Science.gov

Sample records for relational spatial politics

  1. MAPPING CHILDREN'S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2012-03-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children's geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively "always already" positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or "rational" speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children's political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children's politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau's notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin's concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children's representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10-13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors.

  2. MAPPING CHILDREN’S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2015-01-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children’s geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively “always already” positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or “rational” speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children’s political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children’s politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau’s notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin’s concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children’s representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10–13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors. PMID:25642017

  3. The new spatial politics of (re)bordering and (re)ordering the state-education-citizen relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2011-08-01

    One outcome of more than three decades of social and political transformation around the world, the result of processes broadly referred to as globalisation, has been the emergence of a complex (and at first glance, contradictory) conceptual language in the social sciences that has sought to grasp hold of these developments. Throughout the 1990s, theorists began to emphasise a world in motion, deploying concepts like "liquid modernity" (Zygmunt Bauman) to signal rapid and profound changes at work in the social structures, relations, and spatialities of societies (Neil Brenner) that were reconfiguring state-citizen relations (Saskia Sassen). Recently, however, researchers have concentrated on the study of borders and containers as a corrective to the preoccupation with mobility, arguing it is not possible to imagine a world which is only borderless and de-territorialised, because the basic ordering of social groups and societies requires categories and compartments. This paper focuses attention on processes of bordering and ordering in contemporary education systems, suggesting that comparative educators - whose main intellectual project is to understand how (different) education processes are re/produced within and across time, space and societies - would get much greater purchase on transformations currently under way.

  4. From left to right: processing acronyms referring to names of political parties activates spatial associations.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein T; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-11-01

    In line with previous studies, showing that abstract concepts like "power" or "god" implicitly activate spatial associations, in the present study we hypothesized that spatial associations are coactivated during the processing of acronyms referring to names of political parties as well. In four studies, it was found that the reading of these acronyms was accompanied by the implicit activation of spatial left-right associations. That is, participants responded faster to left-wing parties by means of a left-hand button press and vice versa for right-wing parties (Experiments 1 to 3), and participants responded faster when a political acronym was presented at the side of the screen corresponding to the political orientation of the acronym (Experiment 4). Interestingly, a correlation was observed between the effect size for left-wing parties and participants' political preferences, suggesting that the reaction time effects reflect the perceived distance of a party to one's own political orientation. Together these findings indicate that spatial representations activated in response to political acronyms do not simply reflect lexical-semantic associations or spatial metaphors, but representations of parties' political orientation relative to one's own sociopolitical position.

  5. Whose Citizenship Education? Hong Kong from a Spatial and Cultural Politics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Thomas Kwan-choi

    2007-01-01

    Citizenship (education) is "de facto" a political and spatial concept and should be considered in local, national, and global contexts. Adopting a spatial and cultural politics perspective and with the dynamic formation of Hong Kong's citizenship education as a case study, this article tries to illustrate the politics at three different…

  6. Whose Citizenship Education? Hong Kong from a Spatial and Cultural Politics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Thomas Kwan-choi

    2007-01-01

    Citizenship (education) is "de facto" a political and spatial concept and should be considered in local, national, and global contexts. Adopting a spatial and cultural politics perspective and with the dynamic formation of Hong Kong's citizenship education as a case study, this article tries to illustrate the politics at three different…

  7. Political Efficacy in Adolescence: Development, Gender Differences, and Outcome Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Watermann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on political efficacy in terms of students' competence self-perceptions related to the domain of politics. The investigation addresses the mean level development and longitudinal relations to outcome variables including gender differences. Drawing on a sample of N = 2,504 German students, political efficacy, along with…

  8. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  9. Interethnic Relations in a Changing Political Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Zaremba, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine evaluations of multiple groups by both ethnic majority-group (Dutch) and minority-group (Turkish-Dutch) members during a turbulent political period in the Netherlands, marked by the rapid rise and subsequent decline of a new-rightist, populist movement. The analysis of cross-sectional data from three periods…

  10. Some Spatial Politics of Queer-Feminist Research: Personal Reflections From the Field.

    PubMed

    Misgav, Chen

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses methodological issues emerging from research conducted with Trans in the Center, an LGBT activist group in Tel Aviv, Israel. It addresses some complex issues related to the politics and ethics of applying queer and feminist methodology to qualitative research in a trans, queer, and feminist community space. The focus is on two issues: the researcher's positionality vis-à-vis the participants and selecting the appropriate methodology in relation to the characteristics of the group under study. Such issues demonstrate how queer and feminist principles are articulated and interwoven in geographical-spatial research in two different dimensions: in the research practice and methodology and in the practices and the spaces created by the activity of the researched group itself. I conclude with insights arising from the attempt to apply feminist and queer paradigms in both theory and research, and I call for their integration into geographical research.

  11. Haptic perception of spatial relations.

    PubMed

    Kappers, A M; Koenderink, J J

    1999-01-01

    There are some indications that haptic space like visual space is not Euclidean (e.g. Blumenfeld, 1937 Acta Psychologica 2 125-174). In a series of experiments, we investigated the haptic perception of spatial relations in a systematic way. We restricted ourselves to a horizontal plane at waist height. Blindfolded subjects were asked to perform three tasks with their right hand: (i) a reference bar was presented under four different orientations and subjects were asked to rotate a test bar such that it felt to be parallel to the reference bar; (ii) subjects had to rotate two test bars in such a way that they felt collinear; (iii) subjects had to point a test bar in the direction of a marker. Bars and marker could appear at nine different locations. In all experiments large systematic deviations (up to 40 degrees) were made. The deviations strongly correlated with horizontal (right-left) but not with vertical (forward-backward) distance. Subjects showed qualitatively identical trends but the size of the deviations was strongly subject-dependent. In addition, a significant haptic oblique effect was found. These results provide strong evidence that haptic space in non-Euclidean.

  12. Modeling anatomical spatial relations with description logics.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, S.; Hahn, U.; Romacker, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although spatial relations are essential for the anatomy domain, spatial reasoning is only weakly supported by medical knowledge representation systems. To remedy this shortcoming we express spatial relations that can intuitively be applied to anatomical objects (such as 'disconnected', 'externally connected', 'partial overlap' and 'proper part') within the formal framework of description logics. A special encoding of concept descriptions (in terms of SEP triplets) allows us to emulate spatial reasoning by classification-based reasoning. PMID:11079990

  13. Fostering nurses' political knowledges and practices: education and political activation in relation to lesbian health.

    PubMed

    MacDonnell, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative policy study focused on female nurses' activism in relation to lesbian health. Critical feminist analysis and comparative life history methodology were applied to career histories obtained from 10 diversely situated female nurses across Ontario, Canada. The findings show that nursing activist practices are informed by advocacy experiences that foster inclusive professional and community education plus formal education processes that shape their political socialization. Implications for nursing theory include the development of political knowledges and practices that support caring science, sociopolitical knowing, and primary healthcare nursing practice in a community context.

  14. The spatial politics of place and health policy: Exploring Sustainability and Transformation Plans in the English NHS.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Jonathan; Lorne, Colin; Coleman, Anna; Allen, Pauline; Mays, Nicholas; Dam, Rinita; Mason, Thomas; Checkland, Kath

    2017-10-01

    This paper explores how 'place' is conceptualised and mobilized in health policy and considers the implications of this. Using the on-going spatial reorganizing of the English NHS as an exemplar, we draw upon relational geographies of place for illumination. We focus on the introduction of 'Sustainability and Transformation Plans' (STPs): positioned to support improvements in care and relieve financial pressures within the health and social care system. STP implementation requires collaboration between organizations within 44 bounded territories that must reach 'local' consensus about service redesign under conditions of unprecedented financial constraint. Emphasising the continued influence of previous reorganizations, we argue that such spatialized practices elude neat containment within coherent territorial geographies. Rather than a technical process financially and spatially 'fixing' health and care systems, STPs exemplify post-politics-closing down the political dimensions of policy-making by associating 'place' with 'local' empowerment to undertake highly resource-constrained management of health systems, distancing responsibility from national political processes. Relational understandings of place thus provide value in understanding health policies and systems, and help to identify where and how STPs might experience difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Notes on Political Philosophy and Contemporary International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)

  16. Energy Relations in Russia: Administration, Politics and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarychev, Andrey

    2005-01-01

    This chapter analyses energy relations through a prism of three interlinked concepts: administration, politics and security. This triad describes the basic approaches to questions about technical, politicised and securitised energy. These three concepts are logically linked to one another and represent an elementary matrix; a prism through which…

  17. The neural basis for spatial relations.

    PubMed

    Amorapanth, Prin X; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-08-01

    Studies in semantics traditionally focus on knowledge of objects. By contrast, less is known about how objects relate to each other. In an fMRI study, we tested the hypothesis that the neural processing of categorical spatial relations between objects is distinct from the processing of the identity of objects. Attending to the categorical spatial relations compared with attending to the identity of objects resulted in greater activity in superior and inferior parietal cortices (especially on the left) and posterior middle frontal cortices bilaterally. In an accompanying lesion study, we tested the hypothesis that comparable areas would be necessary to represent categorical spatial relations and that the hemispheres differ in their biases to process categorical or coordinate spatial relations. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping results were consistent with the fMRI observations. Damage to a network comprising left inferior frontal, supramarginal, and angular gyri resulted in behavioral impairment on categorical spatial judgments. Homologous right brain damage also produced such deficits, albeit less severely. The reverse pattern was observed for coordinate spatial processing. Right brain damage to the middle temporal gyrus produced more severe deficits than left hemisphere damage. Additional analyses suggested that some areas process both kinds of spatial relations conjointly and others distinctly. The left angular and inferior frontal gyrus processes coordinate spatial information over and above the categorical processing. The anterior superior temporal gyrus appears to process categorical spatial information uniquely. No areas within the right hemisphere processed categorical spatial information uniquely. Taken together, these findings suggest that the functional neuroanatomy of categorical and coordinate processing is more nuanced than implied by a simple hemispheric dichotomy.

  18. Action comprehension: deriving spatial and functional relations.

    PubMed

    Bach, Patric; Knoblich, Günther; Gunter, Thomas C; Friederici, Angela D; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    A perceived action can be understood only when information about the action carried out and the objects used are taken into account. It was investigated how spatial and functional information contributes to establishing these relations. Participants observed static frames showing a hand wielding an instrument and a potential target object of the action. The 2 elements could either match or mismatch, spatially or functionally. Participants were required to judge only 1 of the 2 relations while ignoring the other. Both irrelevant spatial and functional mismatches affected judgments of the relevant relation. Moreover, the functional relation provided a context for the judgment of the spatial relation but not vice versa. The results are discussed in respect to recent accounts of action understanding. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. An Empirical Exploration of Factors Related to Adolescents' Political Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Brett L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Political scientists have found that one of the strongest predictors of political participation is political efficacy, the belief that individuals' actions can influence political processes. Prior research indicates that political efficacy increases through various experiences, such as discussions of public issues, but it does not explain why or…

  20. Social, spatial and political determinants of U.S. abortion rates.

    PubMed

    Henry, N F; Harvey, M E

    1982-01-01

    Abortion rates in the United States have risen annually since the 1973 Supreme Court decision. The regions with the greatest rate increases are the Southern and Plains states; the lowest rate increases were in regions which had high abortion rates soon after abortion was legalized. While spatial contiguity appears to influence abortion rates, that is, states with high rates of abortion are clustered spatially, social and political influence are also evident. Ratification of the equal rights amendment, the seeking of abortion outside the state of residence, and the degree of urbanization within a state are variables which influenced U.S. abortion rates between 1973 and 1977.

  1. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-27

    strikes. Two striking workers in the banana sector were killed in clashes with police in Bocas del Toro and hundreds were injured. The strike was...White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “Fact Sheets : U.S.- Panama Trade Promotion Agreement,” April 19, 2011, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov...the-press-office/2011/ 04/19/fact- sheets -us-panama-trade-promotion-agreement. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

  2. Is the political system really related to health?

    PubMed

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-07-01

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new health measures, i.e., the health of individuals and the quality of the health care sector. Using a cross-country structural equation model with various economic and demographic control variables, we examine the relationship between the type of regime and political stability on the one hand and health on the other. The political variables and the control variables are measured as averages over the period 1980-1999. Our results suggest that democracy has a positive relationship with the health of individuals, while regime instability has a negative relationship with the health of individuals. Government instability is negatively related to individual health via its link with the quality of the health care sector, while democracy is positively related with individual health through its link with income. Our main findings are confirmed by the results of a panel model and various sensitivity tests.

  3. Spatial Relation Predicates in Topographic Feature Semantics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Caro, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    Topographic data are designed and widely used for base maps of diverse applications, yet the power of these information sources largely relies on the interpretive skills of map readers and relational database expert users once the data are in map or geographic information system (GIS) form. Advances in geospatial semantic technology offer data model alternatives for explicating concepts and articulating complex data queries and statements. To understand and enrich the vocabulary of topographic feature properties for semantic technology, English language spatial relation predicates were analyzed in three standard topographic feature glossaries. The analytical approach drew from disciplinary concepts in geography, linguistics, and information science. Five major classes of spatial relation predicates were identified from the analysis; representations for most of these are not widely available. The classes are: part-whole (which are commonly modeled throughout semantic and linked-data networks), geometric, processes, human intention, and spatial prepositions. These are commonly found in the ‘real world’ and support the environmental science basis for digital topographical mapping. The spatial relation concepts are based on sets of relation terms presented in this chapter, though these lists are not prescriptive or exhaustive. The results of this study make explicit the concepts forming a broad set of spatial relation expressions, which in turn form the basis for expanding the range of possible queries for topographical data analysis and mapping.

  4. Categorical Biases in Perceiving Spatial Relations

    PubMed Central

    Kranjec, Alexander; Lupyan, Gary; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of spatial categories on visual perception. In three experiments, participants made same/different judgments on pairs of simultaneously presented dot-cross configurations. For different trials, the position of the dot within each cross could differ with respect to either categorical spatial relations (the dots occupied different quadrants) or coordinate spatial relations (the dots occupied different positions within the same quadrant). The dot-cross configurations also varied in how readily the dot position could be lexicalized. In harder-to-name trials, crosses formed a “+” shape such that each quadrant was associated with two discrete lexicalized spatial categories (e.g., “above” and “left”). In easier-to-name trials, both crosses were rotated 45° to form an “×” shape such that quadrants were unambiguously associated with a single lexicalized spatial category (e.g., “above” or “left”). In Experiment 1, participants were more accurate when discriminating categorical information between easier-to-name categories and more accurate at discriminating coordinate spatial information within harder-to-name categories. Subsequent experiments attempted to down-regulate or up-regulate the involvement of language in task performance. Results from Experiment 2 (verbal interference) and Experiment 3 (verbal training) suggest that the observed spatial relation type-by-nameability interaction is resistant to online language manipulations previously shown to affect color and object-based perceptual processing. The results across all three experiments suggest that robust biases in the visual perception of spatial relations correlate with patterns of lexicalization, but do not appear to be modulated by language online. PMID:24870560

  5. Categorical biases in perceiving spatial relations.

    PubMed

    Kranjec, Alexander; Lupyan, Gary; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of spatial categories on visual perception. In three experiments, participants made same/different judgments on pairs of simultaneously presented dot-cross configurations. For different trials, the position of the dot within each cross could differ with respect to either categorical spatial relations (the dots occupied different quadrants) or coordinate spatial relations (the dots occupied different positions within the same quadrant). The dot-cross configurations also varied in how readily the dot position could be lexicalized. In harder-to-name trials, crosses formed a "+" shape such that each quadrant was associated with two discrete lexicalized spatial categories (e.g., "above" and "left"). In easier-to-name trials, both crosses were rotated 45° to form an "×" shape such that quadrants were unambiguously associated with a single lexicalized spatial category (e.g., "above" or "left"). In Experiment 1, participants were more accurate when discriminating categorical information between easier-to-name categories and more accurate at discriminating coordinate spatial information within harder-to-name categories. Subsequent experiments attempted to down-regulate or up-regulate the involvement of language in task performance. Results from Experiment 2 (verbal interference) and Experiment 3 (verbal training) suggest that the observed spatial relation type-by-nameability interaction is resistant to online language manipulations previously shown to affect color and object-based perceptual processing. The results across all three experiments suggest that robust biases in the visual perception of spatial relations correlate with patterns of lexicalization, but do not appear to be modulated by language online.

  6. Spatial Relational Memory Requires Hippocampal Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Koehl, Muriel; Ichas, François; De Giorgi, Francesca; Costet, Pierre; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few regions of the mammalian brain where new neurons are generated throughout adulthood. This adult neurogenesis has been proposed as a novel mechanism that mediates spatial memory. However, data showing a causal relationship between neurogenesis and spatial memory are controversial. Here, we developed an inducible transgenic strategy allowing specific ablation of adult-born hippocampal neurons. This resulted in an impairment of spatial relational memory, which supports a capacity for flexible, inferential memory expression. In contrast, less complex forms of spatial knowledge were unaltered. These findings demonstrate that adult-born neurons are necessary for complex forms of hippocampus-mediated learning. PMID:18509506

  7. Mapping Relational Structure in Spatial Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattis, Merideth

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether the similarity of relational structures influences the interpretation of spatial representations. Adults were shown diagrams of hand gestures paired with simple statements and asked to judge the meaning of new gestures. In Experiment 1 the gestures were paired with active declarative statements. In Experiment…

  8. Lived experience of economic and political trends related to globalization.

    PubMed

    Cushon, Jennifer A; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Labonte, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method case study examined how the economic and political processes of globalization have influenced the determinants of health among low-income children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This paper presents the results from the qualitative interview component of the case study. The purpose of the interviews was to uncover the lived experience of low-income families and their children in Saskatoon with regards to political and economic trends related to globalization, an important addition to the usual globalization and health research that relies primarily on cross-country regressions in which the personal impacts remain hidden. In-depth phenomenological interviews with 26 low-income parents of young children (aged zero to five) who were residents of Saskatoon. A combination of volunteer and criterion sampling was used. Interview questions were open-ended and based upon an analytical framework. Analysis proceeded through immersion in the data, a process of open coding, and finally through a process of selective coding. The larger case study and interviews indicate that globalization has largely not been benefiting low-income parents with young children. Low-income families with young children were struggling to survive, despite the tremendous economic growth occurring in Saskatchewan and Saskatoon at the time of the interviews. This often led to participants expressing a sense of helplessness, despair, isolation, and/or anger. Respondents' experiences suggest that globalization-related changes in social conditions and public policies and programs have great potential to negatively affect family health through either psychosocial effects in individuals and/or decreased levels of social cohesion in the community.

  9. The Politics of Confusion in International Relations Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Bradely C. S.

    1996-01-01

    Critiques Kenneth N. Waltz's "Theory of International Politics," a seminal work of political theory. Waltz argues for the necessity of constructing a system or theory for explaining the actions of nation-states. Watson counters that emphasis on a constructed theory often obscures a realistic examination of events. (MJP)

  10. The Effects of Politeness-Related Instruction on Medical Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromme, Rainer; Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Becker, Bettina-Maria; Jucks, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Tutors often fail to address learners' misconceptions. Although this may indicate a failure to grasp these misconceptions, it may simply be due to a wish to be polite and save the learner's face. In this study we examined whether instructing tutors about the pitfalls of politeness could increase the clarity and precision of their tutorial…

  11. Nazified Science: The Shifting Relations between Scientific and Political Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Roy

    In an effort to deal with a single aspect of a multifaceted interaction between technical and social discourse, this essay examines the movement of scientific discourse between the realms of politics and science. The paper addresses the effects on scientific methodology wrought by the Nazi employment of science as a basis for racial politics. The…

  12. Obama cares about visuo-spatial attention: perception of political figures moves attention and determines gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Mills, Mark; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Processing an abstract concept such as political ideology by itself is difficult but becomes easier when a background situation contextualizes it. Political ideology within American politics, for example, is commonly processed using space metaphorically, i.e., the political "left" and "right" (referring to Democrat and Republican views, respectively), presumably to provide a common metric to which abstract features of ideology can be grounded and understood. Commonplace use of space as metaphor raises the question of whether an inherently non-spatial stimulus (e.g., picture of the political "left" leader, Barack Obama) can trigger a spatially-specific response (e.g., attentional bias toward "left" regions of the visual field). Accordingly, pictures of well-known Democrats and Republicans were presented as central cues in peripheral target detection (Experiment 1) and saccadic free-choice (Experiment 2) tasks to determine whether perception of stimuli lacking a direct association with physical space nonetheless induce attentional and oculomotor biases in the direction compatible with the ideological category of the cue (i.e., Democrat/left and Republican/right). In Experiment 1, target detection following presentation of a Democrat (Republican) was facilitated for targets appearing to the left (right). In Experiment 2, participants were more likely to look left (right) following presentation of a Democrat (Republican). Thus, activating an internal representation of political ideology induced a shift of attention and biased choice of gaze direction in a spatially-specific manner. These findings demonstrate that the link between conceptual processing and spatial attention can be totally arbitrary, with no reference to physical or symbolic spatial information.

  13. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Quantify spatial relations to discover handwritten graphical symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinpeng; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To model a handwritten graphical language, spatial relations describe how the strokes are positioned in the 2-dimensional space. Most of existing handwriting recognition systems make use of some predefined spatial relations. However, considering a complex graphical language, it is hard to express manually all the spatial relations. Another possibility would be to use a clustering technique to discover the spatial relations. In this paper, we discuss how to create a relational graph between strokes (nodes) labeled with graphemes in a graphical language. Then we vectorize spatial relations (edges) for clustering and quantization. As the targeted application, we extract the repetitive sub-graphs (graphical symbols) composed of graphemes and learned spatial relations. On two handwriting databases, a simple mathematical expression database and a complex flowchart database, the unsupervised spatial relations outperform the predefined spatial relations. In addition, we visualize the frequent patterns on two text-lines containing Chinese characters.

  15. Does Family Experience Influence Political Beliefs? Relation between Interparental Conflict Perceptions and Political Efficacy in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serek, Jan; Lacinova, Lenka; Macek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relation between adolescents' interparental conflict perceptions and their political efficacy regarding local issues. Longitudinal data (age 15 and 17) from 444 adolescents were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that young people experiencing frequent interparental conflict reported an increase in…

  16. Childhood Geographies and Spatial Justice: Making Sense of Place and Space-Making as Political Acts in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie; Thiel, Jaye Johnson; Dávila, Denise; Pittard, Elizabeth; Woglom, James F.; Zhou, Xiaodi; Brown, Taryrn; Snow, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This post-qualitative research analyzes the spatialized practices of young people within a working-class community and how those guided the opening and facilitating of a local community center. Seeing place-making as a social and political act, the authors were inspired by Heath's classic study and argument that children's education might be…

  17. Childhood Geographies and Spatial Justice: Making Sense of Place and Space-Making as Political Acts in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie; Thiel, Jaye Johnson; Dávila, Denise; Pittard, Elizabeth; Woglom, James F.; Zhou, Xiaodi; Brown, Taryrn; Snow, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This post-qualitative research analyzes the spatialized practices of young people within a working-class community and how those guided the opening and facilitating of a local community center. Seeing place-making as a social and political act, the authors were inspired by Heath's classic study and argument that children's education might be…

  18. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-03

    Manuel Contreras, was sentenced to two life prison terms in July 2008 for organizing the 1974 double assassination of General Carlos Prats and his wife...Hornbeck. 48 Eva Vergara , “EEUU Vuelve a Escuchar a Latinoamérica, Dice Biden en Chile,” Associated Press, March 28, 2009. Chile: Political and

  19. Nepal: Political Developments and Bilateral Relations with the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-23

    clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain. Population distribution: Rural 85.8%, with 49% of the population in the Terai region, 44% in the hills, and...Major crops include rice, wheat, maize, jute , sugarcane, and potatoes. Political uncertainty and continued reliance on subsistence farming could keep

  20. The Lessons of Coalition Politics. Sino-American Security Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    34 mental- ity in Chinese security strategy. China could not sacrifice its freedom of action, even if it expected major political or security dividends in...interview with the French quarterly Politique Etrangire, Foreign Minister Wu Xueqian argued: "The Chinese government holds that as an independent

  1. Age-related similarities and differences in monitoring spatial cognition.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Robert; Moffat, Scott D

    2017-03-31

    Spatial cognitive performance is impaired in later adulthood but it is unclear whether the metacognitive processes involved in monitoring spatial cognitive performance are also compromised. Inaccurate monitoring could affect whether people choose to engage in tasks that require spatial thinking and also the strategies they use in spatial domains such as navigation. The current experiment examined potential age differences in monitoring spatial cognitive performance in a variety of spatial domains including visual-spatial working memory, spatial orientation, spatial visualization, navigation, and place learning. Younger and older adults completed a 2D mental rotation test, 3D mental rotation test, paper folding test, spatial memory span test, two virtual navigation tasks, and a cognitive mapping test. Participants also made metacognitive judgments of performance (confidence judgments, judgments of learning, or navigation time estimates) on each trial for all spatial tasks. Preference for allocentric or egocentric navigation strategies was also measured. Overall, performance was poorer and confidence in performance was lower for older adults than younger adults. In most spatial domains, the absolute and relative accuracy of metacognitive judgments was equivalent for both age groups. However, age differences in monitoring accuracy (specifically relative accuracy) emerged in spatial tasks involving navigation. Confidence in navigating for a target location also mediated age differences in allocentric navigation strategy use. These findings suggest that with the possible exception of navigation monitoring, spatial cognition may be spared from age-related decline even though spatial cognition itself is impaired in older age.

  2. Paraguay: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    civic organizations that protested against then-President Duarte’s failure to combat social exclusion and rising crime, and his efforts to revise the...an offshoot of the traditional Liberal Party), the Country in Solidarity party (Pais Solidario), the Tekojoja Popular Movement ( Movimiento Popular...political successes. His focus on increasing social and health expenditures to reduce inequality have resulted in modest reforms of education and

  3. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-22

    Comunicado de Prensa, “Extradición de Manuel Antonio Noriega por el caso Giroldi,” January 12, 2011. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and...regime of General Manuel Antonio Noriega from power. The intervention was the culmination of two and a half years of strong U.S. pressure against the...Panamanian court agreed to try eight former members of the National Guard, including former Manuel Antonio Noriega, for alleged involvement in the

  4. Processing spatial relations with different apertures of attention.

    PubMed

    Laeng, Bruno; Okubo, Matia; Saneyoshi, Ayako; Michimata, Chikashi

    2011-03-01

    Neuropsychological studies suggest the existence of lateralized networks that represent categorical and coordinate types of spatial information. In addition, studies with neural networks have shown that they encode more effectively categorical spatial judgments or coordinate spatial judgments, if their input is based, respectively, on units with relatively small, nonoverlapping receptive fields, as opposed to units with relatively large, overlapping receptive fields. These findings leave open the question of whether interactive processes between spatial detectors and types of spatial relations can be modulated by spatial attention. We hypothesized that spreading the attention window to encompass an area that includes two objects promotes coordinate spatial relations, based on coarse coding by large, overlapping, receptive fields. In contrast, narrowing attention to encompass an area that includes only one of the objects benefits categorical spatial relations, by effectively parsing space. By use of a cueing procedure, the spatial attention window was manipulated to select regions of differing areas. As predicted, when the attention window was large, coordinate spatial transformations were noticed faster than categorical transformations; in contrast, when the attention window was relatively smaller, categorical spatial transformations were noticed faster than coordinate transformations. Another novel finding was that coordinate changes were noticed faster when cueing an area that included both objects as well as the empty space between them than when simultaneously cueing both areas including the objects while leaving the gap between them uncued. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Simulating spatial and temporally related fire weather

    Treesearch

    Isaac C. Grenfell; Mark Finney; Matt Jolly

    2010-01-01

    Use of fire behavior models has assumed an increasingly important role for managers of wildfire incidents to make strategic decisions. For fire risk assessments and danger rating at very large spatial scales, these models depend on fire weather variables or fire danger indices. Here, we describe a method to simulate fire weather at a national scale that captures the...

  6. Group Threat and Policy Change: The Spatial Dynamics of Prohibition Politics, 1890-1919.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kenneth T; Seguin, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The authors argue that group threat is a key driver of the adoption of new and controversial policies. Conceptualizing threat in spatial terms, they argue that group threat is activated through the joint occurrence of (1) proximity to threatening groups and (2) the population density of threatened groups. By analyzing the adoption of county and state "dry laws" banning alcohol from 1890 to 1919, they first show that prohibition victories were driven by the relative strength of supportive constituencies such as native whites and rural residents, vis-à-vis opponents such as Irish, Italian, or German immigrants or Catholics. Second, they show that threat contributed to prohibition victories: counties bordering large immigrant or urban populations, which did not themselves contain similar populations, were more likely to adopt dry laws. Threat arises primarily from interactions between spatially proximate units at the local level, and therefore higher-level policy change is not reducible to the variables driving local policy.

  7. Migration, international relations and the new Europe: theoretical perspectives from institutional political sociology.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M O

    1992-01-01

    The author examines the sociopolitical effects of recent political transformations in Eastern and Central Europe and the formation of the European Community on migration and international relations. Some policy implications are discussed.

  8. The organisation of spatial and temporal relations in memory.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Renante; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Meltzer, Jed A; Barense, Morgan D; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2017-04-01

    Episodic memories are comprised of details of "where" and "when"; spatial and temporal relations, respectively. However, evidence from behavioural, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies has provided mixed interpretations about how memories for spatial and temporal relations are organised-they may be hierarchical, fully interactive, or independent. In the current study, we examined the interaction of memory for spatial and temporal relations. Using explicit reports and eye-tracking, we assessed younger and older adults' memory for spatial and temporal relations of objects that were presented singly across time in unique spatial locations. Explicit change detection of spatial relations was affected by a change in temporal relations, but explicit change detection of temporal relations was not affected by a change in spatial relations. Younger and older adults showed eye movement evidence of incidental memory for temporal relations, but only younger adults showed eye movement evidence of incidental memory for spatial relations. Together, these findings point towards a hierarchical organisation of relational memory. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of the neural mechanisms that may support such a hierarchical organisation of memory.

  9. Producing Spatial Words Is Not Enough: Understanding the Relation Between Language and Spatial Cognition.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hilary E; Vlach, Haley A; Simmering, Vanessa R

    2016-11-08

    Prior research has investigated the relation between children's language and spatial cognition by assessing the quantity of children's spatial word production, with limited attention to the context in which children use such words. This study tested whether 4-year-olds children's (N = 41, primarily white middle class) adaptive use of task-relevant language across contexts predicted their spatial skills. Children were presented with a spatial scene description task, four spatial tasks, and vocabulary assessments. Children's adaptive use of task-relevant language was more predictive of their spatial skills than demographic and language factors (e.g., quantity of spatial words produced). These findings identify new links between language and spatial cognition and highlight the importance of understanding the quality, not just quantity, of children's language use. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Testing a Social Ecological Model for Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of inter-relations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M= 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children’s regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members’ reports of current sectarian and non-sectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children’s emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children’s adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  11. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.

  12. Temporal and spatial relations in sentential reasoning.

    PubMed

    Juhos, Csongor; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2012-03-01

    The mental model theory postulates that the meanings of assertions, and knowledge about their context can modulate the logical meaning of sentential connectives, such as "if" and "or". One known effect of modulation is to block the representation of possibilities to which a proposition refers. But, modulation should also add relational information, such as temporal order, to models of possibilities. Three experiments tested this prediction. Experiment 1 showed that individuals spontaneously matched the tense of their conclusions (in Portuguese) to embody implied, but unexpressed, temporal relations in conditional premises. Experiment 2 demonstrated the same phenomenon in inferences from disjunctions. Experiment 3 showed that the number of such implicit relations in inferences from conditionals affects both accuracy and the speed of reasoning. These results support the modulation hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Newborns' Perception of Left-Right Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gava, Lucia; Valenza, Eloisa; Turati, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Five experiments examined 79 newborns' ability to discriminate and categorize a spatial relation, defined by the left-right spatial position of a blinking object-target with respect to a vertical landmark-bar. Three-day-old infants discriminated the up versus low position of an object located on the same side of the landmark-bar (Experiment 1) and…

  14. Newborns' Perception of Left-Right Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gava, Lucia; Valenza, Eloisa; Turati, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Five experiments examined 79 newborns' ability to discriminate and categorize a spatial relation, defined by the left-right spatial position of a blinking object-target with respect to a vertical landmark-bar. Three-day-old infants discriminated the up versus low position of an object located on the same side of the landmark-bar (Experiment 1) and…

  15. Morality and its relation to political ideology: the role of promotion and prevention concerns.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, James F M; Higgins, E Tory

    2013-09-01

    Our research investigated whether promotion concerns with advancement and prevention concerns with security related to moral beliefs and political ideology. Study 1 found that chronic prevention and promotion focus had opposite relations to binding foundation endorsement (as measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), that is, positive for prevention and negative for promotion, and opposite relations to political ideology, that is, more conservative for prevention and more liberal for promotion, and the relation between focus and political ideology was partially mediated by binding foundation endorsement. Study 2 showed that promotion and prevention, even as situationally induced states, can contribute to differences in binding foundation endorsement, with prevention producing stronger endorsement (compared with a control) and promotion producing weaker endorsement.

  16. Lateralization of Spatial Relation Processing in Natural Scenes

    PubMed Central

    van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; van Zandvoort, Martine J. E.; Postma, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Spatial relations between objects can be represented in a categorical and in a coordinate manner. Categorical representations reflect abstract relations, like ‘left of’ or ‘under’, whereas coordinate representations concern exact metric distances between objects. These two types of spatial relations are thought to be linked to a left hemisphere and a right hemisphere advantage, respectively. This lateralization pattern was examined in a visual search task, making use of natural scenes, in patients with unilateral brain damage and healthy controls. In addition, all participants performed a low-level spatial relation processing task. The results suggest that the lateralization pattern commonly found for spatial relation processing in low-level perceptual tasks is also applicable to the processing of complex visual scenes. PMID:22713416

  17. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of... organization is concerned primarily with foreign policy or international relations or other matters of concern...

  18. The Rise of Market Politics; Industrial Relations in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvati, Michele; Brosio, Giorgio

    1979-01-01

    Discusses waves of economic instability, particularly inflation and unemployment, which have beset European economies since 1968 and connects these trends to greater politicization of industrial relations. (Author/DB)

  19. Politics and Sex-Related Programs in Urban Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Leal, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Tests a model that explains why school districts choose to enact sex-related education and health programs using information from a 1992 survey by the Council of Urban Boards of Education (United Kingdom) survey. Identifies factors, such as perceived local support, that affect the likelihood a school board will adopt such a program. (SLD)

  20. Political Culture and Intergroup Relations in Plurilingual Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Switzerland's multilingual and multicultural image as an exemplary model of successful cohabitation and conflict management gives a misleading static impression of harmonious intercultural relations. The highly complex Swiss society faces challenges from the coalition of cultural and linguistic entities that live beside, rather than with, one…

  1. Nonprofit environmental organizations in world politics: Domestic structure and transnational relations

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Nonprofit environmental organizations often have global policy goals. Consequently, they pursue transnational objectives by pressuring influential governments and international institutions. The effectiveness of this strategy as applied to nation-states varies by domestic political structure. First, transnational actors are more likely to achieve their goals in society-dominated rather than they are in state-dominated countries because the former are more open to external inputs to the policy process and provide a greater number of access points. Second, ironically, transnational actors are more likely to achieve success in relatively centralized states if political access is attained. Decentralization invites a cacophony of voices in what may turn into a maelstrom of domestic politics. Relatively centralized corporatist states may prove accessible without the disadvantage of domestic turbulence.

  2. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-15

    solve the mystery of recent deaths ultimately traced to contaminated cough syrup from China. At least 100 deaths were traced to the contaminant...Since the 1989 U.S. military intervention, the United States has had close relations with Panama, stemming in large part from the extensive history of...U.S. Southern Command (Southcom) also provides support to Panama through military exercises providing humanitarian and medical assistance, and at

  3. A Feminist Posthumanist Political Ecology of Education for Theorizing Human-Animal Relations/Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloro-Bidart, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to a nascent conversation in environmental education (EE) research by using ethnographic data and extant theory to develop a feminist posthumanist political ecology of education for theorizing human-animal relations/relationships. Specifically, I (1) engage feminist methodologies and theories; (2) give epistemological and…

  4. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  5. A Feminist Posthumanist Political Ecology of Education for Theorizing Human-Animal Relations/Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloro-Bidart, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to a nascent conversation in environmental education (EE) research by using ethnographic data and extant theory to develop a feminist posthumanist political ecology of education for theorizing human-animal relations/relationships. Specifically, I (1) engage feminist methodologies and theories; (2) give epistemological and…

  6. Political Socialization and Reactions to Immigration-Related Diversity in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimpel, James G.; Lay, J. Celeste

    2008-01-01

    We explore the roots of tolerance for immigration-related diversity from a political socialization perspective. Among rural adolescent respondents, we find that attitudes toward immigrants are surprisingly variable along a number of important dimensions: anticipated socioeconomic status, family longevity in the community, and employment in…

  7. Lateralized perception: the role of attention in spatial relation processing.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Ineke J M; Postma, Albert; Laeng, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Any spatial situation can be approached either categorically - the window is to my left - or coordinately - the glass is 20cm away from the bottle. Since the first description of the distinction between categorical and coordinate spatial relation processing, it has often been shown that they are processed by at least partially different underlying mechanisms, mainly located in the left and right hemisphere, respectively. A number of recent studies have suggested that spatial attention plays a particularly important part in the perception of space: categorical processing benefits from a local focus of attention, and coordinate processing profits from a global focus of attention. This suggests that the lateralization pattern is modified by the concurrent size of the attentional focus, and is consequently more dynamic than previously thought. Therefore, a thorough revision of earlier theories on spatial relation processing is in order. In this review, we present a new model on lateralization of spatial relation processing that explicitly describes the role of spatial attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Event-related potential evidence suggesting voters remember political events that never happened.

    PubMed

    Coronel, Jason C; Federmeier, Kara D; Gonsalves, Brian D

    2014-03-01

    Voters tend to misattribute issue positions to political candidates that are consistent with their partisan affiliation, even though these candidates have never explicitly stated or endorsed such stances. The prevailing explanation in political science is that voters misattribute candidates' issue positions because they use their political knowledge to make educated but incorrect guesses. We suggest that voter errors can also stem from a different source: false memories. The current study examined event-related potential (ERP) responses to misattributed and accurately remembered candidate issue information. We report here that ERP responses to misattributed information can elicit memory signals similar to that of correctly remembered old information--a pattern consistent with a false memory rather than educated guessing interpretation of these misattributions. These results suggest that some types of voter misinformation about candidates may be harder to correct than previously thought.

  9. Event-related potential evidence suggesting voters remember political events that never happened

    PubMed Central

    Federmeier, Kara D.; Gonsalves, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Voters tend to misattribute issue positions to political candidates that are consistent with their partisan affiliation, even though these candidates have never explicitly stated or endorsed such stances. The prevailing explanation in political science is that voters misattribute candidates’ issue positions because they use their political knowledge to make educated but incorrect guesses. We suggest that voter errors can also stem from a different source: false memories. The current study examined event-related potential (ERP) responses to misattributed and accurately remembered candidate issue information. We report here that ERP responses to misattributed information can elicit memory signals similar to that of correctly remembered old information—a pattern consistent with a false memory rather than educated guessing interpretation of these misattributions. These results suggest that some types of voter misinformation about candidates may be harder to correct than previously thought. PMID:23202775

  10. The political solidarity model of social change: dynamics of self-categorization in intergroup power relations.

    PubMed

    Subasic, Emina; Reynolds, Katherine J; Turner, John C

    2008-11-01

    Social and political change involves a challenge to the status quo in intergroup power relations. Traditionally, the social psychology of social change has focused on disadvantaged minority groups collectively challenging the decisions, actions, and policies of those in positions of established authority. In contrast, this article presents a political solidarity model of social change that explores the process by which members of the majority challenge the authority in solidarity with the minority. It is argued that political solidarity as a social change process involves a contest between the authority and the minority over the meaning of a shared (higher order) identity with the majority. When identity ceases to be shared with the authority and becomes shared with the minority, majority challenge to authority in solidarity with the minority becomes possible. The model's contributions to existing social psychological approaches to social change are also discussed.

  11. Relation of Spatial Skills to Calculus Proficiency: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Booth, Julie L.; Wills, Theodore W.; Chang, Briana L.; Tran, Nhi; Madeja, Michael; Shipley, Thomas F.; Zahner, William

    2017-01-01

    Spatial skills have been shown in various longitudinal studies to be related to multiple science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) achievement and retention. The specific nature of this relation has been probed in only a few domains, and has rarely been investigated for calculus, a critical topic in preparing students for and in STEM…

  12. Relation of Spatial Skills to Calculus Proficiency: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Booth, Julie L.; Wills, Theodore W.; Chang, Briana L.; Tran, Nhi; Madeja, Michael; Shipley, Thomas F.; Zahner, William

    2017-01-01

    Spatial skills have been shown in various longitudinal studies to be related to multiple science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) achievement and retention. The specific nature of this relation has been probed in only a few domains, and has rarely been investigated for calculus, a critical topic in preparing students for and in STEM…

  13. Extending the the behavioral immune system to political psychology: are political conservatism and disgust sensitivity really related?

    PubMed

    Tybur, Joshua M; Merriman, Leslie A; Hooper, Ann E Caldwell; McDonald, Melissa M; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2010-10-26

    Previous research suggests that several individual and cultural level attitudes, cognitions, and societal structures may have evolved to mitigate the pathogen threats posed by intergroup interactions. It has been suggested that these anti-pathogen defenses are at the root of conservative political ideology. Here, we test a hypothesis that political conservatism functions as a pathogen-avoidance strategy. Across three studies, we consistently find no relationship between sensitivity to pathogen disgust and multiple measures of political conservatism. These results are contrasted with theoretical perspectives suggesting a relationship between conservatism and pathogen avoidance, and with previous findings of a relationship between conservatism and disgust sensitivity.

  14. Spatial relational memory in 9-month-old macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in one of two sets of three distinct locations. Monkeys were tested in two different conditions: (1) when local visual cues marked the two sets of potentially baited locations, so that monkeys could use both local and spatial information to discriminate these locations from never-baited locations; and (2) when no local visual cues marked the two sets of potentially baited locations, so that monkeys had to rely on a spatial relational representation of the environment to discriminate these locations. No 9-mo-old or adult monkey associated the presence of the proximal landmarks, at the center of the arena, with the presence of food in one set of three distinct locations. All monkeys, however, discriminated the potentially baited locations in the presence of local visual cues, thus providing evidence of visual discrimination learning. More importantly, all 9-mo-old monkeys tested discriminated the potentially baited locations in absence of the local visual cues, thus exhibiting evidence of spatial relational learning. These findings indicate that spatial memory processes characterized by a relational representation of the environment are present as early as 9 mo of age in macaque monkeys.

