Cement-aggregate compatibility and structure property relationships including modelling
Jennings, H.M.; Xi, Y.
1993-07-15
The role of aggregate, and its interface with cement paste, is discussed with a view toward establishing models that relate structure to properties. Both short (nm) and long (mm) range structure must be considered. The short range structure of the interface depends not only on the physical distribution of the various phases, but also on moisture content and reactivity of aggregate. Changes that occur on drying, i.e. shrinkage, may alter the structure which, in turn, feeds back to alter further drying and shrinkage. The interaction is dynamic, even without further hydration of cement paste, and the dynamic characteristic must be considered in order to fully understand and model its contribution to properties. Microstructure and properties are two subjects which have been pursued somewhat separately. This review discusses both disciplines with a view toward finding common research goals in the future. Finally, comment is made on possible chemical reactions which may occur between aggregate and cement paste.
General education teachers' relationships with included students with autism.
Robertson, Kristen; Chamberlain, Brandt; Kasari, Connie
2003-04-01
In this study, we examine the relationship between general education teachers and second- and third-grade included students with autism. We also examine the effect of childrens' behavior problems on these relationships, as well as inclusion within the social environment of the classroom. Included students with autism form multidimensional relationships with their general education teachers. These relationships are associated with student's display of behavior problems and level of inclusion in the class. Specifically, when teachers perceived their relationships with included students with autism to be more positive, children's levels of behavioral problems were lower and they were more socially included in the class.
DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio
It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.
Simple model of membrane proteins including solvent.
Pagan, D L; Shiryayev, A; Connor, T P; Gunton, J D
2006-05-14
We report a numerical simulation for the phase diagram of a simple two-dimensional model, similar to the one proposed by Noro and Frenkel [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2477 (2001)] for membrane proteins, but one that includes the role of the solvent. We first use Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations to determine the phase behavior of particles interacting via a square-well potential in two dimensions for various values of the interaction range. A phenomenological model for the solute-solvent interactions is then studied to understand how the fluid-fluid coexistence curve is modified by solute-solvent interactions. It is shown that such a model can yield systems with liquid-liquid phase separation curves that have both upper and lower critical points, as well as closed loop phase diagrams, as is the case with the corresponding three-dimensional model.
An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.
1996-11-01
) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay
Including eddies in global ocean models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semtner, Albert J.; Chervin, Robert M.
The ocean is a turbulent fluid that is driven by winds and by surface exchanges of heat and moisture. It is as important as the atmosphere in governing climate through heat distribution, but so little is known about the ocean that it remains a “final frontier” on the face of the Earth. Many ocean currents are truly global in extent, such as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the “conveyor belt” that connects the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans by flows around the southern tips of Africa and South America. It has long been a dream of some oceanographers to supplement the very limited observational knowledge by reconstructing the currents of the world ocean from the first principles of physics on a computer. However, until very recently, the prospect of doing this was thwarted by the fact that fluctuating currents known as “mesoscale eddies” could not be explicitly included in the calculation.
1983-10-30
nucleation due tovi Brownian diffusion (NNUB .), thermophoresis (NNUC .) andVi Vi diffusiophoresis (NNUD .). Finally, production of specific Vi...Young (1974) referred to as model A. Young considers contact by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis and diffusiophoresis. Brownian- diftusion contact...nucleation results from the random collision of aerosol particles with cloud droplets. Thermophoresis contact nucleation occurs due to the attraction
Modeling Emergent Macrophyte Distributions: Including Sub-dominant Species
Mixed stands of emergent vegetation are often present following drawdowns but models of wetland plant distributions fail to include subdominant species when predicting distributions. Three variations of a spatial plant distribution cellular automaton model were developed to explo...
Spaghetti Bridges: Modeling Linear Relationships
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kroon, Cindy D.
2016-01-01
Mathematics and science are natural partners. One of many examples of this partnership occurs when scientific observations are made, thus providing data that can be used for mathematical modeling. Developing mathematical relationships elucidates such scientific principles. This activity describes a data-collection activity in which students employ…
Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Souad; Louai, Fatima Zohra; Nait-Said, Nasreddine; Benabou, Abdelkader
2016-07-01
An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.
Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages.
Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan
2016-02-01
We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that-in comparison with real data-the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.
Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan
2016-02-01
We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.
Model dielectric function for 2D semiconductors including substrate screening
Trolle, Mads L.; Pedersen, Thomas G.; Véniard, Valerie
2017-01-01
Dielectric screening of excitons in 2D semiconductors is known to be a highly non-local effect, which in reciprocal space translates to a strong dependence on momentum transfer q. We present an analytical model dielectric function, including the full non-linear q-dependency, which may be used as an alternative to more numerically taxing ab initio screening functions. By verifying the good agreement between excitonic optical properties calculated using our model dielectric function, and those derived from ab initio methods, we demonstrate the versatility of this approach. Our test systems include: Monolayer hBN, monolayer MoS2, and the surface exciton of a 2 × 1 reconstructed Si(111) surface. Additionally, using our model, we easily take substrate screening effects into account. Hence, we include also a systematic study of the effects of substrate media on the excitonic optical properties of MoS2 and hBN. PMID:28117326
A sonic boom propagation model including mean flow atmospheric effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salamone, Joe; Sparrow, Victor W.
2012-09-01
This paper presents a time domain formulation of nonlinear lossy propagation in onedimension that also includes the effects of non-collinear mean flow in the acoustic medium. The model equation utilized is an augmented Burgers equation that includes the effects of nonlinearity, geometric spreading, atmospheric stratification, and also absorption and dispersion due to thermoviscous and molecular relaxation effects. All elements of the propagation are implemented in the time domain and the effects of non-collinear mean flow are accounted for in each term of the model equation. Previous authors have presented methods limited to showing the effects of wind on ray tracing and/or using an effective speed of sound in their model equation. The present work includes the effects of mean flow for all terms included in the augmented Burgers equation with all of the calculations performed in the time-domain. The capability to include the effects of mean flow in the acoustic medium allows one to make predictions more representative of real-world atmospheric conditions. Examples are presented for nonlinear propagation of N-waves and shaped sonic booms. [Work supported by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.
Computation of eigenfrequencies for equilibrium models including turbulent pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonoi, T.; Belkacem, K.; Dupret, M.-A.; Samadi, R.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Mosser, B.
2017-03-01
Context. The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler have provided a wealth of highly accurate data. However, our inability to properly model the upper-most region of solar-like stars prevents us from making the best of these observations. This problem is called "surface effect" and a key ingredient to solve it is turbulent pressure for the computation of both the equilibrium models and the oscillations. While 3D hydrodynamic simulations help to include properly the turbulent pressure in the equilibrium models, the way this surface effect is included in the computation of stellar oscillations is still subject to uncertainties. Aims: We aim at determining how to properly include the effect of turbulent pressure and its Lagrangian perturbation in the adiabatic computation of the oscillations. We also discuss the validity of the gas-gamma model and reduced gamma model approximations, which have been used to compute adiabatic oscillations of equilibrium models including turbulent pressure. Methods: We use a patched model of the Sun with an inner part constructed by a 1D stellar evolution code (CESTAM) and an outer part by the 3D hydrodynamical code (CO5BOLD). Then, the adiabatic oscillations are computed using the ADIPLS code for the gas-gamma and reduced gamma model approximations and with the MAD code imposing the adiabatic condition on an existing time-dependent convection formalism. Finally, all those results are compared to the observed solar frequencies. Results: We show that the computation of the oscillations using the time-dependent convection formalism in the adiabatic limit improves significantly the agreement with the observed frequencies compared to the gas-gamma and reduced gamma model approximations. Of the components of the perturbation of the turbulent pressure, the perturbation of the density and advection term is found to contribute most to the frequency shift. Conclusions: The turbulent pressure is certainly the dominant factor responsible for the
Confidence in climate models including those with suspended particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reck, Ruth A.
1982-05-01
Confidence in the predictions of atmospheric models is limited, (1) by the uncertainty in our knowledge of the existing atmospheric system as it is defined by input data, and (2) by the ability of the model to describe all pertinent atmospheric processes. This paper describes a thermal sensitivity study of the global parameters in one version of the Manabe-Wetherald radiative-convective model which inclkudes Mie scattering particles. The relative importance of the usual global model parameters is identified in addition to other atmospheric constituents not commonly included in climate models. In particular this work emphasizes the role of Mie scattering suspended aerosol particles, a component which is seldom included in climate models. Here we discuss the major sources of particles, how the optical properties of individual particles determine the radiative effects of a particle layer, and also illustrate the separate role of absorption and backscatter in determining the sign of the surface temperature change. In addition, the coupling of the particle effects to surface albedo is indicated. Finally, the sign of the surface temperature change from anthropogenic particles is estimated using (1) global maps of particle abundance developed by Kellogg, (2) previous calculations for the Northern Hemisphere published by the author and (3) the surface albedo maps of Hummel and Reck.
Zan, Ruiguang; Chai, Jing; Ma, Wei; Jin, Wei; Duan, Rongyao; Luo, Jing; Murphy, Robert W.; Xiao, Heng; Chen, Ziming
2016-01-01
The phylogenetic relationships of Asian schilbid catfishes of the genera Clupisoma, Ailia, Horabagrus, Laides and Pseudeutropius are poorly understood, especially those of Clupisoma. Herein, we reconstruct the phylogeny of 38 species of catfishes belonging to 28 genera and 14 families using the concatenated mitochondrial genes COI, cytb, and 16S rRNA, as well as the nuclear genes RAG1 and RAG2. The resulting phylogenetic trees consistently place Clupisoma as the sister taxon of Laides, and the five representative Asian schilbid genera form two monophyletic groups with the relationships (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) and (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius). The so-called “Big Asia” lineage relates distantly to African schilbids. Independent analyses of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data yield differing trees for the two Asian schilbid groups. Analyses of the mitochondrial gene data support a sister-group relationship for (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) and the Sisoroidea and a sister-taxon association of (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius) and the Bagridae. In contrast, analyses of the combined nuclear data indicate (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) to be the sister group to (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius). Our results indicate that the Horabagridae, recognized by some authors as consisting of Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius and Clupisoma does not include the latter genus. We formally erect a new family, Ailiidae fam. nov. for a monophyletic Asian group comprised of the genera Ailia, Laides and Clupisoma. PMID:26751688
Including auroral oval boundaries in the IRI model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bilitza, A.
1995-01-01
At the last International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Workshop it was decided that future editions of the model should include a representationof the aurroral oval boundaries. In this paper we review the different existing parameterizations of the auroral oval discussing their data base, boundary criteria, matematical formation, and overall usefulness for IRI. As a first candidate for incorporation into IRI we recomment the parameterization of the Feldstein ovals by Holzworth and Meng. Ways of implementing this model into IRI are discussed. We will also address adjustability with user-provided boundaries or boundary-related parameters, to better support strom-related studies.
A model of Barchan dunes including lateral shear stress.
Schwämmle, V; Herrmann, H J
2005-01-01
Barchan dunes are found where sand availability is low and wind direction quite constant. The two dimensional shear stress of the wind field and the sand movement by saltation and avalanches over a barchan dune are simulated. The model with one dimensional shear stress is extended including surface diffusion and lateral shear stress. The resulting final shape is compared to the results of the model with a one dimensional shear stress and confirmed by comparison to measurements. We found agreement and improvements with respect to the model with one dimensional shear stress. Additionally, a characteristic edge at the center of the windward side is discovered which is also observed for big barchans. Diffusion effects reduce this effect for small dunes.
A model of electrical conduction in cardiac tissue including fibroblasts.
Sachse, Frank B; Moreno, A P; Seemann, G; Abildskov, J A
2009-05-01
Fibroblasts are abundant in cardiac tissue. Experimental studies suggested that fibroblasts are electrically coupled to myocytes and this coupling can impact cardiac electrophysiology. In this work, we present a novel approach for mathematical modeling of electrical conduction in cardiac tissue composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and the extracellular space. The model is an extension of established cardiac bidomain models, which include a description of intra-myocyte and extracellular conductivities, currents and potentials in addition to transmembrane voltages of myocytes. Our extension added a description of fibroblasts, which are electrically coupled with each other and with myocytes. We applied the extended model in exemplary computational simulations of plane waves and conduction in a thin tissue slice assuming an isotropic conductivity of the intra-fibroblast domain. In simulations of plane waves, increased myocyte-fibroblast coupling and fibroblast-myocyte ratio reduced peak voltage and maximal upstroke velocity of myocytes as well as amplitudes and maximal downstroke velocity of extracellular potentials. Simulations with the thin tissue slice showed that inter-fibroblast coupling affected rather transversal than longitudinal conduction velocity. Our results suggest that fibroblast coupling becomes relevant for small intra-myocyte and/or large intra-fibroblast conductivity. In summary, the study demonstrated the feasibility of the extended bidomain model and supports the hypothesis that fibroblasts contribute to cardiac electrophysiology in various manners.
Monte Carlo modeling of cometary atmospheres including polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreno, F.; Muñoz, O.; Molina, A.
We present a Monte Carlo model for the transfer of radiation by dust in spherical-shell cometary atmospheres. Our model, which includes the effects of polarization, constitutes an improved version of that by Salo cite{bib31}. The code has been designed to compute both the input radiation on the nucleus surface and the output radiation. This has specific applications regarding the interpretation of near-nucleus photometry, polarimetry, and imaging such as planned for the near future space probes. After showing the appropriate validations of the code with other modeling results, we address here the effect of including the full 4 times 4 scattering matrix into the calculations of the radiative flux impinging on cometary nuclei. As input of the code we use realistic single scattering phase matrices derived by fitting the observed behavior of the linear polarization versus phase angle in cometary atmospheres. The observed single scattering linear polarization phase curves of comets are found to be fairly well represented by a mixture of Mg-rich olivine particles and small carbonaceous particles. The input matrix of the code is thus given by the phase matrix for olivine as obtained in the laboratory cite{bib27} plus a variable scattering fraction phase matrix for absorbing carbonaceous particles. Particularly, these fractions are found to be 3.5% for comet Halley and 6% for comet Hale-Bopp, for which the greatest percentage of all the observed comets was found. The total input fluxes computed by ignoring the polarization effects are found to show differences as large as 10% with respect to the fluxes obtained when the full scattering matrix is included in the calculations.
Thermospheric Density Model Including High-Latitude Energy Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moe, O. K.; Moe, M. M.
2006-12-01
As was predicted long ago by Sydney Chapman, there is a major contribution to thermospheric energy from the magnetosphere at all times. The contribution of this magnetospheric energy source produces a neutral density bulge at high latitudes even during geomagnetically quiet times. We present an analytical, semi- empirical model of the global neutral density at such quiet times. The total density is expressed as the sum of two terms: The first term describes the combined effects of the solar ultra-violet heating and various other contributions like the semi-annual variation; the second term gives the contribution to the density associated with particle precipitation and joule heating coming from magnetospheric sources during times of low geomagnetic activity. The region of density enhancement at high latitudes is associated with the locations of the dayside cusps. Therefore the model produces a density distribution which depends on universal time as well as on altitude, latitude, local time, and the usual solar UV energy source. The numerical values of the parameters in the empirical model were originally determined 30 years ago from density data collected by the Bell-MESA accelerometer on the LOGACS satellite and the pressure gauge on the SPADES satellite. As an example of the model output, we show a Mercator projection of the global density distribution at 400 km altitude at 12 hours GMT in late May at a time of moderate solar activity and low geomagnetic activity. The parameters in the model can now be substantially improved by using recent advances like the latest description of the semi-annual variation and by incorporating the precise density measurements made by the accelerometers on board the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. In the original model, density values at times of high geomagnetic activity were included in the second density term. The parameters in that term can also be improved as accurate storm-time densities become available.
Cont-Bouchaud Percolation Model Including Tobin Tax
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ehrenstein, Gudrun
The Tobin tax is an often discussed method to tame speculation and get a source of income. The discussion is especially heated when the financial markets are in crisis. In this article we refer to the foreign exchange markets. The Tobin tax should be a small international tax affecting all currency transactions and thus consequently reducing destabilizing speculations. In this way this tax should take over a control function. By including the Tobin tax in the microscopic model of Cont and Bouchaud one finds that this tax could be the right method to control foreign exchange operations and to get a good source of income.
Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA secondary structure modeling, including pseudoknots
Hajdin, Christine E.; Bellaousov, Stanislav; Huggins, Wayne; Leonard, Christopher W.; Mathews, David H.; Weeks, Kevin M.
2013-01-01
A pseudoknot forms in an RNA when nucleotides in a loop pair with a region outside the helices that close the loop. Pseudoknots occur relatively rarely in RNA but are highly overrepresented in functionally critical motifs in large catalytic RNAs, in riboswitches, and in regulatory elements of viruses. Pseudoknots are usually excluded from RNA structure prediction algorithms. When included, these pairings are difficult to model accurately, especially in large RNAs, because allowing this structure dramatically increases the number of possible incorrect folds and because it is difficult to search the fold space for an optimal structure. We have developed a concise secondary structure modeling approach that combines SHAPE (selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) experimental chemical probing information and a simple, but robust, energy model for the entropic cost of single pseudoknot formation. Structures are predicted with iterative refinement, using a dynamic programming algorithm. This melded experimental and thermodynamic energy function predicted the secondary structures and the pseudoknots for a set of 21 challenging RNAs of known structure ranging in size from 34 to 530 nt. On average, 93% of known base pairs were predicted, and all pseudoknots in well-folded RNAs were identified. PMID:23503844
Development of an Aeroelastic Analysis Including a Viscous Flow Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Bakhle, Milind A.
2001-01-01
Under this grant, Version 4 of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes aeroelastic code (TURBO-AE) has been developed and verified. The TURBO-AE Version 4 aeroelastic code allows flutter calculations for a fan, compressor, or turbine blade row. This code models a vibrating three-dimensional bladed disk configuration and the associated unsteady flow (including shocks, and viscous effects) to calculate the aeroelastic instability using a work-per-cycle approach. Phase-lagged (time-shift) periodic boundary conditions are used to model the phase lag between adjacent vibrating blades. The direct-store approach is used for this purpose to reduce the computational domain to a single interblade passage. A disk storage option, implemented using direct access files, is available to reduce the large memory requirements of the direct-store approach. Other researchers have implemented 3D inlet/exit boundary conditions based on eigen-analysis. Appendix A: Aeroelastic calculations based on three-dimensional euler analysis. Appendix B: Unsteady aerodynamic modeling of blade vibration using the turbo-V3.1 code.
Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt
2015-11-01
Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.
A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.
1993-01-01
A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.
Polarimetric Models of Circumstellar Discs Including Aggregate Dust Grains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohan, Mahesh
output files and to apply a size distribution to the data. The second circumstellar disc investigated is the debris disc of the M dwarf star AU Mic. The disc was modelled, using the radiative transfer code Hyperion, based on F606W (HST) and JHK0-band (Keck II) scattered light observations and F606Wband polarized light observations. Initially, the disc is modelled as a two component structure using two grain types: compact silicate grains and porous dirty ice water. Both models are able to reproduce the observed SED and the F606W and H-band surface brightness profiles, but are unable to fit the observed F606W degree of polarization. Therefore, a more complex/realistic grain model was examined (ballistic aggregate particles). In addition, recent millimetre observations suggest the existence of a planetesimal belt < 3 AU from the central star. This belt is included in the BAM2 model and was successful in fitting the observed SED, F606W and H-band surface brightness and F606W polarization. These results demonstrate the limitations of spherical grain models and indicate the importance of modelling more realistic dust grains.
Numerical Modeling of Electroacoustic Logging Including Joule Heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Nikitin, Anatoly A.; Turchaninov, Victor I.
It is well known that electromagnetic field excites acoustic wave in a porous elastic medium saturated with fluid electrolyte due to electrokinetic conversion effect. Pride's equations describing this process are written in isothermal approximation. Update of these equations, which allows to take influence of Joule heating on acoustic waves propagation into account, is proposed here. This update includes terms describing the initiation of additional acoustic waves excited by thermoelastic stresses and the heat conduction equation with right side defined by Joule heating. Results of numerical modeling of several problems of propagation of acoustic waves excited by an electric field source with and without consideration of Joule heating effect in their statements are presented. From these results, it follows that influence of Joule heating should be taken into account at the numerical simulation of electroacoustic logging and at the interpretation of its log data.
A model for including thermal conduction in molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Yue; Friauf, Robert J.
1989-01-01
A technique is introduced for including thermal conduction in molecular dynamics simulations for solids. A model is developed to allow energy flow between the computational cell and the bulk of the solid when periodic boundary conditions cannot be used. Thermal conduction is achieved by scaling the velocities of atoms in a transitional boundary layer. The scaling factor is obtained from the thermal diffusivity, and the results show good agreement with the solution for a continuous medium at long times. The effects of different temperature and size of the system, and of variations in strength parameter, atomic mass, and thermal diffusivity were investigated. In all cases, no significant change in simulation results has been found.
Radiometric sensor performance model including atmospheric and IR clutter effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, Rudolf; Davis, Joel S.; Duggin, Michael J.
1997-06-01
The computer code SENSAT developed for radiometric investigations in remote sensing was extended to include two statistical clutter models of infrared background and the prediction of the target detection probability. The first one is based on the standard deviation of scene clutter estimated from scene data, the second one is based on the power spectral density of different classes of IR background as a function of temporal or spatial frequency. The overall code consists of modules describing the optoelectronic sensor (optics, detector, signal processor), a radiative transfer code (MODTRAN) to include the atmospheric effects, and the scene module consisting of target and background. The scene is evaluated for a certain pixel at a time. However, a sequence of pixels can be simulated by varying the range, view angle, atmospheric condition, or the clutter level. The target consists of one or two subpixel surface elements, the remaining part of the pixels represents background. Multiple paths, e.g. sun-ground-target-sensor, can also be selected. An expert system, based upon the IDL language, provides user-friendly input menus, performs consistency checks, and submits the required MODTRAN and SENSAT runs. A sample case of the detection probability of a sub-pixel target in a marine cluttered background is discussed.
A new solar cycle model including meridional circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Nash, A. G.
1991-01-01
A kinematic model is presented for the solar cycle which includes not only the transport of magnetic flux by supergranular diffusion and a poleward bulk flow at the sun's surface, but also the effects of turbulent diffusion and an equatorward 'return flow' beneath the surface. As in the earlier models of Babcock and Leighton, the rotational shearing of a subsurface poloidal field generates toroidal flux that erupts at the surface in the form of bipolar magnetic regions. However, such eruptions do not result in any net loss of toroidal flux from the sun (as assumed by Babcock and Leighton); instead, the large-scale toroidal field is destroyed both by 'unwinding' as the local poloidal field reverses its polarity, and by diffusion as the toroidal flux is transported equatorward by the subsurface flow and merged with its opposite hemisphere counterpart. The inclusion of meridional circulation allows stable oscillations of the magnetic field, accompanied by the equatorward progression of flux eruptions, to be achieved even in the absence of a radial gradient in the angular velocity. An illustrative case in which a subsurface flow speed of order 1 m/s and subsurface diffusion rate of order 10 sq km/s yield 22-yr oscillations in qualitative agreement with observations.
Goldilocks models of higher-dimensional inflation (including modulus stabilization)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgess, C. P.; Enns, Jared J. H.; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P.
2016-08-01
We explore the mechanics of inflation within simplified extra-dimensional models involving an inflaton interacting with the Einstein-Maxwell system in two extra dimensions. The models are Goldilocks-like inasmuch as they are just complicated enough to include a mechanism to stabilize the extra-dimensional size (or modulus), yet simple enough to solve explicitly the full extra-dimensional field equations using only simple tools. The solutions are not restricted to the effective 4D regime with H ll mKK (the latter referring to the characteristic mass splitting of the Kaluza-Klein excitations) because the full extra-dimensional Einstein equations are solved. This allows an exploration of inflationary physics in a controlled calculational regime away from the usual four-dimensional lamp-post. The inclusion of modulus stabilization is important because experience with string models teaches that this is usually what makes models fail: stabilization energies easily dominate the shallow potentials required by slow roll and so open up directions to evolve that are steeper than those of the putative inflationary direction. We explore (numerically and analytically) three representative kinds of inflationary scenarios within this simple setup. In one the radion is trapped in an inflaton-dependent local minimum whose non-zero energy drives inflation. Inflation ends as this energy relaxes to zero when the inflaton finds its own minimum. The other two involve power-law scaling solutions during inflation. One of these is a dynamical attractor whose features are relatively insensitive to initial conditions but whose slow-roll parameters cannot be arbitrarily small; the other is not an attractor but can roll much more slowly, until eventually transitioning to the attractor. The scaling solutions can satisfy H > mKK, but when they do standard 4D fluctuation calculations need not apply. When in a 4D regime the solutions predict η simeq 0 and so r simeq 0.11 when ns simeq 0.96 and so
[Relationship between assertiveness including consideration for others and adjustment in children].
Eguchi, Megumi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu
2012-06-01
The relationship between assertiveness and internal and external adjustment was investigated. Elementary school children in grades four to six (n=207) and their classroom teachers (n=8) participated in the study. Internal and external adjustments were measured by using self-ratings, and self- and other- ratings respectively. The children responded to a questionnaires inquiring about assertiveness that included two components of assessment: "self expression" and "consideration for others". Then, the children were divided into 4 groups according to their scores on these two components of assertiveness. The results indicated that children scoring high on both components of assertiveness had higher self-rating scores than those scoring low on both components. Moreover, children that scored high on "consideration for others" tended to have high external adjustment. Also, boys that scored low on "self expression" had lower external adjustment as indicated by the negative ratings of teachers. Furthermore, girls that scored high on "consideration for others" had high external adjustment as indicated by positive ratings of teachers and same-sexed classmates.
Including Nearshore Processes in Phase-Averaged Hydrodynamics Models
2006-08-01
physical modeling of hydrodynamics to the use of numerical models. A suitable set of equations conserving mass, momen- tum, and energy do not suffer...the high cost and scale effects of physical models. Numerical models, however, rely on a set of discritized and sim- plified equations , and nonphysical...used in the interest of brevity. The solution of Equation 24 along with Equation 26 constitutes a solution for the depth-dependent cross-shore
Constitutive modelling of evolving flow anisotropy including distortional hardening
Pietryga, Michael P.; Vladimirov, Ivaylo N.; Reese, Stefanie
2011-05-04
The paper presents a new constitutive model for anisotropic metal plasticity that takes into account the expansion or contraction (isotropic hardening), translation (kinematic hardening) and change of shape (distortional hardening) of the yield surface. The experimentally observed region of high curvature ('nose') on the yield surface in the loading direction and flattened shape in the reverse loading direction are modelled here by means of the concept of directional distortional hardening. The modelling of directional distortional hardening is accomplished by means of an evolving fourth-order tensor. The applicability of the model is illustrated by fitting experimental subsequent yield surfaces at finite plastic deformation. Comparisons with test data for aluminium low and high work hardening alloys display a good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data.
NASA Trapezoidal Wing Computations Including Transition and Advanced Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, C. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.
2012-01-01
Flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing is computed with several turbulence models by using grids from the first High Lift Prediction Workshop in an effort to advance understanding of computational fluid dynamics modeling for this type of flowfield. Transition is accounted for in many of the computations. In particular, a recently-developed 4-equation transition model is utilized and works well overall. Accounting for transition tends to increase lift and decrease moment, which improves the agreement with experiment. Upper surface flap separation is reduced, and agreement with experimental surface pressures and velocity profiles is improved. The predicted shape of wakes from upstream elements is strongly influenced by grid resolution in regions above the main and flap elements. Turbulence model enhancements to account for rotation and curvature have the general effect of increasing lift and improving the resolution of the wing tip vortex as it convects downstream. However, none of the models improve the prediction of surface pressures near the wing tip, where more grid resolution is needed.
Modeling Insurgent Dynamics Including Heterogeneity. A Statistical Physics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Neil F.; Manrique, Pedro; Hui, Pak Ming
2013-05-01
Despite the myriad complexities inherent in human conflict, a common pattern has been identified across a wide range of modern insurgencies and terrorist campaigns involving the severity of individual events—namely an approximate power-law x - α with exponent α≈2.5. We recently proposed a simple toy model to explain this finding, built around the reported loose and transient nature of operational cells of insurgents or terrorists. Although it reproduces the 2.5 power-law, this toy model assumes every actor is identical. Here we generalize this toy model to incorporate individual heterogeneity while retaining the model's analytic solvability. In the case of kinship or team rules guiding the cell dynamics, we find that this 2.5 analytic result persists—however an interesting new phase transition emerges whereby this cell distribution undergoes a transition to a phase in which the individuals become isolated and hence all the cells have spontaneously disintegrated. Apart from extending our understanding of the empirical 2.5 result for insurgencies and terrorism, this work illustrates how other statistical physics models of human grouping might usefully be generalized in order to explore the effect of diverse human social, cultural or behavioral traits.
Recent atomistic modelling studies of energy materials: batteries included.
Islam, M Saiful
2010-07-28
Advances in functional materials for energy conversion and storage technologies are crucial in addressing the global challenge of green sustainable energy. This article aims to demonstrate the valuable role that modern modelling techniques now play in providing deeper fundamental insight into novel materials for rechargeable lithium batteries and solid oxide fuel cells. Recent work is illustrated by studies on important topical materials encompassing transition-metal phosphates and silicates for lithium battery electrodes, and apatite-type silicates for fuel cell electrolytes.
Mechanical Modeling of Foods Including Fracture and Simulation of Food Compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimoto, Masamichi; Mizunuma, Hiroshi; Sonomura, Mitsuhiro; Kohyama, Kaoru; Ogoshi, Hiro
2008-07-01
The purposes of this research are to simulate the swallowing of foods, and to investigate the relationship between the rheological properties of foods and the swallowing. Here we proposed the mechanical modeling of foods, and simulated the compression test using the finite element method. A linear plasticity model was applied as the rheological model of the foods, and two types of computational elements were used to simulate the fracture behavior. The compression tests with a wedged plunger were simulated for tofu, banana, and biscuit, and were compared with the experimental results. Other than the homogeneous food model, the simulations were conducted for the multi-layer models. Reasonable agreements on the behaviors of compression and fracture were obtained between the simulations and the experiments including the reaction forces on the plunger.
Modeling shelter-in-place including sorption on indoor surfaces
Chan, Wanyu R.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W.; Loosmore, Gwen A.; Sugiyama, Gayle A.
2003-11-01
Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic releases (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. As part of an emergency response plan, shelter-in-place (SIP) can be an effective response option, especially when evacuation is infeasible. Reasonably tight building envelopes provide some protection against exposure to peak concentrations when toxic release passes over an area. They also provide some protection in terms of cumulative exposure, if SIP is terminated promptly after the outdoor plume has passed. The purpose of this work is to quantify the level of protection offered by existing houses, and the importance of sorption/desorption to and from surfaces on the effectiveness of SIP. We examined a hypothetical chlorine gas release scenario simulated by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC). We used a standard infiltration model to calculate the distribution of time dependent infiltration rates within each census tract. Large variation in the air tightness of dwellings makes some houses more protective than others. Considering only the median air tightness, model results showed that if sheltered indoors, the total population intake of non-sorbing toxic gas is only 50% of the outdoor level 4 hours from the start of the release. Based on a sorption/desorption model by Karlsson and Huber (1996), we calculated that the sorption process would further lower the total intake of the population by an additional 50%. The potential benefit of SIP can be considerably higher if the comparison is made in terms of health effects because of the non-linear acute effect dose-response curve of many chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial substances.
Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding Interfaces
Lomov, I; Antoun, T; Vorobiev, O
2009-12-16
Accurate representation of discontinuities such as joints and faults is a key ingredient for high fidelity modeling of shock propagation in geologic media. The following study was done to improve treatment of discontinuities (joints) in the Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN (Lomov and Liu 2005). Lagrangian methods with conforming meshes and explicit inclusion of joints in the geologic model are well suited for such an analysis. Unfortunately, current meshing tools are unable to automatically generate adequate hexahedral meshes for large numbers of irregular polyhedra. Another concern is that joint stiffness in such explicit computations requires significantly reduced time steps, with negative implications for both the efficiency and quality of the numerical solution. An alternative approach is to use non-conforming meshes and embed joint information into regular computational elements. However, once slip displacement on the joints become comparable to the zone size, Lagrangian (even non-conforming) meshes could suffer from tangling and decreased time step problems. The use of non-conforming meshes in an Eulerian solver may alleviate these difficulties and provide a viable numerical approach for modeling the effects of faults on the dynamic response of geologic materials. We studied shock propagation in jointed/faulted media using a Lagrangian and two Eulerian approaches. To investigate the accuracy of this joint treatment the GEODYN calculations have been compared with results from the Lagrangian code GEODYN-L which uses an explicit treatment of joints via common plane contact. We explore two approaches to joint treatment in the code, one for joints with finite thickness and the other for tight joints. In all cases the sliding interfaces are tracked explicitly without homogenization or blending the joint and block response into an average response. In general, rock joints will introduce an increase in normal compliance in addition to a reduction in shear strength. In the
A Model for Axial Magnetic Bearings Including Eddy Currents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kucera, Ladislav; Ahrens, Markus
1996-01-01
This paper presents an analytical method of modelling eddy currents inside axial bearings. The problem is solved by dividing an axial bearing into elementary geometric forms, solving the Maxwell equations for these simplified geometries, defining boundary conditions and combining the geometries. The final result is an analytical solution for the flux, from which the impedance and the force of an axial bearing can be derived. Several impedance measurements have shown that the analytical solution can fit the measured data with a precision of approximately 5%.
Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Salo, Benny; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, N Kenneth
2011-06-01
An association between childhood gender atypical behaviour (GAB) and a negative parent-child relationship has been demonstrated in several studies, yet the causal relationship of this association is not fully understood. In the present study, different models of causation between childhood GAB and parent-child relationships were tested. Direction of causation modelling was applied to twin data from a population-based sample (n= 2,565) of Finnish 33- to 43-year-old twins. Participants completed retrospective self-report questionnaires. Five different models of causation were then fitted to the data: GAB → parent-child relationship, parent-child relationship → GAB, reciprocal causation, a bivariate genetic model, and a model assuming no correlation. It was found that a model in which GAB and quality of mother-child, and father-child relationship reciprocally affect each other best fitted the data. The findings are discussed in light of how we should understand, including causality, the association between GAB and parent-child relationship.
Modelers and policymakers : improving the relationships.
Karas, Thomas H.
2004-06-01
On April 22 and 23, 2004, a diverse group of 14 policymakers, modelers, analysts, and scholars met with some 22 members of the Sandia National Laboratories staff to explores ways in which the relationships between modelers and policymakers in the energy and environment fields (with an emphasis on energy) could be made more productive for both. This report is not a transcription of that workshop, but draws very heavily on its proceedings. It first describes the concept of modeling, the varying ways in which models are used to support policymaking, and the institutional context for those uses. It then proposes that the goal of modelers and policymakers should be a relationship of mutual trust, built on a foundation of communication, supported by the twin pillars of policy relevance and technical credibility. The report suggests 20 guidelines to help modelers improve the relationship, followed by 10 guidelines to help policymakers toward the same goal.
Global model including multistep ionizations in helium plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Seung-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook
2016-12-01
Particle and power balance equations including stepwise ionizations are derived and solved in helium plasmas. In the balance equations, two metastable states (21S1 in singlet and 23S1 triplet) are considered and the followings are obtained. The plasma density linearly increases and the electron temperature is relatively in a constant value against the absorbed power. It is also found that the contribution to multi-step ionization with respect to the single-step ionization is in the range of 8%-23%, as the gas pressure increases from 10 mTorr to 100 mTorr. Compared to the results in the argon plasma, there is little variation in the collisional energy loss per electron-ion pair created (ɛc) with absorbed power and gas pressure due to the small collision cross section and higher inelastic collision threshold energy.
Human sperm chromatin stabilization: a proposed model including zinc bridges.
Björndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik
2010-01-01
The primary focus of this review is to challenge the current concepts on sperm chromatin stability. The observations (i) that zinc depletion at ejaculation allows a rapid and total sperm chromatin decondensation without the addition of exogenous disulfide cleaving agents and (ii) that the human sperm chromatin contains one zinc for every protamine for every turn of the DNA helix suggest an alternative model for sperm chromatin structure may be plausible. An alternative model is therefore proposed, that the human spermatozoon could at ejaculation have a rapidly reversible zinc dependent chromatin stability: Zn(2+) stabilizes the structure and prevents the formation of excess disulfide bridges by a single mechanism, the formation of zinc bridges with protamine thiols of cysteine and potentially imidazole groups of histidine. Extraction of zinc enables two biologically totally different outcomes: immediate decondensation if chromatin fibers are concomitantly induced to repel (e.g. by phosphorylation in the ooplasm); otherwise freed thiols become committed into disulfide bridges creating a superstabilized chromatin. Spermatozoa in the zinc rich prostatic fluid (normally the first expelled ejaculate fraction) represent the physiological situation. Extraction of chromatin zinc can be accomplished by the seminal vesicular fluid. Collection of the ejaculate in one single container causes abnormal contact between spermatozoa and seminal vesicular fluid affecting the sperm chromatin stability. There are men in infertile couples with low content of sperm chromatin zinc due to loss of zinc during ejaculation and liquefaction. Tests for sperm DNA integrity may give false negative results due to decreased access for the assay to the DNA in superstabilized chromatin.
Inelastic deformation and phenomenological modeling of aluminum including transient effect
Cho, C.W.
1980-01-01
A review was made of several phenomenological theories which have recently been proposed to describe the inelastic deformation of crystalline solids. Hart's deformation theory has many advantages, but there are disagreements with experimental deformation at stress levels below yield. A new inelastic deformation theory was proposed, introducing the concept of microplasticity. The new model consists of five deformation elements: a friction element representing a deformation element controlled by dislocation glide, a nonrecoverable plastic element representing the dislocation leakage rate over the strong dislocation barriers, a microplastic element representing the dislocation leakage rate over the weak barriers, a short range anelastic spring element representing the recoverable anelastic strain stored by piled-up dislocations against the weak barriers, and a long range anelastic spring element representing the recoverable strain stored by piled-up dislocations against the strong barriers. Load relaxation and tensile testing in the plastic range were used to determine the material parameters for the plastic friction elements. The short range and long range anelastic moduli and the material parameters for the kinetics of microplasticity were determined by the measurement of anelastic loops and by performing load relaxation tests in the microplastic region. Experimental results were compared with a computer simulation of the transient deformation behavior of commercial purity aluminum. An attempt was made to correlate the material parameters and the microstructure from TEM. Stability of material parameters during inelastic deformation was discussed and effect of metallurgical variables was examined experimentally. 71 figures, 5 tables.
Elastic lattice modelling of seismic waves including a free surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O`Brien, Gareth S.
2014-06-01
Elastic lattice methods (ELMs) have been shown to accurately model seismic wave propagation in a heterogeneous medium. These methods represent an elastic solid as a series of interconnected springs arranged on a lattice and recover a continuum wave equation in the long wavelength limit. However, in the case of a regular lattice, the recovery of the continuum equation depends on the symmetry of the lattice. By removing particles above a free surface this symmetry is broken. Therefore, this free surface implementation leads to errors when compared with a traction free boundary condition. The error between a traction free boundary condition and the ELMs grows as the Poisson's ratio deviates from 0.25. By modifying the interaction constants with a scalar, the error can be reduced while keeping the flexibility of the nearest neighbour interaction rule. We present results of simulations where modified spring constants reduce the misfit with a traction free boundary solution and hence increase the accuracy of the elastic lattice method solution on the free surface.
Probabilistic constitutive relationships for cyclic material strength models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyce, L.; Chamis, C. C.
1988-01-01
A methodology is developed that provides a probabilistic treatment for the lifetime of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to fatigue. Material strength degradation models, based on primitive variables, include both a fatigue strength reduction model and a fatigue crack growth model. Probabilistic analysis is based on simulation, and both maximum entropy and maximum penalized likelihood methods are used for the generation of probability density functions. The resulting constitutive relationships are included in several computer programs.
A generic model of dyadic social relationships.
Favre, Maroussia; Sornette, Didier
2015-01-01
We introduce a model of dyadic social interactions and establish its correspondence with relational models theory (RMT), a theory of human social relationships. RMT posits four elementary models of relationships governing human interactions, singly or in combination: Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing. To these are added the limiting cases of asocial and null interactions, whereby people do not coordinate with reference to any shared principle. Our model is rooted in the observation that each individual in a dyadic interaction can do either the same thing as the other individual, a different thing or nothing at all. To represent these three possibilities, we consider two individuals that can each act in one out of three ways toward the other: perform a social action X or Y, or alternatively do nothing. We demonstrate that the relationships generated by this model aggregate into six exhaustive and disjoint categories. We propose that four of these categories match the four relational models, while the remaining two correspond to the asocial and null interactions defined in RMT. We generalize our results to the presence of N social actions. We infer that the four relational models form an exhaustive set of all possible dyadic relationships based on social coordination. Hence, we contribute to RMT by offering an answer to the question of why there could exist just four relational models. In addition, we discuss how to use our representation to analyze data sets of dyadic social interactions, and how social actions may be valued and matched by the agents.
Relationship of sea level muon charge ratio to primary composition including nuclear target effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goned, A.; Shalaby, M.; Salem, A. M.; Roushdy, M.
1985-01-01
The discrepancy between the muon charge ratio observed at low energies and that calculated using pp data is removed by including nuclear target effects. Calculations at high energies show that the primary iron spectrum is expected to change slope from 2 to 2.2 to 2.4 to 2.5 for energies approx. 4 x 10 to the 3 GeV/nucleon if scaling features continue to the highest energies.
A Generic Model of Dyadic Social Relationships
Favre, Maroussia; Sornette, Didier
2015-01-01
We introduce a model of dyadic social interactions and establish its correspondence with relational models theory (RMT), a theory of human social relationships. RMT posits four elementary models of relationships governing human interactions, singly or in combination: Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing. To these are added the limiting cases of asocial and null interactions, whereby people do not coordinate with reference to any shared principle. Our model is rooted in the observation that each individual in a dyadic interaction can do either the same thing as the other individual, a different thing or nothing at all. To represent these three possibilities, we consider two individuals that can each act in one out of three ways toward the other: perform a social action X or Y, or alternatively do nothing. We demonstrate that the relationships generated by this model aggregate into six exhaustive and disjoint categories. We propose that four of these categories match the four relational models, while the remaining two correspond to the asocial and null interactions defined in RMT. We generalize our results to the presence of N social actions. We infer that the four relational models form an exhaustive set of all possible dyadic relationships based on social coordination. Hence, we contribute to RMT by offering an answer to the question of why there could exist just four relational models. In addition, we discuss how to use our representation to analyze data sets of dyadic social interactions, and how social actions may be valued and matched by the agents. PMID:25826403
A Mercury orientation model including non-zero obliquity and librations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margot, Jean-Luc
2009-12-01
Planetary orientation models describe the orientation of the spin axis and prime meridian of planets in inertial space as a function of time. The models are required for the planning and execution of Earth-based or space-based observational work, e.g. to compute viewing geometries and to tie observations to planetary coordinate systems. The current orientation model for Mercury is inadequate because it uses an obsolete spin orientation, neglects oscillations in the spin rate called longitude librations, and relies on a prime meridian that no longer reflects its intended dynamical significance. These effects result in positional errors on the surface of ~1.5 km in latitude and up to several km in longitude, about two orders of magnitude larger than the finest image resolution currently attainable. Here we present an updated orientation model which incorporates modern values of the spin orientation, includes a formulation for longitude librations, and restores the dynamical significance to the prime meridian. We also use modern values of the orbit normal, spin axis orientation, and precession rates to quantify an important relationship between the obliquity and moment of inertia differences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelkar, S.; Karra, S.; Pawar, R. J.; Zyvoloski, G.
2012-12-01
There has been an increasing interest in the recent years in developing computational tools for analyzing coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical (THM) processes that occur in geological porous media. This is mainly due to their importance in applications including carbon sequestration, enhanced geothermal systems, oil and gas production from unconventional sources, degradation of Arctic permafrost, and nuclear waste isolation. Large changes in pressures, temperatures and saturation can result due to injection/withdrawal of fluids or emplaced heat sources. These can potentially lead to large changes in the fluid flow and mechanical behavior of the formation, including shear and tensile failure on pre-existing or induced fractures and the associated permeability changes. Due to this, plastic deformation and large changes in material properties such as permeability and porosity can be expected to play an important role in these processes. We describe a general purpose computational code FEHM that has been developed for the purpose of modeling coupled THM processes during multi-phase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code uses a continuum mechanics approach, based on control volume - finite element method. It is designed to address spatial scales on the order of tens of centimeters to tens of kilometers. While large deformations are important in many situations, we have adapted the small strain formulation as useful insight can be obtained in many problems of practical interest with this approach while remaining computationally manageable. Nonlinearities in the equations and the material properties are handled using a full Jacobian Newton-Raphson technique. Stress-strain relationships are assumed to follow linear elastic/plastic behavior. The code incorporates several plasticity models such as von Mises, Drucker-Prager, and also a large suite of models for coupling flow and mechanical deformation via permeability and stresses
Internal Representational Models of Attachment Relationships.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crittenden, Patricia M.
This paper outlines several properties of internal representational models (IRMs) and offers terminology that may help to differentiate the models. Properties of IRMs include focus, memory systems, content, cognitive function, "metastructure," quality of attachment, behavioral strategies, and attitude toward attachment. An IRM focuses on…
Supervisor's Interactive Model of Organizational Relationships
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John; McCaw, William P.
2014-01-01
The Supervisor's Interactive Model of Organizational Relationships (SIMOR) integrates two models addressed in the leadership literature and then highlights the importance of relationships. The Supervisor's Interactive Model of Organizational Relationships combines the modified Hersey and Blanchard model of situational leadership, the…
A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Kathleen Currie
2009-01-01
This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hambric, Stephen A.; Hanford, Amanda D.; Shepherd, Micah R.; Campbell, Robert L.; Smith, Edward C.
2010-01-01
A computational approach for simulating the effects of rolling element and journal bearings on the vibration and sound transmission through gearboxes has been demonstrated. The approach, using ARL/Penn State s CHAMP methodology, uses Component Mode Synthesis of housing and shafting modes computed using Finite Element (FE) models to allow for rapid adjustment of bearing impedances in gearbox models. The approach has been demonstrated on NASA GRC s test gearbox with three different bearing configurations: in the first condition, traditional rolling element (ball and roller) bearings were installed, and in the second and third conditions, the traditional bearings were replaced with journal and wave bearings (wave bearings are journal bearings with a multi-lobed wave pattern on the bearing surface). A methodology for computing the stiffnesses and damping in journal and wave bearings has been presented, and demonstrated for the journal and wave bearings used in the NASA GRC test gearbox. The FE model of the gearbox, along with the rolling element bearing coupling impedances, was analyzed to compute dynamic transfer functions between forces applied to the meshing gears and accelerations on the gearbox housing, including several locations near the bearings. A Boundary Element (BE) acoustic model was used to compute the sound radiated by the gearbox. Measurements of the Gear Mesh Frequency (GMF) tones were made by NASA GRC at several operational speeds for the rolling element and journal bearing gearbox configurations. Both the measurements and the CHAMP numerical model indicate that the journal bearings reduce vibration and noise for the second harmonic of the gear meshing tones, but show no clear benefit to using journal bearings to reduce the amplitudes of the fundamental gear meshing tones. Also, the numerical model shows that the gearbox vibrations and radiated sound are similar for journal and wave bearing configurations.
A simple model clarifies the complicated relationships of complex networks
Zheng, Bojin; Wu, Hongrun; Kuang, Li; Qin, Jun; Du, Wenhua; Wang, Jianmin; Li, Deyi
2014-01-01
Real-world networks such as the Internet and WWW have many common traits. Until now, hundreds of models were proposed to characterize these traits for understanding the networks. Because different models used very different mechanisms, it is widely believed that these traits origin from different causes. However, we find that a simple model based on optimisation can produce many traits, including scale-free, small-world, ultra small-world, Delta-distribution, compact, fractal, regular and random networks. Moreover, by revising the proposed model, the community-structure networks are generated. By this model and the revised versions, the complicated relationships of complex networks are illustrated. The model brings a new universal perspective to the understanding of complex networks and provide a universal method to model complex networks from the viewpoint of optimisation. PMID:25160506
Modeling time-lagged reciprocal psychological empowerment-performance relationships.
Maynard, M Travis; Luciano, Margaret M; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Mathieu, John E; Dean, Matthew D
2014-11-01
Employee psychological empowerment is widely accepted as a means for organizations to compete in increasingly dynamic environments. Previous empirical research and meta-analyses have demonstrated that employee psychological empowerment is positively related to several attitudinal and behavioral outcomes including job performance. While this research positions psychological empowerment as an antecedent influencing such outcomes, a close examination of the literature reveals that this relationship is primarily based on cross-sectional research. Notably, evidence supporting the presumed benefits of empowerment has failed to account for potential reciprocal relationships and endogeneity effects. Accordingly, using a multiwave, time-lagged design, we model reciprocal relationships between psychological empowerment and job performance using a sample of 441 nurses from 5 hospitals. Incorporating temporal effects in a staggered research design and using structural equation modeling techniques, our findings provide support for the conventional positive correlation between empowerment and subsequent performance. Moreover, accounting for the temporal stability of variables over time, we found support for empowerment levels as positive influences on subsequent changes in performance. Finally, we also found support for the reciprocal relationship, as performance levels were shown to relate positively to changes in empowerment over time. Theoretical and practical implications of the reciprocal psychological empowerment-performance relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Couple Infertility: From the Perspective of the Close-Relationship Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, Barbara S.
1990-01-01
Presents Close-Relationship Model as comprehensive framework in which to examine interrelated nature of causes and effects of infertility on marital relationship. Includes these factors: physical and psychological characteristics of both partners; joint, couple characteristics; physical and social environment; and relationship itself. Discusses…
Similitude requirements and scaling relationships as applied to model testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolowicz, C. H.; Brown, J. S., Jr.; Gilbert, W. P.
1979-01-01
The similitude requirements for the most general test conditions are presented. These similitude requirements are considered in relation to the scaling relationships, test technique, test conditions (including supersonic flow), and test objectives. Particular emphasis is placed on satisfying the various similitude requirements for incompressible and compressible flow conditions. For free flying models tests, the test velocities for incompressible flow are scaled from Froude number similitude requirements and those for compressible flow are scaled from Mach number similitude requirements. The limitations of various test techniques are indicated, with emphasis on the free flying model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabrielle, B.; Gagnaire, N.; Massad, R.; Prieur, V.; Python, Y.
