, probably because of the distance from desert source regions and because of the effectiveness of the wet process in the dusty season. Size distributions of refractory dust particles were obtained using four-stage filtration: > 20, > 10, > 5, and > 1 μm diameter. Weight fractions

  19. On medicine and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451

  20. How coordinate and categorical spatial relations combine with egocentric and allocentric reference frames in a motor task: effects of delay and stimuli characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ruotolo, Francesco; van der Ham, Ineke; Postma, Albert; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Iachini, Tina

    2015-05-01

    This study explores how people represent spatial information in order to accomplish a visuo-motor task. To this aim we combined two fundamental components of the human visuo-spatial system: egocentric and allocentric frames of reference and coordinate and categorical spatial relations. Specifically, participants learned the position of three objects and then had to judge the distance (coordinate information) and the relation (categorical information) of a target object with respect to themselves (egocentric frame) or with respect to another object (allocentric frame). They gave spatial judgments by reaching and touching the exact position or the side previously occupied by the target object. The possible influence of stimuli characteristics (3D objects vs. 2D images) and delay between learning phase and testing phase (1.5 vs. 5s) was also assessed. Results showed an advantage of egocentric coordinate judgments over the allocentric coordinate ones independently from the kind of stimuli used and the temporal parameters of the response, whereas egocentric categorical judgments were more accurate than allocentric categorical ones only with 3D stimuli and when an immediate response was requested. This pattern of data is discussed in the light of the "perception-action" model by Milner and Goodale [13] and of neuroimaging evidence about frames of reference and spatial relations.

  1. How coordinate and categorical spatial relations combine with egocentric and allocentric reference frames in a motor task: effects of delay and stimuli characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ruotolo, Francesco; van der Ham, Ineke; Postma, Albert; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Iachini, Tina

    2015-05-01

    This study explores how people represent spatial information in order to accomplish a visuo-motor task. To this aim we combined two fundamental components of the human visuo-spatial system: egocentric and allocentric frames of reference and coordinate and categorical spatial relations. Specifically, participants learned the position of three objects and then had to judge the distance (coordinate information) and the relation (categorical information) of a target object with respect to themselves (egocentric frame) or with respect to another object (allocentric frame). They gave spatial judgments by reaching and touching the exact position or the side previously occupied by the target object. The possible influence of stimuli characteristics (3D objects vs. 2D images) and delay between learning phase and testing phase (1.5 vs. 5s) was also assessed. Results showed an advantage of egocentric coordinate judgments over the allocentric coordinate ones independently from the kind of stimuli used and the temporal parameters of the response, whereas egocentric categorical judgments were more accurate than allocentric categorical ones only with 3D stimuli and when an immediate response was requested. This pattern of data is discussed in the light of the "perception-action" model by Milner and Goodale [13] and of neuroimaging evidence about frames of reference and spatial relations. PMID:25698602

  2. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  3. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old. PMID:18474963

  4. American Political Behavior. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This textbook is designed to increase political knowledge and sophistication about the U.S. political system. The volume consisting of five units tries to capture the vitality and drama of politics through the use of cases that describe the political activities of typical citizens and political leaders. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  5. The politics of researching global health politics

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  6. Political Information Content and Children's Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Karin L.; Ostroff, David H.

    1981-01-01

    A content analysis of television programs presented during times likely to have high proportions of children in the audience indicated that entertainment programs contain messages about the political system which are often negative or inaccurate. (Author/MER)

  7. Rivers as Political Boundaries: Peru and its Dynamic Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, J. D.; Escobar, C.; Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers, although inherently dynamic, have been chosen as political boundaries since the beginning of colonization for several reasons. Such divisions were chosen namely for their defensive capabilities and military benefits, and because they were often the first features mapped out by explorers. Furthermore, rivers were indisputable boundaries that did not require boundary pillars or people to guard them. However, it is important to understand the complexities of a river as a boundary. All rivers inevitably change over time through processes such as accretion, deposition, cut-off, or avulsion, rendering a political boundary subject to dispute. Depending upon the flow, size, and surrounding land, a river will migrate differently than others. As these natural features migrate one country loses land while another gains land leading to tension between legal rigidity and fluid dynamism. This in turn can manifest in social disruption due to cultural differences, political upheaval, or conflict risk as a result of scarce water resources. The purpose of this research is to assess the temporal and spatial variability of the political boundaries of Peru that follow rivers. Peru shares borders with Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador. A large part of its northern border with Colombia follows the Putumayo River and later the Amazon River. Part of its eastern border with Brazil follows the Yavari River and later the Yaquirana River. These rivers are natural features used as political boundaries yet they differ in how each migrates. By means of a spatial and temporal analysis of satellite images it was possible to obtain erosion and deposition areas for the Putumayo River, the portion of the Amazon River that is part of the Peruvian boundary, the Yavari River, and the Yaquirana River. The erosion and deposition areas were related to land distribution among Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. By examining the Digital Elevation Model one can see how the altitude of the

  8. Using Relative Position and Temporal Judgments to Assess the Effects of Texture and Field of View on Spatial Awareness for Synthetic Vision Systems Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Matthew L.; Bass, Ellen J.; Comstock, James R., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) depict computer generated views of terrain surrounding an aircraft. In the assessment of textures and field of view (FOV) for SVS, no studies have directly measured the 3 levels of spatial awareness: identification of terrain, its relative spatial location, and its relative temporal location. This work introduced spatial awareness measures and used them to evaluate texture and FOV in SVS displays. Eighteen pilots made 4 judgments (relative angle, distance, height, and abeam time) regarding the location of terrain points displayed in 112 5-second, non-interactive simulations of a SVS heads down display. Texture produced significant main effects and trends for the magnitude of error in the relative distance, angle, and abeam time judgments. FOV was significant for the directional magnitude of error in the relative distance, angle, and height judgments. Pilots also provided subjective terrain awareness ratings that were compared with the judgment based measures. The study found that elevation fishnet, photo fishnet, and photo elevation fishnet textures best supported spatial awareness for both the judgments and the subjective awareness measures.