  15. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  16. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  17. The relation between body semantics and spatial body representations.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-11-01

    The present study addressed the relation between body semantics (i.e. semantic knowledge about the human body) and spatial body representations, by presenting participants with word pairs, one below the other, referring to body parts. The spatial position of the word pairs could be congruent (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or incongruent (MOUTH / EYE) with respect to the spatial position of the words' referents. In addition, the spatial distance between the words' referents was varied, resulting in word pairs referring to body parts that are close (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or far in space (e.g. EYE / FOOT). A spatial congruency effect was observed when subjects made an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) but not when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1). In addition, when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1) reaction times increased with increased distance between the body parts but when making an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) reaction times decreased with increased distance. These findings suggest that the processing of body-semantics results in the activation of a detailed visuo-spatial body representation that is modulated by the specific task requirements. We discuss these new data with respect to theories of embodied cognition and body semantics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  19. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  20. The Development of Categorical and Coordinate Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullens, Jessue; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of spatial relations can be distinguished in between and within object representations. Kosslyn [Kosslyn, S. M. (1987). "Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres: A computational approach." "Psychological Review," 94, 148-175] suggested that the right hemisphere (RH) is specialized for processing coordinate (metric) spatial…

  1. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  2. Language, Perception, and the Schematic Representation of Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual…

  3. Relating Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Polymorphisms to Spatial Attention in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants' attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined…

  4. The Development of Categorical and Coordinate Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullens, Jessue; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of spatial relations can be distinguished in between and within object representations. Kosslyn [Kosslyn, S. M. (1987). "Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres: A computational approach." "Psychological Review," 94, 148-175] suggested that the right hemisphere (RH) is specialized for processing coordinate (metric) spatial…

  5. Spatial Relative Risk Patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah A.; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened areas of spatial relative risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or ASD hotspots, in Utah were identified using adaptive kernel density functions. Children ages four, six, and eight with ASD from multiple birth cohorts were identified by the Utah Registry of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Each ASD case was gender-matched to…

  6. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  7. Language, Perception, and the Schematic Representation of Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual…

  8. Relating Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Polymorphisms to Spatial Attention in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants' attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined…

  9. Spatial Relative Risk Patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah A.; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened areas of spatial relative risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or ASD hotspots, in Utah were identified using adaptive kernel density functions. Children ages four, six, and eight with ASD from multiple birth cohorts were identified by the Utah Registry of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Each ASD case was gender-matched to…

  10. Disentangling input and output-related components of spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Loetscher, Tobias; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Brodtmann, Amy; Thomas, Nicole A.; Brugger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a heterogeneous disorder with a multitude of manifestations and subtypes. Common clinical paper and pencil neglect tests fail to differentiate between these subtypes. For example, neglect patients typically bisect lines to the right. This bias can be caused by an underestimation of the left half of the line (input-related deficit), by the failure to direct actions toward the left side of space (output-related deficit), or by a mixture of these impairments. To disentangle these impairments, we used a test consisting of a line bisection task on a touch screen monitor (manual motor task) and the subsequent judgment of one's own bisection performance (visual perceptual task). It was hypothesized that patients with mainly output-related neglect should be better able to recognize their misbisected lines than patients with purely input-related neglect. In a group of 16 patients suffering from spatial neglect after right brain damage, we found that patients were three times more likely to suffer from a predominantly input-related than from an output-related subtype. The results thus suggest that neglect is typically an input-related impairment. Additional analysis of the line bisection task revealed that temporal (slowness in initiation and execution of contralateral movements) and spatial (insufficient movement amplitude toward the contralesional side) aspects of output-related neglect were mutually unrelated. This independence raises the possibility that a fine-grained differentiation of output-related neglect is required. That is, impairments in lateralized temporal and spatial aspects of movements may underlie different neglect subtypes. PMID:22707937

  11. Expression and Organization of Geographic Spatial Relations Based on Topic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, H. J.; Wang, H.; Cui, T. J.; Guo, J. F.

    2017-09-01

    Spatial Relation is one of the important components of Geographical Information Science and Spatial Database. There have been lots of researches on Spatial Relation and many different spatial relations have been proposed. The relationships among these spatial relations such as hierarchy and so on are complex and this brings some difficulties to the applications and teaching of these spatial relations. This paper summaries some common spatial relations, extracts the topic types, association types, resource types of these spatial relations using the technology of Topic Maps, and builds many different relationships among these spatial relations. Finally, this paper utilizes Java and Ontopia to build a topic map among these common spatial relations, forms a complex knowledge network of spatial relations, and realizes the effective management and retrieval of spatial relations.

  12. Incorporating spatial context into the analysis of salmonid habitat relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Baxter, Colden V.; Ebersole, J.L.; Gresswell, Bob; Church, Michael; Biron, Pascale M.; Roy, Andre G.

    2012-01-01

    In this response to the chapter by Lapointe (this volume), we discuss the question of why it is so difficult to predict salmonid-habitat relations in gravel-bed rivers and streams. We acknowledge that this cannot be an exhaustive treatment of the subject and, thus, identify what we believe are several key issues that demonstrate the necessity of incorporating spatial context into the analysis of fish-habitat data. Our emphasis is on spatial context (i.e., scale and location), but it is important to note that the same principles may be applied with some modification to temporal context, which is beyond the scope of this chapter.

  13. Sexual Orientation-Related Differences in Virtual Spatial Navigation and Spatial Search Strategies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi; Sharp, Jonathan; McVeigh, Meadhbh; Ho, Man-Ling

    2017-04-11

    Spatial abilities are generally hypothesized to differ between men and women, and people with different sexual orientations. According to the cross-sex shift hypothesis, gay men are hypothesized to perform in the direction of heterosexual women and lesbian women in the direction of heterosexual men on cognitive tests. This study investigated sexual orientation differences in spatial navigation and strategy during a virtual Morris water maze task (VMWM). Forty-four heterosexual men, 43 heterosexual women, 39 gay men, and 34 lesbian/bisexual women (aged 18-54 years) navigated a desktop VMWM and completed measures of intelligence, handedness, and childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). We quantified spatial learning (hidden platform trials), probe trial performance, and cued navigation (visible platform trials). Spatial strategies during hidden and probe trials were classified into visual scanning, landmark use, thigmotaxis/circling, and enfilading. In general, heterosexual men scored better than women and gay men on some spatial learning and probe trial measures and used more visual scan strategies. However, some differences disappeared after controlling for age and estimated IQ (e.g., in visual scanning heterosexual men differed from women but not gay men). Heterosexual women did not differ from lesbian/bisexual women. For both sexes, visual scanning predicted probe trial performance. More feminine CGN scores were associated with lower performance among men and greater performance among women on specific spatial learning or probe trial measures. These results provide mixed evidence for the cross-sex shift hypothesis of sexual orientation-related differences in spatial cognition.

  14. Characteristics of Haptic Peripersonal Spatial Representation of Object Relations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Haptic perception of space is known to show characteristics that are different to actual space. The current study extends on this line of research, investigating whether systematic deviations are also observed in the formation of haptic spatial representations of object-to-object relations. We conducted a haptic spatial reproduction task analogous to the parallelity task with spatial layouts. Three magnets were positioned to form corners of an isosceles triangle and the task of the participant was to reproduce the right angle corner. Weobserved systematic deviations in the reproduction of the right angle triangle. The systematic deviations were not observed when the task was conducted on the mid-sagittal plane. Furthermore, the magnitude of the deviation was decreased when non-informative vision was introduced. These results suggest that there is a deformation in spatial representation of object-to-object relations formed using haptics. However, as no systematic deviation was observed when the task was conducted on the mid-saggital plane, we suggest that the perception of object-to-object relations use a different egocentric reference frame to the perception of orientation. PMID:27462990

  15. A step into the anarchist’s mind: examining political attitudes and ideology through event-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N = 12) and anarchists (N = 11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. PMID:21421734

  16. Small worlds in space: Synchronization, spatial and relational modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, M.

    2010-06-01

    In this letter we investigate networks that have been optimized to realize a trade-off between enhanced synchronization and cost of wire to connect the nodes in space. Analyzing the evolved arrangement of nodes in space and their corresponding network topology, a class of small-world networks characterized by spatial and network modularity is found. More precisely, for low cost of wire optimal configurations are characterized by a division of nodes into two spatial groups with maximum distance from each other, whereas network modularity is low. For high cost of wire, the nodes organize into several distinct groups in space that correspond to network modules connected on a ring. In between, spatially and relationally modular small-world networks are found.

  17. Spatial cognition and crime: the study of mental models of spatial relations in crime analysis.

    PubMed

    Luini, Lorenzo P; Scorzelli, Marco; Mastroberardino, Serena; Marucci, Francesco S

    2012-08-01

    Several studies employed different algorithms in order to investigate criminal's spatial behaviour and to identify mental models and cognitive strategies related to it. So far, a number of geographic profiling (GP) software have been implemented to analyse mobility and its relation to the way criminals are using spatial environment when committing a crime. Since crimes are usually perpetrated in the offender's high-awareness areas, those cognitive maps can be employed to create a map of the criminal's operating area to help investigators to circumscribe search areas. The aim of the present study was to verify accuracy of simple statistical analysis in predicting spatial mobility of a group of 30 non-criminal subjects. Results showed that statistics such as Mean Centre and Standard Distance were accurate in elaborating a GP for each subject according to the mobility area provided. Future analysis will be implemented using mobility information of criminal subjects and location-based software to verify whether there is a cognitive spatial strategy employed by them when planning and committing a crime.

  18. The Relation between Civic Education and Political Attitudes and Behavior: A Two-Year Panel Study among Belgian Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dassonneville, Ruth; Quintelier, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that civic education efforts will have a positive effect on the political attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. In the present study, we distinguish among formal civic education, an open classroom climate, and active learning strategies, and we explore their relation with political interest, efficacy,…

  19. An Exploration of Upper-Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners' Perception of Politeness Strategies and Power Relation in Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niroomand, Masoumeh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the ways power relations influence politeness strategies in disagreement. The study was an attempt to find out whether different power status of people influences the the choice of appropriate politeness strategies and speech act of disagreement by Iranian EFL learners, in a university setting. A Discourse…

  20. The Relation between Civic Education and Political Attitudes and Behavior: A Two-Year Panel Study among Belgian Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dassonneville, Ruth; Quintelier, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that civic education efforts will have a positive effect on the political attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. In the present study, we distinguish among formal civic education, an open classroom climate, and active learning strategies, and we explore their relation with political interest, efficacy,…

  1. Uni- Versus Multidimensional Comparison of Political Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    Journalists view the left-right continuum as a dimension on which political entities array themselves in order to vie for a similarly arrayed public. Such a spatial measuring device is useful, since it allows journalists to compare political entities on a common scale that readers supposedly understand and on which they can relate their own…

  2. Spatial relations and spatial locations are dissociated within prefrontal and parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Item-specific spatial information is essential for interacting with objects and for binding multiple features of an object together. Spatial relational information is necessary for implicit tasks such as recognizing objects or scenes from different views but also for explicit reasoning about space such as planning a route with a map and for other distinctively human traits such as tool construction. To better understand how the brain supports these two different kinds of information, we used functional MRI to directly contrast the neural encoding and maintenance of spatial relations with that for item locations in equivalent visual scenes. We found a double dissociation between the two: whereas item-specific processing implicates a frontoparietal attention network, including the superior frontal sulcus and intraparietal sulcus, relational processing preferentially recruits a cognitive control network, particularly lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and inferior parietal lobule. Moreover, pattern classification revealed that the actual meaning of the relation can be decoded within these same regions, most clearly in rostrolateral PFC, supporting a hierarchical, representational account of prefrontal organization. PMID:22896722

  3. The relation between spatial thinking and proportional reasoning in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S; Frick, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has indicated a close link between spatial and mathematical thinking. However, what shared processes account for this link? In this study, we focused on the spatial skill of map reading and the mathematical skill of proportional reasoning and investigated whether scaling, or the ability to relate information in different-sized representations, is a shared process. Scaling was experimentally manipulated in both tasks. In the map task, 4- and 5-year-olds (N=50) were asked to point to the same position shown on a map in a larger referent space on a touch screen. The sizes of the maps were varied systematically, such that some trials required scaling and some did not (i.e., the map had the same size as the referent space). In the proportional reasoning task, children were presented with different relative amounts of juice and water and were asked to estimate each mixture on a rating scale. Again, some trials required scaling, but others could be solved by directly mapping the proportional components onto the rating scale. Children's absolute errors in locating targets in the map task were closely related to their performance in the proportional reasoning task even after controlling for age and verbal intelligence. Crucially, this was only true for trials that required scaling, whereas performance on nonscaled trials was not related. These results shed light on the mechanisms involved in the close connection between spatial and mathematical thinking early in life.

  4. Hippocampal lesion prevents spatial relational learning in adult macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Amaral, David G; Lavenex, Pierre

    2006-04-26

    The role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory has been extensively studied in rodents. Comparable studies in nonhuman primates, however, are few, and findings are often contradictory. This may be attributable to the failure to distinguish between allocentric and egocentric spatial representations in experimental designs. For this experiment, six adult monkeys received bilateral hippocampal ibotenic acid lesions, and six control subjects underwent sham surgery. Freely moving monkeys then foraged for food located in two arrays of three distinct locations among 18 locations distributed in an open-field arena. Multiple goals and four pseudorandomly chosen entrance points precluded the monkeys' ability to rely on an egocentric strategy to identify food locations. Monkeys were tested in two conditions. First, local visual cues marked the food locations. Second, no local cues marked the food locations, so that monkeys had to rely on an allocentric (spatial relational) representation of the environment to discriminate these locations. Both hippocampal-lesioned and control monkeys discriminated the food locations in the presence of local cues. However, in the absence of local cues, control subjects discriminated the food locations, whereas hippocampal-lesioned monkeys were unable to do so. Interestingly, histological analysis of the brain of one control monkey whose behavior was identical to that of the experimentally lesioned animals revealed a bilateral ischemic lesion restricted to the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that the adult monkey hippocampal formation is critical for the establishment or use of allocentric spatial representations and that selective damage of the hippocampus prevents spatial relational learning in adult nonhuman primates.

  5. Six-Month-Old Infants’ Categorization of Containment Spatial Relations

    PubMed Central

    Casasola, Marianella; Cohen, Leslie B.; Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Six-month-old infants’ ability to form an abstract category of containment was examined using a standard infant categorization task. Infants were habituated to 4 pairs of objects in a containment relation. Following habituation, infants were tested with a novel example of the familiar containment relation and an example of an unfamiliar relation. Results indicate that infants look reliably longer at the unfamiliar versus familiar relation, indicating that they can form a categorical representation of containment. A second experiment demonstrated that infants do not rely on object occlusion to discriminate containment from a support or a behind spatial relation. Together, the results indicate that by 6 months, infants can recognize a containment relation from different angles and across different pairs of objects. PMID:12795384

  6. Spatially Locating Time-Lapsed Relative Velocity Changes in Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we examine temporal subsurface relative velocity variations in Yellowstone. This project region has a much larger spatial scaling, as well as a much longer, less abrupt, temporal change than most of the other active settings in which ambient noise temporal velocity variations are measured. By examining the time lag of the ambient Noise Correlation Function (NCF) for a given station pair, we can extract relative velocity variations. These changes represent either subsurface velocity changes (in active settings) or changes due to the seasonal variation in the ambient seismic field. We improve the temporal and spectral stability of the NCFs through a new filter (the adaptive covariance filter - ACF), which allows us to evaluate the main Rayleigh wave arrival rather than coda. By making use of the main arrival the spatial location of these changes can be better understood. We examine all of the available data near the Yellowstone National Park area, including the USArray and the NOISY networks. Using the ACF, we calculate robust NCFs for all station pairs (overlapping in time). We then obtain time-lag estimates of the main arrival for various calendar times throughout the data availability. These lags are then compared to the lags observed at all other spatial station pairs. Using these many combinations of station pairs and lags, we build and perform an inversion, where these relative velocities are compared to a background velocity at subsequently different times. The spatial location of the velocity changes can be observed over time, and it can be ascertained as to whether these observed velocity variations are due to subsurface changes (such as the inflationary uplift from 2004-2010 in Yellowstone), or whether the observed changes are more indicative of the regional changes in the ambient seismic field.

  7. "After Hours" Schools as Core to the Spatial Politics of "In-Betweenness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsolidis, Georgina; Kostogriz, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In this article the authors draw on a larger study in which their overall concern is to illustrate how diasporic identifications develop through a range of scales related to self, family, community, nation and beyond. They consider the Melbourne Greek community as an exemplar of diasporic experience and use it as a case study for their…

  8. Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations

    PubMed Central

    Tybur, Joshua M.; Inbar, Yoel; Aarøe, Lene; Barclay, Pat; Barlow, Fiona Kate; de Barra, Mícheál; Becker, D. Vaughn; Borovoi, Leah; Choi, Incheol; Choi, Jong An; Consedine, Nathan S.; Conway, Alan; Conway, Jane Rebecca; Conway, Paul; Adoric, Vera Cubela; Demirci, Dilara Ekin; Fernández, Ana María; Ferreira, Diogo Conque Seco; Ishii, Keiko; Jakšić, Ivana; Ji, Tingting; van Leeuwen, Florian; Lewis, David M. G.; Li, Norman P.; McIntyre, Jason C.; Mukherjee, Sumitava; Park, Justin H.; Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Petersen, Michael Bang; Pizarro, David; Prodromitis, Gerasimos; Prokop, Pavol; Rantala, Markus J.; Reynolds, Lisa M.; Sandin, Bonifacio; Sevi, Bariş; De Smet, Delphine; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Tewari, Shruti; Wilson, Cameron; Yong, Jose C.; Žeželj, Iris

    2016-01-01

    People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations for these relationships. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that these relationships between pathogens and politics are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups, who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members. Results from a study surveying 11,501 participants across 30 nations are more consistent with the intragroup account than with the intergroup account. National parasite stress relates to traditionalism (an aspect of conservatism especially related to adherence to group norms) but not to social dominance orientation (SDO; an aspect of conservatism especially related to endorsements of intergroup barriers and negativity toward ethnic and racial outgroups). Further, individual differences in pathogen-avoidance motives (i.e., disgust sensitivity) relate more strongly to traditionalism than to SDO within the 30 nations. PMID:27791090

  9. Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations.

    PubMed

    Tybur, Joshua M; Inbar, Yoel; Aarøe, Lene; Barclay, Pat; Barlow, Fiona Kate; de Barra, Mícheál; Becker, D Vaughn; Borovoi, Leah; Choi, Incheol; Choi, Jong An; Consedine, Nathan S; Conway, Alan; Conway, Jane Rebecca; Conway, Paul; Adoric, Vera Cubela; Demirci, Dilara Ekin; Fernández, Ana María; Ferreira, Diogo Conque Seco; Ishii, Keiko; Jakšić, Ivana; Ji, Tingting; van Leeuwen, Florian; Lewis, David M G; Li, Norman P; McIntyre, Jason C; Mukherjee, Sumitava; Park, Justin H; Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Petersen, Michael Bang; Pizarro, David; Prodromitis, Gerasimos; Prokop, Pavol; Rantala, Markus J; Reynolds, Lisa M; Sandin, Bonifacio; Sevi, Bariş; De Smet, Delphine; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Tewari, Shruti; Wilson, Cameron; Yong, Jose C; Žeželj, Iris

    2016-11-01

    People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations for these relationships. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that these relationships between pathogens and politics are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups, who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members. Results from a study surveying 11,501 participants across 30 nations are more consistent with the intragroup account than with the intergroup account. National parasite stress relates to traditionalism (an aspect of conservatism especially related to adherence to group norms) but not to social dominance orientation (SDO; an aspect of conservatism especially related to endorsements of intergroup barriers and negativity toward ethnic and racial outgroups). Further, individual differences in pathogen-avoidance motives (i.e., disgust sensitivity) relate more strongly to traditionalism than to SDO within the 30 nations.

  10. Spatial distribution of Serengeti wildebeest in relation to resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmshurst, J.F.; Fryxell, J.M.; Farm, Brian P.; Sinclair, A.R.E.; Henschel, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of radio-marked wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) in the Serengeti ecosystem in relation to the distribution of their food resources, comparing patterns in the wet and dry seasons and at local and landscape spatial scales. A mechanistic model of ruminant energy optimization predicted that wildebeest should maximize energy intake on swards 3 cm high and maintain energy balance on swards between 3 and 10 cm high. At the ecosystem scale, wildebeest preferred short and intermediate-height grass of moderate greenness during both the wet and dry seasons. This was consistent with the model prediction which suggests that large-scale movements by wildebeest are motivated, at least partially, by an energy-maximizing strategy. At the local scale, however, wildebeest showed spatial selectivity only on the basis of grass greenness, not on grass height. This differed from model expectations and may have resulted from wildebeest exploiting ephemeral green flushes of grass caused by localized rainfall in their movement radius. According to these results, the influence of other nutritional or behavioural factors on wildebeest distributions is not rejected, yet they suggest the potentially important role of an energy intake maximizing strategy on movement patterns. Our findings show that wildebeest movements are broadly similar to those of other large herbivores that migrate in response to resource gradients.

  11. The political context of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge in a South African township community

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Brian; Vandormael, Alain; Kershaw, Trace; Grobbelaar, Janis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge within the political context of the South African government’s response to the AIDS epidemic. It was during the 2000 - 2004 period that key government officials publicly challenged the orthodox views of HIV/AIDS, with the South African president, Thabo Mbeki, actively positing the primary role of poverty and other socio-economic stressors in the progression of the AIDS epidemic. This discursive position had real-time effects for AIDS policy-making and ultimately delayed the implementation of a national antiretroviral (ARV) rollout programme. Consequently this position was criticised by commentators in the media and elsewhere for contributing to an already widespread climate of AIDS stigmatisation and misinformation. To shed more light on these claims we conducted a survey in 2005 in Atteridgeville, a South African township, and compared results with those of a similar survey conducted shortly after ARV medications became available in 2004. Results indicated a reduction in AIDS stigma levels across the 1-year period, and that those participants who endorsed contentious political views (such as those expressed by key government officials) were more likely to have a higher level of AIDS-related stigma than those who disagreed. Nevertheless, this study cautions against drawing a causal relationship between the South African government’s position and AIDS-stigmatising attitudes, and suggests that further political and social factors be accounted for in an attempt to gain a fuller understanding of this seemingly complex relationship. PMID:18709210

  12. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  13. The Role of Civil Society in Shaping Democratic Civil-Military Relations During Political Transition in Nepal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    opposition to patrimonial state[ s ].”148 In other words, the political affiliation of Nepal’s civil society originated in its historical development and...REPORT DATE I 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED March 2015 Master ’ s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS THE ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN...SHAPING DEMOCRATIC CIVIL- MILITARY RELATIONS DURING POLITICAL TRANSITION IN NEPAL 6. AUTHOR( S ) Bhuwan Pwna Satya! 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NA:i\\tiE( S

  14. Temporal and spatial organization of gait-related electrocortical potentials.

    PubMed

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-07-10

    To advance gait rehabilitation research it is of great importance to understand the supraspinal control of walking. In this study, the temporal and spatial characteristics of averaged electrocortical activity during treadmill walking in healthy subjects was assessed. Electroencephalography data were recorded from 32 scalp locations, averaged across trials, and related to phases of the gait cycle based on the detection of left heel strike. A characteristic temporal pattern of positive and negative potentials, similar to movement-related cortical potentials, and related to the gait cycle was observed over the cortical leg representation area. Source localization analysis revealed that mainly the primary somatosensory, somatosensory association, primary motor and cingulate cortex were activated during walking. The negative peaks of the gait-related cortical potential were associated with activity predominantly in the cingulate and prefrontal cortex, while the primary motor, primary somatosensory and somatosensory association cortex were mainly active during the positive peaks. This study identified gait-related cortical potentials during walking. The results indicate a widely distributed cortical network involved in gait control.

  15. [Veterinary medicine of the GDR in strained relations between technical instructions and political guidelines].

    PubMed

    Prange, H; Azar, J

    2003-01-01

    The development of Veterinary Medicine in the Soviet Occupation Zone in Germany and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) is sketched in highlights. After the collectivization of agriculture (1960) a centralistically controlled national veterinary system was established. It was suited to the requirements of the industrially organized animal production. The successive classification of socialistic veterinary administration was associated with the following matters: the extension of veterinary subject matters, a vertical division of work with the aid of newly created technical veterinary professions, and a penetration of the profession with political guidelines. As the professional level of the veterinary system in the GDR was relatively high the reflection in retrospective needs to be evaluated in a differentiated way considering the textual and social conditions. In spite of centralism and indoctrination the veterinary system remained professionally autonomous with islands of political independence, which sustained the identity of this profession. The latter formed the base for self renewal of the East German veterinary system at the end of the socialistic area 1989/1990.

  16. Non-parametric estimation of spatial variation in relative risk.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, J E; Diggle, P J

    We consider the problem of estimating the spatial variation in relative risks of two diseases, say, over a geographical region. Using an underlying Poisson point process model, we approach the problem as one of density ratio estimation implemented with a non-parametric kernel smoothing method. In order to assess the significance of any local peaks or troughs in the estimated risk surface, we introduce pointwise tolerance contours which can enhance a greyscale image plot of the estimate. We also propose a Monte Carlo test of the null hypothesis of constant risk over the whole region, to avoid possible over-interpretation of the estimated risk surface. We illustrate the capabilities of the methodology with two epidemiological examples.

  17. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  18. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  19. Communicating Climate Uncertainties: Challenges and Opportunities Related to Spatial Scales, Extreme Events, and the Warming 'Hiatus'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casola, J. H.; Huber, D.

    2013-12-01

    Many media, academic, government, and advocacy organizations have achieved sophistication in developing effective messages based on scientific information, and can quickly translate salient aspects of emerging climate research and evolving observations. However, there are several ways in which valid messages can be misconstrued by decision makers, leading them to inaccurate conclusions about the risks associated with climate impacts. Three cases will be discussed: 1) Issues of spatial scale in interpreting climate observations: Local climate observations may contradict summary statements about the effects of climate change on larger regional or global spatial scales. Effectively addressing these differences often requires communicators to understand local and regional climate drivers, and the distinction between a 'signal' associated with climate change and local climate 'noise.' Hydrological statistics in Missouri and California are shown to illustrate this case. 2) Issues of complexity related to extreme events: Climate change is typically invoked following a wide range of damaging meteorological events (e.g., heat waves, landfalling hurricanes, tornadoes), regardless of the strength of the relationship between anthropogenic climate change and the frequency or severity of that type of event. Examples are drawn from media coverage of several recent events, contrasting useful and potentially confusing word choices and frames. 3) Issues revolving around climate sensitivity: The so-called 'pause' or 'hiatus' in global warming has reverberated strongly through political and business discussions of climate change. Addressing the recent slowdown in warming yields an important opportunity to raise climate literacy in these communities. Attempts to use recent observations as a wedge between climate 'believers' and 'deniers' is likely to be counterproductive. Examples are drawn from Congressional testimony and media stories. All three cases illustrate ways that decision

  20. Political psychology.

    PubMed

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Politics of Education: From Political Science to Multidisciplinary Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how political science has shaped educational politics. Examines educational politics' contribution to political science theory-building, highlighting federalism, multiple power centers, race relations, and democratic schooling issues. Explores why educational politics researchers diverge from the new political science paradigm (the…

  2. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H.; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino’s petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa. PMID:27001141

  3. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-03-22

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino's petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa.

  4. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H.; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino’s petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa.

  5. Relating mesocarnivore relative abundance to anthropogenic land-use with a hierarchical spatial count model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crimmins, Shawn M.; Walleser, Liza R.; Hertel, Dan R.; McKann, Patrick C.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing need to develop models of spatial patterns in animal abundance, yet comparatively few examples of such models exist. This is especially true in situations where the abundance of one species may inhibit that of another, such as the intensively-farmed landscape of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the central United States, where waterfowl production is largely constrained by mesocarnivore nest predation. We used a hierarchical Bayesian approach to relate the distribution of various land-cover types to the relative abundances of four mesocarnivores in the PPR: coyote Canis latrans, raccoon Procyon lotor, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and striped skunk Mephitis mephitis. We developed models for each species at multiple spatial resolutions (41.4 km2, 10.4 km2, and 2.6 km2) to address different ecological and management-related questions. Model results for each species were similar irrespective of resolution. We found that the amount of row-crop agriculture was nearly ubiquitous in our best models, exhibiting a positive relationship with relative abundance for each species. The amount of native grassland land-cover was positively associated with coyote and raccoon relative abundance, but generally absent from models for red fox and skunk. Red fox and skunk were positively associated with each other, suggesting potential niche overlap. We found no evidence that coyote abundance limited that of other mesocarnivore species, as might be expected under a hypothesis of mesopredator release. The relationships between relative abundance and land-cover types were similar across spatial resolutions. Our results indicated that mesocarnivores in the PPR are most likely to occur in portions of the landscape with large amounts of agricultural land-cover. Further, our results indicated that track-survey data can be used in a hierarchical framework to gain inferences regarding spatial patterns in animal relative abundance.

  6. The Abilities of Understanding Spatial Relations, Spatial Orientation, and Spatial Visualization Affect 3D Product Design Performance: Using Carton Box Design as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Kun-Hsi

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) product design is an essential ability that students of subjects related to product design must acquire. The factors that affect designers' performance in 3D design are numerous, one of which is spatial abilities. Studies have reported that spatial abilities can be used to effectively predict people's performance in…

  7. The Abilities of Understanding Spatial Relations, Spatial Orientation, and Spatial Visualization Affect 3D Product Design Performance: Using Carton Box Design as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Kun-Hsi

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) product design is an essential ability that students of subjects related to product design must acquire. The factors that affect designers' performance in 3D design are numerous, one of which is spatial abilities. Studies have reported that spatial abilities can be used to effectively predict people's performance in…

  8. Spatial anxiety relates to spatial abilities as a function of working memory in children.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability is a strong predictor of students' pursuit of higher education in science and mathematics. However, very little is known about the affective factors that influence individual differences in spatial ability, particularly at a young age. We examine the role of spatial anxiety in young children's performance on a mental rotation task. We show that even at a young age, children report experiencing feelings of nervousness at the prospect of engaging in spatial activities. Moreover, we show that these feelings are associated with reduced mental rotation ability among students with high but not low working memory (WM). Interestingly, this WM × spatial anxiety interaction was only found among girls. We discuss these patterns of results in terms of the problem-solving strategies that boys versus girls use in solving mental rotation problems.

  9. Spatial Ability in Relatives of Reading-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Sadie N.

    A Study was conducted to test the hypothesis proposed by J. S. Symmes and J. L. Rapoport that a sex-linked recessive gene might account for the good spatial ability found among dyslexic readers, the familial pattern of the disorder, and the frequently reported sex ratio of three affected males to one female. Spatial/reasoning ability scores were…

  10. Spatial Ability in Relatives of Reading-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Sadie N.

    A Study was conducted to test the hypothesis proposed by J. S. Symmes and J. L. Rapoport that a sex-linked recessive gene might account for the good spatial ability found among dyslexic readers, the familial pattern of the disorder, and the frequently reported sex ratio of three affected males to one female. Spatial/reasoning ability scores were…

  11. On the Relation between Spatial Ability and Field Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Colin M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Field dependence and spatial ability are examined as different labels for a common underlying dimension. Sixty college students completed two tests of field dependence and two tests of spatial ability. Results of an analysis of covariance found no evidence to view the two traits as distinct from each other. (Author/LMO)

  12. "Wherever You Go, You Will Be a Polis": Spatial Practices and Political Education in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slakmon, Benzi; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to increase understanding of the development of spatial practices in virtual learning environments. The spatial change and development in 38 small-group e-discussions taken from a data set of a yearlong 8th-grade humanities course are described and analyzed. We show that the focus on spatial changes in computer-supported…

  13. Perception of 3D spatial relations for 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Paul; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Hoffmann, Christoph; Popescu, Voicu S.

    2004-05-01

    We test perception of 3D spatial relations in 3D images rendered by a 3D display (Perspecta from Actuality Systems) and compare it to that of a high-resolution flat panel display. 3D images provide the observer with such depth cues as motion parallax and binocular disparity. Our 3D display is a device that renders a 3D image by displaying, in rapid succession, radial slices through the scene on a rotating screen. The image is contained in a glass globe and can be viewed from virtually any direction. In the psychophysical experiment several families of 3D objects are used as stimuli: primitive shapes (cylinders and cuboids), and complex objects (multi-story buildings, cars, and pieces of furniture). Each object has at least one plane of symmetry. On each trial an object or its "distorted" version is shown at an arbitrary orientation. The distortion is produced by stretching an object in a random direction by 40%. This distortion must eliminate the symmetry of an object. The subject's task is to decide whether or not the presented object is distorted under several viewing conditions (monocular/binocular, with/without motion parallax, and near/far). The subject's performance is measured by the discriminability d', which is a conventional dependent variable in signal detection experiments.

  14. Examining the relative importance of spatial and nonspatial coexistence mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Robin E; Borer, Elizabeth T; Chesson, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Much of the work on species coexistence has focused on the presence or absence of single mechanisms. Most theoretical frameworks, however, do not allow one to measure the strength of coexistence mechanisms, and so it has been difficult to determine the relative importance of each mechanism when multiple mechanisms are present. We present a model inspired by the California red scale system, in which two parasitoids coexist on a single, tree-dwelling host-scale insect. Previous work suggests that coexistence may be promoted both by intraguild predation (IGP) and by differing preferences for hosts on stems versus hosts on leaves (habitat preference). By applying an analytic framework that quantifies the strengths of spatial coexistence mechanisms, we are able to measure the individual contributions of IGP, habitat preference, and their interaction to maintaining coexistence. We find that habitat preference is much more effective at promoting coexistence in this model than in IGP. Furthermore, the effects of habitat preference and IGP are not independent. When the two parasitoids prefer different habitats, the coexistence-promoting effects of habitat preference are strengthened by IGP if IGP gives a moderate advantage to the inferior competitor. If IGP either confers an excessive advantage or favors the superior competitor, it can diminish the coexistence region.

  15. Caregiving-related needs analysis: a proposed model reflecting current research and socio-political developments.

    PubMed

    Rossi Ferrario, Silvia; Zotti, Anna Maria; Ippoliti, Marzia; Zotti, Paola

    2003-03-01

    The present authors have developed a model for assessing caregiving-related problems and needs, the Economic, Social, Psychological and Educational Requirements Table (ESPERT). The model was based on an analysis of the international literature concerning caregiving-related problems, and current specific European and Italian legislation, as well as the authors' own research results (which also permitted them to design a specific instrument for the general assessment of caregivers). This paper describes the socio-psychological and socio-political background prompting the development of the model, the general instrument for the assessment of caregivers and an example of its use in a sample of caregivers of cancer patients. In the example study, 80 caregivers of cancer patients were asked to complete questionnaires evaluating their state and trait anxiety, depressive symptoms, personality traits, and specifically, their neuroticism or emotional instability, caregiving strain and the degree of satisfaction with their lives. In addition to the specific information obtained about this group of caregivers, the present results show that the completion of the ESPERT makes it possible to identify the proportion of subjects at economic, social and emotional risk, and to decide rapidly what kind of resources/interventions can be implemented, bearing in mind the most balanced cost-benefit ratio.

  16. Neuroelectrical Correlates of Trustworthiness and Dominance Judgments Related to the Observation of Political Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Toppi, Jlenia; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Astolfi, Laura; Mattia, Donatella; Colosimo, Alfredo; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigates the neurophysiological activity elicited by fast observations of faces of real candidates during simulated political elections. We used simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals as well as galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) as measurements of central and autonomic nervous systems. Twenty healthy subjects were asked to give judgments on dominance, trustworthiness, and a preference of vote related to the politicians' faces. We used high-resolution EEG techniques to map statistical differences of power spectral density (PSD) cortical activity onto a realistic head model as well as partial directed coherence (PDC) and graph theory metrics to estimate the functional connectivity networks and investigate the role of cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Behavioral results revealed that judgment of dominance trait is the most predictive of the outcome of the simulated elections. Statistical comparisons related to PSD and PDC values highlighted an asymmetry in the activation of frontal cortical areas associated with the valence of the judged trait as well as to the probability to cast the vote. Overall, our results highlight the existence of cortical EEG features which are correlated with the prediction of vote and with the judgment of trustworthy and dominant faces. PMID:25214884

  17. Neuroelectrical correlates of trustworthiness and dominance judgments related to the observation of political candidates.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Toppi, Jlenia; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Astolfi, Laura; Mattia, Donatella; Colosimo, Alfredo; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigates the neurophysiological activity elicited by fast observations of faces of real candidates during simulated political elections. We used simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals as well as galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) as measurements of central and autonomic nervous systems. Twenty healthy subjects were asked to give judgments on dominance, trustworthiness, and a preference of vote related to the politicians' faces. We used high-resolution EEG techniques to map statistical differences of power spectral density (PSD) cortical activity onto a realistic head model as well as partial directed coherence (PDC) and graph theory metrics to estimate the functional connectivity networks and investigate the role of cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Behavioral results revealed that judgment of dominance trait is the most predictive of the outcome of the simulated elections. Statistical comparisons related to PSD and PDC values highlighted an asymmetry in the activation of frontal cortical areas associated with the valence of the judged trait as well as to the probability to cast the vote. Overall, our results highlight the existence of cortical EEG features which are correlated with the prediction of vote and with the judgment of trustworthy and dominant faces.

  18. Differential Mobility Spectrometer with Spatial Ion Detector and Methods Related Thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Kanik, Isik (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Differential mobility spectrometer with spatial ion detector and methods related thereto are disclosed. The use of one or more spatial detector within differential mobility spectrometry can provide for the identification and separation of ions with similar mobility and mass.

  19. The Relative Importance of Spatial Versus Temporal Structure in the Perception of Biological Motion: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Masahiro; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how the spatiotemporal structure of animations of biological motion (BM) affects brain activity. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during the perception of BM under four conditions: normal spatial and temporal structure; scrambled spatial and normal temporal structure; normal spatial and scrambled temporal structure; and…

  20. Education, Politics and Sino-Japanese Relations: Reflections on a Three-Year Project on "East Asian Images of Japan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a recent collaborative and interdisciplinary study of East Asian Images of Japan, this article discusses contemporary Chinese portrayals of Japan, their political context, and their significance for Sino-Japanese relations. It questions some widely-held assumptions concerning the extent of "thought control" in an authoritarian…

  1. "Acceptance of the Limits of Knowability in Oneself and Others": Performative Politics and Relational Ethics in the Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes up Judith Butler's calls to suspend the desire to completely know the other, and discusses these in relation to the pedagogic relationship in the classroom. It draws upon existing accounts of performative reinscription as a politics to disrupt exclusionary schooling practices and discusses these alongside Butler's theories of…

  2. An Investigation of Iranian EFL Learners' Use of Politeness Strategies and Power Relations in Disagreement across Different Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnam, Biook; Niroomand, Masoumeh

    2011-01-01

    The speech act of disagreement has been one of the speech acts that receives the least attention in the field of pragmatics. This study investigates the ways power relations influence politeness strategies in disagreement. In order to determine whether and to what extent the realization of the speech act of disagreeing and the of appropriate…

  3. 78 FR 71535 - Guidance for Tax-Exempt Social Welfare Organizations on Candidate-Related Political Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL81 Guidance for Tax-Exempt Social Welfare Organizations... to tax-exempt social welfare organizations on political activities related to candidates that will not be considered to promote social welfare. These regulations will affect tax-exempt social welfare...

  4. Social Studies: Economics, International Relations, and Political Science. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily

    These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…

  5. "Acceptance of the Limits of Knowability in Oneself and Others": Performative Politics and Relational Ethics in the Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes up Judith Butler's calls to suspend the desire to completely know the other, and discusses these in relation to the pedagogic relationship in the classroom. It draws upon existing accounts of performative reinscription as a politics to disrupt exclusionary schooling practices and discusses these alongside Butler's theories of…

  6. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Joop T V M

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed.

  7. ERP correlates of anticipatory attention: spatial and non-spatial specificity and relation to subsequent selective attention.

    PubMed

    Dale, Corby L; Simpson, Gregory V; Foxe, John J; Luks, Tracy L; Worden, Michael S

    2008-06-01

    Brain-based models of visual attention hypothesize that attention-related benefits afforded to imperative stimuli occur via enhancement of neural activity associated with relevant spatial and non-spatial features. When relevant information is available in advance of a stimulus, anticipatory deployment processes are likely to facilitate allocation of attention to stimulus properties prior to its arrival. The current study recorded EEG from humans during a centrally-cued covert attention task. Cues indicated relevance of left or right visual field locations for an upcoming motion or orientation discrimination. During a 1 s delay between cue and S2, multiple attention-related events occurred at frontal, parietal and occipital electrode sites. Differences in anticipatory activity associated with the non-spatial task properties were found late in the delay, while spatially-specific modulation of activity occurred during both early and late periods and continued during S2 processing. The magnitude of anticipatory activity preceding the S2 at frontal scalp sites (and not occipital) was predictive of the magnitude of subsequent selective attention effects on the S2 event-related potentials observed at occipital electrodes. Results support the existence of multiple anticipatory attention-related processes, some with differing specificity for spatial and non-spatial task properties, and the hypothesis that levels of activity in anterior areas are important for effective control of subsequent S2 selective attention.

  8. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  9. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... publication, in an announcement or news story, or at a public meeting, regardless of whether the employee's... Political Science Association, the American Economic Association, the American Foreign Service Association...

  10. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... publication, in an announcement or news story, or at a public meeting, regardless of whether the employee's... Political Science Association, the American Economic Association, the American Foreign Service Association...

  11. Civil Military Relations. The Role of ABRI in Indonesian Socio-Political Life.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    The argument in this thesis is the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia ( ABRI ) has a legitimate role in socio-political affairs and political...life as well as roles in the defense and security of Indonesia. This dual function of ABRI allows ABRI officers to be actively involved in the decision...making process of the country. During the New Order Era, many ABRI officers were assigned to key positions of the government; state ministers

  12. Are injuries spatially related? Join-count spatial autocorrelation for small-area injury analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, N; Schuurman, N; Hameed, S M

    2008-12-01

    To present a geographic information systems (GIS) method for exploring the spatial pattern of injuries and to demonstrate the utility of using this method in conjunction with classic ecological models of injury patterns. Profiles of patients' socioeconomic status (SES) were constructed by linking their postal code of residence to the census dissemination area that encompassed its location. Data were then integrated into a GIS, enabling the analysis of neighborhood contiguity and SES on incidence of injury. Data for this analysis (2001-2006) were obtained from the British Columbia Trauma Registry. Neighborhood SES was calculated using the Vancouver Area Neighborhood Deprivation Index. Spatial analysis was conducted using a join-count spatial autocorrelation algorithm. Male and female patients over the age of 18 and hospitalized from severe injury (Injury Severity Score >12) resulting from an assault or intentional self-harm and included in the British Columbia Trauma Registry were analyzed. Male patients injured by assault and who resided in adjoining census areas were observed 1.3 to 5 times more often than would be expected under a random spatial pattern. Adjoining neighborhood clustering was less visible for residential patterns of patients hospitalized with injuries sustained from self-harm. A social gradient in assault injury rates existed separately for men and neighborhood SES, but less than would be expected when stratified by age, gender, and neighborhood. No social gradient between intentional injury from self-harm and neighborhood SES was observed. This study demonstrates the added utility of integrating GIS technology into injury prevention research. Crucial information on the associated social and environmental influences of intentional injury patterns may be under-recognized if a spatial analysis is not also conducted. The join-count spatial autocorrelation is an ideal approach for investigating the interconnectedness of injury patterns that are rare

  13. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills…

  14. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills…

  15. Does Changing the Reference Frame Affect Infant Categorization of the Spatial Relation BETWEEN?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Papafragou, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that variation in the target objects depicting a given spatial relation disrupts the formation of a category representation for that relation. In the current research, we asked whether changing the orientation of the referent frame depicting the spatial relation would also disrupt the formation of a category representation…

  16. Does Changing the Reference Frame Affect Infant Categorization of the Spatial Relation BETWEEN?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Papafragou, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that variation in the target objects depicting a given spatial relation disrupts the formation of a category representation for that relation. In the current research, we asked whether changing the orientation of the referent frame depicting the spatial relation would also disrupt the formation of a category representation…

  17. Distinct Neural Substrates for Maintaining Locations and Spatial Relations in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Blacker, Kara J.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a distinction between maintenance of two types of spatial information in working memory (WM): spatial locations and spatial relations. While a body of work has investigated the neural mechanisms of sensory-based information like spatial locations, little is known about how spatial relations are maintained in WM. In two experiments, we used fMRI to investigate the involvement of early visual cortex in the maintenance of spatial relations in WM. In both experiments, we found less quadrant-specific BOLD activity in visual cortex when a single spatial relation, compared to a single spatial location, was held in WM. Also across both experiments, we found a consistent set of brain regions that were differentially activated during maintenance of locations vs. relations. Maintaining a location, compared to a relation, was associated with greater activity in typical spatial WM regions like posterior parietal cortex and prefrontal regions. Whereas maintaining a relation, compared to a location, was associated with greater activity in the parahippocampal gyrus and precuneus/retrosplenial cortex. Further, in Experiment 2 we manipulated WM load and included trials where participants had to maintain three spatial locations or relations. Under this high load condition, the regions sensitive to locations vs. relations were somewhat different than under low load. We also identified regions that were sensitive to load specifically for location or relation maintenance, as well as overlapping regions sensitive to load more generally. These results suggest that the neural substrates underlying WM maintenance of spatial locations and relations are distinct from one another and that the neural representations of these distinct types of spatial information change with load. PMID:27932963

  18. Power Versus Affiliation in Political Ideology: Robust Linguistic Evidence for Distinct Motivation-Related Signatures.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Boyd, Ryan L; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Posited motivational differences between liberals and conservatives have historically been controversial. This motivational interface has recently been bridged, but the vast majority of studies have used self-reports of values or motivation. Instead, the present four studies investigated whether two classic social motive themes--power and affiliation--vary by political ideology in objective linguistic analysis terms. Study 1 found that posts to liberal chat rooms scored higher in standardized affiliation than power, whereas the reverse was true of posts to conservative chat rooms. Study 2 replicated this pattern in the context of materials posted to liberal versus conservative political news websites. Studies 3 and 4, finally, replicated a similar interactive (ideology by motive type) pattern in State of the State and State of the Union addresses. Differences in political ideology, these results suggest, are marked by, and likely reflective of, mind-sets favoring affiliation (liberal) or power (conservative).