2012-04-01
. Compared to the standard methodology currently used in LCA, based on fixed emissions for N2O, the use of model-derived estimates leads to a 10 to 40% reduction in the overall life-cycle GHG emissions of biofuels. This emphasizes the importance of regional factors in the relationship between agricultural inputs and emissions (altogether with biomass yields) in the outcome of LCAs. When excluding indirect land-use change effects (iLUC), 1st generation pathways enabled GHG savings ranging from 50 to 73% compared to fossile-derived equivalents, while this figure reached 88% for 2nd generation bioethanol from miscanthus. Including iLUC reduced the savings to less than 5% for bio-diesel from rapeseed, 10 to 45% for 1st generation bioethanol and to 60% for miscanthus. These figures apply to the year 2007 and should be extended to a larger number of years, but the magnitude of N2O emissions was similar between 2007, 2008 and 2009 over the Ile de France region.
Comparing estimates of genetic variance across different relationship models.
Legarra, Andres
2016-02-01
Use of relationships between individuals to estimate genetic variances and heritabilities via mixed models is standard practice in human, plant and livestock genetics. Different models or information for relationships may give different estimates of genetic variances. However, comparing these estimates across different relationship models is not straightforward as the implied base populations differ between relationship models. In this work, I present a method to compare estimates of variance components across different relationship models. I suggest referring genetic variances obtained using different relationship models to the same reference population, usually a set of individuals in the population. Expected genetic variance of this population is the estimated variance component from the mixed model times a statistic, Dk, which is the average self-relationship minus the average (self- and across-) relationship. For most typical models of relationships, Dk is close to 1. However, this is not true for very deep pedigrees, for identity-by-state relationships, or for non-parametric kernels, which tend to overestimate the genetic variance and the heritability. Using mice data, I show that heritabilities from identity-by-state and kernel-based relationships are overestimated. Weighting these estimates by Dk scales them to a base comparable to genomic or pedigree relationships, avoiding wrong comparisons, for instance, "missing heritabilities".
Farrance, Ian; Frenkel, Robert
2014-02-01
The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (usually referred to as the GUM) provides the basic framework for evaluating uncertainty in measurement. The GUM however does not always provide clearly identifiable procedures suitable for medical laboratory applications, particularly when internal quality control (IQC) is used to derive most of the uncertainty estimates. The GUM modelling approach requires advanced mathematical skills for many of its procedures, but Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be used as an alternative for many medical laboratory applications. In particular, calculations for determining how uncertainties in the input quantities to a functional relationship propagate through to the output can be accomplished using a readily available spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The MCS procedure uses algorithmically generated pseudo-random numbers which are then forced to follow a prescribed probability distribution. When IQC data provide the uncertainty estimates the normal (Gaussian) distribution is generally considered appropriate, but MCS is by no means restricted to this particular case. With input variations simulated by random numbers, the functional relationship then provides the corresponding variations in the output in a manner which also provides its probability distribution. The MCS procedure thus provides output uncertainty estimates without the need for the differential equations associated with GUM modelling. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ease with which Microsoft Excel (or a similar spreadsheet) can be used to provide an uncertainty estimate for measurands derived through a functional relationship. In addition, we also consider the relatively common situation where an empirically derived formula includes one or more 'constants', each of which has an empirically derived numerical value. Such empirically derived 'constants' must also have associated uncertainties which propagate through the functional relationship
The Lag Model, a Turbulence Model for Wall Bounded Flows Including Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, Michael E.; Coakley, Thomas J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A new class of turbulence model is described for wall bounded, high Reynolds number flows. A specific turbulence model is demonstrated, with results for favorable and adverse pressure gradient flowfields. Separation predictions are as good or better than either Spalart Almaras or SST models, do not require specification of wall distance, and have similar or reduced computational effort compared with these models.
Organizational Models of Medical School Relationships to the Clinical Enterprise.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Culbertson, Richard A.; And Others
1996-01-01
Analyzed existing relationships between medical schools and clinical enterprises to develop models of these relationships. Four conceptual models were identified: (1) "single ownership, owned integrated system"; (2) "general partner"; (3) "limited partner"; and (4) "wholly owned, subsidiary." The advantages and disadvantages of each model are…
GAMMA-400 Space Gamma-telescope Mathematical Model with Engineering Elements Included
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chasovikov, E. N.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Perfil`ev, A. A.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Galper, A. M.; Topchiev, N. P.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Kheymits, M. D.; Yurkin, Yu. T.
Mathematical model creation is a necessary stage in scientific apparatus development. The mathematical model of gamma-ray telescope GAMMA-400 is used to emulate transport of various elementary particles through the apparatus. The new iteration of the model is based on precise technical drawings and includes all the elements of the real gamma-telescope. It is created in Geant4 environment. This model allows calculation of energy deposition not only in detectors, but in any part of the apparatus, including construction elements. Moreover, it supports creation of virtual sensitive volumes, allowing determination of the number and properties of particles passing through an arbitrary part of the construction. Software for automated creation of Geant4 model based on technical drawings in STEP 3D Model format was developed. This software is capable of making models of other apparatus based particularly on scintillation and strip detectors.
A finite element model of the face including an orthotropic skin model under in vivo tension.
Flynn, Cormac; Stavness, Ian; Lloyd, John; Fels, Sidney
2015-01-01
Computer models of the human face have the potential to be used as powerful tools in surgery simulation and animation development applications. While existing models accurately represent various anatomical features of the face, the representation of the skin and soft tissues is very simplified. A computer model of the face is proposed in which the skin is represented by an orthotropic hyperelastic constitutive model. The in vivo tension inherent in skin is also represented in the model. The model was tested by simulating several facial expressions by activating appropriate orofacial and jaw muscles. Previous experiments calculated the change in orientation of the long axis of elliptical wounds on patients' faces for wide opening of the mouth and an open-mouth smile (both 30(o)). These results were compared with the average change of maximum principal stress direction in the skin calculated in the face model for wide opening of the mouth (18(o)) and an open-mouth smile (25(o)). The displacements of landmarks on the face for four facial expressions were compared with experimental measurements in the literature. The corner of the mouth in the model experienced the largest displacement for each facial expression (∼11-14 mm). The simulated landmark displacements were within a standard deviation of the measured displacements. Increasing the skin stiffness and skin tension generally resulted in a reduction in landmark displacements upon facial expression.
Hot DA white dwarf model atmosphere calculations: including improved Ni PI cross-sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preval, S. P.; Barstow, M. A.; Badnell, N. R.; Hubeny, I.; Holberg, J. B.
2017-02-01
To calculate realistic models of objects with Ni in their atmospheres, accurate atomic data for the relevant ionization stages need to be included in model atmosphere calculations. In the context of white dwarf stars, we investigate the effect of changing the Ni IV-VI bound-bound and bound-free atomic data on model atmosphere calculations. Models including photoionization cross-section (PICS) calculated with AUTOSTRUCTURE show significant flux attenuation of up to ˜80 per cent shortward of 180 Å in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region compared to a model using hydrogenic PICS. Comparatively, models including a larger set of Ni transitions left the EUV, UV, and optical continua unaffected. We use models calculated with permutations of these atomic data to test for potential changes to measured metal abundances of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS were found to change the abundances of N and O by as much as ˜22 per cent compared to models using hydrogenic PICS, but heavier species were relatively unaffected. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS caused the abundances of N/O IV and V to diverge. This is because the increased opacity in the AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS model causes these charge states to form higher in the atmosphere, more so for N/O V. Models using an extended line list caused significant changes to the Ni IV-V abundances. While both PICS and an extended line list cause changes in both synthetic spectra and measured abundances, the biggest changes are caused by using AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS for Ni.
Ray, Amrita; Weeks, Daniel E
2008-05-01
Linkage analysis programs invariably assume that the stated familial relationships are correct. Thus, it is common practice to resolve relationship errors by either discarding individuals with erroneous relationships or using an inferred alternative pedigree structure. These approaches are less than ideal because discarding data is wasteful and using inferred data can be statistically unsound. We have developed two linkage statistics that model relationship uncertainty by weighting over the possible true relationships. Simulations of data containing relationship errors were used to assess our statistics and compare them to the maximum-likelihood statistic (MLS) and the Sall non-parametric LOD score using true and discarded (where problematic individuals with erroneous relationships are discarded from the pedigree) structures. We simulated both small pedigree (SP) and large pedigree (LP) data sets typed genome-wide. Both data sets have several underlying true relationships; SP has one apparent relationship--full sibling--and LP has several different apparent relationship types. The results show that for both SP and LP, our relationship uncertainty linkage statistics (RULS) have power nearly as high as the MLS and Sall using the true structure. Also, the RULS have greater power to detect linkage than the MLS and Sall using the discarded structure. For example, for the SP data set and a dominant disease model, both the RULS had power of about 93%, while Sall and MLS have 90% and 83% power on the discarded structure. Thus, our RULS provide a statistically sound and powerful approach to the commonly encountered problem of relationship errors.
A Relationship-Building Model for the Web Retail Marketplace.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Fang; Head, Milena; Archer, Norm
2000-01-01
Discusses the effects of the Web on marketing practices. Introduces the concept and theory of relationship marketing. The relationship network concept, which typically is only applied to the business-to-business market, is discussed within the business-to-consumer market, and a new relationship-building model for the Web marketplace is proposed.…
Modeling species-abundance relationships in multi-species collections
Peng, S.; Yin, Z.; Ren, H.; Guo, Q.
2003-01-01
Species-abundance relationship is one of the most fundamental aspects of community ecology. Since Motomura first developed the geometric series model to describe the feature of community structure, ecologists have developed many other models to fit the species-abundance data in communities. These models can be classified into empirical and theoretical ones, including (1) statistical models, i.e., negative binomial distribution (and its extension), log-series distribution (and its extension), geometric distribution, lognormal distribution, Poisson-lognormal distribution, (2) niche models, i.e., geometric series, broken stick, overlapping niche, particulate niche, random assortment, dominance pre-emption, dominance decay, random fraction, weighted random fraction, composite niche, Zipf or Zipf-Mandelbrot model, and (3) dynamic models describing community dynamics and restrictive function of environment on community. These models have different characteristics and fit species-abundance data in various communities or collections. Among them, log-series distribution, lognormal distribution, geometric series, and broken stick model have been most widely used.
Extension of the ADC Charge-Collection Model to Include Multiple Junctions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, Larry D.
2011-01-01
The ADC model is a charge-collection model derived for simple p-n junction silicon diodes having a single reverse-biased p-n junction at one end and an ideal substrate contact at the other end. The present paper extends the model to include multiple junctions, and the goal is to estimate how collected charge is shared by the different junctions.
Gerlock, April A; Grimesey, Jackie; Sayre, George
2014-07-01
The protracted conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan and an all-volunteer military has resulted in multiple war zone deployments for many service members. While quick redeployment turnaround has left little time for readjustment for either the service member or family, dealing with the long-term sequelae of combat exposure often leaves families and intimate partners ill-prepared for years after deployments. Using a modified grounded theory approach, digitally recorded couple interviews of 23 couples were purposefully selected from a larger sample of 441 couples to better understand the impact of war zone deployment on the couple. The veteran sample was recruited from a randomly selected cohort of men in treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Overall, it was found when veterans experiencing deployment-related PTSD reenter or start new intimate relationships they may bring with them a unique cluster of interrelated issues which include PTSD symptoms, physical impairment, high rates of alcohol and/or drug abuse, and psychological and physical aggression. These factors contributed to a dynamic of exacerbating conflict. How these couples approached relationship qualities of mutuality, balanced locus of control and weakness tolerance across six axes of caregiving, disability, responsibility, trauma, communication, and community impacted the couple's capacity to communicate and resolve conflict. This dyadic relationship model is used to help inform implications for clinical practice.
Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.
2015-11-01
In the Mediterranean region, climate and land use change are expected to impact on natural and agricultural ecosystems by warming, reduced rainfall, direct degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity loss. Human population growth and socioeconomic changes, notably on the eastern and southern shores, will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land - LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development paves the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments of the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.
Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.
2015-06-01
Climate and land use change in the Mediterranean region is expected to affect natural and agricultural ecosystems by decreases in precipitation, increases in temperature as well as biodiversity loss and anthropogenic degradation of natural resources. Demographic growth in the Eastern and Southern shores will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development pave the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments on the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.
Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping
2015-09-22
A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cancer via fixed- or random-effect models. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed as well. The pooled OR estimates of the included studies illustrated that night shift work was correlated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.318, 95% CI 1.121-1.551). No evidence of publication bias was detected. In the dose-response analysis, the rate of colorectal cancer increased by 11% for every 5 years increased in night shift work (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that night shift work was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.
Including operational data in QMRA model: development and impact of model inputs.
Jaidi, Kenza; Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Desjardins, Raymond; Prévost, Michèle
2009-03-01
A Monte Carlo model, based on the Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis approach (QMRA), has been developed to assess the relative risks of infection associated with the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water. The impact of various approaches for modelling the initial parameters of the model on the final risk assessments is evaluated. The Monte Carlo simulations that we performed showed that the occurrence of parasites in raw water was best described by a mixed distribution: log-Normal for concentrations > detection limit (DL), and a uniform distribution for concentrations < DL. The selection of process performance distributions for modelling the performance of treatment (filtration and ozonation) influences the estimated risks significantly. The mean annual risks for conventional treatment are: 1.97E-03 (removal credit adjusted by log parasite = log spores), 1.58E-05 (log parasite = 1.7 x log spores) or 9.33E-03 (regulatory credits based on the turbidity measurement in filtered water). Using full scale validated SCADA data, the simplified calculation of CT performed at the plant was shown to largely underestimate the risk relative to a more detailed CT calculation, which takes into consideration the downtime and system failure events identified at the plant (1.46E-03 vs. 3.93E-02 for the mean risk).
Including latent and sensible heat fluxes from sea spray in global weather and climate models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Copsey, Dan
2016-04-01
Most standard weather and climate models calculate interfacial latent (evaporation) and sensible heat fluxes over the ocean based on parameterisations of atmospheric turbulence, using the wave state only in the calculation of surface roughness length. They ignore latent and sensible heat fluxes generated by sea spray, which is an acceptable assumption at low wind speeds. However at high wind speeds (> 15 m/s) a significant amount of sea spray is generated from the sea surface which, while airborne, cools to an equilibrium temperature, absorbs heat and releases moisture before re-impacting the sea surface. This could impact, for example, the total heat loss from the Southern Ocean (which is anomalously warm in Met Office coupled models) or the accuracy of tropical cyclone forecasts. A modified version of the Fairall sea spray parameterisation scheme has been tested in the Met Office Unified Model including the JULES surface exchange model in both climate and NWP mode. The fast part of the scheme models the temperature change of the droplets to an equilibrium temperature and the slow part of the scheme models the evaporation and heat absorption while the droplets remain airborne. Including this scheme in the model cools and moistens the near surface layers of the atmosphere during high wind events, including tropical cyclones. Sea spray goes on to increase the convection intensity and precipitation near the high wind events in the model.
Including Tropical Croplands in a Terrestrial Biosphere Model: Application to West Africa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berg, A.; Sultan, B.; de Noblet, N.
2008-12-01
Studying the large-scale relationships between climate and agriculture raises two different issues: the impact of climate on crops, and the potential feedbacks to climate from croplands. A relevant framework to consistently address this twofold issue is to extend existing Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, which can be coupled to climate models, in order to explicitly account for croplands. Here we present the first results of such a strategy applied to tropical croplands over West Africa. We introduce directly into the terrestrial biosphere model ORCHIDEE (IPSL) adequate processes and parametrizations taken from the crop model SARRAH (CIRAD), which is calibrated for millet over this region. The resulting model, ORCH-mil, realistically simulates the growth and yield of millet when tested on an experimental station in Senegal. The model is then applied over West Africa using a 36-year climate reanalysis dataset. First the model is tested in terms of yield simulation, against national millet yields from the FAO database. The ability of the model to reproduce the spatial and temporal variability of millet yields is assessed. Then, the effects on land surface fluxes of explicitly accounting for croplands are examined, by comparison between ORCH-mil and ORCHIDEE. These first simulations show consistent results, but underline the need for some further development and validation of the model if it is to simulate yields accurately. In terms of land surface fluxes, significant differences between ORCH-mil and ORCHIDEE appear, mainly via changes in evaporation and albedo. The potential impact on the west African monsoon system of such differences needs to be investigated by coupling ORCH-mil to a climate model: first results from such an experiment will be presented.
Prospects for genetically modified non-human primate models, including the common marmoset.
Sasaki, Erika
2015-04-01
Genetically modified mice have contributed much to studies in the life sciences. In some research fields, however, mouse models are insufficient for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of pathology or as disease models. Often, genetically modified non-human primate (NHP) models are desired, as they are more similar to human physiology, morphology, and anatomy. Recent progress in studies of the reproductive biology in NHPs has enabled the introduction of exogenous genes into NHP genomes or the alteration of endogenous NHP genes. This review summarizes recent progress in the production of genetically modified NHPs, including the common marmoset, and future perspectives for realizing genetically modified NHP models for use in life sciences research.
Control of deformable mirrors including a nonlinear modal model for air gap damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böhm, Michael; Sawodny, Oliver
2016-09-01
In this paper, we present nonlinear pressure dynamics as an extension to a linear distributed parameters model of a deformable mirror. The original, undamped model is recalled and measurement results are shown supporting the need for a damping model which includes the pressure dynamics of the air gap behind the mirror membrane. We will derive the damping coefficients to match our measurement results. Based on the mew model, we will derive a modal feedforward and feedback control law for 88 actuators based on only 3 position sensors and show simulation results to support the algorithm's effectiveness.
a Better Description of Liquid Jet Breakup Using a Spatial Model Including Viscous Effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammerschlag, William Brian
Theoretical models describing the operation and disintegration of a liquid jet are often based on an approximate solution of an inviscid jet in the temporal frame of reference. These models provide only a fair first order prediction of growth rate and breakoff length, and are based solely on a surface tension induced instability. A spatial model yielding jet growth rate and including both jet and surrounding atmosphere viscosity and density is now developed. This model is seen to reproduce all the features and limitations of the Weber viscous jet theory. When tested against experiments of water, water and glycerol mixes and binary eutectic tin/lead solder, only fair agreement is observed.
Data Base Design Using Entity-Relationship Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Kathi Hogshead
1983-01-01
The entity-relationship (ER) approach to database design is defined, and a specific example of an ER model (personnel-payroll) is examined. The requirements for converting ER models into specific database management systems are discussed. (Author/MSE)
Constitutive Relationships and Models in Continuum Theories of Multiphase Flows. [conferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Rand (Editor)
1989-01-01
In April, 1989, a workshop on constitutive relationships and models in continuum theories of multiphase flows was held at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of constitutive relationships for the partial or per phase stresses, including the concept of solid phase pressure are discussed. Models used for the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the phases in a multiphase flow are also discussed. The program, abstracts, and texts of the presentations from the workshop are included.
2012-09-01
climatology dataset. The parameters are the same as for the NOGAPS winds and WW3 sea /swell data. E. BATHYMETRY The OTSR bathymetry data was...model improvements; and ensemble post-processing methods. An SVP trial was also conducted at sea onboard USS PRINCETON (CG-59) with goals of...improvements; and ensemble post-processing methods. An SVP trial was also conducted at sea onboard USS PRINCETON (CG-59) with goals of Concept of Operations
Zhang, Huiyan; Wang, Yun; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Rui
2016-01-01
Lignin is the most difficult to be converted and most easy coking component in biomass catalytic pyrolysis to high-value liquid fuels and chemicals. Catalytic conversion of guaiacol as a lignin model compound was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor over ZSM-5 to investigate its conversion and coking behaviors. The effects of temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and partial pressure on product distribution were studied. The results show the maximum aromatic carbon yield of 28.55% was obtained at temperature of 650 °C, WHSV of 8 h−1 and partial pressure of 2.38 kPa, while the coke carbon yield was 19.55%. The reaction pathway was speculated to be removing methoxy group to form phenols with further aromatization to form aromatics. The amount of coke increased with increasing reaction time. The surface area and acidity of catalysts declined as coke formed on the acid sites and blocked the pore channels, which led to the decrease of aromatic yields. Finally, a kinetic model of guaiacol catalytic conversion considering coke deposition was built based on the above reaction pathway to properly predict product distribution. The experimental and model predicting data agreed well. The correlation coefficient of all equations were all higher than 0.90. PMID:27869228
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Huiyan; Wang, Yun; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Rui
2016-11-01
Lignin is the most difficult to be converted and most easy coking component in biomass catalytic pyrolysis to high-value liquid fuels and chemicals. Catalytic conversion of guaiacol as a lignin model compound was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor over ZSM-5 to investigate its conversion and coking behaviors. The effects of temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and partial pressure on product distribution were studied. The results show the maximum aromatic carbon yield of 28.55% was obtained at temperature of 650 °C, WHSV of 8 h‑1 and partial pressure of 2.38 kPa, while the coke carbon yield was 19.55%. The reaction pathway was speculated to be removing methoxy group to form phenols with further aromatization to form aromatics. The amount of coke increased with increasing reaction time. The surface area and acidity of catalysts declined as coke formed on the acid sites and blocked the pore channels, which led to the decrease of aromatic yields. Finally, a kinetic model of guaiacol catalytic conversion considering coke deposition was built based on the above reaction pathway to properly predict product distribution. The experimental and model predicting data agreed well. The correlation coefficient of all equations were all higher than 0.90.
Nijp, Jelmer J; Metselaar, Klaas; Limpens, Juul; Teutschbein, Claudia; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; Berendse, Frank; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M
2017-02-15
The water content of the topsoil is one of the key factors controlling biogeochemical processes, greenhouse gas emissions and biosphere - atmosphere interactions in many ecosystems, particularly in northern peatlands. In these wetland ecosystems, the water content of the photosynthetic active peatmoss layer is crucial for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration, and is sensitive to future shifts in rainfall and drought characteristics. Current peatland models differ in the degree in which hydrological feedbacks are included, but how this affects peatmoss drought projections is unknown. The aim of this paper was to systematically test whether the level of hydrological detail in models could bias projections of water content and drought stress for peatmoss in northern peatlands using downscaled projections for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in the current (1991-2020) and future climate (2061-2090). We considered four model variants that either include or exclude moss (rain)water storage and peat volume change, as these are two central processes in the hydrological self-regulation of peatmoss carpets. Model performance was validated using field data of a peatland in northern Sweden. Including moss water storage as well as peat volume change resulted in a significant improvement of model performance, despite the extra parameters added. The best performance was achieved if both processes were included. Including moss water storage and peat volume change consistently reduced projected peatmoss drought frequency with >50%, relative to the model excluding both processes. Projected peatmoss drought frequency in the growing season was 17% smaller under future climate than current climate, but was unaffected by including the hydrological self-regulating processes. Our results suggest that ignoring these two fine-scale processes important in hydrological self-regulation of northern peatlands will have large consequences for projected climate change impact on
Robust Programming Problems Based on the Mean-Variance Model Including Uncertainty Factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasuike, Takashi; Ishii, Hiroaki
2009-01-01
This paper considers robust programming problems based on the mean-variance model including uncertainty sets and fuzzy factors. Since these problems are not well-defined problems due to fuzzy factors, it is hard to solve them directly. Therefore, introducing chance constraints, fuzzy goals and possibility measures, the proposed models are transformed into the deterministic equivalent problems. Furthermore, in order to solve these equivalent problems efficiently, the solution method is constructed introducing the mean-absolute deviation and doing the equivalent transformations.
The force-frequency relationship: insights from mathematical modeling.
Puglisi, Jose L; Negroni, Jorge A; Chen-Izu, Ye; Bers, Donald M
2013-03-01
The force-frequency relationship has intrigued researchers since its discovery by Bowditch in 1871. Many attempts have been made to construct mathematical descriptions of this phenomenon, beginning with the simple formulation of Koch-Wesser and Blinks in 1963 to the most sophisticated ones of today. This property of cardiac muscle is amplified by β-adrenergic stimulation, and, in a coordinated way, the neurohumoral state alters both frequency (acting on the sinoatrial node) as well as force generation (modifying ventricular myocytes). This synchronized tuning is needed to meet new metabolic demands. Cardiac modelers have already linked mechanical and electrical activity in their formulations and showed how those activities feedback on each other. However, now it is necessary to include neurological control to have a complete description of heart performance, especially when changes in frequency are involved. Study of arrhythmias (or antiarrhythmic drugs) based on mathematical models should incorporate this effect to make useful predictions or point out potential pharmaceutical targets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan
2014-06-01
Recently, a mathematical model of pandemic influenza was proposed including typical control strategies such as antivirals, vaccination and school closure; and considering explicitly the effects of immunity acquired from the early outbreaks on the ulterior outbreaks of the disease. In such model the algebraic expression for the basic reproduction number (without control strategies) and the effective reproduction number (with control strategies) were derived and numerically estimated. A drawback of this model of pandemic influenza is that it ignores the effects of the differential susceptibility due to immunosuppression and the effects of the complexity of the actual contact networks between individuals. We have developed a generalized model which includes such effects of heterogeneity. Specifically we consider the influence of the air network connectivity in the spread of pandemic influenza and the influence of the immunosuppresion when the population is divided in two immune classes. We use an algebraic expression, namely the Tutte polynomial, to characterize the complexity of the contact network. Until now, The influence of the air network connectivity in the spread of pandemic influenza has been studied numerically, but not algebraic expressions have been used to summarize the level of network complexity. The generalized model proposed here includes the typical control strategies previously mentioned (antivirals, vaccination and school closure) combined with restrictions on travel. For the generalized model the corresponding reproduction numbers will be algebraically computed and the effect of the contact network will be established in terms of the Tutte polynomial of the network.
Modelling total duration of traffic incidents including incident detection and recovery time.
Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil; Shobeirinejad, Ameneh
2014-10-01
Traffic incidents are key contributors to non-recurrent congestion, potentially generating significant delay. Factors that influence the duration of incidents are important to understand so that effective mitigation strategies can be implemented. To identify and quantify the effects of influential factors, a methodology for studying total incident duration based on historical data from an 'integrated database' is proposed. Incident duration models are developed using a selected freeway segment in the Southeast Queensland, Australia network. The models include incident detection and recovery time as components of incident duration. A hazard-based duration modelling approach is applied to model incident duration as a function of a variety of factors that influence traffic incident duration. Parametric accelerated failure time survival models are developed to capture heterogeneity as a function of explanatory variables, with both fixed and random parameters specifications. The analysis reveals that factors affecting incident duration include incident characteristics (severity, type, injury, medical requirements, etc.), infrastructure characteristics (roadway shoulder availability), time of day, and traffic characteristics. The results indicate that event type durations are uniquely different, thus requiring different responses to effectively clear them. Furthermore, the results highlight the presence of unobserved incident duration heterogeneity as captured by the random parameter models, suggesting that additional factors need to be considered in future modelling efforts.
Including nonequilibrium interface kinetics in a continuum model for melting nanoscaled particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Back, Julian M.; McCue, Scott W.; Moroney, Timothy J.
2014-11-01
The melting temperature of a nanoscaled particle is known to decrease as the curvature of the solid-melt interface increases. This relationship is most often modelled by a Gibbs-Thomson law, with the decrease in melting temperature proposed to be a product of the curvature of the solid-melt interface and the surface tension. Such a law must break down for sufficiently small particles, since the curvature becomes singular in the limit that the particle radius vanishes. Furthermore, the use of this law as a boundary condition for a Stefan-type continuum model is problematic because it leads to a physically unrealistic form of mathematical blow-up at a finite particle radius. By numerical simulation, we show that the inclusion of nonequilibrium interface kinetics in the Gibbs-Thomson law regularises the continuum model, so that the mathematical blow up is suppressed. As a result, the solution continues until complete melting, and the corresponding melting temperature remains finite for all time. The results of the adjusted model are consistent with experimental findings of abrupt melting of nanoscaled particles. This small-particle regime appears to be closely related to the problem of melting a superheated particle.
Including nonequilibrium interface kinetics in a continuum model for melting nanoscaled particles.
Back, Julian M; McCue, Scott W; Moroney, Timothy J
2014-11-17
The melting temperature of a nanoscaled particle is known to decrease as the curvature of the solid-melt interface increases. This relationship is most often modelled by a Gibbs-Thomson law, with the decrease in melting temperature proposed to be a product of the curvature of the solid-melt interface and the surface tension. Such a law must break down for sufficiently small particles, since the curvature becomes singular in the limit that the particle radius vanishes. Furthermore, the use of this law as a boundary condition for a Stefan-type continuum model is problematic because it leads to a physically unrealistic form of mathematical blow-up at a finite particle radius. By numerical simulation, we show that the inclusion of nonequilibrium interface kinetics in the Gibbs-Thomson law regularises the continuum model, so that the mathematical blow up is suppressed. As a result, the solution continues until complete melting, and the corresponding melting temperature remains finite for all time. The results of the adjusted model are consistent with experimental findings of abrupt melting of nanoscaled particles. This small-particle regime appears to be closely related to the problem of melting a superheated particle.
Modeling of a hollow-cone liquid spray including droplet collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asheim, J. P.; Kirwan, J. E.; Peters, J. E.
1987-01-01
A spray model is used to determine the characteristics of a hollow-cone water spray injected from a pressure jet swirl atomizer into uniform air flow traveling through a vertical wind tunnel. The model simulates droplets stochastically and accounts for 'drop-drop' effects by permitting droplet collisions which result in coalescence or breakup. This investigation's objectives are to study the model's droplet tracking capabilities with special emphasis placed on the effects of droplet collisions. It is concluded that the collision model's results for droplet velocities agree well with experimental measurements but that droplet trajectory angles are overpredicted. Droplet sizes which are underpredicted by the model when collisions are neglected are still underpredicted when collisions are included although some improvement is noted.
Magnetofluid Simulations of the Global Solar Wind Including Pickup Ions and Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H.
2011-01-01
I will describe a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar wind that takes into account turbulent heating of the wind by velocity and magnetic fluctuations as well as a variety of effects produced by interstellar pickup protons. In this report, the interstellar pickup protons are treated as one fluid and the protons and electrons are treated together as a second fluid. The model equations include a Reynolds decomposition of the plasma velocity and magnetic field into mean and fluctuating quantities, as well as energy transfer from interstellar pickup protons to solar wind protons that results in the deceleration of the solar wind. The model is used to simulate the global steady-state structure of the solar wind in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU. Where possible, the model is compared with Voyager data. Initial results from generalization to a three-fluid model is described elsewhere in this session.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Jeff; Betts, Juan Fernando; Fuller, Chris
2000-01-01
The study of normal impedance of perforated plate acoustic liners including the effect of bias flow was studied. Two impedance models were developed by modeling the internal flows of perforate orifices as infinite tubes with the inclusion of end corrections to handle finite length effects. These models assumed incompressible and compressible flows, respectively, between the far field and the perforate orifice. The incompressible model was used to predict impedance results for perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 5% to 15%. The predicted resistance results showed better agreement with experiments for the higher percent open area samples. The agreement also tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. For perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 1% to 5%, the compressible model was used to predict impedance results. The model predictions were closer to the experimental resistance results for the 2% to 3% open area samples. The predictions tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. The reactance results were well predicted by the models for the higher percent open area, but deteriorated as the percent open area was lowered (5%) and bias flow was increased. A fit was done on the incompressible model to the experimental database. The fit was performed using an optimization routine that found the optimal set of multiplication coefficients to the non-dimensional groups that minimized the least squares slope error between predictions and experiments. The result of the fit indicated that terms not associated with bias flow required a greater degree of correction than the terms associated with the bias flow. This model improved agreement with experiments by nearly 15% for the low percent open area (5%) samples when compared to the unfitted model. The fitted model and the unfitted model performed equally well for the higher percent open area (10% and 15%).
A reduced Iwan model that includes pinning for bolted joint mechanics
Brake, M. R. W.
2016-10-28
Bolted joints are prevalent in most assembled structures; however, predictive models for their behavior do not exist. Calibrated models, such as the Iwan model, are able to predict the response of a jointed structure over a range of excitations once calibrated at a nominal load. The Iwan model, though, is not widely adopted due to the high computational expense of implementation. To address this, an analytical solution of the Iwan model is derived under the hypothesis that for an arbitrary load reversal, there is a new distribution of dry friction elements, which are now stuck, that approximately resemble a scaledmore » version of the original distribution of dry friction elements. The dry friction elements internal to the Iwan model do not have a uniform set of parameters and are described by a distribution of parameters, i.e., which internal dry friction elements are stuck or slipping at a given load, that ultimately governs the behavior of the joint as it transitions from microslip to macroslip. This hypothesis allows the model to require no information from previous loading cycles. Additionally, the model is extended to include the pinning behavior inherent in a bolted joint. Modifications of the resulting framework are discussed to highlight how the constitutive model for friction can be changed (in the case of an Iwan–Stribeck formulation) or how the distribution of dry friction elements can be changed (as is the case for the Iwan plasticity model). Finally, the reduced Iwan plus pinning model is then applied to the Brake–Reuß beam in order to discuss methods to deduce model parameters from experimental data.« less
A reduced Iwan model that includes pinning for bolted joint mechanics
Brake, M. R. W.
2016-10-28
Bolted joints are prevalent in most assembled structures; however, predictive models for their behavior do not exist. Calibrated models, such as the Iwan model, are able to predict the response of a jointed structure over a range of excitations once calibrated at a nominal load. The Iwan model, though, is not widely adopted due to the high computational expense of implementation. To address this, an analytical solution of the Iwan model is derived under the hypothesis that for an arbitrary load reversal, there is a new distribution of dry friction elements, which are now stuck, that approximately resemble a scaled version of the original distribution of dry friction elements. The dry friction elements internal to the Iwan model do not have a uniform set of parameters and are described by a distribution of parameters, i.e., which internal dry friction elements are stuck or slipping at a given load, that ultimately governs the behavior of the joint as it transitions from microslip to macroslip. This hypothesis allows the model to require no information from previous loading cycles. Additionally, the model is extended to include the pinning behavior inherent in a bolted joint. Modifications of the resulting framework are discussed to highlight how the constitutive model for friction can be changed (in the case of an Iwan–Stribeck formulation) or how the distribution of dry friction elements can be changed (as is the case for the Iwan plasticity model). Finally, the reduced Iwan plus pinning model is then applied to the Brake–Reuß beam in order to discuss methods to deduce model parameters from experimental data.
Evaluating Modeled Variables Included in the NOAA Water Vapor Flux Tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darby, L. S.; White, A. B.; Coleman, T.
2015-12-01
The NOAA/ESRL/Physical Sciences Division has a Water Vapor Flux Tool showing observed and forecast meteorological variables related to heavy precipitation. Details about this tool will be presented in a companion paper by White et al. (2015, this conference). We evaluate 3-hr precipitation forecasts from four models (the HRRR, HRRRexp, RAP, and RAPexp) that were added to the tool in Dec. 2014. The Rapid Refresh (RAP) and the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) models are run operationally by NOAA, are initialized hourly, and produce forecasts out to 15 hours. The RAP and HRRR have experimental versions (RAPexp and HRRRexp, respectively) that are run near-real time at the NOAA/ESRL/Global Systems Division. Our analysis of eight rain days includes atmospheric river events in Dec. 2014 and Feb. 2015. We evaluate the forecasts using observations at two sites near the California coast - Bodega Bay (BBY, 15 m ASL) and Cazadero (CZC, 478 m ASL), and an inland site near Colfax, CA (CFC, 643 m ASL). Various criteria were used to evaluate the forecasts. (1) The Pielke criteria: we compare the RMSE and unbiased RMSE of the model output to the standard deviation of the observations, and we compare the standard deviation of the model output to the standard deviation of the observations; (2) we compare the modeled 24-hr precipitation to the observed 24-hr precipitation; and (3) we assess the correlation coefficient between the modeled and observed precipitation. Based on these criteria, the RAP slightly outperformed the other models. Only the RAP and the HRRRexp had forecasts that met the Pielke criteria. All of the models were able to predict the observed 24-hour precipitation, within 10%, in only 8-16% of their forecasts. All models achieved a correlation coefficient value above the 90th percentile in 12.5% of their forecasts. The station most likely to have a forecast that met any of the criteria was the inland mountain station CFC; the least likely was the coastal mountain
MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proksch, M.; Mätzler, C.; Wiesmann, A.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Schwank, M.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.
2015-03-01
The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5-100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like and cross polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS) is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoids fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in MATLAB and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.
MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proksch, M.; Mätzler, C.; Wiesmann, A.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Schwank, M.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.
2015-08-01
The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5-100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like- and cross-polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS) is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoid fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment) campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in Matlab and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.
Kooijman, Gerben; Ouweltjes, Okke
2009-04-01
A lumped element electroacoustic model for a synthetic jet actuator is presented. The model includes the nonlinear flow resistance associated with flow separation and employs a finite difference scheme in the time domain. As opposed to more common analytical frequency domain electroacoustic models, in which the nonlinear resistance can only be considered as a constant, it allows the calculation of higher harmonics, i.e., distortion components, generated as a result of this nonlinear resistance. Model calculations for the time-averaged momentum flux of the synthetic jet as well as the radiated sound power spectrum are compared to experimental results for various configurations. It is shown that a significantly improved prediction of the momentum flux-and thus flow velocity-of the jet is obtained when including the nonlinear resistance. Here, the current model performs slightly better than an analytical model. For the power spectrum of radiated sound, a reasonable agreement is obtained when assuming a plausible slight asymmetry in the nonlinear resistance. However, results suggest that loudspeaker nonlinearities play a significant role as well in the generation of the first few higher harmonics.
Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B
2016-01-01
A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.
Comparison of lead isotopes with source apportionment models, including SOM, for air particulates.
Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Dickson, Bruce; Cohen, David; Mizon, Karen; Davis, J Michael
2007-08-01
We have measured high precision lead isotopes in PM(2.5) particulates from a highly-trafficked site (Mascot) and rural site (Richmond) in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales, Australia to compare with isotopic data from total suspended particulates (TSP) from other sites in the Sydney Basin and evaluate relationships with source fingerprints obtained from multi-element PM(2.5) data. The isotopic data for the period 1998 to 2004 show seasonal peaks and troughs that are more pronounced in the rural site for the PM(2.5).samples but are consistent with the TSP. The Self Organising Map (SOM) method has been applied to the multi-element PM(2.5) data to evaluate its use in obtaining fingerprints for comparison with standard statistical procedures (ANSTO model). As seasonal effects are also significant for the multi-element data, the SOM modelling is reported as site and season dependent. At the Mascot site, the ANSTO model exhibits decreasing (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios with increasing contributions of fingerprints for "secondary smoke" (industry), "soil", "smoke" and "seaspray". Similar patterns were shown by SOM winter fingerprints for both sites. At the rural site, there are large isotopic variations but for the majority of samples these are not associated with increased contributions from the main sources with the ANSTO model. For two winter sampling times, there are increased contributions from "secondary industry", "smoke", "soil" and seaspray with one time having a source or sources of Pb similar to that of Mascot. The only positive relationship between increasing (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio and source contributions is found at the rural site using the SOM summer fingerprints, both of which show a significant contribution from sulphur. Several of the fingerprints using either model have significant contributions from black carbon (BC) and/or sulphur (S) that probably derive from diesel fuels and industrial sources. Increased contributions from sources with the SOM summer
Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A
2002-10-01
A complete model of a primary settler including both sedimentation and biological processes is presented. It is a one-dimensional model based on the solids flux concept and the conservation of mass that uses the Takács model for the settling velocity, which is corrected by a compression function in the lower layers. The biological model is based on the ASM2 and enlarged with the fermentation model proposed by this research group. The settler was split in ten layers and the flux terms in the mass balance for each layer is obtained by means of the settling model. A pilot plant has been operated to study the primary sludge fermentation and volatile fatty acids (VFA) elutriation in a primary settler tank. The model has been tested with pilot plant experimental data with very good results. It has been able to simulate the VFA production in the settler and their elutriation with the influent wastewater for all the studied experiments. The developed model is easily applicable to secondary settlers and thickeners, also taking into account biological activity inside them.
Safe distance car-following model including backward-looking and its stability analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Da; Jin, Peter Jing; Pu, Yun; Ran, Bin
2013-03-01
The focus of this paper is the car-following behavior including backward-looking, simply called the bi-directional looking car-following behavior. This study is motivated by the potential changes of the physical properties of traffic flow caused by the fast developing intelligent transportation system (ITS), especially the new connected vehicle technology. Existing studies on this topic focused on general motors (GM) models and optimal velocity (OV) models. The safe distance car-following model, Gipps' model, which is more widely used in practice have not drawn too much attention in the bi-directional looking context. This paper explores the property of the bi-directional looking extension of Gipps' safe distance model. The stability condition of the proposed model is derived using the linear stability theory and is verified using numerical simulations. The impacts of the driver and vehicle characteristics appeared in the proposed model on the traffic flow stability are also investigated. It is found that taking into account the backward-looking effect in car-following has three types of effect on traffic flow: stabilizing, destabilizing and producing non-physical phenomenon. This conclusion is more sophisticated than the study results based on the OV bi-directional looking car-following models. Moreover, the drivers who have the smaller reaction time or the larger additional delay and think the other vehicles have larger maximum decelerations can stabilize traffic flow.
Relationship between mental states in depression: the assimilation model perspective.
Osatuke, Katerine; Stiles, William B; Barkham, Michael; Hardy, Gillian E; Shapiro, David A
2011-11-30
Metacognitive theories describe relationships between mental-affective self-states, including the capacity of one self-state to reflect upon another self-state. The assimilation model is a metacognitive approach that understands self-states as made of traces of experiences at different levels of integration. Psychological problems are understood as impaired accessibility of certain self-states to the person's normal awareness. These states are distressing or otherwise subjectively problematic when they emerge. This exploratory study used the assimilation framework to describe mental states in 17 clients who participated in a clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression. Three clinically sophisticated raters examined transcripts of 1h-long psychotherapy session per client to construct qualitative descriptions of self-states and their relationship patterns in these depressed individuals. We then systematically compared and integrated these raters' descriptions of the clients' self-states. In each case, we found a conflict between two internally incompatible states: an interpersonally submissive state and an interpersonally dominant one, a pattern consistent with the model's theoretical description of depression.
Multifluid Simulations of the Global Solar Wind Including Pickup Ions and Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Usmanov, A. V.
2011-01-01
I will describe a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar wind that takes into account turbulent heating of the wind by velocity and magnetic fluctuations as well as a variety of effects produced by interstellar pickup protons. The interstellar pickup protons are treated in the model as one fluid and the protons and electrons are treated together as a second fluid. The model equations include a Reynolds decomposition of the plasma velocity and magnetic field into mean and fluctuating quantities, as well as energy transfer from interstellar pickup protons to solar wind protons that results in the deceleration of the solar wind. The model is used to simulate the global steady-state structure of the solar wind in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU. The simulation assumes that the background magnetic field on the Sun is either a dipole (aligned or tilted with respect to the solar rotation axis) or one that is deduced from solar magnetograms.
Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Pouzoulet, F; Mazal, A
2016-01-21
In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens' model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec, for Wilkens' model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec. The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens' model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm(-1). These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis.
Sengör, S Sevinç; Barua, Sutapa; Gikas, Petros; Ginn, Timothy R; Peyton, Brent; Sani, Rajesh K; Spycher, Nicolas F
2009-10-01
Heavy metals can significantly affect the kinetics of substrate biodegradation and microbial growth, including lag times and specific growth rates. A model to describe microbial metabolic lag as a function of the history of substrate concentration has been previously described by Wood et al. (Water Resour Res 31:553-563) and Ginn (Water Resour Res 35:1395-1408). In the present study, this model is extended by including the effect of heavy metals on metabolic lag by developing an inhibitor-dependent functional to account for the metabolic state of the microorganisms. The concentration of the inhibiting metal is explicitly incorporated into the functional. The validity of the model is tested against experimental data on the effects of zinc on Pseudomonas species isolated from Lake Coeur d'Alene sediments, Idaho, U.S.A., as well as the effects of nickel or cobalt on a mixed microbial culture collected from the aeration tank of a wastewater treatment plant in Athens, Greece. The simulations demonstrate the ability to incorporate the effect of metals on metabolism through lag, yield coefficient, and specific growth rates. The model includes growth limitation due to insufficient transfer of oxygen into the growth medium.
Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian
2016-04-01
The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by
Tanner, Colby J; Salali, Gul Deniz; Jackson, Andrew L
2011-12-23
Dominance hierarchies pervade animal societies. Within a static social environment, in which group size and composition are unchanged, an individual's hierarchy rank results from intrinsic (e.g. body size) and extrinsic (e.g. previous experiences) factors. Little is known, however, about how dominance relationships are formed and maintained when group size and composition are dynamic. Using a fusion-fission protocol, we fused groups of previously isolated shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) into larger groups, and then restored groups to their original size and composition. Pre-fusion hierarchies formed independently of individuals' sizes, and were maintained within a static group via winner/loser effects. Post-fusion hierarchies differed from pre-fusion ones; losing fights during fusion led to a decline in an individual's rank between pre- and post-fusion conditions, while spending time being aggressive during fusion led to an improvement in rank. In post-fusion tanks, larger individuals achieved better ranks than smaller individuals. In conclusion, dominance hierarchies in crabs represent a complex combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, in which experiences from previous groups can carry over to affect current competitive interactions.
Henkel, Marius; Schmidberger, Anke; Vogelbacher, Markus; Kühnert, Christian; Beuker, Janina; Bernard, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf
2014-08-01
The production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is under complex control of a quorum sensing-dependent regulatory network. Due to a lack of understanding of the kinetics applicable to the process and relevant interrelations of variables, current processes for rhamnolipid production are based on heuristic approaches. To systematically establish a knowledge-based process for rhamnolipid production, a deeper understanding of the time-course and coupling of process variables is required. By combining reaction kinetics, stoichiometry, and experimental data, a process model for rhamnolipid production with P. aeruginosa PAO1 on sunflower oil was developed as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In addition, cell density-based quorum sensing dynamics were included in the model. The model comprises a total of 36 parameters, 14 of which are yield coefficients and 7 of which are substrate affinity and inhibition constants. Of all 36 parameters, 30 were derived from dedicated experimental results, literature, and databases and 6 of them were used as fitting parameters. The model is able to describe data on biomass growth, substrates, and products obtained from a reference batch process and other validation scenarios. The model presented describes the time-course and interrelation of biomass, relevant substrates, and products on a process level while including a kinetic representation of cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms.
Model for resistance evolution in shape memory alloys including R-phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brammajyosula, Ravindra; Buravalla, Vidyashankar; Khandelwal, Ashish
2011-03-01
The electrical resistance behavior of a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire can be used for sensing the state of an SMA device. Hence, this study investigates the resistance evolution in SMAs. A lumped parameter model with cosine kinetics to capture the resistance variation during the phase transformation is developed. Several SMA materials show the presence of trigonal or rhombohedral (R) phase as an intermediate phase, apart from the commonly recognized austenite and martensite phases. Most of the SMA models ignore the R-phase effect in their prediction of thermomechanical response. This may be acceptable since the changes in thermomechanical response associated with the R-phase are relatively less. However, the resistivity related effects are pronounced in the presence of the R-phase and its appearance introduces non-monotonicity in the resistivity evolution. This leads to additional complexities in the use of resistance signal for sensing and control. Hence, a lumped model is developed here for resistance evolution including the R-phase effects. A phase-diagram-based model is proposed for predicting electro-thermomechanical response. Both steady state hysteretic response and transient response are modeled. The model predictions are compared with the available test data. Numerical studies have shown that the model is able to capture all the essential features of the resistance evolution in SMAs in the presence of the R-phase.
A structural model for the in vivo human cornea including collagen-swelling interaction
Cheng, Xi; Petsche, Steven J.; Pinsky, Peter M.
2015-01-01
A structural model of the in vivo cornea, which accounts for tissue swelling behaviour, for the three-dimensional organization of stromal fibres and for collagen-swelling interaction, is proposed. Modelled as a binary electrolyte gel in thermodynamic equilibrium, the stromal electrostatic free energy is based on the mean-field approximation. To account for active endothelial ionic transport in the in vivo cornea, which modulates osmotic pressure and hydration, stromal mobile ions are shown to satisfy a modified Boltzmann distribution. The elasticity of the stromal collagen network is modelled based on three-dimensional collagen orientation probability distributions for every point in the stroma obtained by synthesizing X-ray diffraction data for azimuthal angle distributions and second harmonic-generated image processing for inclination angle distributions. The model is implemented in a finite-element framework and employed to predict free and confined swelling of stroma in an ionic bath. For the in vivo cornea, the model is used to predict corneal swelling due to increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) and is adapted to model swelling in Fuchs' corneal dystrophy. The biomechanical response of the in vivo cornea to a typical LASIK surgery for myopia is analysed, including tissue fluid pressure and swelling responses. The model provides a new interpretation of the corneal active hydration control (pump-leak) mechanism based on osmotic pressure modulation. The results also illustrate the structural necessity of fibre inclination in stabilizing the corneal refractive surface with respect to changes in tissue hydration and IOP. PMID:26156299
Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H
2016-03-01
This paper reports a new model for strained quantum well lasers, which are based on the quantum well transmission line modeling method where effects of both carrier transport and carrier heating have been included. We have applied this new model and studied the effect of carrier transport on the output waveform of a strained quantum well laser both in time and frequency domains. It has been found that the carrier transport increases the turn-on, turn-off delay times and damping of the quantum well laser transient response. Also, analysis in the frequency domain indicates that the carrier transport causes the output spectrum of the quantum well laser in steady state to exhibit a redshift which has a narrower bandwidth and lower magnitude. The simulation results of turning-on transients obtained by the proposed model are compared with those obtained by the rate equation laser model. The new model has also been used to study the effects of pump current spikes on the laser output waveforms properties, and it was found that the presence of current spikes causes (i) wavelength blueshift, (ii) larger bandwidth, and (iii) reduces the magnitude and decreases the side-lobe suppression ratio of the laser output spectrum. Analysis in both frequency and time domains confirms that the new proposed model can accurately predict the temporal and spectral behaviors of strained quantum well lasers.
Investigating Supervisory Relationships and Therapeutic Alliances Using Structural Equation Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DePue, Mary Kristina; Lambie, Glenn W.; Liu, Ren; Gonzalez, Jessica
2016-01-01
The authors used structural equation modeling to examine the contribution of supervisees' supervisory relationship levels to therapeutic alliance (TA) scores with their clients in practicum. Results showed that supervisory relationship scores positively contributed to the TA. Client and counselor ratings of the TA also differed.