  9. Isoflurane exposure during mid-adulthood attenuates age-related spatial memory impairment in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Diansan; Zhao, Yanxing; Xu, Huan; Wang, Beilei; Chen, Xuemei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xiangrui

    2012-01-01

    Many in vitro findings suggest that isoflurane exposure might accelerate the process of Alzheimer Disease (AD); however, no behavioral evidence exists to support this theory. In the present study, we hypothesized that exposure of APP/PS1 transgenic mice to isoflurane during mid-adulthood, which is the pre-symptomatic phase of amyloid beta (Abeta) deposition, would alter the progression of AD. Seven-month-old Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/J transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates were exposed to 1.1% isoflurane for 2 hours per day for 5 days. Learning and memory ability was tested 48 hours and 5 months following isoflurane exposure using the Morris Water Maze and Y maze, respectively. Abeta deposition and oligomers in the hippocampus were measured by immunohistochemistry or Elisa 5 months following isoflurane exposure. We found that the performance of both the transgenic and wild-type mice in the Morris Water Maze significantly improved 48 hours following isoflurane exposure. The transgenic mice made significantly fewer discrimination errors in the Y maze following isoflurane exposure, and no differences were found between wild-type littermates 5 months following isoflurane exposure. For the transgenic mice, the Abeta plaque and oligomers in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in the 5 months following isoflurane exposure. In summary, repeated isoflurane exposure during the pre-symptomatic phase not only improved spatial memory in both the APP/PS1 transgenic and wild-type mice shortly after the exposure but also prevented age-related decline in learning and memory and attenuated the Abeta plaque and oligomers in the hippocampus of transgenic mice.

  10. MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Spatially Maps Age-Related Deamidation and Truncation of Human Lens Aquaporin-0

    PubMed Central

    Wenke, Jamie L.; Rose, Kristie L.; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Schey, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To spatially map human lens Aquaporin-0 (AQP0) protein modifications, including lipidation, truncation, and deamidation, from birth through middle age using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Methods Human lens sections were water-washed to facilitate detection of membrane protein AQP0. We acquired MALDI images from eight human lenses ranging in age from 2 months to 63 years. In situ tryptic digestion was used to generate peptides of AQP0 and peptide images were acquired on a 15T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. Peptide extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searched to identify peptides observed in MALDI imaging experiments. Results Unmodified, truncated, and fatty acid–acylated forms of AQP0 were detected in protein imaging experiments. Full-length AQP0 was fatty acid acylated in the core and cortex of young (2- and 4-month) lenses. Acylated and unmodified AQP0 were C-terminally truncated in older lens cores. Deamidated tryptic peptides (+0.9847 Da) were mass resolved from unmodified peptides by FTICR MS. Peptide images revealed differential localization of un-, singly-, and doubly-deamidated AQP0 C-terminal peptide (239–263). Deamidation was present at 4 months and increases with age. Liquid chromatography–MS/MS results indicated N246 undergoes deamidation more rapidly than N259. Conclusions Results indicated AQP0 fatty acid acylation and deamidation occur during early development. Progressive age-related AQP0 processing, including deamidation and truncation, was mapped in human lenses as a function of age. The localization of these modified AQP0 forms suggests where AQP0 functions may change throughout lens development and aging. PMID:26574799

  11. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific…

  12. A Study of How Classroom Dialogue Facilitates the Development of Geometric Spatial Concepts Related to Understanding the Cause of Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Sonya Ellouise; Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that student understanding is either confirmed or reformed when given opportunities to share what they know. This study was conducted to answer the research question: Will classroom dialogue facilitate students' understanding of lunar concepts related to geometric spatial visualisation? Ninety-two middle school students engaged…

  13. The Temporal Context Model in Spatial Navigation and Relational Learning: Toward a Common Explanation of Medial Temporal Lobe Function Across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Marc W.; Fotedar, Mrigankka S.; Datey, Aditya V.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) has been studied extensively at all levels of analysis, yet its function remains unclear. Theory regarding the cognitive function of the MTL has centered along 3 themes. Different authors have emphasized the role of the MTL in episodic recall, spatial navigation, or relational memory. Starting with the temporal…

  14. Modeling Political Populations with Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Chris; Liao, David

    2011-03-01

    Results from lattice-based simulations of micro-environments with heterogeneous nutrient resources reveal that competition between wild-type and GASP rpoS819 strains of E. Coli offers mutual benefit, particularly in nutrient deprived regions. Our computational model spatially maps bacteria populations and energy sources onto a set of 3D lattices that collectively resemble the topology of North America. By implementing Wright-Fishcer re- production into a probabilistic leap-frog scheme, we observe populations of wild-type and GASP rpoS819 cells compete for resources and, yet, aid each other's long term survival. The connection to how spatial political ideologies map in a similar way is discussed.