  19. Deconstructing building blocks: preschoolers' spatial assembly performance relates to early mathematical skills.

    PubMed

    Verdine, Brian N; Golinkoff, Roberta M; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S; Filipowicz, Andrew T; Chang, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematical performance. Finally, the relation between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower SES children were already lagging behind higher SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Mestiza Consciousness in Relation to Sustained Political Solidarity: A Chicana Feminist Interpretation of the Farmworker Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barvosa, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most significant themes in Chicana feminist thought are the character of mestiza consciousness and the view that political solidarity--that is, the uniting of diverse people in common cause--should build upon diversity among peoples rather than on a single shared identity. Numerous Chicana and Latina feminists have connected these two…

  1. Mestiza Consciousness in Relation to Sustained Political Solidarity: A Chicana Feminist Interpretation of the Farmworker Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barvosa, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most significant themes in Chicana feminist thought are the character of mestiza consciousness and the view that political solidarity--that is, the uniting of diverse people in common cause--should build upon diversity among peoples rather than on a single shared identity. Numerous Chicana and Latina feminists have connected these two…

  2. Death Anxiety and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Steven A.

    1986-01-01

    Explores the relationship between death anxiety and sociopolitical attitudes and political behavior. Data from a sample of 209 undergraduate students indicate that death anxiety is modestly related to attitudes reflecting a turning away from the social and political world. Death anxiety does not seem related to political behavior. (Author)

  3. Using cosmic strings to relate local geometry to spatial topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duston, Christopher Levi

    In this paper, we will discuss how cosmic strings can be used to bridge the gap between the local geometry of our spacetime model and the global topology. The primary tool is the theory of foliations and surfaces, and together with observational constraints, we can isolate several possibilities for the topology of the spatial section of the observable universe. This implies that the discovery of cosmic strings would not just be significant for an understanding of structure formation in the early universe, but also for the global properties of the spacetime model.

  4. Large-scale discovery of spatially related images.

    PubMed

    Chum, Ondrej; Matas, Jirí

    2010-02-01

    We propose a randomized data mining method that finds clusters of spatially overlapping images. The core of the method relies on the min-Hash algorithm for fast detection of pairs of images with spatial overlap, the so-called cluster seeds. The seeds are then used as visual queries to obtain clusters which are formed as transitive closures of sets of partially overlapping images that include the seed. We show that the probability of finding a seed for an image cluster rapidly increases with the size of the cluster. The properties and performance of the algorithm are demonstrated on data sets with 10(4), 10(5), and 5 x 10(6) images. The speed of the method depends on the size of the database and the number of clusters. The first stage of seed generation is close to linear for databases sizes up to approximately 2(34) approximately 10(10) images. On a single 2.4 GHz PC, the clustering process took only 24 minutes for a standard database of more than 100,000 images, i.e., only 0.014 seconds per image.

  5. On the identification and establishment of topological spatial relations by autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel-Tomé, Sergio; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Human beings use spatial relations to describe many daily tasks in their language. For a mobile robot to be useful in daily life, it is necessary to have navigation algorithms capable of identifying and establishing spatial relations. To date in robotics, the navigation problem has been thoroughly researched as a task of guiding a robot from one spatial coordinate to another. Therefore, there is a difference in degree of abstraction between the language of human beings and the algorithms used in robot navigation. This article introduces a piece of research performed on the use of topological relations for the formalisation of spatial relations and navigation. So far, topological relations have been applied widely in geographical information systems and also in spatial logics. There are some proposals in robot navigation which use them for planning but there is no research about making decision in robot navigation. Our research focuses on decision-making methods to establish spatial relations. The main result is a new heuristic, called the Heuristic of Topological Qualitative Semantics (HTQS), which allows the identification and establishment of spatial relations decision-making from a set of actions. To demonstrate its effectiveness, HTQS has been implemented in the form of agents that can move in a two-dimensional virtual environment. HTQS opens a new door to designing algorithms for navigation based on the identification and establishment of spatial relations.

  6. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  7. Research Relative to High Spatial Resolution Passive Microwave Sounding Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    Methods to obtain high resolution passive microwave weather observations, and understanding of their probable impact on numerical weather prediction accuracy were investigated. The development of synthetic aperture concepts for geosynchronous passive microwave sounders were studied. The effects of clouds, precipitation, surface phenomena, and atmospheric thermal fine structure on a scale of several kilometers were examined. High resolution passive microwave sounders (e.g., AMSU) with an increased number of channels will produce initialization data for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models with both increased spatial resolution and coverage. The development of statistical models for error growth in high resolution primitive equation NWP models which permit the consequences of various observing system alternatives, including sensors and assimilation times and procedures is discussed. A high resolution three dimensional primitive equation NWP model to determine parameters in an error growth model similar to that formulated by Lorenz, but with more degrees of freedom is utilized.

  8. Modeling spatial relation in skin lesion images by the graph walk kernel.

    PubMed

    Situ, Ning; Wadhawan, Tarun; Yuan, Xiaojing; Zouridakis, George

    2010-01-01

    Early skin cancer detection with the help of dermoscopic images is becoming more and more important. Previous methods generally ignored the spatial relation of the pixels or regions inside the lesion. We propose to employ a graph representation of the skin lesion to model the spatial relation. We then use the graph walk kernel, a similarity measure between two graphs, to build a classifier based on support vector machines for melanoma detection. In experiments, we compare the sensitivities and specificities of models with and without spatial information. Experimental results show that the model with spatial information performs the best in both sensitivity and specificity. Statistical test indicates that the improvement is significant.

  9. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematics Skills

    PubMed Central

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematics skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematics performance. Finally, the relationship between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status, gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower-SES children were already lagging behind higher-SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower-SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. PMID:24112041

  10. The political economy of urban homicide: assessing the relative impact of gender inequality on sex-specific victimization.

    PubMed

    DeWees, Mari A; Parker, Karen F

    2003-02-01

    This research examines the ways in which the changing political economy of urban areas has contributed differently to the homicide victimization rates of females and males across US cities. Recent research, while relatively limited, has presented disparate results regarding the effect of gender inequality on urban sex-specific victimization. Our work further explores this relationship by taking into account relative gender disparities in income, education, labor market opportunities, and politics in an examination of sex-specific homicide victimization in 1990. Key to this current investigation is the evaluation of feminist and lifestyle arguments that suggest that structural gender inequality has a unique effect on female victimization. Overall, our findings reveal gender inequality to be a significant predictor of both male and female urban homicide. While these findings suggest mixed support for theoretical arguments regarding gender inequality, further analyses reveal significant differences in specific types of gender inequality on victimization patterns across genders. These additional results highlight the need for greater attention toward both methodological and theoretical issues when examining the interconnections between gender, political economy, and violence in research.

  11. Analog solar system model relates celestial bodies spatially

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerg, H. R.

    1966-01-01

    Portable analog planetarium indicates the relative time and space angular locations of the sun and planets. Distance measuring scales, angular direction indicators, and typical probe trajectories are included.

  12. What Space Makes of Us: Thirdspace, Identity Politics, and Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rick

    Space is related to power in that it is critical to the social production and reproduction of difference. This paper re-imagines a critical multiculturalism that embraces critical spatial theory and postmodern identity politics. In an overview of postmodern spatial theory, the works of Lefebvre (1974), E. Soja (1989, 1996), and M. Foucault (1986)…

  13. Spatial Relevancies of Hybrid Systems Relates to Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Widastra, Fatahillah

    2015-05-01

    After S/F hybrid system from Martin Lange, of spatial modulation Superconductor-Electromagnet hybrids superconductor producing studies conclusion, for superconductor at large Hand/or T(i.e close to the phase transitionline), when the superfluid densitiy tends to 0. Further as for He3-B superfluid ``testing ground'', after sought extensometer for every materials testing application from , in K Matsumoto:``Flux pinning Engineering for Application of HTS'', 2013 quote Higgs boson , whereas it plays role as similar phenomena of Meissner effect, both involves magnet levitating. Accompanying Gosowong vein, US 16. 3 Million costed study-report who said the toxic waste also endangering biodiversity[Dini Septanti: ``The BUYAT Case: Straddling between Environmental Securitization & De-securitization'', herewith proposed the ``complexity systems'' comparison comprises also phase transition & ``directed polymer'' notions of JP Bouchaud et al: ``Wealth condensation in a simple model of economy''. Incredibles acknowledgment to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE.Mr.Ir. H. ABURIZAL BAKRIE.

  14. Individual Differences in Spatial Relation Processing: Effects of Strategy, Ability, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Borst, Gregoire

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the distinction between categorical and coordinate spatial relations. Categorical relations are propositional and abstract, and often related to a left hemisphere advantage. Coordinate relations specify the metric information of the relative locations of objects, and can be linked to right hemisphere processing.…

  15. Topological spatial relation calculation in constrained Delaunay triangulation: an algebraic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiatian; Wang, Chunxiao; Ma, Li; Chen, Hao; Yang, Dehong; Wu, Xuequn

    2009-10-01

    Topological spatial relation between spatial objects is a very important topic for spatial analysis, query and reasoning in Geographic Information Science (GIS). In this paper, an algebraic method using constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) for topological spatial relation is presented. In the part of foundational theory, (i) prove CDT is simplicial complex in R2. (ii) import chain structure in CDT and prove including & approximating theorem and reduced including & approximating theorem, and are used for estimating left, middle and right side properties of triangle. (iii) define the region in CDT and establish region algebra (RA), which use the set of region as computational space and use the intersection operator as a binary operation. (iv) describe basic forms of node and chain which are contained in a set of triangles. In the part of spatial relation calculation, (i) describe spatial object as three entries, i.e. exterior, boundary and interior, with left, middle and right of triangle and their combination. (ii) establish the topological spatial relation calculation model-region nine intersection model (R9IM), which is used the intersection operation and the form operation as basic operations. (iii) calculate thirty-three spatial relations of simple objects with R9IM in the practice application of topological examination.

  16. Unsupervised Spatial, Temporal and Relational Models for Social Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    international shipping traffic and a dynamic network of publicly declared supply relations between US companies. The inference tasks considered include community...Naval Research under Dynamic Network Analysis program (N00014- 02-1-0973, ONR N00014-06-1-0921, ONR N00014-06-1-0104) and ONR MURI N00014-08-1-1186, the...dynamic network of publicly declared supply relations between US companies. The inference tasks considered include community detection, path

  17. Naming and gesturing spatial relations: evidence from focal brain-injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Göksun, Tilbe; Lehet, Matthew; Malykhina, Katsiaryna; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-07-01

    Spatial language helps us to encode relations between objects and organize our thinking. Little is known about the neural instantiations of spatial language. Using voxel-lesion symptom mapping (VLSM), we tested the hypothesis that focal brain injured patients who had damage to left frontal-parietal peri-Sylvian regions would have difficulty in naming spatial relations between objects. We also investigated the relationship between impaired verbalization of spatial relations and spontaneous gesture production. Patients with left or right hemisphere damage and elderly control participants were asked to name static (e.g., an apple on a book) and dynamic (e.g., a pen moves over a box) locative relations depicted in brief video clips. The correct use of prepositions in each task and gestures that represent the spatial relations were coded. Damage to the left posterior middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left anterior superior temporal gyrus were related to impairment in naming spatial relations. Production of spatial gestures negatively correlated with naming accuracy, suggesting that gestures might help or compensate for difficulty with lexical access. Additional analyses suggested that left hemisphere patients who had damage to the left posterior middle frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gestured less than expected, if gestures are used to compensate for impairments in retrieving prepositions.

  18. Naming and gesturing spatial relations: Evidence from focal brain-injured individuals

    PubMed Central

    Göksun, Tilbe; Lehet, Matthew; Malykhina, Katsiaryna; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Spatial language helps us encode relations between objects and organize our thinking. Little is known about the neural instantiations of spatial language. Using voxel-lesion symptom mapping (VLSM), we tested the hypothesis that focal brain injured patients who had damage to left frontal-parietal peri-Sylvian regions would have difficulty in naming spatial relations between objects. We also investigated the relationship between impaired verbalization of spatial relations and spontaneous gesture production. Patients with left or right hemisphere damage and elderly control participants were asked to name static (e.g., an apple on a book) and dynamic (e.g., a pen moves over a box) locative relations depicted in brief video clips. The correct use of prepositions in each task and gestures that represent the spatial relations were coded. Damage to the left posterior middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left anterior superior temporal gyrus were related to impairment in naming spatial relations. Production of spatial gestures negatively correlated with naming accuracy, suggesting that gestures might help or compensate for difficulty with lexical access. Additional analyses suggested that left hemisphere patients who had damage to the left posterior middle frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gestured less than expected, if gestures are used to compensate for impairments in retrieving prepositions. PMID:23685196

  19. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  20. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  1. Age-related spatial working memory deficits in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent J; Hough, Gerald; Bingman, Verner P

    2014-12-01

    The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related degeneration that, like hippocampal lesions, is thought to lead to age-related decline in spatial memory and navigation. Lesions to the avian hippocampal formation (HF) also result in impaired spatial memory and navigation, but the relationship between aging and HF-dependent spatial cognition is unknown. To investigate possible age-related decline in avian spatial cognition, the current study investigated spatial working memory performance in older homing pigeons (10+ years of age). Pigeons completed a behavioral procedure nearly identical to the delayed spatial, win-shift procedure in a modified radial arm maze that has been previously used to study spatial working memory in rats and pigeons. The results revealed that the older pigeons required a greater number of choices to task completion and were less accurate with their first 4 choices as compared to younger pigeons (1-2 years of age). In addition, older pigeons were more likely to adopt a stereotyped sampling strategy, which explained in part their impaired performance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an age-related impairment of HF-dependent, spatial memory in birds. Implications and future directions of the findings are discussed.

  2. Children's Age-Related Intellectual Strategies for Dealing with Musical and Spatial Analogical Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David J.; Barresi, Anthony L.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to determine whether there is a common level of logic, related to age, underlying children's responses to musical and spatial analogical tasks. Finds that there is a relationship between age and children's responses to analogical tasks whether one uses musical or spatial relationships. Discusses implications for music…

  3. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children's Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills.

    PubMed

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children's motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds' spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children's understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children's balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence.

  4. Young Children's Representations of Spatial and Functional Relations between Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Ornkloo, Helena; von Hofsten, Claes; Keen, Rachel; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments investigated changes from 15 to 30 months of age in children's (N = 114) mastery of relations between an object and an aperture, supporting surface, or form. When choosing between objects to insert into an aperture, older children selected objects of an appropriate size and shape, but younger children showed little selectivity.…

  5. [Awareness of the political abuse of psychiatry in relation to psychiatry and the law].

    PubMed

    Kalvach, Z

    1995-05-01

    The political abuse of psychiatry in the former USSR was enabled by: 1. a disproportionate pointing up of the medical criteria of mental disorder to the detriment of the social ones, above all by circumventing the sociological labelling process; 2. lack of control of involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation by the law; 3. an obsolete definition of psychiatry. The author suggests a definition of psychiatry taking into consideration both the above mentioned criteria and making the importance of the legal control of involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation more evident.

  6. Relational Algebra in Spatial Decision Support Systems Ontologies.

    PubMed

    Diomidous, Marianna; Chardalias, Kostis; Koutonias, Panagiotis; Magnita, Adrianna; Andrianopoulos, Charalampos; Zimeras, Stelios; Mechili, Enkeleint Aggelos

    2017-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSS) is a powerful tool, for facilitates researchers to choose the correct decision based on their final results. Especially in medical cases where doctors could use these systems, to overcome the problem with the clinical misunderstanding. Based on these systems, queries must be constructed based on the particular questions that doctors must answer. In this work, combination between questions and queries would be presented via relational algebra.

  7. Are Categorical Spatial Relations Encoded by Shifting Visual Attention between Objects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Lei; Uttal, David; Franconeri, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving not just values, but relations between values, is critical to human cognition. We tested the predictions of a proposed mechanism for processing categorical spatial relations between two objects--the "shift account" of relation processing--which states that relations such as "above" or "below" are extracted…

  8. The relation between spatial skill and early number knowledge: the role of the linear number line.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L; Levine, Susan C

    2012-09-01

    Spatial skill is highly related to success in math and science (e.g., Casey, Nuttall, Pezaris, & Benbow, 1995). However, little work has investigated the cognitive pathways by which the relation between spatial skill and math achievement emerges. We hypothesized that spatial skill plays a crucial role in the development of numerical reasoning by helping children to create a spatially meaningful, powerful numerical representation-the linear number line. In turn, a strong linear number representation improves other aspects of numerical knowledge such as arithmetic estimation. We tested this hypothesis using 2 longitudinal data sets. First, we found that children's spatial skill (i.e., mental transformation ability) at the beginning of 1st and 2nd grades predicted improvement in linear number line knowledge over the course of the school year. Second, we found that children's spatial skill at age 5 years predicted their performance on an approximate symbolic calculation task at age 8 and that this relation was mediated by children's linear number line knowledge at age 6. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that spatial skill can improve children's development of numerical knowledge by helping them to acquire a linear spatial representation of numbers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Revisiting the role of language in spatial cognition: Categorical perception of spatial relations in English and Korean speakers.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Kevin J; Moty, Kelsey; Regier, Terry

    2017-03-23

    The spatial relation of support has been regarded as universally privileged in nonlinguistic cognition and immune to the influence of language. English, but not Korean, obligatorily distinguishes support from nonsupport via basic spatial terms. Despite this linguistic difference, previous research suggests that English and Korean speakers show comparable nonlinguistic sensitivity to the support/nonsupport distinction. Here, using a paradigm previously found to elicit cross-language differences in color discrimination, we provide evidence for a difference in sensitivity to support/nonsupport between native English speakers and native Korean speakers who were late English learners and tested in a context that privileged Korean. Whereas the former group showed categorical perception (CP) when discriminating spatial scenes capturing the support/nonsupport distinction, the latter did not. An additional group of native Korean speakers-relatively early English learners tested in an English-salient context-patterned with the native English speakers in showing CP for support/nonsupport. These findings suggest that obligatory marking of support/nonsupport in one's native language can affect nonlinguistic sensitivity to this distinction, contra earlier findings, but that such sensitivity may also depend on aspects of language background and the immediate linguistic context.

  10. Exploration as a mediator of the relation between the attainment of motor milestones and the development of spatial cognition and spatial language.

    PubMed

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Leseman, Paul P M; Volman, M Chiel J M

    2015-09-01

    The embodied-cognition approach views cognition and language as grounded in daily sensorimotor child-environment interactions. Therefore, the attainment of motor milestones is expected to play a role in cognitive-linguistic development. Early attainment of unsupported sitting and independent walking indeed predict better spatial cognition and language at later ages. However, evidence linking these milestones with the development of spatial language and evidence regarding factors that might mediate this relation are scarce. The current study examined whether exploration of spatial-relational object properties (e.g., the possibility of containing or stacking) and exploration of the space through self-locomotion mediate the effect of, respectively, age of sitting and age of walking on spatial cognition and spatial language. Thus, we hypothesized that an earlier age of sitting and walking predicts, respectively, higher levels of spatial-relational object exploration and exploration through self-locomotion, which in turn, predict better spatial cognition and spatial language at later ages. Fifty-nine Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. A combination of tests, observations, and parental reports was used to measure motor development, exploratory behavior (age 20 months), spatial memory (age 24 months), spatial processing (age 32 months), and spatial language (age 36 months). Results show that attainment of sitting predicted spatial memory and spatial language, but spatial-relational object exploration did not mediate these effects. Attainment of independent walking predicted spatial processing and spatial language, and exploration through self-locomotion (partially) mediated these relations. These findings extend previous work and provide partial support for the hypotheses about the mediating role of exploration.

  11. Graded Neuronal Modulations Related to Visual Spatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Mayo, J Patrick; Maunsell, John H R

    2016-05-11

    Studies of visual attention in monkeys typically measure neuronal activity when the stimulus event to be detected occurs at a cued location versus when it occurs at an uncued location. But this approach does not address how neuronal activity changes relative to conditions where attention is unconstrained by cueing. Human psychophysical studies have used neutral cueing conditions and found that neutrally cued behavioral performance is generally intermediate to that of cued and uncued conditions (Posner et al., 1978; Mangun and Hillyard, 1990; Montagna et al., 2009). To determine whether the neuronal correlates of visual attention during neutral cueing are similarly intermediate, we trained macaque monkeys to detect changes in stimulus orientation that were more likely to occur at one location (cued) than another (uncued), or were equally likely to occur at either stimulus location (neutral). Consistent with human studies, performance was best when the location was cued, intermediate when both locations were neutrally cued, and worst when the location was uncued. Neuronal modulations in visual area V4 were also graded as a function of cue validity and behavioral performance. By recording from both hemispheres simultaneously, we investigated the possibility of switching attention between stimulus locations during neutral cueing. The results failed to support a unitary "spotlight" of attention. Overall, our findings indicate that attention-related changes in V4 are graded to accommodate task demands. Studies of the neuronal correlates of attention in monkeys typically use visual cues to manipulate where attention is focused ("cued" vs "uncued"). Human psychophysical studies often also include neutrally cued trials to study how attention naturally varies between points of interest. But the neuronal correlates of this neutral condition are unclear. We measured behavioral performance and neuronal activity in cued, uncued, and neutrally cued blocks of trials. Behavioral

  12. Graded Neuronal Modulations Related to Visual Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Maunsell, John H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of visual attention in monkeys typically measure neuronal activity when the stimulus event to be detected occurs at a cued location versus when it occurs at an uncued location. But this approach does not address how neuronal activity changes relative to conditions where attention is unconstrained by cueing. Human psychophysical studies have used neutral cueing conditions and found that neutrally cued behavioral performance is generally intermediate to that of cued and uncued conditions (Posner et al., 1978; Mangun and Hillyard, 1990; Montagna et al., 2009). To determine whether the neuronal correlates of visual attention during neutral cueing are similarly intermediate, we trained macaque monkeys to detect changes in stimulus orientation that were more likely to occur at one location (cued) than another (uncued), or were equally likely to occur at either stimulus location (neutral). Consistent with human studies, performance was best when the location was cued, intermediate when both locations were neutrally cued, and worst when the location was uncued. Neuronal modulations in visual area V4 were also graded as a function of cue validity and behavioral performance. By recording from both hemispheres simultaneously, we investigated the possibility of switching attention between stimulus locations during neutral cueing. The results failed to support a unitary “spotlight” of attention. Overall, our findings indicate that attention-related changes in V4 are graded to accommodate task demands. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Studies of the neuronal correlates of attention in monkeys typically use visual cues to manipulate where attention is focused (“cued” vs “uncued”). Human psychophysical studies often also include neutrally cued trials to study how attention naturally varies between points of interest. But the neuronal correlates of this neutral condition are unclear. We measured behavioral performance and neuronal activity in cued, uncued, and neutrally

  13. [Spatial distribution of risks for work-related injuries in a city of Southeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zangirolani, Lia Thieme Oikawa; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Medeiros, Maria Angélica Tavares de; Stephan, Celso

    2008-04-01

    To assess spatial distribution of risks for work-related injuries controlled for nutritional variables and other covariables. Hospital-based spatial case-control study with work-related injuries spatial distribution as the main variable of interest. A total of 794 workers were selected between May and October 2004. Inclusion criteria for cases (N=263) were: worker with work-related injury; living in Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil); age between 15 and 60 years old; and cared at an orthopedics and trauma center. Controls (N=531) met the same criteria for age and residence, but had non-work-related injuries and workers accompanying cases were included as well. Spatial distribution was estimated by adjusting a generalized additive model with geographical coordinates of cases and controls as spatial non-linear component and the remaining covariables as linear components. The variation of estimated spatial risks for work-related injuries controlled for gender (OR=1.87, p<0.001), schooling (OR=0.85, p<0.0001), self-employed (OR=0.36, p<0.01), and waist circumference (OR=0.98, p=0.05) showed that the mideastern area and north-to-south "strip" have higher risk for injuries. The use of geoprocessing tools and nutritional variables can provide input for understanding the universe of risks for work-related injuries. Further investigation exploring these factors is needed.

  14. Are Categorical Spatial Relations Encoded by Shifting Visual Attention between Objects?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lei; Uttal, David; Franconeri, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving not just values, but relations between values, is critical to human cognition. We tested the predictions of a proposed mechanism for processing categorical spatial relations between two objects-the shift account of relation processing-which states that relations such as 'above' or 'below' are extracted by shifting visual attention upward or downward in space. If so, then shifts of attention should improve the representation of spatial relations, compared to a control condition of identity memory. Participants viewed a pair of briefly flashed objects and were then tested on either the relative spatial relation or identity of one of those objects. Using eye tracking to reveal participants' voluntary shifts of attention over time, we found that when initial fixation was on neither object, relational memory showed an absolute advantage for the object following an attention shift, while identity memory showed no advantage for either object. This result is consistent with the shift account of relation processing. When initial fixation began on one of the objects, identity memory strongly benefited this fixated object, while relational memory only showed a relative benefit for objects following an attention shift. This result is also consistent, although not as uniquely, with the shift account of relation processing. Taken together, we suggest that the attention shift account provides a mechanistic explanation for the overall results. This account can potentially serve as the common mechanism underlying both linguistic and perceptual representations of spatial relations.

  15. Are Categorical Spatial Relations Encoded by Shifting Visual Attention between Objects?

    PubMed Central

    Uttal, David; Franconeri, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving not just values, but relations between values, is critical to human cognition. We tested the predictions of a proposed mechanism for processing categorical spatial relations between two objects—the shift account of relation processing—which states that relations such as ‘above’ or ‘below’ are extracted by shifting visual attention upward or downward in space. If so, then shifts of attention should improve the representation of spatial relations, compared to a control condition of identity memory. Participants viewed a pair of briefly flashed objects and were then tested on either the relative spatial relation or identity of one of those objects. Using eye tracking to reveal participants’ voluntary shifts of attention over time, we found that when initial fixation was on neither object, relational memory showed an absolute advantage for the object following an attention shift, while identity memory showed no advantage for either object. This result is consistent with the shift account of relation processing. When initial fixation began on one of the objects, identity memory strongly benefited this fixated object, while relational memory only showed a relative benefit for objects following an attention shift. This result is also consistent, although not as uniquely, with the shift account of relation processing. Taken together, we suggest that the attention shift account provides a mechanistic explanation for the overall results. This account can potentially serve as the common mechanism underlying both linguistic and perceptual representations of spatial relations. PMID:27695104

  16. Automatic Extraction and Post-coordination of Spatial Relations in Consumer Language

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate ontological concepts in natural language processing (NLP) it is often necessary to combine simple concepts into complex concepts (post-coordination). This is especially true in consumer language, where a more limited vocabulary forces consumers to utilize highly productive language that is almost impossible to pre-coordinate in an ontology. Our work focuses on recognizing an important case for post-coordination in natural language: spatial relations between disorders and anatomical structures. Consumers typically utilize such spatial relations when describing symptoms. We describe an annotated corpus of 2,000 sentences with 1,300 spatial relations, and a second corpus of 500 of these relations manually normalized to UMLS concepts. We use machine learning techniques to recognize these relations, obtaining good performance. Further, we experiment with methods to normalize the relations to an existing ontology. This two-step process is analogous to the combination of concept recognition and normalization, and achieves comparable results. PMID:26958247

  17. Automatic Extraction and Post-coordination of Spatial Relations in Consumer Language.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate ontological concepts in natural language processing (NLP) it is often necessary to combine simple concepts into complex concepts (post-coordination). This is especially true in consumer language, where a more limited vocabulary forces consumers to utilize highly productive language that is almost impossible to pre-coordinate in an ontology. Our work focuses on recognizing an important case for post-coordination in natural language: spatial relations between disorders and anatomical structures. Consumers typically utilize such spatial relations when describing symptoms. We describe an annotated corpus of 2,000 sentences with 1,300 spatial relations, and a second corpus of 500 of these relations manually normalized to UMLS concepts. We use machine learning techniques to recognize these relations, obtaining good performance. Further, we experiment with methods to normalize the relations to an existing ontology. This two-step process is analogous to the combination of concept recognition and normalization, and achieves comparable results.

  18. Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

  19. Scaling local species-habitat relations to the larger landscape with a hierarchical spatial count model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Knutson, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Much of what is known about avian species-habitat relations has been derived from studies of birds at local scales. It is entirely unclear whether the relations observed at these scales translate to the larger landscape in a predictable linear fashion. We derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundances for three forest bird species of eastern North America using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at three spatial scales. Our purpose was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create predictive abundance maps for purposes of conservation planning at a landscape scale given the constraint that the variables used in this exercise were derived from local-level studies. Our models indicated a substantial influence of landscape context for all species, many of which were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents. We found land cover composition provided the greatest contribution to the relative explained variance in counts for all three species; spatial structure was second in importance. No single spatial scale dominated any model, indicating that these species are responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. For purposes of conservation planning, areas of predicted high abundance should be investigated to evaluate the conservation potential of the landscape in their general vicinity. In addition, the models and spatial patterns of abundance among species suggest locations where conservation actions may benefit more than one species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population

    PubMed Central

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  1. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population.

    PubMed

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  2. Focusing Narrowly or Broadly Attention When Judging Categorical and Coordinate Spatial Relations: A MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Franciotti, Raffaella; D’Ascenzo, Stefania; Di Domenico, Alberto; Onofrj, Marco; Tommasi, Luca; Laeng, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We measured activity in the dorsal system of the human cortex with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a matching-to-sample plus cueing paradigm, where participants judged the occurrence of changes in either categorical or coordinate spatial relations (e.g., exchanges of left versus right positions or changes in the relative distances) between images of pairs of animals. The attention window was primed in each trial to be either small or large by using cues that immediately preceded the matching image. In this manner, we could assess the modulatory effects of the scope of attention on the activity of the dorsal system of the human cortex during spatial relations processing. The MEG measurements revealed that large spatial cues yielded greater activations and longer peak latencies in the right inferior parietal lobe for coordinate trials, whereas small cues yielded greater activations and longer peak latencies in the left inferior parietal lobe for categorical trials. The activity in the superior parietal lobe, middle frontal gyrus, and visual cortex, was also modulated by the size of the spatial cues and by the type of spatial relation change. The present results support the theory that the lateralization of each kind of spatial processing hinges on differences in the sizes of regions of space attended to by the two hemispheres. In addition, the present findings are inconsistent with the idea of a right-hemispheric dominance for all kinds of challenging spatial tasks, since response times and accuracy rates showed that the categorical spatial relation task was more difficult than the coordinate task and the cortical activations were overall greater in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere. PMID:24386197

  3. Focusing narrowly or broadly attention when judging categorical and coordinate spatial relations: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    Franciotti, Raffaella; D'Ascenzo, Stefania; Di Domenico, Alberto; Onofrj, Marco; Tommasi, Luca; Laeng, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We measured activity in the dorsal system of the human cortex with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a matching-to-sample plus cueing paradigm, where participants judged the occurrence of changes in either categorical or coordinate spatial relations (e.g., exchanges of left versus right positions or changes in the relative distances) between images of pairs of animals. The attention window was primed in each trial to be either small or large by using cues that immediately preceded the matching image. In this manner, we could assess the modulatory effects of the scope of attention on the activity of the dorsal system of the human cortex during spatial relations processing. The MEG measurements revealed that large spatial cues yielded greater activations and longer peak latencies in the right inferior parietal lobe for coordinate trials, whereas small cues yielded greater activations and longer peak latencies in the left inferior parietal lobe for categorical trials. The activity in the superior parietal lobe, middle frontal gyrus, and visual cortex, was also modulated by the size of the spatial cues and by the type of spatial relation change. The present results support the theory that the lateralization of each kind of spatial processing hinges on differences in the sizes of regions of space attended to by the two hemispheres. In addition, the present findings are inconsistent with the idea of a right-hemispheric dominance for all kinds of challenging spatial tasks, since response times and accuracy rates showed that the categorical spatial relation task was more difficult than the coordinate task and the cortical activations were overall greater in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere.

  4. Spatial variances of wind fields and their relation to second-order structure functions and spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelzang, Jur; King, Gregory P.; Stoffelen, Ad

    2015-02-01

    Kinetic energy variance as a function of spatial scale for wind fields is commonly estimated either using second-order structure functions (in the spatial domain) or by spectral analysis (in the frequency domain). Both techniques give an order-of-magnitude estimate. More accurate estimates are given by a statistic called spatial variance. Spatial variances have a clear interpretation and are tolerant for missing data. They can be related to second-order structure functions, both for discrete and continuous data. Spatial variances can also be Fourier transformed to yield a relation with spectra. The flexibility of spatial variances is used to study various sampling strategies, and to compare them with second-order structure functions and spectral variances. It is shown that the spectral sampling strategy is not seriously biased to calm conditions for scatterometer ocean surface vector winds. When the second-order structure function behaves like rp, its ratio with the spatial variance equals >(p+1>)>(p+2>). Ocean surface winds in the tropics have p between 2/3 and 1, so one-sixth to one-fifth of the second-order structure function value is a good proxy for the cumulative variance.

  5. A consistent but non-coincident visual pattern facilitates the learning of spatial relations among locations.

    PubMed

    Katz, Scott S; Brown, Michael F; Sturz, Bradley R

    2014-02-01

    Human participants searched in a dynamic three-dimensional computer-generated virtual-environment open-field search task for four hidden goal locations arranged in a diamond configuration located in a 5 × 5 matrix of raised bins. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: visual pattern or visual random. All participants experienced 30 trials in which four goal locations maintained the same spatial relations to each other (i.e., a diamond pattern), but this diamond pattern moved to random locations within the 5 × 5 matrix from trial to trial. For participants in the visual pattern group, four locations were marked in a distinct color and arranged in a diamond pattern that moved to a random location independent of the hidden spatial pattern from trial to trial throughout the experimental session. For participants in the visual random group, four random locations were marked with a distinct color and moved to random locations independent from the hidden spatial pattern from trial to trial throughout the experimental session. As a result, the visual cues for the visual pattern group were consistent but not coincident with the hidden spatial pattern, whereas the visual cues for the visual random group were neither consistent nor coincident with the hidden spatial pattern. Results indicated that participants in both groups learned the spatial configuration of goal locations and that the presence of consistent but noncoincident visual cues facilitated the learning of spatial relations among locations.

  6. What goes where? Eye tracking reveals spatial relational memory during infancy.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Jenny L; Zhao, Jenna L; Burns, Mary A

    2015-02-01

    Episodic memory involves binding components of an event (who, what, when, and where) into a relational representation. The ability to encode information about the relative locations of objects (i.e., spatial relational memory) is a key component of episodic memory. Here we used eye tracking to test whether infants and toddlers learn about the spatial relations among objects. In Experiment 1, 9-, 18-, and 27-month olds were familiarized with an array of three objects. Following familiarization, they saw test arrays in which two of the objects had been replaced with novel ones (object switch condition) and arrays in which two of the objects had switched positions (location switch condition). Both 18- and 27-month olds looked significantly longer than would be predicted by chance at the objects that had switched spatial locations; however, 9-month olds did not. In Experiment 2, we showed that, given sufficient familiarization time, 9-month olds were also capable of detecting disruptions to the spatial relations among an array of objects. These results have important implications for our understanding of spatial relational memory development.

  7. Children's Reasoning about Spatial Relational Similarity: The Effect of Alignment and Relational Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hribar, Alenka; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2012-01-01

    We investigated 4- and 5-year-old children's mapping strategies in a spatial task. Children were required to find a picture in an array of three identical cups after observing another picture being hidden in another array of three cups. The arrays were either aligned one behind the other in two rows or placed side by side forming one line.…

  8. Children's Reasoning about Spatial Relational Similarity: The Effect of Alignment and Relational Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hribar, Alenka; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2012-01-01

    We investigated 4- and 5-year-old children's mapping strategies in a spatial task. Children were required to find a picture in an array of three identical cups after observing another picture being hidden in another array of three cups. The arrays were either aligned one behind the other in two rows or placed side by side forming one line.…

  9. Teaching Political Science with Chillers and Thrillers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuse, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses using popular detective and espionage fiction in courses related to area politics, international relations, political terrorism, socialization, and bureaucratic politics. Suggests several novels and ways in which they may be integrated into courses. (KC)

  10. Teaching Political Science with Chillers and Thrillers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuse, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses using popular detective and espionage fiction in courses related to area politics, international relations, political terrorism, socialization, and bureaucratic politics. Suggests several novels and ways in which they may be integrated into courses. (KC)

  11. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  12. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  13. Relative Contribution of Perception/Cognition and Language on Spatial Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Soonja; Hattrup, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of perception/cognition and language-specific semantics in nonverbal categorization of spatial relations. English and Korean speakers completed a video-based similarity judgment task involving containment, support, tight fit, and loose fit. Both perception/cognition and language served as resources…

  14. How sense-of-direction and learning intentionality relate to spatial knowledge acquisition in the environment.

    PubMed

    Burte, Heather; Montello, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    People's impression of their own "sense-of-direction" (SOD) is related to their ability to effectively find their way through environments, such as neighborhoods and cities, but is also related to the speed and accuracy with which they learn new environments. In the current literature, it is unclear whether the cognitive skills underlying SOD require intentional cognitive effort to produce accurate knowledge of a new environment. The cognitive skills underlying SOD could exert their influence automatically-without conscious intention-or they might need to be intentionally and effortfully applied. Determining the intentionality of acquiring environmental spatial knowledge would shed light on whether individuals with a poor SOD can be trained to use the skill set of an individual with good SOD, thereby improving their wayfinding and spatial learning. Therefore, this research investigates the accuracy of spatial knowledge acquisition during a walk through a previously unfamiliar neighborhood by individuals with differing levels of self-assessed SOD, as a function of whether their spatial learning was intentional or incidental. After walking a route through the neighborhood, participants completed landmark, route, and survey knowledge tasks. SOD was related to the accuracy of acquired spatial knowledge, as has been found previously. However, learning intentionality did not affect spatial knowledge acquisition, neither as a main effect nor in interaction with SOD. This research reveals that while the accuracy of spatial knowledge acquired via direct travel through an environment is validly measured by self-reported SOD, the spatial skills behind a good SOD appear to operate with or without intentional application.

  15. On the relative contributions of multisensory integration and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention to multisensory response enhancement.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Spence, C; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Stigchel, S

    2015-11-01

    Two processes that can give rise to multisensory response enhancement (MRE) are multisensory integration (MSI) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention. It is, however, currently unclear what the relative contribution of each of these is to MRE. We investigated this issue using two tasks that are generally assumed to measure MSI (a redundant target effect task) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention (a spatial cueing task). One block of trials consisted of unimodal auditory and visual targets designed to provide a unimodal baseline. In two other blocks of trials, the participants were presented with spatially and temporally aligned and misaligned audiovisual (AV) targets (0, 50, 100, and 200ms SOA). In the integration block, the participants were instructed to respond to the onset of the first target stimulus that they detected (A or V). The instruction for the cueing block was to respond only to the onset of the visual targets. The targets could appear at one of three locations: left, center, and right. The participants were instructed to respond only to lateral targets. The results indicated that MRE was caused by MSI at 0ms SOA. At 50ms SOA, both crossmodal exogenous spatial attention and MSI contributed to the observed MRE, whereas the MRE observed at the 100 and 200ms SOAs was attributable to crossmodal exogenous spatial attention, alerting, and temporal preparation. These results therefore suggest that there may be a temporal window in which both MSI and exogenous crossmodal spatial attention can contribute to multisensory response enhancement.

  16. Influence of anxiety in spatial memory impairments related to the loss of vestibular function in rat.

    PubMed

    Machado, M L; Lelong-Boulouard, V; Smith, P F; Freret, T; Philoxene, B; Denise, P; Besnard, S

    2012-08-30

    It is now well established that vestibular information plays an important role in spatial memory processes. Although vestibular lesions induce anxiety in humans, this finding remains controversial in rodents. However, it is possible that anxiety-related behavior is associated with spatial memory impairments after vestibular lesions. We aimed to evaluate anxiety-like behavior and the effect of an anxiolytic treatment during a complex spatial memory task in a rat model of compensated bilateral vestibular lesions. Adult rats were divided into four groups, with or without vestibular lesions and, treated or untreated by diazepam. The vestibular lesion was performed by transtympanic injection of arsanilate and compared to transtympanic saline injection. Diazepam or saline was administered 1h before each test or learning session. Vestibular-lesioned rats exhibited anxiety-like behavior which was decreased with diazepam. Spatial memory performance was similar in control-treated and untreated groups, suggesting no effect on memory at the dose of diazepam used. Spatial memory performances were not modified by anxiolytic drug treatment in vestibular-lesioned rats compared to vestibular-lesioned rats without drug treatment. We conclude that bilateral vestibular lesions in rats induced anxiety-like behavior which was unrelated to spatial memory impairment and was probably specifically related to the loss of vestibular information.

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns in macrofaunal diversity components relative to sea floor landscape structure.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Roman N; Vozarik, Joseph M; Gibbons, Brittney R

    2013-01-01

    We examined temporal changes in macrofaunal α- and β-diversity over several spatial scales (within patches, among patches, across landscapes and across regions) in Long Island Sound on the northeast USA coast. Regional ε-diversity was estimated at 144 taxa, however γ-diversity fluctuated over time as did α- and β-diversity components. Based on additive partitioning, patch- and region-scale β-diversity components generally had the highest contributions to γ-diversity; lower percentages were found at within-patch and landscape scales. Multiplicative diversity partitioning indicated highest species turnover at within- and among patch scales. For all partition results, within-patch and patch-scale β-diversity increased sharply when hypoxia impacted benthic communities. Spatial variation in diversity components can be attributed to the collection of different patch types at varying spatial scales and their associated habitats across the benthic landscapes, as well as gradients in depth and other estuarine-scale characteristics. Temporal variation in diversity components across spatial scales may be related to seasonal changes in habitat heterogeneity, species population dynamics, and seasonal disturbances. Rare species were significant and temporally consistent components of macrofaunal diversity patterns over different spatial scales. Our findings agree with other marine and terrestrial studies that show diversity components vary significantly over different spatial scales and the importance of habitat/landscape heterogeneity in supporting diversity. However, our results indicate that the relative contributions of scale-specific β-diversity components can also change significantly over time. Thus, studies of diversity patterns across patches and landscapes based on data collected at one time, or assembled into a single data set from different times, may not capture the full suite of diversity patterns that occur over varying spatial scales and any time

  18. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Macrofaunal Diversity Components Relative to Sea Floor Landscape Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Roman N.; Vozarik, Joseph M.; Gibbons, Brittney R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined temporal changes in macrofaunal α- and β-diversity over several spatial scales (within patches, among patches, across landscapes and across regions) in Long Island Sound on the northeast USA coast. Regional ε-diversity was estimated at 144 taxa, however γ-diversity fluctuated over time as did α- and β-diversity components. Based on additive partitioning, patch- and region-scale β-diversity components generally had the highest contributions to γ-diversity; lower percentages were found at within-patch and landscape scales. Multiplicative diversity partitioning indicated highest species turnover at within- and among patch scales. For all partition results, within-patch and patch-scale β-diversity increased sharply when hypoxia impacted benthic communities. Spatial variation in diversity components can be attributed to the collection of different patch types at varying spatial scales and their associated habitats across the benthic landscapes, as well as gradients in depth and other estuarine-scale characteristics. Temporal variation in diversity components across spatial scales may be related to seasonal changes in habitat heterogeneity, species population dynamics, and seasonal disturbances. Rare species were significant and temporally consistent components of macrofaunal diversity patterns over different spatial scales. Our findings agree with other marine and terrestrial studies that show diversity components vary significantly over different spatial scales and the importance of habitat/landscape heterogeneity in supporting diversity. However, our results indicate that the relative contributions of scale-specific β-diversity components can also change significantly over time. Thus, studies of diversity patterns across patches and landscapes based on data collected at one time, or assembled into a single data set from different times, may not capture the full suite of diversity patterns that occur over varying spatial scales and any time

  19. Building on What You Have Learned: Object Construction Skill during Infancy Predicts the Comprehension of Spatial Relations Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcinowski, Emily C.; Campbell, Julie Marie

    2017-01-01

    Object construction involves organizing multiple objects into a unified structure (e.g., stacking blocks into a tower) and may provide infants with unique spatial information. Because object construction entails placing objects in spatial locations relative to one another, infants can acquire information about spatial relations during construction…

  20. Drugs at the campsite: Socio-spatial relations and drug use at music festivals.

    PubMed

    Dilkes-Frayne, Ella

    2016-07-01

    Music festivals have received relatively little research attention despite being key sites for alcohol and drug use among young people internationally. Research into music festivals and the social contexts of drug use more generally, has tended to focus on social and cultural processes without sufficient regard for the mediating role of space and spatial processes. Adopting a relational approach to space and the social, from Actor-Network Theory and human geography, I examine how socio-spatial relations are generated in campsites at multiple-day music festivals. The data are drawn from ethnographic observations at music festivals around Melbourne, Australia; interviews with 18-23 year olds; and participant-written diaries. Through the analysis, the campsite is revealed as a space in process, the making of which is bound up in how drug use unfolds. Campsite relations mediate the formation of drug knowledge and norms, informal harm reduction practices, access to and exchange of drugs, and rest and recovery following drug use. Greater attendance to socio-spatial relations affords new insights regarding how festival spaces and their social effects are generated, and how they give rise to particular drug use practices. These findings also point to how festival harm reduction strategies might be enhanced through the promotion of enabling socio-spatial relations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative analysis of properties and spatial relations of fuzzy image regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnapuram, Raghu; Keller, James M.; Ma, Yibing

    1992-01-01

    Properties of objects and spatial relations between objects play an important role in rule-based approaches for high-level vision. The partial presence or absence of such properties and relationships can supply both positive and negative evidence for region labeling hypotheses. Similarly, fuzzy labeling of a region can generate new hypotheses pertaining to the properties of the region, its relation to the neighboring regions, and finally, the labels of the neighboring regions. In this paper, we present a unified methodology to characterize properties and spatial relationships of object regions in a digital image. The proposed methods can be used to arrive at more meaningful decisions about the contents of the scene.