Modeling the Relationship between Prosodic Sensitivity and Early Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holliman, Andrew; Critten, Sarah; Lawrence, Tony; Harrison, Emily; Wood, Clare; Hughes, David
2014-01-01
A growing literature has demonstrated that prosodic sensitivity is related to early literacy development; however, the precise nature of this relationship remains unclear. It has been speculated in recent theoretical models that the observed relationship between prosodic sensitivity and early literacy might be partially mediated by children's…
Modeling of single char combustion, including CO oxidation in its boundary layer
Lee, C.H.; Longwell, J.P.; Sarofim, A.F.
1994-10-25
The combustion of a char particle can be divided into a transient phase where its temperature increases as it is heated by oxidation, and heat transfer from the surrounding gas to an approximately constant temperature stage where gas phase reaction is important and which consumes most of the carbon and an extinction stage caused by carbon burnout. In this work, separate models were developed for the transient heating where gas phase reactions were unimportant and for the steady temperature stage where gas phase reactions were treated in detail. The transient char combustion model incorporates intrinsic char surface production of CO and CO{sub 2}, internal pore diffusion and external mass and heat transfer. The model provides useful information for particle ignition, burning temperature profile, combustion time, and carbon consumption rate. A gas phase reaction model incorporating the full set of 28 elementary C/H/O reactions was developed. This model calculated the gas phase CO oxidation reaction in the boundary layer at particle temperatures of 1250 K and 2500 K by using the carbon consumption rate and the burning temperature at the pseudo-steady state calculated from the temperature profile model but the transient heating was not included. This gas phase model can predict the gas species, and the temperature distributions in the boundary layer, the CO{sub 2}/CO ratio, and the location of CO oxidation. A mechanistic heat and mass transfer model was added to the temperature profile model to predict combustion behavior in a fluidized bed. These models were applied to data from the fluidized combustion of Newlands coal char particles. 52 refs., 60 figs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kiely, Mary Theresa
2011-01-01
General education teachers support the inclusion of students with disabilities, but researchers have found supports for students with disabilities in general education settings to be less than adequate. How teachers make decisions about supporting the learning of included students with disabilities is not well understood and may well be driven by…
Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Clifford A.
2016-01-01
The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuller, C. R.
1986-01-01
A simplified analytical model of transmission of noise into the interior of propeller-driven aircraft has been developed. The analysis includes directivity and relative phase effects of the propeller noise sources, and leads to a closed form solution for the coupled motion between the interior and exterior fields via the shell (fuselage) vibrational response. Various situations commonly encountered in considering sound transmission into aircraft fuselages are investigated analytically and the results obtained are compared to measurements in real aircraft. In general the model has proved successful in identifying basic mechanisms behind noise transmission phenomena.
An air/sea flux model including the effects of capillary waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bourassa, Mark A.
1993-01-01
An improved model of the air/sea interface is developed. The improvements consist in including the effect of capillary (surface tension) waves on the tropical surface fluxes and the consideration of the sea state, both of which increase the magnitude of tropical surface fluxes. Changes in surface stress are most significant in the low wind-speed regions, which include the areas where westerly bursts occur. It is shown that the changes, from the regular wind conditions to those of a westerly burst or El-Nino, can double when the effects of capillary waves are considered. This implies a much stronger coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere than is predicted by other boundary layer models.
Bongers, Mathilda L; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A; Coupé, V M H
2016-01-01
With the shift toward individualized treatment, cost-effectiveness models need to incorporate patient and tumor characteristics that may be relevant to treatment planning. In this study, we used multistate statistical modeling to inform a microsimulation model for cost-effectiveness analysis of individualized radiotherapy in lung cancer. The model tracks clinical events over time and takes patient and tumor features into account. Four clinical states were included in the model: alive without progression, local recurrence, metastasis, and death. Individual patients were simulated by repeatedly sampling a patient profile, consisting of patient and tumor characteristics. The transitioning of patients between the health states is governed by personalized time-dependent hazard rates, which were obtained from multistate statistical modeling (MSSM). The model simulations for both the individualized and conventional radiotherapy strategies demonstrated internal and external validity. Therefore, MSSM is a useful technique for obtaining the correlated individualized transition rates that are required for the quantification of a microsimulation model. Moreover, we have used the hazard ratios, their 95% confidence intervals, and their covariance to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the model in a correlated way. The obtained model will be used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of individualized radiotherapy treatment planning, including the uncertainty of input parameters. We discuss the model-building process and the strengths and weaknesses of using MSSM in a microsimulation model for individualized radiotherapy in lung cancer.
Models of Shared Leadership: Evolving Structures and Relationships.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hallinger, Philip; Richardson, Don
1988-01-01
Explores potential changes in the power relationships among teachers and principals. Describes and analyzes the following models of teacher decision-making: (1) Instructional Leadership Teams; (2) Principals' Advisory Councils; (3) School Improvement Teams; and (4) Lead Teacher Committees. (FMW)
A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning
Addessio, Francis L.; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan; Bolme, Cynthia Anne; Brown, Donald William; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Lookman, Turab; Luscher, Darby Jon; Mayeur, Jason Rhea; Morrow, Benjamin M.; Rigg, Paulo A.
2016-08-09
An anisotropic, rate-dependent, single-crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.
RELAP5-3D Code Includes Athena Features and Models
Richard A. Riemke; Cliff B. Davis; Richard R. Schultz
2006-07-01
Version 2.3 of the RELAP5-3D computer program includes all features and models previously available only in the ATHENA version of the code. These include the addition of new working fluids (i.e., ammonia, blood, carbon dioxide, glycerol, helium, hydrogen, lead-bismuth, lithium, lithium-lead, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and sodium-potassium) and a magnetohydrodynamic model that expands the capability of the code to model many more thermal-hydraulic systems. In addition to the new working fluids along with the standard working fluid water, one or more noncondensable gases (e.g., air, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen, sf6, xenon) can be specified as part of the vapor/gas phase of the working fluid. These noncondensable gases were in previous versions of RELAP5- 3D. Recently four molten salts have been added as working fluids to RELAP5-3D Version 2.4, which has had limited release. These molten salts will be in RELAP5-3D Version 2.5, which will have a general release like RELAP5-3D Version 2.3. Applications that use these new features and models are discussed in this paper.
Simplified models for the evolution of supernova remnants including particle acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drury, L. O'C.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Voelk, H. J.
1989-11-01
A system of coupled ordinary differential equations is presented which models the dynamical evolution of a supernova remnant including the acceleration of the Galactic cosmic rays. In contrast to earlier two-fluid models the closure parameters needed for a hydrodynamic approximation of the cosmic ray 'gas' are not taken as prescribed constants but are estimated dynamically within the model. Diffusive coupling between the outer shock and the remnant interior is introduced; this is shown to be an important moderator of the acceleration as is heating of the thermal plasma by Alfven wave dissipation. For reasonable estimates of the suprathermal particle injection rate into the acceleration process, of the diffusion coefficient appropriate to the accelerated particles, of the coupling between interior and shock, and of wave heating, solutions are found which appear consistent both with observations of young remnants and the idea that the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays are produced in supernova remnants.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mendonça, Paula Cristina Cardoso; Justi, Rosária
2013-01-01
Some studies related to the nature of scientific knowledge demonstrate that modelling is an inherently argumentative process. This study aims at discussing the relationship between modelling and argumentation by analysing data collected during the modelling-based teaching of ionic bonding and intermolecular interactions. The teaching activities…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Meng-Fei; Lin, Jang-Long
2015-01-01
Understanding the nature of models and engaging in modeling practice have been emphasized in science education. However, few studies discuss the relationships between students' views of scientific models and their ability to develop those models. Hence, this study explores the relationship between students' views of scientific models and their…
Multiple tail models including inverse measures for structural design under uncertainties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramu, Palaniappan
Sampling-based reliability estimation with expensive computer models may be computationally prohibitive due to a large number of required simulations. One way to alleviate the computational expense is to extrapolate reliability estimates from observed levels to unobserved levels. Classical tail modeling techniques provide a class of models to enable this extrapolation using asymptotic theory by approximating the tail region of the cumulative distribution function (CDF). This work proposes three alternate tail extrapolation techniques including inverse measures that can complement classical tail modeling. The proposed approach, multiple tail models, applies the two classical and three alternate extrapolation techniques simultaneously to estimate inverse measures at the extrapolation regions and use the median as the best estimate. It is observed that the range of the five estimates can be used as a good approximation of the error associated with the median estimate. Accuracy and computational efficiency are competing factors in selecting sample size. Yet, as our numerical studies reveal, the accuracy lost to the reduction of computational power is very small in the proposed method. The method is demonstrated on standard statistical distributions and complex engineering examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.
1986-01-01
Models of stratospheric photochemistry are generally tested by comparing their predictions for the composition of the present atmosphere with measurements of species concentrations. These models are then used to make predictions of the atmospheric sensitivity to perturbations. Here the problem of the sensitivity of such a model to chlorine perturbations ranging from the present influx of chlorine-containing compounds to several times that influx is addressed. The effects of uncertainties in input parameters, including reaction rate coefficients, cross sections, solar fluxes, and boundary conditions, are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method in which the values of the input parameters are randomly selected. The results are probability distributions for present atmosheric concentrations and for calculated perturbations due to chlorine from fluorocarbons. For more than 300 Monte Carlo runs the calculated ozone perturbation for continued emission of fluorocarbons at today's rates had a mean value of -6.2 percent, with a 1-sigma width of 5.5 percent. Using the same runs but only allowing the cases in which the calculated present atmosphere values of NO, NO2, and ClO at 25 km altitude fell within the range of measurements yielded a mean ozone depletion of -3 percent, with a 1-sigma deviation of 2.2 percent. The model showed a nonlinear behavior as a function of added fluorocarbons. The mean of the Monte Carlo runs was less nonlinear than the model run using mean value of the input parameters.
Noor, Saqib; Pridham, Cerianne; Fawcett, Tim; Barclay, Mark; Feng, Y T; Hassan, Oubay; Pallister, Ian
2013-06-01
Biomechanical testing has been a cornerstone for the development of surgical implants used in fracture stabilisation. In a multi-disciplinary collaboration complex at the University of Wales, Swansea, novel computerised clinically relevant models were developed using advanced computational engineering. In-house software (developed initially for commercial aerospace engineering), allowed accurate finite element analysis (FEA) models of the whole femur to be created, including the internal architecture of the bone, by means of linear interpolation of greyscale images from multiaxial CT scans. This allowed for modelling the changing trabecular structure and bone mineral density as seen in progressive osteoporosis. Falls from standing were modelled in a variety of directions (with and without muscle action) using analysis programmes which resulted in fractures consistent with those seen in clinical practice. By meshing implants into these models and repeating the mechanism of injury in simulation, periprosthetic fractures were also recreated. Further development with simulated physiological activities (e.g. walking and rising from sitting) along with attrition in the bone (in the boundary zones where stress concentration occurs) will allow further known modes of failure in implants to be reproduced. Robust simulation of macro and micro-scale events will allow the testing of novel new designs in simulations far more complex than conventional biomechanical testing will allow.
Zhang, Hai-Mei; Chen, Shi-Lu
2015-06-09
The lack of dispersion in the B3LYP functional has been proposed to be the main origin of big errors in quantum chemical modeling of a few enzymes and transition metal complexes. In this work, the essential dispersion effects that affect quantum chemical modeling are investigated. With binuclear zinc isoaspartyl dipeptidase (IAD) as an example, dispersion is included in the modeling of enzymatic reactions by two different procedures, i.e., (i) geometry optimizations followed by single-point calculations of dispersion (approach I) and (ii) the inclusion of dispersion throughout geometry optimization and energy evaluation (approach II). Based on a 169-atom chemical model, the calculations show a qualitative consistency between approaches I and II in energetics and most key geometries, demonstrating that both approaches are available with the latter preferential since both geometry and energy are dispersion-corrected in approach II. When a smaller model without Arg233 (147 atoms) was used, an inconsistency was observed, indicating that the missing dispersion interactions are essentially responsible for determining equilibrium geometries. Other technical issues and mechanistic characteristics of IAD are also discussed, in particular with respect to the effects of Arg233.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kilic, Abdurrahman
2012-01-01
In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…
An extended gene protein/products boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation
2014-01-01
Background Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. Results In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. Conclusions The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms. PMID:25080304
Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Taira, Kumiko
2015-01-01
Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4–87 year-old). Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough) were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5–69 year-old); the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5–78 year-old). N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum)), followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb) and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb), however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb), but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, not quantified) and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified). Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified), and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb). Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb). The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5–57). Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a
Model for the catalytic oxidation of CO, including gas-phase impurities and CO desorption.
Buendía, G M; Rikvold, P A
2013-07-01
We present results of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a modified Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model for the reaction CO+O → CO(2) on a catalytic surface. Our model includes impurities in the gas phase, CO desorption, and a modification known to eliminate the unphysical O poisoned phase. The impurities can adsorb and desorb on the surface, but otherwise remain inert. In a previous work that did not include CO desorption [Buendía and Rikvold, Phys. Rev. E 85, 031143 (2012)], we found that the impurities have very distinctive effects on the phase diagram and greatly diminish the reactivity of the system. If the impurities do not desorb, once the system reaches a stationary state, the CO(2) production disappears. When the impurities are allowed to desorb, there are regions where the CO(2) reaction window reappears, although greatly reduced. Following experimental evidence that indicates that temperature effects are crucial in many catalytic processes, here we further analyze these effects by including a CO desorption rate. We find that the CO desorption has the effect to smooth the transition between the reactive and the CO rich phase, and most importantly it can counteract the negative effects of the presence of impurities by widening the reactive window such that now the system remains catalytically active in the whole range of CO pressures.
Doğan, Tunca; Karaçalı, Bilge
2013-01-01
Identifying shared sequence segments along amino acid sequences generally requires a collection of closely related proteins, most often curated manually from the sequence datasets to suit the purpose at hand. Currently developed statistical methods are strained, however, when the collection contains remote sequences with poor alignment to the rest, or sequences containing multiple domains. In this paper, we propose a completely unsupervised and automated method to identify the shared sequence segments observed in a diverse collection of protein sequences including those present in a smaller fraction of the sequences in the collection, using a combination of sequence alignment, residue conservation scoring and graph-theoretical approaches. Since shared sequence fragments often imply conserved functional or structural attributes, the method produces a table of associations between the sequences and the identified conserved regions that can reveal previously unknown protein families as well as new members to existing ones. We evaluated the biological relevance of the method by clustering the proteins in gold standard datasets and assessing the clustering performance in comparison with previous methods from the literature. We have then applied the proposed method to a genome wide dataset of 17793 human proteins and generated a global association map to each of the 4753 identified conserved regions. Investigations on the major conserved regions revealed that they corresponded strongly to annotated structural domains. This suggests that the method can be useful in predicting novel domains on protein sequences.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.
1995-01-01
A two-dimensional Heat Pipe Transient Analysis Model, 'HPTAM,' was developed to simulate the transient operation of fully-thawed heat pipes and the startup of heat pipes from a frozen state. The model incorporates: (a) sublimation and resolidification of working fluid; (b) melting and freezing of the working fluid in the porous wick; (c) evaporation of thawed working fluid and condensation as a thin liquid film on a frozen substrate; (d) free-molecule, transition, and continuum vapor flow regimes, using the Dusty Gas Model; (e) liquid flow and heat transfer in the porous wick; and (f) thermal and hydrodynamic couplings of phases at their respective interfaces. HPTAM predicts the radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus at the liquid-vapor interface and the radial location of the working fluid level (liquid or solid) in the wick. It also includes the transverse momentum jump condition (capillary relationship of Pascal) at the liquid-vapor interface and geometrically relates the radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus to the volume fraction of vapor in the wick. The present model predicts the capillary limit and partial liquid recess (dryout) in the evaporator wick, and incorporates a liquid pooling submodel, which simulates accumulation of the excess liquid in the vapor core at the condenser end.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.
1993-01-01
Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotor-dynamic model and assess the dynamic behavior of a magnetic bearing rotor system which includes the effects of auxiliary bearings. Of particular interest is the effects of introducing sideloading into such a system during failure of the magnetic bearing. A model is developed from an experimental test facility and a number of simulation studies are performed. These results are presented and discussed.
New Grid of Models for ELM WDs Including Element Diffusion and Rotational Mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Istrate, A. G.
2017-03-01
We present our latest results for the modelling of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs) in which, for the first time, we study the combined effects of rotational mixing and element diffusion. In particular, we investigate how their general properties, such as their evolutionary timescales, the hydrogen envelope mass and their surface composition are affected compared to the case when just element diffusion is included. The formation of ELM WDs through the LMXB channel in environments with different metallicities is modelled using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code MESA. Rotational mixing is found to counteract the effect of gravitational settling in the surface of young, bloated ELM proto-WDs suggesting that it is the key process needed to explain the observed metals (especially calcium) abundances in their atmospheres.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Printsypar, G.; Iliev, O.; Rief, S.
2011-12-01
Paper production is a challenging problem which attracts attention of many scientists. The process which is of our interest takes place in the pressing section of a paper machine. The paper layer is dried by means of the pressing it against fabrics, i.e. press felts. The paper-felt sandwich is transported through the press nips at high speed (for more details see [3]). Since the natural drainage of water in the felts is much longer than the drying in the pressing section we include in the consideration the dynamic capillary effect. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation proposed by Hassanizadeh and Gray (see [2]) is adopted for the pressing process. One of the other issues which is taken into account while modeling the pressing section is the appearance of fully saturated regions. We include in consideration two flow regimes: the one-phase water flow and the two-phase air-water flow. It leads to a free boundary problem. We also account for the complexity of the paper-felt sandwich porous structure. Apart from the two flow regimes the computational domain is divided by layers into nonoverlapping subdomains. Then, the system of equations describing transport processes in the pressing section is stated taking into account all these features. The presented model is discretized by the finite volume method. We carry out some numerical experiments for different configurations of the pressing section (roll press, shoe press) and for parameters which are typical for paper-felt sandwich during the paper production process. The experiments show that the dynamic capillary effect has a significant influence on the distribution of pressure even for small values of the material coefficient (see Fig. 1). The obtained results are in agreement with laboratory experiment performed in [1], which states that the distribution of the pressure is not symmetric with the maximum value occurring in front of the center of the pressing nip and the minimum value less than entry
Yoshihara, Lena; Roth, Christian J; Wall, Wolfgang A
2017-04-01
In this article, a novel approach is presented for combining standard fluid-structure interaction with additional volumetric constraints to model fluid flow into and from homogenised solid domains. The proposed algorithm is particularly interesting for investigations in the field of respiratory mechanics as it enables the mutual coupling of airflow in the conducting part and local tissue deformation in the respiratory part of the lung by means of a volume constraint. In combination with a classical monolithic fluid-structure interaction approach, a comprehensive model of the human lung can be established that will be useful to gain new insights into respiratory mechanics in health and disease. To illustrate the validity and versatility of the novel approach, three numerical examples including a patient-specific lung model are presented. The proposed algorithm proves its capability of computing clinically relevant airflow distribution and tissue strain data at a level of detail that is not yet achievable, neither with current imaging techniques nor with existing computational models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.
von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S
2009-01-01
The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.
A laboratory model of the aortic root flow including the coronary arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Querzoli, Giorgio; Fortini, Stefania; Espa, Stefania; Melchionna, Simone
2016-08-01
Cardiovascular flows have been extensively investigated by means of in vitro models to assess the prosthetic valve performances and to provide insight into the fluid dynamics of the heart and proximal aorta. In particular, the models for the study of the flow past the aortic valve have been continuously improved by including, among other things, the compliance of the vessel and more realistic geometries. The flow within the sinuses of Valsalva is known to play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the aortic valve since they host a recirculation region that interacts with the leaflets. The coronary arteries originate from the ostia located within two of the three sinuses, and their presence may significantly affect the fluid dynamics of the aortic root. In spite of their importance, to the extent of the authors' knowledge, coronary arteries were not included so far when modeling in vitro the transvalvular aortic flow. We present a pulse duplicator consisting of a passively pulsing ventricle, a compliant proximal aorta, and coronary arteries connected to the sinuses of Valsalva. The coronary flow is modulated by a self-regulating device mimicking the physiological mechanism, which is based on the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle during the cardiac cycle. Results show that the model reproduces satisfyingly the coronary flow. The analysis of the time evolution of the velocity and vorticity fields within the aortic root reveals the main characteristics of the backflow generated through the aorta in order to feed the coronaries during the diastole. Experiments without coronary flow have been run for comparison. Interestingly, the lifetime of the vortex forming in the sinus of Valsalva during the systole is reduced by the presence of the coronaries. As a matter of fact, at the end of the systole, that vortex is washed out because of the suction generated by the coronary flow. Correspondingly, the valve closure is delayed and faster compared to the case with
Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.
2010-12-01
With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific
Rivas, Elena; Lang, Raymond; Eddy, Sean R
2012-02-01
The standard approach for single-sequence RNA secondary structure prediction uses a nearest-neighbor thermodynamic model with several thousand experimentally determined energy parameters. An attractive alternative is to use statistical approaches with parameters estimated from growing databases of structural RNAs. Good results have been reported for discriminative statistical methods using complex nearest-neighbor models, including CONTRAfold, Simfold, and ContextFold. Little work has been reported on generative probabilistic models (stochastic context-free grammars [SCFGs]) of comparable complexity, although probabilistic models are generally easier to train and to use. To explore a range of probabilistic models of increasing complexity, and to directly compare probabilistic, thermodynamic, and discriminative approaches, we created TORNADO, a computational tool that can parse a wide spectrum of RNA grammar architectures (including the standard nearest-neighbor model and more) using a generalized super-grammar that can be parameterized with probabilities, energies, or arbitrary scores. By using TORNADO, we find that probabilistic nearest-neighbor models perform comparably to (but not significantly better than) discriminative methods. We find that complex statistical models are prone to overfitting RNA structure and that evaluations should use structurally nonhomologous training and test data sets. Overfitting has affected at least one published method (ContextFold). The most important barrier to improving statistical approaches for RNA secondary structure prediction is the lack of diversity of well-curated single-sequence RNA secondary structures in current RNA databases.
A Multivariate Model of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Variables in Early Adolescence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly
2011-01-01
Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle…
Exploring Third-Grade Student Model-Based Explanations about Plant Relationships within an Ecosystem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.
2015-12-01
Elementary students should have opportunities to develop scientific models to reason and build understanding about how and why plants depend on relationships within an ecosystem for growth and survival. However, scientific modeling practices are rarely included within elementary science learning environments and disciplinary content is often treated as discrete pieces separate from scientific practice. Elementary students have few, if any, opportunities to reason about how individual organisms, such as plants, hold critical relationships with their surrounding environment. The purpose of this design-based research study is to build a learning performance to identify and explore the third-grade students' baseline understanding of and their reasoning about plant-ecosystem relationships when engaged in the practices of modeling. The developed learning performance integrated scientific content and core scientific activity to identify and measure how students build knowledge about the role of plants in ecosystems through the practices of modeling. Our findings indicate that the third-grade students' ideas about plant growth include abiotic and biotic relationships. Further, they used their models to reason about how and why these relationships were necessary to maintain plant stasis. However, while the majority of the third-grade students were able to identify and reason about plant-abiotic relationships, a much smaller group reasoned about plant-abiotic-animal relationships. Implications from the study suggest that modeling serves as a tool to support elementary students in reasoning about system relationships, but they require greater curricular and instructional support in conceptualizing how and why ecosystem relationships are necessary for plant growth and development. This paper is based on data from a doctoral dissertation. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 2015 international conference for the National Association for Research in Science
Exploring Third-Grade Student Model-Based Explanations about Plant Relationships within an Ecosystem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.
2015-01-01
Elementary students should have opportunities to develop scientific models to reason and build understanding about how and why plants depend on relationships within an ecosystem for growth and survival. However, scientific modeling practices are rarely included within elementary science learning environments and disciplinary content is often…
Moreau, Caroline; Pautas, Eric; Duverlie, Charlotte; Berndt, Celia; Andro, Marion; Mahé, Isabelle; Emmerich, Joseph; Lacut, Karine; Le Gal, Grégoire; Peyron, Isabelle; Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Siguret, Virginie
2014-04-01
Indandione VKAs have been widely used for decades, especially in Eastern Europe and France. Contrary to coumarin VKAs, the relative contribution of individual factors to the indandione-VKA response is poorly known. In the present multicentre study, we sought to develop and validate a model including genetic and non-genetic factors to predict the daily fluindione dose requirement in elderly patients in whom VKA dosing is challenging. We prospectively recorded clinical and therapeutic data in 230 Caucasian inpatients mean aged 85 ± 6 years, who had reached international normalized ratio stabilisation (range 2.0-3.0) on fluindione. In the derivation cohort (n=156), we analysed 13 polymorphisms in seven genes potentially involved in the pharmacological effect or vitamin-K cycle (VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1) and fluindione metabolism/transport (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, ABCB1). We built a regression model incorporating non-genetic and genetic data and evaluated the model performances in a separate cohort (n=74).Body-weight, amiodarone intake, VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1 genotypes were retained in the final model, accounting for 31.5% of dose variability. None influence of CYP2C9 was observed. Our final model showed good performances: in 83.3% of the validation cohort patients, the dose was accurately predicted within 5 mg, i.e.the usual step used for adjusting fluindione dosage. In conclusion, in addition to body-weight and amiodarone-intake, pharmacogenetic factors (VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1) related to the pharmacodynamic effect and transport of fluindione significantly influenced the dose requirement in elderly patients while CYP2C9 did not. Studies are required to know whether fluindione could be an alternative VKA in carriers of polymorphic CYP2C9 alleles, hypersensitive to coumarins.
Hierarchical longitudinal models of relationships in social networks
Paul, Sudeshna; O’Malley, A. James
2013-01-01
Summary Motivated by the need to understand the dynamics of relationship formation and dissolution over time in real-world social networks we develop a new longitudinal model for transitions in the relationship status of pairs of individuals (“dyads”). We first specify a model for the relationship status of a single dyad and then extend it to account for important inter-dyad dependencies (e.g., transitivity – “a friend of a friend is a friend”) and heterogeneity. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian analysis implemented via Markov chain Monte Carlo. We use the model to perform novel analyses of two diverse longitudinal friendship networks: an excerpt of the Teenage Friends and Lifestyle Study (a moderately sized network) and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (a large network). PMID:24729637
Lee, H.J.; Syvitski, J.P.M.; Parker, G.; Orange, Daniel L.; Locat, J.; Hutton, E.W.H.; Imran, J.
2002-01-01
Migrating sediment waves have been reported in a variety of marine settings, including submarine levee-fan systems, floors of fjords, and other basin or continental slope environments. Examination of such wave fields reveals nine diagnostic characteristics. When these characteristics are applied to several features previously attributed to submarine landslide deformation, they suggest that the features should most likely be reinterpreted as migrating sediment-wave fields. Sites that have been reinterpreted include the 'Humboldt slide' on the Eel River margin in northern California, the continental slope in the Gulf of Cadiz, the continental shelf off the Malaspina Glacier in the Gulf of Alaska, and the Adriatic shelf. A reassessment of all four features strongly suggests that numerous turbidity currents, separated by intervals of ambient hemipelagic sedimentation, deposited the wave fields over thousands of years. A numerical model of hyperpycnal discharge from the Eel River, for example, shows that under certain alongshore-current conditions, such events can produce turbidity currents that flow across the 'Humboldt slide', serving as the mechanism for the development of migrating sediment waves. Numerical experiments also demonstrate that where a series of turbidity currents flows across a rough seafloor (i.e. numerical steps), sediment waves can form and migrate upslope. Hemipelagic sedimentation between turbidity current events further facilitates the upslope migration of the sediment waves. Physical modelling of turbidity currents also confirms the formation and migration of seafloor bedforms. The morphologies of sediment waves generated both numerically and physically in the laboratory bear a strong resemblance to those observed in the field, including those that were previously described as submarine landslides.
Mercury chemistry in the MBL: Modeling results including Hg + halogen atom reaction rate constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedgecock, I. M.; Pirrone, N.
2003-04-01
The inclusion, of recently published kinetic data for the reactions between gas phase elemental Hg and halogen atoms and molecules, in a photochemical box model including aerosols of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL), suggests that the cycling of Hg over the world's oceans may be much more dynamic than was once thought, as a direct result of halogen activation from marine aerosols. The rate of gas phase oxidation of Hg(0) in the model leads to high concentrations of gas phase oxidised Hg (Hg(II)), which is deposited to the sea surface either directly from the gas phase or indirectly via scavenging by sea salt and non-sea-salt sulphate aerosol particles and subsequent deposition. The model base run predicts Hg(II) concentrations higher than those measured in the marine atmosphere, and a lifetime for Hg(0) of a matter of days, rather than months as has been generally assumed. In light of previous measurements and the known stability of the hemispherical background concentration of Hg(0) the influence of liquid water content (the number of deliquescent aerosol droplets), cloud optical depth at the top of the boundary layer, and the Henry's Law constants for HgCl2 and HgBr2 have been investigated. In order to maintain a stable background concentration of Hg(0) a source strength (for emission from the sea, or entrainment from the free troposphere) of at least 15 ng m-2 hr-1 is required, which seems most unlikely considering results from flux chamber experiments. The model therefore either overestimates the rate of gas phase oxidation or lacks a fundamental reduction process. The evidence from studies of mercury depletion events in the Arctic troposphere lend support to the fast reaction between Hg(0) and Br containing radicals which have been included in the model, it is necessary therefore to investigate homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms for the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) in order to explain the measured Hg(II) concentrations in the MBL and the stable
Geological evolution of the North Sea: a dynamic 3D model including petroleum system elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabine, Heim; Rüdiger, Lutz; Dirk, Kaufmann; Lutz, Reinhardt
2013-04-01
This study investigates the sedimentary basin evolution of the German North Sea with a focus on petroleum generation, migration and accumulation. The study is conducted within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)", a joint project of federal (BGR, BSH) and state authorities (LBEG) with partners from industry and scientific institutions. Based on the structural model of the "Geotektonischer Atlas 3D" (GTA3D, LBEG), this dynamic 3D model contains additionally the northwestern part ("Entenschnabel" area) of the German North Sea. Geological information, e.g. lithostratigraphy, facies and structural data, provided by industry, was taken from published research projects, or literature data such as the Southern Permian Basin Atlas (SPBA; Doornenbal et al., 2010). Numerical modeling was carried out for a sedimentary succession containing 17 stratigraphic layers and several sublayers, representing the sedimentary deposition from the Devonian until Present. Structural details have been considered in terms of simplified faults and salt structures, as well as main erosion and salt movement events. Lithology, facies and the boundary conditions e.g. heat flow, paleo water-depth and sediment water interface temperature were assigned. The system calibration is based on geochemical and petrological data, such as maturity of organic matter (VRr) and present day temperature. Due to the maturity of the sedimentary organic matter Carboniferous layers are the major source rocks for gas generation. Main reservoir rocks are the Rotliegend sandstones, furthermore, sandstones of the Lower Triassic and Jurassic can serve as reservoir rocks in areas where the Zechstein salts are absent. The model provides information on the temperature and maturity distribution within the main source rock layers as well as information of potential hydrocarbon generation based on kinetic data for gas liberation. Finally, this dynamic 3D model offers a first
Jet Noise Modeling for Coannular Nozzles Including the Effects of Chevrons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.
2003-01-01
Development of good predictive models for jet noise has always been plagued by the difficulty in obtaining good quality data over a wide range of conditions in different facilities.We consider such issues very carefully in selecting data to be used in developing our model. Flight effects are of critical importance, and none of the means of determining them are without significant problems. Free-jet flight simulation facilities are very useful, and can provide meaningful data so long as they can be analytically transformed to the flight frame of reference. In this report we show that different methodologies used by NASA and industry to perform this transformation produce very different results, especially in the rear quadrant; this compels us to rely largely on static data to develop our model, but we show reasonable agreement with simulated flight data when these transformation issues are considered. A persistent problem in obtaining good quality data is noise generated in the experimental facility upstream of the test nozzle: valves, elbows, obstructions, and especially the combustor can contribute significant noise, and much of this noise is of a broadband nature, easily confused with jet noise. Muffling of these sources is costly in terms of size as well as expense, and it is particularly difficult in flight simulation facilities, where compactness of hardware is very important, as discussed by Viswanathan (Ref. 13). We feel that the effects of jet density on jet mixing noise may have been somewhat obscured by these problems, leading to the variable density exponent used in most jet noise prediction procedures including our own. We investigate this issue, applying Occam s razor, (e.g., Ref. 14), in a search for the simplest physically meaningful model that adequately describes the observed phenomena. In a similar vein, we see no reason to reject the Lighthill approach; it provides a very solid basis upon which to build a predictive procedure, as we believe we
Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.
2010-10-15
In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the {Lambda}CDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex{sub s}{sup 2}) and that of {delta}{sub de}/{delta}{sub m} with the variation of c-circumflex{sub s}{sup 2}.
Modeling within-host dynamics of influenza virus infection including immune responses.
Pawelek, Kasia A; Huynh, Giao T; Quinlivan, Michelle; Cullinane, Ann; Rong, Libin; Perelson, Alan S
2012-01-01
Influenza virus infection remains a public health problem worldwide. The mechanisms underlying viral control during an uncomplicated influenza virus infection are not fully understood. Here, we developed a mathematical model including both innate and adaptive immune responses to study the within-host dynamics of equine influenza virus infection in horses. By comparing modeling predictions with both interferon and viral kinetic data, we examined the relative roles of target cell availability, and innate and adaptive immune responses in controlling the virus. Our results show that the rapid and substantial viral decline (about 2 to 4 logs within 1 day) after the peak can be explained by the killing of infected cells mediated by interferon activated cells, such as natural killer cells, during the innate immune response. After the viral load declines to a lower level, the loss of interferon-induced antiviral effect and an increased availability of target cells due to loss of the antiviral state can explain the observed short phase of viral plateau in which the viral level remains unchanged or even experiences a minor second peak in some animals. An adaptive immune response is needed in our model to explain the eventual viral clearance. This study provides a quantitative understanding of the biological factors that can explain the viral and interferon kinetics during a typical influenza virus infection.
Mating programs including genomic relationships
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Computer mating programs have helped breeders minimize pedigree inbreeding and avoid recessive defects by mating animals with parents that have fewer common ancestors. With genomic selection, breed associations, AI organizations, and on-farm software providers could use new programs to minimize geno...
A model of force balance in Jupiter's magnetodisc including hot plasma pressure anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichols, J. D.; Achilleos, N.; Cowley, S. W. H.
2015-12-01
We present an iterative vector potential model of force balance in Jupiter's magnetodisc that includes the effects of hot plasma pressure anisotropy. The fiducial model produces results that are consistent with Galileo magnetic field and plasma data over the whole radial range of the model. The hot plasma pressure gradient and centrifugal forces dominate in the regions inward of ˜20 RJ and outward of ˜50 RJ, respectively, while for realistic values of the pressure anisotropy, the anisotropy current is either the dominant component or at least comparable with the hot plasma pressure gradient current in the region in between. With the inclusion of hot plasma pressure anisotropy, the ˜1.2 and ˜2.7° shifts in the latitudes of the main oval and Ganymede footprint, respectively, associated with variations over the observed range of the hot plasma parameter Kh, which is the product of hot pressure and unit flux tube volume, are comparable to the shifts observed in auroral images. However, the middle magnetosphere is susceptible to the firehose instability, with peak equatorial values of βh∥e-βh⊥e≃1 - 2, for Kh=2.0 - 2.5 × 107 Pa m T-1. For larger values of Kh,βh∥e-βh⊥e exceeds 2 near ˜25 RJ and the model does not converge. This suggests that small-scale plasmoid release or "drizzle" of iogenic plasma may often occur in the middle magnetosphere, thus forming a significant mode of plasma mass loss, alongside plasmoids, at Jupiter.
Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Mohammed Touseef
Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.
A Monte Carlo Model of Radiative Transfer Including Linear and Circular Polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guirado, Daniel; Moreno, F.
2009-09-01
A Monte Carlo model of radiative transfer through a spherical shell of dust with an optional solid nucleus in its center has been developed. This model calculates the four of the Stokes parameters of the light outgoing the shell and those of the incoming light onto the nucleus. Hence, not only the flux, but also the degree of both linear and circular polarization can be computed. The model may represent a comet but also any sort of interplanetary or interstellar dust cloud. As the scattering matrix of the dust cloud is an input, properties of the light scattered by any kind of dust particles can be computed, including aligned particles, asymmetrical grains and scatterers made of optically active materials, which have been historically proposed as possible explanations of the degree of circular polarization observed in light scattered by comets. Any optical thickness of the dust shell can be considered, because this method works for both single and multiple scattering conditions. We will describe the model in detail and present a collection of benchmarks in order to validate the assumed hypothesizes and the reliability of the code. We will also present some results on circular polarization of a comet-like system (spherical shell with a kilometer-sized nucleus in its core). These results indicate that circular polarization can arise even for light scattered by a spherical comet with a coma made of spherical and optically inactive grains, if the symmetry of the system around the direction of the incident light is broken by observing just a small non central region of the comet, but not the entire cloud.
Three-layer model for the surface second-harmonic generation yield including multiple reflections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Sean M.; Mendoza, Bernardo S.
2016-09-01
We present the three-layer model to calculate the surface second-harmonic generation (SSHG) yield. This model considers that the surface is represented by three regions or layers. The first layer is the vacuum region with a dielectric function ɛv(ω ) =1 from where the fundamental electric field impinges on the material. The second layer is a thin layer (ℓ ) of thickness d characterized by a dielectric function ɛℓ(ω ) , and it is in this layer where the SSHG takes place. The third layer is the bulk region denoted by b and characterized by ɛb(ω ) . Both the vacuum and bulk layers are semi-infinite. The model includes the multiple reflections of both the fundamental and the second-harmonic (SH) fields that take place at the thin layer ℓ . We obtain explicit expressions for the SSHG yield for the commonly used s and p polarizations of the incoming 1 ω and outgoing 2 ω electric fields, where no assumptions for the symmetry of the surface are made. These symmetry assumptions ultimately determine which components of the surface nonlinear second-order susceptibility tensor χ (-2 ω ;ω ,ω ) are different from zero, and thus contribute to the SSHG yield. Then, we particularize the results for the most commonly investigated surfaces, the (001), (110), and (111) crystallographic faces, taking their symmetries into account. We use the three-layer model and compare it against the experimental results of a Si(111)(1 ×1 ):H surface, as a test case, and use it to predict the SSHG yield of a Si(001)(2 ×1 ) surface.
The force-frequency relationship: insights from mathematical modeling
Negroni, Jorge A.; Chen-Izu, Ye; Bers, Donald M.
2013-01-01
The force-frequency relationship has intrigued researchers since its discovery by Bowditch in 1871. Many attempts have been made to construct mathematical descriptions of this phenomenon, beginning with the simple formulation of Koch-Wesser and Blinks in 1963 to the most sophisticated ones of today. This property of cardiac muscle is amplified by β-adrenergic stimulation, and, in a coordinated way, the neurohumoral state alters both frequency (acting on the sinoatrial node) as well as force generation (modifying ventricular myocytes). This synchronized tuning is needed to meet new metabolic demands. Cardiac modelers have already linked mechanical and electrical activity in their formulations and showed how those activities feedback on each other. However, now it is necessary to include neurological control to have a complete description of heart performance, especially when changes in frequency are involved. Study of arrhythmias (or antiarrhythmic drugs) based on mathematical models should incorporate this effect to make useful predictions or point out potential pharmaceutical targets. PMID:23471245
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Reena; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar
2017-02-01
Line surveillance and management information in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) can be broadcast by modulating the amplitude of the low-frequency lightwave information signal, the process termed as overmodulation in the literature. This paper presents systematic solutions for the overmodulated pump and information signal transfer functions for EDFA. It includes amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) that has an impact on outcomes in the high-gain system. To the extent of our belief, the methodical model simulated with the current approach leads to a distinct perspective of an outcome in the respective field. The test bed described here is realistic. It specifically represents the overmodulation behavior in an EDFA under the influence of ASE.
Benedetti, Fabrizio; Dorier, Julien; Burnier, Yannis; Stasiak, Andrzej
2014-03-01
Understanding the structure of interphase chromosomes is essential to elucidate regulatory mechanisms of gene expression. During recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing expanded the power of chromosome conformation capture (3C) methods that provide information about reciprocal spatial proximity of chromosomal loci. Since 2012, it is known that entire chromatin in interphase chromosomes is organized into regions with strongly increased frequency of internal contacts. These regions, with the average size of ∼1 Mb, were named topological domains. More recent studies demonstrated presence of unconstrained supercoiling in interphase chromosomes. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we show here that by including supercoiling into models of topological domains one can reproduce and thus provide possible explanations of several experimentally observed characteristics of interphase chromosomes, such as their complex contact maps.
Van Epps, J Scott; Vorp, David A
2008-10-01
The biomechanical milieu of the coronary arteries is unique in that they experience mechanical deformations of twisting, bending, and stretching due to their tethering to the epicardial surface. Spatial variations in stresses caused by these deformations could account for the heterogeneity of atherosclerotic plaques within the coronary tree. The goal of this work was to utilize previously reported shear moduli to calculate a shear strain parameter for a Fung-type exponential model of the arterial wall and determine if this single constant can account for the observed behavior of arterial segments under torsion. A Fung-type exponential strain-energy function was adapted to include a torsional shear strain term. The material parameter for this term was determined from previously published data describing the relationship between shear modulus and circumferential stress and longitudinal stretch ratio. Values for the shear strain parameter were determined for three geometries representing the mean porcine left anterior descending coronary artery dimensions plus or minus one standard deviation. Finite element simulation of triaxial biomechanical testing was then used to validate the model. The mean value calculated for the shear strain parameter was 0.0759+/-0.0009 (N=3 geometries). In silico triaxial experiments demonstrated that the shear modulus is directly proportional to the applied pressure at a constant longitudinal stretch ratio and to the stretch ratio at a constant pressure. Shear moduli determined from these simulations showed excellent agreement to shear moduli reported in literature. Previously published models describing the torsional shear behavior of porcine coronary arteries require a total of six independent constants. We have reduced that description into a single parameter in a Fung-type exponential strain-energy model. This model will aid in the estimation of wall stress distributions of vascular segments undergoing torsion, as such information
An extension of the VIRA electron temperature and density models to include solar cycle variations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brace, L. H.; Theis, R. F.
The original VIRA ionosphere model was based primarily on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) data obtained at solar maximum (F10.7~200) in 1979 and 1980 when periapsis was being maintained deep in the Venusian ionosphere. In situ measurements provided data on temperature, composition, density, and drift velocity, while the radio occultation method provided height profiles of electron density, N_e. The solar cycle variation was deduced by comparison with the Venera 9 and 10 occultation data from the previous solar minimum. No data were available on the solar cycle variations of other ionospheric parameters, because periapsis had already risen out of the ionosphere by the time solar activity began to decline early in 1983. During the Entry period in the Fall of 1992, however, PVO got a brief glimpse of the nightside ionosphere at lower solar activity (F10.7~120). During the intervening decade important in situ data were obtained on the upper nightside ionosphere that extends far down stream from the planet. This region was found to be highly sensitive to solar wind interactions and solar activity. In this paper, we discuss ways in which the later PVO data can be used to extend the VIRA model to higher altitudes and to include the solar cycle variations. As an example, we present some pre-entry Orbiter Electron Temperature Probe measurements that provide new clues as to the dayside T_e behavior at low solar activity.
Three-dimensional finite difference viscoelastic wave modelling including surface topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hestholm, Stig
1999-12-01
I have undertaken 3-D finite difference (FD) modelling of seismic scattering fromfree-surface topography. Exact free-surface boundary conditions for arbitrary 3-D topographies have been derived for the particle velocities. The boundary conditions are combined with a velocity-stress formulation of the full viscoelastic wave equations. A curved grid represents the physical medium and its upper boundary represents the free-surface topography. The wave equations are numerically discretized by an eighth-order FD method on a staggered grid in space, and a leap-frog technique and the Crank-Nicholson method in time. I simulate scattering from teleseismic P waves by using plane incident wave fronts and real topography from a 60 x 60 km area that includes the NORESS array of seismic receiver stations in southeastern Norway. Synthetic snapshots and seismograms of the wavefield show clear conversion from P to Rg (short-period fundamental-mode Rayleigh) waves in areas of rough topography, which is consistent with numerous observations. By parallelization on fast supercomputers, it is possible to model higher frequencies and/or larger areas than before.
A.S. Agarwal; U. Landau; X. Shan; J.H. Payer
2006-03-14
Crevice corrosion may be limited by the capacity of the external cathodic region to support anodic dissolution currents within the crevice. The analysis here focuses on behavior of metal surfaces covered by a thin ({approx}microns) layer of the electrolyte film including particulates. The particulates can affect the cathode current capacity (I{sub total}) by increasing the solution resistance (''volume effect'') and by decreasing the electrode area (''surface effect''). In addition, there can be particulate effects on oxygen reduction kinetics and oxygen transport. This work simulates and characterizes the effect of a uniform particulate monolayer on the cathode current capacity for steady state conditions in the presence of a thin electrolyte film. Particulate configurations with varying particle size, shape, arrangement, volume fraction, and electrode area coverage were numerically modeled as a function of the properties of the system. It is observed that the effects of particles can be fully accounted for in terms of two corrections: the volume blockage effect on the electrolyte resistivity can be correlated using Bruggeman's equation, and the electrode coverage effect can be modeled in terms of a simple area correction to the kinetics expression. For the range of parameters analyzed, applying these two correction factors, cathodes covered with thin electrolyte films that contain particles can be represented in terms of equivalent homogeneous electrolytes that can then be analyzed using simpler approaches. Continuing work will examine the effects of greater volume fractions of particles and multiple particle layers.
Equivalent Plate Structural Modeling for Wing Shape Optimization Including Transverse Shear
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Livne, Eli
1994-01-01
A new technique for structural modeling of airplane wings is presented taking transverse shear effects into account. The kinematic assumptions of first-order shear deformation plate theory In combination with numerical analysis, where simple polynomials are used to define geometry, construction, and displacement approximations, lead to analytical expressions for elements of the stiffness and mass matrices and load vector. Contributions from the cover skins, spar and rib caps, and spar and rib webs are included as well as concentrated springs and concentrated masses. Limitations of wing modeling techniques based on classical plate theory are discussed, and the Improved accuracy of the new equivalent plate technique is demonstrated through comparison with finite element analysis and test results. Expressions for analytical derivatives of stiffness, mass, and load terms with respect to wing shape are given. Based on these, it is possible to obtain analytic sensitivities of displacements, stresses, and natural frequencies with respect to planform shape and depth distribution. This makes the new capability an effective structural tool for wing shape optimization.
Equivalent plate structural modeling for wing shape optimization including transverse shear
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Livne, Eli
1994-01-01
A new technique for structural modeling of airplanes wings is presented taking transverse shear effects into account. The kinematic assumptions of first-order shear deformation plate theory in combination with numerical analysis, where simple polynomials are used to define geometry, construction, and displacement approximations, lead to analytical expressions for elements of the stiffness and mass matrices and load vector. Contributions from the cover skins, spar and rib caps, and spar and rib webs are included as well as concentrated springs and concentrated masses. Limitations of wing modeling techniques based on classical plate theory are discussed, and the improved accuracy of the new equivalent plate technique is demonstrated through comparison with finite element analysis and test results. Expressions for analytical derivatives of stiffness, mass, and load terms with respect to wing shape are given. Based on these, it is possible to obtain analytic sensitivities of displacements, stresses, and natural frequencies with respect to planform shape and depth distribution. This makes the new capability an effective structural tool for wing shape optimization.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aydin, Burak; Leite, Walter L.; Algina, James
2016-01-01
We investigated methods of including covariates in two-level models for cluster randomized trials to increase power to detect the treatment effect. We compared multilevel models that included either an observed cluster mean or a latent cluster mean as a covariate, as well as the effect of including Level 1 deviation scores in the model. A Monte…
Stucki, S; Orozco-terWengel, P; Forester, B R; Duruz, S; Colli, L; Masembe, C; Negrini, R; Landguth, E; Jones, M R; Bruford, M W; Taberlet, P; Joost, S
2016-11-01
With the increasing availability of both molecular and topo-climatic data, the main challenges facing landscape genomics - that is the combination of landscape ecology with population genomics - include processing large numbers of models and distinguishing between selection and demographic processes (e.g. population structure). Several methods address the latter, either by estimating a null model of population history or by simultaneously inferring environmental and demographic effects. Here we present samβada, an approach designed to study signatures of local adaptation, with special emphasis on high performance computing of large-scale genetic and environmental data sets. samβada identifies candidate loci using genotype-environment associations while also incorporating multivariate analyses to assess the effect of many environmental predictor variables. This enables the inclusion of explanatory variables representing population structure into the models to lower the occurrences of spurious genotype-environment associations. In addition, samβada calculates local indicators of spatial association for candidate loci to provide information on whether similar genotypes tend to cluster in space, which constitutes a useful indication of the possible kinship between individuals. To test the usefulness of this approach, we carried out a simulation study and analysed a data set from Ugandan cattle to detect signatures of local adaptation with samβada, bayenv, lfmm and an FST outlier method (FDIST approach in arlequin) and compare their results. samβada - an open source software for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X available at http://lasig.epfl.ch/sambada - outperforms other approaches and better suits whole-genome sequence data processing.
Onishi, Janet C; Park, Joong-Wook; Prado, Julio; Eades, Susan C; Mirza, Mustajab H; Fugaro, Michael N; Häggblom, Max M; Reinemeyer, Craig R
2012-10-12
Carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis are used to study the development of lameness. It is hypothesized that a diet-induced shift in cecal bacterial communities contributes to the development of the pro-inflammatory state that progresses to laminar failure. It is proposed that vasoactive amines, protease activators and endotoxin, all bacterial derived bioactive metabolites, play a role in disease development. Questions regarding the oral bioavailability of many of the bacterial derived bioactive metabolites remain. This study evaluates the possibility that a carbohydrate-induced overgrowth of potentially pathogenic cecal bacteria occurs and that bacterial translocation contributes toward the development of the pro-inflammatory state. Two groups of mixed-breed horses were used, those with laminitis induced by cornstarch (n=6) or oligofructan (n=6) and non-laminitic controls (n=8). Cecal fluid and tissue homogenates of extra-intestinal sites including the laminae were used to enumerate Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Horses that developed Obel grade2 lameness, revealed a significant overgrowth of potentially pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal bacteria within the cecal fluid. Although colonization of extra-intestinal sites with potentially pathogenic bacteria was not detected, results of this study indicate that cecal/colonic lymphadenopathy and eosinophilia develop in horses progressing to lameness. It is hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory state in carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis is driven by an immune response to the rapid overgrowth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cecal bacterial communities in the gut. Further equine research is indicated to study the immunological response, involving the lymphatic system that develops in the model.