  15. Measurements of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Other Related Tracers at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in an Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgeron, J.; Yasuhara, S.; Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Chiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Other Related Tracers at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in an Urban Environment Jeff Forgeron1,2, Scott Yasuhara1,2, Chris Rella1, Gloria Jacobson1, Sen Chiao2 1Picarro Inc., 3105 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara California 95054 USA 2San Jose State University, 1 Washington Square, San Jose California USA JeffAForgeron@gmail.com The ability to quantify sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and methane on the urban scale is essential for understanding the atmospheric drivers to global climate change. In the 'top-down' approach, overall carbon fluxes are determined by combining remote measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations with complex atmospheric transport models, and these emissions measurements are compared to 'bottom-up' predictions based on detailed inventories of the sources and sinks of carbon, both anthropogenic and biogenic in nature. This approach, which has proven to be effective at continental scales, becomes challenging to implement at urban scales, due to poorly understood atmospheric transport models and high variability of the emissions sources in space (e.g., factories, highways, green spaces) and time (rush hours, factory shifts and shutdowns, and diurnal and seasonal variation in residential energy use). New measurement and analysis techniques are required to make sense of the carbon dioxide signal in cities. Here we present detailed, high spatial- and temporal- resolution greenhouse gas measurements made by multiple Picarro-CRDS analyzers in Silicon Valley in California. Real-time carbon dioxide data from a 12-month period are combined with real-time carbon monoxide, methane, acetylene, and carbon-13 measurements to partition the observed carbon dioxide concentrations between different anthropogenic sectors (e.g., transport, residential) and biogenic sources. Real-time wind rose data are also combined with real-time methane data to help identify the direction of local emissions of methane

  16. The Profile and Development of Political Science in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inamete, Ufot B.

    1990-01-01

    Traces the development of political science as an academic discipline in Nigeria. Examines the role and activities of professional associations as related to political science and political science's impact on the public policy process and society. Includes sample course outlines and syllabi to further describe the growth and development of the…

  17. 45 CFR 73.735-1007 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Political activity. 73.735-1007 Section 73.735... Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1007 Political activity. Consultants who serve intermittently are subject to the political activity restrictions of Subchapter III...

  18. Moral and Political Identity and Civic Involvement in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Tenelle J.

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, civic involvement in adolescence includes political and nonpolitical activities. Given that identities can motivate behavior, how do political and moral identities relate to civic activity choices? In this study, high school students ("N" = 1578) were surveyed about their political and nonpolitical civic actions and their…

  19. 45 CFR 73.735-1007 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Political activity. 73.735-1007 Section 73.735... Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1007 Political activity. Consultants who serve intermittently are subject to the political activity restrictions of Subchapter III...

  20. 45 CFR 73.735-1007 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political activity. 73.735-1007 Section 73.735... Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1007 Political activity. Consultants who serve intermittently are subject to the political activity restrictions of Subchapter III...

  1. 45 CFR 73.735-1007 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Political activity. 73.735-1007 Section 73.735... Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1007 Political activity. Consultants who serve intermittently are subject to the political activity restrictions of Subchapter III...

  2. 45 CFR 73.735-1007 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Political activity. 73.735-1007 Section 73.735... Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1007 Political activity. Consultants who serve intermittently are subject to the political activity restrictions of Subchapter III...

  3. Rethinking political correctness.

    PubMed

    Ely, Robin J; Meyerson, Debra E; Davidson, Martin N

    2006-09-01

    Legal and cultural changes over the past 40 years ushered unprecedented numbers of women and people of color into companies' professional ranks. Laws now protect these traditionally underrepresented groups from blatant forms of discrimination in hiring and promotion. Meanwhile, political correctness has reset the standards for civility and respect in people's day-to-day interactions. Despite this obvious progress, the authors' research has shown that political correctness is a double-edged sword. While it has helped many employees feel unlimited by their race, gender, or religion,the PC rule book can hinder people's ability to develop effective relationships across race, gender, and religious lines. Companies need to equip workers with skills--not rules--for building these relationships. The authors offer the following five principles for healthy resolution of the tensions that commonly arise over difference: Pause to short-circuit the emotion and reflect; connect with others, affirming the importance of relationships; question yourself to identify blind spots and discover what makes you defensive; get genuine support that helps you gain a broader perspective; and shift your mind-set from one that says, "You need to change," to one that asks, "What can I change?" When people treat their cultural differences--and related conflicts and tensions--as opportunities to gain a more accurate view of themselves, one another, and the situation, trust builds and relationships become stronger. Leaders should put aside the PC rule book and instead model and encourage risk taking in the service of building the organization's relational capacity. The benefits will reverberate through every dimension of the company's work.