  2. The relative influence of habitat amount and configuration on genetic structure across multiple spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Millette, Katie L; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong interest in understanding how habitat spatial structure shapes the genetics of populations, the relative importance of habitat amount and configuration for patterns of genetic differentiation remains largely unexplored in empirical systems. In this study, we evaluate the relative influence of, and interactions among, the amount of habitat and aspects of its spatial configuration on genetic differentiation in the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi. Larvae of this species are found exclusively within the water-filled leaves of pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) in a system that is naturally patchy at multiple spatial scales (i.e., leaf, plant, cluster, peatland). Using generalized linear mixed models and multimodel inference, we estimated effects of the amount of habitat, patch size, interpatch distance, and patch isolation, measured at different spatial scales, on genetic differentiation (FST) among larval samples from leaves within plants, plants within clusters, and clusters within peatlands. Among leaves and plants, genetic differentiation appears to be driven by female oviposition behaviors and is influenced by habitat isolation at a broad (peatland) scale. Among clusters, gene flow is spatially restricted and aspects of both the amount of habitat and configuration at the focal scale are important, as is their interaction. Our results suggest that both habitat amount and configuration can be important determinants of genetic structure and that their relative influence is scale dependent. PMID:25628865

  3. High cognitive reserve is associated with a reduced age-related deficit in spatial conflict resolution

    PubMed Central

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies support the existence of a specific age-related difficulty in suppressing potentially distracting information. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether spatial conflict resolution is selectively affected by aging. The way aging affects individuals could be modulated by many factors determined by the socieconomic status: we investigated whether factors such as cognitive reserve (CR) and years of education may play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in the spatial domain. A spatial Stroop task with no feature repetitions was administered to a sample of 17 non-demented older adults (69–79 years-old) and 18 younger controls (18–34 years-old) matched for gender and years of education. The two age groups were also administered with measures of intelligence and CR. The overall spatial Stroop effect did not differ according to age, neither for speed nor for accuracy. The two age groups equally showed sequential effects for congruent trials: reduced response times (RTs) if another congruent trial preceded them, and accuracy at ceiling. For incongruent trials, older adults, but not younger controls, were influenced by congruency of trialn−1, since RTs increased with preceding congruent trials. Interestingly, such an age-related modulation negatively correlated with CR. These findings suggest that spatial conflict resolution in aging is predominantly affected by general slowing, rather than by a more specific deficit. However, a high level of CR seems to play a compensatory role for both factors. PMID:23248595

  4. The relative influence of habitat amount and configuration on genetic structure across multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Millette, Katie L; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong interest in understanding how habitat spatial structure shapes the genetics of populations, the relative importance of habitat amount and configuration for patterns of genetic differentiation remains largely unexplored in empirical systems. In this study, we evaluate the relative influence of, and interactions among, the amount of habitat and aspects of its spatial configuration on genetic differentiation in the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi. Larvae of this species are found exclusively within the water-filled leaves of pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) in a system that is naturally patchy at multiple spatial scales (i.e., leaf, plant, cluster, peatland). Using generalized linear mixed models and multimodel inference, we estimated effects of the amount of habitat, patch size, interpatch distance, and patch isolation, measured at different spatial scales, on genetic differentiation (F ST) among larval samples from leaves within plants, plants within clusters, and clusters within peatlands. Among leaves and plants, genetic differentiation appears to be driven by female oviposition behaviors and is influenced by habitat isolation at a broad (peatland) scale. Among clusters, gene flow is spatially restricted and aspects of both the amount of habitat and configuration at the focal scale are important, as is their interaction. Our results suggest that both habitat amount and configuration can be important determinants of genetic structure and that their relative influence is scale dependent.

  5. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, N.; Riley, E.P.; Mattson, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Method Fifty-six children (29 AE, 27 CON) were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory and visual memory data were entered together on step 1 followed by group on step 2, and the interaction terms on step 3. Results Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures, however, model fit improved with the addition of group on step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. Conclusions These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PMID:25000323

  7. Hippocampal spatial mechanisms relate to the development of arithmetic symbol processing in children.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Romain; Epinat-Duclos, Justine; Léone, Jessica; Fayol, Michel; Thevenot, Catherine; Prado, Jérôme

    2017-06-13

    Understanding the meaning of abstract mathematical symbols is a cornerstone of arithmetic learning in children. Studies have long focused on the role of spatial intuitions in the processing of numerals. However, it has been argued that such intuitions may also underlie symbols that convey fundamental arithmetic concepts, such as arithmetic operators. In the present cross-sectional study, we used fMRI to investigate how and when associations between arithmetic operators and brain regions processing spatial information emerge in children from 3(rd) to 10(th) grade. We found that the mere perception of a '+' sign elicited grade-related increases of spatial activity in the right hippocampus. That is, merely perceiving '+' signs - without any operands - elicited enhanced hippocampal activity after around 7(th) grade (12-13 years old). In these children, hippocampal activity in response to a '+' sign was further correlated with the degree to which calculation performance was facilitated by the preview of that sign before an addition problem, an effect termed operator-priming. Grade-related increases of hippocampal spatial activity were operation-specific because they were not observed with '×' signs, which might evoke rote retrieval rather than numerical manipulation. Our study raises the possibility that hippocampal spatial mechanisms help build associations between some arithmetic operators and space throughout age and/or education. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Hemispheric lateralization in top-down attention during spatial relation processing: a Granger causal model approach.

    PubMed

    Falasca, N W; D'Ascenzo, S; Di Domenico, A; Onofrj, M; Tommasi, L; Laeng, B; Franciotti, R

    2015-04-01

    Magnetoencephalography was recorded during a matching-to-sample plus cueing paradigm, in which participants judged the occurrence of changes in either categorical (CAT) or coordinate (COO) spatial relations. Previously, parietal and frontal lobes were identified as key areas in processing spatial relations and it was shown that each hemisphere was differently involved and modulated by the scope of the attention window (e.g. a large and small cue). In this study, Granger analysis highlighted the patterns of causality among involved brain areas--the direction of information transfer ran from the frontal to the visual cortex in the right hemisphere, whereas it ran in the opposite direction in the left side. Thus, the right frontal area seems to exert top-down influence, supporting the idea that, in this task, top-down signals are selectively related to the right side. Additionally, for CAT change preceded by a small cue, the right frontal gyrus was not involved in the information transfer, indicating a selective specialization of the left hemisphere for this condition. The present findings strengthen the conclusion of the presence of a remarkable hemispheric specialization for spatial relation processing and illustrate the complex interactions between the lateralized parts of the neural network. Moreover, they illustrate how focusing attention over large or small regions of the visual field engages these lateralized networks differently, particularly in the frontal regions of each hemisphere, consistent with the theory that spatial relation judgements require a fronto-parietal network in the left hemisphere for categorical relations and on the right hemisphere for coordinate spatial processing.

  9. Qualitative Differences in the Representation of Spatial Relations for Different Object Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Eric E.; Brooks, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the representations used for animal, produce, and object recognition code spatial relations in a similar manner. Experiment 1 tested the effects of planar rotation on the recognition of animals and nonanimal objects. Response times for recognizing animals followed an inverted U-shaped function, whereas those…

  10. Qualitative Differences in the Representation of Spatial Relations for Different Object Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Eric E.; Brooks, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the representations used for animal, produce, and object recognition code spatial relations in a similar manner. Experiment 1 tested the effects of planar rotation on the recognition of animals and nonanimal objects. Response times for recognizing animals followed an inverted U-shaped function, whereas those…

  11. Use of Self-to-Object and Object-to-Object Spatial Relations in Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chengli; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    In 8 experiments, the authors examined the use of representations of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial relations during locomotion. Participants learned geometrically regular or irregular layouts of objects while standing at the edge or in the middle and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in 3 conditions: before turning (baseline),…

  12. Use of Self-to-Object and Object-to-Object Spatial Relations in Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chengli; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    In 8 experiments, the authors examined the use of representations of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial relations during locomotion. Participants learned geometrically regular or irregular layouts of objects while standing at the edge or in the middle and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in 3 conditions: before turning (baseline),…

  13. Using remotely sensed data to construct and assess forest attribute maps and related spatial products

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Warren B. Cohen; Erik Naesset; Stephen V. Stehman; Erkki O. Tomppo

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous advances in the construction and assessment of forest attribute maps and related spatial products have been realized in recent years, partly as a result of the use of remotely sensed data as an information source. This review focuses on the current state of techniques for the construction and assessment of remote sensing-based maps and addresses five topic...

  14. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  15. Temporal, Spatial and Embodied Relations in the Teacher's Day at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Janet; Gordon, Tuula; Lahelma, Elina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on a cross-cultural ethnographic study conducted in two secondary schools in Helsinki (Finland), and two in London (UK). In our analysis of everyday life in schools, space is not merely a backdrop to activities that take place, it also shapes processes and activities, and spatial relations are simultaneously temporal. Here,…

  16. Spatializing Marxist Educational Theory: School, the Built Environment, Fixed Capital and (Relational) Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, educational theory has begun to incorporate analyses of space where formerly temporal considerations dominated. In this article, Marxist educational theory is spatialized by considering the school as (1) a form of fixed capital, (2) a crucial aspect of the built environment and (3) a relational space. The author begins…

  17. Design of a spatial data structure using the relational normal forms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Roessel, Jan W.

    1987-01-01

    In previous work, a relational data structure aimed at the exchange of spatial data between systems was developed. As this data structure was relational it was of first normal form, but compliance with the higher normal forms was not investigated. Recently, a new procedural method for composing fully normalized data structures from the basic data fields has been developed by H. C. Smith, as an alternative to the process of non-loss decomposition which is difficult to understand. Smith's method has been applied to data fields required to store points, lines and polygons in a chain-node spatial data model. When geographic domain, coverage layer and map are also considered, the procedure naturally leads to a catalogue model, needed for the exchange of spatial data. Although the method produces a fully normalized data structure, it is not as easy to identify which normal forms are responsible for the ultimate arrangement of the data fields into relations, but the benefits of these criteria for data base development also apply to spatial data structures and related ancillary data.

  18. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  19. Sex Differences in the Relation between Math Performance, Spatial Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…

  20. Spatializing Marxist Educational Theory: School, the Built Environment, Fixed Capital and (Relational) Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, educational theory has begun to incorporate analyses of space where formerly temporal considerations dominated. In this article, Marxist educational theory is spatialized by considering the school as (1) a form of fixed capital, (2) a crucial aspect of the built environment and (3) a relational space. The author begins…

  1. Where music meets space: Children's sensitivity to pitch intervals is related to their mental spatial transformation skills.

    PubMed

    Möhring, Wenke; Ramsook, Kizzann Ashana; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Golinkoff, Roberta M; Newcombe, Nora S

    2016-06-01

    Relations have been found among various continuous dimensions, including space and musical pitch. To probe the nature and development of space-pitch mappings, we tested 5- to 7-year-olds and adults (N=69), who heard pitch intervals and were asked to choose the corresponding spatial representation. Results showed that children and adults both mapped pitches continuously onto space, although effects were stronger in older than younger children. Additionally, children's spatial and numerical skills were tested, showing a relation between children's spatial and pitch-matching skills, and between their spatial and numerical skills. However, pitch and number were not related, suggesting spatial underpinnings for pitch and number.

  2. The Politics of Drug Trafficking in Mexican and Mexico-Related Narconovelas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaversich, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This essay traces the emergence of the Mexican and Mexico-related narconovela. It examines perspectives on drug trafficking and traffickers expressed in novels by Elmer Mendoza, Leonides Alfaro, Gerardo Cornejo, Homero Aridjis, Arturo Perez-Reverte, and Paul Flores. The variety of positions taken refutes the tendency of the Mexican mainstream…

  3. Polite, Instrumental, and Dual Liars: Relation to Children's Developing Social Skills and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Jennifer; Yachison, Sarah; Crossman, Angela; Talwar, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Lying is an interpersonal exercise that requires the intentional creation of a false belief in another's mind. As such, children's development of lie-telling is related to their increasing understanding of others and may reflect the acquisition of basic social skills. Although certain types of lies may support social relationships, other types of…

  4. The Politics of Drug Trafficking in Mexican and Mexico-Related Narconovelas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaversich, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This essay traces the emergence of the Mexican and Mexico-related narconovela. It examines perspectives on drug trafficking and traffickers expressed in novels by Elmer Mendoza, Leonides Alfaro, Gerardo Cornejo, Homero Aridjis, Arturo Perez-Reverte, and Paul Flores. The variety of positions taken refutes the tendency of the Mexican mainstream…

  5. Polite, Instrumental, and Dual Liars: Relation to Children's Developing Social Skills and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Jennifer; Yachison, Sarah; Crossman, Angela; Talwar, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Lying is an interpersonal exercise that requires the intentional creation of a false belief in another's mind. As such, children's development of lie-telling is related to their increasing understanding of others and may reflect the acquisition of basic social skills. Although certain types of lies may support social relationships, other types of…

  6. Political Violence and Adolescent Out-group Attitudes and Prosocial Behaviors: Implications for Positive Inter-group Relations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed; Cummings, E Mark

    2014-11-01

    The negative impact of political violence on adolescent adjustment is well-established. Less is known about factors that affect adolescents' positive outcomes in ethnically-divided societies, especially influences on prosocial behaviors toward the outgroup, which may promote constructive relations. For example, understanding how intergroup experiences and attitudes motivate outgroup helping may foster intergroup cooperation and help to consolidate peace. The current study investigated adolescents' overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors across two time points in Belfast, Northern Ireland (N = 714 dyads; 49% male; Time 1: M = 14.7, SD = 2.0, years old). Controlling for Time 1 prosocial behaviors, age and gender, multivariate structural equation modeling showed that experience with intergroup sectarian threat predicted fewer outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2 at the trend level. On the other hand, greater experience of intragroup nonsectarian threat at Time 1 predicted more overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2. Moreover, positive outgroup attitudes strengthened the link between intragroup threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors one year later. Finally, experience with intragroup nonsectarian threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 1 was related to more positive outgroup attitudes at Time 2. The implications for youth development and intergroup relations in post-accord societies are discussed.

  7. Spatial Relationships of Auroral Particle Acceleration Relative to High Latitude Plasma Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghielmetti, Arthur G.

    1997-01-01

    This final report describes the activities under NASA contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. It covers the period from 10-1-94 to 12-31-97. The objective of this investigation is to identify and characterize the spatial relationships of auroral particle acceleration features relative to the characteristic transition features in the surrounding polar ionospheric plasmas. Due to the reduced funding level approved for this contract, the original scope of the proposed work was readjusted with the focus placed on examining spatial relationships with respect to particle structures.

  8. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    9 Mauricio Funes, “Discurso Toma de Posesión,” June 1, 2009; “Normalizan El Salvador y Cuba relaciones ...CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and Policy Issues, by Clare Ribando Seelke and June S. Beittel; and CRS...already reestablished diplomatic relations with Cuba .9 Challenges for the Funes Administration Opposition Legislature Although the FMLN increased its

  9. Smoothing individual head-related transfer functions in the frequency and spatial domains.

    PubMed

    Rasumow, Eugen; Blau, Matthias; Hansen, Martin; van de Par, Steven; Doclo, Simon; Mellert, Volker; Püschel, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    When re-synthesizing individual head related transfer functions (HRTFs) with a microphone array, smoothing HRTFs spectrally and/or spatially prior to the computation of appropriate microphone filters may improve the synthesis accuracy. In this study, the limits of the associated HRTF modifications, until which no perceptual degradations occur, are explored. First, complex spectral smoothing of HRTFs into constant relative bandwidths was considered. As a prerequisite to complex smoothing, the HRTF phase spectra were substituted by linear phases, either for the whole frequency range or above a certain cut-off frequency only. The results indicate that a broadband phase linearization of HRTFs can be perceived for certain directions/subjects and that the thresholds can be predicted by a simple model. HRTF phase spectra can be linearized above 1 kHz without being detectable. After substituting the original phase by a linear phase above 5 kHz, HRTFs may be smoothed complexly into constant relative bandwidths of 1/5 octave, without introducing noticeable artifacts. Second, spatially smoother HRTF directivity patterns were obtained by levelling out spatial notches. It turned out that spatial notches do not have to be retained if they are less than 29 dB below the maximum level in the directivity pattern.

  10. Relative roles of spatial processes, natural factors and anthropogenic stressors in structuring a lake macroinvertebrate metacommunity.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongjiu; Xu, Hao; Vilmi, Annika; Tolonen, Kimmo T; Tang, Xiangming; Qin, Boqiang; Gong, Zhijun; Heino, Jani

    2017-12-01

    Studies of aquatic metacommunities have so far been focused almost entirely on relatively isolated systems, such as a set of streams, lakes or ponds. Here, we aimed to quantify the relative importance of spatial processes, natural factors and anthropogenic stressors in structuring of a macroinvertebrate metacommunity within a large, highly-connected shallow lake system. The roles of different drivers were evaluated for the entire metacommunity, 10 trait-based deconstructed metacommunities and four common species by incorporating extensive sampling and a large number of abiotic explanatory variables. Contrary to our expectations, we found that variation in community structure among sites was mostly correlated to spatial and wind-wave variables rather than anthropogenic disturbance factors even though the lake presented strong environmental gradients associated with long-term human pressures. In addition, the relative importance of the three groups of drivers varied slightly among the deconstructed trait matrices (i.e. based on dispersal ability, feeding mode and degree of occurrence). Importantly, the distributions of the most common species showed significant and strong spatial autocorrelation, indicating the prominent role of high dispersal rate for their distributions. These findings suggest that the influences of high dispersal rates and natural disturbance may even override the roles of anthropogenic stressors in metacommunity organization in highly-connected aquatic systems. Hence, we strongly encourage that spatial processes and natural drivers are taken into account in the development of bioassessment approaches in highly-connected aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A flexible parametric approach to examining spatial variation in relative survival.

    PubMed

    Cramb, Susanna M; Mengersen, Kerrie L; Lambert, Paul C; Ryan, Louise M; Baade, Peter D

    2016-12-20

    Most of the few published models used to obtain small-area estimates of relative survival are based on a generalized linear model with piecewise constant hazards under a Bayesian formulation. Limitations of these models include the need to artificially split the time scale, restricted ability to include continuous covariates, and limited predictive capacity. Here, an alternative Bayesian approach is proposed: a spatial flexible parametric relative survival model. This overcomes previous limitations by combining the benefits of flexible parametric models: the smooth, well-fitting baseline hazard functions and predictive ability, with the Bayesian benefits of robust and reliable small-area estimates. Both spatially structured and unstructured frailty components are included. Spatial smoothing is conducted using the intrinsic conditional autoregressive prior. The model was applied to breast, colorectal, and lung cancer data from the Queensland Cancer Registry across 478 geographical areas. Advantages of this approach include the ease of including more realistic complexity, the feasibility of using individual-level input data, and the capacity to conduct overall, cause-specific, and relative survival analysis within the same framework. Spatial flexible parametric survival models have great potential for exploring small-area survival inequalities, and we hope to stimulate further use of these models within wider contexts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Hierarchical spatial models for predicting pygmy rabbit distribution and relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, T.L.; Odei, J.B.; Hooten, M.B.; Edwards, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Conservationists routinely use species distribution models to plan conservation, restoration and development actions, while ecologists use them to infer process from pattern. These models tend to work well for common or easily observable species, but are of limited utility for rare and cryptic species. This may be because honest accounting of known observation bias and spatial autocorrelation are rarely included, thereby limiting statistical inference of resulting distribution maps. We specified and implemented a spatially explicit Bayesian hierarchical model for a cryptic mammal species (pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis). Our approach used two levels of indirect sign that are naturally hierarchical (burrows and faecal pellets) to build a model that allows for inference on regression coefficients as well as spatially explicit model parameters. We also produced maps of rabbit distribution (occupied burrows) and relative abundance (number of burrows expected to be occupied by pygmy rabbits). The model demonstrated statistically rigorous spatial prediction by including spatial autocorrelation and measurement uncertainty. We demonstrated flexibility of our modelling framework by depicting probabilistic distribution predictions using different assumptions of pygmy rabbit habitat requirements. Spatial representations of the variance of posterior predictive distributions were obtained to evaluate heterogeneity in model fit across the spatial domain. Leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted to evaluate the overall model fit. Synthesis and applications. Our method draws on the strengths of previous work, thereby bridging and extending two active areas of ecological research: species distribution models and multi-state occupancy modelling. Our framework can be extended to encompass both larger extents and other species for which direct estimation of abundance is difficult. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 British Ecological Society.

  13. Spatial Partitioning of miRNAs Is Related to Sequence Similarity in Overall Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Seffens, William; Abebe, Fisseha; Evans, Chad; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2016-01-01

    RNAs have been shown to exhibit differential enrichment between nuclear, cytoplasmic, and exosome fractions. A current fundamental question asks why non-coding RNA partition into different spatial compartments. We report on the analysis of cellular compartment models with miRNA data sources for spatial-mechanistic modeling to address the broad area of multi-scalar cellular communication by miRNAs. We show that spatial partitioning of miRNAs is related to sequence similarity to the overall transcriptome. This has broad implications in biological informatics for gene regulation and provides a deeper understanding of nucleotide sequence structure and RNA language meaning for human pathologies resulting from changes in gene expression. PMID:27338352

  14. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  15. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  16. Medial temporal lobe coding of item and spatial information during relational binding in working memory.

    PubMed

    Libby, Laura A; Hannula, Deborah E; Ranganath, Charan

    2014-10-22

    Several models have proposed that different medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions represent different kinds of information in the service of long-term memory. For instance, it has been proposed that perirhinal cortex (PRC), parahippocampal cortex (PHC), and hippocampus differentially support long-term memory for item information, spatial context, and item-context relations present during an event, respectively. Recent evidence has indicated that, in addition to long-term memory, MTL subregions may similarly contribute to processes that support the retention of complex spatial arrangements of objects across short delays. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivoxel pattern similarity analysis to investigate the extent to which human MTL regions independently code for object and spatial information, as well as the conjunction of this information, during working memory encoding and active maintenance. Voxel activity patterns in PRC, temporopolar cortex, and amygdala carried information about individual objects, whereas activity patterns in the PHC and posterior hippocampus carried information about the configuration of spatial locations that was to be remembered. Additionally, the integrity of multivoxel patterns in the right anterior hippocampus across encoding and delay periods was predictive of accurate short-term memory for object-location relationships. These results are consistent with parallel processing of item and spatial context information by PRC and PHC, respectively, and the binding of item and context by the hippocampus.

  17. Medial Temporal Lobe Coding of Item and Spatial Information during Relational Binding in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan

    2014-01-01

    Several models have proposed that different medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions represent different kinds of information in the service of long-term memory. For instance, it has been proposed that perirhinal cortex (PRC), parahippocampal cortex (PHC), and hippocampus differentially support long-term memory for item information, spatial context, and item–context relations present during an event, respectively. Recent evidence has indicated that, in addition to long-term memory, MTL subregions may similarly contribute to processes that support the retention of complex spatial arrangements of objects across short delays. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivoxel pattern similarity analysis to investigate the extent to which human MTL regions independently code for object and spatial information, as well as the conjunction of this information, during working memory encoding and active maintenance. Voxel activity patterns in PRC, temporopolar cortex, and amygdala carried information about individual objects, whereas activity patterns in the PHC and posterior hippocampus carried information about the configuration of spatial locations that was to be remembered. Additionally, the integrity of multivoxel patterns in the right anterior hippocampus across encoding and delay periods was predictive of accurate short-term memory for object–location relationships. These results are consistent with parallel processing of item and spatial context information by PRC and PHC, respectively, and the binding of item and context by the hippocampus. PMID:25339737

  18. Morris water maze: procedures for assessing spatial and related forms of learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    The Morris water maze (MWM) is a test of spatial learning for rodents that relies on distal cues to navigate from start locations around the perimeter of an open swimming arena to locate a submerged escape platform. Spatial learning is assessed across repeated trials and reference memory is determined by preference for the platform area when the platform is absent. Reversal and shift trials enhance the detection of spatial impairments. Trial-dependent, latent and discrimination learning can be assessed using modifications of the basic protocol. Search-to-platform area determines the degree of reliance on spatial versus non-spatial strategies. Cued trials determine whether performance factors that are unrelated to place learning are present. Escape from water is relatively immune from activity or body mass differences, making it ideal for many experimental models. The MWM has proven to be a robust and reliable test that is strongly correlated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. We present protocols for performing variants of the MWM test, from which results can be obtained from individual animals in as few as 6 days. PMID:17406317

  19. Types of Reasoning in Framing Based Plant Anatomy and It Relation to Spatial Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermayanti; Rustaman, N. Y.; Rahmat, A.

    2017-02-01

    A study about the spatial framing in plant anatomy course was conducted to investigate the role of framing in improving student reasoning in understanding the structure and function of plant and its relation to spatial thinking. A number of biology students (n=35) at State University in South Sumatra, Indonesia was involved as participants in this study. Data was collected using reasoning test based on Marzano framework and spatial thinking instrument test that had been developed and based on expert judgment. Data obtained was processed by calculating the average and percentage (%) on each indicator. Research findings show that there was improvement in reasoning and spatial thinking of students after having experience through framing based learning with an average N-gain 51.9 and 46.6 (moderate category). Learning of framing based plant anatomy course improved the students reasoning at each indicator. Students reasoning before and after learning based framing instruction are: (1) comparing (41.1 and 87.4); (2) classifying (14.7 and 77.1); (3) inducing (28.6 and 64.6); (4) deducing (15.7 and 55.7); (5) analyzing error (21.9 and 40.0); (6) constructing support (33.3 and 54.3); (7) abstracting (31.4 and 34.3); and (8) analyzing perspective (38.3 and 47.1). Analysis of the relationship between reasoning related concepts of plant anatomy and spatial thinking showed r=0.454 (p=0.00*>0.01) (significant correlation). Further it was found that students’ spatial thinking including generating a representation (i); maintaining a representations in working memory (ii); scanning the representation (iii); and transforming of representation (iv) are factors that improved student reasoning.

  20. Relations between political violence and child adjustment: a four-wave test of the role of emotional insecurity about community.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-12-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children's trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age, and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children's emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children's adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time.

  1. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2015-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children’s emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a four-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the four-waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children’s trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children’s emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children’s adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time. PMID:23527495

  2. The politics of protection: aid, human rights discourse, and power relations in Kyaka II settlement, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Clark-Kazak, Christina R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualisation and application of 'protection' by the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR), Ugandan government, and Congolese refugees in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Analysing the origins and consequences of a demonstration against school fees, and drawing on other ethnographic data, it explores how different interpretations of this incident reflect different conceptions of, and approaches to, protection. Ugandan government officials viewed the demonstration as a security incident; Congolese and Ugandan adults responded with increased monitoring and 'sheltering' of children and young people; students justified the demonstration as a legitimate manifestation of their rights; while UNHCR promoted assistance and resettlement. The paper argues that prevailing protection responses, including 'sensitisation', sheltering, and resettlement, are de-contextualised from daily realities and fail to address the underlying power relations that undermine protection. It concludes with recommendations on how international refugee agencies can reorient assistance to address protection concerns in refugee contexts.

  3. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations.

  4. Research on Extension of Sparql Ontology Query Language Considering the Computation of Indoor Spatial Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zhu, X.; Guo, W.; Liu, Y.; Huang, H.

    2015-05-01

    A method suitable for indoor complex semantic query considering the computation of indoor spatial relations is provided According to the characteristics of indoor space. This paper designs ontology model describing the space related information of humans, events and Indoor space objects (e.g. Storey and Room) as well as their relations to meet the indoor semantic query. The ontology concepts are used in IndoorSPARQL query language which extends SPARQL syntax for representing and querying indoor space. And four types specific primitives for indoor query, "Adjacent", "Opposite", "Vertical" and "Contain", are defined as query functions in IndoorSPARQL used to support quantitative spatial computations. Also a method is proposed to analysis the query language. Finally this paper adopts this method to realize indoor semantic query on the study area through constructing the ontology model for the study building. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively support complex indoor space semantic query.

  5. Relative contribution of perception/cognition and language on spatial categorization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soonja; Hattrup, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of perception/cognition and language-specific semantics in nonverbal categorization of spatial relations. English and Korean speakers completed a video-based similarity judgment task involving containment, support, tight fit, and loose fit. Both perception/cognition and language served as resources for categorization, and allocation between the two depended on the target relation and the features contrasted in the choices. Whereas perceptual/cognitive salience for containment and tight-fit features guided categorization in many contexts, language-specific semantics influenced categorization where the two features competed for similarity judgment and when the target relation was tight support, a domain where spatial relations are perceptually diverse. In the latter contexts, each group categorized more in line with semantics of their language, that is, containment/support for English and tight/loose fit for Korean. We conclude that language guides spatial categorization when perception/cognition alone is not sufficient. In this way, language is an integral part of our cognitive domain of space.

  6. Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Letícia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assunção, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities. PMID:24244776

  7. Spatial and temporal analysis of the distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Buenos Aires Province, and its relation to rodent distribution, agricultural and demographic variables.

    PubMed

    Busch, M; Cavia, R; Carbajo, A E; Bellomo, C; Gonzalez Capria, S; Padula, P

    2004-04-01

    We studied the spatial and temporal distribution of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) cases from 1998 to 2001 in the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. HPS is a severe viral disease whose natural reservoir are rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae (Muridae) and which occurs in many countries of South and North America. We considered two spatial arrangements: cells of 18.5 x 18.5 km(2); and departments, the political subdivisions of the province, as spatial units. We tested the departure from a Poisson distribution of the number of cases per cell and per month with the Variance/Mean index, while the interaction between spatial and temporal clustering was tested by means of the Knox and Mantel tests. We constructed probability maps in which the HPS rates per department were considered Poisson variates according to population, area and the product of population and area. We analysed the relation between rodent distribution, environmental and demographic variables and HPS cases conducting preliminary univariate analysis from which we selected variables to enter in general linearized models. We found that both the spatial and temporal distribution of cases is strongly aggregated. The spatiotemporal interaction appears to be related to a strong seasonality and the existence of particular ecological conditions rather than epidemic transmission of the disease. The main explanatory variables for the distribution of HPS cases among the departments of the Buenos Aires Province were human population, the distribution of the rodent Oxymycterus rufus and evapotranspiration. The last two variables are probably indicators of favourable ecological conditions for the reservoirs, which encompass other variables not taken into account in this study.

  8. Variability and uncertainty in spatial, temporal and spatiotemporal crop-yield and related data.

    PubMed

    McBratney, A B; Whelan, B M; Shatar, T M

    1997-01-01

    Application of the theories of precision agriculture to the practicalities of broad-acre farming relies on successful handling of the ramifications of uncertainty in information, i.e. information pertaining to the spatial and temporal variation of those factors which determine yield components and/or environmental losses. This paper discusses the uncertainty of yield and related variables as measured by their spatial and temporal variance. The magnitude of these two components gives a suggestion as to the appropriate scale of management. Simultaneous reporting on spatial and temporal variation is rare and the theory of these types of process is still in its infancy. Some brief theory is presented, followed by several examples from the Rothamsted classic experiments, yield-monitoring experiments in Australia, a long-term barley trial in Denmark, and a soil moisture monitoring network. It is clear that annual temporal variation is much larger than the spatial variation within single fields. This leads to the conclusion that if precision agriculture is to have a sound scientific basis and ultimately a practical outcome then the null hypothesis that still remains to be seriously researched is: 'given the large temporal variation in yields relative to the scale of a single field, then the optimal risk aversion strategy is uniform management.'

  9. Spatial Frequencies Used in Landolt C Orientation Judgments: Relation to Inferred Magnocellular and Parvocellular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    McAnany, J. Jason; Alexander, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the spatial frequencies that underlie judgments of Landolt C orientation under test conditions designed to favor either the magnocellular (MC) or parvocellular (PC) pathway. Contrast thresholds of two observers were measured for briefly presented Landolt Cs of four sizes, using steady- and pulsed-pedestal paradigms to bias performance toward the MC and PC pathways, respectively. Contrast thresholds were derived from a two-alternative forced-choice orientation judgment task using the QUEST procedure. The Landolt Cs were either low-pass or high-pass Gaussian filtered with a range of cut-off object spatial frequencies (cycles per letter) to limit their frequency content. Center object frequencies were derived from plots of log contrast threshold for orientation judgments vs. log filter cutoff object frequency. The function relating center object frequency to Landolt C angular subtense was nonlinear on log-log coordinates for both the steady- and pulsed-pedestal paradigms, indicating that different object frequencies were used to judge Landolt C orientation at different optotype sizes. However, the function was substantially steeper under the pulsed-pedestal than under the steady-pedestal paradigm, such that a large change in optotype size produced a relatively small change in retinal spatial frequency (cycles per degree). The pattern of results is consistent with previously reported differences between the spatial contrast sensitivity functions of the inferred MC and PC pathways. PMID:18374385

  10. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  11. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake":…

  12. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake":…

  13. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  14. Teaching Politically without Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…

  15. Effects of the global and local attention on the processing of categorical and coordinate spatial relations.

    PubMed

    Michimata, Chikashi; Saneyoshi, Ayako; Okubo, Matia; Laeng, Bruno

    2011-11-01

    Participants made categorical or coordinate spatial judgments on the global or local elements of shapes. Stimuli were composed of a horizontal line and two dots. In the Categorical task, participants judged whether the line was above or below the dots. In the Coordinate task, they judged whether the line would fit between the dots. Stimuli were made hierarchical so that the global patterns composed of a "global line" made of local dots-and-line units, and "global dot" made of a single dots-and-line unit. The results indicated that the categorical task was better performed when participants attended to the local level of the hierarchical stimuli. On the other hand, the coordinate task was better performed when they attended to the global level. These findings are consistent with computer simulation models of the attentional modulation of neuronal receptive fields' size suggesting that (1) coordinate spatial relations are more efficiently encoded when one attends to a relatively large region of space, whereas (2) categorical spatial relations are more efficiently encoded when one attends to a relatively small region of space. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relative Contributions of Visual and Auditory Spatial Representations to Tactile Localization

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Spatial localization of touch is critically dependent upon coordinate transformation between different reference frames, which must ultimately allow for alignment between somatotopic and external representations of space. Although prior work has shown an important role for cues such as body posture in influencing the spatial localization of touch, the relative contributions of the different sensory systems to this process are unknown. In the current study, we had participants perform a tactile temporal order judgment (TOJ) under different body postures and conditions of sensory deprivation. Specifically, participants performed non-speeded judgments about the order of two tactile stimuli presented in rapid succession on their ankles during conditions in which their legs were either uncrossed or crossed (and thus bringing somatotopic and external reference frames into conflict). These judgments were made in the absence of 1) visual, 2) auditory, or 3) combined audio-visual spatial information by blindfolding and/or placing participants in an anechoic chamber. As expected, results revealed that tactile temporal acuity was poorer under crossed than uncrossed leg postures. Intriguingly, results also revealed that auditory and audio-visual deprivation exacerbated the difference in tactile temporal acuity between uncrossed to crossed leg postures, an effect not seen for visual-only deprivation. Furthermore, the effects under combined audio-visual deprivation were greater than those seen for auditory deprivation. Collectively, these results indicate that mechanisms governing the alignment between somatotopic and external reference frames extend beyond those imposed by body posture to include spatial features conveyed by the auditory and visual modalities – with a heavier weighting of auditory than visual spatial information. Thus, sensory modalities conveying exteroceptive spatial information contribute to judgments regarding the localization of touch. PMID:26768124

  17. When I equals we: exploring the relation between social and personal identity of extreme right-wing political party members.

    PubMed

    Baray, Gamze; Postmes, Tom; Jetten, Jolanda

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces the concept of self-defining groups to explain how personal and social aspects of identity relate to each other among members of an extreme right-wing political party. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 examined how affiliation with a social group that has clear-cut, rigid norms and values affects the personal and social self-concept. Participants were members of a (self-defining) Turkish nationalist organisation (N=66) and a control group of Turkish university students (N=58). Paradoxically, high levels of national identification were associated with stronger personal identity. Study 2 used the same participant population (N=177) and manipulated self-focused attention by means of a mirror. Self-aware members reported the highest levels of identification with the nationalist organisation. Results suggest that members of this groups show no signs of 'vanishing individuality': although boundaries between personal and social identities are blurred, extremist group members retain a distinct and strengthened sense of personal identity. This raises some interesting questions for the concept of personal identity and how it can be informed by the content of one's social identity.

  18. Neuropolitics: EEG spectral maps related to a political vote based on the first impression of the candidate's face.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, G; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Astolfi, L; De Vico Fallani, F; Aloise, F; Mattia, D; Bocale, S; Vernucci, F; Babiloni, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the EEG activity elicited by a fast observation of face of real politicians during a simulated political election. Politician's face are taken from real local election performed in Italy in the 2004 and 2008. We recorded the EEG activity of eight healthy subjects while they are asked to give a judgment on dominance, trustworthiness traits and a preference of vote on faces shown. Statistical differences of spectral EEG scalp activity have been mapped onto a realistic head model. For each experimental condition, we employed the t-test to compare the PSD values and adopted the False Discovery Rate correction for multiple comparisons. The scalp statistical maps revealed a desynchronization in the alpha band related to the politicians who lost the simulated elections and have been judged less trustworthy. Although these results might be congruent with the recent literature, the present is the first EEG study about and there is the need to extend the paradigm and the analysis on a larger number of subjects to validate these results.

  19. Spatial vulnerability of fine particulate matter relative to the prevalence of diabetes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-03-01

    Recent research supports a link between diabetes and fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5μg in diameter; PM2.5) in both laboratory and epidemiology studies. However, research investigating the potential relationship of the spatial vulnerability of diabetes to concomitant PM2.5 levels is still sparse, and the level of diabetes geographic disparities attributed to PM2.5 levels has yet to be evaluated. We conducted a Bayesian structured additive regression modeling approach to determine whether long-term exposure to PM2.5 is spatially associated with diabetes prevalence after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of county residents. This study utilizes the following data sources from 2004 to 2010: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the American Community Survey, and the Environmental Protection Agency. We also conducted spatial comparisons with low, median-low, median-high, and high levels of PM2.5 concentrations. When PM2.5 concentrations increased 1 μg/m(3), the increase in the relative risk percentage for diabetes ranged from -5.47% (95% credible interval = -6.14, -4.77) to 2.34% (95% CI = 2.01, 2.70), where 1323 of 3109 counties (42.55%) displayed diabetes vulnerability with significantly positive relative risk percentages. These vulnerable counties are more likely located in the Southeast, Central, and South Regions of the U.S. A similar spatial vulnerability pattern for concentrations of low PM2.5 levels was also present in these same three regions. A clear cluster of vulnerable counties at median-high PM2.5 level was found in Michigan. This study identifies the spatial vulnerability of diabetes prevalence associated with PM2.5, and thereby provides the evidence needed to prompt and establish enhanced surveillance that can monitor diabetes vulnerability in areas with low PM2.5 pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Residual abilities in age-related macular degeneration to process spatial frequencies during natural scene categorization.

    PubMed

    Musel, Benoit; Hera, Ruxandra; Chokron, Sylvie; Alleysson, David; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Guyader, Nathalie; Peyrin, Carole

    2011-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by a central vision loss. We explored the relationship between the retinal lesions in AMD patients and the processing of spatial frequencies in natural scene categorization. Since the lesion on the retina is central, we expected preservation of low spatial frequency (LSF) processing and the impairment of high spatial frequency (HSF) processing. We conducted two experiments that differed in the set of scene stimuli used and their exposure duration. Twelve AMD patients and 12 healthy age-matched participants in Experiment 1 and 10 different AMD patients and 10 healthy age-matched participants in Experiment 2 performed categorization tasks of natural scenes (Indoors vs. Outdoors) filtered in LSF and HSF. Experiment 1 revealed that AMD patients made more no-responses to categorize HSF than LSF scenes, irrespective of the scene category. In addition, AMD patients had longer reaction times to categorize HSF than LSF scenes only for indoors. Healthy participants' performance was not differentially affected by spatial frequency content of the scenes. In Experiment 2, AMD patients demonstrated the same pattern of errors as in Experiment 1. Furthermore, AMD patients had longer reaction times to categorize HSF than LSF scenes, irrespective of the scene category. Again, spatial frequency processing was equivalent for healthy participants. The present findings point to a specific deficit in the processing of HSF information contained in photographs of natural scenes in AMD patients. The processing of LSF information is relatively preserved. Moreover, the fact that the deficit is more important when categorizing HSF indoors, may lead to new perspectives for rehabilitation procedures in AMD.

  1. Relationships among different stages of Piagetian tasks and spatial relations in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, J D; Brekke, B W

    1979-06-01

    High school students aged 15 through 19 years (N = 116) were administered three Piagetian type tasks (conservation of weight, paper and pencil tests of concrete-operational reasoning and formal-operational reasoning) and a measure of spatial relations (the Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test). While a path analysis showed there were logically expected relationships among the tasks, neither sex differences nor age differences were found on any of the measures.

  2. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  3. Relating geographical variation in pollination types to environmental and spatial factors using novel statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Ingolf; Bierman, Stijn Martinus; Durka, Walter; Klotz, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The relative frequencies of functional traits of plant species show notable spatial variation, which is often related to environmental factors. Pollination type (insect-, wind- or self-pollination) is a critical trait for plant reproduction and provision of ecosystem services. Here, we mapped the distribution of pollination types across Germany by combining databases on plant distribution and plant pollination types. Applying a new method, we modelled the composition of pollination types using a set of 12 environmental variables as predictors within a Bayesian framework which allows for the analysis of compositional data in the presence of spatial autocorrelation. A clear biogeographical pattern in the distribution of pollination types was revealed which was adequately captured by our model. The most striking relationship was a relative increase in insect-pollination and a corresponding decrease of selfing with increasing altitude. Further important factors were wind speed, geology and land use. We present a powerful tool to analyse the distribution patterns of plant functional types such as pollination types and their relationship with environmental parameters in a spatially explicit framework.

  4. Relational congruence facilitates neural mapping of spatial and temporal magnitudes in preverbal infants.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Daniel C; Porter, Chris L; Flom, Ross; Stone, Sarah A

    2013-10-01

    Mental representations of space, time, and number are fundamental to our understanding of the world around us. It should come as no surprise that representations of each are functional early in human development, appear to share a common format, and may be maintained by overlapping cortical structures. The consequences of these similarities for early learning and behavior are poorly understood. We investigated this issue by assessing neurophysiological processing of audio-visual temporal and spatial magnitude pairs using event-related potentials (ERPs) with young infants. We observed differential early processing and later enhanced attentional processing for pairings of spatial and temporal magnitudes that were relationally congruent (short visual character paired with a short auditory tone or long visual character paired with a long auditory tone) compared to the same stimuli paired in a relationally incongruent manner (short visual character with the long auditory tone or long visual character with a short tone). Unlike previous studies, these results were not dependent on a redundancy of information between the senses or an alignment of congruent magnitude properties within a single sense modality. Rather, these results demonstrate that mental representations of space and time interact to bias learning before formal instruction or the acquisition of spatial language.