INTERIOR MODELS OF SATURN: INCLUDING THE UNCERTAINTIES IN SHAPE AND ROTATION
Helled, Ravit; Guillot, Tristan
2013-04-20
The accurate determination of Saturn's gravitational coefficients by Cassini could provide tighter constraints on Saturn's internal structure. Also, occultation measurements provide important information on the planetary shape which is often not considered in structure models. In this paper we explore how wind velocities and internal rotation affect the planetary shape and the constraints on Saturn's interior. We show that within the geodetic approach the derived physical shape is insensitive to the assumed deep rotation. Saturn's re-derived equatorial and polar radii at 100 mbar are found to be 54,445 {+-} 10 km and 60,365 {+-} 10 km, respectively. To determine Saturn's interior, we use one-dimensional three-layer hydrostatic structure models and present two approaches to include the constraints on the shape. These approaches, however, result in only small differences in Saturn's derived composition. The uncertainty in Saturn's rotation period is more significant: with Voyager's 10{sup h}39{sup m} period, the derived mass of heavy elements in the envelope is 0-7 M{sub Circled-Plus }. With a rotation period of 10{sup h}32{sup m}, this value becomes <4 M{sub Circled-Plus }, below the minimum mass inferred from spectroscopic measurements. Saturn's core mass is found to depend strongly on the pressure at which helium phase separation occurs, and is estimated to be 5-20 M{sub Circled-Plus }. Lower core masses are possible if the separation occurs deeper than 4 Mbar. We suggest that the analysis of Cassini's radio occultation measurements is crucial to test shape models and could lead to constraints on Saturn's rotation profile and departures from hydrostatic equilibrium.
Personality, Relationship Conflict, and Teamwork-Related Mental Models
Vîrgă, Delia; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A.; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia
2014-01-01
This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models. PMID:25372143
Extending the actor-partner interdependence model to include cross-informant data.
van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Goncy, Elizabeth A
2010-12-01
This paper illustrates an extension of the APIM technique within a path analysis framework by using cross-informant data on the outcome variable. Data for the current study were derived from a sample of young adult heterosexual couples who had been in a romantic relationship for at least four months (N = 115 couples). The findings from the current study indicate that romantic relationship satisfaction is associated with externalizing behavior problems among both females and males, but that both dyadic data and cross-informant reports are needed to understand this association. Not considering dyadic or cross-informant data may lead to different, and potentially misleading, claims. The findings from the current study provide clear evidence that incorporating cross-informant data in dyadic data analyses provides important new insights into understanding the association between romantic relationship functioning and individual outcomes.
Fast hybrid SPECT simulation including efficient septal penetration modelling (SP-PSF).
Staelens, Steven; de Wit, Tim; Beekman, Freek
2007-06-07
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are degraded by the detection of scattered photons and photons that penetrate the collimator septa. In this paper, a previously proposed Monte Carlo software that employs fast object scatter simulation using convolution-based forced detection (CFD) is extended towards a wide range of medium and high energy isotopes measured using various collimators. To this end, a fast method was developed for incorporating effects of septal penetrating (SP) photons. The SP contributions are obtained by calculating the object attenuation along the path from primary emission to detection followed by sampling a pre-simulated and scalable septal penetration point spread function (SP-PSF). We found that with only a very slight reduction in accuracy, we could accelerate the SP simulation by four orders of magnitude. To achieve this, we combined: (i) coarse sampling of the activity and attenuation distribution; (ii) simulation of the penetration only for a coarse grid of detector pixels followed by interpolation and (iii) neglection of SP-PSF elements below a certain threshold. By inclusion of this SP-PSF-based simulation it became possible to model both primary and septal penetrated photons while only 10% extra computation time was added to the CFD-based Monte Carlo simulator. As a result, a SPECT simulation of a patient-like distribution including SP now takes less than 5 s per projection angle on a dual processor PC. Therefore, the simulator is well-suited as an efficient projector for fully 3D model-based reconstruction or as a fast data-set generator for applications such as image processing optimization or observer studies.
Extending the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to Include Cross-Informant Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Goncy, Elizabeth A.
2010-01-01
This paper illustrates an extension of the APIM technique within a path analysis framework by using cross-informant data on the outcome variable. Data for the current study were derived from a sample of young adult heterosexual couples who had been in a romantic relationship for at least four months (N = 115 couples). The findings from the current…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höning, D.; Spohn, T.
2014-12-01
By harvesting solar energy and converting it to chemical energy, photosynthetic life plays an important role in the energy budget of Earth [2]. This leads to alterations of chemical reservoirs eventually affecting the Earth's interior [4]. It further has been speculated [3] that the formation of continents may be a consequence of the evolution life. A steady state model [1] suggests that the Earth without its biosphere would evolve to a steady state with a smaller continent coverage and a dryer mantle than is observed today. We present a model including (i) parameterized thermal evolution, (ii) continental growth and destruction, and (iii) mantle water regassing and outgassing. The biosphere enhances the production rate of sediments which eventually are subducted. These sediments are assumed to (i) carry water to depth bound in stable mineral phases and (ii) have the potential to suppress shallow dewatering of the underlying sediments and crust due to their low permeability. We run a Monte Carlo simulation for various initial conditions and treat all those parameter combinations as success which result in the fraction of continental crust coverage observed for present day Earth. Finally, we simulate the evolution of an abiotic Earth using the same set of parameters but a reduced rate of continental weathering and erosion. Our results suggest that the origin and evolution of life could have stabilized the large continental surface area of the Earth and its wet mantle, leading to the relatively low mantle viscosity we observe at present. Without photosynthetic life on our planet, the Earth would be geodynamical less active due to a dryer mantle, and would have a smaller fraction of continental coverage than observed today. References[1] Höning, D., Hansen-Goos, H., Airo, A., Spohn, T., 2014. Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage. Planetary and Space Science 98, 5-13. [2] Kleidon, A., 2010. Life, hierarchy, and the
Dissecting the two models of TCR structure-function relationships.
Cohn, Melvin
2016-08-01
There are only two comprehensive models attempting to account for the TCR structure-function relationships, referred to as the Standard or Centric model (Model I) and the Tritope model (Model II). This essay is written to analyze comparatively the two formulations of restrictive reactivity, stressing in particular the logic of each. Model I is essentially built on an analogy between the TCR and the BCR. Given a TCR with only one combining site (paratope), restrictive recognition requires that its ligand be viewed as a composite structure between the peptide and restricting element. It is this relationship that entrains a set of correlates that makes Model I untenable. Model II is predicated on the postulate that the recognition of the allele-specific determinants expressed by MHC-encoded restricting elements (R) is germline encoded and selected, whereas the recognition of peptide (P) is somatically encoded and selected. These selective pressures must operate on definable structures and this, in turn, necessitates a multiply recognitive T cell antigen receptor (TCR) with independent anti-R and anti-P paratopes that function coherently to signal restrictive reactivity. The consequences of this "two repertoire" postulate give us a concept of TCR structure quite distinct from that at present generally accepted, as well as a surprising relationship between numbers of functional TCR V gene segments and allele-specific determinants in the species. In the end, both models must deal with the relationship between the epitope-paratope interaction(s) and the signals to the T cell necessary for its differentiation and function.
Violence in Young Adolescents' Relationships: A Path Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Josephson, Wendy L.; Proulx, Jocelyn B.
2008-01-01
A structural equation model based on social cognitive theory was used to predict relationship violence from young adolescents' knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes, and alternative conflict strategies (n = 143 male and 147 female grade 7-9 students). A direct causal effect was supported for violence-tolerant attitudes and psychologically aggressive…
Cultivating Knowledge Sharing through the Relationship Management Maturity Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Valerie A.; Hatzakis, Tally; Lycett, Mark; Macredie, Robert
2005-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of the relationship management maturity model (RMMM), the output of an initiative aimed at bridging the gap between business units and the IT organisation. It does this through improving and assessing knowledge sharing between business and IT staff in Finco, a large financial…
Modeling the Relationships between Subdimensions of Environmental Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Genc, Murat; Akilli, Mustafa
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the relationships between subdimensions of environmental literacy using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The study was conducted by the analysis of students' answers to questionnaires data using SEM. Initially, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's tests were done to test appropriateness of subdimensions to…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzenz, D. D.; Nyst, M.; Apel, E. V.; Muir-Wood, R.
2014-12-01
The recent Canterbury earthquake sequence (CES) renewed public and academic awareness concerning the clustered nature of seismicity. Multiple event occurrence in short time and space intervals is reminiscent of aftershock sequences, but aftershock is a statistical definition, not a label one can give an earthquake in real-time. Aftershocks are defined collectively as what creates the Omori event rate decay after a large event or are defined as what is taken away as "dependent events" using a declustering method. It is noteworthy that depending on the declustering method used on the Canterbury earthquake sequence, the number of independent events varies a lot. This lack of unambiguous definition of aftershocks leads to the need to investigate the amount of clustering inherent in "declustered" risk models. This is the task we concentrate on in this contribution. We start from a background source model for the Canterbury region, in which 1) centroids of events of given magnitude are distributed using a latin-hypercube lattice, 2) following the range of preferential orientations determined from stress maps and focal mechanism, 3) with length determined using the local scaling relationship and 4) rates from a and b values derived from the declustered pre-2010 catalog. We then proceed to create tens of thousands of realizations of 6 to 20 year periods, and we define criteria to identify which successions of events in the region would be perceived as a sequence. Note that the spatial clustering expected is a lower end compared to a fully uniform distribution of events. Then we perform the same exercise with rates and b-values determined from the catalog including the CES. If the pre-2010 catalog was long (or rich) enough, then the computed "stationary" rates calculated from it would include the CES declustered events (by construction, regardless of the physical meaning of or relationship between those events). In regions of low seismicity rate (e.g., Canterbury before
On the Relationship Between Sigma Models and Spin Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Controzzi, D.; Hawkins, E.
We consider the two-dimensional O(3) non-linear sigma model with topological term using a lattice regularization introduced by Shankar and Read [Nucl. Phys. B 336, 457 (1990)], that is suitable for studying the strong coupling regime. When this lattice model is quantized, the coefficient θ of the topological term is quantized as θ=2πs, with s integer or half-integer. We study in detail the relationship between the low energy behaviour of this theory and the one-dimensional spin-s Heisenberg model. We generalize the analysis to sigma models with other symmetries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso Mendonça, Paula Cristina; Justi, Rosária
2013-09-01
Some studies related to the nature of scientific knowledge demonstrate that modelling is an inherently argumentative process. This study aims at discussing the relationship between modelling and argumentation by analysing data collected during the modelling-based teaching of ionic bonding and intermolecular interactions. The teaching activities were planned from the transposition of the main modelling stages that constitute the 'Model of Modelling Diagram' so that students could experience each of such stages. All the lessons were video recorded and their transcriptions supported the elaboration of case studies for each group of students. From the analysis of the case studies, we identified argumentative situations when students performed all of the modelling stages. Our data show that the argumentative situations were related to sense making, articulating and persuasion purposes, and were closely related to the generation of explanations in the modelling processes. They also show that representations are important resources for argumentation. Our results are consistent with some of those already reported in the literature regarding the relationship between modelling and argumentation, but are also divergent when they show that argumentation is not only related to the model evaluation phase.
Satpathy, Preseela; Biernacki, Piotr; Cypionka, Heribert; Steinigeweg, Sven
2016-12-05
A modified Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1xp) including lactate was applied to a full-scale biogas plant. This model considers monosaccharides to degrade through lactic acid, which further degrades majorly into acetate followed by propionate and butyrate. Experimental data were derived from the previous works in the same laboratory, and the proposed parameters were validated against batch experiments. After successful validation, the biogas plant bearing a fermenter size of 7 dam(3) and operated with food waste and cattle manure was simulated. The biogas production and methane content were reliably simulated, and a good fit could be obtained against the experimental data with an average difference of less than 1%. When compared to the original ADM1 model, the performance of the lactate-incorporated model was found to be improved. Inclusion of lactate as a parameter in the ADM1xp model is recommended for an increased sensitivity and enhanced prediction principally for systems dealing with high carbohydrate and lactate loads.
Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D
2014-02-01
Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.
Conchúir, Shane Ó.; Der, Bryan S.; Drew, Kevin; Kuroda, Daisuke; Xu, Jianqing; Weitzner, Brian D.; Renfrew, P. Douglas; Sripakdeevong, Parin; Borgo, Benjamin; Havranek, James J.; Kuhlman, Brian; Kortemme, Tanja; Bonneau, Richard; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Das, Rhiju
2013-01-01
The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides experimentally tested and rapidly evolving tools for the 3D structure prediction and high-resolution design of proteins, nucleic acids, and a growing number of non-natural polymers. Despite its free availability to academic users and improving documentation, use of Rosetta has largely remained confined to developers and their immediate collaborators due to the code’s difficulty of use, the requirement for large computational resources, and the unavailability of servers for most of the Rosetta applications. Here, we present a unified web framework for Rosetta applications called ROSIE (Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone). ROSIE provides (a) a common user interface for Rosetta protocols, (b) a stable application programming interface for developers to add additional protocols, (c) a flexible back-end to allow leveraging of computer cluster resources shared by RosettaCommons member institutions, and (d) centralized administration by the RosettaCommons to ensure continuous maintenance. This paper describes the ROSIE server infrastructure, a step-by-step ‘serverification’ protocol for use by Rosetta developers, and the deployment of the first nine ROSIE applications by six separate developer teams: Docking, RNA de novo, ERRASER, Antibody, Sequence Tolerance, Supercharge, Beta peptide design, NCBB design, and VIP redesign. As illustrated by the number and diversity of these applications, ROSIE offers a general and speedy paradigm for serverification of Rosetta applications that incurs negligible cost to developers and lowers barriers to Rosetta use for the broader biological community. ROSIE is available at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. PMID:23717507
A spatial model of cellular molecular trafficking including active transport along microtubules.
Cangiani, A; Natalini, R
2010-12-21
We consider models of Ran-driven nuclear transport of molecules such as proteins in living cells. The mathematical model presented is the first to take into account for the active transport of molecules along the cytoplasmic microtubules. All parameters entering the models are thoroughly discussed. The model is tested by numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. The numerical experiments are compared to the behavior observed experimentally.
Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul
2012-01-01
In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Matthew James
Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi
Relationships between Visual Static Models and Students' Written Solutions to Fraction Tasks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Westenskow, Arla; Shumway, Jessica; Jordan, Kerry
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to deconstruct the relationship between visual static models and students' written solutions to fraction problems using a large sample of students' solutions. Participants in the study included 162 third-grade and 209 fourth-grade students from 17 different classrooms. Students' written responses to open-ended tasks…
Evaluation of an Impedance Model for Perforates Including the Effect of Bias Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Betts, J. F.; Follet, J. I.; Kelly, J. J.; Thomas, R. H.
2000-01-01
A new bias flow impedance model is developed for perforated plates from basic principles using as little empiricisms as possible. A quality experimental database was used to determine the predictive validity of the model. Results show that the model performs better for higher (15%) rather than lower (5%) percent open area (POA) samples. Based on the least squares ratio of numerical vs. experimental results, model predictions were on average within 20% and 30% for the higher and lower (POA), respectively. It is hypothesized on the work of other investigators that at lower POAs the higher fluid velocities in the perforate's orifices start forming unsteady vortices, which is not accounted for in our model. The numerical model, in general also underpredicts the experiments. It is theorized that the actual acoustic C(sub D) is lower than the measured raylometer C(sub D) used in the model. Using a larger C(sub D) makes the numerical model predict lower impedances. The frequency domain model derived in this paper shows very good agreement with another model derived using a time domain approach.
Novel evolutionary relationship among four fish model systems.
Chen, Wei-Jen; Ortí, Guillermo; Meyer, Axel
2004-09-01
Knowledge of the correct phylogenetic relationships among animals is crucial for the valid interpretation of evolutionary trends in biology. Zebrafish, medaka, pufferfish and cichilds are fish models for development, genomics and comparative genetics studies, although their phylogenetic relationships have not been tested rigorously. The results of phylogenomic analysis based on 20 nuclear protein-coding genes confirmed the basal placement of zebrafish in the fish phylogeny but revealed an unexpected relationship among the other three species, contrary to traditionally held systematic views based on morphology. Our analyses show that medaka (Beloniformes) and cichlids (Perciformes) appear to be more closely related to each other than either of them is to pufferfish (Tetraodontiformes), suggesting that a re-interpretation of some findings in comparative biology might be required. In addition, phylogenomic analyses show that fish typically have more copies of nuclear genes than land vertebrates, supporting the fish-specific genome duplication hypothesis.
The relationship between psoriasis and depression: A multiple mediation model.
Łakuta, Patryk; Marcinkiewicz, Kamil; Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia
2016-12-01
This study examined the relationship between psoriasis and depression, proposing a multiple mediation model to analyse the relationship. A total of 193 patients with psoriasis aged 20-67 years completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Stigmatization Scale, the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised, and the Body Emotions Scale. The Body Surface Area index was used to assess severity of psoriasis. Serial multiple mediation analysis revealed that experiences of stigmatization, maladaptive beliefs about appearance and its salience to one's self-evaluation, and negative emotional attitudes towards the body, jointly, sequentially mediated the relationship between the presence of skin lesions of psoriasis and depressive symptoms. These results highlight the importance of the associations between stigmatization and cognitive and affective aspects of body image in relation to depression in patients with psoriasis. We suggest that prevention and intervention programs for psoriasis patients that target body image enhancement would be worthy of further research.
A New Finite-Conductivity Droplet Evaporation Model Including Liquid Turbulence Effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balasubramanyam, M. S.; Chen, C. P.; Trinh, H. P.
2006-01-01
A new approach to account for finite thermal conductivity and turbulence effects within atomizing droplets of an evaporating spray is presented in this paper. The model is an extension of the T-blob and T-TAB atomization/spray model of Trinh and Chen [9]. This finite conductivity model is based on the two-temperature film theory in which the turbulence characteristics of the droplet are used to estimate the effective thermal diffusivity for the liquid-side film thickness. Both one-way and two-way coupled calculations were performed to investigate the performance cf this model against the published experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Santosh Kumar
2015-12-01
2D Analytical model of the body center potential (BCP) in short channel junctionless Cylindrical Surrounding Gate (JLCSG) MOSFETs is developed using evanescent mode analysis (EMA). This model also incorporates the gate bias dependent inner and outer fringing capacitances due to the gate-source/drain fringing fields. The developed model provides results in good agreement with simulated results for variations of different physical parameters of JLCSG MOSFET viz. gate length, channel radius, doping concentration, and oxide thickness. Using the BCP, an analytical model for the threshold voltage has been derived and validated against results obtained from 3D device simulator.
Complete band gaps including non-local effects occur only in the relaxed micromorphic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madeo, Angela; Neff, Patrizio; d'Agostino, Marco Valerio; Barbagallo, Gabriele
2016-11-01
In this paper, we substantiate the claim implicitly made in previous works that the relaxed micromorphic model is the only linear, isotropic, reversibly elastic, nonlocal generalized continuum model able to describe complete band-gaps on a phenomenological level. To this end, we recapitulate the response of the standard Mindlin-Eringen micromorphic model with the full micro-distortion gradient ∇P, the relaxed micromorphic model depending only on the Curl P of the micro-distortion P, and a variant of the standard micromorphic model, in which the curvature depends only on the divergence Div P of the micro distortion. The Div-model has size-effects, but the dispersion analysis for plane waves shows the incapability of that model to even produce a partial band gap. Combining the curvature to depend quadratically on Div P and Curl P shows that such a model is similar to the standard Mindlin-Eringen model, which can eventually show only a partial band gap.
Cherkasskaya, Eugenia; Rosario, Margaret
2017-01-24
The etiology of low female sexual desire, the most prevalent sexual complaint in women, is multi-determined, implicating biological and psychological factors, including women's early parent-child relationships and bodily self-representations. The current study evaluated a model that hypothesized that sexual body self-representations (sexual subjectivity, self-objectification, genital self-image) explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment, separation-individuation, parental identification) and sexual desire in heterosexual women. We recruited 614 young, heterosexual women (M = 25.5 years, SD = 4.63) through social media. The women completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used. The hypotheses were supported in that the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment and separation-individuation) and sexual desire was mediated by sexual body self-representations (sexual body esteem, self-objectification, genital self-image). However, parental identification was not related significantly to sexual body self-representations or sexual desire in the model. Current findings demonstrated that understanding female sexual desire necessitates considering women's internalized working models of early parent-child relationships and their experiences of their bodies in a sexual context. Treatment of low or absent desire in women would benefit from modalities that emphasize early parent-child relationships as well as interventions that foster mind-body integration.
An Effective Model to Increase Student Attitude and Achievement: Narrative Including Analogies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akkuzu, Nalan; Akcay, Husamettin
2011-01-01
This study describes the analogical models and narratives used to introduce and teach Grade 9 chemical covalent compounds which are relatively abstract and difficult for students. We explained each model's development during the lessons and analyzed understanding students derived from these learning materials. In this context, achievement,…
A general BRDF/BSDF model including out-of-plane dependence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, M. E.; Joseph, R. I.; Tropf, W. J.; Brown, A. M.
2010-08-01
A semi-empirical reflectance/scatterance model has evolved over the years to represent a diverse set of materials from coated substrates to optical windows. This model separates the BRDF/BSDF into four basic components, specular, near-specular, diffuse, and Lambertian (random diffuse) terms. The specular and near-specular components employ a Gaussian phase function and the Fresnel power reflection coefficient. The Lambertian component uses Kubelka-Munk theory for the total integrated reflectance and transmittance. The model features wavelength, angle, and full hemispherical dependencies. It is applied to a variety of samples, from painted surfaces to transparent windows, with good success. This parameterized modeling approach is attractive because algorithms that use the model can be computationally efficient. Previous work has only considered in-plane effects. The present paper now explicitly takes into account the out-of-plane contribution and improves the total integrated factors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ukanwa, A. O.; Stermole, F. J.; Golden, J. O.
1972-01-01
Natural convection effects in phase change thermal control devices were studied. A mathematical model was developed to evaluate natural convection effects in a phase change test cell undergoing solidification. Although natural convection effects are minimized in flight spacecraft, all phase change devices are ground tested. The mathematical approach to the problem was to first develop a transient two-dimensional conduction heat transfer model for the solidification of a normal paraffin of finite geometry. Next, a transient two-dimensional model was developed for the solidification of the same paraffin by a combined conduction-natural-convection heat transfer model. Throughout the study, n-hexadecane (n-C16H34) was used as the phase-change material in both the theoretical and the experimental work. The models were based on the transient two-dimensional finite difference solutions of the energy, continuity, and momentum equations.
Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.
Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta
2012-03-01
This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Rockwell, F. E.; Teshera-Levye, J.; Zwieniecki, M.; Holbrook, N. M.
2013-12-01
The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical, and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, while the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two eco-types of Helianthus annuus L. in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modeling formulation developed by Ryel et al. (2002) could match experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive nighttime transpiration, and though over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that nighttime transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. (2002) formulation does not include the effect of nighttime transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of nighttime transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and nighttime stomatal behavior changed, both influencing HR.
Simulated village locations in Thailand: A multi-scale model including a neural network approach.
Tang, Wenwu; Malanson, George P; Entwisle, Barbara
2009-04-01
The simulation of rural land use systems, in general, and rural settlement dynamics in particular has developed with synergies of theory and methods for decades. Three current issues are: linking spatial patterns and processes, representing hierarchical relations across scales, and considering nonlinearity to address complex non-stationary settlement dynamics. We present a hierarchical simulation model to investigate complex rural settlement dynamics in Nang Rong, Thailand. This simulation uses sub-models to allocate new villages at three spatial scales. Regional and sub-regional models, which involve a nonlinear space-time autoregressive model implemented in a neural network approach, determine the number of new villages to be established. A dynamic village niche model, establishing pattern-process link, was designed to enable the allocation of villages into specific locations. Spatiotemporal variability in model performance indicates the pattern of village location changes as a settlement frontier advances from rice-growing lowlands to higher elevations. Experiments results demonstrate this simulation model can enhance our understanding of settlement development in Nang Rong and thus gain insight into complex land use systems in this area.
Simulated village locations in Thailand: A multi-scale model including a neural network approach
Malanson, George P.; Entwisle, Barbara
2010-01-01
The simulation of rural land use systems, in general, and rural settlement dynamics in particular has developed with synergies of theory and methods for decades. Three current issues are: linking spatial patterns and processes, representing hierarchical relations across scales, and considering nonlinearity to address complex non-stationary settlement dynamics. We present a hierarchical simulation model to investigate complex rural settlement dynamics in Nang Rong, Thailand. This simulation uses sub-models to allocate new villages at three spatial scales. Regional and sub-regional models, which involve a nonlinear space-time autoregressive model implemented in a neural network approach, determine the number of new villages to be established. A dynamic village niche model, establishing pattern-process link, was designed to enable the allocation of villages into specific locations. Spatiotemporal variability in model performance indicates the pattern of village location changes as a settlement frontier advances from rice-growing lowlands to higher elevations. Experiments results demonstrate this simulation model can enhance our understanding of settlement development in Nang Rong and thus gain insight into complex land use systems in this area. PMID:21399748
Extension of Lithium Ion Cell Model to Include Transient and Low-Temperature Behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudley, G.
2014-08-01
Current-interruption resistance measurements have been analysed in detail allowing the ESTEC lithium ion cell electrical/thermal model to be extended to allow modelling of cell voltage in response to imposed current changes at low temperatures and short time scales where activation polarisation becomes important. Whilst an unnecessary complication in most cases, this extension is needed under certain circumstances such as the simulation of Mars rover batteries forced to operate at low temperature and possible effects of battery voltage transients on battery-bus power subsystems. Comparison with test data show that the model is capable of giving a good fit in these circumstances.
A chain kinematic model to assess the movement of lower-limb including wobbling masses.
Thouzé, A; Monnet, T; Bélaise, C; Lacouture, P; Begon, M
2016-01-01
Computer simulation models have shown that wobbling mass on the lower limb affects the joint kinetics. Our objective was to propose a non-invasive method to estimate bones and wobbling mass kinematics in the lower limb during hopping. The chain kinematic model has set degrees of freedom at the joints and free wobbling bodies. By comparison to a model without wobbling bodies, the marker residual was reduced by 20% but the joint kinematics remains unchanged. Wobbling bodies' displacements reached 6.9 ± 3.5° and 6.9 ± 2.4 mm relative to the modelled bones. This original method is a first step to assess wobbling mass effect on joint kinetics.
Baumgartner, Christian; Böhm, Christian; Baumgartner, Daniela
2005-04-01
Machine learning has a great potential to mine potential markers from high-dimensional metabolic data without any a priori knowledge. Exemplarily, we investigated metabolic patterns of three severe metabolic disorders, PAHD, MCADD, and 3-MCCD, on which we constructed classification models for disease screening and diagnosis using a decision tree paradigm and logistic regression analysis (LRA). For the LRA model-building process we assessed the relevance of established diagnostic flags, which have been developed from the biochemical knowledge of newborn metabolism, and compared the models' error rates with those of the decision tree classifier. Both approaches yielded comparable classification accuracy in terms of sensitivity (>95.2%), while the LRA models built on flags showed significantly enhanced specificity. The number of false positive cases did not exceed 0.001%.
The Dynamic Modelling of a Spur Gear in Mesh Including Friction and a Crack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howard, Ian; Jia, Shengxiang; Wang, Jiande
2001-09-01
To improve the current generation of diagnostic techniques, many researchers are actively developing advanced dynamic models of gear case vibration to ascertain the effect of different types of gear train damage. This paper details a simplified gear dynamic model aimed at exploring the effect of friction on the resultant gear case vibration. The model incorporates the effect of variations in gear tooth torsional mesh stiffness, developed using finite element analysis, as the gears mesh together. The method of introducing the frictional force between teeth into the dynamic equations is given. The comparison between the results with friction and without friction was investigated using Matlab and Simulink models developed from the differential equations. The effects the single tooth crack has on the frequency spectrum and on the common diagnostic functions of the resulting gearbox component vibrations are also shown.
Progress in turbulence modeling for complex flow fields including effects of compressibility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, D. C.; Rubesin, M. W.
1980-01-01
Two second-order-closure turbulence models were devised that are suitable for predicting properties of complex turbulent flow fields in both incompressible and compressible fluids. One model is of the "two-equation" variety in which closure is accomplished by introducing an eddy viscosity which depends on both a turbulent mixing energy and a dissipation rate per unit energy, that is, a specific dissipation rate. The other model is a "Reynolds stress equation" (RSE) formulation in which all components of the Reynolds stress tensor and turbulent heat-flux vector are computed directly and are scaled by the specific dissipation rate. Computations based on these models are compared with measurements for the following flow fields: (a) low speed, high Reynolds number channel flows with plane strain or uniform shear; (b) equilibrium turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients or effects of compressibility; and (c) flow over a convex surface with and without a pressure gradient.
Extending the Scope of the Acculturation/Pidginization Model to Include Cognition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schumann, John H.
1990-01-01
Examines five cognitive models for second-language acquisition (SLA) and assesses how each might account for the Pidginized interlanguage found in the early stages of second-language acquisition. (23 references) (JL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Schönherr, G.; Becker, P. A.; Wolff, M. T.; Wilms, J.; Ferrigno, C.; West, B.
2013-04-01
A physical model for the radiation emitted from accretion columns of neutron stars with magnetic fields on the order of 1012 G has to reflect the large-scale dynamical structure of the inflowing matter as well as the quantum mechanical scattering processes leading to the formation of cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs). Becker & Wolff (B&W) developed an analytic model for the broadband continuum while the CRSFs have been investigated by Schönherr & Schwarm (S&S). While both models describe the separate trends seen in observational data very well, a fully self-consistent fitting approach to determine the physical parameters (e.g., accretion rate, magnetic field strength) of the accretion column in accreting X-ray pulsars requires accounting for both processes in one unified model. We present our first approach towards such an unified hybrid model covering both the macro- and the microphysics of the accreting plasma. We assume a cylinder symmetrical dual layer structure of the accretion column. The inner layer reflects the dynamical structure described by the B&W model while the optical thin outer layer acts as a CRSF forming region similar to a photosphere. We adopt the parameters from a fit of the B&W model to Her X-1 and calculate the emergent radiation as well as the dynamical properties such as bulk velocity within the core of the accretion column. Radiation escaping the optical thick core region is further altered by the outer shell, a thin layer with an optical depth on the order of 10-4-10-2 Thomson optical depth, adding cyclotron lines by processing it through the S&S model. This hybrid model is only a first step towards an unified model for accreting neutron stars with strong magnetic fields. In the future we will investigate the insertion of a third layer in the middle as a transition region, parameter boundaries, and also incorporate general relativity with the ultimate goal to use this new tool to model phase-resolved spectroscopy of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, D. B.; Virgin, L. N.; Belvin, W. K.
2003-01-01
This paper presents a parameter study of the effect of boom axial loading on the global dynamics of a 2-meter solar sail scale model. The experimental model used is meant for building expertise in finite element analysis and experimental execution, not as a predecessor to any planned flight mission or particular design concept. The results here are to demonstrate the ability to predict and measure structural dynamics and mode shapes in the presence of axial loading.
Detecting relationships between physiological variables using graphical models.
Imhoff, Michael; Fried, Ronald; Gather, Ursula
2002-01-01
In intensive care physiological variables of the critically ill are measured and recorded in short time intervals. The proper extraction and interpretation of the information contained in this flood of information can hardly be done by experience alone. Intelligent alarm systems are needed to provide suitable bedside decision support. So far there is no commonly accepted standard for detecting the actual clinical state from the patient record. We use the statistical methodology of graphical models based on partial correlations for detecting time-varying relationships between physiological variables. Graphical models provide information on the relationships among physiological variables that is helpful e.g. for variable selection. Separate analyses for different pathophysiological states show that distinct clinical states are characterized by distinct partial correlation structures. Hence, this technique can provide new insights into physiological mechanisms. PMID:12463843
Wang, Xuelin; Wang, Liling; Zhou, Jianjun; Hu, Yujin
2014-08-01
A three-dimensional finite element model is developed for the simulation of the sound transmission through the human auditory periphery consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear and cochlea. The cochlea is modelled as a straight duct divided into two fluid-filled scalae by the basilar membrane (BM) having an orthotropic material property with dimensional variation along its length. In particular, an active feed-forward mechanism is added into the passive cochlear model to represent the activity of the outer hair cells (OHCs). An iterative procedure is proposed for calculating the nonlinear response resulting from the active cochlea in the frequency domain. Results on the middle-ear transfer function, BM steady-state frequency response and intracochlear pressure are derived. A good match of the model predictions with experimental data from the literatures demonstrates the validity of the ear model for simulating sound pressure gain of middle ear, frequency to place map, cochlear sensitivity and compressive output for large intensity input. The current model featuring an active cochlea is able to correlate directly the sound stimulus in the ear canal with the vibration of BM and provides a tool to explore the mechanisms by which sound pressure in the ear canal is converted to a stimulus for the OHCs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawasaki, Akira; Kubota, Kenichi; Funaki, Ikkoh; Okuno, Yoshihiro
2016-09-01
Steady-state and self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, which utilizes high-intensity direct-current (DC) discharge, is one of the prospective candidates of future high-power electric propulsion devices. In order to accurately assess the thrust performance and the electrode temperature, input electric power and wall heat flux must correctly be evaluated where electrostatic sheaths formed in close proximity of the electrodes affect these quantities. Conventional model simulates only plasma flows occurring in MPD thrusters with the absence of electrostatic sheath consideration. Therefore, this study extends the conventional model to a coupled magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and thermal model by incorporating the phenomena relevant to the electrostatic sheaths. The sheaths are implemented as boundary condition of the MHD model on the walls. This model simulated the operation of the 100-kW-class thruster at discharge current ranging from 6 to 10 kA with argon propellant. The extended model reproduced the discharge voltages and wall heat load which are consistent with past experimental results. In addition, the simulation results indicated that cathode sheath voltages account for approximately 5-7 V subject to approximately 20 V of discharge voltages applied between the electrodes. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26289328 and 15J10821.
Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.
2011-12-01
Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.
1994-01-01
The Reynolds numbers that characterize geophysical and astrophysical turbulence (Re approximately equals 10(exp 8) for the planetary boundary layer and Re approximately equals 10(exp 14) for the Sun's interior) are too large to allow a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fundamental Navier-Stokes and temperature equations. In fact, the spatial number of grid points N approximately Re(exp 9/4) exceeds the computational capability of today's supercomputers. Alternative treatments are the ensemble-time average approach, and/or the volume average approach. Since the first method (Reynolds stress approach) is largely analytical, the resulting turbulence equations entail manageable computational requirements and can thus be linked to a stellar evolutionary code or, in the geophysical case, to general circulation models. In the volume average approach, one carries out a large eddy simulation (LES) which resolves numerically the largest scales, while the unresolved scales must be treated theoretically with a subgrid scale model (SGS). Contrary to the ensemble average approach, the LES+SGS approach has considerable computational requirements. Even if this prevents (for the time being) a LES+SGS model to be linked to stellar or geophysical codes, it is still of the greatest relevance as an 'experimental tool' to be used, inter alia, to improve the parameterizations needed in the ensemble average approach. Such a methodology has been successfully adopted in studies of the convective planetary boundary layer. Experienc e with the LES+SGS approach from different fields has shown that its reliability depends on the healthiness of the SGS model for numerical stability as well as for physical completeness. At present, the most widely used SGS model, the Smagorinsky model, accounts for the effect of the shear induced by the large resolved scales on the unresolved scales but does not account for the effects of buoyancy, anisotropy, rotation, and stable stratification. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi
2012-06-01
We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic
[Relationship between two models of personality in old individuals].
Calvet, Benjamin; Bricaud, Magali; Clément, Jean-Pierre
2014-12-01
The relationships between the seven dimensions of the Cloninger psychobiological model and the five factors of the Costa and McCrae model were examined in 54 elderly subjects from the French general population. The dimensions of temperament (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence) and character (determination, cooperation, transcendence) from the Cloninger's model were measured by the temperament and character inventory whereas the five factors of Costa and McCrae model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness) were evaluated using the NEO PI-R. Multiple regression analyses show that some dimensions of the temperament and character inventory predict some dimensions of the Big five and vice versa. Therefore we suggest that the Big five model could be related to brain monoaminergic activities.
Including the effects of debris cover in a distributed glacier energy balance model (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pellicciotti, F.; Reid, T.; Carenzo, M.; Brock, B. W.
2010-12-01
Distributed models of glacier energy balance, which make use of digital elevation models and extensive spatial data on local meteorology, have become very useful tools for predicting glacial ablation and runoff in recent years. They generally function by running a one-dimensional energy balance model at every point on a grid on the glacier surface - for each point in the grid the ablation is calculated based on the balance of heat fluxes at the ice-air boundary. However, one key component has been missing from distributed models to date, namely the effects of debris cover. Many glacier ablation zones are mantled in near-continuous blankets of rock debris, and debris-covered glaciers are important drivers of the water cycle in the European Alps, Andes and Himalayas. Moreover, debris covers have been seen to expand in recent years, so it is essential to assess exactly how the presence of debris may affect a glacier’s surface energy balance and potential responses to climate changes. The effects of a debris cover are complicated by the varying surface roughness, albedo and thermal properties of the debris in question, but generally a debris cover reduces glacier melt rate by insulating the glacier surface from direct solar radiation. Even on glaciers where the debris cover is not continuous, isolated patches of debris caused by rockfalls can affect the glacier evolution by introducing differential ablation across the glacier surface, thus creating ice-cored moraines that may persist after ‘clean’ parts of the glacier have wasted away. This paper presents the results of incorporating a one-dimensional ‘debris energy balance model’ called DEB-Model (Reid and Brock 2010) into a distributed melt model for Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland. DEB-Model numerically estimates debris surface temperature by considering the balance of heat fluxes at the air-debris interface, then calculates heat conduction through the debris in order to estimate melt rates at the
A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys
2016-04-01
Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To
Results of including geometric nonlinearities in an aeroelastic model of an F/A-18
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buttrill, Carey S.
1989-01-01
An integrated, nonlinear simulation model suitable for aeroelastic modeling of fixed-wing aircraft has been developed. While the author realizes that the subject of modeling rotating, elastic structures is not closed, it is believed that the equations of motion developed and applied herein are correct to second order and are suitable for use with typical aircraft structures. The equations are not suitable for large elastic deformation. In addition, the modeling framework generalizes both the methods and terminology of non-linear rigid-body airplane simulation and traditional linear aeroelastic modeling. Concerning the importance of angular/elastic inertial coupling in the dynamic analysis of fixed-wing aircraft, the following may be said. The rigorous inclusion of said coupling is not without peril and must be approached with care. In keeping with the same engineering judgment that guided the development of the traditional aeroelastic equations, the effect of non-linear inertial effects for most airplane applications is expected to be small. A parameter does not tell the whole story, however, and modes flagged by the parameter as significant also need to be checked to see if the coupling is not a one-way path, i.e., the inertially affected modes can influence other modes.
Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes
García-Gen, Santiago; Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh; Lema, Juan M.; Rodríguez, Jorge; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel
2015-01-15
Highlights: • Fractionation of solid wastes into readily and slowly biodegradable fractions. • Kinetic coefficients estimation from mono-digestion batch assays. • Validation of kinetic coefficients with a co-digestion continuous experiment. • Simulation of batch and continuous experiments with an ADM1-based model. - Abstract: A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 g VS/L d. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.
Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl
2013-01-01
An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem. PMID:23729844
Jauchem, James R
2010-03-01
Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) are used by law-enforcement personnel to incapacitate individuals quickly and effectively, without causing lethality. CEWs have been deployed for relatively long or repeated exposures during law-enforcement operations. The purpose of this technical note is to describe, in detail, some aspects of an anesthetized swine model used in our laboratory and to answer specific questions related to the model. In particular, tiletamine/zolazepam-induced, propofol-maintained anesthesia appears to be a useful technique for studying effects of CEW applications on muscle contraction and blood factors such as muscle enzymes. Because effects of CEWs on breathing have not been fully elucidated, a spontaneously breathing model is preferable to one in which mechanical ventilation is supplied. Placement of the swine in a supine position may facilitate measurement of muscle contractions, without compromising other physiological parameters.
Accurate method for including solid-fluid boundary interactions in mesoscopic model fluids
Berkenbos, A. Lowe, C.P.
2008-04-20
Particle models are attractive methods for simulating the dynamics of complex mesoscopic fluids. Many practical applications of this methodology involve flow through a solid geometry. As the system is modeled using particles whose positions move continuously in space, one might expect that implementing the correct stick boundary condition exactly at the solid-fluid interface is straightforward. After all, unlike discrete methods there is no mapping onto a grid to contend with. In this article we describe a method that, for axisymmetric flows, imposes both the no-slip condition and continuity of stress at the interface. We show that the new method then accurately reproduces correct hydrodynamic behavior right up to the location of the interface. As such, computed flow profiles are correct even using a relatively small number of particles to model the fluid.
Hybrid Model for Plasma Thruster Plume Simulation Including PIC-MCC Electrons Treatment
Alexandrov, A. L.; Bondar, Ye. A.; Schweigert, I. V.
2008-12-31
The simulation of stationary plasma thruster plume is important for spacecraft design due to possible interaction plume with spacecraft surface. Such simulations are successfully performed using the particle-in-cell technique for describing the motion of charged particles, namely the propellant ions. In conventional plume models the electrons are treated using various fluid approaches. In this work, we suggest an alternative approach, where the electron kinetics is considered 'ab initio', using the particle-in-cell--Monte Carlo collision method. To avoid the large computational expenses due to small time steps, the relaxation of simulated plume plasma is split into the fast relaxation of the electrons distribution function and the slow one of the ions. The model is self-consistent but hybrid, since the simultaneous electron and ion motion is not really modeled. The obtained electron temperature profile is in good agreement with experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lüdde, Hans Jürgen; Achenbach, Alexander; Kalkbrenner, Thilo; Jankowiak, Hans-Christian; Kirchner, Tom
2016-04-01
A new model to account for geometric screening corrections in an independent-atom-model description of ion-molecule collisions is introduced. The ion-molecule cross sections for net capture and net ionization are represented as weighted sums of atomic cross sections with weight factors that are determined from a geometric model of overlapping cross section areas. Results are presented for proton collisions with targets ranging from diatomic to complex polyatomic molecules. Significant improvement compared to simple additivity rule results and in general good agreement with experimental data are found. The flexibility of the approach opens up the possibility to study more detailed observables such as orientation-dependent and charge-state-correlated cross sections for a large class of complex targets ranging from biomolecules to atomic clusters.
European air quality modelled by CAMx including the volatility basis set scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciarelli, G.; Aksoyoglu, S.; Crippa, M.; Jimenez, J. L.; Nemitz, E.; Sellegri, K.; Äijälä, M.; Carbone, S.; Mohr, C.; O'Dowd, C.; Poulain, L.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.
2015-12-01
Four periods of EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) intensive measurement campaigns (June 2006, January 2007, September-October 2008 and February-March 2009) were modelled using the regional air quality model CAMx with VBS (Volatility Basis Set) approach for the first time in Europe within the framework of the EURODELTA-III model intercomparison exercise. More detailed analysis and sensitivity tests were performed for the period of February-March 2009 and June 2006 to investigate the uncertainties in emissions as well as to improve the modelling of organic aerosols (OA). Model performance for selected gas phase species and PM2.5 was evaluated using the European air quality database Airbase. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) were found to be overestimated for all the four periods with O3 having the largest mean bias during June 2006 and January-February 2007 periods (8.93 and 12.30 ppb mean biases, respectively). In contrast, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were found to be underestimated for all the four periods. CAMx reproduced both total concentrations and monthly variations of PM2.5 very well for all the four periods with average biases ranging from -2.13 to 1.04 μg m-3. Comparisons with AMS (Aerosol Mass Spectrometer) measurements at different sites in Europe during February-March 2009, showed that in general the model over-predicts the inorganic aerosol fraction and under-predicts the organic one, such that the good agreement for PM2.5 is partly due to compensation of errors. The effect of the choice of volatility basis set scheme (VBS) on OA was investigated as well. Two sensitivity tests with volatility distributions based on previous chamber and ambient measurements data were performed. For February-March 2009 the chamber-case reduced the total OA concentrations by about 43 % on average. On the other hand, a test based on ambient measurement data increased OA concentrations by about 47 % for the same period bringing model
Evaluation of European air quality modelled by CAMx including the volatility basis set scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Crippa, Monica; Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Nemitz, Eriko; Sellegri, Karine; Äijälä, Mikko; Carbone, Samara; Mohr, Claudia; O'Dowd, Colin; Poulain, Laurent; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.
2016-08-01
Four periods of EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) intensive measurement campaigns (June 2006, January 2007, September-October 2008 and February-March 2009) were modelled using the regional air quality model CAMx with VBS (volatility basis set) approach for the first time in Europe within the framework of the EURODELTA-III model intercomparison exercise. More detailed analysis and sensitivity tests were performed for the period of February-March 2009 and June 2006 to investigate the uncertainties in emissions as well as to improve the modelling of organic aerosol (OA). Model performance for selected gas phase species and PM2.5 was evaluated using the European air quality database AirBase. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) were found to be overestimated for all the four periods, with O3 having the largest mean bias during June 2006 and January-February 2007 periods (8.9 pbb and 12.3 ppb mean biases respectively). In contrast, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were found to be underestimated for all the four periods. CAMx reproduced both total concentrations and monthly variations of PM2.5 for all the four periods with average biases ranging from -2.1 to 1.0 µg m-3. Comparisons with AMS (aerosol mass spectrometer) measurements at different sites in Europe during February-March 2009 showed that in general the model overpredicts the inorganic aerosol fraction and underpredicts the organic one, such that the good agreement for PM2.5 is partly due to compensation of errors. The effect of the choice of VBS scheme on OA was investigated as well. Two sensitivity tests with volatility distributions based on previous chamber and ambient measurements data were performed. For February-March 2009 the chamber case reduced the total OA concentrations by about 42 % on average. In contrast, a test based on ambient measurement data increased OA concentrations by about 42 % for the same period bringing model and observations into better agreement
A Two-Phase Solid/Fluid Model for Dense Granular Flows Including Dilatancy Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangeney, A.; Bouchut, F.; Fernández-Nieto, E. D.; Narbona-Reina, G.; Kone, E. H.
2014-12-01
We propose a thin layer depth-averaged two-phase model to describe solid-fluid mixtures such as debris flows. It describes the velocity of the two phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure, that itself modifies the friction within the granular phase (Iverson et al., 2010). The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by Jackson (2000) based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work (Bouchut et al., 2014). In particular, Pitman and Le replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's equations. We close the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation involving a critical density, or equivalently a critical pressure. Moreover, we relax one boundary condition, making it possible for the fluid to escape the granular media when compression of the granular mass occurs. Furthermore, we introduce second order terms in the equations making it possible to describe the evolution of the pore fluid pressure in response to the compression/dilatation of the granular mass without prescribing an extra ad-hoc equation for the pore pressure. We prove that the energy balance associated with this Jackson closure is dissipative, as well as its thin layer associated model. We present several numerical tests for the 1D case that are compared to the
Viscoelastic Model of Cross-Linked Polyethylene Including Effects of Temperature and Crystallinity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olasz, L.; Gudmundson, P.
2005-12-01
Characterization of the mechanical behavior of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) commonly used in high voltage cable insulation was performed by an extensive set of isothermal uniaxial tensile relaxation tests. Tensile relaxation experiments were complemented by pressure-volume-temperature experiments as well as density and crystallinity measurements. Based on the experimental results, a viscoelastic power law model with four parameters was formulated, incorporating temperature and crystallinity dependence. It was found that a master curve can be developed by both horizontal and vertical shifting of the relaxation curves. The model was evaluated by making comparisons of the predicted stress responses with the measured responses in relaxation tests with transient temperature histories.
A Two-Phase Solid/Fluid Model for Dense Granular Flows Including Dilatancy Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Narbona-Reina, Gladys
2015-04-01
We propose a thin layer depth-averaged two-phase model to describe solid-fluid mixtures such as debris flows. It describes the velocity of the two phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure, that itself modifies the friction within the granular phase (Iverson et al., 2010). The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by Jackson (2000) based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work (Bouchut et al., 2014). In particular, Pitman and Le replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's equations. We close the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation involving a critical density, or equivalently a critical pressure. Moreover, we relax one boundary condition, making it possible for the fluid to escape the granular media when compression of the granular mass occurs. Furthermore, we introduce second order terms in the equations making it possible to describe the evolution of the pore fluid pressure in response to the compression/dilatation of the granular mass without prescribing an extra ad-hoc equation for the pore pressure. We prove that the energy balance associated with this Jackson closure is dissipative, as well as its thin layer associated model. We present several numerical tests for the 1D case that are compared to the
Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects
Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe
2008-09-07
The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust{sup 2} and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.
Ng, Jonathan; Huang, Yi-Min; Hakim, Ammar; Bhattacharjee, A.; Stanier, Adam; Daughton, William; Wang, Liang; Germaschewski, Kai
2015-11-15
As modeling of collisionless magnetic reconnection in most space plasmas with realistic parameters is beyond the capability of today's simulations, due to the separation between global and kinetic length scales, it is important to establish scaling relations in model problems so as to extrapolate to realistic scales. Recently, large scale particle-in-cell simulations of island coalescence have shown that the time averaged reconnection rate decreases with system size, while fluid systems at such large scales in the Hall regime have not been studied. Here, we perform the complementary resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and two fluid simulations using a ten-moment model with the same geometry. In contrast to the standard Harris sheet reconnection problem, Hall MHD is insufficient to capture the physics of the reconnection region. Additionally, motivated by the results of a recent set of hybrid simulations which show the importance of ion kinetics in this geometry, we evaluate the efficacy of the ten-moment model in reproducing such results.
Ng, Jonathan; Huang, Yi -Min; Hakim, Ammar; Bhattacharjee, A.; Stanier, Adam; Daughton, William; Wang, Liang; Germaschewski, Kai
2015-11-05
As modeling of collisionless magnetic reconnection in most space plasmas with realistic parameters is beyond the capability of today's simulations, due to the separation between global and kinetic length scales, it is important to establish scaling relations in model problems so as to extrapolate to realistic scales. Furthermore, large scale particle-in-cell simulations of island coalescence have shown that the time averaged reconnection rate decreases with system size, while fluid systems at such large scales in the Hall regime have not been studied. Here, we perform the complementary resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and two fluid simulations using a ten-moment model with the same geometry. In contrast to the standard Harris sheet reconnection problem, Hall MHD is insufficient to capture the physics of the reconnection region. Additionally, motivated by the results of a recent set of hybrid simulations which show the importance of ion kinetics in this geometry, we evaluate the efficacy of the ten-moment model in reproducing such results.
Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes.
García-Gen, Santiago; Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh; Lema, Juan M; Rodríguez, Jorge; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel
2015-01-01
A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 gVS/Ld. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.
Zhou, Hua-Fu; Feng, Xu; Zheng, Bao-Shi; Qian, Jun; He, Wei
2013-10-01
The relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer from the published reports are still conflicting. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between GSTT1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer using meta-analysis method. The association studies were identified from PubMed, and Cochrane Library on July 1, 2012, and eligible investigations were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. 51 reports were recruited into this meta-analysis for the association of null genotype of GSTT1 with lung cancer susceptibility, consisting of 15,140 patients with lung cancer and 16,662 controls. There was a marked association between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in overall populations (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.04-1.27, P = 0.007). Furthermore, GSTT1 null genotype was associated with the lung cancer risk in Asians (OR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.23-1.76, P < 0.0001). However, GSTT1 null genotype was not associated with the risk of lung cancer in Caucasians, Brazilian population and Africans. In conclusion, GSTT1 null genotype is associated with the lung cancer in overall populations and in Asians.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, T. M.; Graf, H. F.; Yano, J. I.
2009-04-01
The convective cloud field model is a convection parameterisation based on the representation of a full cumulus cloud spectrum using a dynamical quasi-equilibrium closure. It employs a one dimensional entraining parcel model whose properties are simulated on a refined vertical resolution (~100 m) in order to capture the complex cloud microphysical processes in convective clouds. We introduced an enhanced microphysics compared to those currently used in convection parameterisations, containing warm and mixed phase cloud microphysics processes and incorporates aerosol effects by linking the cloud droplet number concentration to the aerosol amount. Similar to the Arakawa and Schubert (1974) quasi-equilibrium closure we allow for the mutual influence of clouds via the environment. Instead of assuming instantaneous stabilisation of the environment though, the clouds are dynamically interacting for the length of the large scale model time step without necessarily adopting an equilibrium situation. The model is evaluated in single column mode (SCM) for continental and tropical convection using the ARM SGP and TWP-ICE cases. Moreover it is evaluated in global mode using the global atmospheric circulation model ECHAM5. For the SCM cases the precipitation, heating and moistening rates for the simulated period is better represented than with the Tiedtke massflux scheme which is the usual convection parameterisation within ECHAM5. Moreover, we find a clear response to an enhanced aerosol loading which generally leads to a reduction of convective precipitation. Globally, the CCFM produces slightly higher convective precipitation rates and especially responds better to convective instability over lower latitudes and the storm track regions.
A model for calculating polymer injectivity including the effects of shear degradation
Sorbie, K.S.; Roberts, L.J.
1984-04-01
Polymers are frequently injected into oil reservoirs in order to improve recovery. As they reduce the in-situ mobility of the aqueous phase (either by viscosity increase or permeability reduction), the fluid injectivity generally drops. It is very useful to be able to estimate in advance from a few laboratory measured quantities the injectivity of the polymer and whether the polymer is likely to be seriously degraded by the high shear experienced in the near-wellbore region. It is difficult to calculate the injectivity of the polymer solutions due to their complex rheological behaviour within porous media, especially when the polymer mechanically degrades. In this paper, the authors investigate one approach to calculating the injectivity of polymers in the general case where mechanical degradation occurs. A kinetic model for polymer degradation is proposed which is used to obtain the radial viscosity profile of the degrading polymer. This may in turn be used to calculate the steady-state pressure drops associated with the degrading polymer. The model is based on a discrete multicomponent representation of the polymer molecular weight distribution (MWD). During mechanical degradation, the MWD changes as higher components degrade into lower molecular weight fragments. The degradation rate of a given component of the MWD is related to the local shear/elongational stress within the porous medium and the concentration of the component (C /SUB i/ ). The model is used to match the results of experiments studying the shear degradation of polyacrylamide (PAM) in radial sandstone cores. The quantitative predictions of the model are very satisfactory. In addition, the model gives insight into the mechanism of shear degradation of polymers in porous media.
A catchment-scale groundwater model including sewer pipe leakage in an urban system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peche, Aaron; Fuchs, Lothar; Spönemann, Peter; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa
2016-04-01
Keywords: pipe leakage, urban hydrogeology, catchment scale, OpenGeoSys, HYSTEM-EXTRAN Wastewater leakage from subsurface sewer pipe defects leads to contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater (Ellis, 2002; Wolf et al., 2004). Leakage rates at pipe defects have to be known in order to quantify contaminant input. Due to inaccessibility of subsurface pipe defects, direct (in-situ) measurements of leakage rates are tedious and associated with a high degree of uncertainty (Wolf, 2006). Proposed catchment-scale models simplify leakage rates by neglecting unsaturated zone flow or by reducing spatial dimensions (Karpf & Krebs, 2013, Boukhemacha et al., 2015). In the present study, we present a physically based 3-dimensional numerical model incorporating flow in the pipe network, in the saturated zone and in the unsaturated zone to quantify leakage rates on the catchment scale. The model consists of the pipe network flow model HYSTEM-EXTAN (itwh, 2002), which is coupled to the subsurface flow model OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012). We also present the newly developed coupling scheme between the two flow models. Leakage functions specific to a pipe defect are derived from simulations of pipe leakage using spatially refined grids around pipe defects. In order to minimize computational effort, these leakage functions are built into the presented numerical model using unrefined grids around pipe defects. The resulting coupled model is capable of efficiently simulating spatially distributed pipe leakage coupled with subsurficial water flow in a 3-dimensional environment. References: Boukhemacha, M. A., Gogu, C. R., Serpescu, I., Gaitanaru, D., & Bica, I. (2015). A hydrogeological conceptual approach to study urban groundwater flow in Bucharest city, Romania. Hydrogeology Journal, 23(3), 437-450. doi:10.1007/s10040-014-1220-3. Ellis, J. B., & Revitt, D. M. (2002). Sewer losses and interactions with groundwater quality. Water Science and Technology, 45(3), 195
A kinematic eddy viscosity model including the influence of density variations and preturbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, L. S.
1973-01-01
A model for the kinematic eddy viscosity was developed which accounts for the turbulence produced as a result of jet interactions between adjacent streams as well as the turbulence initially present in the streams. In order to describe the turbulence contribution from jet interaction, the eddy viscosity suggested by Prandtl was adopted, and a modification was introduced to account for the effect of density variation through the mixing layer. The form of the modification was ascertained from a study of the compressible turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. A kinematic eddy viscosity relation which corresponds to the initial turbulence contribution was derived by employing arguments used by Prandtl in his mixing length hypothesis. The resulting expression for self-preserving flow is similar to that which describes the mixing of a submerged jet. Application of the model has led to analytical predictions which are in good agreement with available turbulent mixing experimental data.
A model for thermal oxidation of Si and SiC including material expansion
Christen, T. Ioannidis, A.; Winkelmann, C.
2015-02-28
A model based on drift-diffusion-reaction kinetics for Si and SiC oxidation is discussed, which takes the material expansion into account with an additional convection term. The associated velocity field is determined self-consistently from the local reaction rate. The approach allows a calculation of the densities of volatile species in an nm-resolution at the oxidation front. The model is illustrated with simulation results for the growth and impurity redistribution during Si oxidation and for carbon and silicon emission during SiC oxidation. The approach can be useful for the prediction of Si and/or C interstitial distribution, which is particularly relevant for the quality of metal-oxide-semiconductor electronic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frankowski, Marek; Czapkiewicz, Maciej; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz
2014-02-01
We present a model introducing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a Slonczewski's Spin-Transfer-Torque (STT) component in order to take into account spin polarized current influence on the magnetization dynamics, which was developed as an Object Oriented MicroMagnetic Framework extension. We implement the following computations: magnetoresistance of vertical channels is calculated from the local spin arrangement, local current density is used to calculate the in-plane and perpendicular STT components as well as the Oersted field, which is caused by the vertical current flow. The model allows for an analysis of all listed components separately, therefore, the contribution of each physical phenomenon in dynamic behavior of Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) magnetization is discussed. The simulated switching voltage is compared with the experimental data measured in MTJ nanopillars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lüdde, H. J.; Achenbach, A.; Kalkbrenner, T.; Jankowiak, H. C.; Kirchner, T.
2016-05-01
A recently introduced model to account for geometric screening corrections in an independent-atom-model description of ion-molecule collisions is applied to proton collisions from amino acids and DNA and RNA nucleobases. The correction coefficients are obtained from using a pixel counting method (PCM) for the exact calculation of the effective cross sectional area that emerges when the molecular cross section is pictured as a structure of (overlapping) atomic cross sections. This structure varies with the relative orientation of the molecule with respect to the projectile beam direction and, accordingly, orientation-independent total cross sections are obtained from averaging the pixel count over many orientations. We present net capture and net ionization cross sections over wide ranges of impact energy and analyze the strength of the screening effect by comparing the PCM results with Bragg additivity rule cross sections and with experimental data where available. Work supported by NSERC, Canada.
Characteristics of the complementary relationship-based evapotranspiration models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroizumi, T.; Nakamichi, T.; Miura, T.
2010-12-01
Three complementary relationship-based evapotranspiration models were applied in six urban areas of Japan. The models are the CRAE model by Morton, the AA model by Brutsaert and Stricker, and the MAA model by Otsuki et al. The characteristics of these models and the validity of their use in urban areas were evaluated by a comparison with the estimation results from rural areas located near each urban area and with the results of previous measurement studies. The main findings are as follows: 1) the amounts of estimated evapotranspiration in urban areas differed significantly, whereas the difference in the amounts in rural areas was relatively small. 2) all three models underestimated the actual evapotranspiration in urban areas from humid surfaces, like water and green spaces. 3) when evaluated comprehensively on a daily basis, however, the three models overestimated the actual evapotranspiration in urban areas. 4) the MAA model was able to estimate the actual evapotranspiration reasonably well in urban areas with errors of 30-230 mm per year. Moreover, it was found that Priestley and Taylor’s coefficient and ground heat storage flux estimation for urban areas are necessary for obtaining reliable estimations.
The extension of a uniform canopy reflectance model to include row effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suits, G. H. (Principal Investigator)
1981-01-01
The effect of row structure is assumed to be caused by the variation in density of vegetation across rows rather than to a profile in canopy height. The calculation of crop reflectance using vegetation density modulation across rows follows a parallel procedure to that for a uniform canopy. Predictions using the row model for wheat show that the effect of changes in sun to row azimuth are greatest in Landsat Band 5 (red band) and can result in underestimation of crop vigor.
2011-03-01
Hypothesized that snow plows wear down mountain road pavement markings. 2007 Craig et al. -Edge lines degrade slower than center/skip lines 2007...retroreflectivity to create the models. They discovered that paint pavement markings last 80% longer on Portland Cement Concrete than Asphalt Concrete at low AADT...retroreflectivity, while yellow markings lost 21%. Lu and Barter attributed the sizable degradation to snow removal, sand application, and studded
Numerical modelling of the transport of trace gases including methane in the subsurface of Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, Adam H.; Patel, Manish R.; Lewis, Stephen R.
2015-04-01
We model the transport of gas through the martian subsurface in order to quantify the timescales of release of a trace gas with a source at depth using a Fickian model of diffusion through a putative martian regolith column. The model is then applied to the case of methane to determine if diffusive transport of gas can explain previous observations of methane in the martian atmosphere. We investigate which parameters in the model have the greatest effect on transport timescales and show that the calculated diffusivity is very sensitive to the pressure profile of the subsurface, but relatively insensitive to the temperature profile, though diffusive transport may be affected by other temperature dependent properties of the subsurface such as the local vapour pressure. Uncertainties in the structure and physical conditions of the martian subsurface also introduce uncertainties in the timescales calculated. It was found that methane may take several hundred thousand Mars-years to diffuse from a source at depth. Purely diffusive transport cannot explain transient release that varies on timescales of less than one martian year from sources such as serpentinization or methanogenic organisms at depths of more than 2 km. However, diffusion of gas released by the destabilisation of methane clathrate hydrates close to the surface, for example caused by transient mass wasting events or erosion, could produce a rapidly varying flux of methane into the atmosphere of more than 10-3 kg m-2 s-1 over a duration of less than half a martian year, consistent with observations of martian methane variability. Seismic events, magmatic intrusions or impacts could also potentially produce similar patterns of release, but are far more complex to simulate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.; Hutchins, John W.
2014-01-01
A multiscale modeling methodology was developed for continuous fiber composites that incorporates a statistical distribution of fiber strengths into coupled multiscale micromechanics/finite element (FE) analyses. A modified two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function, which accounts for the effect of fiber length on the probability of failure, was used to characterize the statistical distribution of fiber strengths. A parametric study using the NASA Micromechanics Analysis Code with the Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) was performed to assess the effect of variable fiber strengths on local composite failure within a repeating unit cell (RUC) and subsequent global failure. The NASA code FEAMAC and the ABAQUS finite element solver were used to analyze the progressive failure of a unidirectional SCS-6/TIMETAL 21S metal matrix composite tensile dogbone specimen at 650 degC. Multiscale progressive failure analyses were performed to quantify the effect of spatially varying fiber strengths on the RUC-averaged and global stress-strain responses and failure. The ultimate composite strengths and distribution of failure locations (predominately within the gage section) reasonably matched the experimentally observed failure behavior. The predicted composite failure behavior suggests that use of macroscale models that exploit global geometric symmetries are inappropriate for cases where the actual distribution of local fiber strengths displays no such symmetries. This issue has not received much attention in the literature. Moreover, the model discretization at a specific length scale can have a profound effect on the computational costs associated with multiscale simulations.models that yield accurate yet tractable results.
Modeling the Corona and Solar Wind using ADAPT Maps that Include Far-Side Observations
2013-11-01
document for any purpose other than Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The fact that the Government formulated...Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE...Los Alamos National Laboratory ( LANL ) and the National Solar Observatory (NSO), has developed a model that produces more realistic estimates of the
Ng, Jonathan; Huang, Yi -Min; Hakim, Ammar; ...
2015-11-05
As modeling of collisionless magnetic reconnection in most space plasmas with realistic parameters is beyond the capability of today's simulations, due to the separation between global and kinetic length scales, it is important to establish scaling relations in model problems so as to extrapolate to realistic scales. Furthermore, large scale particle-in-cell simulations of island coalescence have shown that the time averaged reconnection rate decreases with system size, while fluid systems at such large scales in the Hall regime have not been studied. Here, we perform the complementary resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and two fluid simulations using a ten-moment modelmore » with the same geometry. In contrast to the standard Harris sheet reconnection problem, Hall MHD is insufficient to capture the physics of the reconnection region. Additionally, motivated by the results of a recent set of hybrid simulations which show the importance of ion kinetics in this geometry, we evaluate the efficacy of the ten-moment model in reproducing such results.« less
Including Rebinding Reactions in Well-Mixed Models of Distributive Biochemical Reactions.
Lawley, Sean D; Keener, James P
2016-11-15
The behavior of biochemical reactions requiring repeated enzymatic substrate modification depends critically on whether the enzymes act processively or distributively. Whereas processive enzymes bind only once to a substrate before carrying out a sequence of modifications, distributive enzymes release the substrate after each modification and thus require repeated bindings. Recent experimental and computational studies have revealed that distributive enzymes can act processively due to rapid rebindings (so-called quasi-processivity). In this study, we derive an analytical estimate of the probability of rapid rebinding and show that well-mixed ordinary differential equation models can use this probability to quantitatively replicate the behavior of spatial models. Importantly, rebinding requires that connections be added to the well-mixed reaction network; merely modifying rate constants is insufficient. We then use these well-mixed models to suggest experiments to 1) detect quasi-processivity and 2) test the theory. Finally, we show that rapid rebindings drastically alter the reaction's Michaelis-Menten rate equations.
A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Wei; Li, Qingmin; Zhang, Li
2014-09-01
The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.
A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels
Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Qingmin
2014-09-14
The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.
Climate change impact modelling needs to include cross-sectoral interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, Paula A.; Dunford, Robert W.; Holman, Ian P.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.
2016-09-01
Climate change impact assessments often apply models of individual sectors such as agriculture, forestry and water use without considering interactions between these sectors. This is likely to lead to misrepresentation of impacts, and consequently to poor decisions about climate adaptation. However, no published research assesses the differences between impacts simulated by single-sector and integrated models. Here we compare 14 indicators derived from a set of impact models run within single-sector and integrated frameworks across a range of climate and socio-economic scenarios in Europe. We show that single-sector studies misrepresent the spatial pattern, direction and magnitude of most impacts because they omit the complex interdependencies within human and environmental systems. The discrepancies are particularly pronounced for indicators such as food production and water exploitation, which are highly influenced by other sectors through changes in demand, land suitability and resource competition. Furthermore, the discrepancies are greater under different socio-economic scenarios than different climate scenarios, and at the sub-regional rather than Europe-wide scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.
2016-11-01
Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.
Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L
2015-04-07
We develop an ozone transport and reaction model to determine reaction probabilities and assess the importance of physical properties such as porosity, pore diameter, and material thickness on reactive uptake of ozone to five materials. The one-dimensional model accounts for molecular diffusion from bulk air to the air-material interface, reaction at the interface, and diffusive transport and reaction through material pore volumes. Material-ozone reaction probabilities that account for internal transport and internal pore area, γ(ipa), are determined by a minimization of residuals between predicted and experimentally derived ozone concentrations. Values of γ(ipa) are generally less than effective reaction probabilities (γ(eff)) determined previously, likely because of the inclusion of diffusion into substrates and reaction with internal surface area (rather than the use of the horizontally projected external material areas). Estimates of γ(ipa) average 1 × 10(-7), 2 × 10(-7), 4 × 10(-5), 2 × 10(-5), and 4 × 10(-7) for two types of cellulose paper, pervious pavement, Portland cement concrete, and an activated carbon cloth, respectively. The transport and reaction model developed here accounts for observed differences in ozone removal to varying thicknesses of the cellulose paper, and estimates a near constant γ(ipa) as material thickness increases from 0.02 to 0.16 cm.
Kinetic model of water disinfection using peracetic acid including synergistic effects.
Flores, Marina J; Brandi, Rodolfo J; Cassano, Alberto E; Labas, Marisol D
2016-01-01
The disinfection efficiencies of a commercial mixture of peracetic acid against Escherichia coli were studied in laboratory scale experiments. The joint and separate action of two disinfectant agents, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, were evaluated in order to observe synergistic effects. A kinetic model for each component of the mixture and for the commercial mixture was proposed. Through simple mathematical equations, the model describes different stages of attack by disinfectants during the inactivation process. Based on the experiments and the kinetic parameters obtained, it could be established that the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide was much lower than that of peracetic acid alone. However, the contribution of hydrogen peroxide was very important in the commercial mixture. It should be noted that this improvement occurred only after peracetic acid had initiated the attack on the cell. This synergistic effect was successfully explained by the proposed scheme and was verified by experimental results. Besides providing a clearer mechanistic understanding of water disinfection, such models may improve our ability to design reactors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machida, I.; Itadera, K.
2005-12-01
The final purpose of our study is to clarify the quantitative groundwater flow including deeper part, 500-1000m depth, in the basin in caldera on the mountain. The computer simulation is one the best methods to achieve this purpose. In such a study, however, it is difficult to determine the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of geology in deeper part, generally. For this reason, we selected Gora basin as a study area, because many hydraulic data have been stored for more than 30 years in this basin. In addition, because the volcanic thermal water is mainly formed by mixing of groundwater and thermal component, the study for deeper groundwater flow can contribute the agenda for the protection of thermal groundwater which is regards as a limited resource. Gora basin, in Hakone area is one of the most famous spa (a resort having thermal groundwater or hot springs) in Japan. The area of the basin is approximately 10 square kilometers and has more than 200 deep wells. In our study, at first, the dataset of hydraulic head was created by using the stored data to construct the conceptual model for groundwater flow. The potential distribution exhibited that the groundwater flowed downward dominant. And the geomorphology can be regarded as hydraulic boundary even in deer part, that is to say, we can regard the ridge as no flow boundary in simulation model. Next, for quantitative understanding of groundwater flow, we need to obtain not only boundary conditions but also hydraulic property of geology, for example, hydraulic conductivity, K, as one of the important parameters. Generally, such a parameter has not been measured in past survey. So, we used the belief method for calculating the hydraulic conductivity by using the data of thermal logging test, which was similar to a slug test. As results of the analysis, the close relationship between K and well depth were obtained. This result implies that the K value depends on the overburden pressure of geology. That is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, C. J.; Gloor, M.; Chipperfield, M.; Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L.
2013-12-01
Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas which is emitted from a range of anthropogenic and natural sources, and since the industrial revolution its mean atmospheric concentration has climbed dramatically, reaching values unprecedented in at least the past 650,000 years. CH4 produces a relatively high radiative forcing effect upon the Earth's climate, and its atmospheric lifetime of approximately 10 years makes it a more appealing target for the mitigation of climate change over short timescales than long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. However, the spatial and temporal variation of CH4 emissions are still not well understood, though in recent years a number of top-down and bottom-up studies have attempted to construct improved emission budgets. Some top-down studies may suffer from poor observational coverage in tropical regions, however, especially in the planetary boundary layer, where the atmosphere is highly sensitive to emissions. For example, although satellite observations often take a large volume of measurements in tropical regions, these retrievals are not usually sensitive to concentrations at the planet's surface. Methane emissions from Amazon region, in particular, are often poorly constrained. Since emissions form this region, coming mainly from wetland and biomass burning sources, are thought to be relatively high, additional observations in this region would greatly help to constrain the geographical distribution of the global CH4 emission budget. In order to provide such measurements, the AMAZONICA project began to take regular flask measurements of CH4 and other trace gases from aircraft over four Amazonian sites from the year 2010 onwards. We first present a forward modelling study of these observations of Amazonian methane for the year 2010 using the TOMCAT Chemical Transport Model. The model is used to attribute variations at each site to a source type and region, and also to assess the ability of our current CH4 flux estimates to
Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modeling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life.
Morrison, Ian S; Gowanlock, Michael G
2015-08-01
Previous studies of the galactic habitable zone have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favor the emergence of complex life. A planet is deemed habitable if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. In this work, we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve to the point of intelligence--termed the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life, φI. We assume φI is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the sterilizing effects of nearby supernovae. The times between supernova events provide windows of opportunity for the evolution of intelligence. We developed a model that allows us to analyze these window times to generate a metric for φI, and we examine here the spatial and temporal variation of this metric. Even under the assumption that long time durations are required between sterilizations to allow for the emergence of intelligence, our model suggests that the inner Galaxy provides the greatest number of opportunities for intelligence to arise. This is due to the substantially higher number density of habitable planets in this region, which outweighs the effects of a higher supernova rate in the region. Our model also shows that φI is increasing with time. Intelligent life emerged at approximately the present time at Earth's galactocentric radius, but a similar level of evolutionary opportunity was available in the inner Galaxy more than 2 Gyr ago. Our findings suggest that the inner Galaxy should logically be a prime target region for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence and that any civilizations that may have emerged there are potentially much older than our own.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, James Daniel
1999-11-01
This dissertation presents a new algorithm that allows a market participant to maximize its individual welfare in the electricity spot market. The use of such an algorithm in determining market equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, is also demonstrated. The start of the algorithm is a spot market model that uses the optimal power flow (OPF), with a full representation of the transmission system. The OPF is also extended to model consumer behavior, and a thorough mathematical justification for the inclusion of the consumer model in the OPF is presented. The algorithm utilizes price and dispatch sensitivities, available from the Hessian matrix of the OPF, to help determine an optimal change in an individual's bid. The algorithm is shown to be successful in determining local welfare maxima, and the prospects for scaling the algorithm up to realistically sized systems are very good. Assuming a market in which all participants maximize their individual welfare, economic equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, are investigated. This is done by iteratively solving the individual welfare maximization algorithm for each participant until a point is reached where all individuals stop modifying their bids. It is shown that these Nash equilibria can be located in this manner. However, it is also demonstrated that equilibria do not always exist, and are not always unique when they do exist. It is also shown that individual welfare is a highly nonconcave function resulting in many local maxima. As a result, a more global optimization technique, using a genetic algorithm (GA), is investigated. The genetic algorithm is successfully demonstrated on several systems. It is also shown that a GA can be developed using special niche methods, which allow a GA to converge to several local optima at once. Finally, the last chapter of this dissertation covers the development of a new computer visualization routine for power system analysis: contouring. The contouring algorithm is
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berglund, Judith
2007-01-01
Approximately 2-3 billion metric tons of soil dust are estimated to be transported in the Earth's atmosphere each year. Global transport of desert dust is believed to play an important role in many geochemical, climatological, and environmental processes. This dust carries minerals and nutrients, but it has also been shown to carry pollutants and viable microorganisms capable of harming human, animal, plant, and ecosystem health. Saharan dust, which impacts the eastern United States (especially Florida and the southeast) and U.S. Territories in the Caribbean primarily during the summer months, has been linked to increases in respiratory illnesses in this region and has been shown to carry other human, animal, and plant pathogens. For these reasons, this candidate solution recommends integrating Saharan dust distribution and concentration forecasts from the NASA GOCART global dust cycle model into a public health DSS (decision support system), such as the CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's) EPHTN (Environmental Public Health Tracking Network), for the eastern United States and Caribbean for early warning purposes regarding potential increases in respiratory illnesses or asthma attacks, potential disease outbreaks, or bioterrorism. This candidate solution pertains to the Public Health National Application but also has direct connections to Air Quality and Homeland Security. In addition, the GOCART model currently uses the NASA MODIS aerosol product as an input and uses meteorological forecasts from the NASA GEOS-DAS (Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System) GEOS-4 AGCM. In the future, VIIRS aerosol products and perhaps CALIOP aerosol products could be assimilated into the GOCART model to improve the results.
Microregion model of a contact line including evaporation, kinetics and slip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Daniel; Janecek, Vladislav
2016-11-01
We consider the evaporation of a liquid on a uniformly heated solid substrate. In the framework of lubrication theory we consider hydrodynamics, heat conduction, phase change, evaporation kinetics, and slip. Our model focuses only on the contact line 'inner' region which allows us to quantify the impact of evaporation on the apparent contact angle and microregion heat transfer. The linearized problem with respect to the substrate overheating is solved analytically. The analytical solutions are compared with full numerical solutions and to predictions of Hocking.
Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M
2011-01-01
The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.
Double pendulum model for a tennis stroke including a collision process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youn, Sun-Hyun
2015-10-01
By means of adding a collision process between the ball and racket in the double pendulum model, we analyzed the tennis stroke. The ball and the racket system may be accelerated during the collision time; thus, the speed of the rebound ball does not simply depend on the angular velocity of the racket. A higher angular velocity sometimes gives a lower rebound ball speed. We numerically showed that the proper time-lagged racket rotation increased the speed of the rebound ball by 20%. We also showed that the elbow should move in the proper direction in order to add the angular velocity of the racket.
Review of Numerical Models in Underwater Acoustics, Including Recently Developed Fast-Field Program,
1984-12-15
scope of bringing together researchers in different fields of wave propagation (electromagnetics, optics , seismics, underwater acoustics) to exchange...discussed in this paper. A more detailed description can be found in references ə-10>. The starting point for all the models is the wave equation for a...harmonic point source with time dppendence exp(-iwt), V2*(x’yz) + * ] (x,Y,z) = -6(x-Xo)6(y-yo)6(z-zo ) (1) * *exp(-iwt) (2) At any point (x,y,z) in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.
2012-01-01
To study the effects of interstellar pickup protons and turbulence on the structure and dynamics of the solar wind, we have developed a fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that treats interstellar pickup protons as a separate fluid and incorporates the transport of turbulence and turbulent heating. The governing system of equations combines the mean-field equations for the solar wind plasma, magnetic field, and pickup protons and the turbulence transport equations for the turbulent energy, normalized cross-helicity, and correlation length. The model equations account for photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with solar wind protons, energy transfer from pickup protons to solar wind protons, and plasma heating by turbulent dissipation. Separate mass and energy equations are used for the solar wind and pickup protons, though a single momentum equation is employed under the assumption that the pickup protons are comoving with the solar wind protons.We compute the global structure of the solar wind plasma, magnetic field, and turbulence in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU for a source magnetic dipole on the Sun tilted by 0 deg - .90 deg and compare our results with Voyager 2 observations. The results computed with and without pickup protons are superposed to evaluate quantitatively the deceleration and heating effects of pickup protons, the overall compression of the magnetic field in the outer heliosphere caused by deceleration, and the weakening of corotating interaction regions by the thermal pressure of pickup protons.
An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.
2001-01-01
This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.
Merchant, Thomas E. . E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Shukla, Hemant; Sengupta, Saikat; Xiong Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar; Mulhern, Raymond K.
2006-05-01
Purpose: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression. Results: When the dose distribution was partitioned into 2 levels, both had a significantly negative effect on longitudinal IQ across all 5 brain volumes. When the dose distribution was partitioned into 3 levels (low, medium, and high), exposure to the supratentorial brain appeared to have the most significant impact. For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level. Conclusions: Our results suggest that radiation dosimetry data from 5 brain volumes can be used to predict decline in longitudinal IQ. Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts.
Regner, K. T.; Wei, L. C.; Malen, J. A.
2015-12-21
We develop a solution to the two-temperature diffusion equation in axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates to model heat transport in thermoreflectance experiments. Our solution builds upon prior solutions that account for two-channel diffusion in each layer of an N-layered geometry, but adds the ability to deposit heat at any location within each layer. We use this solution to account for non-surface heating in the transducer layer of thermoreflectance experiments that challenge the timescales of electron-phonon coupling. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify important parameters in the solution and to establish a guideline for when to use the two-temperature model to interpret thermoreflectance data. We then fit broadband frequency domain thermoreflectance (BB-FDTR) measurements of SiO{sub 2} and platinum at a temperature of 300 K with our two-temperature solution to parameterize the gold/chromium transducer layer. We then refit BB-FDTR measurements of silicon and find that accounting for non-equilibrium between electrons and phonons in the gold layer does lessen the previously observed heating frequency dependence reported in Regner et al. [Nat. Commun. 4, 1640 (2013)] but does not completely eliminate it. We perform BB-FDTR experiments on silicon with an aluminum transducer and find limited heating frequency dependence, in agreement with time domain thermoreflectance results. We hypothesize that the discrepancy between thermoreflectance measurements with different transducers results in part from spectrally dependent phonon transmission at the transducer/silicon interface.
A coupling method for a cardiovascular simulation model which includes the Kalman filter.
Hasegawa, Yuki; Shimayoshi, Takao; Amano, Akira; Matsuda, Tetsuya
2012-01-01
Multi-scale models of the cardiovascular system provide new insight that was unavailable with in vivo and in vitro experiments. For the cardiovascular system, multi-scale simulations provide a valuable perspective in analyzing the interaction of three phenomenons occurring at different spatial scales: circulatory hemodynamics, ventricular structural dynamics, and myocardial excitation-contraction. In order to simulate these interactions, multiscale cardiovascular simulation systems couple models that simulate different phenomena. However, coupling methods require a significant amount of calculation, since a system of non-linear equations must be solved for each timestep. Therefore, we proposed a coupling method which decreases the amount of calculation by using the Kalman filter. In our method, the Kalman filter calculates approximations for the solution to the system of non-linear equations at each timestep. The approximations are then used as initial values for solving the system of non-linear equations. The proposed method decreases the number of iterations required by 94.0% compared to the conventional strong coupling method. When compared with a smoothing spline predictor, the proposed method required 49.4% fewer iterations.
Perceptual-center modeling is affected by including acoustic rate-of-change modulations.
Harsin, C A
1997-02-01
This study investigated the acoustic correlates of perceptual centers (p-centers) in CV and VC syllables and developed an acoustic p-center model. In Part 1, listeners located syllables' p-centers by a method-of-adjustment procedure. The CV syllables contained the consonants /s/,/r/,/n/,/t/,/d/,/k/, and /g/; the VCs, the consonants /s/,/r/, and /n/. The vowel in all syllables was /a/. The results of this experiment replicated and extended previous findings regarding the effects of phonetic variation on p-centers. In Part 2, a digital signal processing procedure was used to acoustically model p-center perception. Each stimulus was passed through a six-band digital filter, and the outputs were processed to derive low-frequency modulation components. These components were weighted according to a perceived modulation magnitude function and recombined to create six psychoacoustic envelopes containing modulation energies from 3 to 47 Hz. In this analysis, p-centers were found to be highly correlated with the time-weighted function of the rate-of-change in the psychoacoustic envelopes, multiplied by the psychoacoustic envelope magnitude increment. The results were interpreted as suggesting (1) the probable role of low-frequency energy modulations in p-center perception, and (2) the presence of perceptual processes that integrate multiple articulatory events into a single syllabic event.
Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea
2015-05-01
Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties.
The evolution of massive stars including mass loss - Presupernova models and explosion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woosley, S. E.; Langer, Norbert; Weaver, Thomas A.
1993-01-01
The evolution of massive stars of 35, 40, 60, and 85 solar masses is followed through all stages of nuclear burning to the point of Fe core collapse. Critical nuclear reaction and mass-loss rates are varied. Efficient mass loss during the Wolf-Rayet (WR) stage is likely to lead to final masses as small as 4 solar masses. For a reasonable parameterization of the mass loss, there may be convergence of all WR stars, both single and in binaries, to a narrow band of small final masses. Our representative model, a 4.25 solar-mass WR presupernova derived from a 60 solar mass star, is followed through a simulated explosion, and its explosive nucleosynthesis and light curve are determined. Its properties are similar to those observed in Type Ib supernovae. The effects of the initial mass and mass loss on the presupernova structure of small mass WR models is also explored. Important properties of the presupernova star and its explosion can only be obtained by following the complete evolution starting on the main sequence.
Selzer, D; Hahn, T; Naegel, A; Heisig, M; Kostka, K H; Lehr, C M; Neumann, D; Schaefer, U F; Wittum, G
2013-01-28
This work investigates in vitro finite dose skin absorption of the model compounds flufenamic acid and caffeine experimentally and mathematically. The mass balance in different skin compartments (donor, stratum corneum (SC), deeper skin layers (DSL), lateral skin parts and acceptor) is analyzed as a function of time. For both substances high amounts were found in the lateral skin compartment after 6h of incubation, which emphasizes not to elide these parts in the modeling. Here, three different mathematical models were investigated and tested with the experimental data: a pharmacokinetic model (PK), a detailed microscopic two-dimensional diffusion model (MICRO) and a macroscopic homogenized diffusion model (MACRO). While the PK model was fitted to the experimental data, the MICRO and the MACRO models employed input parameters derived from infinite dose studies to predict the underlying diffusion process. All models could satisfyingly predict or describe the experimental data. The PK model and MACRO model also feature the lateral parts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seiß, M.; Spahn, F.; Schmidt, Jürgen
2010-11-01
Saturn's rings host two known moons, Pan and Daphnis, which are massive enough to clear circumferential gaps in the ring around their orbits. Both moons create wake patterns at the gap edges by gravitational deflection of the ring material (Cuzzi, J.N., Scargle, J.D. [1985]. Astrophys. J. 292, 276-290; Showalter, M.R., Cuzzi, J.N., Marouf, E.A., Esposito, L.W. [1986]. Icarus 66, 297-323). New Cassini observations revealed that these wavy edges deviate from the sinusoidal waveform, which one would expect from a theory that assumes a circular orbit of the perturbing moon and neglects particle interactions. Resonant perturbations of the edges by moons outside the ring system, as well as an eccentric orbit of the embedded moon, may partly explain this behavior (Porco, C.C., and 34 colleagues [2005]. Science 307, 1226-1236; Tiscareno, M.S., Burns, J.A., Hedman, M.M., Spitale, J.N., Porco, C.C., Murray, C.D., and the Cassini Imaging team [2005]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 37, 767; Weiss, J.W., Porco, C.C., Tiscareno, M.S., Burns, J.A., Dones, L. [2005]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 37, 767; Weiss, J.W., Porco, C.C., Tiscareno, M.S. [2009]. Astron. J. 138, 272-286). Here we present an extended non-collisional streamline model which accounts for both effects. We describe the resulting variations of the density structure and the modification of the nonlinearity parameter q. Furthermore, an estimate is given for the applicability of the model. We use the streamwire model introduced by Stewart (Stewart, G.R. [1991]. Icarus 94, 436-450) to plot the perturbed ring density at the gap edges. We apply our model to the Keeler gap edges undulated by Daphnis and to a faint ringlet in the Encke gap close to the orbit of Pan. The modulations of the latter ringlet, induced by the perturbations of Pan (Burns, J.A., Hedman, M.M., Tiscareno, M.S., Nicholson, P.D., Streetman, B.J., Colwell, J.E., Showalter, M.R., Murray, C.D., Cuzzi, J.N., Porco, C.C., and the Cassini ISS team [2005]. Bull. Am
BEAM ON TARGET MODEL Produces All Gamma Ray Burst Phenomena Including Afterglow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greyber, H.
2000-12-01
While one must applaud the splendid research by L. Piro et al and L. Amati et al reported in SCIENCE recently, one must question, as M. Rees and S. Woolsey have done, their conclusion that a ``supranova model" is the only explanation for these new X-ray observations. In fact L. Piro was quoted as saying, ``Our data helps rule out the scenario where two neutron stars or black holes collide. We think GRBs result from something similar to a supernova explosion, but much more powerful." A relatively unknown physical model for GRBs, Greyber's Beam On Target model (BOT), dating back to the first CGRO observations, can plausibly explain the iron emission lines observed for GRB991216, and also the mass of the dense medium within a light-day of the GRB being roughly equivalent to at least one-tenth solar mass, as well as the initial shedding of material followed by the GRB event. When a galaxy forms under gravitational collapse in the presence of a primordial magnetic field, Mestel and Strittmatter demonstrated that, for finite Ohmic diffusion, a growing equatorial current loop is formed. Even if this stable ``Storage Ring" has only 10exp-9 of the total energy released during a typical galaxy's formation, the relativistic beam can possess 10exp58 ergs. The GRB ``fireball" occurs when a target star races across the powerful beam, blowing off target material as a hot, rapidly expanding plasma cloud, simulating an explosion. Since currents in space are known to be sometimes filamentary, sharp millisecond spikes can be expected in some GRBs. Proton and alpha particle nuclear reactions produce a gamma ray beam. Beam particles impinging on denser cloud material create an electromagnetic shower, producing X-ray, optical and radio radiation. Since the Storage Ring has an intense magnetic field around it, synchrotron radiation is expected. The beam, striking a highly evolved massive target star, produces the iron emission lines. H. D. Greyber, in ``After the Dark Ages:When Galaxies
Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Van Herpen, Alain; Zhang, Weihong
2016-03-01
This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well.
Daneshmand, Farhang; Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Amabili, Marco
2011-07-07
Wave propagation along the microtubules is one of the issues of major concern in various microtubule cellular functions. In this study, the general wave propagation behavior in protein microtubules is investigated based on a first-order shear deformation shell theory for orthotropic materials, with particular emphasis on the role of strongly anisotropic elastic properties of microtubules. According to experimental observation, the first-order shear deformation theory is used for the modeling of microtubule walls. A general displacement representation is introduced and a type of coupled polynomial eigenvalue problem is developed. Numerical examples describe the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia on wave velocities in orthotropic microtubules. Finally, the influences of the microtubule shear modulus, axial external force, effective thickness and material temperature dependency on wave velocities along the microtubule protofilaments, helical pathway and radial directions are elucidated. Most results presented in the present investigation have been absent from the literature for the wave propagation in microtubules.
ECO: a generic eutrophication model including comprehensive sediment-water interaction.
Smits, Johannes G C; van Beek, Jan K L
2013-01-01
The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO's calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction.
Rest, J.; Hofman, G.L.
1997-06-01
The Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART) contains models for fission-gas induced fuel swelling, interaction of fuel with the matrix aluminum, resultant reaction-product swelling, and calculation of the stress gradient within the fuel particle. The effects of an aluminide shell on fuel particle swelling are evaluated. Validation of the model is demonstrated by a comparison of DART calculations of fuel swelling of U{sub 3}SiAl-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al for various dispersion fuel element designs with the data. DART results are compared with data for fuel swelling Of U{sub 3}SiAl-Al in plate, tube, and rod configurations as a function of fission density. Plate and tube calculations were performed at a constant fuel temperature of 373 K and 518 K, respectively. An irradiation temperature of 518 K results in a calculated aluminide layer thickness for the Russian tube that is in the center of the measured range (16 {mu}m). Rod calculations were performed with a temperature gradient across the rod characterized by surface and central temperatures of 373 K and 423 K, respectively. The effective yield stress of irradiated Al matrix material and the aluminide was determined by comparing the results of DART calculations with postirradiation immersion volume measurement of U{sub 3}SiAl plates. The values for the effective yield stress were used in all subsequent simulations. The lower calculated fuel swelling in the rod-type element is due to an assumed biaxial stress state. Fuel swelling in plates results in plate thickness increase only. Likewise, in tubes, only the wall thickness increases. Irradiation experiments have shown that plate-type dispersion fuel elements can develop blisters or pillows at high U-235 burnup when fuel compounds exhibiting breakaway swelling are used at moderate to high fuel volume fractions. DART-calculated interaction layer thickness and fuel swelling follows the trends of the observations. 3 refs., 2 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.
2008-09-01
Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to have potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of such particles, and ignore interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we develop a new parameterization framework that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler Theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frankel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory, and i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH for which activation into cloud droplets is not possible, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. Parameterization formulations are developed for sectional and lognormal aerosol size distribution functions. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2 ~0.98.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.
2009-04-01
Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.
Areal rainfall estimation using moving cars - computer experiments including hydrological modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabiei, Ehsan; Haberlandt, Uwe; Sester, Monika; Fitzner, Daniel; Wallner, Markus
2016-09-01
The need for high temporal and spatial resolution precipitation data for hydrological analyses has been discussed in several studies. Although rain gauges provide valuable information, a very dense rain gauge network is costly. As a result, several new ideas have emerged to help estimating areal rainfall with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Rabiei et al. (2013) observed that moving cars, called RainCars (RCs), can potentially be a new source of data for measuring rain rate. The optical sensors used in that study are designed for operating the windscreen wipers and showed promising results for rainfall measurement purposes. Their measurement accuracy has been quantified in laboratory experiments. Considering explicitly those errors, the main objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of using RCs for estimating areal rainfall. For that, computer experiments are carried out, where radar rainfall is considered as the reference and the other sources of data, i.e., RCs and rain gauges, are extracted from radar data. Comparing the quality of areal rainfall estimation by RCs with rain gauges and reference data helps to investigate the benefit of the RCs. The value of this additional source of data is not only assessed for areal rainfall estimation performance but also for use in hydrological modeling. Considering measurement errors derived from laboratory experiments, the result shows that the RCs provide useful additional information for areal rainfall estimation as well as for hydrological modeling. Moreover, by testing larger uncertainties for RCs, they observed to be useful up to a certain level for areal rainfall estimation and discharge simulation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Judy; White, Paul; Sullivan, Peter
2005-01-01
Schematic models have been used extensively in educational research to represent relationships between variables diagrammatically, including the interrelationships between factors associated with teachers' beliefs and practices. A review of such models informed the development of a new model that was used to plan an investigation into primary…
Mahran, Yossra; Schueler, Robert; Weber, Marcel; Pizarro, Carmen; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk; Hammerstingl, Christoph
2016-01-01
AIM To find parameters from transthorathic echocardiography (TTE) including speckle-tracking (ST) analysis of the right ventricle (RV) to identify precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS Forty-four patients with suspected PH undergoing right heart catheterization (RHC) were consecutively included (mean age 63.1 ± 14 years, 61% male gender). All patients underwent standardized TTE including ST analysis of the RV. Based on the subsequent TTE-derived measurements, the presence of PH was assessed: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated by Simpsons rule from 4Ch. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) was assessed with continuous wave Doppler of systolic tricuspid regurgitant velocity and regarded raised with values ≥ 30 mmHg as a surrogate parameter for RA pressure. A concomitantly elevated PCWP was considered a means to discriminate between the precapillary and postcapillary form of PH. PCWP was considered elevated when the E/e’ ratio was > 12 as a surrogate for LV diastolic pressure. E/e’ ratio was measured by gauging systolic and diastolic velocities of the lateral and septal mitral valve annulus using TDI mode. The results were then averaged with conventional measurement of mitral valve inflow. Furthermore, functional testing with six minutes walking distance (6MWD), ECG-RV stress signs, NT pro-BNP and other laboratory values were assessed. RESULTS PH was confirmed in 34 patients (precapillary PH, n = 15, postcapillary PH, n = 19). TTE showed significant differences in E/e’ ratio (precapillary PH: 12.3 ± 4.4, postcapillary PH: 17.3 ± 10.3, no PH: 12.1 ± 4.5, P = 0.02), LV volumes (ESV: 25.0 ± 15.0 mL, 49.9 ± 29.5 mL, 32.2 ± 13.6 mL, P = 0.027; EDV: 73.6 ± 24.0 mL, 110.6 ± 31.8 mL, 87.8 ± 33.0 mL, P = 0.021) and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP: 61.2 ± 22.3 mmHg, 53.6 ± 20.1 mmHg, 31.2 ± 24.6 mmHg, P = 0.001). STRV analysis showed significant differences for apical RV longitudinal strain (RVAS: -7.5% ± 5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLarty, Dustin Fogle
Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Sankar Kumar; Roy, Banani
In this article, a prey-predator system with Holling type II functional response for the predator population including prey refuge region has been analyzed. Also a harvesting effort has been considered for the predator population. The density-dependent mortality rate for the prey, predator and super predator has been considered. The equilibria of the proposed system have been determined. Local and global stabilities for the system have been discussed. We have used the analytic approach to derive the global asymptotic stabilities of the system. The maximal predator per capita consumption rate has been considered as a bifurcation parameter to evaluate Hopf bifurcation in the neighborhood of interior equilibrium point. Also, we have used fishing effort to harvest predator population of the system as a control to develop a dynamic framework to investigate the optimal utilization of the resource, sustainability properties of the stock and the resource rent is earned from the resource. Finally, we have presented some numerical simulations to verify the analytic results and the system has been analyzed through graphical illustrations.
Kimura, S Roy; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Langley, David R
2011-12-21
We present a simple and practical method to include ligand electronic polarization in molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of biomolecular systems. The method involves periodically spawning quantum mechanical (QM) electrostatic potential (ESP) calculations on an extra set of computer processors using molecular coordinate snapshots from a running parallel MD simulation. The QM ESPs are evaluated for the small-molecule ligand in the presence of the electric field induced by the protein, solvent, and ion charges within the MD snapshot. Partial charges on ligand atom centers are fit through the multi-conformer restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) fit method on several successive ESPs. The RESP method was selected since it produces charges consistent with the AMBER/GAFF force-field used in the simulations. The updated charges are introduced back into the running simulation when the next snapshot is saved. The result is a simulation whose ligand partial charges continuously respond in real-time to the short-term mean electrostatic field of the evolving environment without incurring additional wall-clock time. We show that (1) by incorporating the cost of polarization back into the potential energy of the MD simulation, the algorithm conserves energy when run in the microcanonical ensemble and (2) the mean solvation free energies for 15 neutral amino acid side chains calculated with the quantum polarized fluctuating charge method and thermodynamic integration agree better with experiment relative to the Amber fixed charge force-field.
Nuclear Reactor/Hydrogen Process Interface Including the HyPEP Model
Steven R. Sherman
2007-05-01
The Nuclear Reactor/Hydrogen Plant interface is the intermediate heat transport loop that will connect a very high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (VHTR) to a thermochemical, high-temperature electrolysis, or hybrid hydrogen production plant. A prototype plant called the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is planned for construction and operation at the Idaho National Laboratory in the 2018-2021 timeframe, and will involve a VHTR, a high-temperature interface, and a hydrogen production plant. The interface is responsible for transporting high-temperature thermal energy from the nuclear reactor to the hydrogen production plant while protecting the nuclear plant from operational disturbances at the hydrogen plant. Development of the interface is occurring under the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) and involves the study, design, and development of high-temperature heat exchangers, heat transport systems, materials, safety, and integrated system models. Research and development work on the system interface began in 2004 and is expected to continue at least until the start of construction of an engineering-scale demonstration plant.
A fully model-based MPC solution including VSB shot dose assignment and shape correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Reddy, Murali; Durvasula, Bhardwaj
2015-10-01
The value of using multiple dose levels for individual shots on VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) mask writers has been demonstrated earlier [1][2]. The main advantage of modulating dose on a per shot basis is the fact that higher dose levels can be used selectively for critical features while other areas of the mask with non-critical feature types can be exposed at lower dose levels. This reduces the amount of backscattering and mask write time penalty compared to a global overdose-undersize approach. While dose assignment to certain polygons or parts of polygons (VSB shots) can easily be accomplished via DRC rules on layers with limited shape variations like contact or VIA layers, it can be challenging to come up with consistent rules for layers consisting of a very broad range of shapes, generally found on metal layers. This work introduces a method for fully model-based modulation of shot dose for VSB machines supporting between two and eight dose levels and demonstrates results achieved with this method.
Pilgrim, Matthew G.; Lengyel, Imre; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Fearn, Sarah; Emri, Eszter; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Read, Russell W.; Guidry, Clyde; Curcio, Christine A.
2017-01-01
Purpose Extracellular deposits containing hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace metals that form between the basal lamina of the RPE and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane are hallmarks of early AMD. We examined whether cultured RPE cells could produce extracellular deposits containing all of these molecular components. Methods Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were cultured on Transwell membranes for up to 6 months. Deposit composition and structure were characterized using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy; synchrotron x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence; secondary ion mass spectroscopy; and immunohistochemistry. Results Apparently functional primary RPE cells, when cultured on 10-μm-thick inserts with 0.4-μm-diameter pores, can produce sub-RPE deposits that contain hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace elements, without outer segment supplementation, by 12 weeks. Conclusions The data suggest that sub-RPE deposit formation is initiated, and probably regulated, by the RPE, as well as the loss of permeability of the Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris complex associated with age and early AMD. This cell culture model of early AMD lesions provides a novel system for testing new therapeutic interventions against sub-RPE deposit formation, an event occurring well in advance of the onset of vision loss. PMID:28146236
Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) relationships, models, and management rules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, William; Hendrick, Robert; Valett, Jon D.
1991-01-01
Over 50 individual Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) research results, extracted from a review of published SEL documentation, that can be applied directly to managing software development projects are captured. Four basic categories of results are defined and discussed - environment profiles, relationships, models, and management rules. In each category, research results are presented as a single page that summarizes the individual result, lists potential uses of the result by managers, and references the original SEL documentation where the result was found. The document serves as a concise reference summary of applicable research for SEL managers.