  4. A factorial analysis of age-related changes in the spatial structure of three Puerto Rican cities.

    PubMed

    Trevino-Richard, T; Krain, M A

    1986-12-01

    This study employed factor analysis of census tract data for three Puerto Rican cities, San Juan, Ponce, and Mayaguez, in 1960 and 1970 to test the general hypotheses that economic development (1) transforms the pattern of spatial distribution of populations of cities in underdeveloped areas to resemble that of cities in developed areas (i.e., a "convergence" phenomenon), and that (2) this transformation involves the emergence of aged and late life cycle factors as major determinants of urban spatial distribution in these cities. Both hypotheses were substantially confirmed in connection with differences between stages (city comparisons) and in connection with time differences (comparisons between 1960 and 1970). It is concluded that spatial differentiation on the basis of age and life stage are major features of the economic development of cities. Policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. The role of neighborhood relations in maintenance of the spatial-ethological structure of local settlements as exemplified by the water vole (Arvicola amphibius).

    PubMed

    Evsikov, V I; Muzyka, V Yu; Potapova, O F; Potapov, M A

    2016-07-01

    Adult males of the water vole have been found experimentally to recognize their neighbors and react to them differently depending on the degree of spatial proximity in nature. Most tensions (estimated by the number of aggressive acts in the encounters) were observed between distant neighbors (from neighboring settlements), which did not belong to the same groups with established hierarchy and a relatively reduced aggression. These are probably perceived as the most likely competitors (because of their spatial proximity). At the same time, male voles kept away from the obviously unfamiliar ones, though they do not express any apparent aggression. PMID:27595823

  6. Mapping and modeling the urban landscape in Bangkok, Thailand: Physical-spectral-spatial relations of population-environmental interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yang

    This research focuses on the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems, statistical modeling, and spatial analysis to examine the dynamics of urban land cover, urban structure, and population-environment interactions in Bangkok, Thailand, with an emphasis on rural-to-urban migration from rural Nang Rong District, Northeast Thailand to the primate city of Bangkok. The dissertation consists of four main sections: (1) development of remote sensing image classification and change-detection methods for characterizing imperviousness for Bangkok, Thailand from 1993-2002; (2) development of 3-D urban mapping methods, using high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite images, to assess high-rises and other urban structures; (3) assessment of urban spatial structure from 2-D and 3-D perspectives; and (4) an analysis of the spatial clustering of migrants from Nang Rong District in Bangkok and the neighborhood environments of migrants' locations. Techniques are developed to improve the accuracy of the neural network classification approach for the analysis of remote sensing data, with an emphasis on the spectral unmixing problem. The 3-D building heights are derived using the shadow information on the high-resolution IKONOS image. The results from the 2-D and 3-D mapping are further examined to assess urban structure and urban feature identification. This research contributes to image processing of remotely-sensed images and urban studies. The rural-urban migration process and migrants' settlement patterns are examined using spatial statistics, GIS, and remote sensing perspectives. The results show that migrants' spatial clustering in urban space is associated with the source village and a number of socio-demographic variables. In addition, the migrants' neighborhood environments in urban setting are modeled using a set of geographic and socio-demographic variables, and the results are scale-dependent.

  7. Getting Politically Active

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Projects can, and do, succeed because of politics. And they can fail due to politics, as well. Politics does not have to be a dirty word, if it means working closely and openly with customers and stakeholder s; it is an essential approach that requires continuous dedication of time and attention. Project management is a people industry. Gainin g the trust of your followers will grant you more influence than any formal authority.

  8. Spatial variability of cv Tempranillo phenology within the Ribera del Duero DO (Spain) related to soil type and plot characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Maria C.; Jones, Gregory V.; Yuste, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Vineyards in the Ribera del Duero area (Spain) date back to the roman time, with significant fluctuations throughout the centuries, reaching consolidation and stable production in the 10th and 11th centuries. The present Ribera del Duero Designation of Origen (DO) started in 1980 and has increased from less than 6,000 ha planted to more than 21,000 ha planted by 2010 and becoming one the top regions for wine production in Spain with success in the global wine market. Vineyards of Ribera del Duero are found along 115 km of the Duero River. Within this distance, differences in elevation and topography produce differences in climate, which provide the means by which a zonification for vineyard management can be assessed. In this work, the differences in phenological growth characteristics for the Tempranillo variety were analyzed within the Ribera del Duero DO and related to soil and plot characteristics. Phenology dates, referenced to different Baggiolini classification stages, were evaluated in 20 control plots distributed throughout the Ribera del Duero DO during the period 2004-2012. These years presented different climatic characteristics, which were analyzed from daily temperature and precipitation series recorded from 1980 to 2012 at five stations located along the Duero River. Most vineyards were cultivated under rainfed conditions. In order to evaluate the spatial variability in phenology, climate and soils, the plots were classified using a hierarchical cluster multivariate analysis. Parameters such as the elevation, the distance to river and the soil type were taken into account in the classification. According to the WRB classification (2006) the main soil types in the area are Calcaric Cambisols, Eutric Cambisols, Calcic Luvisol, Calcaric fluvisols, Eutric fluvisols and in less proportion Lithic Leptosols and Calcaric Rogosols. Four different groups were observed, with differences in elevation, distance to the Duero River and the soil type. The