  5. The relation between spatial perspective taking and inhibitory control in 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Frick, Andrea; Baumeler, Denise

    2016-07-01

    Developmental research on spatial perspective taking has shown that young children are able to solve perspective-taking problems under favorable circumstances, but they have difficulties succeeding in classic tasks involving a conflict between one's own perspective and that of another observer. To date, little is known about the reasons for young children's difficulties in dealing with incongruent perspectives. Based on the assumption that one's own perspective has to be ignored to imagine someone else's perspective, it was investigated whether perspective taking is related to inhibitory control in 6-year-olds (N = 140). An adapted version of the 'Fruit Stroop task', appropriate for preschool children, was used to assess inhibitory control. Perspective taking was assessed using the 'Perspective-Taking Test for Children'. Other spatial and nonspatial abilities were assessed to investigate the specificity of the relation. Results showed a significant correlation between perspective taking and inhibitory control, even when controlled for age, verbal-IQ, and socio-economic status. However, no significant correlations between inhibition and other spatial abilities were found, indicating a specific relation between inhibition and perspective taking. A linear regression analysis showed that, even after accounting for effects of control variables as well as other mental transformation abilities, inhibition accounted for a significant part of the variance in perspective-taking performance. The present findings provide valuable information on what contributes to individual differences in perspective taking, which is an important aspect of everyday cognition and bears relevance for reasoning in technical domains.

  6. Dynamics of the spatial scale of visual attention revealed by brain event-related potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Y. J.; Greenwood, P. M.; Parasuraman, R.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of the spatial scaling of attention during visual search were examined by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). A total of 16 young participants performed a search task in which the search array was preceded by valid cues that varied in size and hence in precision of target localization. The effects of cue size on short-latency (P1 and N1) ERP components, and the time course of these effects with variation in cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), were examined. Reaction time (RT) to discriminate a target was prolonged as cue size increased. The amplitudes of the posterior P1 and N1 components of the ERP evoked by the search array were affected in opposite ways by the size of the precue: P1 amplitude increased whereas N1 amplitude decreased as cue size increased, particularly following the shortest SOA. The results show that when top-down information about the region to be searched is less precise (larger cues), RT is slowed and the neural generators of P1 become more active, reflecting the additional computations required in changing the spatial scale of attention to the appropriate element size to facilitate target discrimination. In contrast, the decrease in N1 amplitude with cue size may reflect a broadening of the spatial gradient of attention. The results provide electrophysiological evidence that changes in the spatial scale of attention modulate neural activity in early visual cortical areas and activate at least two temporally overlapping component processes during visual search.

  7. Digital hydrologic networks supporting applications related to spatially referenced regression modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, John W.; Wolock, David M.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based ⁄ statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling.

  8. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling.

    PubMed

    Brakebill, Jw; Wolock, Dm; Terziotti, Se

    2011-10-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling.

  9. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling1

    PubMed Central

    Brakebill, JW; Wolock, DM; Terziotti, SE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling. PMID:22457575

  10. Dynamics of the spatial scale of visual attention revealed by brain event-related potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Y. J.; Greenwood, P. M.; Parasuraman, R.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of the spatial scaling of attention during visual search were examined by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). A total of 16 young participants performed a search task in which the search array was preceded by valid cues that varied in size and hence in precision of target localization. The effects of cue size on short-latency (P1 and N1) ERP components, and the time course of these effects with variation in cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), were examined. Reaction time (RT) to discriminate a target was prolonged as cue size increased. The amplitudes of the posterior P1 and N1 components of the ERP evoked by the search array were affected in opposite ways by the size of the precue: P1 amplitude increased whereas N1 amplitude decreased as cue size increased, particularly following the shortest SOA. The results show that when top-down information about the region to be searched is less precise (larger cues), RT is slowed and the neural generators of P1 become more active, reflecting the additional computations required in changing the spatial scale of attention to the appropriate element size to facilitate target discrimination. In contrast, the decrease in N1 amplitude with cue size may reflect a broadening of the spatial gradient of attention. The results provide electrophysiological evidence that changes in the spatial scale of attention modulate neural activity in early visual cortical areas and activate at least two temporally overlapping component processes during visual search.

  11. High Resolution Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Harbin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle traffic is one of the most significant emission sources of air pollutants in urban areas. While the influence of mobile source emissions is felt throughout an urban area, concentrations from mobile emissions can be highest near major roadways. At present, information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns and the share of pollution attributable to traffic-related air pollutants is limited, in part due to concentrations that fall sharply with distance from roadways, as well as the few monitoring sites available in cities. This study uses a newly developed dispersion model (RLINE) and a spatially and temporally resolved emissions inventory to predict hourly PM2.5 and NOx concentrations across Detroit (MI, USA) at very high spatial resolution. Results for annual averages and high pollution days show contrasting patterns, the need for spatially resolved analyses, and the limitations of surrogate metrics like proximity or distance to roads. Data requirements, computational and modeling issues are discussed. High resolution pollutant data enable the identification of pollutant “hotspots”, “project-level” analyses of transportation options, development of exposure measures for epidemiology studies, delineation of vulnerable and susceptible populations, policy analyses examining risks and benefits of mitigation options, and the development of sustainability indicators integrating environmental, social, economic and health information. PMID:25837345

  12. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, J.W.; Wolock, D.M.; Terziotti, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment☆

    PubMed Central

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9–10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. PMID:23890692

  15. The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

  16. The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

  17. Role of features and second-order spatial-relations in face discrimination, face recognition, and individual face skills

    PubMed Central

    Rotshtein, Pia; Geng, Joy J; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    We compared the contribution of featural information and second-order spatial-relations (spacing between features) in face processing. A fully factorial design had ‘features’ (eyes, mouth, nose) the same or different across two successive displays, while orthogonally the second-order spatial-relations between those features were the same or different. The range of such changes matched the possibilities within the population of natural face-images. Behaviorally we found that judging whether two successive faces depicted the same person was dominated by features, though second-order spatial-relations also contributed. This influence of spatial-relations correlated, for individual subjects, with their skill at recognition of faces (as famous, or as previously exposed) in separate behavioral tests. Using the same repetition-design in fMRI, we found feature-dependent effects in lateral occipital and right fusiform regions; plus spatial-relation effects in bilateral inferior occipital gyrus and right fusiform that correlated with individual differences in (separately measured) behavioral sensitivity to those changes. The results suggest that featural and second-order spatial-relation aspects of faces make distinct contributions to behavioral discrimination and recognition, with features contributing most to face discrimination and second-order spatial-relational aspects correlating best with recognition skills. Distinct neural responses to these aspects were found with fMRI, particularly when individual skills were taken into account for the impact of second-order spatial-relations. PMID:17714006

  18. Spatial Awareness is Related to Moderate Intensity Running during a Collegiate Rugby Match.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Miramonti, Amelia M; Hoffman, Mattan W; Wang, Ran; LA Monica, Michael B; Riffe, Josh J; Tanigawa, Satoru; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between spatial awareness, agility, and distance covered in global positioning system (GPS) derived velocity zone classifications during a collegiate rugby match. Twelve American collegiate rugby union players (mean±SD; age: 21.2±1.4 y; weight: 85.0±16.0 kg; 7 forwards & 5 backs) on a single team volunteered to participate in this investigation. The distances travelled at low (walking/jogging; <2.7m/s), moderate (cruising/striding; 2.7-5.0 m/s), and high intensities (running/sprinting; >5.0 m/s) were measured for each player using GPS sensors and normalized according to playing time during an official USA Rugby match. Spatial awareness was measured as visual tracking speed from one core session of a 3-dimensional multiple-object-tracking speed (3DMOTS) test (1.35±0.59 cm·sec-1). Agility was assessed utilizing the pro agility (5.05±0.28 sec) and t drill (10.62±0.39 sec). Analysis of variance revealed that athletes travelled the greatest distance during walking/jogging (39.5±4.5 m·min-1) and least distance during running/sprinting (4.9±3.5 m·min-1). Pearson product moment correlations revealed that only distance covered while cruising/striding (20.9±6.5 m·min-1) was correlated to spatial awareness (r=0.798, p=0.002). Agility did not correlate to distance covered at any velocity zone or spatial awareness. Spatial awareness, as determined by 3DMOTS, appears to be related to the moderate intensity movement patterns of rugby union athletes.

  19. Summer spatial patterning of chukars in relation to free water in Western Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, R.T.; Bissonette, J.A.; Flinders, J.T.; Hooten, M.B.; Wilson, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Free water is considered important to wildlife in arid regions. In the western United States, thousands of water developments have been built to benefit wildlife in arid landscapes. Agencies and researchers have yet to clearly demonstrate their effectiveness. We combined a spatial analysis of summer chukar (Alectoris chukar) covey locations with dietary composition analysis in western Utah. Our specific objectives were to determine if chukars showed a spatial pattern that suggested association with free water in four study areas and to document summer dietary moisture content in relation to average distance from water. The observed data for the Cedar Mountains study area fell within the middle of the random mean distance to water distribution suggesting no association with free water. The observed mean distance to water for the other three areas was much closer than expected compared to a random spatial process, suggesting the importance of free water to these populations. Dietary moisture content of chukar food items from the Cedar Mountains (59%) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that of birds from Box Elder (44%) and Keg-Dugway (44%). Water developments on the Cedar Mountains are likely ineffective for chukars. Spatial patterns on the other areas, however, suggest association with free water and our results demonstrate the need for site-specific considerations. Researchers should be aware of the potential to satisfy water demand with pre-formed and metabolic water for a variety of species in studies that address the effects of wildlife water developments. We encourage incorporation of spatial structure in model error components in future ecological research. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  20. Spatial Awareness is Related to Moderate Intensity Running during a Collegiate Rugby Match

    PubMed Central

    BEYER, KYLE S.; FUKUDA, DAVID H.; MIRAMONTI, AMELIA M.; HOFFMAN, MATTAN W.; WANG, RAN; LA MONICA, MICHAEL B.; RIFFE, JOSH J.; TANIGAWA, SATORU; STOUT, JEFFREY R.; HOFFMAN, JAY R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between spatial awareness, agility, and distance covered in global positioning system (GPS) derived velocity zone classifications during a collegiate rugby match. Twelve American collegiate rugby union players (mean±SD; age: 21.2±1.4 y; weight: 85.0±16.0 kg; 7 forwards & 5 backs) on a single team volunteered to participate in this investigation. The distances travelled at low (walking/jogging; <2.7m/s), moderate (cruising/striding; 2.7–5.0 m/s), and high intensities (running/sprinting; >5.0 m/s) were measured for each player using GPS sensors and normalized according to playing time during an official USA Rugby match. Spatial awareness was measured as visual tracking speed from one core session of a 3-dimensional multiple-object-tracking speed (3DMOTS) test (1.35±0.59 cm·sec-1). Agility was assessed utilizing the pro agility (5.05±0.28 sec) and t drill (10.62±0.39 sec). Analysis of variance revealed that athletes travelled the greatest distance during walking/jogging (39.5±4.5 m·min-1) and least distance during running/sprinting (4.9±3.5 m·min-1). Pearson product moment correlations revealed that only distance covered while cruising/striding (20.9±6.5 m·min-1) was correlated to spatial awareness (r=0.798, p=0.002). Agility did not correlate to distance covered at any velocity zone or spatial awareness. Spatial awareness, as determined by 3DMOTS, appears to be related to the moderate intensity movement patterns of rugby union athletes. PMID:27990222

  1. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77–7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24–3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04–35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  2. Water quality changes in response to urban expansion: spatially varying relations and determinants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang; Shu, Yunqiao; Li, Yangfan

    2015-11-01

    Urban expansion is an important stressor to water bodies, and the spatial variations of their relations are increasingly highlighted by recent studies. What remain unclear, however, are the underlying drivers to the spatial variability. The paper was not limited to modeling spatially varying linkages but also drew attention to the local anthropogenic influential factors that shape land-water relations. We employed geographically weighted regression to examine the relationships between urban expansion (measured by land use change intensity) and water quality changes (focusing on six water quality indicators) in a recently fast-growing Chinese city, Lianyungang. Specifically, we analyzed how the local characteristics including urbanization level, environmental management, industrial zone expansion, and land use composition, attributed to the varying responses of water quality changes. Results showed that urbanization level significantly affects land-water linkages. Remarkable water quality improvement was accompanied by urbanization in highly developed watersheds, primarily due to strong influence from extensive water management practices (particularly for COD, BOD, NH3-N, and TP). By contrast, water qualities of less-urbanized watersheds were more sensitive and negatively responsive to land use changes. Clustering industrial activities acted as distinct contributor to Hg contamination, while boosted organic pollution control in highly urbanized areas. The approach proposed in the study can locate and further zoom into the hot-spots of human-water interactions, thereby contributing to better solutions for mitigating undesirable impacts of urbanization on water environment.

  3. Effects of nicotine on visuo-spatial selective attention as indexed by event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Meinke, A; Thiel, C M; Fink, G R

    2006-08-11

    Nicotine has been shown to specifically reduce reaction times to invalidly cued targets in spatial cueing paradigms. In two experiments, we used event-related potentials to test whether the facilitative effect of nicotine upon the detection of invalidly cued targets is due to a modulation of perceptual processing, as indexed by early attention-related event-related potential components. Furthermore, we assessed whether the effect of nicotine on such unattended stimuli depends upon the use of exogenous or endogenous cues. In both experiments, the electroencephalogram was recorded while non-smokers completed discrimination tasks in Posner-type paradigms after chewing a nicotine polacrilex gum (Nicorette 2 mg) in one session and a placebo gum in another session. Nicotine reduced reaction times to invalidly cued targets when cueing was endogenous. In contrast, no differential effect of nicotine on reaction times was observed when exogenous cues were used. Electrophysiologically, we found a similar attentional modulation of the P1 and N1 components under placebo and nicotine but a differential modulation of later event-related potential components at a frontocentral site. The lack of a drug-dependent modulation of P1 and N1 in the presence of a behavioral effect suggests that the effect of nicotine in endogenous visuo-spatial cueing tasks is not due to an alteration of perceptual processes. Rather, the differential modulation of frontocentral event-related potentials suggests that nicotine acts at later stages of target processing.

  4. Dissociable Memory- and Response-Related Activity in Parietal Cortex During Auditory Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Alain, Claude; Shen, Dawei; Yu, He; Grady, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Attending and responding to sound location generates increased activity in parietal cortex which may index auditory spatial working memory and/or goal-directed action. Here, we used an n-back task (Experiment 1) and an adaptation paradigm (Experiment 2) to distinguish memory-related activity from that associated with goal-directed action. In Experiment 1, participants indicated, in separate blocks of trials, whether the incoming stimulus was presented at the same location as in the previous trial (1-back) or two trials ago (2-back). Prior to a block of trials, participants were told to use their left or right index finger. Accuracy and reaction times were worse for the 2-back than for the 1-back condition. The analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data revealed greater sustained task-related activity in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior frontal sulcus during 2-back than 1-back after accounting for response-related activity elicited by the targets. Target detection and response execution were also associated with enhanced activity in the IPL bilaterally, though the activation was anterior to that associated with sustained task-related activity. In Experiment 2, we used an event-related design in which participants listened (no response required) to trials that comprised four sounds presented either at the same location or at four different locations. We found larger IPL activation for changes in sound location than for sounds presented at the same location. The IPL activation overlapped with that observed during the auditory spatial working memory task. Together, these results provide converging evidence supporting the role of parietal cortex in auditory spatial working memory which can be dissociated from response selection and execution. PMID:21833258

  5. Home-School-Community Relations as a Political Process: Four Exploratory Case Studies of the Implementation of Individually Guided Education (IGE) and Home-School-Community Relations. Technical Report No. 360, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.

    The research had four objectives: (1) to describe home-school-community relations in selected IGE schools; (2) to explain the home-school-community relations and the implementation of IGE political terms using issue analysis and policy acceptance analysis; (3) to generate hypotheses from the data gathered through objectives 1 and 2, and relate…

  6. Does dispersal ability affect the relative importance of environmental control and spatial structuring of littoral macroinvertebrate communities?

    PubMed

    Heino, Jani

    2013-04-01

    Both spatial processes and environmental control may structure metacommunities, but their relative importance may be contingent on the dispersal ability of organisms. I examined the roles of spatial and environmental factors for the structuring of littoral macroinvertebrate communities across a set of lakes in a boreal drainage basin. I hypothesized that dispersal ability would affect the relative importance of spatial processes and environmental control, and thus the biological data were divided into four groups of species differing in dispersal ability. In general, the group of the strongest aerial dispersers showed greatest relative pure environmental control and least pure spatial structuring of community structure and species richness, while spatial processes seemed to be more important for the other three dispersal ability groups. However, these results were contingent on the indirect measure of spatial processes, with the spatial variables and connectivity variables providing slightly different insights into the spatial processes and environmental control of metacommunity structuring. It appears, however, that dispersal ability has effects on the spatial processes and environmental control important in metacommunity organization, with strong dispersers being more under environmental control and less affected by spatial processes compared to weak dispersers.

  7. Visuo-spatial orienting during active exploratory behavior: Processing of task-related and stimulus-related signals.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Emiliano; Ogawa, Akitoshi

    2017-09-05

    Functional imaging studies have associated dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal regions with the control of visuo-spatial attention. Previous studies demonstrated that the activity of both the dorsal and the ventral attention systems can be modulated by many different factors, related both to the stimuli and the task. However, the vast majority of this work utilized stereotyped paradigms with simple and repeated stimuli. This is at odd with any real life situation that instead involve complex combinations of different types of co-occurring signals, thus raising the question of the ecological significance of the previous findings. Here we investigated how the brain responds to task-related and stimulus-related signals using an innovative approach that involved active exploration of a virtual environment. This enabled us to study visuo-spatial orienting in conditions entailing a dynamic and coherent flow of visual signals, to some extent analogous to real life situations. The environment comprised colored/textured spheres and cubes, which allowed us to implement a standard feature-conjunction search task (task-related signals), and included one physically salient object that served to track the processing of stimulus-related signals. The imaging analyses showed that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) activated when the participants' gaze was directed towards the salient-objects. By contrast, the right inferior partial cortex was associated with the processing of the target-objects and of distractors that shared the target-color and shape, consistent with goal-directed template-matching operations. The study highlights the possibility of combining measures of gaze orienting and functional imaging to investigate the processing of different types of signals during active behavior in complex environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential neural activity patterns for spatial relations in humans: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicole M; Leuthold, Arthur; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2016-02-01

    Children learn the words for above-below relations earlier than for left-right relations, despite treating these equally well in a simple visual categorization task. Even as adults--conflicts in congruency, such as when a stimulus is depicted in a spatially incongruent manner with respect to salient global cues--can be challenging. Here we investigated the neural correlates of encoding and maintaining in working memory above-below and left-right relational planes in 12 adults using magnetoencephalography in order to discover whether above-below relations are represented by the brain differently than left-right relations. Adults performed perfectly on the task behaviorally, so any differences in neural activity were attributed to the stimuli's cognitive attributes. In comparing above-below to left-right relations during stimulus encoding, we found the greatest differences in neural activity in areas associated with space and movement. In comparing congruent to incongruent trials, we found the greatest differential activity in premotor areas. For both contrasts, brain areas involved in the encoding phase were also involved in the maintenance phase, which provides evidence that those brain areas are particularly important in representing the relational planes or congruency types throughout the trial. When comparing neural activity associated with the relational planes during working memory, additional right posterior areas were implicated, whereas the congruent-incongruent contrast implicated additional bilateral frontal and temporal areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis left-right relations are represented differently than above-below relations.

  9. Relative risk estimates from spatial and space-time scan statistics: Are they biased?

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Marcos O.; Kulldorff, Martin; Assunção, Renato M.

    2014-01-01

    The purely spatial and space-time scan statistics have been successfully used by many scientists to detect and evaluate geographical disease clusters. Although the scan statistic has high power in correctly identifying a cluster, no study has considered the estimates of the cluster relative risk in the detected cluster. In this paper we evaluate whether there is any bias on these estimated relative risks. Intuitively, one may expect that the estimated relative risks has upward bias, since the scan statistic cherry picks high rate areas to include in the cluster. We show that this intuition is correct for clusters with low statistical power, but with medium to high power the bias becomes negligible. The same behaviour is not observed for the prospective space-time scan statistic, where there is an increasing conservative downward bias of the relative risk as the power to detect the cluster increases. PMID:24639031

  10. Relative risk estimates from spatial and space-time scan statistics: are they biased?

    PubMed

    Prates, Marcos O; Kulldorff, Martin; Assunção, Renato M

    2014-07-10

    The purely spatial and space-time scan statistics have been successfully used by many scientists to detect and evaluate geographical disease clusters. Although the scan statistic has high power in correctly identifying a cluster, no study has considered the estimates of the cluster relative risk in the detected cluster. In this paper, we evaluate whether there is any bias on these estimated relative risks. Intuitively, one may expect that the estimated relative risks has upward bias, because the scan statistic cherry picks high rate areas to include in the cluster. We show that this intuition is correct for clusters with low statistical power, but with medium to high power, the bias becomes negligible. The same behavior is not observed for the prospective space-time scan statistic, where there is an increasing conservative downward bias of the relative risk as the power to detect the cluster increases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 'Our struggles are bigger than the World Cup': civic activism, state-society relations and the socio-political legacies of the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Scarlett

    2012-06-01

    South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup saw a large number of public demonstrations, strikes and other forms of civic campaigning. World Cup activism was both preceded and followed by extensive and intensifying public unrest and industrial action that in the period before the tournament, threatened to derail the event. This paper assesses the motivations, forms and implications of the activism during South Africa's staging of the FIFA finals and interprets them against the larger context of shifting state-society relations in the country. There are two purposes to the analysis. First, to explore the underlying internal social forces that gave shape to the protests at the time, and the possible influence of the exogenous politics of mega-event social mobilization. Second, the implications and outcomes of these dynamics for longer term socio-political processes in the country are considered. The activism displayed many of the features of the politics of contestation of sport mega-events today. Importantly, however, the activism stemmed from a particular systemic dynamic and reflected changing relations in the post-apartheid political community. Therefore, while the World Cup was used as a strategic opportunity by many advocacy groups, it was one that rather fleetingly and ambivalently presented an additional platform to such groups in an otherwise on-going set of political battles. Rather than a strong case study of sport's transformative capacity, the civic campaigning during South Africa's World Cup demonstrates the way a sport mega-event can be used as a strategic entry point by civil society groups in their engagement with the state, although this can occur with greater or lesser success.

  12. Spatial variation of male alcohol-related mortality in Belarus and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, Pavel; Jasilionis, Domantas; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Meslé, France; Vallin, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have addressed the problem of hazardous alcohol consumption, alcohol-related causes of death and their relationship to persisting excess male mortality in the countries of the former USSR. Yet relatively little is known about the geographical patterns of alcohol-related mortality within these countries and the cross-border continuities of such patterns. This study aims at identifying the spatial distribution and the cross-border patterns of adult male mortality from alcohol poisonings and liver cirrhosis in Belarus and Lithuania. We use cause-specific mortality data for 2003-2007. We employ spatial econometric techniques to detect 'hot spots' of alcohol-related mortality across the combined territory of the two countries. Specific patterns associated with extremely high rates of mortality from alcohol poisoning can be observed in Belarus, particularly in the areas bordering Russia and Lithuania. Meanwhile, patterns of alcohol-induced liver disease dominate in Lithuania, and continue across the border from eastern Lithuania into north-western Belarus. The districts located along the Belarusian-Lithuanian border appear to be especially problematic, as they suffer from an enormous burden of alcohol consumption. The situation is particularly severe on the Belarusian side, where there are extremely high levels of mortality from both alcohol poisoning and liver cirrhosis. These areas should be considered primary targets for antialcohol policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial filtering based on canonical correlation analysis for classification of evoked or event-related potentials in EEG data.

    PubMed

    Spüler, Martin; Walter, Armin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Classification of evoked or event-related potentials is an important prerequisite for many types of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). To increase classification accuracy, spatial filters are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the brain signals and thereby facilitate the detection and classification of evoked or event-related potentials. While canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has previously been used to construct spatial filters that increase classification accuracy for BCIs based on visual evoked potentials, we show in this paper, how CCA can also be used for spatial filtering of event-related potentials like P300. We also evaluate the use of CCA for spatial filtering on other data with evoked and event-related potentials and show that CCA performs consistently better than other standard spatial filtering methods.

  14. Enhanced auditory spatial performance using individualized head-related transfer functions: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Matthew G; Romigh, Griffin D; Kenzig, Stephanie M; Iyer, Nandini; Simpson, Brian D; Thompson, Eric R; Rothwell, Clayton D

    2016-12-01

    This study examined event-related potential (ERP) correlates of auditory spatial benefits gained from rendering sounds with individualized head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). Noise bursts with identical virtual elevations (0°-90°) were presented back-to-back in 5-10 burst "runs" in a roving oddball paradigm. Detection of a run's start (i.e., elevation change detection) was enhanced when bursts were rendered with an individualized compared to a non-individualized HRTF. ERPs showed increased P3 amplitudes to first bursts of a run in the individualized HRTF condition. Condition differences in P3 amplitudes and behavior were positively correlated. Data suggests that part of the individualization benefit reflects post-sensory processes.

  15. Spatial Arrangement of Branches in Relation to Slope and Neighbourhood Competition

    PubMed Central

    SUMIDA, AKIHIRO; TERAZAWA, IKUE; TOGASHI, ASAKO; KOMIYAMA, AKIRA

    2002-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the effects of spatial structure on patterns of neighbourhood competition among hardwood trees, the three‐dimensional extension of primary branches was surveyed for ten community‐grown Castanea crenata (Fagaceae) trees with respect to the positioning of neighbouring branches and the slope of the forest floor. There were significantly more branches extending towards the lower side of the slope than towards the upper side, but structural properties such as branch length and vertical angle were not affected by slope. When horizontal extension of a branch towards its neighbour was compared for a C. crenata branch and a neighbouring heterospecific, the former was significantly narrower than the latter when the inter‐branch distance (horizontal distance between the base positions of two neighbouring branches) was short (< approx. 5 m). Castanea crenata branches tended to extend in a direction avoiding neighbouring branches of heterospecifics when the inter‐branch distance was short. Furthermore, for an inter‐branch distance <3 m, the horizontal extension of a C. crenata branch was less when it was neighbouring a heterospecific branch than when neighbouring a conspecific branch. These results suggest that horizontal extension of C. crenata branches is more prone to spatial invasion by nearby neighbouring branches of heterospecifics, and that the invasion can be lessened when C. crenata trees are spatially aggregated. The reason why such an arrangement occurs is discussed in relation to the later leaf‐flush of C. crenata compared with that of other species in the forest. PMID:12096742

  16. Motor asymmetry and substantia nigra volume are related to spatial delayed response performance in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Foster, Erin R; Black, Kevin J; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V; Perlmutter, Joel S; Hershey, Tamara

    2008-06-01

    Studies suggest motor deficit asymmetry may help predict the pattern of cognitive impairment in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). We tested this hypothesis using a highly validated and sensitive spatial memory task, spatial delayed response (SDR), and clinical and neuroimaging measures of PD asymmetry. We predicted SDR performance would be more impaired by PD-related changes in the right side of the brain than in the left. PD (n=35) and control (n=28) participants performed the SDR task. PD participants either had worse motor deficits on the right (RPD) or left (LPD) side of the body. Some participants also had magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of their substantia nigra (SN) volumes. The LPD group performed worse on the SDR task than the RPD and control groups. Right SN volume accounted for a unique and significant portion of the variance in SDR error, with smaller volume predicting poorer performance. In conclusion, left motor dysfunction and smaller right SN volume are associated with poorer spatial memory.

  17. Lessons from ecological and spatial studies in relation to occupational lung disease.

    PubMed

    Hansell, Anna L; Best, Nicky G; Rushton, Lesley

    2009-04-01

    The majority of epidemiological research into occupational lung disease has been advanced by the study of individuals, typically in a workplace setting. This review examines how recent advances in ecological and spatial study methodology and in the information held in routine databases could be used to enhance occupational health studies. Ecological studies often use routinely collected data, and this is becoming much more extensive and better validated with potential for increasing use in occupational health research. Improvements in computing power and statistical and geographical information systems methodology have led to more sophisticated mapping techniques and greater use of spatial information when investigating lung diseases usually related to occupational exposures. Ecological study methodology is experiencing a radical overhaul with supplementation of group-level data with information from small-scale individual-level studies. This hybrid design can be used to reduce bias and increase power and is directly applicable to the enhancement of aggregate information from job exposure matrices. Studies of occupational lung disease can be enhanced by incorporating methodological innovations from ecological and spatial studies.

  18. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Alexandre; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  19. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling Spatial Patterns of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants in Complex Urban Terrain

    PubMed Central

    Zwack, Leonard M.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between traffic emissions and mobile-source air pollutant concentrations is highly variable over space and time and therefore difficult to model accurately, especially in urban settings with complex terrain. Regression-based approaches using continuous real-time mobile measurements may be able to characterize spatiotemporal variability in traffic-related pollutant concentrations but require methods to incorporate temporally varying meteorology and source strength in a physically interpretable fashion. Objective We developed a statistical model to assess the joint impact of both meteorology and traffic on measured concentrations of mobile-source air pollutants over space and time. Methods In this study, traffic-related air pollutants were continuously measured in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York (USA), which is affected by traffic on a large bridge and major highway. One-minute average concentrations of ultrafine particulate matter (UFP), fine particulate matter [≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)], and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured using a mobile-monitoring protocol. Regression modeling approaches to quantify the influence of meteorology, traffic volume, and proximity to major roadways on pollutant concentrations were used. These models incorporated techniques to capture spatial variability, long- and short-term temporal trends, and multiple sources. Results We observed spatial heterogeneity of both UFP and PM2.5 concentrations. A variety of statistical methods consistently found a 15–20% decrease in UFP concentrations within the first 100 m from each of the two major roadways. For PM2.5, temporal variability dominated spatial variability, but we observed a consistent linear decrease in concentrations from the roadways. Conclusions The combination of mobile monitoring and regression analysis was able to quantify local source contributions relative to background while

  1. Modeling spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollutants in complex urban terrain.

    PubMed

    Zwack, Leonard M; Paciorek, Christopher J; Spengler, John D; Levy, Jonathan I

    2011-06-01

    The relationship between traffic emissions and mobile-source air pollutant concentrations is highly variable over space and time and therefore difficult to model accurately, especially in urban settings with complex terrain. Regression-based approaches using continuous real-time mobile measurements may be able to characterize spatiotemporal variability in traffic-related pollutant concentrations but require methods to incorporate temporally varying meteorology and source strength in a physically interpretable fashion. We developed a statistical model to assess the joint impact of both meteorology and traffic on measured concentrations of mobile-source air pollutants over space and time. In this study, traffic-related air pollutants were continuously measured in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York (USA), which is affected by traffic on a large bridge and major highway. One-minute average concentrations of ultrafine particulate matter (UFP), fine particulate matter [≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)], and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured using a mobile-monitoring protocol. Regression modeling approaches to quantify the influence of meteorology, traffic volume, and proximity to major roadways on pollutant concentrations were used. These models incorporated techniques to capture spatial variability, long- and short-term temporal trends, and multiple sources. We observed spatial heterogeneity of both UFP and PM2.5 concentrations. A variety of statistical methods consistently found a 15-20% decrease in UFP concentrations within the first 100 m from each of the two major roadways. For PM2.5, temporal variability dominated spatial variability, but we observed a consistent linear decrease in concentrations from the roadways. The combination of mobile monitoring and regression analysis was able to quantify local source contributions relative to background while accounting for physically interpretable parameters. Our

  2. Spatial variability of the subsurface water storage revealed by relative gravity measurements in Southwest Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, J.; Champollion, C.; Favreau, G.; Hinderer, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Mouyen, M.; Boucher, M.; Nazoumou, Y.; Oi, M.; Robert, O.; Le Moigne, N.; Deroussi, S.; Demarty, J.; Benarrosh, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.

    2011-12-01

    A major challenge in water resources research is to document the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrological processes over short time and space scales. Indeed, the quality of model predictions for resource assessment is dependent on reliable datasets, representative of the hydrological regime and its variations. This issue is particularly sensitive in Sahelian Africa, where available hydrological datasets are scarce. In this study, the variability of the water storage was investigated at the subcatchment scale (< 1km) by an intensive microgravity field campaign. Weekly microgravity surveys were carried out in a small endoreic catchment in Southwest Niger, during three months of the rainy season in 2009. Gravity measurements were performed at 16 stations located near a temporary pond, where rapid infiltration towards the aquifer occurs. The highest (63 μGal) gravity signal was measured on a station located above the pond and is well explained by the direct effect of the pond water volume changes throughout the wet season. Gravity signals of smaller amplitude (≤ 22 μGal) were measured in the pond surroundings and coupled to hydrodynamic data (pond level, soil moisture and water table level) to evaluate the intraseasonal variability of the water storage in the vicinity of the pond. The gravity signals related to the water storage in the subsurface exhibits a significant spatial variability. The heterogeneity of the water storage in the vadose zone appears as the main reason for the dispersion of the gravity values at local scale. This experiment evidences the ability of time lapse microgravity survey to detect the spatial variations of the water storage at intraseasonal scale in Sahelian Africa. Combined with hydrodynamic data, such a spatially distributed dataset may be a useful tool to calibrate or validate hydrological models and should be taken into account for scaling issue such as satellite gravimetry validation.

  3. Key Spatial Relations-based Focused Crawling (KSRs-FC) for Borderlands Situation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, D. Y.; Wu, H.; Chen, J.; Li, R.

    2013-11-01

    Place names play an important role in Borderlands Situation topics, while current focused crawling methods treat them in the same way as other common keywords, which may lead to the omission of many useful web pages. In the paper, place names in web pages and their spatial relations were firstly discussed. Then, a focused crawling method named KSRs-FC was proposed to deal with the collection of situation information about borderlands. In this method, place names and common keywords were represented separately, and some of the spatial relations related to web pages crawling were used in the relevance calculation between the given topic and web pages. Furthermore, an information collection system for borderlands situation analysis was developed based on KSRs-FC. Finally, F-Score method was adopted to quantitatively evaluate this method by comparing with traditional method. Experimental results showed that the F-Score value of the proposed method increased by 11% compared to traditional method with the same sample data. Obviously, KSRs-FC method can effectively reduce the misjudgement of relevant webpages.

  4. Spatial Coding of Eye Movements Relative to Perceived Orientations During Roll Tilt with Different Gravitoinertial Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott; Clement, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt relative to perceived orientations while free-floating during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight or during head tilt in normal gravity. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from six subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the aircraft and head orientations. Both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased during roll tilt compared to the upright position. The saccades were less accurate during parabolic flight compared to measurements obtained in normal gravity. The trajectories of saccades along perceived horizontal orientations tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt, while the deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived vertical orientations deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. Although subjects were instructed to look off in the distance while performing the eye movements, fixation distance varied with vertical gaze direction independent of whether the saccades were made along perceived aircraft or head orientations. This coupling of horizontal vergence with vertical gaze is in a consistent direction with the vertical slant of the horopter. The increased errors in gaze trajectories along both perceived orientations during microgravity can be attributed to the otolith's role in spatial coding of eye movements.

  5. Exploratory study of the relations between spatial ability and drawing from memory.

    PubMed

    Czarnolewski, Mark Y; Eliot, John

    2012-04-01

    Test scores of 119 students, attending either a public four-year college or a technical school, were related to their proportionality and detail drawing scores on the Memory for Designs Test. In regression models, the ETS Maze Tracing, Eliot-Price Mental Rotations, and Bender-Gestalt tests were consistent predictors of proportionality scores, with the latter two tests uniquely related to these. The ETS Shapes Memory Test and the Form Board Test were the strongest predictors for detail accuracy scores. The Shapes test predicted proportionality when the CTY Visual Memory Test BB was excluded. The models then provided support for the hypothesis that drawing designs from memory, a critical skill in drawing, regardless of whether one focuses on accuracy for proportionality scores or for detail scores, is jointly related to the measures of recognition, production, and traditional spatial ability measures. This study identified multifaceted skills in drawing from memory.

  6. Indigenous Political Difference, Colonial Perspectives and the Challenge of Diplomatic Relations: Toward a Decolonial Diplomacy in Multicultural Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how diplomacy can be refined and amplified within the field of multicultural education. Focusing on Native American peoples in particular, I argue that the multiculturalist emphasis on cultural diplomacy overlooks the political difference of First Nations peoples. In contrast to a multiculturalist cultural diplomacy, the…

  7. Individual differences in relational motives interact with the political context to produce terrorism and terrorism-support.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Lotte; Obaidi, Milan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Kteily, Nour; Sidanius, Jim

    2014-08-01

    The psychology of suicide terrorism involves more than simply the psychology of suicide. Individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) interact with the socio-structural, political context to produce support for group-based dominance among members of both dominant and subordinate groups. This may help explain why, in one specific context, some people commit and endorse terrorism, whereas others do not.

  8. Skills Formation and Gender Relations: The Politics of Who Knows What. EEE701 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nancy

    This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace B, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. Section 1 looks mostly at male-dominated trades work and at some historical modes of the flexing of political muscle in struggles over the definition of work and skill. It…

  9. Indigenous Political Difference, Colonial Perspectives and the Challenge of Diplomatic Relations: Toward a Decolonial Diplomacy in Multicultural Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how diplomacy can be refined and amplified within the field of multicultural education. Focusing on Native American peoples in particular, I argue that the multiculturalist emphasis on cultural diplomacy overlooks the political difference of First Nations peoples. In contrast to a multiculturalist cultural diplomacy, the…

  10. The Globalization of Economics and How It's Changing Domestic Politics, International Relations, and Our Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Teaching economics at the preK-12 level has always been one of the most difficult aspects of social studies education notes C. Frederick Risinger, yet, throughout his teaching career economic issues and events were the drivers of most historical, political, and sociological trends and topics and even human slavery was driven and maintained by…

  11. The Globalization of Economics and How It's Changing Domestic Politics, International Relations, and Our Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Teaching economics at the preK-12 level has always been one of the most difficult aspects of social studies education notes C. Frederick Risinger, yet, throughout his teaching career economic issues and events were the drivers of most historical, political, and sociological trends and topics and even human slavery was driven and maintained by…

  12. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  13. Neonatal anoxia in rats: hippocampal cellular and subcellular changes related to cell death and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Takada, S H; dos Santos Haemmerle, C A; Motta-Teixeira, L C; Machado-Nils, A V; Lee, V Y; Takase, L F; Cruz-Rizzolo, R J; Kihara, A H; Xavier, G F; Watanabe, I-S; Nogueira, M I

    2015-01-22

    Neonatal anoxia in rodents has been used to understand brain changes and cognitive dysfunction following asphyxia. This study investigated the time-course of cellular and subcellular changes and hippocampal cell death in a non-invasive model of anoxia in neonatal rats, using Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) to reveal DNA fragmentation, Fluoro-Jade® B (FJB) to show degenerating neurons, cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect cells undergoing apoptosis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal fine ultrastructural changes related to cell death. Anoxia was induced by exposing postnatal day 1 (P1) pups to a flow of 100% gaseous nitrogen for 25 min in a chamber maintained at 37 °C. Control rats were similarly exposed to this chamber but with air flow instead of nitrogen. Brain changes following anoxia were evaluated at postnatal days 2, 14, 21 and 60 (P2, P14, P21 and P60). In addition, spatial reference memory following anoxia and control treatments was evaluated in the Morris water maze, starting at P60. Compared to their respective controls, P2 anoxic rats exhibited (1) higher TUNEL labeling in cornus ammonis (CA) 1 and the dentate gyrus (DG), (2) higher FJB-positive cells in the CA2-3, and (3) somato-dendritic swelling, mitochondrial injury and chromatin condensation in irregular bodies, as well as other subcellular features indicating apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and excitotoxicity in the CA1, CA2-3 and DG, as revealed by TEM. At P14, P21 and P60, both groups showed small numbers of TUNEL-positive and FJB-positive cells. Stereological analysis at P2, P14, P21 and P60 revealed a lack of significant differences in cleaved caspase-3 IHC between anoxic and control subjects. These results suggest that the type of hippocampal cell death following neonatal anoxia is likely independent of caspase-3 activation. Neonatal anoxia induced deficits in acquisition and performance of spatial reference

  14. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Gerlotto, François; Bertrand, Sophie; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Alza, Luis; Chipollini, Andres; Díaz, Erich; Espinoza, Pepe; Ledesma, Jesús; Quesquén, Roberto; Peraltilla, Salvador; Chavez, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    The Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) supports the highest worldwide fishery landings and varies in space and time over many scales. Here we present the first comprehensive sub-mesocale study of anchoveta distribution in relation to the environment. During November 2004, we conducted a behavioural ecology survey off central Peru and used a series of observational and sampling tools including SST and CO 2 sensors, Niskin bottles, CTD probes, zooplankton sampling, stomach content analysis, echo-sounder, multibeam sonar, and bird observations. The sub-mesoscale survey areas were chosen from mesoscale acoustic surveys. A routine coast-wide (∼2000 km) acoustic survey performed just after the sub-mesoscale surveys, provided information at an even larger population scale. The availability of nearly concurrent sub-mesoscale, mesoscale and coast-wide information on anchoveta distribution allowed for a unique multi-scale synthesis. At the sub-mesoscale (100s m to km) physical processes (internal waves and frontogenesis) concentrated plankton into patches and determined anchoveta spatial distribution. At the mesoscale (10s km) location relative to the zone of active upwelling (and age of the upwelled water) and the depth of the oxycline had strong impacts on the anchoveta. Finally, over 100s km the size of the productive area, as defined by the upwelled cold coastal waters, was the determining factor. We propose a conceptual view of the relative importance of social behaviour and environmental (biotic and abiotic) processes on the spatial distribution of anchoveta. Our ecological space has two y-axis; one based on self-organization (social behaviour), and the other based on the environmental processes. At scales from the individual (10s cm), to the nucleus (m), social behaviour (e.g. the need to school) drives spatial organization. At scales larger than the school, environmental forces are the main driver of fish distribution. The conceptual ecosystem

  15. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  16. Age-Related Effects of Study Time Allocation on Memory Performance in a Verbal and a Spatial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Lacy E.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was…

  17. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children’s Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children’s motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds’ spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children’s understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children’s balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence. PMID:26793157

  18. Assessing habitat quality in relation to the spatial distribution of protected areas in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sallustio, Lorenzo; De Toni, Andrea; Strollo, Andrea; Di Febbraro, Mirko; Gissi, Elena; Casella, Laura; Geneletti, Davide; Munafò, Michele; Vizzarri, Matteo; Marchetti, Marco

    2017-10-01

    The conservation of species and habitats is increasingly threatened by anthropogenic impacts, particularly land use change, from local to global scales. Although many efforts have been carried out so far to halt or at least reduce the biodiversity loss (e.g., the establishment of protected areas' networks), there are still both knowledge and policy gaps slowing the conservation of species and habitats in complex environments, such as the Mediterranean region. In particular, the human-driven impacts and threats on biodiversity need more careful analysis. Accordingly, this paper aims to assess the habitat quality and degradation in Italy in relation with the spatial pattern of the current protected areas' network, mainly to identify priority areas of intervention, thus supporting large-scale conservation strategies. A survey of experts was conducted to identify the main threats for biodiversity from different land uses at the national scale. The InVEST software was then applied to assess and map habitat quality and degradation with a high spatial resolution (20 m). The relationship between habitat quality and degradation as well as their hotspots, and alternative PA categories were also explored. Results indicate that: (i) habitat quality and degradation depend on the location and intensity of the anthropogenic impacts and are sensitive to different protection levels; (ii) the combination of the survey of experts and the spatially-explicit assessment of habitat quality and degradation is useful to highlight variations of the current conditions of biodiversity and habitats; and (iii) the identification of hotspots allows one to identify priority areas for conservation. Accordingly, the proposed approach may be used to strengthen the conservation efforts in similar contexts, and thus support the implementation of the biodiversity-related policies over the long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  20. Spatial Homogeneity and Task-Synchrony of the Trial-Related Hemodynamic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Cardoso, Mariana; Lima, Bruss; Das, Aniruddha

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that functional brain images in alert task-engaged subjects contain task-related but stimulus-independent signals in addition to stimulus-evoked responses. It is important to separate these different components when analyzing the neuroimaging signal. Using intrinsic-signal optical imaging combined with electrophysiology we had earlier reported a particular ’trial-related signal‘ in the primary visual cortex (V1) of alert monkeys performing periodic fixation tasks. This signal periodically modulated V1 tissue blood volume, in time with anticipated trial onsets. Unlike visually evoked blood volume changes, however, this signal was present even in total darkness. Further, it could not be predicted by concurrently recorded spiking or local field potentials. Here we use our earlier recording techniques to analyze the spatial distribution of this trial-related signal over our imaged area (10 mm square, subdivided into a 16 × 16 grid, i.e. at 625 micron resolution). We show that the signal is spatially coherent and essentially homogeneous over the imaged region and fails to be predicted by concurrent electrode recordings even at the resolution of a single grid square at the electrode tip. As a corollary we show that the signal is critically linked to the animals’ engagement in a task. Not only does the trial-related signal entrain accurately and precisely to any task timing at which the animal was willing to perform; the signal also loses the entrained trial-locked pattern dramatically, within a single trial, when the animal stops performing correctly. Thus the signal is very unlikely to be an ongoing task-independent vascular oscillation. These findings will help categorize the likely distinct varieties of non-stimulus-related signals evoked during behavioral tasks, and lead to a further understanding of the elements comprising the net neuroimaging response. PMID:22036678

  1. POLITICS OF UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT IN SOCIAL CHANGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAMPBELL, ALAN K.

    THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE UNIVERSITY'S ROLE IN SOCIAL CHANGE FROM THE POLITICAL VIEWPOINT. BY EXAMINING OUR POLITICAL SYSTEM AS IT RELATED TO UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT, HE INDICATES THE POLITICAL RAMIFICATIONS OF SUCH INVOLVEMENT AND SHOWS THE KIND OF INVOLVEMENT THAT IS POLITICALLY POSSIBLE. HE PINPOINTS THE DIFFICULTIES CIVIC ADMINISTRATORS AND…

  2. A spatial analysis of health-related resources in three diverse metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Smiley, Melissa J; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brines, Shannon J; Brown, Daniel G; Evenson, Kelly R; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2010-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the spatial clustering of multiple health-related resources. We constructed 0.5 mile kernel densities of resources for census areas in New York City, NY (n=819 block groups), Baltimore, MD (n=737), and Winston-Salem, NC (n=169). Three of the four resource densities (supermarkets/produce stores, retail areas, and recreational facilities) tended to be correlated with each other, whereas park density was less consistently and sometimes negatively correlated with others. Blacks were more likely to live in block groups with multiple low resource densities. Spatial regression models showed that block groups with higher proportions of black residents tended to have lower supermarket/produce, retail, and recreational facility densities, although these associations did not always achieve statistical significance. A measure that combined local and neighboring block group racial composition was often a stronger predictor of resources than the local measure alone. Overall, our results from three diverse U.S. cities show that health-related resources are not randomly distributed across space and that disadvantage in multiple domains often clusters with residential racial patterning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A spatial analysis of health-related resources in three diverse metropolitan areas

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Melissa J.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Brines, Shannon J.; Brown, Daniel G.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the spatial clustering of multiple health-related resources. We constructed 0.5-mile kernel densities of resources for census areas in New York City, NY (n=819 block groups), Baltimore, MD (n=737), and Winston-Salem, NC (n=169). Three of the four resource densities (supermarkets/produce stores, retail areas, and recreational facilities) tended to be correlated with each other, whereas park density was less consistently and sometimes negatively correlated with the others. Blacks were more likely to live in block groups with multiple low resource densities. Spatial regression models showed that block groups with higher proportions of black residents tended to have lower supermarket/produce, retail, and recreational facility densities, although these associations did not always achieve statistical significance. A measure that combined local and neighboring block group racial composition was often a stronger predictor of resources than the local measure alone. Overall, our results from three diverse U.S. cities show that health-related resources are not randomly distributed across space and that disadvantage in multiple domains often clusters with residential racial patterning. PMID:20478737

  4. THE STAR-FORMATION RELATION FOR REGIONS IN THE GALACTIC PLANE: THE EFFECT OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Evans II, Neal J.; Battersby, Cara

    2014-12-20

    We examined the relations between molecular gas surface density and star-formation rate surface density in an 11 deg{sup 2} region of the Galactic plane. Dust continua at 1.1 mm from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and 22 μm emission from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey were used as tracers of molecular gas and the star-formation rate, respectively, across the Galactic longitude of 31.5 ≥ l ≥ 20.5 and Galactic latitude of 0.5 ≥ b ≥ –0.5. The relation was studied over a range of resolutions from 33'' to 20' by convolving images to larger scales. The pixel-by-pixel correlation between 1.1 mm and 22 μm increases rapidly at small scales and levels off at the scale of 5'-8'. We studied the star-formation relation based on a pixel-by-pixel analysis and on an analysis of the 1.1 mm and 22 μm peaks. The star-formation relation was found to be nearly linear with no significant changes in the form of the relation across all spatial scales, and it lies above the extragalactic relation from Kennicutt. The average gas-depletion time is ≈200 Myr and does not change significantly at different scales, but the scatter in the depletion time decreases as the scale increases.

  5. Spatial heterogeneity of four-dimensional relative pressure fields in the human left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Jonatan; Bolger, Ann F; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino

    2015-12-01

    To assess the spatial heterogeneity of the four-dimensional (4D) relative pressure fields in the healthy human left ventricle (LV) and provide reference data for normal LV relative pressure. Twelve healthy subjects underwent a cardiac MRI examination where 4D flow and morphological data were acquired. The latter data were segmented and used to define the borders of the LV for computation of relative pressure fields using the pressure Poisson equation. The LV lumen was divided into 17 pie-shaped segments. In the normal left ventricle, the relative pressure in the apical segments was significantly higher relative to the basal segments (P < 0.0005) along both the anteroseptal and inferolateral sides after the peaks of early (E-wave) and late (A-wave) diastolic filling. The basal anteroseptal segment showed significantly lower median pressure than the opposite basal inferolateral segment during both E-wave (P < 0.0005) and A-wave (P = 0.0024). Relative pressure in the left ventricle is heterogeneous. During diastole, the main pressure differences in the LV occur along the basal-apical axis. However, pressure differences were also found in the short axis direction and may reflect important aspects of atrioventricular coupling. Additionally, this study provides reference data on LV pressure dynamics for a group of healthy subjects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Working-memory performance is related to spatial breadth of attention.

    PubMed

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    Working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Models of working memory often incorporate an attention component, and some even equate working memory and attentional control. Although some attention-related processes, including inhibitory control of response conflict and interference resolution, are strongly associated with working memory, for other aspects of attention the link is less clear. We examined the association between working-memory performance and attentional breadth, the ability to spread attention spatially. If the link between attention and working memory is broader than inhibitory and interference resolution processes, then working-memory performance might also be associated with other attentional abilities, including attentional breadth. We tested 123 participants on a variety of working-memory and attentional-breadth measures, finding a strong correlation between performances on these two types of tasks. This finding demonstrates that the link between working memory and attention extends beyond inhibitory processes.

  7. [Spatial distribution of accidents, incidents and diseases related to work in Peru, 2012-2014].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Santero, Marilina

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed geospatially accidents, incidents and diseases related to work of regional reports in Peru (2012-2014). The 52887 events were classified as work related accidents (93%), dangerous incidents (5.1%), occupational diseases (1%) and fatal accidents (0.9%). The highest rates of fatal accidents were reported in Pasco, Callao, Lima, Moquegua and Arequipa. Callao and Lima are the regions with the highest rates of occupational accidents. The highest rates of dangerous incidents were reported in Arequipa, Callao, Lima, Ica and Piura. Occupational diseases are distributed with high rates in Huancavelica, Ancash, Pasco, Callao and Cusco. The economic activities that reported most of the occupational diseases were mining and quarrying (49.2%); followed by manufacturing industry (23.4%); and construction (8%). It is concluded that there are high rates and common spatial patterns of laboral accidents in Peru that could be used by decision makers to focus interventions.

  8. The multiwavelength Tully-Fisher relation with spatially resolved H I kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, Anastasia A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Bosma, Albert

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the statistical properties of the Tully-Fisher relation (TFr) for a sample of 32 galaxies with measured distances from the Cepheid period-luminosity relation and/or TRGB stars. We take advantage of panchromatic photometry in 12 bands (from FUV to 4.5 μm) and of spatially resolved H I kinematics. We use these data together with three kinematic measures (Wi_{50}, Vmax and Vflat) extracted from the global H I profiles or H I rotation curves, so as to construct 36 correlations allowing us to select the one with the least scatter. We introduce a tightness parameter σ⊥ of the TFr, in order to obtain a slope-independent measure of the goodness of fit. We find that the tightest correlation occurs when we select the 3.6 μm photometric band together with the Vflat parameter extracted from the H I rotation curve.

  9. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  10. "So, is that your 'relative' or mine?" A political-ecological critique of census-based area deprivation indices.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-10-01

    Census-based deprivation indices have been widely used in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and UK to measure area-based socio-economic inequalities. This paper examines the indicators used in census-based area deprivation indices using a political ecology approach. We question whether the current indicators of deprivation derived from census data are meaningful for the all age groups and minority groups in the population, with a particular focus on deprivation indicators used in New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom. We comparatively reviewed methodological papers and reports that describe the indicators of deprivation in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and the UK from 1975 to 2014. We consider the relationship between the notion of standards of living and measurements of deprivation and explore how hegemonic cultural constructs are implicit in measures of deprivation that privilege a Eurocentric, ageist and gender normative construction of statistics. We argue for more political ecological analyses to studying the relationship between social inequalities, geographies, health inequities and political economy to transform structures of oppression and inequality. This requires turning the analytical gaze on the wealthy and privileged instead of defaulting into deficit models to account for inequality. Studies of deprivation and inequality would benefit from understanding the processes and operations of power in the (re)production of socio-economic and health inequities to inform holistic strategies for social justice.

  11. Political involvement in nursing--politics, ethics, and strategic action.

    PubMed

    Des Jardin, K

    2001-11-01

    Political apathy in the nursing profession can be attributed to numerous factors, including a perceived ethical conflict between professional values and political involvement, as well as a lack of strategy for political action. Differences in personal and professional ethics, conflicting loyalties, and a negative image of politics create ethical tension for nurses. Political-ethical conflicts can mean choosing between job, patient care, and personal ideals. Many nurses never have considered it their place to challenge the structure of the health care system or the rules guiding that system. Supporting political action that demands change in the system, therefore, can cause tension among nurses. The political-ethical dilemma for nurses is related to outdated images of nursing, repression, fear of power, and lack of knowledge. Many guidelines exist to help nurses understand why they should get involved in the political process. By using these guidelines, nurses can evaluate issues and use a valid method to assess problems, plan for action, and evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of specific strategies. In the second of this two-part series on political involvement in nursing, political-ethical conflict is explored, along with strategies for political action.

  12. Relative contributions of spatial weighting, explicit knowledge and proprioception to hand localisation during positional ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Valeria; Gilpin, Helen R; Stanton, Tasha R; Dagsdóttir, Lilja K; Gallace, Alberto; Lorimer Moseley, G

    2017-02-01

    When vision and proprioception are rendered incongruent during a hand localisation task, vision is initially weighted more than proprioception in determining location, and proprioception gains more weighting over time. However, it is not known whether, under these incongruency conditions, particular areas of space are also weighted more heavily than others, nor whether explicit knowledge of the sensory incongruence (i.e. disconfirming the perceived location of the hand) modulates the effect. Here, we hypothesised that both non-informative inputs coming from one side of space and explicit knowledge of sensory incongruence would modulate perceived location of the limb. Specifically, we expected spatial weighting to shift hand localisation towards the weighted area of space, and we expected greater weighting of proprioceptive input once perceived location was demonstrated to be inaccurate. We manipulated spatial weighting using an established auditory cueing paradigm (Experiment 1, n = 18) and sensory incongruence using the 'disappearing hand trick' (Experiment 2, n = 9). Our first hypothesis was not supported-spatial weighting did not modulate hand localisation. Our second hypothesis was only partially supported-disconfirmation of hand position did lead to more accurate localisations, even if participants were still unaware of their hand position. This raised the possibility that rather than disconfirmation, a simple movement of the hand in view could update the sensory-motor system, by immediately increasing the weighting of proprioceptive input relative to visual input. This third hypothesis was then confirmed (Experiment 3, n = 9). These results suggest that hand localisation is robust in the face of differential weighting of space, but open to modulation in a modality-specific manner, when one sense (vision) is rendered inaccurate.

  13. Spatial correlation of hemodynamic changes related to interictal epileptic discharges with electric and magnetic source imaging.

    PubMed

    Heers, Marcel; Hedrich, Tanguy; An, Dongmei; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe; Kobayashi, Eliane

    2014-09-01

    Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes at the time of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) identify their associated vascular/hemodynamic responses. BOLD activations and deactivations can be found within the epileptogenic zone but also at a distance. Source imaging identifies electric (ESI) and magnetic (MSI) sources of IEDs, with the advantage of a higher temporal resolution. Therefore, the objective of our study was to evaluate the spatial concordance between ESI/MSI and BOLD responses for similar IEDs. Twenty-one patients with similar IEDs in simultaneous electroencephalogram/functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) and in simultaneous EEG/magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings were studied. IEDs in EEG/fMRI acquisition were analyzed in an event-related paradigm within a general linear model (GLM). ESI/MSI of averaged IEDs was performed using the Maximum Entropy on the Mean. We assessed the spatial concordance between ESI/MSI and clusters of BOLD activations/deactivations with surface-based metrics. ESI/MSI were concordant with one BOLD cluster for 20/21 patients (concordance with activation: 14/21 patients, deactivation: 6/21 patients, no concordance: 1/21 patients; concordance with MSI only: 3/21, ESI only: 2/21). These BOLD clusters exhibited in 19/20 cases the most significant voxel. BOLD clusters that were spatially concordant with ESI/MSI were concordant with IEDs from invasive recordings in 8/11 patients (activations: 5/8, deactivations: 3/8). As the results of BOLD, ESI and MSI are often concordant, they reinforce our confidence in all of them. ESI and MSI confirm the most significant BOLD cluster within BOLD maps, emphasizing the importance of these clusters for the definition of the epileptic focus. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Spatial patterns of diabetes related health problems for vulnerable populations in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rates for Diabetes Mellitus continue to rise in most urban areas of the United States, with a disproportionate burden suffered by minorities and low income populations. This paper presents an approach that utilizes address level data to understand the geography of this disease by analyzing patients seeking diabetes care through an emergency department in a Los Angeles County hospital. The most vulnerable frequently use an emergency room as a common care access point, and such care is especially costly. A fine scale GIS analysis reveals hotspots of diabetes related health problems and provides output useful in a clinic setting. Indeed these results were used to support the work of a progressive diabetes clinic to guide management and intervention strategies. Results Hotspots of diabetes related health problems, including neurological and kidney issues were mapped for vulnerable populations in a central section of Los Angeles County. The resulting spatial grid of rates and significance were overlaid with new patient residential addresses attending an area clinic. In this way neighbourhood diabetes health characteristics are added to each patient's individual health record. Of the 29 patients, 4 were within statistically significant hotspots for at least one of the conditions being investigated. Conclusions Although exploratory in nature, this approach demonstrates a novel method to conduct GIS based investigations of urban diabetes while providing support to a progressive diabetes clinic looking for novel means of managing and intervention. In so doing, this analysis adds to a relatively small literature on fine scale GIS facilitated diabetes research. Similar data should be available for most hospitals, and with due consideration for preserving spatial confidentiality, analysis outputs such as those presented here should become more commonly employed in other investigations of chronic diseases. PMID:20796322

  15. Spatial coding of eye movements relative to perceived earth and head orientations during static roll tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during static roll tilt (up to +/-45 degrees) relative to perceived earth and head orientations. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from eight subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the true earth and head orientations. We found that both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased with roll tilt. The trajectories of eye movements made along the perceived earth-horizontal (PEH) were more accurate than movements along the perceived head-horizontal (PHH). The trajectories of both PEH and PHH saccades tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt. The deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived earth-vertical (PEV) and perceived head-vertical (PHV) were both similar to the PHH orientation, except that saccades along the PEV deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. The magnitude of deviations along the PEV, PHH, and PHV corresponded to perceptual overestimations of roll tilt obtained from verbal reports. Both PEV gaze trajectories and perceptual estimates of tilt orientation were different following clockwise rather than counterclockwise tilt rotation; however, the PEH gaze trajectories were less affected by the direction of tilt rotation. Our results suggest that errors in gaze trajectories along PEV and perceived head orientations increase during roll tilt in a similar way to perceptual errors of tilt orientation. Although PEH and PEV gaze trajectories became nonorthogonal during roll tilt, we conclude that the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt is overall more accurate for the perceived earth reference frame than for the perceived head reference frame.

  16. Spatial Analysis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Antananarivo Madagascar: Tuberculosis-Related Knowledge, Attitude and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Rakotosamimanana, Sitraka; Mandrosovololona, Vatsiharizandry; Rakotonirina, Julio; Ramamonjisoa, Joselyne; Ranjalahy, Justin Rasolofomanana; Randremanana, Rindra Vatosoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis infection may remain latent, but the disease is nevertheless a serious public health issue. Various epidemiological studies on pulmonary tuberculosis have considered the spatial component and taken it into account, revealing the tendency of this disease to cluster in particular locations. The aim was to assess the contribution of Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) to the distribution of tuberculosis and to provide information for the improvement of the National Tuberculosis Program. Methods We investigated the role of KAP to distribution patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo. First, we performed spatial scanning of tuberculosis aggregation among permanent cases resident in Antananarivo Urban Township using the Kulldorff method, and then we carried out a quantitative study on KAP, involving TB patients. The KAP study in the population was based on qualitative methods with focus groups. Results The disease still clusters in the same districts identified in the previous study. The principal cluster covered 22 neighborhoods. Most of them are part of the first district. A secondary cluster was found, involving 18 neighborhoods in the sixth district and two neighborhoods in the fifth. The relative risk was respectively 1.7 (p<10−6) in the principal cluster and 1.6 (p<10−3) in the secondary cluster. Our study showed that more was known about TB symptoms than about the duration of the disease or free treatment. Knowledge about TB was limited to that acquired at school or from relatives with TB. The attitude and practices of patients and the population in general indicated that there is still a stigma attached to tuberculosis. Conclusion This type of survey can be conducted in remote zones where the tuberculosis-related KAP of the TB patients and the general population is less known or not documented; the findings could be used to adapt control measures to the local particularities. PMID:25386655

  17. Spatial coding of eye movements relative to perceived earth and head orientations during static roll tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during static roll tilt (up to +/-45 degrees) relative to perceived earth and head orientations. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from eight subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the true earth and head orientations. We found that both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased with roll tilt. The trajectories of eye movements made along the perceived earth-horizontal (PEH) were more accurate than movements along the perceived head-horizontal (PHH). The trajectories of both PEH and PHH saccades tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt. The deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived earth-vertical (PEV) and perceived head-vertical (PHV) were both similar to the PHH orientation, except that saccades along the PEV deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. The magnitude of deviations along the PEV, PHH, and PHV corresponded to perceptual overestimations of roll tilt obtained from verbal reports. Both PEV gaze trajectories and perceptual estimates of tilt orientation were different following clockwise rather than counterclockwise tilt rotation; however, the PEH gaze trajectories were less affected by the direction of tilt rotation. Our results suggest that errors in gaze trajectories along PEV and perceived head orientations increase during roll tilt in a similar way to perceptual errors of tilt orientation. Although PEH and PEV gaze trajectories became nonorthogonal during roll tilt, we conclude that the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt is overall more accurate for the perceived earth reference frame than for the perceived head reference frame.

  18. Spatial coding of eye movements relative to perceived earth and head orientations during static roll tilt.

    PubMed

    Wood, S J; Paloski, W H; Reschke, M F

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during static roll tilt (up to +/-45 degrees) relative to perceived earth and head orientations. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from eight subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the true earth and head orientations. We found that both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased with roll tilt. The trajectories of eye movements made along the perceived earth-horizontal (PEH) were more accurate than movements along the perceived head-horizontal (PHH). The trajectories of both PEH and PHH saccades tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt. The deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived earth-vertical (PEV) and perceived head-vertical (PHV) were both similar to the PHH orientation, except that saccades along the PEV deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. The magnitude of deviations along the PEV, PHH, and PHV corresponded to perceptual overestimations of roll tilt obtained from verbal reports. Both PEV gaze trajectories and perceptual estimates of tilt orientation were different following clockwise rather than counterclockwise tilt rotation; however, the PEH gaze trajectories were less affected by the direction of tilt rotation. Our results suggest that errors in gaze trajectories along PEV and perceived head orientations increase during roll tilt in a similar way to perceptual errors of tilt orientation. Although PEH and PEV gaze trajectories became nonorthogonal during roll tilt, we conclude that the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt is overall more accurate for the perceived earth reference frame than for the perceived head reference frame.

  19. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Eveline; Gosselin, Pierre; Badard, Thierry; Bédard, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    Background Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence), a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP) and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Results Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at integrating an initial

  20. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Eveline; Gosselin, Pierre; Badard, Thierry; Bédard, Yvan

    2009-04-03

    Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence), a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP) and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at integrating an initial collection of geo

  1. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-01-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994–2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  2. Temporal and spatial variability in the aviation NOx-related O3 impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Christopher K.; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Koo, Jamin; Wang, Qiqi

    2013-09-01

    Aviation NOx emissions promote tropospheric ozone formation, which is linked to climate warming and adverse health effects. Modeling studies have quantified the relative impact of aviation NOx on O3 in large geographic regions. As these studies have applied forward modeling techniques, it has not been possible to attribute O3 formation to individual flights. Here we apply the adjoint of the global chemistry-transport model GEOS-Chem to assess the temporal and spatial variability in O3 production due to aviation NOx emissions, which is the first application of an adjoint to this problem. We find that total aviation NOx emitted in October causes 40% more O3 than in April and that Pacific aviation emissions could cause 4-5 times more tropospheric O3 per unit NOx than European or North American emissions. Using this sensitivity approach, the O3 burden attributable to 83 000 unique scheduled civil flights is computed individually. We find that the ten highest total O3-producing flights have origins or destinations in New Zealand or Australia. The top ranked O3-producing flights normalized by fuel burn cause 157 times more normalized O3 formation than the bottom ranked ones. These results show significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental impacts of aviation NOx emissions.

  3. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2016-06-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  4. Topological Relations-Based Detection of Spatial Inconsistency in GLOBELAND30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Chen, J.; Peng, S.

    2017-09-01

    Land cover is one of the fundamental data sets on environment assessment, land management and biodiversity protection, etc. Hence, data quality control of land cover is extremely critical for geospatial analysis and decision making. Due to the similar remote-sensing reflectance for some land cover types, omission and commission errors occurred in preliminary classification could result to spatial inconsistency between land cover types. In the progress of post-classification, this error checking mainly depends on manual labour to assure data quality, by which it is time-consuming and labour intensive. So a method required for automatic detection in post-classification is still an open issue. From logical inconsistency point of view, an inconsistency detection method is designed. This method consist of a grids extended 4-intersection model (GE4IM) for topological representation in single-valued space, by which three different kinds of topological relations including disjoint, touch, contain or contained-by are described, and an algorithm of region overlay for the computation of spatial inconsistency. The rules are derived from universal law in nature between water body and wetland, cultivated land and artificial surface. Through experiment conducted in Shandong Linqu County, data inconsistency can be pointed out within 6 minutes through calculation of topological inconsistency between cultivated land and artificial surface, water body and wetland. The efficiency evaluation of the presented algorithm is demonstrated by Google Earth images. Through comparative analysis, the algorithm is proved to be promising for inconsistency detection in land cover data.

  5. Relation between fish communities and riparian zone conditions at two spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.E.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hanson, P.E.

    2001-01-01

     The relation offish community composition to riparian cover at two spatial scales was compared at 18 streams in the agricultural Minnesota River Basin. The two spatial scales were: (1) local riparian zone (a 200 meter wide buffer extending 2 to 3 kilometers upstream of the sampling reach); and (2) the upstream riparian zone (a 200 m wide buffer on the mainstem and all perennial tributaries upstream of the sampling reach). Analysis of variance indicated that streams with wooded-local riparian zones had greater fish species richness (means = 20 and 15, respectively) and Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores (means = 40 and 26, respectively) than streams with open-local riparian zones. Streams with wooded-upstream riparian zones tended (were not statistically significant) to have greater numbers of species (means = 19 and 15, respectively) and IBI scores (means = 33 and 28, respectively) than streams with open-upstream riparian zones. There was no significant interaction between the riparian zone conditions at the two scales. This study suggests that maintenance of wooded riparian cover along streams could be effective in maintaining or improving fish community composition in streams draining heavily agricultural areas.

  6. Evaluation of spatial-encoding-related geometric distortion in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Cheol Pyo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Man Woo; Woo, Youngkeun

    2012-12-01

    This study demonstrated the characteristics of spatial encoding-related geometric distortion in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using a phantom with known physical dimensions to detect geometric distortion in MR scans. The amount of distortion was calculated as the difference between the physical coordinates of control points in the phantom and those of the corresponding points in the distorted MR image of the phantom. The phase and the frequency encoding directions were swapped to acquire a phantom image for movement of a patient table 120 mm to the right and left, allowing comprehensive distortion mapping over the isocentric plane and the entire field of view (FOV) along the spatial encoding. The geometric distortion of phase encoding directions over the entire FOV was small compared to the distortion of frequency encoding directions. The maximum absolute deviations were 28.00 mm and 20.00 mm along the frequency and the phase encoding directions over the entire FOV, respectively. The mean absolute deviations along the frequency and the phase encoding directions were 2.85 mm and 1.97 mm, respectively. Although geometric distortion along the phase encoding axis near the isocenter was small, the distortion increased slightly toward the peripheral regions. The distortion of the phase encoding direction in the peripheral region can be severely affected by the imaging gradient's nonlinearity.

  7. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2017-08-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  8. An Event-related Potential Study on the Interaction between Lighting Level and Stimulus Spatial Location

    PubMed Central

    Carretié, Luis; Ruiz-Padial, Elisabeth; Mendoza, María T.

    2015-01-01

    Due to heterogeneous photoreceptor distribution, spatial location of stimulation is crucial to study visual brain activity in different light environments. This unexplored issue was studied through occipital event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from 40 participants in response to discrete visual stimuli presented at different locations and in two environmental light conditions, low mesopic (L, 0.03 lux) and high mesopic (H, 6.5 lux), characterized by a differential photoreceptor activity balance: rod > cone and rod < cone, respectively. Stimuli, which were exactly the same in L and H, consisted of squares presented at fixation, at the vertical periphery (above or below fixation) or at the horizontal periphery (left or right). Analyses showed that occipital ERPs presented important L vs. H differences in the 100 to 450 ms window, which were significantly modulated by spatial location of stimulation: differences were greater in response to peripheral stimuli than to stimuli presented at fixation. Moreover, in the former case, significance of L vs. H differences was even stronger in response to stimuli presented at the horizontal than at the vertical periphery. These low vs. high mesopic differences may be explained by photoreceptor activation and their retinal distribution, and confirm that ERPs discriminate between rod– and cone-originated visual processing. PMID:26635588

  9. Manual action, fitting, and spatial planning: relating objects by young children.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wendy P; Kahrs, Björn A; Lockman, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    This study uses motion tracking technology to provide a new way of addressing the development of the ability to prospectively orient objects with respect to one another. A group of toddlers between 16 and 33 months of age (N=30) were studied in an object fitting task while they wore reflective markers on their hands to track spatial adjustments in three dimensions. Manual displacements of the handheld object were separated into translations and rotations. Results revealed that younger children largely used a two-step approach in which they initially translate an object to a target and subsequently attempt to rotate the object to match the target. In contrast, older children evidence more advanced spatial planning and integrate translational and rotational components throughout the entire period when they are transporting the object to the target. Additionally, at the oldest ages, children show even further improvements in coordinating translations and rotations by using relatively shorter translations (i.e., covering less distance) and by avoiding unnecessary rotations of the object. More broadly, the results offer insights into how manual problem solving becomes more efficient and planful during the toddler years.

  10. Explore spatial-temporal relations: transient super-resolution with PMD sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chaosheng; Lin, Xing; Lin, Jingyu; Yan, Chenggang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Transient imaging provides a direct view of how light travel in the scene, which leads to exciting applications such as looking around corners. Low-budget transient imagers, adapted from Time-of-Fight (ToF) cameras, reduce the barrier of entry for performing research of this new imaging modality. However, the image quality is far from satisfactory due to the limited resolution of PMD sensors. In this paper, we improve the resolution of transient images by modulating the illumination. We capture the scene under three linearly independent lighting conditions, and derive a theoretical model for the relationship between the time-profile and the corresponding 3D details of each pixel. Our key idea is that the light flight time in each pixel patch is proportional to the cross product of the illuminating direction and the surface normal. First we capture and reconstruct transient images by Fourier analysis at multiple illumination locations, and then fuse the data of acquired low-spatial resolution images to calculate the surface normal. Afterwards, we use an optimization procedure to split the pixels and finally enhance the image quality. We show that we can not only reveal the fine structure of the object but may also uncover the reflectance properties of different materials. We hope the idea of utilizing spatial-temporal relations will give new insights to the research and applications of transient imaging.

  11. Accessing topography-related spatial variability in crop yields using coupled agroecosystem-geomorphic modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatskikh, Dmitri; van Oost, Kristof

    2010-05-01

    A majority of the European arable fields is situated on rolling topographies, characterized by high in-field crop yields variability. In addition, geomorphic research has indicated that considerable within-field redistribution of soil material occurs. However, crop yield prognoses based on agroecosystem modelling typically characterize the soil system as static and as a point, i.e. as a single profile with generally unknown uncertainty. In order to improve the confidence levels for future agroecosystem development, it is essential to include this interaction between geomorphic and crop growth processes and to include uncertainty estimation while presenting the modelling results. We applied a spatially explicit approach in order to analyze relations between geomorphic processes, landscape position and crop growth. For this purpose, we use three computer experiments ("past", assuming homogenous soil properties; "present", time correspondent to the measured year; and "future", in 50 years from "today" assuming the same soil redistribution rates) using downscaling technique. The approach was developed by implicit combination of the FASSET agroecosystem model, dynamically simulated crop growth dependent on meteorological and soil conditions, and the SPEROS geomorphic model, dynamically simulated lateral transfers of soil material and nutrients in the given landscape. To evaluate the approach, site-specific experimental data for croplands from two European locations (Belgium and the UK) were used, differing in climatic conditions, soil properties and management. Besides spatial difference in meteorological and initial soil properties in the fields, twofold water effect on soil-crop modelling system was considered: (1) effect related to differences in water retention as a result of differences in soil properties (e.g. texture, SOM), and (2) effect related to the topographical position. The results clearly show that soil redistribution significantly affected crop yields in

  12. Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling.

    PubMed

    Van der Heyden, H; Dutilleul, P; Brodeur, L; Carisse, O

    2014-06-01

    Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to fungicide resistance was studied for Botrytis cinerea populations in vineyards and for B. squamosa populations in onion fields. Heterogeneity in this distribution was characterized by performing geostatistical analyses based on semivariograms and through the fitting of discrete probability distributions. Two SNPs known to be responsible for boscalid resistance (H272R and H272Y), both located on the B subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase gene, and one SNP known to be responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S) were chosen for B. cinerea in grape. For B. squamosa in onion, one SNP responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S homologous) was chosen. One onion field was sampled in 2009 and another one was sampled in 2010 for B. squamosa, and two vineyards were sampled in 2011 for B. cinerea, for a total of four sampled sites. Cluster sampling was carried on a 10-by-10 grid, each of the 100 nodes being the center of a 10-by-10-m quadrat. In each quadrat, 10 samples were collected and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or allele specific PCR. Mean SNP incidence varied from 16 to 68%, with an overall mean incidence of 43%. In the geostatistical analyses, omnidirectional variograms showed spatial autocorrelation characterized by ranges of 21 to 1 m. Various levels of anisotropy were detected, however, with variograms computed in four directions (at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° from the within-row direction used as reference), indicating that spatial autocorrelation was prevalent or characterized by a longer range in one direction. For all eight data sets, the β-binomial distribution was found to fit the data better than the binomial distribution. This indicates local aggregation of fungicide resistance among sampling units, as supported by estimates of the parameter θ of the β-binomial distribution of 0.09 to 0.23 (overall median value = 0

  13. Altered hippocampal transcript profile accompanies an age-related spatial memory deficit in mice.

    PubMed

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Yonan, Amanda L; Malleret, Gaël; Kandel, Eric R; Gilliam, T Conrad; Pavlidis, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a global survey of age-related changes in mRNA levels in the C57BL/6NIA mouse hippocampus and found a difference in the hippocampal gene expression profile between 2-month-old young mice and 15-month-old middle-aged mice correlated with an age-related cognitive deficit in hippocampal-based explicit memory formation. Middle-aged mice displayed a mild but specific deficit in spatial memory in the Morris water maze. By using Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays, we found a distinct pattern of age-related change, consisting mostly of gene overexpression in the middle-aged mice, suggesting that the induction of negative regulators in the middle-aged hippocampus could be involved in impairment of learning. Interestingly, we report changes in transcript levels for genes that could affect synaptic plasticity. Those changes could be involved in the memory deficits we observed in the 15-month-old mice. In agreement with previous reports, we also found altered expression in genes related to inflammation, protein processing, and oxidative stress.

  14. Is the political animal politically ignorant? Applying evolutionary psychology to the study of political attitudes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2012-12-20

    As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.

  15. Metacommunity composition of web-spiders in a fragmented neotropical forest: relative importance of environmental and spatial effects.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Ronei; Rodrigues, Everton N L; Hartz, Sandra M

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of beta diversity is shaped by factors linked to environmental and spatial control. The relative importance of both processes in structuring spider metacommunities has not yet been investigated in the Atlantic Forest. The variance explained by purely environmental, spatially structured environmental, and purely spatial components was compared for a metacommunity of web spiders. The study was carried out in 16 patches of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. Field work was done in one landscape mosaic representing a slight gradient of urbanization. Environmental variables encompassed plot- and patch-level measurements and a climatic matrix, while principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNMs) acted as spatial variables. A forward selection procedure was carried out to select environmental and spatial variables influencing web-spider beta diversity. Variation partitioning was used to estimate the contribution of pure environmental and pure spatial effects and their shared influence on beta-diversity patterns, and to estimate the relative importance of selected environmental variables. Three environmental variables (bush density, land use in the surroundings of patches, and shape of patches) and two spatial variables were selected by forward selection procedures. Variation partitioning revealed that 15% of the variation of beta diversity was explained by a combination of environmental and PCNM variables. Most of this variation (12%) corresponded to pure environmental and spatially environmental structure. The data indicated that (1) spatial legacy was not important in explaining the web-spider beta diversity; (2) environmental predictors explained a significant portion of the variation in web-spider composition; (3) one-third of environmental variation was due to a spatial structure that jointly explains variation in species distributions. We were able to detect important factors related to matrix management influencing the web-spider beta

  16. Metacommunity Composition of Web-Spiders in a Fragmented Neotropical Forest: Relative Importance of Environmental and Spatial Effects

    PubMed Central

    Baldissera, Ronei; Rodrigues, Everton N. L.; Hartz, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of beta diversity is shaped by factors linked to environmental and spatial control. The relative importance of both processes in structuring spider metacommunities has not yet been investigated in the Atlantic Forest. The variance explained by purely environmental, spatially structured environmental, and purely spatial components was compared for a metacommunity of web spiders. The study was carried out in 16 patches of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. Field work was done in one landscape mosaic representing a slight gradient of urbanization. Environmental variables encompassed plot- and patch-level measurements and a climatic matrix, while principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNMs) acted as spatial variables. A forward selection procedure was carried out to select environmental and spatial variables influencing web-spider beta diversity. Variation partitioning was used to estimate the contribution of pure environmental and pure spatial effects and their shared influence on beta-diversity patterns, and to estimate the relative importance of selected environmental variables. Three environmental variables (bush density, land use in the surroundings of patches, and shape of patches) and two spatial variables were selected by forward selection procedures. Variation partitioning revealed that 15% of the variation of beta diversity was explained by a combination of environmental and PCNM variables. Most of this variation (12%) corresponded to pure environmental and spatially environmental structure. The data indicated that (1) spatial legacy was not important in explaining the web-spider beta diversity; (2) environmental predictors explained a significant portion of the variation in web-spider composition; (3) one-third of environmental variation was due to a spatial structure that jointly explains variation in species distributions. We were able to detect important factors related to matrix management influencing the web-spider beta

  17. Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

  18. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Impervious Cover Relative to Watershed Stream Location

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of spatial pattern on ecological processes is a guiding principle of landscape ecology. The guiding principle of spatial pattern was used for a U.S. nationwide assessment of impervious cover (IC). Spatial pattern was measured by comparing IC concentration near strea...

  19. Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

  20. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Impervious Cover Relative to Watershed Stream Location

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of spatial pattern on ecological processes is a guiding principle of landscape ecology. The guiding principle of spatial pattern was used for a U.S. nationwide assessment of impervious cover (IC). Spatial pattern was measured by comparing IC concentration near strea...

  1. Spatial Distribution of Flavonoid Conjugates in Relation to Glucosyltransferase and Sulfotransferase Activities in Flaveria bidentis 1

    PubMed Central

    Hannoufa, Abdelali; Varin, Luc; Ibrahim, Ragai K.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial distribution of sulfated and glucosylated flavonols as well as of the enzymes involved in the later steps of their biosynthesis, sulfotransferase and glucosyltransferase, were investigated in the shoots of Flaveria bidentis. The highest amounts of both types of flavonoid conjugates (as micromole per gram fresh weight) and the highest activities of their enzymes (as picokat per milligram) were detected in the terminal bud and the first pair of leaves. Sulfotransferase activity was also highest in the upper stem segments and in the basal section of the leaves. Western blot analysis of protein extracts showed that variations in sulfotransferase activity in different tissues correlate well with the amounts of immunodetected enzyme protein. These results were discussed in relation to the possible role of conjugated flavonoids in plant growth. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668379

  2. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    resource-mobilization theory in meso-level analysis.218 The final component is the psychological process of cognitive liberation, a concept developed by...236 Neal Caren, “Political Process Theory ” In The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, ed. George Ritzer (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2007), 3456...important enabler. In applying models of social movement theory to historical analysis, this thesis identifies and develops the contentious politics

  3. Age-Related Changes in the Ability to Switch between Temporal and Spatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Eleanor; Holland, Carol; Kessler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying age-related changes in cognition that contribute towards reduced driving performance is important for the development of interventions to improve older adults' driving and prolong the time that they can continue to drive. While driving, one is often required to switch from attending to events changing in time, to distribute attention spatially. Although there is extensive research into both spatial attention and temporal attention and how these change with age, the literature on switching between these modalities of attention is limited within any age group. Methods: Age groups (21-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70+ years) were compared on their ability to switch between detecting a target in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream and detecting a target in a visual search display. To manipulate the cost of switching, the target in the RSVP stream was either the first item in the stream (Target 1st), towards the end of the stream (Target Mid), or absent from the stream (Distractor Only). Visual search response times and accuracy were recorded. Target 1st trials behaved as no-switch trials, as attending to the remaining stream was not necessary. Target Mid and Distractor Only trials behaved as switch trials, as attending to the stream to the end was required. Results: Visual search response times (RTs) were longer on "Target Mid" and "Distractor Only" trials in comparison to "Target 1st" trials, reflecting switch-costs. Larger switch-costs were found in both the 40-49 and 60-69 years group in comparison to the 21-30 years group when switching from the Target Mid condition. Discussion: Findings warrant further exploration as to whether there are age-related changes in the ability to switch between these modalities of attention while driving. If older adults display poor performance when switching between temporal and spatial attention while driving, then the development of an intervention to preserve and improve this ability would be

  4. Age-Related Changes in the Ability to Switch between Temporal and Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Eleanor; Holland, Carol; Kessler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying age-related changes in cognition that contribute towards reduced driving performance is important for the development of interventions to improve older adults’ driving and prolong the time that they can continue to drive. While driving, one is often required to switch from attending to events changing in time, to distribute attention spatially. Although there is extensive research into both spatial attention and temporal attention and how these change with age, the literature on switching between these modalities of attention is limited within any age group. Methods: Age groups (21–30, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and 70+ years) were compared on their ability to switch between detecting a target in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream and detecting a target in a visual search display. To manipulate the cost of switching, the target in the RSVP stream was either the first item in the stream (Target 1st), towards the end of the stream (Target Mid), or absent from the stream (Distractor Only). Visual search response times and accuracy were recorded. Target 1st trials behaved as no-switch trials, as attending to the remaining stream was not necessary. Target Mid and Distractor Only trials behaved as switch trials, as attending to the stream to the end was required. Results: Visual search response times (RTs) were longer on “Target Mid” and “Distractor Only” trials in comparison to “Target 1st” trials, reflecting switch-costs. Larger switch-costs were found in both the 40–49 and 60–69 years group in comparison to the 21–30 years group when switching from the Target Mid condition. Discussion: Findings warrant further exploration as to whether there are age-related changes in the ability to switch between these modalities of attention while driving. If older adults display poor performance when switching between temporal and spatial attention while driving, then the development of an intervention to preserve and

  5. "Taking the problem to the people": traffic safety from public relations to political theory, 1937-1954.

    PubMed

    Bernardin, Stève

    2015-04-01

    The slogan "taking the problem to the people" nicely summarizes U.S. traffic safety campaigns of the 1950s. It refers to the goal of awareness and self-discipline for drivers through education and law enforcement. A detailed analysis of the campaigns, however, shows a subtler objective of the motor interests that promoted it. They wanted to overcome political indifference through a civic mobilization of drivers as citizens, persuading drivers to lobby for traffic control. The analysis of their efforts leads us to question the role-or lack of role-of politicians in scientific and technological controversies.

  6. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  7. Spatial relations between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Spatial relations between coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on a 360-km2 area in North Dakota were studied during 1977-78. Coyote families occupied large (mean = 61.2 km2), relatively exclusive territories that encompassed about one-half of the study area. Fox families occupied much smaller (mean = 11.9 km2), relatively exclusive, territories that overlapped perimeters of coyote territories and/or encompassed area unoccupied by coyotes. No fox family lived totally within a coyote territory, but 3 fox families lived within the 153.6-km2 home range of an unattached yearling male coyote. Both coyotes and foxes, from families with overlapping territories, tended to use their overlap areas less than was expected by amount of overlap. Encounters between radio-equipped coyotes and foxes from families with overlapping territories occurred less often than was expected by chance. Foxes living near coyotes exhibited considerable tenacity to their territories, and no monitored fox was killed by coyotes during 2,518 fox-days of radio surveillance. A hypothesis for coyote-induced fox population declines, based largely on fox avoidance mechanisms, is presented.

  8. Race, Charter Schools, and Conscious Capitalism: On the Spatial Politics of Whiteness as Property (and the Unconscionable Assault on Black New Orleans)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buras, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Kristen L. Buras examines educational policy formation in New Orleans and the racial, economic, and spatial dynamics shaping the city's reconstruction since 2005. More specifically, Buras draws on the critical theories of whiteness as property, accumulation by dispossession, and urban space economy to describe the strategic…

  9. Race, Charter Schools, and Conscious Capitalism: On the Spatial Politics of Whiteness as Property (and the Unconscionable Assault on Black New Orleans)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buras, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Kristen L. Buras examines educational policy formation in New Orleans and the racial, economic, and spatial dynamics shaping the city's reconstruction since 2005. More specifically, Buras draws on the critical theories of whiteness as property, accumulation by dispossession, and urban space economy to describe the strategic…

  10. Schema vs. primitive perceptual grouping: the relative weighting of sequential vs. spatial cues during an auditory grouping task in frogs.

    PubMed

    Farris, Hamilton E; Ryan, Michael J

    2017-02-15

    Perceptually, grouping sounds based on their sources is critical for communication. This is especially true in túngara frog breeding aggregations, where multiple males produce overlapping calls that consist of an FM 'whine' followed by harmonic bursts called 'chucks'. Phonotactic females use at least two cues to group whines and chucks: whine-chuck spatial separation and sequence. Spatial separation is a primitive cue, whereas sequence is schema-based, as chuck production is morphologically constrained to follow whines, meaning that males cannot produce the components simultaneously. When one cue is available, females perceptually group whines and chucks using relative comparisons: components with the smallest spatial separation or those closest to the natural sequence are more likely grouped. By simultaneously varying the temporal sequence and spatial separation of a single whine and two chucks, this study measured between-cue perceptual weighting during a specific grouping task. Results show that whine-chuck spatial separation is a stronger grouping cue than temporal sequence, as grouping is more likely for stimuli with smaller spatial separation and non-natural sequence than those with larger spatial separation and natural sequence. Compared to the schema-based whine-chuck sequence, we propose that spatial cues have less variance, potentially explaining their preferred use when grouping during directional behavioral responses.

  11. The relative role of hillslope and river network routing in the hydrologic response to spatially variable rainfall fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, Davide; Borga, Marco; Chirico, Giovanni Battista; Nikolopoulos, E. I.