Bajzer, Željko; Gibbons, Simon J.; Coleman, Heidi D.; Linden, David R.
2015-01-01
Noninvasive breath tests for gastric emptying are important techniques for understanding the changes in gastric motility that occur in disease or in response to drugs. Mice are often used as an animal model; however, the gamma variate model currently used for data analysis does not always fit the data appropriately. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate mathematical models to better fit mouse gastric emptying data including when two peaks are present in the gastric emptying curve. We fitted 175 gastric emptying data sets with two standard models (gamma variate and power exponential), with a gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential and with a proposed two-component model. The appropriateness of the fit was assessed by the Akaike Information Criterion. We found that extension of the gamma variate model to include a stretched exponential improves the fit, which allows for a better estimation of T1/2 and Tlag. When two distinct peaks in gastric emptying are present, a two-component model is required for the most appropriate fit. We conclude that use of a stretched exponential gamma variate model and when appropriate a two-component model will result in a better estimate of physiologically relevant parameters when analyzing mouse gastric emptying data. PMID:26045615
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Theiss, Jennifer A.; Knobloch, Leanne K.; Checton, Maria G.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate
2009-01-01
We employed the relational turbulence model to identify (a) relationship characteristics associated with people's appraisals of hurtful messages, and (b) features of hurtful episodes and relationship characteristics that correspond with the directness of communication about hurt. We conducted a study in which 135 dating couples reported on their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Washington, Rhianon; Cox, Elaine
2016-01-01
In this paper, we explore how the use of a specific mentoring model focusing on the evolution of the relationship between mentor and mentee, may influence the incidence of failure. In our research we employed a case study methodology to examine a regional public service mentoring scheme in the UK where a developmental relationship mentoring model…
Quantitative Structure‐activity Relationship (QSAR) Models for Docking Score Correction
Yamasaki, Satoshi; Yasumatsu, Isao; Takeuchi, Koh; Kurosawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Haruki
2016-01-01
Abstract In order to improve docking score correction, we developed several structure‐based quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models by protein‐drug docking simulations and applied these models to public affinity data. The prediction models used descriptor‐based regression, and the compound descriptor was a set of docking scores against multiple (∼600) proteins including nontargets. The binding free energy that corresponded to the docking score was approximated by a weighted average of docking scores for multiple proteins, and we tried linear, weighted linear and polynomial regression models considering the compound similarities. In addition, we tried a combination of these regression models for individual data sets such as IC50, Ki, and %inhibition values. The cross‐validation results showed that the weighted linear model was more accurate than the simple linear regression model. Thus, the QSAR approaches based on the affinity data of public databases should improve docking scores. PMID:28001004
Modelling of the structure-property relationships in the α-quartz structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Yongtao; Alderson, Kim; Alderson, Andrew; Leng, Jinsong
2013-04-01
The molecular mechanism has been employed to model the structure-property relationships of auxetic material with tetrahedral framework at the atomistic level. The germania α-quartz subject uniaxial stress loading in z direction will be investigated. The strain-dependent structure and mechanical properties will be predicted from the force field based simulations, including the transformation from positive-to-negative Poisson's ratio behaviour and vice versa.
Dynamic Models Including Uncertainty
2009-01-22
least in part with this grant) • H.T. Banks, Prof ., North Carolina State University • G. M. Kepler, Res. Assoc, North Carolina State University • S...8217W- C -( ( »II 2 »P] i=i i’=i - N m nEE d 2{a2p) 2tttid^y ’tax dei N N EE WP) (4.19) 4.2.9 Finite Difference Scheme for Fokker
Marciniak, Karyn
2017-03-01
The majority of research on sibling relationships has investigated only one or two siblings in a family, but there are many theoretical and methodological limitations to this single dyadic perspective. This study uses multiple siblings (541 adults) in 184 families, where 96 of these families had all siblings complete the study, to demonstrate the value in including full sibling groups when conducting research on sibling relationships. Two scales, positivity and willingness to sacrifice, are evaluated with a multilevel model to account for the nested nature of family relationships. The distribution of variance across three levels: relationship, individual, and family are computed, and results indicate that the relationship level explains the most variance in positivity, whereas the individual level explains the majority of variance in willingness to sacrifice. These distributions are affected by gender composition and family size. The results of this study highlight an important and often overlooked element of family research: The meaning of a scale changes based on its distribution of variance at these three levels. Researchers are encouraged to be cognizant of the variance distribution of their scales when studying sibling relationships and to incorporate more full sibling groups into their research methods and study design.
Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.
2012-03-01
Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions: Comparable
Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Gernaey, Krist V; Rosen, Christian
2009-10-01
The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how including the occurrence of filamentous bulking sludge in a secondary clarifier model will affect the predicted process performance during the simulation of WWTPs. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) is hereby used as a simulation case study. Practically, the proposed approach includes a risk assessment model based on a knowledge-based decision tree to detect favourable conditions for the development of filamentous bulking sludge. Once such conditions are detected, the settling characteristics of the secondary clarifier model are automatically changed during the simulation by modifying the settling model parameters to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria. The simulation results demonstrate that including effects of filamentous bulking in the secondary clarifier model results in a more realistic plant performance. Particularly, during the periods when the conditions for the development of filamentous bulking sludge are favourable--leading to poor activated sludge compaction, low return and waste TSS concentrations and difficulties in maintaining the biomass in the aeration basins--a subsequent reduction in overall pollution removal efficiency is observed. Also, a scenario analysis is conducted to examine i) the influence of sludge retention time (SRT), the external recirculation flow rate (Q(r)) and the air flow rate in the bioreactor (modelled as k(L)a) as factors promoting bulking sludge, and ii) the effect on the model predictions when the settling properties are changed due to a possible proliferation of filamentous microorganisms. Finally, the potentially adverse effects of certain operational procedures are highlighted, since such effects are normally not considered by state-of-the-art models that do not include microbiology-related solids separation problems.
Strategic Engagement: New Models of Relationship Management for Academic Librarians
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eldridge, Jeanette; Fraser, Katie; Simmonds, Tony; Smyth, Neil
2016-01-01
How do we best bridge the gap between the Library and the diverse academic communities it serves? Librarians need new strategies for engagement. Traditional models of liaison, aligning solutions to disciplines, are yielding to functional specialisms, including a focus on building partnerships. This paper offers a snapshot of realignment across the…
León, Xavier; Valero, Cristina; Rovira, Carlota; Rodriguez, Camilo; López, Montserrat; García-Lorenzo, Jacinto; Quer, Miquel
2017-03-27
The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between the degree of response to induction chemotherapy and the disease control in patients with locally advanced laryngeal carcinomas candidates to total laryngectomy. This retrospective study includes 389 patients with T3-T4 laryngeal tumors candidates to total laryngectomy, diagnosed between 1985 and 2013, treated with induction chemotherapy in an organ preservation protocol. Five-year local recurrence-free survival for patients receiving conservative treatment with radiotherapy after a complete response to induction chemotherapy was 75.4%; for patients with partial response greater than 50%, it was 62.0%; and for patients with the absence of response, it was 32.7%. There were significant differences in local recurrence-free survival and laryngeal dysfunction-free survival according to the response to induction chemotherapy (P = 0.0001) at the expense of patients with absence of response to induction chemotherapy. Patients with partial response greater than 50% treated with radiotherapy had a tendency to have worse local recurrence-free survival and laryngeal dysfunction-free survival than patients with complete response, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Patients with the absence of response after induction chemotherapy had significant differences in disease-specific survival according to the second treatment: for patients treated with surgery it was 70.2%, whereas for patients treated with radiotherapy, it was 28.2% (P = 0.0001). In patients with the absence of response to induction chemotherapy, conservative treatment with radiotherapy implies a significant decrease in survival.
Dynamic model of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack including an integrated cooling system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang
2017-02-01
A novel dynamic micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (MT-SOFC) and stack model including an integrated cooling system is developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. The modeling approach includes a simplified tubular geometry and stack design including an integrated cooling structure, detailed pressure drop and gas property calculations, the electrical and physical constraints of the stack design that determine the current, as well as control strategies for the temperature. Moreover, an advanced heat transfer balance with detailed radiative heat transfer between the cells and the integrated cooling-tubes, convective heat transfer between the gas flows and the surrounding structures and conductive heat transfer between the solid structures inside of the stack, is included. The detailed model can be used as a design basis for the novel MT-SOFC stack assembly including an integrated cooling system, as well as for the development of a dynamic system control strategy. The evaluated best-case design achieves very high electrical efficiency between around 75 and 55% in the entire power density range between 50 and 550 mW /cm2 due to the novel stack design comprising an integrated cooling structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raksharam; Dutta, Aloke K.
2017-04-01
In this paper, a unified analytical model for the drain current of a symmetric Double-Gate Junctionless Field-Effect Transistor (DG-JLFET) is presented. The operation of the device has been classified into four modes: subthreshold, semi-depleted, accumulation, and hybrid; with the main focus of this work being on the accumulation mode, which has not been dealt with in detail so far in the literature. A physics-based model, using a simplified one-dimensional approach, has been developed for this mode, and it has been successfully integrated with the model for the hybrid mode. It also includes the effect of carrier mobility degradation due to the transverse electric field, which was hitherto missing in the earlier models reported in the literature. The piece-wise models have been unified using suitable interpolation functions. In addition, the model includes two most important short-channel effects pertaining to DG-JLFETs, namely the Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL) and the Subthreshold Swing (SS) degradation. The model is completely analytical, and is thus computationally highly efficient. The results of our model have shown an excellent match with those obtained from TCAD simulations for both long- and short-channel devices, as well as with the experimental data reported in the literature.
Duration Models to Analyze Dating Relationship: The Controversial Role of Gift Giving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huang, Ming-Hui; Yu, Shihti
2000-01-01
Econometric duration models were used to analyze dating relationships of 225 college students. Using gifts to enhance the self, express love, and announce relationships helped ensure the success of relationships. Gifts that were too frequent or rare resulted in self-depreciation and anxiety and harmed relationships. (SK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Murphy, Megan J.
2011-01-01
The purpose of the current study was to explore college women's stay/ leave decisions in abusive relationships using a prospective methodology. Participants (N = 323) completed surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter for course credit. A path analysis suggested that the model--which included investment model variables (i.e.,…
McLerran, Larry; Skokov, Vladimir V.
2016-09-19
We modify the McLerran–Venugopalan model to include only a finite number of sources of color charge. In the effective action for such a system of a finite number of sources, there is a point-like interaction and a Coulombic interaction. The point interaction generates the standard fluctuation term in the McLerran–Venugopalan model. The Coulomb interaction generates the charge screening originating from well known evolution in x. Such a model may be useful for computing angular harmonics of flow measured in high energy hadron collisions for small systems. In this study we provide a basic formulation of the problem on a lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLerran, Larry; Skokov, Vladimir V.
2017-01-01
We modify the McLerran-Venugopalan model to include only a finite number of sources of color charge. In the effective action for such a system of a finite number of sources, there is a point-like interaction and a Coulombic interaction. The point interaction generates the standard fluctuation term in the McLerran-Venugopalan model. The Coulomb interaction generates the charge screening originating from well known evolution in x. Such a model may be useful for computing angular harmonics of flow measured in high energy hadron collisions for small systems. In this paper we provide a basic formulation of the problem on a lattice.
Using structural equation modeling to investigate relationships among ecological variables
Malaeb, Z.A.; Kevin, Summers J.; Pugesek, B.H.
2000-01-01
Structural equation modeling is an advanced multivariate statistical process with which a researcher can construct theoretical concepts, test their measurement reliability, hypothesize and test a theory about their relationships, take into account measurement errors, and consider both direct and indirect effects of variables on one another. Latent variables are theoretical concepts that unite phenomena under a single term, e.g., ecosystem health, environmental condition, and pollution (Bollen, 1989). Latent variables are not measured directly but can be expressed in terms of one or more directly measurable variables called indicators. For some researchers, defining, constructing, and examining the validity of latent variables may be the end task of itself. For others, testing hypothesized relationships of latent variables may be of interest. We analyzed the correlation matrix of eleven environmental variables from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) using methods of structural equation modeling. We hypothesized and tested a conceptual model to characterize the interdependencies between four latent variables-sediment contamination, natural variability, biodiversity, and growth potential. In particular, we were interested in measuring the direct, indirect, and total effects of sediment contamination and natural variability on biodiversity and growth potential. The model fit the data well and accounted for 81% of the variability in biodiversity and 69% of the variability in growth potential. It revealed a positive total effect of natural variability on growth potential that otherwise would have been judged negative had we not considered indirect effects. That is, natural variability had a negative direct effect on growth potential of magnitude -0.3251 and a positive indirect effect mediated through biodiversity of magnitude 0.4509, yielding a net positive total effect of 0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, H. P.
1977-01-01
The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, C. E., Jr.
1977-01-01
A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.
Liu, Wendi; Tang, Sanyi; Xiao, Yanni
2015-01-01
The aim of the present study is to apply simple ODE models in the area of modeling the spread of emerging infectious diseases and show the importance of model selection in estimating parameters, the basic reproduction number, turning point, and final size. To quantify the plausibility of each model, given the data and the set of four models including Logistic, Gompertz, Rosenzweg, and Richards models, the Bayes factors are calculated and the precise estimates of the best fitted model parameters and key epidemic characteristics have been obtained. In particular, for Ebola the basic reproduction numbers are 1.3522 (95% CI (1.3506, 1.3537)), 1.2101 (95% CI (1.2084, 1.2119)), 3.0234 (95% CI (2.6063, 3.4881)), and 1.9018 (95% CI (1.8565, 1.9478)), the turning points are November 7,November 17, October 2, and November 3, 2014, and the final sizes until December 2015 are 25794 (95% CI (25630, 25958)), 3916 (95% CI (3865, 3967)), 9886 (95% CI (9740, 10031)), and 12633 (95% CI (12515, 12750)) for West Africa, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, respectively. The main results confirm that model selection is crucial in evaluating and predicting the important quantities describing the emerging infectious diseases, and arbitrarily picking a model without any consideration of alternatives is problematic. PMID:26451161
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Kuan-Ying; Lu, I.-Hsin; Wu, Yuh-Renn
2016-03-01
A numerical model for PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell has been developed and the structure has been simulated and analyzed. The limiting factor leading to low open circuit voltage (Voc) in PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell is investigated. By adding a p-type silicon layer into the device to create an electric field in the silicon layer, the recombination at interface is improved and the Voc increases. The efficiency is improved to over 15% and more optimized work can be done in the future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmood, T. H.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Elliott, J. A.; Baulch, H. M.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.
2015-12-01
Nutrient export to streams and lakes from agricultural activities can result in significant deterioration of water quality and aquatic ecosystem health. In Western Canada, particular concerns arise for prairie agricultural systems, which are dominated by the effects of a cold climate. Insufficient attention has been given to understand the links between cold region watershed responses and nutrient concentration and a robust watershed-scale modeling framework is needed to simulate nutrient concentration and loads. Long-term, field observations of nutrient concentration-runoff relationships were used to develop nutrient concentration models for the Tobacco Creek Model Watershed (TCMW) which drains into the Red River basin. Field observations include streamflow concentrations of N and P at multiple scales from two headwater basins. Distinct nutrient concentration-runoff models for snowmelt, rain on snow (ROS) and rainfall runoff processes were developed from observed runoff-nutrient concentration relationships. Snowmelt runoff had a moderately positive correlation with particulate nutrient concentrations but no correlation with that of dissolved nutrients. ROS runoff had a weak relationship with both particulate and dissolved nutrient concentrations. Rainfall runoff had the strongest positive correlation with particulate nutrient concentrations but no association with that of dissolved nutrients. The modeling approach also identified a clear hysteretic behavior in the relationship between runoff and particulate nutrient concentration during the 2013 snowmelt runoff event at the basin outlet gauge. The models provide insight into the hydrological controls on nutrient export from cold regions watersheds and the strong effects of inter-annual climatic variability. Snowmelt runoff is a reliable exporter of large nutrient loads while nutrient export by rainfall runoff exceeded snowmelt runoff during hydrologically wet summers such as 2002, 2005, 2011 and 2013.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reerink, Thomas J.; van de Berg, Willem Jan; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.
2016-11-01
This paper accompanies the second OBLIMAP open-source release. The package is developed to map climate fields between a general circulation model (GCM) and an ice sheet model (ISM) in both directions by using optimal aligned oblique projections, which minimize distortions. The curvature of the surfaces of the GCM and ISM grid differ, both grids may be irregularly spaced and the ratio of the grids is allowed to differ largely. OBLIMAP's stand-alone version is able to map data sets that differ in various aspects on the same ISM grid. Each grid may either coincide with the surface of a sphere, an ellipsoid or a flat plane, while the grid types might differ. Re-projection of, for example, ISM data sets is also facilitated. This is demonstrated by relevant applications concerning the major ice caps. As the stand-alone version also applies to the reverse mapping direction, it can be used as an offline coupler. Furthermore, OBLIMAP 2.0 is an embeddable GCM-ISM coupler, suited for high-frequency online coupled experiments. A new fast scan method is presented for structured grids as an alternative for the former time-consuming grid search strategy, realising a performance gain of several orders of magnitude and enabling the mapping of high-resolution data sets with a much larger number of grid nodes. Further, a highly flexible masked mapping option is added. The limitation of the fast scan method with respect to unstructured and adaptive grids is discussed together with a possible future parallel Message Passing Interface (MPI) implementation.
Data-Model Relationship in Text-Independent Speaker Recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, John S. D.; Evans, Nicholas W. D.; Stapert, Robert; Auckenthaler, Roland
2005-12-01
Text-independent speaker recognition systems such as those based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) do not include time sequence information (TSI) within the model itself. The level of importance of TSI in speaker recognition is an interesting question and one addressed in this paper. Recent works has shown that the utilisation of higher-level information such as idiolect, pronunciation, and prosodics can be useful in reducing speaker recognition error rates. In accordance with these developments, the aim of this paper is to show that as more data becomes available, the basic GMM can be enhanced by utilising TSI, even in a text-independent mode. This paper presents experimental work incorporating TSI into the conventional GMM. The resulting system, known as the segmental mixture model (SMM), embeds dynamic time warping (DTW) into a GMM framework. Results are presented on the 2000-speaker SpeechDat Welsh database which show improved speaker recognition performance with the SMM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burns, J. M.
1985-12-01
This investigation derived a simple model to determine the change in mean motion over time when the actual values are unknown. A method was developed to include effects of solar flux by calculating an average value of n over 30 days. The model requires a knowledge of the mean motion for about 30 days before the time of interest to calculate this average. The analysis was done using BMDP on a CDC Cyber 6000 computer using element set data from actual satellites. This model does not attempt absolute accuracy, but is intended to be a method to quickly approximate a new mean motion when real values are not available. A limitation of this model is the amount of historical data and analyst judgement which are required.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mumford, Michael D.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.; Peterson, David R.; Day, Eric A.; Hougen, Dean F.; Barrett, Jamie D.
2012-01-01
Knowledge, or expertise, has been held to contribute to creative problem-solving. In this effort, the relationship of one form of knowledge, mental models, to creative problem-solving was assessed. Undergraduates were asked to solve either a marketing or an education problem calling for creative thought. Prior to generating solutions to these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCormick, Kimberly G.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to contribute to the research body of literature regarding dual enrollment, the impact and effectiveness of the program, and its relationship to college persistence. The goal was to provide information useful to governing bodies, educational leaders, parents and students. The theoretical construct, defined through the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, A.; Refsgaard, J.; Christensen, B. S.; Jensen, K. H.
2011-12-01
Nitrate leaching from agricultural areas and the resulting pollution of groundwater and surface waters is one of the largest challenges in water resources management in Denmark. Nitrate can however be naturally degraded under anaerobic conditions and several studies have shown that degradation in the saturated zone removes more than 50% of the nitrate leaching in Danish catchments. For degradation of nitrate to occur in the saturated zone, nitrate must be transported under the redox interface and a correct simulation of the small-scale flow patterns within a catchment is therefore important in nitrate models. The general findings in Danish nitrate modeling studies are that the models perform well at catchment scale, but the predictability of the models decreases at smaller scale. Thus the model predictions are highly uncertain at small scale and the models cannot at present predict areas within a catchment, where the majority of the nitrate is brought under the interface and thus degraded, and areas, where nitrate is transported directly to streams and lakes without any significant reduction. The objective of this study is to test if the small scale performance of a catchment scale nitrate model can be improved by including small scale observation data in the calibration procedure. The study area is the clayey catchment to Lillebæk stream (4.7 km2), located on the island of Funen in Denmark. Due to the presence of clayey top soils subsurface drains are installed and in consequence the stream discharge is highly dominated by drain flow. An integrated transient hydrological model based on the MIKE SHE code has been developed for the study area. The model has been calibrated against hydraulic head measurements and stream discharge measurements from two stations, one covering most of the catchment and the other station approximately half, using the parameter estimator code PEST. Acceptable model performance has been achieved at catchment scale calibrating the model
Modeling the effect of photosynthetic vegetation properties on the NDVI--LAI relationship.
Steltzer, Heidi; Welker, Jeffrey M
2006-11-01
Developing a relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the leaf area index (LAI) is essential to describe the pattern of spatial or temporal variation in LAI that controls carbon, water, and energy exchange in many ecosystem process models. Photosynthetic vegetation (PV) properties can affect the estimation of LAI, but no models integrate the effects of multiple species. We developed four alternative NDVI-LAI models, three of which integrate PV effects: no PV effects, leaf-level effects, canopy-level effects, and effects at both levels. The models were fit to data across the natural range of variation in NDVI for a widespread High Arctic ecosystem. The weight of evidence supported the canopy-level model (Akaike weight, wr = 0.98), which includes species-specific canopy coefficients that primarily scale fractional PV cover to LAI by accounting for the area of unexposed PV. Modeling the canopy-level effects improved prediction of LAI (R2 = 0.82) over the model with no PV effect (R2 = 0.71) across the natural range of variation in NDVI but did not affect the site-level estimate of LAI. Satellite-based methods to estimate species composition, a variable in the model, will need to be developed. We expect that including the effects of PV properties in NDVI-LAI models will improve prediction of LAI where species composition varies across space or changes over time.
Beier, C; Eckersten, H; Gundersen, P
2001-12-12
A dynamic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) circulation model, SOILN, was applied and tested on 7 years of control data and 3 years of manipulation data from an experiment involving monthly N addition in a Norway spruce ( Picea abies, L. Karst) forest in Denmark. The model includes two pathways for N uptake: (1) as mineral N after mineralisation of organic N, or (2) directly from soil organic matter as amino acids proposed to mimic N uptake by mycorrhiza. The model was parameterised and applied to the data from the control plot both with and without the organic N uptake included. After calibration, the models performance was tested against data from the N-addition experiment by comparing model output with measurements. The model reproduced well the overall trends in C and N pools and the N concentrations in soil solutions in the top soil layers whereas discrepancies in soil-solution concentrations in the deeper soil layers are seen. In the control data, the needle-N concentration was well reproduced except for small underestimations in some years because of drought effects not included in the model. In the N-addition experiment, SOILN reproduces the observed changes; in particular, the changes in needle-N concentrations and the overall distribution within the ecosystem of the extra added 3.5 g N m(-2) year(-1) parallel the observations. When organic N uptake is included, the simulations indicate that in the control plot receiving c. 1.9 g N m(-2) year(-1), the organic N uptake in average supplies 35% of the total plant N uptake. By addition of an extra 35 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), the organic N uptake is reduced to 16% of the total N uptake. Generally, inclusion of the pathway for organic N uptake improves model performance compared with observations for both C and N. This is because mineral N uptake alone implies a larger mineralisation rate, leading to bigger concentrations of N in the soil and soil water, bigger N losses, and net loss of c. 100 kg C ha(-1) year(-1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.
2013-05-01
Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharin, Stanislav; Sarsengeldin, Merey; Kassabek, Samat
2016-08-01
We represent mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed symmetric and asymmetric electrical contacts including Thomson effect, which are essentially nonlinear due to the dependence of thermal and electrical conductivities on temperature. Suggested solutions are based on the assumption of identity of equipotentials and isothermal surfaces, which agrees with experimental data and valid for both linear and nonlinear cases. Well known Kohlrausch temperature-potential relation is analytically justified.
Ke, Y.; Ortola, S.; Beaucour, A.L.; Dumontet, H.
2010-11-15
An approach which combines both experimental techniques and micromechanical modelling is developed in order to characterise the elastic behaviour of lightweight aggregate concretes (LWAC). More than three hundred LWAC specimens with various lightweight aggregate types (5) of several volume ratios and three different mortar matrices (normal, HP, VHP) are tested. The modelling is based on iterative homogenisation process and includes the ITZ specificities experimentally observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In agreement with experimental measurements, the effects of mix design parameters as well as of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) on concrete mechanical performances are quantitatively analysed. Confrontations with experimental results allow identifying the elastic moduli of LWA which are difficult to determine experimentally. Whereas the traditional empirical formulas are not sufficiently precise, predictions of LWAC elastic behaviours computed with the micromechanical models appear in good agreement with experimental measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trescot, C. D., Jr.; Brown, C. A., Jr.; Howell, D. T.
1974-01-01
An investigation has been made in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the effects of Reynolds number and sting-support interference on the static aerodynamic characteristics of a 140 deg-included-angle cone. Base pressures and forces and moments of the model were measured at Mach numbers of 1.50, 2.00, 2.94, and 4.00 for ratios of sting diameter to model diameter that varied from 0.125 to 0.500 through an angle-of-attack range from about minus 4 deg to 13 deg. The Reynolds number, based on model diameter 4.80 in. was varied from 161,000 to 415,000.
Statistical Modeling to Characterize Relationships between Knee Anatomy and Kinematics
Smoger, Lowell M.; Fitzpatrick, Clare K.; Clary, Chadd W.; Cyr, Adam J.; Maletsky, Lorin P.; Rullkoetter, Paul J.; Laz, Peter J.
2015-01-01
The mechanics of the knee are complex and dependent on the shape of the articular surfaces and their relative alignment. Insight into how anatomy relates to kinematics can establish biomechanical norms, support the diagnosis and treatment of various pathologies (e.g. patellar maltracking) and inform implant design. Prior studies have used correlations to identify anatomical measures related to specific motions. The objective of this study was to describe relationships between knee anatomy and tibiofemoral (TF) and patellofemoral (PF) kinematics using a statistical shape and function modeling approach. A principal component (PC) analysis was performed on a 20-specimen dataset consisting of shape of the bone and cartilage for the femur, tibia and patella derived from imaging and six-degree-of-freedom TF and PF kinematics from cadaveric testing during a simulated squat. The PC modes characterized links between anatomy and kinematics; the first mode captured scaling and shape changes in the condylar radii and their influence on TF anterior-posterior translation, internal-external rotation, and the location of the femoral lowest point. Subsequent modes described relations in patella shape and alta/baja alignment impacting PF kinematics. The complex interactions described with the data-driven statistical approach provide insight into knee mechanics that is useful clinically and in implant design. PMID:25991502
Computational modeling of the relationship between amyloid and disease
Hall, Damien; Edskes, Herman
2013-01-01
Amyloid is a title conferred upon a special type of linear protein aggregate that exhibits a common set of structural features and dye binding capabilities. The formation of amyloid is associated with over twenty-seven distinct human diseases which are collectively referred to as the amyloidoses. Although there is great diversity amongst the amyloidoses with regard to the polypeptide monomeric precursor, targeted tissues and the nature and time course of disease development, the common underlying link of a structurally similar amyloid aggregate has prompted the search for a unified theory of disease progression in which amyloid production is the central element. Computational modeling has allowed the formulation and testing of scientific hypotheses for exploring this relationship. However, the majority of computational studies on amyloid aggregation are pitched at the atomistic level of description, in simple ideal solution environments, with simulation time scales of the order of microseconds and system sizes limited to a hundred monomers (or less). The experimental reality is that disease related amyloid aggregation processes occur in extremely complex reaction environments (i.e. the human body), over time-scales of months to years with monitoring of the reaction achieved using extremely coarse or indirect experimental markers that yield little or no atomistic insight. Clearly a substantial gap exists between computational and experimental communities with a deficit of ‘useful’ computational methodology that can be directly related to available markers of disease progression. This Review will place its focus on the development of these latter types of computational models and discuss them in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:23495357
The relationship of family characteristics and bipolar disorder using causal-pie models.
Chen, Y-C; Kao, C-F; Lu, M-K; Yang, Y-K; Liao, S-C; Jang, F-L; Chen, W J; Lu, R-B; Kuo, P-H
2014-01-01
Many family characteristics were reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). The development of BPD may be mediated through different pathways, involving diverse risk factor profiles. We evaluated the associations of family characteristics to build influential causal-pie models to estimate their contributions on the risk of developing BPD at the population level. We recruited 329 clinically diagnosed BPD patients and 202 healthy controls to collect information in parental psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and conflict within family. Other than logistic regression models, we applied causal-pie models to identify pathways involved with different family factors for BPD. The risk of BPD was significantly increased with parental depression, neurosis, anxiety, paternal substance use problems, and poor relationship with parents. Having a depressed mother further predicted early onset of BPD. Additionally, a greater risk for BPD was observed with higher numbers of paternal/maternal psychopathologies. Three significant risk profiles were identified for BPD, including paternal substance use problems (73.0%), maternal depression (17.6%), and through poor relationship with parents and conflict within the family (6.3%). Our findings demonstrate that different aspects of family characteristics elicit negative impacts on bipolar illness, which can be utilized to target specific factors to design and employ efficient intervention programs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sakowski, Barbara; Edwards, Daryl; Dickens, Kevin
2014-01-01
Modeling droplet condensation via CFD codes can be very tedious, time consuming, and inaccurate. CFD codes may be tedious and time consuming in terms of using Lagrangian particle tracking approaches or particle sizing bins. Also since many codes ignore conduction through the droplet and or the degradating effect of heat and mass transfer if noncondensible species are present, the solutions may be inaccurate. The modeling of a condensing spray chamber where the significant size of the water droplets and the time and distance these droplets take to fall, can make the effect of droplet conduction a physical factor that needs to be considered in the model. Furthermore the presence of even a relatively small amount of noncondensible has been shown to reduce the amount of condensation [Ref 1]. It is desirable then to create a modeling tool that addresses these issues. The path taken to create such a tool is illustrated. The application of this tool and subsequent results are based on the spray chamber in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B2) located at NASA's Plum Brook Station that tested an RL-10 engine. The platform upon which the condensation physics is modeled is SINDAFLUINT. The use of SINDAFLUINT enables the ability to model various aspects of the entire testing facility, including the rocket exhaust duct flow and heat transfer to the exhaust duct wall. The ejector pumping system of the spray chamber is also easily implemented via SINDAFLUINT. The goal is to create a transient one dimensional flow and heat transfer model beginning at the rocket, continuing through the condensing spray chamber, and finally ending with the ejector pumping system. However the model of the condensing spray chamber may be run independently of the rocket and ejector systems detail, with only appropriate mass flow boundary conditions placed at the entrance and exit of the condensing spray chamber model. The model of the condensing spray chamber takes into account droplet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menke, William
2017-02-01
We prove that the problem of inverting Rayleigh wave phase velocity functions c( k ) , where k is wavenumber, for density ρ ( z ) , rigidity μ ( z ) and Lamé parameter λ ( z ) , where z is depth, is fully non-unique, at least in the highly-idealized case where the base Earth model is an isotropic half space. The model functions completely trade off. This is one special case of a common inversion scenario in which one seeks to determine several model functions from a single data function. We explore the circumstances under which this broad class of problems is unique, starting with very simple scenarios, building up to the somewhat more complicated (and common) case where data and model functions are related by convolutions, and then finally, to scale-independent problems (which include the Rayleigh wave problem). The idealized cases that we examine analytically provide insight into the kinds of nonuniqueness that are inherent in the much more complicated problems encountered in modern geophysical imaging (though they do not necessarily provide methods for solving those problems). We also define what is meant by a Backus and Gilbert resolution kernel in this kind of inversion and show under what circumstances a unique localized average of a single model function can be constructed.
Goyens, C; Jamet, C; Ruddick, K G
2013-09-09
Spectral relationships, reflecting the spectral dependence of water-leaving reflectance, ρw(λ), can be easily implemented in current AC algorithms with the aim to improve ρw(λ) retrievals where the algorithms fail. The present study evaluates the potential of spectral relationships to improve the MUMM [Ruddick et al., 2006, Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179] and standard NASA [Bailey et al., 2010, Opt. Express 18, 7521-7527] near infra-red (NIR) modeling schemes included in the AC algorithm to account for non-zero ρw(λNIR), based on in situ coastal ρw(λ) and simulated Rayleigh corrected reflectance data. Two modified NIR-modeling schemes are investigated: (1) the standard NASA NIR-modeling scheme is forced with bounding relationships in the red spectral domain and with a NIR polynomial relationship and, (2) the constant NIR ρw(λ) ratio used in the MUMM NIR-modeling scheme is replaced by a NIR polynomial spectral relationship. Results suggest that the standard NASA NIR-modeling scheme performs better for all turbidity ranges and in particular in the blue spectral domain (percentage bias decreased by approximately 50%) when it is forced with the red and NIR spectral relationships. However, with these new constraints, more reflectance spectra are flagged due to non-physical Chlorophyll-a concentration estimations. The new polynomial-based MUMM NIR-modeling scheme yielded lower ρw(λ) retrieval errors and particularly in extremely turbid waters. However, including the polynomial NIR relationship significantly increased the sensitivity of the algorithm to errors on the selected aerosol model from nearby clear water pixels.
Steinberg, Adam M.; Driscoll, James F.
2010-07-15
Temporally resolved measurements of turbulence-flame interaction were used to experimentally determine relationships for the strain-rate and curvature stretch-rate exerted on a premixed flame surface. These relationships include a series of transfer functions that are analogous to, but not equal to, stretch-efficiency functions. The measurements were obtained by applying high-repetition-rate particle image velocimetry in a turbulent slot Bunsen flame and were able to resolve the range of turbulent scales that cause flame surface straining and wrinkling. Fluid control masses were tracked in a Lagrangian manner as they interacted with the flame surface. From each interaction, the spatially and temporally filtered subgrid strain-rate and curvature stretch-rate were measured. By analyzing the statistics of thousands of turbulence-flame interactions, relationships for the strain-rate and curvature stretch-rate were determined that are appropriate for Large Eddy Simulation. It was found that the strain-rate exerted on the flame during these interactions was better correlated with the strength of the subgrid fluid-dynamic strain-rate field than with previously used characteristic strain-rates. Furthermore, stretch-efficiency functions developed from simplified vortex-flame interactions significantly over-predict the measurements. Hence, the proposed relationship relates the strain-rate on the flame to the filtered subgrid fluid-dynamic strain-rate field during real turbulence-flame interactions using an empirically determined Strain-Rate Transfer function. It was found that the curvature stretch-rate did not locally balance the strain-rate as has been proposed in previous models. A geometric relationship was found to exist between the subgrid flame surface wrinkling factor and subgrid curvature stretch-rate, which could be expressed using an empirically determined wrinkling factor transfer function. Curve fits to the measured relationships are provided that could be
Li, Jue; Inada, Shin; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Zhang, Henggui; Dobrzynski, Halina; Boyett, Mark R.
2014-01-01
The aim of the study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) anatomically-detailed model of the rabbit right atrium containing the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes to study the electrophysiology of the nodes. A model was generated based on 3D images of a rabbit heart (atria and part of ventricles), obtained using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Segmentation was carried out semi-manually. A 3D right atrium array model (∼3.16 million elements), including eighteen objects, was constructed. For description of cellular electrophysiology, the Rogers-modified FitzHugh-Nagumo model was further modified to allow control of the major characteristics of the action potential with relatively low computational resource requirements. Model parameters were chosen to simulate the action potentials in the sinoatrial node, atrial muscle, inferior nodal extension and penetrating bundle. The block zone was simulated as passive tissue. The sinoatrial node, crista terminalis, main branch and roof bundle were considered as anisotropic. We have simulated normal and abnormal electrophysiology of the two nodes. In accordance with experimental findings: (i) during sinus rhythm, conduction occurs down the interatrial septum and into the atrioventricular node via the fast pathway (conduction down the crista terminalis and into the atrioventricular node via the slow pathway is slower); (ii) during atrial fibrillation, the sinoatrial node is protected from overdrive by its long refractory period; and (iii) during atrial fibrillation, the atrioventricular node reduces the frequency of action potentials reaching the ventricles. The model is able to simulate ventricular echo beats. In summary, a 3D anatomical model of the right atrium containing the cardiac conduction system is able to simulate a wide range of classical nodal behaviours. PMID:25380074
2013-06-01
the Amazon today are environmental crimes, such as deforestation and illegal mining, the "land grabbing", lack of formal...generate and integrate data and information relating to the protection of the Amazon (local deforestation , illegal traffic, increasing
Harris, Michelle A.; Chang, Wesley S.; Dent, Erik W.; Nordheim, Erik V.; Franzen, Margaret A.
2016-01-01
Abstract Understanding how basic structural units influence function is identified as a foundational/core concept for undergraduate biological and biochemical literacy. It is essential for students to understand this concept at all size scales, but it is often more difficult for students to understand structure–function relationships at the molecular level, which they cannot as effectively visualize. Students need to develop accurate, 3‐dimensional mental models of biomolecules to understand how biomolecular structure affects cellular functions at the molecular level, yet most traditional curricular tools such as textbooks include only 2‐dimensional representations. We used a controlled, backward design approach to investigate how hand‐held physical molecular model use affected students' ability to logically predict structure–function relationships. Brief (one class period) physical model use increased quiz score for females, whereas there was no significant increase in score for males using physical models. Females also self‐reported higher learning gains in their understanding of context‐specific protein function. Gender differences in spatial visualization may explain the gender‐specific benefits of physical model use observed. © 2016 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):326–335, 2016. PMID:26923186
Choi, Wona; Rho, Mi Jung; Park, Jiyun; Kim, Kwang-Jum; Kwon, Young Dae
2013-01-01
Objectives Intensified competitiveness in the healthcare industry has increased the number of healthcare centers and propelled the introduction of customer relationship management (CRM) systems to meet diverse customer demands. This study aimed to develop the information system success model of the CRM system by investigating previously proposed indicators within the model. Methods The evaluation areas of the CRM system includes three areas: the system characteristics area (system quality, information quality, and service quality), the user area (perceived usefulness and user satisfaction), and the performance area (personal performance and organizational performance). Detailed evaluation criteria of the three areas were developed, and its validity was verified by a survey administered to CRM system users in 13 nationwide health promotion centers. The survey data were analyzed by the structural equation modeling method, and the results confirmed that the model is feasible. Results Information quality and service quality showed a statistically significant relationship with perceived usefulness and user satisfaction. Consequently, the perceived usefulness and user satisfaction had significant influence on individual performance as well as an indirect influence on organizational performance. Conclusions This study extends the research area on information success from general information systems to CRM systems in health promotion centers applying a previous information success model. This lays a foundation for evaluating health promotion center systems and provides a useful guide for successful implementation of hospital CRM systems. PMID:23882416
Wang, Chunkao; Da, Yang
2014-01-01
The traditional quantitative genetics model was used as the unifying approach to derive six existing and new definitions of genomic additive and dominance relationships. The theoretical differences of these definitions were in the assumptions of equal SNP effects (equivalent to across-SNP standardization), equal SNP variances (equivalent to within-SNP standardization), and expected or sample SNP additive and dominance variances. The six definitions of genomic additive and dominance relationships on average were consistent with the pedigree relationships, but had individual genomic specificity and large variations not observed from pedigree relationships. These large variations may allow finding least related genomes even within the same family for minimizing genomic relatedness among breeding individuals. The six definitions of genomic relationships generally had similar numerical results in genomic best linear unbiased predictions of additive effects (GBLUP) and similar genomic REML (GREML) estimates of additive heritability. Predicted SNP dominance effects and GREML estimates of dominance heritability were similar within definitions assuming equal SNP effects or within definitions assuming equal SNP variance, but had differences between these two groups of definitions. We proposed a new measure of genomic inbreeding coefficient based on parental genomic co-ancestry coefficient and genomic additive correlation as a genomic approach for predicting offspring inbreeding level. This genomic inbreeding coefficient had the highest correlation with pedigree inbreeding coefficient among the four methods evaluated for calculating genomic inbreeding coefficient in a Holstein sample and a swine sample.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, K. P.
1981-01-01
Results of a 20-month research and development program for nonlinear structural modeling with advanced time-temperature constitutive relationships are reported. The program included: (1) the evaluation of a number of viscoplastic constitutive models in the published literature; (2) incorporation of three of the most appropriate constitutive models into the MARC nonlinear finite element program; (3) calibration of the three constitutive models against experimental data using Hastelloy-X material; and (4) application of the most appropriate constitutive model to a three dimensional finite element analysis of a cylindrical combustor liner louver test specimen to establish the capability of the viscoplastic model to predict component structural response.
Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.
2011-01-01
The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Reavie, Euan D; Heathcote, Adam J; Shaw Chraïbi, Victoria L
2014-01-01
Recent shifts in water quality and food web characteristics driven by anthropogenic impacts on the Laurentian Great Lakes warranted an examination of pelagic primary producers as tracers of environmental change. The distributions of the 263 common phytoplankton taxa were related to water quality variables to determine taxon-specific responses that may be useful in indicator models. A detailed checklist of taxa and their environmental optima are provided. Multivariate analyses indicated a strong relationship between total phosphorus (TP) and patterns in the diatom assemblages across the Great Lakes. Of the 118 common diatom taxa, 90 (76%) had a directional response along the TP gradient. We further evaluated a diatom-based transfer function for TP based on the weighted-average abundance of taxa, assuming unimodal distributions along the TP gradient. The r(2) between observed and inferred TP in the training dataset was 0.79. Substantial spatial and environmental autocorrelation within the training set of samples justified the need for further model validation. A randomization procedure indicated that the actual transfer function consistently performed better than functions based on reshuffled environmental data. Further, TP was minimally confounded by other environmental variables, as indicated by the relatively large amount of unique variance in the diatoms explained by TP. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the transfer function by hindcasting TP concentrations using fossil diatom assemblages in a Lake Superior sediment core. Passive, multivariate analysis of the fossil samples against the training set indicated that phosphorus was a strong determinant of historical diatom assemblages, verifying that the transfer function was suited to reconstruct past TP in Lake Superior. Collectively, these results showed that phytoplankton coefficients for water quality can be robust indicators of Great Lakes pelagic condition. The diatom-based transfer function can be used in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.
1995-01-01
This report describes the user's manual for 'HPTAM,' a two-dimensional Heat Pipe Transient Analysis Model. HPTAM is described in detail in the UNM-ISNPS-3-1995 report which accompanies the present manual. The model offers a menu that lists a number of working fluids and wall and wick materials from which the user can choose. HPTAM is capable of simulating the startup of heat pipes from either a fully-thawed or frozen condition of the working fluid in the wick structure. The manual includes instructions for installing and running HPTAM on either a UNIX, MS-DOS or VMS operating system. Samples for input and output files are also provided to help the user with the code.
Wai, Rong-Jong; Yang, Zhi-Wei
2008-10-01
This paper focuses on the development of adaptive fuzzy neural network control (AFNNC), including indirect and direct frameworks for an n-link robot manipulator, to achieve high-precision position tracking. In general, it is difficult to adopt a model-based design to achieve this control objective due to the uncertainties in practical applications, such as friction forces, external disturbances, and parameter variations. In order to cope with this problem, an indirect AFNNC (IAFNNC) scheme and a direct AFNNC (DAFNNC) strategy are investigated without the requirement of prior system information. In these model-free control topologies, a continuous-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) dynamic fuzzy model with online learning ability is constructed to represent the system dynamics of an n-link robot manipulator. In the IAFNNC, an FNN estimator is designed to tune the nonlinear dynamic function vector in fuzzy local models, and then, the estimative vector is used to indirectly develop a stable IAFNNC law. In the DAFNNC, an FNN controller is directly designed to imitate a predetermined model-based stabilizing control law, and then, the stable control performance can be achieved by only using joint position information. All the IAFNNC and DAFNNC laws and the corresponding adaptive tuning algorithms for FNN weights are established in the sense of Lyapunov stability analyses to ensure the stable control performance. Numerical simulations and experimental results of a two-link robot manipulator actuated by dc servomotors are given to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed methodologies. In addition, the superiority of the proposed control schemes is indicated in comparison with proportional-differential control, fuzzy-model-based control, T-S-type FNN control, and robust neural fuzzy network control systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Chiyu; Raeini, Ali Q.; Wang, Yihang; Blunt, Martin J.; Wang, Moran
2017-02-01
Viscous coupling during simultaneous flow of different fluid phases has a significant impact on their flow through porous media. In this work, a new multiscale strategy is proposed for multiphase flow in porous media. We use the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to simulate two-phase flow at pore scale and obtain empirical terms for the viscous coupling inside individual pores. The empirical coupling terms are then used in a pore-network model to efficiently simulate two-phase flow through porous media at core scale. It is shown that including viscous coupling leads to better predictions of relative permeability.
Scot Martin
2013-01-31
The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.
Marcucci, Lorenzo; Washio, Takumi; Yanagida, Toshio
2016-09-01
Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges.
2016-01-01
Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges. PMID:27626630
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Özgüven, H. N.
1991-03-01
A six-degree-of-freedom non-linear semi-definite model with time varying mesh stiffness has been developed for the dynamic analysis of spur gears. The model includes a spur gear pair, two shafts, two inertias representing load and prime mover, and bearings. As the shaft and bearing dynamics have also been considered in the model, the effect of lateral-torsional vibration coupling on the dynamics of gears can be studied. In the non-linear model developed several factors such as time varying mesh stiffness and damping, separation of teeth, backlash, single- and double-sided impacts, various gear errors and profile modifications have been considered. The dynamic response to internal excitation has been calculated by using the "static transmission error method" developed. The software prepared (DYTEM) employs the digital simulation technique for the solution, and is capable of calculating dynamic tooth and mesh forces, dynamic factors for pinion and gear, dynamic transmission error, dynamic bearing forces and torsions of shafts. Numerical examples are given in order to demonstrate the effect of shaft and bearing dynamics on gear dynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozguven, H. Nevzat
1991-01-01
A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear semi-definite model with time varying mesh stiffness has been developed for the dynamic analysis of spur gears. The model includes a spur gear pair, two shafts, two inertias representing load and prime mover, and bearings. As the shaft and bearing dynamics have also been considered in the model, the effect of lateral-torsional vibration coupling on the dynamics of gears can be studied. In the nonlinear model developed several factors such as time varying mesh stiffness and damping, separation of teeth, backlash, single- and double-sided impacts, various gear errors and profile modifications have been considered. The dynamic response to internal excitation has been calculated by using the 'static transmission error method' developed. The software prepared (DYTEM) employs the digital simulation technique for the solution, and is capable of calculating dynamic tooth and mesh forces, dynamic factors for pinion and gear, dynamic transmission error, dynamic bearing forces and torsions of shafts. Numerical examples are given in order to demonstrate the effect of shaft and bearing dynamics on gear dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Heckrath, Goswin; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo
2016-04-01
Globally, soil carbon (C) reserves are second only to those in the ocean, and accounts for a significant C reservoir. In the case of arable soils, the quantity of stored C is influenced by various factors (e.g. management practices). Currently, the topography related influences on in-field soil C dynamics remain largely unknown. However, topography is known to influence a multiplicity of factors that regulate C input, storage and redistribution. To understand the patterns and untangle the complexity of soil C dynamics in arable landscapes, our study was conducted with soils from shoulderslope and footslope positions on a 7.1 ha winter wheat field in western Denmark. We first collected soil samples from shoulderslope and footslope positions with various depth intervals down to 100 cm and analyzed them for physical and chemical properties including texture and soil organic C contents. In-situ carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured at different soil profile depths at both positions for a year. Soil moisture content and temperature at 5 and 40 cm depth was measured continuously. Additionally, surface soil CO2 fluxes at shoulderslope and footslope positions were measured. We then used measurement data collected from the two landscape positions to calibrate the one-dimensional mechanistic model SOILCO2 module of the HYDRUS-1D software package and obtained soil CO2 fluxes from soil profile at two landscape positions. Furthermore, we tested whether the inclusion of vertical and lateral soil C movement improved the modeling of C dynamics in cultivated landscapes. For that, soil profile CO2 fluxes were compared with those obtained using a simple process-based soil whole profile C model, C-TOOL, which was modified to include vertical and lateral movement of C on landscape. Our results highlight the need to consider vertical and lateral soil C movement in the modeling of C dynamics in cultivated landscapes, for better qualification of net carbon storage.
Weston, Ralph E; Barker, John R
2006-06-29
Experimental data for the photoisomerization of trans-stilbene (S(1)) in thermal bath gases at pressures up to 20 bar obtained previously by Meyer, Schroeder, and Troe (J. Phys. Chem. A 1999, 103, 10528-10539) are modeled by using a full collisional-reaction master equation that includes non-RRKM (Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus) effects due to slow intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR). The slow IVR effects are modeled by incorporating the theoretical results obtained recently by Leitner et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2003, 107, 10706-10716), who used the local random matrix theory. The present results show that the experimental rate constants of Meyer et al. are described to within about a factor of 2 over much of the experimental pressure range. However, a number of assumptions and areas of disagreement will require further investigation. These include a discrepancy between the calculated and experimental thermal rate constants near zero pressure, a leveling off of the experimental rate constants that is not predicted by theory and which depends on the identity of the collider gas, the need to use rate constants for collision-induced IVR that are larger than the estimated total collision rate constants, and the choice of barrier-crossing frequency. Despite these unsettled issues, the theory of Leitner et al. shows great promise for accounting for possible non-RRKM effects in an important class of reactions.
Reis, Yara; Bernardo-Faura, Marti; Richter, Daniela; Wolf, Thomas; Brors, Benedikt; Hamacher-Brady, Anne; Eils, Roland; Brady, Nathan R
2012-01-01
Mitochondria exist as a network of interconnected organelles undergoing constant fission and fusion. Current approaches to study mitochondrial morphology are limited by low data sampling coupled with manual identification and classification of complex morphological phenotypes. Here we propose an integrated mechanistic and data-driven modeling approach to analyze heterogeneous, quantified datasets and infer relations between mitochondrial morphology and apoptotic events. We initially performed high-content, multi-parametric measurements of mitochondrial morphological, apoptotic, and energetic states by high-resolution imaging of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. Subsequently, decision tree-based analysis was used to automatically classify networked, fragmented, and swollen mitochondrial subpopulations, at the single-cell level and within cell populations. Our results revealed subtle but significant differences in morphology class distributions in response to various apoptotic stimuli. Furthermore, key mitochondrial functional parameters including mitochondrial membrane potential and Bax activation, were measured under matched conditions. Data-driven fuzzy logic modeling was used to explore the non-linear relationships between mitochondrial morphology and apoptotic signaling, combining morphological and functional data as a single model. Modeling results are in accordance with previous studies, where Bax regulates mitochondrial fragmentation, and mitochondrial morphology influences mitochondrial membrane potential. In summary, we established and validated a platform for mitochondrial morphological and functional analysis that can be readily extended with additional datasets. We further discuss the benefits of a flexible systematic approach for elucidating specific and general relationships between mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis.