  9. Optical observations of the spatial and temporal relations between sprites and meteors during the 2009 Geminid shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Y.; Ben-Yona, M.; Reicher, N.; Mezuman, K.; Price, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    Meteors had long been suggested as a possible factor affecting the generation and location of sprite elements, via deposition of dust particles and ablation prodcuts that serve as ignition points by locally enhancing the transient quasi-electrostatic electric field in mesospheric altitudes (Zabotin and Wright, 2001). Since during a meteor shower the flux of incoming particles is much larger than during non-shower nights, it is reasonable to assume that the presence of relatively large amounts of particles at mesospheric altitudes facilitates the generation of sprites above active thunderstorms, when the TLEs occur directly below the deposition region of the shower. We report observations of the co-occurrence in space and time of bright meteors and sprites during the night of December 10-11 2009, three days before the reported peak of the Geminid meteor shower (IMO) which had a maximum ZHR ~120 per hour. A typical winter storm system was located over the Mediterranean Sea, some 300 km north-west of Tel-Aviv, where our cameras were located. A total of 37 sprites (columns and carrots) were imaged during a 5 hour period, intermittently with 12 meteor trails detected within the same field of view. By calculating the meteor trajectories and the locations and the dimensions of the sprite elements, we show a close temporal and spatial proximity between them. From the angular distance between the shower radiant and the observed bright segment of the meteors' orbits, the beginning altitudes were found to be 87-102±5 km (in agreement with Koten et al.,2004), and termination heights 82-96±5 km. Sprite lengths and altitudes were also computed (initiation at ~75±5km), and found to overlap with the heights where meteors visually terminated. In some cases the sprites were observed just minutes after the meteors occurred, with only a couple of km separation from their location. However no direct and immediate one-to-one causality was detected. Possible mechanisms for meteor

  10. The origins of political electricity: Market failure or political opportunism?

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.L. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The current debate over restructuring the electric industry, which includes such issues as displacing the regulatory covenant, repealing the Public Utility Holding Company Act, and privatizing municipal power systems, the Rural Utilities Service (formerly Rural Electrification Administration), and federally owned power systems, makes a look back at the origins of political electricity relevant. The thesis of this essay, that government intervention into electric markets was not the result of market failures but, rather, represented business and political opportunism, suggests that the intellectual and empirical case for market-oriented reform is even stronger than would otherwise be the case. A major theme of applied political economy is the dynamics of government intervention in the marketplace. Because interventions are often related, an analytical distinction can be made between basis point and cumulative intervention. Basis point regulation, taxation, or subsidizaion is the opening government intervention into a market setting; cumulative intervention is further regulation, taxation, or subsidization that is attributable to the effects of prior (basis point or cumulative) intervention. The origins and maturation of political electricity, as will be seen, are interpretable through this theoretical framework.

  11. Astronomy and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  12. Envy, politics, and age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177

  13. Relative importance of management, meteorological and environmental factors in the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in a temperate climate zone.

    PubMed

    Bennema, S C; Ducheyne, E; Vercruysse, J; Claerebout, E; Hendrickx, G; Charlier, J

    2011-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution, is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. Diagnosis is hampered by the fact that the infection is mostly subclinical. To increase awareness and develop regionally adapted control methods, knowledge on the spatial distribution of economically important infection levels is needed. Previous studies modelling the spatial distribution of F. hepatica are mostly based on single cross-sectional samplings and have focussed on climatic and environmental factors, often ignoring management factors. This study investigated the associations between management, climatic and environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of infection with F. hepatica in dairy herds in a temperate climate zone (Flanders, Belgium) over three consecutive years. A bulk-tank milk antibody ELISA was used to measure F. hepatica infection levels in a random sample of 1762 dairy herds in the autumns of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The infection levels were included in a Geographic Information System together with meteorological, environmental and management parameters. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between possible risk factors and infection levels. The prevalence and spatial distribution of F. hepatica was relatively stable, with small interannual differences in prevalence and location of clusters. The logistic regression model based on both management and climatic/environmental factors included the factors: annual rainfall, mowing of pastures, proportion of grazed grass in the diet and length of grazing season as significant predictors and described the spatial distribution of F. hepatica better than the model based on climatic/environmental factors only (annual rainfall, elevation and slope, soil type), with an Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic of 0.68 compared with 0.62. The results indicate that in temperate climate zones without large climatic

  14. Individual Differences in Spatial Text Processing: High Spatial Ability Can Compensate for Spatial Working Memory Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between spatial ability and visuo-spatial and verbal working memory in spatial text processing. In two experiments, participants listened to a spatial text (Experiments 1 and 2) and a non-spatial text (Experiment 1), at the same time performing a spatial or a verbal concurrent task, or no secondary task.…

  15. Spatial learning-related changes in metabolic brain activity contribute to the delimitation of the hippocampal pallium in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Uceda, S; Ocaña, F M; Martín-Monzón, I; Rodríguez-Expósito, B; Durán, E; Rodríguez, F

    2015-10-01

    Comparative neuroanatomical, developmental and functional evidence suggests that the lateral division of the area dorsalis telencephali (Dl) of the teleost fish is homologous to the hippocampus of tetrapods. Nonetheless, some important aspects of the organization of the hippocampal pallium of teleosts are still under discussion and conflicting hypotheses regarding the extension and demarcation of this region have been proposed. Thus, whereas some authors suggest that the entire Dl region, including its dorsal (Dld) and ventral (Dlv) subdivisions, is homologue to the mammalian hippocampus, others claim that only Dlv should be considered as such. To further elucidate this debate, we investigated the role of Dld and Dlv in one of the most unambiguous functions of the hippocampus, spatial learning. We trained goldfish in a spatial constancy task and mapped the activity of Dld, Dlv, and the medial division of the area dorsalis telencephali (Dm) by means of cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry. The results revealed that training goldfish in the spatial constancy task significantly increased the metabolic activity in Dlv, but not in Dld or Dm, suggesting that only Dlv is critically involved in spatial learning and in this regard comparable to the hippocampus. These data provide additional functional support to the hypotheses that consider Dl as a heterogeneous pallial region and propose that Dlv, but not Dld, might be homologous to the hippocampus. PMID:26142782