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new methodology and a rainfall spatial organisation index to examine the relative role of hillslope and channel residence times in the analysis of the significance of spatial rainfall representation in catchment flood response modelling. The relationship between the flood response, the hillslope and channel residence time representation and the spatial organisation of the rainfall fields is obtained by extending the 'spatial moments of catchment rainfall' statistics (Zoccatelli et al., 2011) to the hillslope system. The flood prediction error generated by assuming spatially uniform rainfall is related to the spatial organisation of the rainfall fields by means of the scaled spatial moment of order one for the channel network and the hillslope system. The methodology provides a basis for a more general consideration of the relationship between the flood response dependence to spatial rainfall organisation and catchment size. The methodology is illustrated based on data from five extreme flash floods occurred in various European regions in the period 2002-2007. Discharge data are available either from streamgauges or from post-flood surveys for 27 catchments, ranging in size between 36 and 982 km2. High space-time resolution radar rainfall fields are also available for the analyses. These data are used to implement a distributed hydrological model simulating the runoff generation by infiltration excess and explicitly representing the surface flow paths across both the hillslopes and the river network. The hydrological model is alternatively forced with spatially-distributed and spatially-uniform rainfall input, to analyse the factors controlling the sensitivity of the model output to the spatial rainfall data. Our results show that the spatial variability of the rainfall can influence the flash-flood hydrographs for catchments as small as 50 km2, and that the dependence of flood hydrograph shape to spatial rainfall variability cannot be

  12. Spatially Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy to Probe Electronic Phase Separation in Manganites and Related Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Sarma, Dipankar

    2005-03-01

    Manganese oxides that exhibit colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) are often characterised by a competition of different electronic phases that critically influence their properties and leads to the coexistence of spatially separated competing phases. Despite extensive experimentation, characteristic length-scales associated with phase coexistence remains an important open question. While theoretical work has pointed to a nanometric length-scale, experiments have uncovered multiple length-scales ranging from the atomic to the sub-micron, covering many orders of magnitude. The role of chemical inhomogeneity in driving this phenomenon is not well understood. Moreover, these early experiments were carried out on polycrystalline and thin film specimens. Here we use a spatially resolved, direct spectroscopic probe for electronic structure with an additional unique sensitivity to chemical compositions to investigate high quality single crystal sample of La1/4Pr3/8Ca3/8MnO3. The formation of distinct electronic domains is observed in absence of any perceptible chemical inhomogeneity, where the relevant length-scale is at least an order of magnitude larger than all previous estimates. The present results, exhibiting memory effects in the domain morphology, suggest that electronic domain formation is intimately connected with long-range strains, often thought to be an important ingredient in the physics of this effect. Additionally, we have also applied this technique to a variety of related materials, such as (LuMnO3)0.79(La5/8Sr3/8MnO3)0.21, and Sr2FexMo1-xO6. Our preliminary results in all these cases suggest that the existence of spatially inhomogeneous electronic phases plays important roles in determining many of the interesting properties of such systems. This work is carried out in collaboration with M. Bertolo, G. Cautero, S-W. Cheong, A. Fujimori, T. Y. Koo, S.R. Krishnakumar, U. Manju, S. Ray, S. La Rosa P. A. Sharma and D. Topwal.

  13. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The patterns of relative variability differ by transect and horizon. The N–S transect A-horizon soils show significant between-40-km scale variability for 29 elements, with only 4 elements (Ca, Mg, Pb and Sr) showing in excess of 50% of their variability at the within-40-km and ‘at-site’ scales. In contrast, the C-horizon data demonstrate significant between-40-km scale variability for 26 elements, with 21 having in excess of 50% of their variability at the within-40-km and ‘at-site’ scales. In 36 instances, the ‘at-site’ variability is statistically significant in terms of the sample preparation and analysis variability. It is postulated that this contrast between the A- and C- horizons along the N–S transect, that is dominated by agricultural land uses, is due to the local homogenization of Ap-horizon soils by tillage reducing the ‘at-site’ variability. The spatial variability is distributed similarly between scales for the A- and C-horizon soils of the E–W transect. For all elements, there is significant variability at the within-40-km scale. Notwithstanding this, there is significant between-40-km variability for 28 and 20 of the elements in the A- and C-horizon data, respectively. The differences between the two transects are attributed to (1) geology, the N–S transect runs generally parallel to regional strikes, whereas the E–W transect runs across regional structures and lithologies; and (2) land use, with agricultural tillage dominating along the N–S transect. The spatial analysis of the transect data indicates that continental-scale maps demonstrating statistically significant patterns of geochemical variability may be prepared for many elements from data on soil samples collected on a 40 x 40 km grid or similar sampling designs resulting in a sample density of 1 site per 1600 km2.

  14. An Attentional Adaptation Account of Spatial Negative Priming: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaonan L.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Reder, Lynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Negative priming (NP) refers to a slower response to a target stimulus if it has been previously ignored. To examine theoretical accounts of spatial NP, we recorded behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) in a target localization task. A target and distractor briefly appeared, and the participant pressed a key corresponding to the target's location. The probability of the distractor appearing in each of four locations varied, while the target appeared with equal probability in each location. We found that reaction times (RTs) were fastest when the prime distractor appeared in its most probable (frequent) location and when the prime target appeared in the location that never contained a distractor. Moreover, NP effects varied as a function of location: they were smallest when targets followed distractors in the frequent distractor location – a finding not predicted by episodic retrieval or suppression accounts of NP. ERP results showed that the P2, an ERP component associated with attentional orientation, was smaller in prime displays when the distractor appeared in its frequent location. Moreover there were no differences between negative prime and control trials in the N2, which is associated with suppression processes, nor in the P3, which is associated with episodic retrieval processes. These results indicate that the spatial NP effect is caused by both short- and long-term adaptation in preferences based on the history of inspecting unsuccessful locations. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Edward E. Smith and we indicate how this study is inspired by his research career. PMID:24464637

  15. Spatial Patterns of Ectomycorrhizal Assemblages in a Monospecific Forest in Relation to Host Tree Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Christa; Finkeldey, Reiner; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (EcM) are important for soil exploration and thereby may shape belowground interactions of roots. We investigated the composition and spatial structures of EcM assemblages in relation to host genotype in an old-growth, monospecific beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. We hypothesized that neighboring roots of different beech individuals are colonized by similar EcM assemblages if host genotype had no influence on the fungal colonization and that the similarity would decrease with increasing distance of the sampling points. The alternative was that the EcM species showed preferences for distinct beech genotypes resulting in intraspecific variation of EcM-host assemblages. EcM species identities, abundance and exploration type as well as the genotypes of the colonized roots were determined in each sampling unit of a 1 L soil core (r = 0.04 m, depth 0.2 m). The Morisita-Horn similarity indices (MHSI) based on EcM species abundance and multiple community comparisons were calculated. No pronounced variation of MHSI with increasing distances of the sampling points within a plot was found, but variations between plots. Very high similarities and no between plot variation were found for MHSI based on EcM exploration types suggesting homogenous soil foraging in this ecosystem. The EcM community on different root genotypes in the same soil core exhibited high similarity, whereas the EcM communities on the root of the same tree genotype in different soil cores were significantly dissimilar. This finding suggests that spatial structuring of EcM assemblages occurs within the root system of an individual. This may constitute a novel, yet unknown mechanism ensuring colonization by a diverse EcM community of the roots of a given host individual. PMID:23630537

  16. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-11-15

    AWe investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 1011 M , we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲ 75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  17. An attentional-adaptation account of spatial negative priming: evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaonan L; Walsh, Matthew M; Reder, Lynne M

    2014-03-01

    Negative priming (NP) refers to a slower response to a target stimulus if it has been previously ignored. To examine theoretical accounts of spatial NP, we recorded behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) in a target localization task. A target and distractor briefly appeared, and the participant pressed a key corresponding to the target's location. The probability of the distractor appearing in each of four locations varied, whereas the target appeared with equal probabilities in all locations. We found that response times (RTs) were fastest when the prime distractor appeared in its most probable (frequent) location and when the prime target appeared in the location that never contained a distractor. Moreover, NP effects varied as a function of location: They were smallest when targets followed distractors in the frequent distractor location-a finding not predicted by episodic-retrieval or suppression accounts of NP. The ERP results showed that the P2, an ERP component associated with attentional orientation, was smaller in prime displays when the distractor appeared in its frequent location. Moreover, no differences were apparent between negative-prime and control trials in the N2, which is associated with suppression processes, nor in the P3, which is associated with episodic retrieval processes. These results indicate that the spatial NP effect is caused by both short- and long-term adaptation in preferences based on the history of inspecting unsuccessful locations. This article is dedicated to the memory of Edward E. Smith, and we indicate how this study was inspired by his research career.

  18. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-12-10

    We investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H{sub 2} density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H{sub 2} peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  19. Global-local processing relates to spatial and verbal processing: implications for sex differences in cognition.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; Scheuringer, Andrea; Scherndl, Thomas

    2017-09-05

    Sex differences have been reported for a variety of cognitive tasks and related to the use of different cognitive processing styles in men and women. It was recently argued that these processing styles share some characteristics across tasks, i.e. male approaches are oriented towards holistic stimulus aspects and female approaches are oriented towards stimulus details. In that respect, sex-dependent cognitive processing styles share similarities with attentional global-local processing. A direct relationship between cognitive processing and global-local processing has however not been previously established. In the present study, 49 men and 44 women completed a Navon paradigm and a Kimchi Palmer task as well as a navigation task and a verbal fluency task with the goal to relate the global advantage (GA) effect as a measure of global processing to holistic processing styles in both tasks. Indeed participants with larger GA effects displayed more holistic processing during spatial navigation and phonemic fluency. However, the relationship to cognitive processing styles was modulated by the specific condition of the Navon paradigm, as well as the sex of participants. Thus, different types of global-local processing play different roles for cognitive processing in men and women.

  20. Determination of tissue optical properties from spatially resolved relative diffuse reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yaqin; Lin, Ling; Li, Gang; Ye, Wenyu; Yu, Qilian

    2004-07-01

    Noninvasive determination of μs' and μa is essential for clinical applications in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance method is more advantageous than other techniques because of its simplicity and low-cost. The methods for solving the nonlinear inverse problem of estimates of μs' and μa from spatially resolved diffuse reflectance Rd(r) can be classified into the algorithms based on absolute or relative reflectance measurements in nature. Since absolute reflectance measurements are technically more difficult to perform than the relative one, study on the methods based on the relative reflectance has a more important meaning for real applications. Considering that there were several normalizations of Rd(r), in this paper we discussed the varieties of prediction rms errors of μs' and μa extracted from relative reflectance data of different normalization forms including Rd(r)/Rd(r)max, r2(Rd(r)/Rd(r)max), 1n(Rd(r)/Rd(r)max) and 1n(r2(Rd(r)/Rd(r)max)). Additionally, we compared the accuracies of μs' and μa determined from absolute reflectance data Rd(r) and 1n(Rd(r)) with that from relative reflectance data to study the loss of accuracy due to normalization. Rather than the traditional neural network methods, we used a new method -- PCA-NN trained with diffuse reflectance data from Monte Carlo simulations to derive μs' and μa. All the PCA-NNs were trained and tested on the space with μs' between 0.1 and 2.0 mm-1 and μa between 0.01 and 0.1 mm-1. The test results indicate that the rms errors in μs' and μa are 0.72% and 2.57% for Rd(r), 0.28% and 0.55% for 1n(Rd(r), 2.98% and 5.44% for Rd(r)/Rd(r)max, 2.22% and 3.21% for 1n(Rd(r)/Rd(r)max), 6.52% and 20.7% for r2(Rd(r)/Rd(r)max), and 2.22% and 3.21% for 1n(r2(Rd(r)/Rd(r)max)), suggesting that the normalization form 1n(Rd(r)/Rd(r)max) would be the first choice for the estimates of μs' and μa from relative reflectance data by PCA-NN. Although the loss of accuracy due

  1. Explaining trends in alcohol-related harms in Scotland, 1991-2011 (I): the role of incomes, effects of socio-economic and political adversity and demographic change.

    PubMed

    McCartney, G; Bouttell, J; Craig, N; Craig, P; Graham, L; Lakha, F; Lewsey, J; McAdams, R; MacPherson, M; Minton, J; Parkinson, J; Robinson, M; Shipton, D; Taulbut, M; Walsh, D; Beeston, C

    2016-03-01

    This paper tests the extent to which differing trends in income, demographic change and the consequences of an earlier period of social, economic and political change might explain differences in the magnitude and trends in alcohol-related mortality between 1991 and 2011 in Scotland compared to England & Wales (E&W). Comparative time trend analyses and arithmetic modelling. Three approaches were utilised to compare Scotland with E&W: 1. We modelled the impact of changes in income on alcohol-related deaths between 1991-2001 and 2001-2011 by applying plausible assumptions of the effect size through an arithmetic model. 2. We used contour plots, graphical exploration of age-period-cohort interactions and calculation of Intrinsic Estimator coefficients to investigate the effect of earlier exposure to social, economic and political adversity on alcohol-related mortality. 3. We recalculated the trends in alcohol-related deaths using the white population only to make a crude approximation of the maximal impact of changes in ethnic diversity. Real incomes increased during the 1990s but declined from around 2004 in the poorest 30% of the population of Great Britain. The decline in incomes for the poorest decile, the proportion of the population in the most deprived decile, and the inequality in alcohol-related deaths, were all greater in Scotland than in E&W. The model predicted less of the observed rise in Scotland (18% of the rise in men and 29% of the rise in women) than that in E&W (where 60% and 68% of the rise in men and women respectively was explained). One-third of the decline observed in alcohol-related mortality in Scottish men between 2001 and 2011 was predicted by the model, and the model was broadly consistent with the observed trends in E&W and amongst women in Scotland. An age-period interaction in alcohol-related mortality was evident for men and women during the 1990s and 2000s who were aged 40-70 years and who experienced rapidly increasing alcohol-related

  2. Uncertainty relation for resolution in space, spatial frequency, and orientation optimized by two-dimensional visual cortical filters.

    PubMed

    Daugman, J G

    1985-07-01

    Two-dimensional spatial linear filters are constrained by general uncertainty relations that limit their attainable information resolution for orientation, spatial frequency, and two-dimensional (2D) spatial position. The theoretical lower limit for the joint entropy, or uncertainty, of these variables is achieved by an optimal 2D filter family whose spatial weighting functions are generated by exponentiated bivariate second-order polynomials with complex coefficients, the elliptic generalization of the one-dimensional elementary functions proposed in Gabor's famous theory of communication [J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93, 429 (1946)]. The set includes filters with various orientation bandwidths, spatial-frequency bandwidths, and spatial dimensions, favoring the extraction of various kinds of information from an image. Each such filter occupies an irreducible quantal volume (corresponding to an independent datum) in a four-dimensional information hyperspace whose axes are interpretable as 2D visual space, orientation, and spatial frequency, and thus such a filter set could subserve an optimally efficient sampling of these variables. Evidence is presented that the 2D receptive-field profiles of simple cells in mammalian visual cortex are well described by members of this optimal 2D filter family, and thus such visual neurons could be said to optimize the general uncertainty relations for joint 2D-spatial-2D-spectral information resolution. The variety of their receptive-field dimensions and orientation and spatial-frequency bandwidths, and the correlations among these, reveal several underlying constraints, particularly in width/length aspect ratio and principal axis organization, suggesting a polar division of labor in occupying the quantal volumes of information hyperspace.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Parental Socioeconomic Status and the Neural Basis of Arithmetic: Differential Relations to Verbal and Visuo-spatial Representations

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relation of parental socioeconomic status (SES) to the neural bases of subtraction in school-age children (9- to 12-year-olds). We independently localized brain regions subserving verbal versus visuo-spatial representations to determine whether the parental SES-related differences in children’s reliance on these neural representations vary as a function of math skill. At higher SES levels, higher skill was associated with greater recruitment of the left temporal cortex, identified by the verbal localizer. At lower SES levels, higher skill was associated with greater recruitment of right parietal cortex, identified by the visuo-spatial localizer. This suggests that depending on parental SES, children engage different neural systems to solve subtraction problems. Furthermore, SES was related to the activation in the left temporal and frontal cortex during the independent verbal localizer task, but it was not related to activation during the independent visuo-spatial localizer task. Differences in activation during the verbal localizer task in turn were related to differences in activation during the subtraction task in right parietal cortex. The relation was stronger at lower SES levels. This result suggests that SES-related differences in the visuo-spatial regions during subtraction might be based in SES-related verbal differences. PMID:25664675

  4. Parental Socioeconomic Status and the Neural Basis of Arithmetic: Differential Relations to Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relation of parental socioeconomic status (SES) to the neural bases of subtraction in school-age children (9- to 12-year-olds). We independently localized brain regions subserving verbal versus visuo-spatial representations to determine whether the parental SES-related differences in children's reliance on these neural…

  5. Parental Socioeconomic Status and the Neural Basis of Arithmetic: Differential Relations to Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relation of parental socioeconomic status (SES) to the neural bases of subtraction in school-age children (9- to 12-year-olds). We independently localized brain regions subserving verbal versus visuo-spatial representations to determine whether the parental SES-related differences in children's reliance on these neural…

  6. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  7. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  8. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  9. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  10. Identification of Disease-related Spatial Covariance Patterns using Neuroimaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Spetsieris, Phoebe; Ma, Yilong; Peng, Shichun; Ko, Ji Hyun; Dhawan, Vijay; Tang, Chris C.; Eidelberg, David

    2013-01-01

    The scaled subprofile model (SSM)1-4 is a multivariate PCA-based algorithm that identifies major sources of variation in patient and control group brain image data while rejecting lesser components (Figure 1). Applied directly to voxel-by-voxel covariance data of steady-state multimodality images, an entire group image set can be reduced to a few significant linearly independent covariance patterns and corresponding subject scores. Each pattern, termed a group invariant subprofile (GIS), is an orthogonal principal component that represents a spatially distributed network of functionally interrelated brain regions. Large global mean scalar effects that can obscure smaller network-specific contributions are removed by the inherent logarithmic conversion and mean centering of the data2,5,6. Subjects express each of these patterns to a variable degree represented by a simple scalar score that can correlate with independent clinical or psychometric descriptors7,8. Using logistic regression analysis of subject scores (i.e. pattern expression values), linear coefficients can be derived to combine multiple principal components into single disease-related spatial covariance patterns, i.e. composite networks with improved discrimination of patients from healthy control subjects5,6. Cross-validation within the derivation set can be performed using bootstrap resampling techniques9. Forward validation is easily confirmed by direct score evaluation of the derived patterns in prospective datasets10. Once validated, disease-related patterns can be used to score individual patients with respect to a fixed reference sample, often the set of healthy subjects that was used (with the disease group) in the original pattern derivation11. These standardized values can in turn be used to assist in differential diagnosis12,13 and to assess disease progression and treatment effects at the network level7,14-16. We present an example of the application of this methodology to FDG PET data of

  11. Aggregating Political Dimensions: Of the Feasibility of Political Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanin, Francisco Gutierrez; Buitrago, Diana; Gonzalez, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Political indicators are widely used in academic writing and decision making, but remain controversial. This paper discusses the problems related to the aggregation functions they use. Almost always, political indicators are aggregated by weighted averages or summations. The use of such functions is based on untenable assumptions (existence of…

  12. Aggregating Political Dimensions: Of the Feasibility of Political Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanin, Francisco Gutierrez; Buitrago, Diana; Gonzalez, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Political indicators are widely used in academic writing and decision making, but remain controversial. This paper discusses the problems related to the aggregation functions they use. Almost always, political indicators are aggregated by weighted averages or summations. The use of such functions is based on untenable assumptions (existence of…

  13. Spatial distribution of Guaiacum sanctum (Zygophyllaceae) seedlings and saplings relative to canopy cover in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Eric J; Robles, Tatiana; Hamrick, James L

    2013-09-01

    The spatial distribution of individuals is a fundamental property of most species and constitutes essential information for the development of restoration and conservation strategies, especially for endangered plant species. In this paper we describe the spatial distribution of different size classes of the endangered tropical tree Guaiacum sanctum and the effect of canopy cover on spatial aggregation. Adult G. sanctum were located and mapped in a 50 ha plot in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica. Seedlings, saplings and juveniles were mapped to the nearest centimetre and permanently marked in three 50 x 50 m subplots. Within each subplot spatial aggregation was assessed using Ripley's K statistic and canopy opening readings were performed every 5 m using a densitometer. Kriging spatial interpolation and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine if average canopy cover differed among size classes. Individuals of G. sanctum were spatially aggregated at all size classes with seedlings being the most frequent size class in all subplots. Seedlings were found predominantly in areas with significantly higher canopy cover. In contrast, juveniles were more likely found in areas with higher light availability. The high number of seedlings, saplings, and juveniles relative to adults suggests that populations of G. sanctum in PVNP are expanding. Light availability and canopy structure are important factors shaping the spatial distribution of this species. The contemporary demographic structure of G. sanctum is dependent on forest gap dynamics and changes in human disturbance during the past 25 years.

  14. Motor Asymmetry and Substantia Nigra Volume Are Related to Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Erin R.; Black, Kevin J.; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Hershey, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest motor deficit asymmetry may help predict the pattern of cognitive impairment in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). We tested this hypothesis using a highly validated and sensitive spatial memory task, spatial delayed response (SDR), and clinical and neuroimaging measures of PD asymmetry. We predicted SDR performance would be…

  15. Spatial Cueing in Time-Space Synesthetes: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teuscher, Ursina; Brang, David; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.; Coulson, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Some people report that they consistently and involuntarily associate time events, such as months of the year, with specific spatial locations; a condition referred to as time-space synesthesia. The present study investigated the manner in which such synesthetic time-space associations affect visuo-spatial attention via an endogenous cuing…

  16. Spatial Cueing in Time-Space Synesthetes: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teuscher, Ursina; Brang, David; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.; Coulson, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Some people report that they consistently and involuntarily associate time events, such as months of the year, with specific spatial locations; a condition referred to as time-space synesthesia. The present study investigated the manner in which such synesthetic time-space associations affect visuo-spatial attention via an endogenous cuing…

  17. Motor Asymmetry and Substantia Nigra Volume Are Related to Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Erin R.; Black, Kevin J.; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Hershey, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest motor deficit asymmetry may help predict the pattern of cognitive impairment in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). We tested this hypothesis using a highly validated and sensitive spatial memory task, spatial delayed response (SDR), and clinical and neuroimaging measures of PD asymmetry. We predicted SDR performance would be…

  18. Communications in American Politics: Symbols without Substance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    1980-01-01

    Political campaigns have been more concerned with public relations than with public policy as a result of television domination. Illustrates how political speeches are dominated by symbols without substance. (CK)

  19. Spatial diffusion of influenza outbreak-related climate factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nakapan, Supachai; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Tipdecho, Taravudh; Souris, Marc

    2012-10-24

    Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  20. Spatial analysis of injury-related deaths in Dallas County using a geographic information system.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Adil; Gunst, Mark; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Gruszecki, Amy C; Urban, Jill; Barber, Robert C; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    This study applied a geographic information system (GIS) to identify clusters of injury-related deaths (IRDs) within a large urban county (26 cities; population, 2.4 million). All deaths due to injuries in Dallas County (Texas) in 2005 (N = 670) were studied, including the geographic location of the injury event. Out of 26 cities in Dallas County, IRDs were reported in 19 cities. Geospatial data were obtained from the local governments and entered into the GIS. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR, with 95% CI) were calculated for each city and the county using national age-adjusted rates. Dallas County had significantly more deaths due to homicides (SMR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.54-1.98) and IRDs as a result of gunshots (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09-1.37) than the US national rate. However, this increase was restricted to a single city (the city of Dallas) within the county, while the rest of the 25 cities in the county experienced IRD rates that were either similar to or better than the national rate, or experienced no IRDs. GIS mapping was able to depict high-risk geographic "hot spots" for IRDs. In conclusion, GIS spatial analysis identified geographic clusters of IRDs, which were restricted to only one of 26 cities in the county.

  1. Spatial and temporal age-related spectral alterations in benign human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theophilou, Georgios; Fogarty, Simon W.; Trevisan, Júlio; Strong, Rebecca J.; Heys, Kelly A.; Patel, Imran I.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that cancers attributable to exogenous carcinogenic agents may appear decades after initiating exposures. Environmental factors including lifestyle and/or diet have been implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. Breast tissue undergoes continuous molecular and morphological changes from the time of thelarche to menopause and thereafter. These alterations are both cyclical and longitudinal, and can be influenced by several environmental factors including exposure to oestrogens. Research into the latent period leading to breast carcinogenesis has been mostly limited to when hyperplastic lesions are present. Investigations to identify a biomarker of commitment to disease in normal breast tissue are hindered by the molecular and histological diversity of disease-free breast tissue. Benign tissue from reduction mammoplasties provides an opportunity to study biochemical differences between women of similar ages as well as alterations with advancing age. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to examine the terminal ductal lobular epithelium (TDLU) and, intra- and inter-lobular epithelium to identify spatial and temporal changes within these areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis of mid-infrared spectra revealed unambiguous inter-individual as well as age-related differences in each histological compartment interrogated. Moreover, exploratory PCA of luminal and myoepithelial cells within the TDLU indicated the presence of specific cells, potentially stem cells. Understanding alterations within benign tissue may assist in the identification of alterations in latent pre-clinical stages of breast cancer.

  2. Turning bias in virtual spatial navigation: age-related differences and neuroanatomical correlates.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2014-02-01

    Rodents frequently exhibit rotational bias associated with asymmetry in lesions and neurotransmitters in the striatum. However, in humans, turning preference is inconsistent across studies, and its neural correlates are unclear. We examined turning bias in 140 right-handed healthy adults (18-77 years old), who navigated a virtual Morris Water Maze. On magnetic resonance images, we measured volumes of brain regions relevant to spatial navigation. We classified turns that occurred during virtual navigation as veering (less than 10°), true turns (between 10° and 90°) and course reversals (over 90°). The results showed that performance (time of platform search and distance traveled) was negatively related to age. The distance traveled was positively associated with volume of the orbito-frontal cortex but not with the volumes of the cerebellum, the hippocampus or the primary visual cortex. Examination of turning behavior showed that all participants veered to the right. In turns and reversals, although on average there was no consistent direction preference, we observed significant individual biases. Virtual turning preference correlated with volumetric asymmetry in the striatum, cerebellum, and hippocampus but not in the prefrontal cortex. Participants preferred to turn toward the hemisphere with larger putamen, cerebellum and (in younger adults only) hippocampus. Advanced age was associated with greater rightward turning preference. Men showed greater leftward preference whereas women exhibited stronger rightward bias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield is still lacking. In the present study, we studied the factors responsible for interregional and interannual variability in maple syrup yield over the 2001–2012 period, by combining the data from 8 Quebec regions (Canada) and 10 U.S. states. The resulting model explained 44.5% of the variability in yield. It includes the effect of climatic conditions that precede the sapflow season (variables from the previous growing season and winter), the effect of climatic conditions during the current sapflow season, and terms accounting for intercountry and temporal variability. Optimal conditions for maple syrup production appear to be spatially restricted by less favourable climate conditions occurring during the growing season in the north, and in the south, by the warmer winter and earlier spring conditions. This suggests that climate change may favor maple syrup production northwards, while southern regions are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse spring conditions. PMID:24949244

  4. Spatial analysis of injury-related deaths in Dallas County using a geographic information system

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Adil; Gunst, Mark; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Gruszecki, Amy C.; Urban, Jill; Barber, Robert C.; Gentilello, Larry M.

    2012-01-01

    This study applied a geographic information system (GIS) to identify clusters of injury-related deaths (IRDs) within a large urban county (26 cities; population, 2.4 million). All deaths due to injuries in Dallas County (Texas) in 2005 (N = 670) were studied, including the geographic location of the injury event. Out of 26 cities in Dallas County, IRDs were reported in 19 cities. Geospatial data were obtained from the local governments and entered into the GIS. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR, with 95% CI) were calculated for each city and the county using national age-adjusted rates. Dallas County had significantly more deaths due to homicides (SMR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.54–1.98) and IRDs as a result of gunshots (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09–1.37) than the US national rate. However, this increase was restricted to a single city (the city of Dallas) within the county, while the rest of the 25 cities in the county experienced IRD rates that were either similar to or better than the national rate, or experienced no IRDs. GIS mapping was able to depict high-risk geographic “hot spots” for IRDs. In conclusion, GIS spatial analysis identified geographic clusters of IRDs, which were restricted to only one of 26 cities in the county. PMID:22754116

  5. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Social Media Data Related to Nepal Earthquake 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, L.

    2016-06-01

    Social Medias these days have become the instant communication platform to share anything; from personal feelings to the matter of public concern, these are the easiest and aphoristic way to deliver information among the mass. With the development of Web 2.0 technologies, more and more emphasis has been given to user input in the web; the concept of Geoweb is being visualized and in the recent years, social media like Twitter, Flicker are among the popular Location Based Social Medias with locational functionality enabled in them. Nepal faced devastating earthquake on 25 April, 2015 resulting in the loss of thousands of lives, destruction in the historical-archaeological sites and properties. Instant help was offered by many countries around the globe and even lots of NGOs, INGOs and people started the rescue operations immediately; concerned authorities and people used different communication medium like Frequency Modulation Stations, Television, and Social Medias over the World Wide Web to gather information associated with the Quake and to ease the rescue activities. They also initiated campaign in the Social Media to raise the funds and support the victims. Even the social medias like Facebook, Twitter, themselves announced the helping campaign to rebuild Nepal. In such scenario, this paper features the analysis of Twitter data containing hashtag related to Nepal Earthquake 2015 together with their temporal characteristics, when were the message generated, where were these from and how these spread spatially over the internet?

  6. Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Nakapan, Supachai; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Tipdecho, Taravudh; Souris, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks. PMID:23202819

  7. Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield is still lacking. In the present study, we studied the factors responsible for interregional and interannual variability in maple syrup yield over the 2001-2012 period, by combining the data from 8 Quebec regions (Canada) and 10 U.S. states. The resulting model explained 44.5% of the variability in yield. It includes the effect of climatic conditions that precede the sapflow season (variables from the previous growing season and winter), the effect of climatic conditions during the current sapflow season, and terms accounting for intercountry and temporal variability. Optimal conditions for maple syrup production appear to be spatially restricted by less favourable climate conditions occurring during the growing season in the north, and in the south, by the warmer winter and earlier spring conditions. This suggests that climate change may favor maple syrup production northwards, while southern regions are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse spring conditions.

  8. Scale-Free Brain Networks Based on the Event-Related Potential during Visual Spatial Attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Jin, Zhen-Lan

    2011-04-01

    The human brain is thought of as one of the most complex dynamical systems in the universe. The network view of the dynamical system has emerged since the discovery of scale-free networks. Brain functional networks, which represent functional associations among brain regions, are extracted by measuring the temporal correlations from electroencephalogram data. We measure the topological properties of the brain functional network, including degree distribution, average degree, clustering coefficient and the shortest path length, to compare the networks of multi-channel event-related potential activity between visual spatial attention and unattention conditions. It is found that the degree distribution of the brain functional networks under both the conditions is a power law distribution, which reflects a scale-free property. Moreover, the scaling exponent of the attention condition is significantly smaller than that of the unattention condition. However, the degree distribution of equivalent random networks does not follow the power law distribution. In addition, the clustering coefficient of these random networks is smaller than those of brain networks, and the shortest path length of these random networks is large and comparable with those of brain networks. Our results, typical of scale-free networks, indicate that the scaling exponent of brain activity could reflect different cognitive processes.

  9. Through rose-colored glasses: system-justifying beliefs dampen the effects of relative deprivation on well-being and political mobilization.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G

    2013-08-01

    Individual-based and group-based forms of relative deprivation (IRD and GRD, respectively) are linked with individual- and group-based responses to inequality, respectively. System justification theory, however, argues that we are motivated to believe that people's outcomes are equitably determined. As such, endorsement of system-justifying beliefs should dampen people's reactions to outcomes perceived to be unequal and ultimately undermine support for political mobilization. We examined these hypotheses in a national probability sample of New Zealanders (N = 6,886). As expected, IRD predicted individual-based responses to inequality (i.e., satisfaction with one's standard of living and psychological distress) better than GRD. Conversely, GRD predicted group-based responses to inequality (i.e., perceived discrimination against one's group and support for political mobilization) better than IRD. Each of these relationships was, however, notably weaker among participants who were high, relative to low, on system justification. These results demonstrate that system-justifying beliefs have a palliative effect on people's experiences with inequality.

  10. Relative role of deterministic and stochastic determinants of soil animal community: a spatially explicit analysis of oribatid mites.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Tancredi; Taormina, Mauro; Migliorini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    1. Ecologists are debating the relative role of deterministic and stochastic determinants of community structure. Although the high diversity and strong spatial structure of soil animal assemblages could provide ecologists with an ideal ecological scenario, surprisingly little information is available on these assemblages. 2. We studied species-rich soil oribatid mite assemblages from a Mediterranean beech forest and a grassland. We applied multivariate regression approaches and analysed spatial autocorrelation at multiple spatial scales using Moran's eigenvectors. Results were used to partition community variance in terms of the amount of variation uniquely accounted for by environmental correlates (e.g. organic matter) and geographical position. Estimated neutral diversity and immigration parameters were also applied to a soil animal group for the first time to simulate patterns of community dissimilarity expected under neutrality, thereby testing neutral predictions. 3. After accounting for spatial autocorrelation, the correlation between community structure and key environmental parameters disappeared: about 40% of community variation consisted of spatial patterns independent of measured environmental variables such as organic matter. Environmentally independent spatial patterns encompassed the entire range of scales accounted for by the sampling design (from tens of cm to 100 m). This spatial variation could be due to either unmeasured but spatially structured variables or stochastic drift mediated by dispersal. Observed levels of community dissimilarity were significantly different from those predicted by neutral models. 4. Oribatid mite assemblages are dominated by processes involving both deterministic and stochastic components and operating at multiple scales. Spatial patterns independent of the measured environmental variables are a prominent feature of the targeted assemblages, but patterns of community dissimilarity do not match neutral predictions

  11. The Sixth "P"--Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Invitational theory presents the concept of invitations as related to five factors: people, places, policies, programs, and processes (Purkey & Schmidt, 1990). In this article, the author proposes the addition of a sixth "P," politics. The assumption is that without addressing the political aspect of schools and school systems,…

  12. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…

  13. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…

  14. Comparative State Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course dealing with comparative state politics. Students learn about the way in which political scientists employ the study of American state politics as a "laboratory" for the development of scientific explanations of political phenomena. (RM)

  15. ``Political'' Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  16. Effects of food-related stimuli on visual spatial attention in fasting and nonfasting normal subjects: Behavior and electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Leland, D S; Pineda, J A

    2006-01-01

    Attention biases toward food-related stimuli were examined as mediators of normal, healthy motivated behavior. Reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to assess the impact of food-related words on normal food-deprived individuals when used as spatial cues that frequently predicted the location of targets in a simple detection task (75% validity). In Experiment 1, fasting and nonfasting subjects showed a magnified cost/benefit of invalid/valid cueing by food words relative to a neutral category of words. In Experiment 2, the RT effect was replicated in a group of fasting subjects. The amplitude of a P3-like positivity (P420) was enhanced in response to food words, as was that of a prominent early anterior negativity (AN). These findings demonstrate that food-related stimuli can bias spatial attention in normal subjects and that electrophysiological markers can index the motivational salience of food words and/or their effect on attentional capture in food-deprived individuals. Even when the motivational salience of spatial cues is irrelevant to task demands, it can have an observable effect on attention. This design allows for the behavioral and electrophysiological study of motivation-attention interactions through loading of spatial cues with motivation-related semantic properties.

  17. A jacket for assisting sensorimotor-related impairments and spatial perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Lampe, Renée

    2017-04-01

    A sensorimotor jacket, which is able to measure distances to nearby objects with ultrasonic sensors and to transmit information about distances via vibrating transducers, has been designed with the aim of improving the spatial awareness of patients with cerebral palsy and to facilitate spatial orientation for blind people. The efficiency was tested for patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy, blind participants and healthy people. A positive impact of the sensorimotor jacket on the performance in a spatial task has been established both in patients with cerebral palsy and blind participants. Moreover, for patients with cerebral palsy, the training effect was visible after only three training exercises.

  18. The Construction of Visual-spatial Situation Models in Children's Reading and Their Relation to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Faulkner, Heather; Denton, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Readers construct mental models of situations described by text to comprehend what they read, updating these situation models based on explicitly described and inferred information about causal, temporal, and spatial relations. Fluent adult readers update their situation models while reading narrative text based in part on spatial location information that is consistent with the perspective of the protagonist. The current study investigates whether children update spatial situation models in a similar way, whether there are age-related changes in children's formation of spatial situation models during reading, and whether measures of the ability to construct and update spatial situation models are predictive of reading comprehension. Typically-developing children from ages 9 through 16 years (n=81) were familiarized with a physical model of a marketplace. Then the model was covered, and children read stories that described the movement of a protagonist through the marketplace and were administered items requiring memory for both explicitly stated and inferred information about the character's movements. Accuracy of responses and response times were evaluated. Results indicated that: (a) location and object information during reading appeared to be activated and updated not simply from explicit text-based information but from a mental model of the real world situation described by the text; (b) this pattern showed no age-related differences; and (c) the ability to update the situation model of the text based on inferred information, but not explicitly stated information, was uniquely predictive of reading comprehension after accounting for word decoding. PMID:24315376

  19. Exploring spatial distributions of larval yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and their prey in relation to wind.

    PubMed

    Kaemingk, M A; Jolley, J C; Willis, D W; Graeb, B D S

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine if spatial differences existed between zooplankton, larval yellow perch Perca flavescens and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus (<13 mm total length, L(T)) in Pelican Lake (332 ha), NE, U.S.A. It was hypothesized that wind could act as a transport mechanism for larval fishes in this shallow lake, because strong winds are common at this geographic location. Potential spatial differences were explored, relating to zooplankton densities, size structure and densities of larval P. flavescens and L. macrochirus. Density differences (east v. west side of the lake) were detected for small- (two occasions), medium- (two occasions) and large-sized (one occasion) L. macrochirus larvae. No density differences were detected for small P. flavescens larvae; however, densities of medium- and large-sized P. flavescens were each higher on the west side of the lake on two occasions. There was no evidence that larval P. flavescens and L. macrochirus distributions were related to wind because they were not associated with large wind events. Likewise, large wind event days did not result in any detectable spatial differences of larval P. flavescens and L. macrochirus densities. There appeared to be no spatial mismatch between larval densities and associated prey in the years examined. Thus, wind was not apparently an influential mechanism for zooplankton and larval P. flavescens and L. macrochirus transport within Pelican Lake, and spatial differences in density may instead be related to vegetation and habitat complexities or spawning locations within this shallow lake.

  20. The construction of visual-spatial situation models in children's reading and their relation to reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; Faulkner, Heather; Denton, Carolyn A

    2014-03-01

    Readers construct mental models of situations described by text to comprehend what they read, updating these situation models based on explicitly described and inferred information about causal, temporal, and spatial relations. Fluent adult readers update their situation models while reading narrative text based in part on spatial location information that is consistent with the perspective of the protagonist. The current study investigated whether children update spatial situation models in a similar way, whether there are age-related changes in children's formation of spatial situation models during reading, and whether measures of the ability to construct and update spatial situation models are predictive of reading comprehension. Typically developing children from 9 to 16 years of age (N=81) were familiarized with a physical model of a marketplace. Then the model was covered, and children read stories that described the movement of a protagonist through the marketplace and were administered items requiring memory for both explicitly stated and inferred information about the character's movements. Accuracy of responses and response times were evaluated. Results indicated that (a) location and object information during reading appeared to be activated and updated not simply from explicit text-based information but from a mental model of the real-world situation described by the text; (b) this pattern showed no age-related differences; and (c) the ability to update the situation model of the text based on inferred information, but not explicitly stated information, was uniquely predictive of reading comprehension after accounting for word decoding.

  1. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  2. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  3. An application of GIS and Bayesian network in studying spatial-causal relations between enterprises and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tiyan; Li, Xi; Li, Maiqing

    2009-10-01

    The paper intends to employ Geographic Information System (GIS) and Bayesian Network to discover the spatial causality between enterprises and environmental factors in Beijing Metropolis. The census data of Beijing was spatialized by means of GIS in the beginning, and then the training data was made using density mapping technique. Base on the training data, the structure of a Bayesian Network was learnt with the help of Maximum Weight Spanning Tree. Eight direct relations were discussed in the end, of which, the most exciting discovery, "Enterprise-Run Society", as the symbol of the former planned economy, was emphasized in the spatial relations between heavy industry and schools. Though the final result is not so creative in economic perspective, it is of significance in technique view due to all discoveries were drawn from data, therefore leading to the realization of the importance of GIS and data mining to economic geography research.

  4. A three-dimensional point process model for the spatial distribution of disease occurrence in relation to an exposure source.

    PubMed

    Grell, Kathrine; Diggle, Peter J; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Schüz, Joachim; Cardis, Elisabeth; Andersen, Per K

    2015-10-15

    We study methods for how to include the spatial distribution of tumours when investigating the relation between brain tumours and the exposure from radio frequency electromagnetic fields caused by mobile phone use. Our suggested point process model is adapted from studies investigating spatial aggregation of a disease around a source of potential hazard in environmental epidemiology, where now the source is the preferred ear of each phone user. In this context, the spatial distribution is a distribution over a sample of patients rather than over multiple disease cases within one geographical area. We show how the distance relation between tumour and phone can be modelled nonparametrically and, with various parametric functions, how covariates can be included in the model and how to test for the effect of distance. To illustrate the models, we apply them to a subset of the data from the Interphone Study, a large multinational case-control study on the association between brain tumours and mobile phone use.

  5. Relative impacts of the fragmentation and spatial structure of habitats on freshwater fish distributions: application on French watersheds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, C.; Belliard, J.; Talès, E.; Gorges, G.; Clément, F.

    2009-12-01

    Most of the rivers of the Ile de France region, intimately linked with the megalopolis of Paris, are severely altered and freshwater fishes are exposed to habitat alteration, reduced connectivity and pollution. Several species thus present fragmented distributions and decreasing densities. In this context, the European Water Framework Directive (2000) has goals of hydrosystems rehabilitation and no further damage. In particular, the preservation and restoration of ecological connectivity of river networks is a key element for fish populations. These goals require the identification of natural and anthropological factors which influence the spatial distribution of species. We have proposed a riverscape approach, based on landscape ecology concepts, combined with a set of spatial analysis methods to assess the multiscale relationships between the spatial pattern of fish habitats and processes depending on fish movements. In particular, we used this approach to test the relative roles of spatial arrangement of fish habitats and the presence of physical barriers in explaining fish spatial distributions in a small rural watershed (106 km2). We performed a spatially continuous analysis of fish-habitat relationships. Fish habitats and physical barriers were mapped along the river network (33 km) with a GPS and imported into a GIS. In parallel, a longitudinal electrofishing survey of the distribution and abundance of fishes was made using a point abundance sampling scheme. Longitudinal arrangement of fish habitats were evaluated using spatial analysis methods: patch/distance metrics and moving window analysis. Explanatory models were developed to test the relative contribution of local environmental variables and spatial context in explaining fish presence. We have recorded about 100 physical barriers, on average one every 330 meters; most artificial barriers were road pipe culverts, falls associated with ponds and sluice gates. Contrasted fish communities and densities

  6. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Bogota - Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. A.; Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Néstor Y. Rojas, N. Y.