Time dependence of Fe/O ratio within a 3D solar energetic particle propagation model including drift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalla, S.; Marsh, M. S.; Zelina, P.; Laitinen, T.
2017-02-01
Context. The intensity profiles of iron and oxygen in Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events often display differences that result in a decreasing Fe/O ratio over time. The physical mechanisms behind this behaviour are not fully understood, but these observational signatures provide important tests of physical modelling efforts. Aims: In this paper we study the propagation of iron and oxygen SEP ions using a 3D model of propagation which includes the effect of guiding centre drift in a Parker spiral magnetic field. We derive time intensity profiles for a variety of observer locations and study the temporal evolution of the Fe/O ratio. Methods: We use a 3D full orbit test particle model which includes scattering. The configuration of the interplanetary magnetic field is a unipolar Parker spiral. Particles are released instantaneously from a compact region at two solar radii and allowed to propagate in 3D. Results: Both Fe and O experience significant transport across the magnetic field due to gradient and curvature drifts. We find that Fe ions drift more than O ions due to their larger mass-to-charge ratio, so that an observer that is not magnetically well connected to the source region will observe Fe arriving before O, for particles within the same range in energy per nucleon. As a result, for the majority of observer locations, the Fe/O ratio displays a decrease in time. Conclusions: We conclude that propagation effects associated with drifts produce a decay over time of the Fe/O ratio, qualitatively reproducing that observed in SEP event profiles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dixson, Marcia D.
A study investigated three propositions concerning parent-child relationships: (1) that parent-child relationships influence/build children's relational models; (2) that subsequent relationships may alter those models; and (3) that communication is a means through which children can reconcile these differences. About 90 elementary-aged children…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
A micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack model including an integrated cooling system was developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. For the purpose of model evaluation, reference operating, geometrical and material properties are determined. The reference stack design is composed of 3294 cells, with a diameter of 2 mm, and 61 cooling-tubes. The stack is operated at a power density of 300 mW/cm2 and air is used as the cooling fluid inside the integrated cooling system. Regarding the performance, the reference design achieves an electrical stack efficiency of around 57% and a power output of 1.1 kW. The maximum occurring temperature of the positive electrode electrolyte negative electrode (PEN)-structure is 1369 K. As a result of a design of experiments, parameters of a best-case design are determined. The best-case design achieves a comparable power output of 1.1 kW with an electrical efficiency of 63% and a maximum occurring temperature of the PEN-structure of 1268 K. Nevertheless, the best-case design has an increased volume based on the higher diameter of 3 mm and increased spacing between the cells.
González-Suárez, Ana; Berjano, Enrique; Guerra, Jose M.; Gerardo-Giorda, Luca
2016-01-01
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is a routine treatment for cardiac arrhythmias. During RFCA, the electrode-tissue interface temperature should be kept below 80°C to avoid thrombus formation. Open-irrigated electrodes facilitate power delivery while keeping low temperatures around the catheter. No computational model of an open-irrigated electrode in endocardial RFCA accounting for both the saline irrigation flow and the blood motion in the cardiac chamber has been proposed yet. We present the first computational model including both effects at once. The model has been validated against existing experimental results. Computational results showed that the surface lesion width and blood temperature are affected by both the electrode design and the irrigation flow rate. Smaller surface lesion widths and blood temperatures are obtained with higher irrigation flow rate, while the lesion depth is not affected by changing the irrigation flow rate. Larger lesions are obtained with increasing power and the electrode-tissue contact. Also, larger lesions are obtained when electrode is placed horizontally. Overall, the computational findings are in close agreement with previous experimental results providing an excellent tool for future catheter research. PMID:26938638
Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele
2014-04-01
The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bermúdez, María; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim E.; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo
2016-04-01
Flood inundation models require appropriate boundary conditions to be specified at the limits of the domain, which commonly consist of upstream flow rate and downstream water level. These data are usually acquired from gauging stations on the river network where measured water levels are converted to discharge via a rating curve. Derived streamflow estimates are therefore subject to uncertainties in this rating curve, including extrapolating beyond the maximum observed ratings magnitude. In addition, the limited number of gauges in reach-scale studies often requires flow to be routed from the nearest upstream gauge to the boundary of the model domain. This introduces additional uncertainty, derived not only from the flow routing method used, but also from the additional lateral rainfall-runoff contributions downstream of the gauging point. Although generally assumed to have a minor impact on discharge in fluvial flood modeling, this local hydrological input may become important in a sparse gauge network or in events with significant local rainfall. In this study, a method to incorporate rating curve uncertainty and the local rainfall-runoff dynamics into the predictions of a reach-scale flood inundation model is proposed. Discharge uncertainty bounds are generated by applying a non-parametric local weighted regression approach to stage-discharge measurements for two gauging stations, while measured rainfall downstream from these locations is cascaded into a hydrological model to quantify additional inflows along the main channel. A regional simplified-physics hydraulic model is then applied to combine these inputs and generate an ensemble of discharge and water elevation time series at the boundaries of a local-scale high complexity hydraulic model. Finally, the effect of these rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions are evaluated on the local-scale model. Improvements in model performance when incorporating these processes are quantified using observed
MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy
2014-01-01
Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.
Michael V. Glazoff; Jeong-Whan Yoon
2013-08-01
In this report (prepared in collaboration with Prof. Jeong Whan Yoon, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia) a research effort was made to develop a non associated flow rule for zirconium. Since Zr is a hexagonally close packed (hcp) material, it is impossible to describe its plastic response under arbitrary loading conditions with any associated flow rule (e.g. von Mises). As a result of strong tension compression asymmetry of the yield stress and anisotropy, zirconium displays plastic behavior that requires a more sophisticated approach. Consequently, a new general asymmetric yield function has been developed which accommodates mathematically the four directional anisotropies along 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and biaxial, under tension and compression. Stress anisotropy has been completely decoupled from the r value by using non associated flow plasticity, where yield function and plastic potential have been treated separately to take care of stress and r value directionalities, respectively. This theoretical development has been verified using Zr alloys at room temperature as an example as these materials have very strong SD (Strength Differential) effect. The proposed yield function reasonably well models the evolution of yield surfaces for a zirconium clock rolled plate during in plane and through thickness compression. It has been found that this function can predict both tension and compression asymmetry mathematically without any numerical tolerance and shows the significant improvement compared to any reported functions. Finally, in the end of the report, a program of further research is outlined aimed at constructing tensorial relationships for the temperature and fluence dependent creep surfaces for Zr, Zircaloy 2, and Zircaloy 4.
Capa, María; Murray, Anna
2016-01-01
Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida) is a small and heterogeneous group of fan worms found in shallow marine environments and is generally associated with hard substrates. The delineation and composition of this genus is problematic since it has been defined only by plesiomorphic characters that are widely distributed among other sabellids. In this study we have combined morphological and molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences) data to evaluate species diversity in Australia and assess the phylogenetic relationships of these and other related sabellids. Unlike morphological data alone, molecular data and combined datasets suggest monophyly of Pseudobranchiomma. In this study, a new species of Pseudobranchiomma is described and three others are considered as potential unintentional introductions to Australian waters, one of them reported for the first time for the continent. Pseudobranchiomma pallidasp. n. bears 4-6 serrations along the radiolar flanges, lacks radiolar eyes and has uncini with three transverse rows of teeth over the main fang. In the new species the colour pattern as well is characteristic and species specific.
Capa, María; Murray, Anna
2016-01-01
Abstract Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida) is a small and heterogeneous group of fan worms found in shallow marine environments and is generally associated with hard substrates. The delineation and composition of this genus is problematic since it has been defined only by plesiomorphic characters that are widely distributed among other sabellids. In this study we have combined morphological and molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences) data to evaluate species diversity in Australia and assess the phylogenetic relationships of these and other related sabellids. Unlike morphological data alone, molecular data and combined datasets suggest monophyly of Pseudobranchiomma. In this study, a new species of Pseudobranchiomma is described and three others are considered as potential unintentional introductions to Australian waters, one of them reported for the first time for the continent. Pseudobranchiomma pallida sp. n. bears 4–6 serrations along the radiolar flanges, lacks radiolar eyes and has uncini with three transverse rows of teeth over the main fang. In the new species the colour pattern as well is characteristic and species specific. PMID:27843378
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Monserrat, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.
2016-04-01
Materials in Earth's interior are exposed to thermomechanical (e.g. variations in stress/pressure and temperature) and chemical (e.g. phase changes, serpentinization, melting) processes that are associated with volume changes. Most geodynamical codes assume the incompressible Boussinesq approximation, where changes in density due to temperature or phase change effect buoyancy, yet volumetric changes are not allowed, and mass is not locally conserved. Elastic stresses induced by volume changes due to thermal expansion, serpentinization, and melt intrusion should cause 'cold' rocks to brittlely fail at ~1% strain. When failure/yielding is an important rheological feature, we think it plausible that volume-change-linked stresses may have a significant influence on the localization of deformation. Here we discuss a new Lagrangian formulation for "elasto-compressible -visco-plastic" flow. In this formulation, the continuity equation has been generalised from a Boussinesq incompressible formulation to include recoverable, elastic, volumetric deformations linked to the local state of mean compressive stress. This formulation differs from the 'anelastic approximation' used in compressible viscous flow in that pressure- and temperature- dependent volume changes are treated as elastic deformation for a given pressure, temperature, and composition/phase. This leads to a visco-elasto-plastic formulation that can model the effects of thermal stresses, pressure-dependent volume changes, and local phase changes. We use a modified version of the (Miliman-based) FEM code M2TRI to run a set of numerical experiments for benchmarking purposes. Three benchmarks are being used to assess the accuracy of this formulation: (1) model the effects on density of a compressible mantle under the influence of gravity; (2) model the deflection of a visco-elastic beam under the influence of gravity, and its recovery when gravitational loading is artificially removed; (3) Modelling the stresses
A new method to include the gravitational forces in a finite element model of the scoliotic spine.
Clin, Julien; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Lalonde, Nadine; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert
2011-08-01
The distribution of stresses in the scoliotic spine is still not well known despite its biomechanical importance in the pathomechanisms and treatment of scoliosis. Gravitational forces are one of the sources of these stresses. Existing finite element models (FEMs), when considering gravity, applied these forces on a geometry acquired from radiographs while the patient was already subjected to gravity, which resulted in a deformed spine different from the actual one. A new method to include gravitational forces on a scoliotic trunk FEM and compute the stresses in the spine was consequently developed. The 3D geometry of three scoliotic patients was acquired using a multi-view X-ray 3D reconstruction technique and surface topography. The FEM of the patients' trunk was created using this geometry. A simulation process was developed to apply the gravitational forces at the centers of gravity of each vertebra level. First the "zero-gravity" geometry was determined by applying adequate upwards forces on the initial geometry. The stresses were reset to zero and then the gravity forces were applied to compute the geometry of the spine subjected to gravity. An optimization process was necessary to find the appropriate zero-gravity and gravity geometries. The design variables were the forces applied on the model to find the zero-gravity geometry. After optimization the difference between the vertebral positions acquired from radiographs and the vertebral positions simulated with the model was inferior to 3 mm. The forces and compressive stresses in the scoliotic spine were then computed. There was an asymmetrical load in the coronal plane, particularly, at the apices of the scoliotic curves. Difference of mean compressive stresses between concavity and convexity of the scoliotic curves ranged between 0.1 and 0.2 MPa. In conclusion, a realistic way of integrating gravity in a scoliotic trunk FEM was developed and stresses due to gravity were explicitly computed. This is a
Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure
Background: Few Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have successfully modeled large, diverse rodent toxicity endpoints. Objective: In this study, a combinatorial QSAR approach has been employed for the creation of robust and predictive models of acute toxi...
Models of Workplace Incivility: The Relationships to Instigated Incivility and Negative Outcomes.
Holm, Kristoffer; Torkelson, Eva; Bäckström, Martin
2015-01-01
The aim of the study was to investigate workplace incivility as a social process, examining its components and relationships to both instigated incivility and negative outcomes in the form of well-being, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and sleeping problems. The different components of incivility that were examined were experienced and witnessed incivility from coworkers as well as supervisors. In addition, the organizational factors, social support, control, and job demands, were included in the models. A total of 2871 (2058 women and 813 men) employees who were connected to the Swedish Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results from structural equation modelling indicate that whereas instigated incivility to a large extent was explained by witnessing coworker incivility, negative outcomes were to a high degree explained by experienced supervisor incivility via mediation through perceived low social support, low control, and high job demands. Unexpectedly, the relationships between incivility (experienced coworker and supervisor incivility, as well as witnessed supervisor incivility) and instigated incivility were moderated by perceived high control and high social support. The results highlight the importance of including different components of workplace incivility and organizational factors in future studies of the area.
Models of Workplace Incivility: The Relationships to Instigated Incivility and Negative Outcomes
Holm, Kristoffer; Torkelson, Eva; Bäckström, Martin
2015-01-01
The aim of the study was to investigate workplace incivility as a social process, examining its components and relationships to both instigated incivility and negative outcomes in the form of well-being, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and sleeping problems. The different components of incivility that were examined were experienced and witnessed incivility from coworkers as well as supervisors. In addition, the organizational factors, social support, control, and job demands, were included in the models. A total of 2871 (2058 women and 813 men) employees who were connected to the Swedish Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results from structural equation modelling indicate that whereas instigated incivility to a large extent was explained by witnessing coworker incivility, negative outcomes were to a high degree explained by experienced supervisor incivility via mediation through perceived low social support, low control, and high job demands. Unexpectedly, the relationships between incivility (experienced coworker and supervisor incivility, as well as witnessed supervisor incivility) and instigated incivility were moderated by perceived high control and high social support. The results highlight the importance of including different components of workplace incivility and organizational factors in future studies of the area. PMID:26557714
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De La Lama, Luisa Batthyany; De La Lama, Luis; Wittgenstein, Ariana
2012-01-01
This article presents the integrative soul mates relationship development model, which provides the helping professionals with a conceptual map for couples' relationship development from dating, to intimacy, to soul mating, and long-term flourishing. This model is informed by a holistic, a developmental, and a positive psychology conceptualization…
Comtois, Philippe; Vinet, Alain
2003-11-01
We present the bifurcation analysis of a revised version of the integral-delay model [Courtemanche et al., Siam J. Appl. Math. 56, 119 (1996)] of reentry in a one-dimensional ring that includes a spatial coupling in the calculation of the action potential duration. This coupling is meant to reproduce the modulation of repolarization by the diffusive current flowing through the intercellular resistance. We show that coupling modifies the criterion for the stability of the period-1 solution, which is no longer uniquely related to the action potential restitution curve, but depends also on the degree of coupling between cells and on the dispersion relation of the velocity. Coupling also changes the scenario from an infinite-dimension Hopf bifurcation to a finite sequence of Hopf bifurcations that take place at different ring lengths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comtois, Philippe; Vinet, Alain
2003-11-01
We present the bifurcation analysis of a revised version of the integral-delay model [Courtemanche et al., Siam J. Appl. Math. 56, 119 (1996)] of reentry in a one-dimensional ring that includes a spatial coupling in the calculation of the action potential duration. This coupling is meant to reproduce the modulation of repolarization by the diffusive current flowing through the intercellular resistance. We show that coupling modifies the criterion for the stability of the period-1 solution, which is no longer uniquely related to the action potential restitution curve, but depends also on the degree of coupling between cells and on the dispersion relation of the velocity. Coupling also changes the scenario from an infinite-dimension Hopf bifurcation to a finite sequence of Hopf bifurcations that take place at different ring lengths.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suit, W. T.
1986-01-01
Shuttle flight test data were used to determine values for the short-period parameters. The best identified, as judged by its estimated standard deviation, was the elevon effectiveness parameter C (sub m (sub sigma e squared)). However, the scatter about the preflight prediction of C (sub m (sub sigma e squared)) was large. Other investigators have suggested that adding nonlinear terms to the mathematical model used to identify C (sub m (sub sigma e)) could reduce the scatter. The results of this investigation show that C (sub m (sub sigma e squared)) is the only identifiable nonlinear parameter applicable and that the changes in C (sub m (sub sigma e)) values when C (sub m (sub sigma e squared)) is included are in the order of ten percent for the data estimated.
Evaluation of climate models in terms of relationship between cloud fraction and cloud albedo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y.; Song, H.; Lin, W.; Wu, W.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.
2011-12-01
Cloud fraction and cloud albedo have been investigated extensively but often separately in studying cloud-climate interaction; their quantitative relationship has been much less studied and understood, in both observations and climate models. In this study, we first examine this crucial relationship by empirical analysis of observational data, both surface-based and satellite measurements. We then decipher the key variables/processes that determine the relationship using designed simulations of the single-column model of the NCAR CAM (SCAM). Finally we explore how well or poor this relationship is simulated in the AR4 climate simulations. The preliminary results indicate that all the AR4 models as a group produce a cloud fraction-albedo relationship that is literally opposite to that observed. This stark contrast between model and observational results calls for new strategies and approaches in future development of cloud parameterizations and application of observations as model constraints.
Analyzing Cultural Models in Adolescent Accounts of Romantic Relationships
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Milbrath, Constance; Ohlson, Brightstar; Eyre, Stephen L.
2009-01-01
Research on academic achievement has led the way in demonstrating how culturally constructed meanings shape adolescent scholastic behavior. The aim of this research is to move this standpoint of analysis more centrally into the area of adolescent dating and sexuality by focusing on the cultural components of adolescent romantic relationships. This…
The Force-Frequency Relationship: Insights from Mathematical Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Puglisi, Jose L.; Negroni, Jorge A.; Chen-Izu, Ye; Bers, Donald M.
2013-01-01
The force-frequency relationship has intrigued researchers since its discovery by Bowditch in 1871. Many attempts have been made to construct mathematical descriptions of this phenomenon, beginning with the simple formulation of Koch-Wesser and Blinks in 1963 to the most sophisticated ones of today. This property of cardiac muscle is amplified by…
Modeling Best Practice through Online Learning: Building Relationships
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cerniglia, Ellen G.
2011-01-01
Students may fear that they will feel unsupported and isolated when engaged in online learning. They don't know how they will be able to build relationships with their teacher and classmates solely based on written words, without facial expressions, tone of voice, and other nonverbal communication cues. Traditionally, online learning required…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cain, Clarence P.; Polhamus, Garrett D.; Roach, William P.; Stolarski, David J.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Stockton, Kevin; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Chen, Bo; Welch, Ashley J.
2006-07-01
With the advent of such systems as the airborne laser and advanced tactical laser, high-energy lasers that use 1315-nm wavelengths in the near-infrared band will soon present a new laser safety challenge to armed forces and civilian populations. Experiments in nonhuman primates using this wavelength have demonstrated a range of ocular injuries, including corneal, lenticular, and retinal lesions as a function of pulse duration. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) laser safety standards have traditionally been based on experimental data, and there is scant data for this wavelength. We are reporting minimum visible lesion (MVL) threshold measurements using a porcine skin model for two different pulse durations and spot sizes for this wavelength. We also compare our measurements to results from our model based on the heat transfer equation and rate process equation, together with actual temperature measurements on the skin surface using a high-speed infrared camera. Our MVL-ED50 thresholds for long pulses (350 µs) at 24-h postexposure are measured to be 99 and 83 Jcm-2 for spot sizes of 0.7 and 1.3 mm diam, respectively. Q-switched laser pulses of 50 ns have a lower threshold of 11 Jcm-2 for a 5-mm-diam top-hat laser pulse.
Rapee, Ronald M; Abbott, Maree J
2007-12-01
Cognitive models of social phobia predict that several cognitive processes will mediate the relationship between trait levels of social anxiety and the extent of anxiety experienced in a specific social-evaluative situation. The current study aimed to provide a test of these relationships. Over 200 clinical participants with social phobia completed measures of their general social anxiety and a week later performed a brief impromptu speech. They completed a measure of state anxiety in response to the speech as well as questionnaires assessing several cognitive constructs including focus of perceived attention, perceived performance, and probability and cost of negative evaluation. A week later, they completed measures of negative rumination experienced over the week, as well as a measure of the recollection of their perceived performance. Path analysis provided support for a model in which the cognitive factors mediated between general social anxiety and the degree of anxiety experienced in response to the speech. A second model supported the theory that negative rumination mediated between characteristic social anxiety and negative bias in the recollection of performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, H. D.; Maxit, L.; Ege, K.; Gerges, Y.; Guyader, J.-L.
2017-04-01
Vibro-acoustic simulation in the mid-frequency range is of interest for automotive and truck constructors. The dissipative treatments used for noise and vibration control such as viscoelastic patches and acoustic absorbing materials must be taken into account in the problem. The Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis (SmEdA) model consists in extending Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) to the mid-frequency range by establishing power balance equations between the modes of the different subsystems. The modal basis of uncoupled-subsystems that can be estimated by the finite element method in the mid-frequency range is used as input data. SmEdA was originally developed by considering constant modal damping factors for each subsystem. However, this means that it cannot describe the local distribution of dissipative materials. To overcome this issue, a methodology is proposed here to take into account the effect of these materials. This methodology is based on the finite element models of the subsystems that include well-known homogenized material models of dissipative treatments. The Galerkin method with subsystem normal modes is used to estimate the modal damping loss factors. Cross-modal coupling terms which appear in the formulation due to the dissipative materials are assumed to be negligible. An approximation of the energy sharing between the subsystems damped by dissipative materials is then described by SmEdA. The different steps of the method are validated experimentally by applying it to a laboratory test case composed of a plate-cavity system with different configurations of dissipative treatments. The comparison between the experimental and the simulation results shows good agreement in the mid-frequency range.
Steinke, Dirk; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel
2006-06-01
The power of comparative phylogenomic analyses also depends on the amount of data that are included in such studies. We used expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from fish model species as a proof of principle approach in order to test the reliability of using ESTs for phylogenetic inference. As expected, the robustness increases with the amount of sequences. Although some progress has been made in the elucidation of the phylogeny of teleosts, relationships among the main lineages of the derived fish (Euteleostei) remain poorly defined and are still debated. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of a set of 42 of orthologous genes from 10 available fish model systems from seven different orders (Salmoniformes, Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Beloniformes, and Perciformes) of euteleostean fish to estimate divergence times and evolutionary relationships among those lineages. All 10 fish species serve as models for developmental, aquaculture, genomic, and comparative genetic studies. The phylogenetic signal and the strength of the contribution of each of the 42 orthologous genes were estimated with randomly chosen data subsets. Our study revealed a molecular phylogeny of higher-level relationships of derived teleosts, which indicates that the use of multiple genes produces robust phylogenies, a finding that is expected to apply to other phylogenetic issues among distantly related taxa. Our phylogenomic analyses confirm that the euteleostean superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii are monophyletic and the Protacanthopterygii and Ostariophysi are sister clades. In addition, and contrary to the traditional phylogenetic hypothesis, our analyses determine that killifish (Cyprinodontiformes), medaka (Beloniformes), and cichlids (Perciformes) appear to be more closely related to each other than either of them is to pufferfish (Tetraodontiformes). All 10 lineages split before or during the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea in the
Modelling the relationship between body fat and the BMI.
Mills, T C; Gallagher, D; Wang, J; Heshka, S
2007-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age. RESULTS: Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males' body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat. DISCUSSION: Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.
Pires, Flávio de Oliveira; de Oliveira Pires, Flávio
2013-07-01
According to Thomas Kuhn, the scientific progress of any discipline could be distinguished by a pre-paradigm phase, a normal science phase and a revolution phase. The science advances when a scientific revolution takes place after silent period of normal science and the scientific community moves ahead to a paradigm shift. I suggest there has been a recent change of course in the direction of the exercise science. According to the 'current paradigm', exercise would be probably limited by alterations in either central command or peripheral skeletal muscles, and fatigue would be developed in a task-dependent manner. Instead, the central governor model (GCM) has proposed that all forms of exercise are centrally-regulated, the central nervous system would calculate the metabolic cost required to complete a task in order to avoid catastrophic body failure. Some have criticized the CGM and supported the traditional interpretation, but recently the scientific community appears to have begun an intellectual trajectory to accept this theory. First, the increased number of citations of articles that have supported the CGM could indicate that the community has changed the focus. Second, relevant journals have devoted special editions to promote the debate on subjects challenged by the CGM. Finally, scientists from different fields have recognized mechanisms included in the CGM to understand the exercise limits. Given the importance of the scientific community in demarcating a Kuhnian paradigm shift, I suggest that these three aspects could indicate an increased acceptance of a centrally-regulated effort model, to understand the limits of exercise.
McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara
2010-09-01
This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.
The Relationship between Students' Epistemologies and Model-Based Reasoning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gobert, Janice; Discenna, Jennifer
Models and modeling are frequently used as instructional tools in science education to convey important information concerning both the explanatory and structural features of topic areas in science. The efficacy of models as such rests almost entirely upon students' ability to conceptualize them as abstracted "representations" of…
Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Naruse, Yuchi; Okuda, Nagako; Okayama, Akira; Stamler, Jeremiah; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Hideaki
2016-01-01
A Japanese-style diet consists of meals that include grain (shushoku), fish and meat (shusai), and vegetable dishes (fukusai). Little is known about the association of such meals (designated well-balanced meals hereafter) with nutrient intake. We therefore examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency. Participants were Japanese people, ages 40 to 59 y, from Toyama, recruited for INTERMAP, in an international population-based study. Each person provided 4 in-depth 24-h dietary recalls (149 men, 150 women). The prevalence of risk ratios of not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) was calculated. Well-balanced diets were assessed by the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We counted the frequencies of meals in which participants consumed 1.0 or more servings of all 3 dishes categories. We divided the frequency of consumption of well-balanced meals into the following 4 groups: <1.00 time/d, 1.00-1.49 times/d, 1.50-1.74 times/d, and ≥1.75 times/d. Compared with participants in the highest frequency group for well-balanced meals, those who consumed well-balanced meals less than once a day had a higher risk of not meeting the adequate intake for potassium and the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A. Those who consumed well-balanced meals on average less than 1.50 times per day had a higher risk of not meeting the recommended dietary allowance for calcium and vitamin C. Our results suggest that individuals should on average consume well-balanced meals more than 1.5 times per day to prevent calcium and vitamin C deficiencies.
The Exploration of the Relationship between Guessing and Latent Ability in IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gao, Song
2011-01-01
This study explored the relationship between successful guessing and latent ability in IRT models. A new IRT model was developed with a guessing function integrating probability of guessing an item correctly with the examinee's ability and the item parameters. The conventional 3PL IRT model was compared with the new 2PL-Guessing model on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kozan, Kadir
2016-01-01
The present study investigated the relationships among teaching, cognitive, and social presence through several structural equation models to see which model would better fit the data. To this end, the present study employed and compared several different structural equation models because different models could fit the data equally well. Among…
Modelling the maximum voluntary joint torque/angular velocity relationship in human movement.
Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; Wilson, Cassie
2006-01-01
The force exerted by a muscle is a function of the activation level and the maximum (tetanic) muscle force. In "maximum" voluntary knee extensions muscle activation is lower for eccentric muscle velocities than for concentric velocities. The aim of this study was to model this "differential activation" in order to calculate the maximum voluntary knee extensor torque as a function of knee angular velocity. Torque data were collected on two subjects during maximal eccentric-concentric knee extensions using an isovelocity dynamometer with crank angular velocities ranging from 50 to 450 degrees s(-1). The theoretical tetanic torque/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a four parameter function comprising two rectangular hyperbolas while the activation/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a three parameter function that rose from submaximal activation for eccentric velocities to full activation for high concentric velocities. The product of these two functions gave a seven parameter function which was fitted to the joint torque/angular velocity data, giving unbiased root mean square differences of 1.9% and 3.3% of the maximum torques achieved. Differential activation accounts for the non-hyperbolic behaviour of the torque/angular velocity data for low concentric velocities. The maximum voluntary knee extensor torque that can be exerted may be modelled accurately as the product of functions defining the maximum torque and the maximum voluntary activation level. Failure to include differential activation considerations when modelling maximal movements will lead to errors in the estimation of joint torque in the eccentric phase and low velocity concentric phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komiya, Tsuyoshi
2004-08-01
It is 20 years since Allègre [Tectonophys 81 (1982) 109] proposed chemical geodynamics as an integrated study of the chemical and physical structure and evolution of the solid Earth. Accumulation of geochemical data of modern magmatic rocks (e.g. [Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 14 (1986) 493] and whole mantle tomography (e.g. [J. Geophys. Res. 97 (1992) 4809]) allow us to understand present-day mantle dynamics, and consider more recent geodynamics models (e.g. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 90 (1988) 297]). However, complete investigation of geodynamics requires addressing not only the present-day structure of the earth and its elemental distributions, but also the historical evolution of the earth [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 86 (1987) 175], but no current tectonic models include the latter object. Recent remarkable progress of geology, petrology and geochemistry of Precambrian orogenic belts brings about decoding of the Archean tectonics and evolution of the solid earth through geologic time. Especially, understanding the thermal and compositional evolution of the mantle is essential for decoding the whole history of the Earth, because the mantle constitutes more than 85% of the earth. However, there are two inherent problems that require explanation; post-magmatic alteration, and interpretation of the tectonic setting of the magmatism. We eliminated elemental movements during alteration by comparison with whole rock compositions and with major and rare earth element compositions of relict igneous clinopyroxenes (Cpx). The tectonic setting of mafic magmatism was estimated by an independent method of the composition of greenstones; application of the concept of accretionary geology to the Archean greenstone belts. And we found MORB-affinity greenstones from five different-aged greenstone belts. The potential temperature and FeO content of the upper mantle were estimated by comparison of the most primitive MORB from 3.8 to 1.9 Ga with recent melting experiments. The result
Occupational value and relationships to meaning and health: elaborations of the ValMO-model.
Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona; Persson, Dennis
2011-03-01
This study investigates the theoretical assumption of the Value and Meaning in Occupations model. The aim was to explore the relationship between occupational value, perceived meaning, and subjective health in a sample of individuals of working age, 50 men and 250 women. Frequency of experienced values in occupations was assessed through the Occupational Value instrument with pre-defined items. Perceived meaning was operationalized and assessed by the Sense of Coherence measure. Subjective health was estimated by two questions from the SF-36 questionnaire. The analyses implied descriptive analyses, correlations, and logistic regression analyses in which sociodemographic variables were included. The findings showed highly significant relationships between occupational value and perceived meaning and when belonging to the high group of occupational value the likelihood was tripled of belonging to the high group of perceived meaning. When married or cohabitating there was double the likelihood of belonging to the high group of perceived meaning. Although perceived meaning was found to be positively associated with subjective health, working full time was the most important factor in explaining subjective health, compared with working less than full time. The results confirm assumptions in the ValMO-model, and the importance of focusing on occupational value in clinical practice is highlighted.
Model identification for DNA sequence-structure relationships.
Hawley, Stephen Dwyer; Chiu, Anita; Chizeck, Howard Jay
2006-11-01
We investigate the use of algebraic state-space models for the sequence dependent properties of DNA. By considering the DNA sequence as an input signal, rather than using an all atom physical model, computational efficiency is achieved. A challenge in deriving this type of model is obtaining its structure and estimating its parameters. Here we present two candidate model structures for the sequence dependent structural property Slide and a method of encoding the models so that a recursive least squares algorithm can be applied for parameter estimation. These models are based on the assumption that the value of Slide at a base-step is determined by the surrounding tetranucleotide sequence. The first model takes the four bases individually as inputs and has a median root mean square deviation of 0.90 A. The second model takes the four bases pairwise and has a median root mean square deviation of 0.88 A. These values indicate that the accuracy of these models is within the useful range for structure prediction. Performance is comparable to published predictions of a more physically derived model, at significantly less computational cost.
Quantitative Structure – Property Relationship Modeling of Remote Liposome Loading Of Drugs
Cern, Ahuva; Golbraikh, Alexander; Sedykh, Aleck; Tropsha, Alexander; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Goldblum, Amiram
2012-01-01
Remote loading of liposomes by trans-membrane gradients is used to achieve therapeutically efficacious intra-liposome concentrations of drugs. We have developed Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) models of remote liposome loading for a dataset including 60 drugs studied in 366 loading experiments internally or elsewhere. Both experimental conditions and computed chemical descriptors were employed as independent variables to predict the initial drug/lipid ratio (D/L) required to achieve high loading efficiency. Both binary (to distinguish high vs. low initial D/L) and continuous (to predict real D/L values) models were generated using advanced machine learning approaches and five-fold external validation. The external prediction accuracy for binary models was as high as 91–96%; for continuous models the mean coefficient R2 for regression between predicted versus observed values was 0.76–0.79. We conclude that QSPR models can be used to identify candidate drugs expected to have high remote loading capacity while simultaneously optimizing the design of formulation experiments. PMID:22154932
Quantitative structure-property relationship modeling of remote liposome loading of drugs.
Cern, Ahuva; Golbraikh, Alexander; Sedykh, Aleck; Tropsha, Alexander; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Goldblum, Amiram
2012-06-10
Remote loading of liposomes by trans-membrane gradients is used to achieve therapeutically efficacious intra-liposome concentrations of drugs. We have developed Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) models of remote liposome loading for a data set including 60 drugs studied in 366 loading experiments internally or elsewhere. Both experimental conditions and computed chemical descriptors were employed as independent variables to predict the initial drug/lipid ratio (D/L) required to achieve high loading efficiency. Both binary (to distinguish high vs. low initial D/L) and continuous (to predict real D/L values) models were generated using advanced machine learning approaches and 5-fold external validation. The external prediction accuracy for binary models was as high as 91-96%; for continuous models the mean coefficient R(2) for regression between predicted versus observed values was 0.76-0.79. We conclude that QSPR models can be used to identify candidate drugs expected to have high remote loading capacity while simultaneously optimizing the design of formulation experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, J.; Cumberland, S. A.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.
2015-02-01
PM2.5 was collected during a winter campaign at two southern England sites, urban background North Kensington (NK) and rural Harwell (HAR), in January-February 2012. Multiple organic and inorganic source tracers were analysed and used in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model, which apportioned seven separate primary sources, that explained on average 53% (NK) and 56% (HAR) of the organic carbon (OC), including traffic, woodsmoke, food cooking, coal combustion, vegetative detritus, natural gas and dust/soil. With the addition of source tracers for secondary biogenic aerosol at the NK site, 79% of organic carbon was accounted for. Secondary biogenic sources were represented by oxidation products of α-pinene and isoprene, but only the former made a substantial contribution to OC. Particle source contribution estimates for PM2.5 mass were obtained by the conversion of the OC estimates and combining with inorganic components ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sea salt. Good mass closure was achieved with 81% (92% with the addition of the secondary biogenic source) and 83% of the PM2.5 mass explained at NK and HAR respectively, with the remainder being secondary organic matter. While the most important sources of OC are vehicle exhaust (21 and 16%) and woodsmoke (15 and 28%) at NK and HAR respectively, food cooking emissions are also significant, particularly at the urban NK site (11% of OC), in addition to the secondary biogenic source, only measured at NK, which represented about 26%. In comparison, the major source components for PM2.5 at NK and HAR are inorganic ammonium salts (51 and 56%), vehicle exhaust emissions (8 and 6%), secondary biogenic (10% measured at NK only), woodsmoke (4 and 7%) and sea salt (7 and 8%), whereas food cooking (4 and 1%) showed relatively smaller contributions to PM2.5. Results from the CMB model were compared with source contribution estimates derived from the AMS-PMF method. The overall mass of organic matter accounted for is rather
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, J.; Cumberland, S. A.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.
2014-09-01
PM2.5 was collected during a winter campaign at two southern England sites, urban background North Kensington (NK) and rural Harwell (HAR), in January-February 2012. Multiple organic and inorganic source tracers were analysed and used in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model, which apportioned seven separate primary sources, that explained on average 53% (NK) and 56% (HAR) of the organic carbon (OC), including traffic, woodsmoke, food cooking, coal combustion, vegetative detritus, natural gas and dust/soil. With the addition of source tracers for secondary biogenic aerosol at the NK site, 79% of organic carbon was accounted for. Secondary biogenic sources were represented by oxidation products of α-pinene and isoprene, but only the former made a substantial contribution to OC. Particle source contribution estimates for PM2.5 mass were obtained by the conversion of the OC estimates and combining with inorganic components ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and sea salt. Good mass closure was achieved with 8% (92% with the addition of the secondary biogenic source) and 83% of the PM2.5 mass explained at NK and HAR respectively, with the remainder being secondary organic matter. While the most important sources of OC are vehicle exhaust (21 and 16%) and woodsmoke (15% and 28%) at NK and HAR respectively, food cooking emissions are also significant, particularly at the urban NK site (11% of OC), in addition to the secondary biogenic source, only measured at NK, which represented about 26%. In comparison, the major source components for PM2.5 at NK and HAR are inorganic ammonium salts (51 and 56%), vehicle exhaust emissions (8 and 6%), secondary biogenic (10% measured at NK only), woodsmoke (4 and 7%) and sea salt (7 and 8%), whereas food cooking (4% and 1%) showed relatively smaller contributions to PM2.5. Results from the CMB model were compared with source contribution estimates derived from the AMS-PMF method. The overall mass of organic matter accounted for is
The Synergistic Relationship Between Networks of Instruments and Global Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ridley, A. J.; Makela, J. J.; Meriwether, J. W.; Conde, M.; Noto, J.; Thayer, J. D.
2014-12-01
The use of Global Ionosphere-Thermospheres Models to investigate the physics of the upper atmosphere is increasing. These models can provide a large-scale view of the system, and can provide time-varying 3D fields describing all state variables of the system, such as composition, winds and temperatures of both the neutrals and ions, as well as diagnostics such as forces and energies. Simultaneous access to all these fields allows far more complete characterization of postulated physical processes than is possible when limited solely to the quantities that can be observed. The problem with global models, though, is that the behavior of the model may not actually represent reality in all circumstances. In order to understand when and where this may occur, it is crucial that models be validated against a wide variety of spatially separated data. Ten years ago, the only spatially resolved observational data available for model validation came from satellites. However, for local measurements made from low orbit, it is often difficult to separate spatial variations from temporal changes. Now, with more networked ground-stations available, it is becoming more easy to validate models across regions or even across the globe. In this presentation, examples are shown of model comparisons with networked instruments, highlighting the power of these configurations. In addition, it is shown that the models can be used to help determine possible biases in data, given large numbers of stations.
Exploring the Relationship between Mathematical Modelling and Classroom Discourse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Redmond, Trevor; Sheehy, Joanne; Brown, Raymond
2010-01-01
This paper explores the notion that the discourse of the mathematics classroom impacts on the practices that students engage when modelling mathematics. Using excerpts of a Year 12 student's report on modelling Newton's law of cooling, this paper argues that when students engage with the discourse of their mathematics classroom in a manner that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hsiung, Rachel Oakley; Bagozzi, Richard P.
2003-01-01
Uses the family social relations model (SRM) to test for the personal relationship qualities of influence and persuasion in the family decision-making context of buying a new car. Uncovers patterns in the relationship qualities of influence and persuasion across three decisions families make when buying a new car (i.e., how much to spend, car…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huffman, David D.; Fernando, Delini M.
2012-01-01
Group work literature acknowledges that the group co-leader relationship influences the development of group members and the group as a whole. However, little direction has been offered for supervisors of group co-leaders to facilitate the development of the co-leader relationship. Reis and Shaver's (1988) interpersonal process model of intimacy…
Scale and hierarchical relationships when incorporating observed data into fish models
Identifying correlations between environmental variables and fish presence or density is usually the main focus of efforts to model fish-habitat relationships. These relationships, however, can be confounded by scale and hierarchical effects. In particular the strength of fish –...
Schneider, Natalie S; Shimayoshi, Takao; Amano, Akira; Matsuda, Tetsuya
2006-09-01
A stretch-induced increase of active tension is one of the most important properties of the heart, known as the Frank-Starling law. Although a variation of myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity with sarcomere length (SL) change was found to be involved, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully clarified. Some recent experimental studies indicate that a reduction of the lattice spacing between thin and thick filaments, through the increase of passive tension caused by the sarcomeric protein titin with an increase in SL within the physiological range, promotes formation of force-generating crossbridges (Xbs). However, the mechanism by which the Xb concentration determines the degree of cooperativity for a given SL has so far evaded experimental elucidation. In this simulation study, a novel, rather simple molecular-based cardiac contraction model, appropriate for integration into a ventricular cell model, was designed, being the first model to introduce experimental data on titin-based radial tension to account for the SL-dependent modulation of the interfilament lattice spacing and to include a conformational change of troponin I (TnI). Simulation results for the isometric twitch contraction time course, the length-tension and the force-[Ca(2+)] relationships are comparable to experimental data. A complete potential Frank-Starling mechanism was analyzed by this simulation study. The SL-dependent modulation of the myosin binding rate through titin's passive tension determines the Xb concentration which then alters the degree of positive cooperativity affecting the rate of the TnI conformation change and causing the Hill coefficient to be SL-dependent.
Del Ben, Mauro Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost
2015-08-07
Water is a ubiquitous liquid that displays a wide range of anomalous properties and has a delicate structure that challenges experiment and simulation alike. The various intermolecular interactions that play an important role, such as repulsion, polarization, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions, are often difficult to reproduce faithfully in atomistic models. Here, electronic structure theories including all these interactions at equal footing, which requires the inclusion of non-local electron correlation, are used to describe structure and dynamics of bulk liquid water. Isobaric-isothermal (NpT) ensemble simulations based on the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) yield excellent density (0.994 g/ml) and fair radial distribution functions, while various other density functional approximations produce scattered results (0.8-1.2 g/ml). Molecular dynamics simulation in the microcanonical (NVE) ensemble based on Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) yields dynamical properties in the condensed phase, namely, the infrared spectrum and diffusion constant. At the MP2 and RPA levels of theory, ice is correctly predicted to float on water, resolving one of the anomalies as resulting from a delicate balance between van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. For several properties, obtaining quantitative agreement with experiment requires correction for nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), highlighting their importance, for structure, dynamics, and electronic properties. A computed NQE shift of 0.6 eV for the band gap and absorption spectrum illustrates the latter. Giving access to both structure and dynamics of condensed phase systems, non-local electron correlation will increasingly be used to study systems where weak interactions are of paramount importance.
Zhang, Yanyan; Pignatello, Joseph J; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan
2015-03-17
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with soot or black carbon can enter the human digestive tract by unintentional ingestion of soil or other particles. This study investigated the bioaccessibility of 11 PAHs in a composite fuel soot sample using an in vitro digestive model that included silicone sheet as an absorptive sink during the small intestinal digestion stage. The sheet was meant to simulate the passive transfer of PAHs in lumen fluid across the small intestinal epithelium, which was postulated to promote desorption of labile PAHs from the soot by steepening the soot-fluid concentration gradient. We show that the presence of silicone sheet during a 4 h default digestion time significantly increased the apparent bioaccessible fraction (Bapp, %), defined as the sum in the sheet and digestive fluid relative to the total PAH determined. The ability to increase Bapp for most PAHs leveled off above a sheet-to-soot ratio of 2.0 g per 50 mg, indicating that the sheet is an effective absorptive sink and promotes desorption in the mentioned way. Enhancement of Bapp by the sheet correlated positively with the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), even though the partition coefficient of PAH between sheet and digestive fluid (which contains bile acid micelles) correlated negatively with Kow. It was hypothesized that PAHs initially in the soot exist in labile and nonlabile states. The fraction of labile PAH still sorbed to the soot residue after digestion, and the maximum possible (limiting) bioaccessibility (Blim) could be estimated by varying the sheet-to-soot ratio. We show conclusively that the increase in bioccessibility due to the presence of the sheet is accounted for by a corresponding decrease in fraction of labile PAH still sorbed to the soot. The Blim ranged from 30.8 to 62.4%, independent of molecular size. The nonlabile fraction of individual PAHs (69.2-37.6% in this case) is therefore large and needs to be taken into account in risk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apuani, T.; Corazzato, C.
2009-02-01
The Stromboli island, in the Aeolian archipelago (Italy), is one of the most active volcanoes in Europe. In the last 13,000 years, its growth has been complicated by four sector collapses affecting the NW flank, the latest of which resulting in the formation of Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) horseshoe-shaped depression. Slope instability phenomena are represented not only by giant deep-seated gravitational slope deformations, but also by more frequent large landslides, such as occurred in December 2002-January 2003, and shallow landslides, involving loose or weakly cemented deposits, that constitute a natural hazard and affect residential and tourists safety. It is noteworthy that in volcanic environment the instability factors are manifold and much more complex than in other non-volcanic contexts. This paper deals with the Stromboli NW flank instability, and focuses on the effects of magma pressure in the feeding system. Two main objectives have been pursued: (1) to test a methodological approach, in order to evaluate a complex instability process; (2) to contribute to the understanding of volcano deformation and collapse mechanisms and associated hazard. A numerical model was developed by the Finite Difference Method and the FLAC 4.0 code, considering a cross-section of the entire volcano, orthogonal to the SdF and including both subaerial and submerged slopes. The stability of the volcano was analysed under gravity alone, and by introducing the magma pressure effect, both related to magmastatic and overpressure components. The results indicate that gravity alone is not sufficient to affect the stability of the volcano slopes, nor is the magmastatic pressure component. If an excess magma pressure component is introduced, instability is produced in accordance with field evidences and recent slope dynamics.
Hirao, Shigekazu; Nono, Yuki; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriizumi, Jun; Iida, Takao; Yoshioka, Katsuhiro
2008-08-07
A three-dimensional Eulerian atmospheric long-range transport model of radon-222 ({sup 222}Rn) and lead-210 ({sup 210}Pb) coupled with meteorological model MM5 was developed. The model calculates advection, diffusion, radiation decay and deposition processes in a horizontal scale of several thousand kilometers. This model was applied to East Asia. Performance of the model was evaluated with measured hourly surface air {sup 222}Rn concentration and monthly {sup 210}Pb deposition. The model verification was done with respect to the following points: 1) the sensitivity of vertical distribution of turbulent diffusivity and 2) the accuracy of spatial distribution of precipitation. In this report, improvement of the model performance is also discussed.
Fisher, Monica A; Taylor, George W; West, Brady T; McCarthy, Ellen T
2011-02-01
Periodontal disease is associated with diabetes, heart disease, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), relationships postulated to be due in part to vascular inflammation. A bidirectional relationship between CKD and periodontal disease is plausible, though this relationship has not been previously reported. In this study, we assessed the potential for connections between CKD and periodontal disease, and mediators of these relationships using structural equation models of data from 11,211 adults ≥ 18 years of age who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test the hypothesis that periodontal disease was independently associated with CKD. Given the potential that the periodontal disease and CKD relationship may be bidirectional, a two-step analytic approach was used that involved tests for mediation and structural equation models to examine more complex direct and indirect effects of periodontal disease on CKD, and vice versa. In two separate models, periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio of 1.62), edentulism (adjusted odds ratio of 1.83), and the periodontal disease score were associated with CKD when simultaneously adjusting for 14 other factors. Altogether, three of four structural equation models support the hypothesized relationship. Thus, our analyses support a bidirectional relationship between CKD and periodontal disease, mediated by hypertension and the duration of diabetes.
Relationship between the Bohr-Mottelson model and the interacting boson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Abraham; Li, Ching-Teh; Vallieres, Michel
1982-05-01
The interacting boson model was invented in two independent modes: The Schwinger mode using six bosons (s and five d bosons) and the Holstein-Primakoff mode using five quadrupole quasibosons. We show that the mathematical equivalence of the two modes can be used to define a number conserving quadrupole boson (the b boson). Two equivalent bases, the usual s-d basis and a new s-b basis, are exhibited. By an exercise of (possibly objectionable) physical license, the result can be interpreted as a proof of equivalence of interacting boson model I with the Bohr-Mottelson model. In the s-b basis, the Hamiltonian and other operators depend only on the b boson. In this form, all the topics usually associated with the Bohr-Mottleson model can be discussed: potential energy surface, shape parameters, vibrations vs rotations, etc. The precise relationship of our method to that employed in previous work is exposed. The latter is shown to correspond to the use of the Dyson generators of SU(6). NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Interacting bosons, Bohr-Mottelson form of IBM, potential energy surface from IBM, generator coordinates and IBM.
A Model of Serial Argument in Interpersonal Relationships.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trapp, Robert; Hoff, Nancy
1985-01-01
While most scholars view argument as a single conversational event, the interaction can be seen as a serial episode that occurs and recurs in everyday life. This essay presents a model of serial argument with supporting data. (PD)
The Use of Haemoglobin as a Model for Teaching the Relationship Between Structure and Function
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diggins, F. W. E.
1974-01-01
Presents information about an atomic model of haemoglobin and describes the oxygenation mechanism as a teaching principle to illustrate the relationship between structure and function at the molecular level. (Author/PEB)
A Rapid Approach to Modeling Species-Habitat Relationships
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Geoffrey M.; Breinger, David R.; Stolen, Eric D.
2005-01-01
A growing number of species require conservation or management efforts. Success of these activities requires knowledge of the species' occurrence pattern. Species-habitat models developed from GIS data sources are commonly used to predict species occurrence but commonly used data sources are often developed for purposes other than predicting species occurrence and are of inappropriate scale and the techniques used to extract predictor variables are often time consuming and cannot be repeated easily and thus cannot efficiently reflect changing conditions. We used digital orthophotographs and a grid cell classification scheme to develop an efficient technique to extract predictor variables. We combined our classification scheme with a priori hypothesis development using expert knowledge and a previously published habitat suitability index and used an objective model selection procedure to choose candidate models. We were able to classify a large area (57,000 ha) in a fraction of the time that would be required to map vegetation and were able to test models at varying scales using a windowing process. Interpretation of the selected models confirmed existing knowledge of factors important to Florida scrub-jay habitat occupancy. The potential uses and advantages of using a grid cell classification scheme in conjunction with expert knowledge or an habitat suitability index (HSI) and an objective model selection procedure are discussed.