  16. Inference Based on Transitive Relation in Tree Shrews ("Tupaia belangeri") and Rats ("Rattus norvegicus") on a Spatial Discrimination Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Six tree shrews and 8 rats were tested for their ability to infer transitively in a spatial discrimination task. The apparatus was a semicircular radial-arm maze with 8 arms labeled A through H. In Experiment 1, the animals were first trained in sequence on 4 discriminations to enter 1 of the paired adjacent arms, AB, BC, CD, and DE, with right…

  17. It is the flash which appears, the movement will follow: Investigating the relation between spatial attention and obstacle avoidance.

    PubMed

    Menger, Rudmer; Dijkerman, H Chris; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Obstacles are represented in the attentional landscape. However, it is currently unclear what the exclusive contribution of attention is to the avoidance response. This is because in earlier obstacle avoidance designs, it was impossible to disentangle an effect of attention from the changing features of the obstacle (e.g., its identity, size, or orientation). Conversely, any feature manipulation could be interpreted as an attentional as well as an obstacle effect on avoidance behavior. We tested the possible tuning of avoidance responses by a spatial cue in two experiments. In both experiments, spatial and nonspatial cues were separately given as go cues for an obstacle avoidance task. Participants had to reach past two obstacles in Experiment 1, and past a single obstacle in Experiment 2. We found that when the right obstacle was flashed, participants veered away more and produced more-variable trajectories over trials than in conditions with nonspatial and left spatial cues, regardless of the presence or absence of another obstacle. Therefore, we concluded that the tuning of avoidance responses can be influenced by spatial cues. Moreover, we speculated that a flashed obstacle receives more attentional weighting in the attentional landscape and prompts a stronger repulsion away from the obstacle.

  18. Spatial multi-scale variability of soil nutrients in relation to environmental factors in a typical agricultural region, eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lv, Jianshu; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-15

    Identifying the sources of spatial variability and deficiency risk of soil nutrients is a crucial issue for soil and agriculture management. A total of 1247 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected at the nodes of a 2×2 km grid in Rizhao City and the contents of soil organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were determined. Factorial kriging analysis (FKA), stepwise multiple regression, and indicator kriging (IK) were appled to investigate the scale dependent correlations among soil nutrients, identify the sources of spatial variability at each spatial scale, and delineate the potential risk of soil nutrient deficiency. Linear model of co-regionalization (LMC) fitting indicated that the presence of multi-scale variation was comprised of nugget effect, an exponential structure with a range of 12 km (local scale), and a spherical structure with a range of 84 km (regional scale). The short-range variation of OC and TN was mainly dominated by land use types, and TP was controlled by terrain. At long-range scale, spatial variation of OC, TN, and TP was dominated by parent material. Indicator kriging maps depicted the probability of soil nutrient deficiency compared with the background values in eastern Shandong province. The high deficiency risk area of all nutrient integration was mainly located in eastern and northwestern parts.

  19. The Effect of 3D-Modeling Training on Students' Spatial Reasoning Relative to Gender and Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šafhalter, Andrej; Vukman, Karin Bakracevic; Glodež, Srecko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish whether gender and age have an impact on spatial reasoning and its development through the use of 3D modeling. The study was conducted on a sample of 196 children from sixth to ninth grade, of whom 95 represented the experimental group and 101 the control group. The experimental group received 3D modeling…

  20. Age-Related Visual and Kinesthetic Encoding Effects on Spatial Memory of a Maze-Like Floor Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

    As part of an experimental research program on lifespan naturalistic and laboratory memory for spatial representation, investigators examined interactions between the effects of visual and kinesthetic encoding and age on memory for space using a modification of the Sinnott (1987) human maze paradigm. It was hypothesized that an age effect favoring…

  1. Robust assessment of spatial non-stationarity in model associations related to pediatric mortality due to diarrheal disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Stefan; Norlund, Petra U; Nuckols, John R

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 1.5 million people, mostly children, die annually due to disease attributed to diarrhea reflecting urgent needs for improved understanding of associations between the disease and potential risk factors. Numerous epidemiological studies found spatially varying (non-stationary) disease associations attributable to changing geographic or demographic context. Spatial non-stationarity implies that average relationships from statistical models fitted to the whole study area might be inappropriate since they do not reflect local conditions. Spatial modeling techniques such as geographically weighted regression (GWR) have limitations in providing statistically robust analysis of spatial non-stationarity. Thus, there is a need for development or expansion of modeling techniques to address this issue. Using data for pediatric diarrheal mortality in Brazil in 2000, and different risk factors, we develop an analytical framework to determine regions of similar (stationary) local associations by combining GWR and max-p regionalization. We fit statistical models to these regions, and compare goodness-of-fit and regionally varying coefficients to the national-scale model measures. The proposed framework allows us to examine (a) impact of non-stationarity for regions of different geographic extent with acceptable statistical power, (b) the explanatory power of each risk factor in each region, and (c) if these regions reflect changing data quality or truly existing variations in putative associations.