    2011-12-01

    As a result of rapid urbanization during the last 60 years, 75% of the Colombian population now lives in cities. Urban areas are net sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute significantly to national GHG emission inventories. The development of scientifically-sound GHG mitigation strategies require accurate GHG source and sink estimations. Disaggregated inventories are effective mitigation decision-making tools. The disaggregation process renders detailed information on the distribution of emissions by transport mode, and the resulting a priori emissions map allows for optimal definition of sites for GHG flux monitoring, either by eddy covariance or inverse modeling techniques. Fossil fuel use in transportation is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bogota. We present estimates of CO2 emissions from road traffic in Bogota using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference method, and a spatial and temporal disaggregation method. Aggregated CO2 emissions from mobile sources were estimated from monthly and annual fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas - CNG) consumption statistics, and estimations of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel use. Although bio-fuel CO2 emissions are considered balanced over annual (or multi-annual) agricultural cycles, we included them since CO2 generated by their combustion would be measurable by a net flux monitoring system. For the disaggregation methodology, we used information on Bogota's road network classification, mean travel speed and trip length for each vehicle category and road type. The CO2 emission factors were taken from recent in-road measurements for gasoline- and CNG-powered vehicles and also estimated from COPERT IV. We estimated emission factors for diesel from surveys on average trip length and fuel consumption. Using IPCC's reference method, we estimate Bogota's total transport-related CO2 emissions for 2008 (reference year) at 4.8 Tg CO2. The disaggregation method estimation is

  7. Joint spatial modeling to identify shared patterns among chronic related potentially preventable hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations (PPH) are used to evaluate access of territorially delimited populations to high quality ambulatory care. A common geographic pattern of several PPH would reflect the performance of healthcare providers. This study is aimed at modeling jointly the geographical variation in six chronic PPH conditions in one Spanish Autonomous Community for describing common and discrepant patterns, and to assess the relative weight of the common pattern on each condition. Methods Data on the 39,970 PPH hospital admissions for diabetes short term complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, dehydration, angina admission and adult asthma, between 2007 and 2009 were extracted from the Hospital Discharge Administrative Databases and assigned to one of the 240 Basic Health Zones. Rates and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios per geographic unit were estimated. The spatial analysis was carried out jointly for PPH conditions using Shared Component Models (SCM). Results The component shared by the six PPH conditions explained about the 36% of the variability of each PPH condition, ranging from the 25.9 for dehydration to 58.7 for COPD. The geographical pattern found in the latent common component identifies territorial clusters with particularly high risk. The specific risk pattern that each isolated PPH does not share with the common pattern for all six conditions show many non-significant areas for most PPH, but with some exceptions. Conclusions The geographical distribution of the risk of the PPH conditions is captured in a 36% by a unique latent pattern. The SCM modeling may be useful to evaluate healthcare system performance. PMID:24899214

  8. Patterns of species richness in relation to temperature, taxonomy and spatial scale in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Mingfei; Fan, Zhexuan; Deng, Jianming

    2011-07-01

    The species richness increases with area is well known in ecology. However, the Metabolic Theory of Biodiversity (MTB) is used to predict diversity patterns without taking account of the area covered by the community addressed. In this study, we developed a new model to integrate the temperature and community area based on the MTB. We collected plant species distribution information from 270 natural reserves and 11 floristic regions in eastern China, including that of three main plant divisions: pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms, and five broadly distributed angiosperm families, to explore the patterns of species richness in relation to temperature and community area size at two spatial scales (floristic region and nature reserve). Our results show that at the floristic region scale, the species richness is independent of the area size of the community and the regression slopes of the natural logarithm of richness vs. the inverse transformed temperature are close to the theoretical value of -0.65 for the three main plant divisions as well as the five angiosperm families. However, at the nature reserve scale, the number of species depends significantly upon the area size of nature reserves, and the regression slopes deviate strongly from the expected slope for all the taxonomic groups, except the pteridophyte division. Therefore, the MTB would be fairly robust only under a presumption that the area size of the community addressed has no significant effect on species richness (e.g. at the floristic region scale). Otherwise, the predictions of diversity patterns by MTB tend to be inaccurate (e.g. at the nature reserve scale).

  9. Occurrence and spatial distribution of EDCs and related compounds in waters and sediments of Iberian rivers.

    PubMed

    Gorga, Marina; Insa, Sara; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    The environmental presence of chemicals capable of affecting the endocrine system has become a matter of scientific and public concern after certain endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) have been detected in the aquatic environment. In this work, 31 different EDCs and related compounds (suspect EDCs) belonging to different contaminant classes were studied: 10 estrogens, natural and synthetic, 8 alkylphenolic compounds, bisphenol A, triclosan and triclorocaraban, 4 parabens, 2 benzotriazoles, 3 organophosphorous flame retardants and the chemical marker caffeine, in river water and sediment of four Iberian rivers (Ebro, Llobregat, Júcar and Guadalquivir). An extensive sampling has been undertaken in two monitoring campaigns (2010 and 2011). A total of 77 samples of water and 75 sediments were collected. For this propose two different multiresidue analytical methods were applied, using the automated online EQuan/TurboFlow™ liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection in tandem. In terms of concentrations the compounds found at the highest average concentrations were: nonylphenol monocarboxylate (NP1EC), tolyltriazole (TT), tris(chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCPP) found at average concentrations above 100 ng/L, followed by 1H-benzotriazole and tris(butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP) found at average concentration higher than 50 ng/L. Natural and synthetic hormones were found at low levels not exceeding 16 ng/L and 7 ng/g for water and sediment, respectively, however they contributed to more than 80% of the total estrogenicity of the samples (expressed as the equivalents of estradiol EEQ, ng/L). Regarding the spatial distribution of these contaminants, the Llobregat river was found to be the most contaminated river basin, having sites near the mouth of the river the ones with the highest contaminant load. In the Ebro river basin several hot spots were identified and Júcar showed to be the least contaminated. Overall, the study confirmed the presence of

  10. Political Trust and Sophistication: Taking Measurement Seriously.

    PubMed

    Turper, Sedef; Aarts, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Political trust is an important indicator of political legitimacy. Hence, seemingly decreasing levels of political trust in Western democracies have stimulated a growing body of research on the causes and consequences of political trust. However, the neglect of potential measurement problems of political trust raises doubts about the findings of earlier studies. The current study revisits the measurement of political trust and re-examines the relationship between political trust and sophistication in the Netherlands by utilizing European Social Survey (ESS) data across five time points and four-wave panel data from the Panel Component of ESS. Our findings illustrate that high and low political sophistication groups display different levels of political trust even when measurement characteristics of political trust are taken into consideration. However, the relationship between political sophistication and political trust is weaker than it is often suggested by earlier research. Our findings also provide partial support for the argument that the gap between sophistication groups is widening over time. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, although the between-method differences between the latent means and the composite score means of political trust for high- and low sophistication groups are relatively minor, it is important to analyze the measurement characteristics of the political trust construct.

  11. The spatial relations between stimulus and response determine an absolute visuo-haptic calibration in pantomime-grasping.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2017-03-24

    Pantomime-grasps entail a response to an area adjacent to (i.e., spatially dissociated pantomime-grasp), or previously occupied by (i.e., no-target pantomime-grasp) a target. Previous work has reported that pantomime-grasps differ kinematically from naturalistic grasps (i.e., grasping a physical target object) - a result taken to evince that pantomime-grasps are perception-based and mediated via relative visual information. However, such actions differ not only in terms of their visual properties, but also because the former precludes haptic feedback related to a target's absolute size. The current study provides four experiments examining whether experimenter-induced haptic feedback influences the information mediating spatially dissociated and no-target pantomime-grasps. Just-noticeable-difference scores were computed to determine whether grasps adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical properties of Weber's law. Spatially dissociated pantomime-grasps performed with haptic feedback adhered to Weber's law (Experiments 1-3), whereas their no-target pantomime-grasp counterparts violated the law (Experiment 4). Accordingly, we propose that the top-down demands of decoupling stimulus-response relations in spatially dissociated pantomime-grasping renders aperture shaping via a visual percept that is not directly influenced by the integration of haptic feedback. In turn, the decreased top-down demands of no-target pantomime-grasps allows haptic feedback to serve as a reliable sensory resource supporting an absolute visuo-haptic calibration.

  12. Distinct Discrimination Learning Strategies and Their Relation with Spatial Memory and Attentional Control in 4- to 14-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmittmann, Verena D.; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuropsychological studies have revealed large developmental differences in various learning paradigms where learning from positive and negative feedback is essential. The differences are possibly due to the use of distinct strategies that may be related to spatial working memory and attentional control. In…

  13. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F(-)) were prepared with analytical grade Na(+)/F(-) and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F(-) concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p < 10(-5)-10(-9)), results consistent with a substantial spatial variance of water source F(-) levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F(-) in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended

  14. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages.

  15. Failure to engage the public in issues related to inland fishes and fisheries: strategies for building public and political will to promote meaningful conservation.

    PubMed

    Cooke, S J; Lapointe, N W R; Martins, E G; Thiem, J D; Raby, G D; Taylor, M K; Beard, T D; Cowx, I G

    2013-10-01

    Generating awareness of environmental conservation issues among the public is essential if there is an expectation of them to alter their behaviour, facilitate informed decisions and engage governments or regulatory authorities to take action. There are, however, exceedingly few public engagement success stories related to inland fishes and fisheries policy and resource allocation decisions. Inland aquatic resources and their associated fisheries provide employment, recreation, culture and, in developing regions, a considerable proportion of human nutrition and food security. Freshwater fishes are incredibly diverse but are among the most endangered organisms globally. Many threats to inland fisheries are driven largely by externalities to inland fisheries. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the role and plight of inland fishes and fisheries, and the need to generate the public and political will necessary to promote meaningful conservation. With this paper, the extent to which the scientific and environmental management communities have failed to engage the public in issues related to inland fishes and fisheries is characterized. Next, the barriers or factors that serve as the basis for the problem with public engagement are identified. The paper concludes by identifying strategies, including those focused on environmental education initiatives, for building the public and political will necessary to promote meaningful conservation of inland fishes and fisheries in developed and developing countries. Scientists, environmental managers, non-governmental organizations, politicians, regulatory authorities and the media all have important roles to play in overcoming challenges to inland fisheries. Failure to engage the public in freshwater conservation and management issues will impede efforts to stem the loss of freshwater habitats, fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. Thankfully, there are opportunities to learn from success stories related to other

  16. Spatial distribution and morphometry of permafrost-related landforms in the Central Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Marcelo; Oliva, Marc; Lopes, Luís; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesus; Palma, Pedro; Pereira, Paulo

    2017-04-01

    Present and past permafrost distribution in the Pyrenees is still under discussion. As in other mid-latitude mountain regions, rock glaciers and protalus lobes are the min indicators of permafrost conditions. In this study, we examine the distribution of these landforms in the Boí valley, a formerly glaciated U-shaped valley ranging from 850 to 3000 m a.s.l. The valley encompasses a surface of 247 km2, mainly composed of granite and shales. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers and protalus lobes and their chronostratigraphic position within the valley allow a better understanding of the climatic and environmental conditions necessary for their development. Geomorphological mapping of these landforms was built using high resolution imagery provided by the Institut Cartogràfic i Geologic de Catalunya, complemented with Basemap ESRI images and Google Earth Pro, and subsequently improved with field observations. The map was generated in a GIS environment following the RCP 77 mapping system of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (Joly, 1997). Several parameters of each landform have been measured (Table 1): area (ha), altitude (maximum, minimum, mean), length (L), width (W), aspect and slope. This information provides accurate characterization of the morphometric properties of these landforms as well as a detailed identification of their spatial distribution. Up to 121 permafrost-related landforms were identified in the Boí valley, including 84 rock glaciers and 37 protalus lobes. Most of the landforms (93% for rock glaciers and 95% for protalus lobes) are located inside the glacial cirques, while the rest is distributed in the valley bottom or slopes of the formerly glaciated valleys. The lowest elevation of both forms is situated at 2100 m a.s.l. Therefore, this altitude may be indicative of the lowest level recording permafrost conditions during the period in which these landforms formed. The maximum elevation of the landforms usually

  17. Implementation of object-oriented GIS data model with topological relations between spatial objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youliang; Wang, Zhaoru; Chen, Zhicheng

    2013-03-01

    Traditional GIS (Geographical Information System) data models are focused on the description of the data organizational structure and constraints from single aspect, which are the absence or little relevance of the hierarchy and connotation of data objects. These data models do not match the natural concept of humans about geographical spatial data and also failed to fully consider the spatial relationships and arithmetic operations with the relationship between geographic objects. Object-oriented technology mimics the human way of thinking as much as possible, it appears to overcome the shortcomings of traditional software design methods and improve the stability and reusability of the software systems. Based on the existing GIS data model, this paper introduces the basic idea of object-oriented GIS data model combined the object-oriented methods and the vectorial expression of spatial entities, and describes the definition and implementation of the object-oriented GIS data model. Furthermore, the topological operations between spatial objects have been defined in the paper for the importance of topological relationships among spatial relationships. The topological operations are directly defined in geometry classes by means of methods, and they include Touch, Disjoint, Cross, Contains, Overlaps, and Intersects and so on.

  18. Political Ethnicity: A New Paradigm of Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    of political boundaries based on ethnic identity. This involves consolidating an ethnic group that has been separated artificially by state boundaries...by Lnter-group relations and activities, not isolation. Third, nationalism is an artificial construction for political purposes. Political leaders...York: Cambridge University Press, 1984); Central Intelligence Agency, The World Fact Book 1992 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1992

  19. Labor Unions and Political Parties in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorwin, Val R.

    1975-01-01

    The balance of power inside the dominant socialist and Catholic blocs in Belgium, which were once incontestably led by the political elites, has been shifting toward the trade unions. Regionalism has fragmented the political system far more than the industrial relations system; the unions' political influence will continue in importance. (Author)

  20. Spatial and temporal frequency domain laser-ultrasound applied in the direct measurement of dispersion relations of surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünsteidl, Clemens; Veres, István A.; Roither, Jürgen; Burgholzer, Peter; Murray, Todd W.; Berer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present a laser-ultrasound measurement technique which combines adjustable spatial and temporal modulation of the excitation laser beam. Our method spreads the intensity of an amplitude modulated continuous wave laser over a micro-scale pattern on the sample surface to excite surface acoustic waves. The excitation pattern consists of parallel, equidistant lines and the waves generated from the individual lines interfere on the sample surface. Measurement is done in the spatial-temporal frequency domain allowing the direct determination of dispersion relations. The technique performs with high signal-to-noise-ratios and low peak power densities on the sample.

  1. Spatial affect learning restricted in major depression relative to anxiety disorders and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Jackie K; Norris, Catherine J; Hoxha, Denada; Irick, John Stockton; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-01-01

    Detecting and learning the location of unpleasant or pleasant scenarios, or spatial affect learning, is an essential skill that safeguards well-being (Crawford & Cacioppo, 2002). Potentially altered by psychiatric illness, this skill has yet to be measured in adults with and without major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). This study enrolled 199 adults diagnosed with MDD and AD (n=53), MDD (n=47), AD (n=54), and no disorders (n=45). Measures included clinical interviews, self-reports, and a validated spatial affect task using affective pictures (IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005). Participants with MDD showed impaired spatial affect learning of negative stimuli and irrelevant learning of pleasant pictures compared with non-depressed adults. Adults with MDD may use a "GOOD is UP" heuristic reflected by their impaired learning of the opposite correlation (i.e., "BAD is UP") and performance in the pleasant version of the task.

  2. Spatial association learning by rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus): effects of relative spacing among stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brown, G S

    1994-03-01

    Gestalt theory predicts that when cues are spatially separated from response locations, associative learning is faster when distance between cue-response location pairs is increased. This prediction was tested with 20 rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus), which learned to select rewarding feeders signaled by a spatially separated light cue in 4 treatments in which distance between cues and feeders and between cue-feeder pairs was varied. As has been shown for other animals, the hummingbirds learned more slowly when the distance between cues and feeders was increased, and as predicted by Gestalt theory, they learned faster at a given distance when distance between cue-feeder pairs was increased. This result suggests that spatial association is influenced by the proximity of other stimuli in the visual field.

  3. Spatial Distribution of Oak Mistletoe as It Relates to Habits of Oak Woodland Frugivores

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ethan A.; Sullivan, Patrick J.; Dickinson, Janis L.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the underlying spatial distribution of oak mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum, a hemi-parasitic plant that provides a continuous supply of berries for frugivorous birds overwintering the oak savanna habitat of California's outer coast range. As the winter community of birds consuming oak mistletoe varies from group-living territorial species to birds that roam in flocks, we asked if mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated at the scale of persistent territories or whether the patterns predicted by long-term territory use by western bluebirds are overcome by seed dispersal by more mobile bird species. The abundance of mistletoe was mapped on trees within a 700 ha study site in Carmel Valley, California. Spatial autocorrelation of mistletoe volume was analyzed using the variogram method and spatial distribution of oak mistletoe trees was analyzed using Ripley's K and O-ring statistics. On a separate set of 45 trees, mistletoe volume was highly correlated with the volume of female, fruit-bearing plants, indicating that overall mistletoe volume is a good predictor of fruit availability. Variogram analysis showed that mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated up to approximately 250 m, a distance consistent with persistent territoriality of western bluebirds and philopatry of sons, which often breed next door to their parents and are more likely to remain home when their parents have abundant mistletoe. Using Ripley's K and O-ring analyses, we showed that mistletoe trees were aggregated for distances up to 558 m, but for distances between 558 to 724 m the O-ring analysis deviated from Ripley's K in showing repulsion rather than aggregation. While trees with mistletoe were aggregated at larger distances, mistletoe was spatially correlated at a smaller distance, consistent with what is expected based on persistent group territoriality of western bluebirds in winter and the extreme philopatry of their sons. PMID:25389971

  4. Spatial distribution of oak mistletoe as it relates to habits of oak woodland frugivores.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ethan A; Sullivan, Patrick J; Dickinson, Janis L

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the underlying spatial distribution of oak mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum, a hemi-parasitic plant that provides a continuous supply of berries for frugivorous birds overwintering the oak savanna habitat of California's outer coast range. As the winter community of birds consuming oak mistletoe varies from group-living territorial species to birds that roam in flocks, we asked if mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated at the scale of persistent territories or whether the patterns predicted by long-term territory use by western bluebirds are overcome by seed dispersal by more mobile bird species. The abundance of mistletoe was mapped on trees within a 700 ha study site in Carmel Valley, California. Spatial autocorrelation of mistletoe volume was analyzed using the variogram method and spatial distribution of oak mistletoe trees was analyzed using Ripley's K and O-ring statistics. On a separate set of 45 trees, mistletoe volume was highly correlated with the volume of female, fruit-bearing plants, indicating that overall mistletoe volume is a good predictor of fruit availability. Variogram analysis showed that mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated up to approximately 250 m, a distance consistent with persistent territoriality of western bluebirds and philopatry of sons, which often breed next door to their parents and are more likely to remain home when their parents have abundant mistletoe. Using Ripley's K and O-ring analyses, we showed that mistletoe trees were aggregated for distances up to 558 m, but for distances between 558 to 724 m the O-ring analysis deviated from Ripley's K in showing repulsion rather than aggregation. While trees with mistletoe were aggregated at larger distances, mistletoe was spatially correlated at a smaller distance, consistent with what is expected based on persistent group territoriality of western bluebirds in winter and the extreme philopatry of their sons.

  5. Relating spatial perspective taking to the perception of other's affordances: providing a foundation for predicting the future behavior of others

    PubMed Central

    Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Gagnon, Kyle T.; Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what another agent can see relates functionally to the understanding of what they can do. We propose that spatial perspective taking and perceiving other's affordances, while two separate spatial processes, together share the common social function of predicting the behavior of others. Perceiving the action capabilities of others allows for a common understanding of how agents may act together. The ability to take another's perspective focuses an understanding of action goals so that more precise understanding of intentions may result. This review presents an analysis of these complementary abilities, both in terms of the frames of reference and the proposed sensorimotor mechanisms involved. Together, we argue for the importance of reconsidering the role of basic spatial processes to explain more complex behaviors. PMID:24068992

  6. Contrasting petrogenesis of spatially related carbonatites from Samalpatti and Sevattur, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, Lukáš; Magna, Tomáš; Rapprich, Vladislav; Upadhyay, Dewashish; Krátký, Ondřej; Čejková, Bohuslava; Erban, Vojtěch; Kochergina, Yulia V.; Hrstka, Tomáš

    2017-07-01

    Two Neoproterozoic carbonatite suites of spatially related carbonatites and associated silicate alkaline rocks from Sevattur and Samalpatti, south India, have been investigated in terms of petrography, chemistry and radiogenic-stable isotopic compositions in order to provide further constraints on their genesis. The cumulative evidence indicates that the Sevattur suite is derived from an enriched mantle source without significant post-emplacement modifications through crustal contamination and hydrothermal overprint. The stable (C, O) isotopic compositions confirm mantle origin of Sevattur carbonatites with only a modest difference to Paleoproterozoic Hogenakal carbonatite, emplaced in the same tectonic setting. On the contrary, multiple processes have shaped the petrography, chemistry and isotopic systematics of the Samalpatti suite. These include pre-emplacement interaction with the ambient crustal materials with more pronounced signatures of such a process in silicocarbonatites. Calc-silicate marbles present in the Samalpatti area could represent a possible evolved end member due to the inability of common silicate rocks (pyroxenites, granites, diorites) to comply with radiogenic isotopic constraints. In addition, Samalpatti carbonatites show a range of C-O isotopic compositions, and δ13CV-PDB values between + 1.8 and + 4.1‰ found for a sub-suite of Samalpatti carbonatites belong to the highest values ever reported for magmatic carbonates. These heavy C-O isotopic signatures in Samalpatti carbonatites could be indicative of massive hydrothermal interaction with carbonated fluids. Unusual high-Cr silicocarbonatites, discovered at Samalpatti, seek their origin in the reaction of pyroxenites with enriched mantle-derived alkali-CO2-rich melts, as also evidenced by mantle-like O isotopic compositions. Field and petrographic observations as well as isotopic constraints must, however, be combined with the complex chemistry of incompatible trace elements as indicated

  7. Aberrant parietal cortex developmental trajectories in girls with Turner syndrome and related visual-spatial cognitive development: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Green, Tamar; Chromik, Lindsay C; Mazaika, Paul K; Fierro, Kyle; Raman, Mira M; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-09-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) arises from partial or complete absence of the X-chromosome in females. Girls with TS show deficits in visual-spatial skills as well as reduced brain volume and surface area in the parietal cortex which supports these cognitive functions. Thus, measuring the developmental trajectory of the parietal cortex and the associated visual-spatial cognition in TS may provide novel insights into critical brain-behavior associations. In this longitudinal study, we acquired structural MRI data and assessed visual-spatial skills in 16 (age: 8.23 ± 2.5) girls with TS and 13 age-matched controls over two time-points. Gray and white matter volume, surface area and cortical thickness were calculated from surfaced based segmentation of bilateral parietal cortices, and the NEPSY Arrows subtest was used to assess visual-spatial ability. Volumetric and cognitive scalars were modeled to obtain estimates of age-related change. The results show aberrant growth of white matter volume (P = 0.011, corrected) and surface area (P = 0.036, corrected) of the left superior parietal regions during childhood in girls with TS. Other parietal sub-regions were significantly smaller in girls with TS at both time-points but did not show different growth trajectories relative to controls. Furthermore, we found that visual-spatial skills showed a widening deficit for girls with TS relative to controls (P = 0.003). Young girls with TS demonstrate an aberrant trajectory of parietal cortical and cognitive development during childhood. Elucidating aberrant neurodevelopmental trajectories in this population is critical for determining specific stages of brain maturation that are particularly dependent on TS-related genetic and hormonal factors.

  8. Explaining Local-Scale Species Distributions: Relative Contributions of Spatial Autocorrelation and Landscape Heterogeneity for an Avian Assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Blank, Peter J.; Sauer, John R.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition. PMID:23393564

  9. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    PubMed

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.

  10. Explaining local-scale species distributions: relative contributions of spatial autocorrelation and landscape heterogeneity for an avian assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Blank, Peter J.; Sauer, John R.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition.

  11. Where am I? Who am I? The Relation Between Spatial Cognition, Social Cognition and Individual Differences in the Built Environment

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Michael J.; Todorov, Orlin S.; Taylor Aiken, Amanda; de Sousa, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing who we are, and where we are, are two fundamental aspects of our physical and mental experience. Although the domains of spatial and social cognition are often studied independently, a few recent areas of scholarship have explored the interactions of place and self. This fits in with increasing evidence for embodied theories of cognition, where mental processes are grounded in action and perception. Who we are might be integrated with where we are, and impact how we move through space. Individuals vary in personality, navigational strategies, and numerous cognitive and social competencies. Here we review the relation between social and spatial spheres of existence in the realms of philosophical considerations, neural and psychological representations, and evolutionary context, and how we might use the built environment to suit who we are, or how it creates who we are. In particular we investigate how two spatial reference frames, egocentric and allocentric, might transcend into the social realm. We then speculate on how environments may interact with spatial cognition. Finally, we suggest how a framework encompassing spatial and social cognition might be taken in consideration by architects and urban planners. PMID:26903893

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved.

  13. Explaining local-scale species distributions: relative contributions of spatial autocorrelation and landscape heterogeneity for an avian assemblage.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Brady J; Zipkin, Elise F; Gardner, Beth; Blank, Peter J; Sauer, John R; Royle, J Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition.

  14. Effects of surgical and chemical castration on spatial learning ability in relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Chung, Kyung Jin; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jin, Jun-Jang; Kim, Sung-Eun; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang Hee; Cho, Young-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Khae-Hawn

    2016-04-01

    Chemical castration using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists and/or anti-androgens is an alternative to surgical castration. Goserelin and bicalutamide are representative drugs used for chemical castration. The effects of chemical castration on sexual functions are well documented; however, the possibility that chemical castration might induce undesirable effects on brain functions has been raised. We investigated the effects of chemical castration and surgical castration on spatial learning ability in relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in hippocampus. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed for surgical castration, and chemical castration was induced by treatment with goserelin or bicalutamide for 28 days. To find out the effects of goserelin and bicalutamide with those of orchiectomy on the spatial learning ability, radial eight-arm maze test was performed. To find out the effects of goserelin and bicalutamide with those of orchiectomy in relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, and immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, doublecortin, and caspase-3 were performed. Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase receptor B, Bax, and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus was also performed. Orchiectomy caused deterioration of spatial learning ability with suppression of cell proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis in the hippocampus. However, treatment with goserelin and bicalutamide had no effect on spatial learning ability. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were not altered by treatment with goserelin and bicalutamide either. Surgical castration causes deterioration of spatial learning ability, while chemical castration does not impair spatial learning ability. We should find out further mechanisms affect to the relationship between androgen level and neurogenesis and neuronal apoptosis.

  15. Patterned-String Tasks: Relation between Fine Motor Skills and Visual-Spatial Abilities in Parrots

    PubMed Central

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals. PMID:24376885

  16. Spatial partitioning by mule deer and elk in relation to traffic.

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Wisdom; Norman J. Cimon; Bruce K. Johnson; Edward O. Garton; Jack Ward. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Elk (Cervus elaphus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) have overlapping ranges on millions of acres of forests and rangelands in western North America. Accurate prediction of their spatial distributions within these ranges is essential to effective land-use planning, stocking allocation and population management (Wisdom and...

  17. Relation of Physical Form to Spatial Knowledge in Large-Scale Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubukcu, Ebru; Nasar, Jack L.

    2005-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environmental simulation of 18 large-scale residential environments to test effects of plan layout complexity, physical differentiation, and gender on acquired spatial knowledge. One hundred sixty people (95 males and 65 females) were assigned at random to the different conditions. After a learning phase,…

  18. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wanderer, Thomas Herle, Stefan

    2015-04-15

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology.

  19. Geometric Figure-Rotation Task and Face Representation in Dyslexia: Role of Spatial Relations and Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Anneliese A.

    1981-01-01

    Compared to normal readers, the dyslexic children not only drew significantly more "neolithic faces" but also made more errors of spatial displacement (up/down or right/left) on parts of asymmetric figures, while among both groups there were similar percentages who made no errors in the global rotation of figures. (Author/SJL)

  20. The roles of categorical and coordinate spatial relations in recognizing buildings.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    Categorical spatial information is considered more useful for recognizing objects, and coordinate spatial information for guiding actions--for example, during navigation or grasping. In contrast with this assumption, we hypothesized that buildings, unlike other categories of objects, require both categorical and coordinate spatial information in order to be recognized. This hypothesis arose from evidence that right-brain-damaged patients have deficits in both coordinate judgments and recognition of buildings and from the fact that buildings are very useful for guiding navigation in urban environments. To test this hypothesis, we assessed 210 healthy college students while they performed four different tasks that required categorical and coordinate judgments and the recognition of common objects and buildings. Our results showed that both categorical and coordinate spatial representations are necessary to recognize a building, whereas only categorical representations are necessary to recognize an object. We discuss our data in view of a recent neural framework for visuospatial processing, suggesting that recognizing buildings may specifically activate the parieto-medial-temporal pathway.

  1. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  2. Spatial Attention-Related Modulation of the N170 by Backward Masked Fearful Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Joshua M.; Reinke, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Facial expressions are a basic form of non-verbal communication that convey important social information to others. The relevancy of this information is highlighted by findings that backward masked facial expressions facilitate spatial attention. This attention effect appears to be mediated through a neural network consisting of the amygdala,…

  3. Spatial Attention-Related Modulation of the N170 by Backward Masked Fearful Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Joshua M.; Reinke, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Facial expressions are a basic form of non-verbal communication that convey important social information to others. The relevancy of this information is highlighted by findings that backward masked facial expressions facilitate spatial attention. This attention effect appears to be mediated through a neural network consisting of the amygdala,…

  4. Political Reactance and Political Reality: A Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The research investigated political and psychological reactance among adolescents. Political reactance is interpreted to include feelings of political alienation and distrust. Psychological reactance is defined as behavior by an individual in response to reduction or threatened reduction of freedom. A model was created which expanded existing…

  5. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Ji-Woong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). Materials and Methods This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. Results We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). Conclusion RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network. PMID:22563263

  6. Testing the social identity relative deprivation (SIRD) model of social change: the political rise of Scottish nationalism.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Grant, Peter R

    2012-12-01

    We tested a social-identity relative deprivation (SIRD) model predicting Scottish nationalist beliefs and intention to vote for the separatist Scottish Nationalist Party (SNP). Data were from a survey of a large and representative sample of Scottish teenagers administered in the late 1980s. The SIRD model distinguishes effects of group-based and personal relative deprivation, which should be independent of one another. Importantly, social change beliefs should mediate the effects of both collective relative deprivation and group identification on protest intentions (in this case intention to vote for the SNP). Egoistic relative deprivation should be the strongest predictor of feelings of depression. Using structural equation modelling, the results strongly support this model and replicate in two different cohorts. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. American Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  8. Spatial Variability in ADHD-Related Behaviors Among Children Born to Mothers Residing Near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, M. Patricia; Webster, Thomas F.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Korrick, Susan A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has an uncertain etiology, with potential contributions from different risk factors such as prenatal environmental exposure to organochlorines and metals, social risk factors, and genetics. The degree to which geographic variability in ADHD is independent of, or explained by, risk factors may provide etiological insight. We investigated determinants of geographic variation in ADHD-related behaviors among children living near the polychlorinated biphenyl–contaminated New Bedford Harbor (NBH) Superfund site in Massachusetts. Participants were 573 children recruited at birth (1993–1998) who were born to mothers residing near the NBH site. We assessed ADHD-related behaviors at age 8 years using Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale–Revised: Long Version. Adjusted generalized additive models were used to smooth the association of pregnancy residence with ADHD-related behaviors and assess whether prenatal organochlorine or metal exposures, sociodemographic factors, or other factors explained spatial patterns. Models that adjusted for child's age and sex displayed significantly increased ADHD-related behavior among children whose mothers resided west of the NBH site during pregnancy. These spatial patterns persisted after adjusting for prenatal exposure to organochlorines and metals but were no longer significant after controlling for sociodemographic factors. The findings underscore the value of spatial analysis in identifying high-risk subpopulations and evaluating candidate risk factors. PMID:28444119

  9. Technical and policy issues related to semantically and spatially incompatible geodata

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalko, S.J.; Ganter, J.H.; Meter, M.D. Van

    1995-07-01

    Both the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and National Information Infrastructure (NU) efforts have ambitious goals that are expected to improve the fundamental infrastructure, commerce, and society of the United States. Achieving these goals will require rapid development and deployment of information compatibility methods through technical and institutional standards. These standards will have to be scaleable and flexible to support new, and as-yet-undiscovered, data. Yet they will also need to accommodate our valuable data reserves. The area of geospatial data, and thus the creation of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), is particularly challenging due to the profoundly different forms, evolutionary histories, and meanings attached to spatial data. We discuss technical issues resulting from the different natures and inaccuracy of existing geodata, and areas where federal policy could lead the way to greater compatibility.

  10. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  11. Exploring the modulation of attentional capture by spatial attentional control settings: converging evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Ishigami, Yoko; Hamm, Jeff P; Satel, Jason; Klein, Raymond M

    2012-12-01

    Automatic attentional capture by a salient distractor can be prevented by spatial attentional control settings (ACSs) (e.g., Yantis and Jonides in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 16:121-134, 1990). Earlier, converging evidence for a spatial ACS (Eason et al. 1969) was found in event-related potentials (ERPs). In these studies, the ACS was defined by a single target-relevant location. In an extension, Ishigami et al. (Vis Cogn 17:431-456, 2009) demonstrated a successful ACS in performance that was based on multiple (two) target-relevant locations. The purpose of the current study is to seek converging evidence from ERPs for a spatial ACS defined by multiple (two) target-relevant locations, using the methods in Ishigami et al. (Vis Cogn 17:431-456, 2009). Any one of four figure-8s brightened uninformatively (cue) before presentation of a digit target calling for a speeded identification (2 or 5). A spatial ACS was encouraged because in different blocks, the digit targets appeared only on the horizontal or vertical axis. Performance was more impaired following the invalid-attended cues than following invalid-unattended cues, consistent with Ishigami et al. (Vis Cogn 17:431-456, 2009) and verifying a successful spatial ACS. The direction of attention significantly affected the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) elicited by otherwise identical cues: the amplitudes of early VEPs were greater when the location the cue was presented in was target-relevant than when the location was target-irrelevant. These results re-affirm that attentional capture by irrelevant salient stimuli can be modulated by spatial ACSs defined by multiple target locations in performance and provide converging evidence from ERPs for the previously established behavioral findings.

  12. Spatial distribution of fishes in a Northwest Atlantic ecosystem in relation to risk of predation by a marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Swain, Douglas P; Benoît, Hugues P; Hammill, Mike O

    2015-09-01

    1. Numerous studies have shown that, at spatial scales of metres to several kilometres, animals balance the trade-off between foraging success and predation mortality by increasing their use of safer but less profitable habitats as predation risk increases. However, it is less clear whether prey respond similarly at the larger spatiotemporal scales of many ecosystems. 2. We determine whether this behaviour is evident in a large marine ecosystem, the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence (sGSL, 75 000 km(2) ) over a 42-year period. This ecosystem is characterized by a recent increase in the abundance of a large marine predator, the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius), by more than an order of magnitude. 3. We compared changes in spatial distribution over the 1971-2012 period between important prey of grey seals (Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.; white hake, Urophycis tenuis Mitchill; and thorny skate, Amblyraja radiata Donovan) and non-prey fishes. 4. Distribution was modelled using generalized additive models incorporating spatially variable effects of predation risk, density dependence and water temperature. Distributions of cod, hake and skate were strongly related to risk of predation by seals, with distribution shifting into lower risk areas as predation risk increased. Non-prey species did not show similar changes in habitat use. Spatial variation in fish condition suggests that these low-risk areas are also less profitable for cod and skate in terms of food availability. The effects of density dependence and water temperature were also important in models, but did not account for the changes in habitat use as the risk of predation increased. 5. These results indicate that these fish are able to assess and respond to spatial variation in predation risk at very large spatial scales. They also suggest that non-consumptive 'risk' effects may be an important component of the declines in productivity of seal prey in this ecosystem, and of the indirect effects at lower

  13. Spatial Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Related Socio-Demographic Factors in Iran, Using GWR: Case Study (2006).

    PubMed

    Goli, Ali; Kermany, Fatemeh Sadeghipour; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2014-03-01

    Although intellectual disability (ID) is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. In a cross-sectional study, we applied Moran's Index (Moran's I) which includes information about the strength of the neighboring association between counties, as global univariate distribution assessment. A geographically weighted regression was used to explore relation between ID patient's prevalence and some socio-demographic factors (migration and illiteracy rate, physician number (PN)/10,000 people and health-care centers (HCCs)/10,000 people). We found that spatial clusters of ID patients exist among Iran counties (Moran's I = 0.36, P < 0.01) and in a rural area population groups (Moran's I = 0.20, P < 0.01). Further, we detected spatial associations between ID patients and all of our investigated socio-demographic factors in national scale. In rural areas, illiteracy has high association with ID especially in the south region of Iran. Urban area has random pattern of ID patients both within and between the Iran counties (Moran's I = 0.01, P > 0.3). According to the results, our Initial hypothesis about the existence of spatial clusters in distribution of people with ID in Iran was proven. Spatial autocorrelation between migration and illiteracy rate and prevalence of patients with ID was shown and was in agreement with our hypothesis. However, our supposition that the prevalence should have inverse relationship with PN and HCC was rejected.

  14. Site fidelity in the Canary Islands stonechat Saxicola dacotiae in relation to spatial and temporal patterns of habitat suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Díaz, Mario

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the degree of territory faithfulness of the Canary Islands stonechat Saxicola dacotiae, an endemic bird species of the semi-arid island of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain), and the spatial and temporal variability of habitat traits related to its breeding success over its whole distribution range. Between 1998 and 2003 we monitored the spatial location of individually marked birds to determine whether they were site faithful. We also analysed the spatial and temporal variability of the abiotic (rainfall) and biotic (food availability, abundance of avian predators and competitors, and nest predation) factors that may influence breeding success in this species. Canary Islands stonechats were strongly site faithful. Out of 106 individuals, 86 (81.0%) were re-sighted during the whole study period, and most re-sightings (76; 88.4%) were in the territory where they were initially caught. Dispersal events were rare both within (1%) and between (≤6%) consecutive years, and detectability of colour-ringed birds was as high as 87%. No significant spatial variation of abiotic and biotic factors affecting success was found at a range of spatial scales. Low spatial variance in the habitat characteristics determining reproductive success could have favoured site fidelity in this species, as costs associated with changing site would not be compensated for by significant increases in survival or breeding prospects in new territories. Strict protection of the areas already occupied by this "Endangered" narrow range endemic bird would be the most effective way of preserving it, due to its strict habitat and microhabitat requirements and its strong site fidelity.

  15. Tocotrienol rich fraction reverses age-related deficits in spatial learning and memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Taridi, Nursiati Mohamad; Abd Rani, Nazirah; Abd Latiff, Azian; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the effect of vitamin E on brain function. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on behavioral impairment and oxidative stress in aged rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats (young: 3-months-old; aged: 21-months-old) were treated with either the control (olive oil) or TRF (200 mg/kg) for 3 months. Behavioral studies were performed using the open field test and Morris water maze (MWM) task. Blood was taken for assessment of DNA damage, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity. Brains were also collected to measure vitamin E levels. Results showed that aged rats exhibited reduced exploratory activity, enhanced anxiety and decreased spatial learning and memory compared with young rats. DNA damage and plasma MDA were increased, and vitamin E levels in plasma and brain were reduced in aged rats. Aged rats supplemented with TRF showed a markedly reduced level of anxiety, improved spatial learning and memory, reduced amount and severity of DNA damage, a reduced level of MDA, and increased levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and plasma/brain vitamin E compared with age-matched controls. In conclusion, TRF supplementation reverses spatial learning and memory decline and decreases oxidative stress in aged rats.

  16. Human brain activity related to the perception of spatial features of objects.

    PubMed

    Faillenot, I; Decety, J; Jeannerod, M

    1999-08-01

    The role of the parietal cortex in visuospatial analysis of object was investigated by cerebral blood flow measurements in seven objects using positron emission tomography. Data were acquired while subjects performed a matching task requiring the discrimination of simultaneously presented objects based on one of their spatial properties. Three properties were studied separately during three scanning conditions repeated twice:surface orientation, principal axis orientation, and size. Scans were also obtained during a sensorimotor control task (similar visual stimulation, same motor action, voluntary saccades toward each object) as well as during rest (no stimulation, eyes closed). Compared to rest, the three property matching tasks showed the same pattern of activation: the whole occipital lobe, the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the right occipitotemporal (OT) junction. Compared to the control condition, only right IPS and OT junction were significantly activated during discrimination of the spatial properties. The IPS focus was located between the superior parietal lobule and the angular gyrus, and the OT activation overlapped the posterior part of the inferior temporal gyrus and the middle occipital gyrus. These results indicate that discrimination of spatial attributes requires the activation of both the parietal and the temporal cortices of the right hemisphere and provide further evidence that the IPS plays a critical role in visuospatial analysis of objects.

  17. Spatial learning-related changes in metabolic activity of limbic structures at different posttask delays.

    PubMed

    Méndez-López, M; Méndez, M; Sampedro-Piquero, P; Arias, J L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the functional contribution of brain limbic system regions at different moments after the acquisition of a short-term spatial memory task performed in the Morris water maze. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to a matching-to-sample procedure with a hidden platform. The trials were made up of two daily identical visits to the platform, sample (swim-1) and retention (swim-2). To study oxidative metabolic activity, we applied cytochrome oxidase (COx) histochemistry. Densitometric measurements were taken at 1.5, 6, 24, and 48 hr posttask. An untrained group was added to explore the COx changes not specific to the learning process. The brain regions studied showed a different pattern of metabolic activity at different time points after the spatial memory task. Specifically, a significant increase of COx was found in the septal dentate gyrus, anteromedial thalamus, medial mammillary nucleus, and entorhinal cortex at early moments after learning. The entorhinal cortex maintained an increase of COx at later stages of the posttask period. In addition, an increase of COx activity was found in the supramammillary nucleus and the retrosplenial, perirhinal, and parietal cortices a long time after learning. These findings suggest that diencephalic and cortical regions are involved in this spatial learning and contribute at different moments to process this information.

  18. A unitary focus of spatial attention during attentional capture: Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Grubert, Anna; Righi, Luana Lira; Eimer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether attentional capture in vision can be elicited simultaneously at multiple locations in the visual field or whether it is always restricted to a single location. Participants searched for color singleton targets in search arrays that were preceded by spatially uninformative color cue arrays. Single cue arrays contained a unique color singleton among gray background items, and double cue arrays included two different-colored objects. Behavioral spatial cueing effects and N2pc components indicative of attentional capture were triggered by single as well as double cue arrays, but these capture effects were smaller with double cues. Response latencies were used to distinguish double cue trials where attention was captured by a left or right cue and trials where it was attracted by a cue on the vertical meridian. The N2pc was only present on horizontal capture trials, indicating that attentional capture is not triggered in parallel and equally at different locations, but is strongly weighted towards one object and one location at a time. Results show that when multiple salient visual objects compete for attentional selection, the capacity of each object to capture attention is reduced, but the focus of spatial attention tends to remain unitary.

  19. Slow Spatial Recruitment of Neocortex during Secondarily Generalized Seizures and Its Relation to Surgical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Martinet, Louis-Emmanuel; Ahmed, Omar J.; Lepage, Kyle Q.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of brain activity is crucial for inferring the underlying synaptic and nonsynaptic mechanisms of brain dysfunction. Focal seizures with secondary generalization are traditionally considered to begin in a limited spatial region and spread to connected areas, which can include both pathological and normal brain tissue. The mechanisms underlying this spread are important to our understanding of seizures and to improve therapies for surgical intervention. Here we study the properties of seizure recruitment—how electrical brain activity transitions to large voltage fluctuations characteristic of spike-and-wave seizures. We do so using invasive subdural electrode arrays from a population of 16 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We find an average delay of ∼30 s for a broad area of cortex (8 × 8 cm) to be recruited into the seizure, at an estimated speed of ∼4 mm/s. The spatiotemporal characteristics of recruitment reveal two categories of patients: one in which seizure recruitment of neighboring cortical regions follows a spatially organized pattern consistent from seizure to seizure, and a second group without consistent spatial organization of activity during recruitment. The consistent, organized recruitment correlates with a more regular, compared with small-world, connectivity pattern in simulation and successful surgical treatment of epilepsy. We propose that an improved understanding of how the seizure recruits brain regions into large amplitude voltage fluctuations provides novel information to improve surgical treatment of epilepsy and highlights the slow spread of massive local activity across a vast extent of cortex during seizure. PMID:26109670

  20. Sex-related differences in spatial learning during the early postnatal development of the rat.

    PubMed

    Cimadevilla, J M; González-Pardo, H; López, L; Diaz, F; Cueto, E G; Garcia-Moreno, L M; Arias, J L

    1999-06-01

    Some authors have reported that male rats younger than 21 days old are unable to perform spatial learning correctly because they have still not developed the ability to use extra-maze cues. In experiment 1, we analyzed spatial learning in 14-, 21-, 30- and 42-day-old rats using the Morris water maze (MWM). According to our results, a good performance was observed in 30-day-old male rats whereas this was not observed in female rats until they were 42 days old. In experiment 2 we studied the role of sex hormones in this kind of learning using the MWM and 30-day-old rats (castrated male rats and female rats treated with testosterone propionate (TP) after birth). The latter group, the male control group and the castrated males all solved the task correctly. The objective of experiment 3 was to determine possible differences between the sexes in the use of taxon strategies in the T water maze. To summarize, sexual dimorphism was only observed in spatial learning during development.