  2. "Visual Selves": Construction Science Students' Perceptions about Their Abilities to Represent Spatial Related Problems Internally and Externally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuen, Tamera; Ge, Xun

    2013-01-01

    This proposal reports the findings from interviews with construction science students about their visualization of problems in a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional task. The specific research questions focused on the individual characteristics that students identify as influencing their spatial ability to generate internal and external…

  3. Studying Relational Spaces in Secondary School: Applying a Spatial Framework for the Study of Borderlands and Relational Work in School Improvement Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frelin, Anneli; Grannäs, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for studying school improvement processes such as making school environments safer. Using concepts from spatial theory, in which distinctions between mental, social and physical space are applied makes for a multidimensional analysis of processes of change. In a multilevel case study, these were…

  4. A geostatistical framework for quantifying the reach-scale spatial structure of river morphology: 1. Variogram models, related metrics, and relation to channel form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legleiter, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphology is fundamentally concerned with the association between form and process in rivers. Examining these interactions in complex, natural channels requires a means of quantifying the variability and organization of bed topography—this paper introduces a geostatistical framework for characterizing reach-scale spatial structure. Transformation to a channel-centered coordinate system allows topographic variations to be resolved into along- and across-stream components. Dimensionless variables, obtained by scaling distances by the mean channel width and de-trended elevations by the mean bankfull depth, account for channel size and allow spatial patterns to be compared over time or among sites. These patterns are effectively described by the variogram, a spatial statistic that expresses dissimilarity as a function of distance. Fitting a parametric model to the sample variogram provides a rich description of channel form. For example, multiple, nested structures can be combined to account for anisotropy, with varying degrees of spatial variability observed over different length scales along and across the channel. Integral metrics derived from the variogram model yield a more compact summary, and variogram maps a useful visualization. To guide interpretation of these metrics, I used a simple 'channel builder' to isolate the effects of specific aspects of river morphology on the variogram. This analysis indicated that geostatistical models were sensitive to changes in the size, shape, and orientation of channel features, but not to a pure translation of the morphology. The results also highlighted the importance of considering streamwise and transverse components jointly rather than in isolation.

  5. Spatial pattern and heterogeneity of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in sand dunes related to vegetation change and geomorphic position in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, X A; Zhao, X Y; Zhao, H L; Guo, Y R; Zhang, T H; Cui, J Y

    2010-05-01

    To assesses the effect of geomorphology, topography, and vegetation changes on spatial pattern of soil organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) in sand dunes, we used the quantitative methods to examine the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover, soil organic C, and total N in an 11-year naturally restored mobile dune (RMD11) and a 20-year naturally restored mobile dune (RMD20) that had been fenced to exclude grazing in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China. Our results showed that the vegetation cover, plant density, species number and diversity, soil organic C, and total N increased from RMD11 to RMD20 and increased from the 50 x 50-m plot (crest) to the 100 x 100-m plot (slope) in each dune. Geostatistical analysis showed that the spatial structural variance accounted for the largest proportion of the total sample variance in vegetation cover, soil organic C, and total N in each dune plot. Calculated spatial autocorrelation ranges of vegetation cover, soil organic C, and total N increased from RMD11 to RMD20, indicating that longer time since vegetation restoration results in a more homogeneous distribution of vegetation cover, soil organic C, and total N in sand dunes. In addition, the spatial continuity of vegetation cover, soil organic C, and total N decreased from the 50 x 50-m plot (crest) to the 100 x 100-m plot (slope) in each dune. These results suggest that the spatial distribution of soil organic C and total N in sand dunes is associated closely with geomorphic position related to the dune crest and slope, relative elevation of sampling site, and vegetation cover. Understanding the principles of this relationship between them may guide strategies for the conservation and management of semiarid dune ecosystems.

  6. Political Science and Education Research: An Exploratory Look at Two Political Science Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Marion

    2004-01-01

    A systematic and longitudinal analysis of all of the education-related articles published in two of political science's oldest journals reveals that political science has aided our knowledge of education by focusing on the distribution of power in the decision-making process, the organization and governance of public school systems, and the…

  7. Jury Selection as Political Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowlkes, Diane L.; And Others

    Three political scientists diagnose the current state of political influence on jury selection in political trials, based upon personal experience, upon the literature of political theory, justice, and law, and upon recent action of lawyers, judges, defense committees, and some defendants. Political trials are interpreted as formal examinations of…

  8. The Politics of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Forness, Steven R.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of the politics of learning disabilities finds that the balance between political and scientific aspects of learning disabilities has been disturbed, with political aspects being overly influential. Discussed in detail are the scientific side of learning disabilities, politics as advocacy, politics as ideology (especially Marxism),…

  9. Disentangling the relative importance of host tree community, abiotic environment and spatial factors on ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages along an elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Mori, Akira S; Kawaguchi, Eri; Hobara, Satoru; Osono, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that changes in community compositions of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi along elevation gradients are mainly affected by changes in host tree communities and/or in abiotic environments. However, few studies have taken the effects of processes related to fungal dispersal (i.e. spatial processes) into account and distinguished the effects of host community, abiotic environment and spatial processes on community composition along elevation gradients. This has left unclear the relative importance of these factors in structuring the ECM community assemblages. To address this, we investigated the community composition of ECM fungi along an elevation gradient in northern Japan with 454 meta-barcoding. We found that the community composition of ECM fungi changed along the elevation and that all three factors jointly affected the compositional changes. We separated the magnitude of importance of the three factors in structuring ECM fungal communities and found that most of the spatial variation in ECM fungal community was explained by host communities and abiotic environments. Our results suggest that while biotic and/or abiotic environments can be important factors in determining the ECM fungal community composition along an elevation gradient, spatial processes may also be a primary determinant. PMID:26917782

  10. Relationship study on land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in different land use types of Guangdong, China, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Xia, Bin; Yang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996-2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective.

  11. Inhibition deficit in the spatial tendency of the response in multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment. An event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Cespón, Jesús; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that a high percentage of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prodromal AD is known to involve deficits in executive control processes. In the present study, we examined such deficits by recording EEG in 13 single-domain amnestic MCI (sdaMCI), 12 multiple-domain amnestic MCI (mdaMCI) and 18 healthy elderly (control group, CG) participants while they performed a Simon task. The Simon task demands deployment of executive processes because participants have to respond to non-spatial features of a lateralized stimulus and inhibit the more automatic spatial tendency of the response. We specifically focused on the negativity central contralateral (N2cc), an event-related potential (ERP) component related to brain activity that prevents the cross-talk between direction of spatial attention and manual response preparation. The reaction time (RT) was not significantly different among the three groups of participants. The percentage of errors (PE) was higher in mdaMCI than in CG and sdaMCI participants. In addition, N2cc latency was delayed in mdaMCI (i.e., delayed implementation of mechanisms for controlling the spatial tendency of the response). The N2cc latency clearly distinguished among mdaMCI and CG/sdaMCI participants (area under curve: 0.91). Longer N2cc was therefore associated with executive control deficits, which suggests that N2cc latency is a correlate of mdaMCI. PMID:25999853

  12. Disentangling the relative importance of host tree community, abiotic environment and spatial factors on ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages along an elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Mori, Akira S; Kawaguchi, Eri; Hobara, Satoru; Osono, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that changes in community compositions of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi along elevation gradients are mainly affected by changes in host tree communities and/or in abiotic environments. However, few studies have taken the effects of processes related to fungal dispersal (i.e. spatial processes) into account and distinguished the effects of host community, abiotic environment and spatial processes on community composition along elevation gradients. This has left unclear the relative importance of these factors in structuring the ECM community assemblages. To address this, we investigated the community composition of ECM fungi along an elevation gradient in northern Japan with 454 meta-barcoding. We found that the community composition of ECM fungi changed along the elevation and that all three factors jointly affected the compositional changes. We separated the magnitude of importance of the three factors in structuring ECM fungal communities and found that most of the spatial variation in ECM fungal community was explained by host communities and abiotic environments. Our results suggest that while biotic and/or abiotic environments can be important factors in determining the ECM fungal community composition along an elevation gradient, spatial processes may also be a primary determinant.

  13. Relationship Study on Land Use Spatial Distribution Structure and Energy-Related Carbon Emission Intensity in Different Land Use Types of Guangdong, China, 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Yang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996–2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective. PMID:23476128

  14. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  15. Sexuality, Power, and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Nancy C. M.

    The source of contemporary attitudes toward sexuality, power, and politics is found in the literature of the ancient Greeks, specifically, Plato's "Republic" and "Symposium," Aristotle's "Politics," and the plays of Aeschylus and Aristophanes. The "Symposium" can be read as an account of how sexuality can be incorporated into the public life of…

  16. Educating for Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that teachers…

  17. America's Political Cartoon Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, William Ray

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of political cartoons in the United States from the first (Benjamin Franklin's "Unite or Die") in 1754 to the present. Discusses three requirements for effective cartoons, and identifies important cartoonists and their work. Characterizes political cartoons as one of the United States' liveliest, most enjoyable, and permanent…

  18. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  19. The Politics of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Marilyn K.

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the political issues to be discussed at the first White House Conference on Library and Information Services which will focus on citizen control of the information flow in view of developing demands and technology. A desired political result of the conference is the creation of a citizens' lobby. (SW)

  20. Independent effects of eye gaze and spatial attention on the processing of tactile events: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Gherri, Elena; Forster, Bettina

    2015-07-01

    Directing one's gaze at a body part reduces detection speed and enhances the processing of tactile stimuli presented at the gazed location. Given the close links between spatial attention and the oculomotor system it is possible that these gaze- dependent modulations of touch are mediated by attentional mechanisms. To investigate this possibility, gaze direction and sustained tactile attention were orthogonally manipulated in the present study. Participants covertly attended to one hand to perform a tactile target-nontarget discrimination while they gazed at the same or opposite hand. Spatial attention resulted in enhancements of the somatosensory P100 and Nd components. In contrast, gaze resulted in modulations of the N140 component with more positive ERPs for gazed than non gazed stimuli. This dissociation in the pattern and timing of the effects of gaze and attention on somatosensory processing reveals that gaze and attention have independent effects on touch. PMID:26101088