Patel, Sarjubhai A.; Rajale, Trideep; O’Brien, Erin; Burkhart, David J.; Nelson, Jared K.; Twamley, Brendan; Blumenfeld, Alex; Szabon-Watola, Monika I.; Gerdes, John M.; Bridges, Richard J.; Natale, Nicholas R.
2009-01-01
Analogues of amino methylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), were prepared from a common intermediate 12, including lipophilic analogues using lateral metalation and electrophilic quenching, and were evaluated at System xc−. Both the 5-naphthylethyl-(16) and 5-naphthylmethoxymethyl-(17) analogues adopt an E-conformation in the solid state, yet while the former has robust binding at System xc−, the latter is virtually devoid of activity. The most potent analogues were amino acid naphthyl-ACPA 7g, and hydrazone carboxylic acid, 11e Y=Y′=3,5-(CF3)2, which both inhibited glutamate up-take by the System xc− transporter with comparable potency to the endogenous substrate cystine, whereas in contrast the closed isoxazolo[3,4-d] pyridazinones 13 have significantly lower activity. A preliminary pharmacophore model has been constructed to provide insight into the analogue structure-activity relationships. PMID:19932968
Hämmerling, Frank; Ladd Effio, Christopher; Andris, Sebastian; Kittelmann, Jörg; Hubbuch, Jürgen
2017-01-10
Precipitation of proteins is considered to be an effective purification method for proteins and has proven its potential to replace costly chromatography processes. Besides salts and polyelectrolytes, polymers, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), are commonly used for precipitation applications under mild conditions. Process development, however, for protein precipitation steps still is based mainly on heuristic approaches and high-throughput experimentation due to a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In this work we apply quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) to model two parameters, the discontinuity point m* and the β-value, that describe the complete precipitation curve of a protein under defined conditions. The generated QSAR models are sensitive to the protein type, pH, and ionic strength. It was found that the discontinuity point m* is mainly dependent on protein molecular structure properties and electrostatic surface properties, whereas the β-value is influenced by the variance in electrostatics and hydrophobicity on the protein surface. The models for m* and the β-value exhibit a good correlation between observed and predicted data with a coefficient of determination of R(2)≥0.90 and, hence, are able to accurately predict precipitation curves for proteins. The predictive capabilities were demonstrated for a set of combinations of protein type, pH, and ionic strength not included in the generation of the models and good agreement between predicted and experimental data was achieved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witzberger, Kevin (Inventor); Hojnicki, Jeffery (Inventor); Manzella, David (Inventor)
2016-01-01
Modeling and control software that integrates the complexities of solar array models, a space environment, and an electric propulsion system into a rigid body vehicle simulation and control model is provided. A rigid body vehicle simulation of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle may be created using at least one solar array model, at least one model of a space environment, and at least one model of a SEP propulsion system. Power availability and thrust profiles may be determined based on the rigid body vehicle simulation as the SEP vehicle transitions from a low Earth orbit (LEO) to a higher orbit or trajectory. The power availability and thrust profiles may be displayed such that a user can use the displayed power availability and thrust profiles to determine design parameters for an SEP vehicle mission.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiou, Guo-Li
2013-01-01
Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students' mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between…
González-Domínguez, Elisa; Caffi, Tito; Ciliberti, Nicola; Rossi, Vittorio
2015-01-01
A mechanistic model for Botrytis cinerea on grapevine was developed. The model, which accounts for conidia production on various inoculum sources and for multiple infection pathways, considers two infection periods. During the first period (“inflorescences clearly visible” to “berries groat-sized”), the model calculates: i) infection severity on inflorescences and young clusters caused by conidia (SEV1). During the second period (“majority of berries touching” to “berries ripe for harvest”), the model calculates: ii) infection severity of ripening berries by conidia (SEV2); and iii) severity of berry-to-berry infection caused by mycelium (SEV3). The model was validated in 21 epidemics (vineyard × year combinations) between 2009 and 2014 in Italy and France. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to: i) evaluate the ability of the model to predict mild, intermediate, and severe epidemics; and ii) assess how SEV1, SEV2, and SEV3 contribute to epidemics. The model correctly classified the severity of 17 of 21 epidemics. Results from DFA were also used to calculate the daily probabilities that an ongoing epidemic would be mild, intermediate, or severe. SEV1 was the most influential variable in discriminating between mild and intermediate epidemics, whereas SEV2 and SEV3 were relevant for discriminating between intermediate and severe epidemics. The model represents an improvement of previous B. cinerea models in viticulture and could be useful for making decisions about Botrytis bunch rot control. PMID:26457808
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foerste, C.; Shako, R.; Flechtner, F.; Dahle, C.; Abrikosov, O.; Neumayer, H.; Barthelmes, F.; Bruinsma, S. L.; Marty, J.; Balmino, G.; Biancale, R.; Eigen Team
2010-12-01
High-resolution global gravity field models play a fundamental role in geodesy and Earth sciences, ranging from practical purposes, like precise orbit determination, to scientific applications, like investigations of the density structure of the Earth's interior. We report on the latest combined EIGEN-model (EIGEN = European Improved Gravity model of the Earth by New techniques), which is complete to degree and order 720 and was jointly elaborated by GFZ Potsdam and CNES/GRGS Toulouse. It is the first EIGEN model inferred from a combination of GRACE and GOCE data (2 months, November-December 2009), enhanced with the DNSC08 surface gravity data. The combination of GRACE and GOCE data allows the construction of an accurate satellite-only model to degree and order 240, the gradiometer data of the latter contributing only to degrees upwards of 100. This is achieved through filtering of the GOCE observation equations, which is necessary because of the degraded gradiometer performance outside the measurement bandwidth. Analyses of gradiometer residuals calculated with ITG10S, EIGEN-5C and EGM2008 as background models revealed considerable model errors in current combined gravity field models caused by the inclusion low-quality and/or low resolution surface data in particular over South America, Africa, the Himalayas and New Guinea. Therefore, the combination procedure of satellite and surface data was revisited in order to mitigate this error source. In particular, the surface data normal equations are combined with satellite normal equations at a higher degree than presently applied (for instance at degree 70 in EIGEN-5C). The comparison of test results (orbit computation, GPS leveling) of this latest EIGEN model with a GOCE-only model, EGM08 and ITG10S demonstrates the gain in accuracy at high degrees, while its performance is identical to a GRACE-only model for the low degrees.
Morpheus: a conformation-activity relationships and receptor modeling package.
Andrews, P R; Quint, G; Winkler, D A; Richardson, D; Sadek, M; Spurling, T H
1989-09-01
Our molecular modeling software package, MORPHEUS, allows the study of the interactions between biologically active molecules and their receptors. The package is capable of exploring the multidimensional conformational space accessible to each molecule of the data set under study. By specifying distance constraints or hypothetical receptor binding points, the package is able to filter the biologically accessible conformations of each active compound and deduce a three-dimensional model of the binding sites consistent with the properties of the agonists (or antagonists) under scrutiny. The electrostatic potentials in the environment of a putative binding site can also be investigated using the MORPHEUS package. The molecular modeling module CRYS-X, which is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC machines, is capable of building, displaying and manipulating molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigand, M.; Kemna, A.
2016-06-01
Spectral induced polarization (SIP) data are commonly analysed using phenomenological models. Among these models the Cole-Cole (CC) model is the most popular choice to describe the strength and frequency dependence of distinct polarization peaks in the data. More flexibility regarding the shape of the spectrum is provided by decomposition schemes. Here the spectral response is decomposed into individual responses of a chosen elementary relaxation model, mathematically acting as kernel in the involved integral, based on a broad range of relaxation times. A frequently used kernel function is the Debye model, but also the CC model with some other a priorly specified frequency dispersion (e.g. Warburg model) has been proposed as kernel in the decomposition. The different decomposition approaches in use, also including conductivity and resistivity formulations, pose the question to which degree the integral spectral parameters typically derived from the obtained relaxation time distribution are biased by the approach itself. Based on synthetic SIP data sampled from an ideal CC response, we here investigate how the two most important integral output parameters deviate from the corresponding CC input parameters. We find that the total chargeability may be underestimated by up to 80 per cent and the mean relaxation time may be off by up to three orders of magnitude relative to the original values, depending on the frequency dispersion of the analysed spectrum and the proximity of its peak to the frequency range limits considered in the decomposition. We conclude that a quantitative comparison of SIP parameters across different studies, or the adoption of parameter relationships from other studies, for example when transferring laboratory results to the field, is only possible on the basis of a consistent spectral analysis procedure. This is particularly important when comparing effective CC parameters with spectral parameters derived from decomposition results.
Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R
2016-07-01
An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions.
A Communication Perspective on Attachment Relationships and Internal Working Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bretherton, Inge
1995-01-01
Notes how preceding articles expand the repertoire of theory-relevant assessments of attachment, with a special emphasis on Ainsworth's concept of the secure base. Focuses on a number of issues raised by this collection that are particularly promising for theory development, including assessment of secure-base behavior and maternal sensitivity,…
On Sensitivity of Structural Equation Modeling to Latent Relationship Misspecifications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raykov, Tenko
2000-01-01
Provides counterexamples where the covariance matrix provides crucial information about consequential model misspecifications and cautions researchers about overinterpreting the conclusion of D. Rogosa and J. Willett (1985) that the covariance matrix is a severe summary of longitudinal data that may discard crucial information about growth. (SLD)
Baldi, Pierre; Rosen-Zvi, Michal
2005-10-01
Machine learning methods that can handle variable-size structured data such as sequences and graphs include Bayesian networks (BNs) and Recursive Neural Networks (RNNs). In both classes of models, the data is modeled using a set of observed and hidden variables associated with the nodes of a directed acyclic graph. In BNs, the conditional relationships between parent and child variables are probabilistic, whereas in RNNs they are deterministic and parameterized by neural networks. Here, we study the formal relationship between both classes of models and show that when the source nodes variables are observed, RNNs can be viewed as limits, both in distribution and probability, of BNs with local conditional distributions that have vanishing covariance matrices and converge to delta functions. Conditions for uniform convergence are also given together with an analysis of the behavior and exactness of Belief Propagation (BP) in 'deterministic' BNs. Implications for the design of mixed architectures and the corresponding inference algorithms are briefly discussed.
Hiatt, Jessica R.; Davis, Stephen D.; Rivard, Mark J.
2015-06-15
Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an {sup 125}I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
After the simplified version of the 41-Node Stolwijk Metabolic Man Model was implemented on the Sigma 3 and UNIVAC 1110 computers in batch mode, it became desirable to make certain revisions. First, the availability of time-sharing terminals makes it possible to provide the capability and flexibility of conversational interaction between user and model. Secondly, recent physiological studies show the need to revise certain parameter values contained in the model. Thirdly, it was desired to make quantitative and accurate predictions of evaporative water loss for humans in an orbiting space station. The result of the first phase of this effort are reported.
Goyal, Nitin; Fjeldly, Tor A.
2014-07-14
In this paper, a physics based analytical model is presented for calculation of the two-dimensional electron gas density and the bare surface barrier height of AlGaN/AlN/GaN material stacks. The presented model is based on the concept of distributed surface donor states and the self-consistent solution of Poisson equation at the different material interfaces. The model shows good agreement with the reported experimental data and can be used for the design and characterization of advanced GaN devices for power and radio frequency applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Ting-Bo; Liu, Zhen-Bo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Dong; Gong, Xiu-Fen
2009-08-01
A theoretical model of the nonlinear propagation in multi-layered tissues for strong focused ultrasound is proposed. In this model, the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) is utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation in each layer tissue, and generalized oblique incidence theory is used to deal with the sound transmission between two layer tissues. Computer simulation is performed on a fat-muscle-liver tissue model under the irradiation of a 1 MHz focused transducer with a large aperture angle of 35°. The results demonstrate that the tissue layer would change the amplitude of sound pressure at the focal region and cause the increase of side petals.
Parametric modeling for quantitative analysis of pulmonary structure to function relationships
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haider, Clifton R.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Holmes, David R., III; Camp, Jon J.; Robb, Richard A.
2005-04-01
While lung anatomy is well understood, pulmonary structure-to-function relationships such as the complex elastic deformation of the lung during respiration are less well documented. Current methods for studying lung anatomy include conventional chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging with polarized gases (MRI scan). Pulmonary physiology can be studied using spirometry or V/Q nuclear medicine tests (V/Q scan). V/Q scanning and MRI scans may demonstrate global and regional function. However, each of these individual imaging methods lacks the ability to provide high-resolution anatomic detail, associated pulmonary mechanics and functional variability of the entire respiratory cycle. Specifically, spirometry provides only a one-dimensional gross estimate of pulmonary function, and V/Q scans have poor spatial resolution, reducing its potential for regional assessment of structure-to-function relationships. We have developed a method which utilizes standard clinical CT scanning to provide data for computation of dynamic anatomic parametric models of the lung during respiration which correlates high-resolution anatomy to underlying physiology. The lungs are segmented from both inspiration and expiration three-dimensional (3D) data sets and transformed into a geometric description of the surface of the lung. Parametric mapping of lung surface deformation then provides a visual and quantitative description of the mechanical properties of the lung. Any alteration in lung mechanics is manifest by alterations in normal deformation of the lung wall. The method produces a high-resolution anatomic and functional composite picture from sparse temporal-spatial methods which quantitatively illustrates detailed anatomic structure to pulmonary function relationships impossible for translational methods to provide.
Yamaura, Yuichi; Connor, Edward F.; Royle, Andy; Itoh, Katsuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Taki, Hisatomo; Mishima, Yoshio
2016-01-01
Models and data used to describe species–area relationships confound sampling with ecological process as they fail to acknowledge that estimates of species richness arise due to sampling. This compromises our ability to make ecological inferences from and about species–area relationships. We develop and illustrate hierarchical community models of abundance and frequency to estimate species richness. The models we propose separate sampling from ecological processes by explicitly accounting for the fact that sampled patches are seldom completely covered by sampling plots and that individuals present in the sampling plots are imperfectly detected. We propose a multispecies abundance model in which community assembly is treated as the summation of an ensemble of species-level Poisson processes and estimate patch-level species richness as a derived parameter. We use sampling process models appropriate for specific survey methods. We propose a multispecies frequency model that treats the number of plots in which a species occurs as a binomial process. We illustrate these models using data collected in surveys of early-successional bird species and plants in young forest plantation patches. Results indicate that only mature forest plant species deviated from the constant density hypothesis, but the null model suggested that the deviations were too small to alter the form of species–area relationships. Nevertheless, results from simulations clearly show that the aggregate pattern of individual species density–area relationships and occurrence probability–area relationships can alter the form of species–area relationships. The plant community model estimated that only half of the species present in the regional species pool were encountered during the survey. The modeling framework we propose explicitly accounts for sampling processes so that ecological processes can be examined free of sampling artefacts. Our modeling approach is extensible and could be applied
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Houlton, B.; Field, C. B.
2006-12-01
Global climate models have not yet considered the effects of nutrient cycles and limitation when forecasting carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere into the future. Using the principle of resource optimization, we here develop a new theory by which C, N and P cycles interact. Our model is able to replicate the observed responses of net primary production to nutrient additions in N-limited, N and P co-limited, and P-limited environments. Our framework identifies a new pathway by which N2 fixers can alter P availability: by investing in N-rich phosphorus liberation enzymes (phosphatases), fixers can greatly accelerate soil P availability and its cycling rates. This is critical for the successive invasion and establishment of N2 fixers into an N limited environment. We conclude that our model can be used to examine nutrient limitation broadly, and thus offers promise for coupling the biogeochemical system of C, N, and P to broader climate-system models.
A new model for the body size-metabolism relationship.
Roberts, Michael F; Lightfoot, Edwin N; Porter, Warren P
2010-01-01
The allometric 3/4 power relation, initially used for describing the relation between mammalian basal metabolic rate and body size, is often used as a general model for organismal design. The use of allometric regression as a model has important limitations: it is not mechanistic, it combines all physiological variables into one correlate of body size, and it combines data from several physiological states. In reassessing the use of allometric equations, we first describe problems with their use in studies of organismal design and then use a formulation for distributed net heat production and temperature distribution within the body to derive an alternative equation for the relation between basal metabolism and body size. Tests of the heat flow equation against data reported in the literature indicate that it is an accurate estimator of basal metabolism under thermoneutral conditions and suggest that the allometric equation is a special case of this mechanistic and more general model. We propose that our method is more meaningful and widely applicable for thermoneutral conditions than is a purely allometric approach.
The complementarity model of brain-body relationship.
Walach, Harald
2005-01-01
We introduce the complementarity concept to understand mind-body relations and the question why the biopsychosocial model has in fact been praised, but not integrated into medicine. By complementarity, we mean that two incompatible descriptions have to be used to describe something in full. The complementarity model states that the physical and the mental side of the human organism are two complementary notions. This contradicts the prevailing materialist notion that mental and psychological processes are emergent properties of an organism. The complementarity model also has consequences for a further understanding of biological processes. Complementarity is a defining property of quantum systems proper. Such systems exhibit correlated properties that result in coordinated behavior without signal transfer or interaction. This is termed EPR-correlation or entanglement. Weak quantum theory, a generalized version of quantum mechanics proper, predicts entanglement also for macroscopic systems, provided a local and a global observable are complementary. Thus, complementarity could be the key to understanding holistically correlated behavior on different levels of systemic complexity.
Yu, Lin; McCracken, Lance M
2016-02-01
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one of the so called "third-wave" cognitive behavioral therapies. It has been increasingly applied to chronic pain, and there is accumulating evidence to support its effectiveness. ACT is based on a model of general human functioning called the psychological flexibility (PF) model. Most facets of the PF model have been examined in chronic pain. However, a potential key facet related to "self" appears underappreciated. Indeed, a positive or healthy sense of self seems essential to our well-being, and there have been numerous studies of the self in chronic pain. At the same time, these studies are not currently well organized or easy to summarize. This lack of clarity and integration creates barriers to progress in this area of research. PF with its explicit inclusion of self-related therapeutic processes within a broad, integrative, theoretical model may help. The current review summarizes the PF model in the context of chronic pain with a specific emphasis on the parts of the model that address self-related processes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gentry, G. L., Jr.
1974-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel and in a scaled version of the Ames 40- by 80-foot tunnel test section installed as a liner in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effect of test-section size on aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The model investigated was a swept-wing, jet-powered, externally blown flap (EBF) STOL transport configuration with a leading-edge slat and triple-slotted flaps. The model was an 0.1645-scale model of a 11.58-meter (38.0-ft) span model designed for tests in a 40- by 80-foot tunnel. The data compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the model with and without the tunnel liner installed. Data are presented as a function of thrust coefficient over an angle-of-attack range of 0 deg to 25 deg. A thrust-coefficient range up to approximately 4.0 was simulated, most ot the tests being conducted at a free-stream dynamic pressure of 814 Newtons/sq m (17 lb sq ft). The data are presented with a minimum of analysis.
The relationship of values to adjustment in illness: a model for nursing practice.
Harvey, R M
1992-04-01
This paper proposes a model of the relationship between values, in particular health value, and adjustment to illness. The importance of values as well as the need for value change are described in the literature related to adjustment to physical disability and chronic illness. An empirical model, however, that explains the relationship of values to adjustment or adaptation has not been found by this researcher. Balance theory and its application to the abstract and perceived cognitions of health value and health perception are described here to explain the relationship of values like health value to outcomes associated with adjustment or adaptation to illness. The proposed model is based on the balance theories of Heider, Festinger and Feather. Hypotheses based on the model were tested and supported in a study of 100 adults with visible and invisible chronic illness. Nursing interventions based on the model are described and suggestions for further research discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colbert, Keegan; Naraghi, Mohammad; Boyd, James G.
2017-02-01
This paper presents a model and computational method to predict the steady-state performance of thermal flexure microactuators at high input powers and various levels of partial vacuum. The model accounts for nonlinear temperature dependence of material properties, heat loss due to radiation, and intra-device heat transfer by conduction across an air gap. The model is validated by comparing the model predictions with the experimentally measured voltage, current, and displacement at standard conditions, prior to adjusting for partial vacuum. In order to understand the effect of nonlinearities on model reliability, the predictions of six additional hypothetical models are considered where (1) intra-device heat transfer is neglected, (2) radiation is neglected, (3) the thermal conductivity of silicon is assumed to be temperature-independent, (4) the thermal conductivity of air is assumed to be temperature-independent, (5) the electrical resistivity of silicon is assumed to be linear in temperature, and (6) the thermal expansion coefficient of silicon is assumed to be temperature-independent. All factors except radiation were shown to have a significant influence on the device performance especially at high input powers. The experimentally validated full model is then employed to predict the effect of reduced air pressure on the displacement and heat transfer properties of the actuator. This aspect of the study targets applications of thermal actuators in controlled environments such as space applications, actuators used for in situ micropositioning and tensile testing inside electron microscopy chambers, or actuators incorporated into the design of MEMS resonators. It was demonstrated that the maximum actuator displacement is not a linear function of reduced pressure and that it reaches a maximum at a certain partial vacuum level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helbert, Guillaume; Saint-Sulpice, Luc; Arbab Chirani, Shabnam; Dieng, Lamine; Lecompte, Thibaut; Calloch, Sylvain; Pilvin, Philippe
2017-02-01
The well-known martensitic transformation is not always the unique solid-solid phase change in NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA). For this material, R-phase can occur from both austenite and martensite. In some applications, macroscopic strain of the material can be limited to 2%. In these cases, R-phase contribution can not be neglected anymore when compared with martensite. Furthermore, different thermomechanical couplings have to be taken into account to carefully predict strain rate effects and to better describe application conditions. In this paper, a new model taking into account various phase transformations with thermomechanical couplings is presented. This model is based on several transformation criteria. In most applications, SMA are used as wires, submitted to tensile-tensile loadings, in the superelasticity working range. Consequently, a uniaxial reduction of the model is presented for its simplicity. A thermodynamic framework is proposed. It enables to describe the internal variables evolution laws. The simple and fast identification process of model parameters is briefly presented. To verify the validity of the proposed model, simulation results are compared with experimental ones. The influences of testing temperature and strain amplitude on the material behavior is discussed. The damping capacity is also studied, using an energy-based criterion.
Nosedal-Sanchez, Alvaro; Jackson, Charles S.; Huerta, Gabriel
2016-07-20
A new test statistic for climate model evaluation has been developed that potentially mitigates some of the limitations that exist for observing and representing field and space dependencies of climate phenomena. Traditionally such dependencies have been ignored when climate models have been evaluated against observational data, which makes it difficult to assess whether any given model is simulating observed climate for the right reasons. The new statistic uses Gaussian Markov random fields for estimating field and space dependencies within a first-order grid point neighborhood structure. We illustrate the ability of Gaussian Markov random fields to represent empirical estimates of fieldmore » and space covariances using "witch hat" graphs. We further use the new statistic to evaluate the tropical response of a climate model (CAM3.1) to changes in two parameters important to its representation of cloud and precipitation physics. Overall, the inclusion of dependency information did not alter significantly the recognition of those regions of parameter space that best approximated observations. However, there were some qualitative differences in the shape of the response surface that suggest how such a measure could affect estimates of model uncertainty.« less
The relationship between observed fatigue damage and life estimation models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurath, Peter; Socie, Darrell F.
1988-01-01
Observations of the surface of laboratory specimens subjected to axial and torsional fatigue loadings has resulted in the identification of three damage fatigue phenomena: crack nucleation, shear crack growth, and tensile crack growth. Material, microstructure, state of stress/strain, and loading amplitude all influence which of the three types of fatigue damage occurs during a dominant fatigue life fraction. Fatigue damage maps are employed to summarize the experimental observations. Appropriate bulk stress/strain damage parameters are suggested to model fatigue damage for the dominant fatigue life fraction. Extension of the damage map concept to more complex loadings is presented.
Wilkinson, Paul R; Pratt, Jon R
2011-08-10
We present an analytical model for single mode, multiply reflected, external cavity, optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers in the low finesse regime using simple geometry and the Gaussian beam approximation. The multiple reflection model predicts attenuation of the peak-to-peak interference as the fiber to mirror distance approaches zero, as well as fringe asymmetry in the presence of nonabsorbing mirrors. A series of experiments are conducted in which a series of fiber Fabry-Perot cavities are constructed using uncoated, single mode glass fibers, and mirrors of varying reflectivity. The cavity length is swept, and the predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with the experimental interferograms.
Rivera, Maria J; López Molina, Juan A; Trujillo, Macarena; Romero-Garcia, Vicente; Berjano, Enrique J
2010-01-01
In this paper we outline our main findings about the differences between the use of the Bioheat Equation and the Hyperbolic Bioheat Equation in theoretical models for Radiofrequency (RF) ablation. At the moment, we have been working on the analytical approach to solve both equations, but more recently, we have considered numerical models based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). As a first step to use FEM, we conducted a comparative study between the temperature profiles obtained from the analytical solutions and those obtained from FEM. Regarding the differences between both methods, we obtain agreement in less than 5% of relative differences. Then FEM is a good alternative to model heating of biological tissues using BE and HBE in, for example, more complex and realistic geometries.
Sparse Neural Network Models of Antimicrobial Peptide-Activity Relationships.
Müller, Alex T; Kaymaz, Aral C; Gabernet, Gisela; Posselt, Gernot; Wessler, Silja; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert
2016-12-01
We present an adaptive neural network model for chemical data classification. The method uses an evolutionary algorithm for optimizing the network structure by seeking sparsely connected architectures. The number of hidden layers, the number of neurons in each layer and their connectivity are free variables of the system. We used the method for predicting antimicrobial peptide activity from the amino acid sequence. Visualization of the evolved sparse network structures suggested a high charge density and a low aggregation potential in solution as beneficial for antimicrobial activity. However, different training data sets and peptide representations resulted in greatly varying network structures. Overall, the sparse network models turned out to be less accurate than fully-connected networks. In a prospective application, we synthesized and tested 10 de novo generated peptides that were predicted to either possess antimicrobial activity, or to be inactive. Two of the predicted antibacterial peptides showed cosiderable bacteriostatic effects against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. None of the predicted inactive peptides possessed antibacterial properties. Molecular dynamics simulations of selected peptide structures in water and TFE suggest a pronounced peptide helicity in a hydrophobic environment. The results of this study underscore the applicability of neural networks for guiding the computer-assisted design of new peptides with desired properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aulenbach, B. T.; Burns, D. A.; Shanley, J. B.; Yanai, R. D.; Bae, K.; Wild, A.; Yang, Y.; Dong, Y.
2013-12-01
There are many sources of uncertainty in estimates of streamwater solute flux. Flux is the product of discharge and concentration (summed over time), each of which has measurement uncertainty of its own. Discharge can be measured almost continuously, but concentrations are usually determined from discrete samples, which increases uncertainty dependent on sampling frequency and how concentrations are assigned for the periods between samples. Gaps between samples can be estimated by linear interpolation or by models that that use the relations between concentration and continuously measured or known variables such as discharge, season, temperature, and time. For this project, developed in cooperation with QUEST (Quantifying Uncertainty in Ecosystem Studies), we evaluated uncertainty for three flux estimation methods and three different sampling frequencies (monthly, weekly, and weekly plus event). The constituents investigated were dissolved NO3, Si, SO4, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), solutes whose concentration dynamics exhibit strongly contrasting behavior. The evaluation was completed for a 10-year period at five small, forested watersheds in Georgia, New Hampshire, New York, Puerto Rico, and Vermont. Concentration regression models were developed for each solute at each of the three sampling frequencies for all five watersheds. Fluxes were then calculated using (1) a linear interpolation approach, (2) a regression-model method, and (3) the composite method - which combines the regression-model method for estimating concentrations and the linear interpolation method for correcting model residuals to the observed sample concentrations. We considered the best estimates of flux to be derived using the composite method at the highest sampling frequencies. We also evaluated the importance of sampling frequency and estimation method on flux estimate uncertainty; flux uncertainty was dependent on the variability characteristics of each solute and varied for
Norby, Richard J; Gu, Lianhong; Haworth, Ivan C; Jensen, Anna M; Turner, Benjamin L; Walker, Anthony P; Warren, Jeffrey M; Weston, David J; Xu, Chonggang; Winter, Klaus
2016-11-21
Our objective was to analyze and summarize data describing photosynthetic parameters and foliar nutrient concentrations from tropical forests in Panama to inform model representation of phosphorus (P) limitation of tropical forest productivity. Gas exchange and nutrient content data were collected from 144 observations of upper canopy leaves from at least 65 species at two forest sites in Panama, differing in species composition, rainfall and soil fertility. Photosynthetic parameters were derived from analysis of assimilation rate vs internal CO2 concentration curves (A/Ci ), and relationships with foliar nitrogen (N) and P content were developed. The relationships between area-based photosynthetic parameters and nutrients were of similar strength for N and P and robust across diverse species and site conditions. The strongest relationship expressed maximum electron transport rate (Jmax ) as a multivariate function of both N and P, and this relationship was improved with the inclusion of independent data on wood density. Models that estimate photosynthesis from foliar N would be improved only modestly by including additional data on foliar P, but doing so may increase the capability of models to predict future conditions in P-limited tropical forests, especially when combined with data on edaphic conditions and other environmental drivers.
Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.
2014-01-01
To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keitel, David
2016-04-01
The vulnerability to single-detector instrumental artifacts in standard detection methods for long-duration quasimonochromatic gravitational waves from nonaxisymmetric rotating neutron stars [continuous waves (CWs)] was addressed in past work [D. Keitel et al., Phys. Rev. D 89, 064023 (2014).] by a Bayesian approach. An explicit model of persistent single-detector disturbances led to a generalized detection statistic with improved robustness against such artifacts. Since many strong outliers in semicoherent searches of LIGO data are caused by transient disturbances that last only a few hours, we extend the noise model to cover such limited-duration disturbances, and demonstrate increased robustness in realistic simulated data. Besides long-duration CWs, neutron stars could also emit transient signals which, for a limited time, also follow the CW signal model (tCWs). As a pragmatic alternative to specialized transient searches, we demonstrate how to make standard semicoherent CW searches more sensitive to transient signals. Considering tCWs in a single segment of a semicoherent search, Bayesian model selection yields a new detection statistic that does not add significant computational cost. On simulated data, we find that it increases sensitivity towards tCWs, even of varying durations, while not sacrificing sensitivity to classical CW signals, and still being robust to transient or persistent single-detector instrumental artifacts.
A Model of Induction of Cerebellar Long-Term Depression Including RKIP Inactivation of Raf and MEK
Hepburn, Iain; Jain, Anant; Gangal, Himanshu; Yamamoto, Yukio; Tanaka-Yamamoto, Keiko; De Schutter, Erik
2017-01-01
We report an updated stochastic model of cerebellar Long Term Depression (LTD) with improved realism. Firstly, we verify experimentally that dissociation of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) from Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) is required for cerebellar LTD and add this interaction to an earlier published model, along with the known requirement of dissociation of RKIP from Raf kinase. We update Ca2+ dynamics as a constant-rate influx, which captures experimental input profiles accurately. We improve α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor interactions by adding phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of AMPA receptors when bound to glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP). The updated model is tuned to reproduce experimental Ca2+ peak vs. LTD amplitude curves at four different Ca2+ pulse durations as closely as possible. We find that the updated model is generally more robust with these changes, yet we still observe some sensitivity of LTD induction to copy number of the key signaling molecule Protein kinase C (PKC). We predict natural variability in this number by stochastic diffusion may influence the probabilistic LTD response to Ca2+ input in Purkinje cell spines and propose this as an extra source of stochasticity that may be important also in other signaling systems. PMID:28220061
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.-P.; Houlton, B. Z.; Field, C. B.
2007-03-01
Global climate models have not yet considered the effects of nutrient cycles and limitation when forecasting carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere into the future. Using the principle of resource optimization, we here develop a new theory by which C, N, and P cycles interact. Our model is able to replicate the observed responses of net primary production to nutrient additions in N-limited, N- and P-colimited, and P-limited terrestrial environments. Our framework identifies a new pathway by which N2 fixers can alter P availability: By investing in N-rich, phosphorus liberation enzymes (phosphatases), fixers can greatly accelerate soil P availability and P cycling rates. This interaction is critical for the successful invasion and establishment of N2 fixers in an N-limited environment. We conclude that our model can be used to examine nutrient limitation broadly, and thus offers promise for coupling the biogeochemical system of C, N, and P to broader climate-system models.
Branz, Tanja; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Oexl, Bettina; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Koerner, Juergen G.
2010-06-01
We study flavor-conserving radiative decays of double-heavy baryons using a manifestly Lorentz covariant constituent three-quark model. Decay rates are calculated and compared to each other in the full theory, keeping masses finite, and also in the heavy quark limit. We discuss in some detail hyperfine mixing effects.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoffman, Elise; And Others
In order to design and implement a plan to integrate human sexuality into the curriculum for associate degree nursing students at Alvin Community College (Texas), levels of knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary in promoting sexual health were defined. Of the four levels in the Mims and Swenson Sexual Health Model (life experiences, basic,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, R.; Johansson, A. J.
An analytical model for estimating the link loss for the on-body wave propagation around the torso is presented. The model is based on the attenuation of the creeping waves over an elliptical approximation of the human torso and includes the influence of the arms. The importance of including the arms' effect for a proper estimation of the link loss is discussed. The model is validated by the full-wave electromagnetic simulations on a numerical phantom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, J.; Zhu, W. D.; Charalambides, P. G.; Shao, Y. M.; Xu, Y. F.; Fang, X. M.
2016-11-01
As one of major failure modes of mechanical structures subjected to periodic loads, embedded cracks due to fatigue can cause catastrophic failure of machineries. Understanding the dynamic characteristics of a structure with an embedded crack is helpful for early crack detection and diagnosis. In this work, a new three-segment beam model with local flexibilities at crack tips is developed to investigate the vibration of a cantilever beam with a closed, fully embedded horizontal crack, which is assumed to be not located at its clamped or free end or distributed near its top or bottom side. The three-segment beam model is assumed to be a linear elastic system, and it does not account for the nonlinear crack closure effect; the top and bottom segments always stay in contact at their interface during the beam vibration. It can model the effects of local deformations in the vicinity of the crack tips, which cannot be captured by previous methods in the literature. The middle segment of the beam containing the crack is modeled by a mechanically consistent, reduced bending moment. Each beam segment is assumed to be an Euler-Bernoulli beam, and the compliances at the crack tips are analytically determined using a J-integral approach and verified using commercial finite element software. Using compatibility conditions at the crack tips and the transfer matrix method, the nature frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam are obtained. The three-segment beam model is used to investigate the effects of local flexibilities at crack tips on the first three natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam. A stationary wavelet transform (SWT) method is used to process the mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam; jumps in single-level SWT decomposition detail coefficients can be used to identify the length and location of an embedded horizontal crack.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiou, Guo-Li
2013-06-01
Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students’ mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between their mental models and predictions of convection-related phenomena. A series of semistructured interviews was conducted to probe the participants’ mental models and predictions of heat convection, and the constant comparative method was adopted for data analysis. The results reveal that the participants held a variety of mental models of heat convection, and nearly half held flawed mental models rather than a scientifically compatible one. In addition, while many participants attempted to run their mental models to make a prediction at the beginning stage of solving an interview problem, the relationship between the models and predictions became increasingly complex as the problem solving process continued. The relationships between mental models and predictions, however, could be better understood by considering the completeness of a mental model, the scale of analyzing mental models, and the retrieval of different formats of mental representations.
The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…
Lucea, Marguerite B; Hindin, Michelle J; Kub, Joan; Campbell, Jacquelyn C
2012-01-01
A person's ability to minimize HIV risk is embedded in a complex, multidimensional context. In this study, we tested a model of how relationship power impacts IPV victimization, which in turn impacts HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed data from 474 young adult women (aged 15-31) in Cebu Province, Philippines, using structural equation modeling, and demonstrated good fit for the models. High relationship power is directly associated with increased IPV victimization, and IPV victimization is positively associated with increased HIV risk. We highlight in this article the complex dynamics to consider in HIV risk prevention among these young women.
Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development
Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A.
2015-01-01
Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.
Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development.
Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A
2015-03-01
Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Bienaymé, O.; Reylé, C.; Valenzuela, O.; Pichardo, B.
2014-07-01
In this contributed poster we present a preliminary attempt to compute a non-axisymmetric potential together with previous axisymmetric potential of the Besançon galaxy model. The contribution by non-axisymmetric components are modeled by the superposition of inhomogeneous ellipsoids to approximate the triaxial bar and superposition of homogeneous oblate spheroids for a stellar halo, possibly triaxial. Finally, we have computed the potential and force field for these non-axisymmetric components in order to constraint the total mass of the Milky Way. We present preliminary results for the rotation curve and the contribution of the bar to it. This approach will allow future studies of dynamical constraints from comparisons of kinematical simulations with upcoming surveys such as RAVE, BRAVA, APOGEE, and GAIA in the near future. More details, are presented in https://gaia.ub.edu/Twiki/pub/GREATITNFC/ProgramFinalconference/Poster_JG.Fern%e1ndez.pdf.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadjiconstantinou, N. G.; Al-Mohssen, H. A.
2005-06-01
We investigate the time evolution of an impulsive start problem for arbitrary Knudsen numbers (Kn) using a linearized kinetic formulation. The early-time behaviour is described by a solution of the collisionless Boltzmann equation. The same solution can be used to describe the late-time behaviour for Kn ≫ 1. The late-time behaviour for Kn < 0.5 is captured by a newly proposed second-order slip model with no adjustable parameters. All theoretical results are verified by direct Monte Carlo solutions of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. A measure of the timescale to steady state, normalized by the momentum diffusion timescale, shows that the timescale to steady state is significantly extended by ballistic transport, even at low Knudsen numbers where the latter is only important close to the system walls. This effect is captured for Kn < 0.5 by the slip model which predicts the equivalent effective domain size increase (slip length).
The Impact of Consultation Models on Interpersonal Relationships during Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neall, Michael Timothy
2012-01-01
Client-centered and consultee-centered consultation models are predominately used in K-12 schools to meet the needs of at-risk learners and ensure equitable access to educational services. Although the efficacy of both models has significant support in the literature, studies regarding relationships formed during problem solving in consultation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Choosakul, Chairat; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon; Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter
2009-01-01
Grounded in the conceptual framework of the Sport Commitment Model and previous empirical studies conducted in Western countries, this study was designed to (a) test and validate a Thai version of the Athlete Opinion Survey to assess components of the Sport Commitment Model in Thai youth athletes and (b) examine structural relationships among…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tosun, Fatma; Dilmac, Bulent
2015-01-01
The aim of the present research is to reveal the predictor relationships between the values held by married individuals, resilience and conflict resolution styles. The research adopts a relational screening model that is a sub-type of the general screening model. The sample of the research consists of 375 married individuals, of which 173 are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sungur, Semra
2007-01-01
In this study, a path model was utilised to model the relationships among motivational beliefs, metacognitive strategy use, and effort regulation in science courses. There were 391 high-school students participating in the study. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to measure students' motivational beliefs, metacognitive…
The Learning-Teaching Nexus: Modelling the Learning-Teaching Relationship in Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knewstubb, Bernadette
2016-01-01
The teaching-learning relationship is often described as a conversation. However, many models of teaching and learning depict the worlds of teacher and learner as enclosed and inaccessible, linked by apparently transferred communicative meanings. A new interdisciplinary learning-teaching nexus (LTN) model combines perspectives from higher…
2006-08-01
2 Experimental setup tor thermal dynamics imaging experiment. Reading of skin exposure sites was performed acutely at one hour, and 24-h...Phoenix model, Indigo Systems, Santa Barbara, California). To acquire reference IR image frames prior to laser exposure, the IR camera was operating in...free-running mode at a frame rate of 100 Hz and image size of 256 X 256 pixels. The IR camera lens was extended to provide spatial resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Xiao-Le; Zhou, Hao-Miao
2015-07-01
The nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical magnetostrictive constitutive and the linear thermo-mechanical-electric piezoelectric constitutive are adopted in this paper. The bias magnetic field and ambient temperature are equivalent to a magnetic source and a thermo source, respectively. An equivalent circuit, which contains a magnetic source and a thermo source at the input, for the thermo-magneto-electric coupling effect in magnetoelectric (ME) laminates, is established. The theoretical models of the output voltage and static ME coefficient for ME laminates can be derived from this equivalent circuit model. The predicted static ME coefficient versus temperature curves are in excellent agreement with the experimental data available both qualitatively and quantitatively. It confirms the validity of the proposed model. Then the models are adopted to predict variations in the output voltages and ME coefficients in the laminates under different ambient temperatures, bias magnetic fields, and the volume ratios of magnetostrictive phases. This shows that the output voltage increases with both increasing temperature and increasing volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases; the ME coefficient decreases with increasing temperature; the ME coefficient shows an initial sharp increase and then decreases slowly with the increase in the bias magnetic field, and there is an optimum volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases that maximize the ME coefficient. This paper can not only provide a new idea for the study of the thermo-magneto-electric coupling characteristics of ME laminates, but also provide a theoretical basis for the design and application of ME laminates, operating under different sensors. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172285 and 11472259) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LR13A020002).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barthélémy, Romain; Jacques, Nicolas; Vermeersch, François; Kerampran, Steven
2015-09-01
Metallic foams have known a keen interest in the last decades. Their ability to undergo very large deformations while transmitting low stress levels make them capable of performing functions of protective layers against intense loadings and of energy absorbers, for instance. The behaviour of metal foams varies considerably between quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Those differences can be linked to the strain-rate sensitivity of the skeleton material and to micro-inertial effects (induced by the crushing of the foam cells). In the present work, a micromechanical model has been developed to take into account micro-inertia effects on the macroscopic behaviour of closed-cell foams under dynamic loading conditions. The proposed modelling is based on the dynamic homogenisation procedure introduced by Molinari and Mercier (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49 (2001) 1497-1516). Within this framework, the macrostress is the sum of two terms. The first one is a static stress, that can be described with any existing model of metal foam. The second contribution is a dynamic stress related to micro-inertia effects. Considering an initially spherical shell as a Representative Volume Element (RVE) of the foam material, a closed-form expression of the dynamic stress was obtained. The proposed modelling was applied to shock propagation in aluminium foams (it should however be noted that the present theory is not restricted to uniaxial deformation but can be applied to arbitrary loadings). From experimental data of the literature, it is observed that incorporating micro-inertia effects allows one to achieve a better description of the foam shock response. This indicates that micro-inertia may have a significant influence on the dynamic behaviour of metallic foams.
2012-01-01
belongs to a wide class of domain decomposition techniques . CMS divides the global structure into several substructures, and the DOFs of each individual...oriented techniques have been developed. One such approach is to generate what is referred to as parametric reduced-order models (PROMs). PROMs...PROM) technique has been developed recently to overcome these drawbacks [14]. The concepts used in NX-PROMs are applied herein to capture the pre
Raihana, Shahreen; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Huda, Tanvir; Zhou, Guohai; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-ur; Garde, Ainara; Moinuddin, Md; Karlen, Walter; Dumont, Guy A.; Kissoon, Niranjan; El Arifeen, Shams; Larson, Charles; Ansermino, J. Mark
2015-01-01
Background The reduction in the deaths of millions of children who die from infectious diseases requires early initiation of treatment and improved access to care available in health facilities. A major challenge is the lack of objective evidence to guide front line health workers in the community to recognize critical illness in children earlier in their course. Methods We undertook a prospective observational study of children less than 5 years of age presenting at the outpatient or emergency department of a rural tertiary care hospital between October 2012 and April 2013. Study physicians collected clinical signs and symptoms from the facility records, and with a mobile application performed recordings of oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory rate. Facility physicians decided the need for hospital admission without knowledge of the oxygen saturation. Multiple logistic predictive models were tested. Findings Twenty-five percent of the 3374 assessed children, with a median (interquartile range) age of 1.02 (0.42–2.24), were admitted to hospital. We were unable to contact 20% of subjects after their visit. A logistic regression model using continuous oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature and age combined with dichotomous signs of chest indrawing, lethargy, irritability and symptoms of cough, diarrhea and fast or difficult breathing predicted admission to hospital with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval -CI: 0.87 to 0.90). At a risk threshold of 25% for admission, the sensitivity was 77% (95% CI: 74% to 80%), specificity was 87% (95% CI: 86% to 88%), positive predictive value was 70% (95% CI: 67% to 73%) and negative predictive value was 91% (95% CI: 90% to 92%). Conclusion A model using oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and temperature in combination with readily obtained clinical signs and symptoms predicted the need for hospitalization of critically ill children. External validation of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.
2004-01-01
An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites with a plain weave fiber architecture. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression response have also been considered. State variable based viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear stiffness is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). The tensile, compressive, and shear deformation of a representative plain weave woven ceramic matrix composite are computed and compared to experimental results. The computed values correlate well to the experimental data, demonstrating the ability of the model to accurately compute the deformation response of woven ceramic matrix composites.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.
2004-01-01
An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites, such as the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) material used on the leading edges of the Space Shuttle. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression deformation behaviors have also been accounted for. State variable viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear response is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into LS-DYNA through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). Several sample qualitative calculations have been conducted, which demonstrate the ability of the model to qualitatively capture the features of the deformation response present in woven ceramic matrix composites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäger, Sebastian; Pickett, Anthony; Middendorf, Peter
2016-04-01
Laminated composites can undergo complex damage mechanisms when subjected to transverse impact. For unidirectional laminates it is well recognized that delamination failure usually initiates via intra-ply shear cracks that run parallel to the fibres. These cracks extend to the interface of adjacent orthogonal plies, where they are either stopped, or propagate further as inter-ply delamination cracks. These mechanisms largely determine impact energy absorption and post-delamination bending stiffness of the laminate. Important load transfer mechanisms will occur that may lead to fibre failure and ultimate rupture of the laminate. In recent years most Finite Element (FE) models to predict delamination usually stack layers of ply elements with interface elements to represent inter-ply stiffness and treat possible delamination. The approach is computationally efficient and does give some estimate of delamination zones and damaged laminate bending stiffness. However, these models do not properly account for coupled intra-ply shear failure and delamination crack growth, and therefore cannot provide accurate results on crack initiation and propagation. An alternative discrete meso-scale FE model is presented that accounts for this coupling, which is validated against common delamination tests and impact delamination from the Compression After Impact (CAI) test. Ongoing research is using damage prediction from the CAI simulation as a basis for residual strength analysis, which will be the published in future work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yıldız, Mutlu
2015-12-01
Grids of stellar evolution are required in many fields of astronomy/astrophysics, such as planet hosting stars, binaries, clusters, chemically peculiar stars, etc. In this study, a grid of stellar evolution models with updated ingredients and recently determined solar abundances is presented. The solar values for the initial abundances of hydrogen, heavy elements and mixing-length parameter are 0.0172, 0.7024 and 1.98, respectively. The mass step is small enough (0.01 M⊙) that interpolation for a given star mass is not required. The range of stellar mass is 0.74 to 10.00 M⊙. We present results in different forms of tables for easy and general application. The second stellar harmonic, required for analysis of apsidal motion of eclipsing binaries, is also listed. We also construct rotating models to determine the effect of rotation on stellar structure and derive fitting formulae for luminosity, radius and the second harmonic as a function of rotational parameter. We also compute and list colors and bolometric corrections of models required for transformation between theoretical and observational results. The results are tested for the Sun, the Hyades cluster, the slowly rotating chemically peculiar Am stars and eclipsing binaries with apsidal motion. The theoretical and observational results along isochrones are in good agreement. The grids are also applicable to rotating stars provided that equatorial velocity is given.
Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Baldwin, Mark A; Laz, Peter J; FitzPatrick, David P; Lerner, Amy L; Rullkoetter, Paul J
2011-09-02
Patellofemoral (PF)-related pathologies, including joint laxity, patellar maltracking, cartilage degradation and anterior knee pain, affect nearly 25% of the population. Researchers have investigated the influence of articular geometry on kinematics and contact mechanics in order to gain insight into the etiology of these conditions. The purpose of the current study was to create a three-dimensional statistical shape model of the PF joint and to characterize relationships between PF shape and function (kinematics and contact mechanics). A statistical shape model of the patellar and femoral articular surfaces and their relative alignment was developed from magnetic resonance images. Using 15 shape parameters, the model characterized 97% of the variation in the training set. The first three shape modes primarily described variation in size, patella alta-baja and depth of the sulcus groove. A previously verified finite element model was used to predict kinematics and contact mechanics for each subject. Combining the shape and joint mechanics data, a statistical shape-function model was developed that established quantitative relations of how changes in the shape of the PF joint influence mechanics. The predictive capability of the shape-function model was evaluated by comparing statistical model and finite element predictions, resulting in kinematic root mean square errors of less than 3° and 2.5 mm. The key results of the study are dually in the implementation of a novel approach linking statistical shape and finite element models and the relationships elucidated between PF articular geometry and mechanics.
Bryan, Venise D; Lindo, Jascinth; Anderson-Johnson, Pauline; Weaver, Steve
2015-01-01
Faculty members are viewed as nurturers within the academic setting and may be able to influence students' behaviors through the formation of positive interpersonal relationships. Faculty members' attributes that best facilitated positive interpersonal relationships according to Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Model was studied. Students (n = 192) enrolled in a 3-year undergraduate nursing program in urban Jamaica were randomly selected to participate in this descriptive cross-sectional study. A 38-item questionnaire on interpersonal relationships with nursing faculty and students' perceptions of their teachers was utilized to collect data. Factor analysis was used to create factors of realness, prizing, and empathetic understanding. Multiple linear regression analysis on the interaction of the 3 factors and interpersonal relationship scores was performed while controlling for nursing students' study year and age. One hundred sixty-five students (mean age: 23.18 ± 4.51years; 99% female) responded. The regression model explained over 46% of the variance. Realness (β = 0.50, P < .001) was the only significant predictor of the interpersonal relationship scores assigned by the nursing students. Of the total number of respondents, 99 students (60%) reported satisfaction with the interpersonal relationships shared with faculty. Nursing students' perception of faculty members' realness appeared to be the most significant attribute in fostering positive interpersonal relationships.
Relationship between soil erodibility and modeled infiltration rate in different soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guoqiang; Fang, Qingqing; Wu, Binbin; Yang, Huicai; Xu, Zongxue
2015-09-01
The relationship between soil erodibility, which is hard to measure, and modeled infiltration rate were rarely researched. Here, the soil erodibility factors (K and Ke in the USLE, Ki and K1 in the WEPP) were calculated and the infiltration rates were modeled based on the designed laboratory simulation experiments and proposed infiltration model, in order to build their relationship. The impacts of compost amendment on the soil erosion characteristics and relationship were also studied. Two contrasting agricultural soils (bare and cultivated fluvo-aquic soils) were used, and different poultry compost contents (control, low and high) were applied to both soils. The results indicated that the runoff rate, sediment yield rate and soil erodibility of the bare soil treatments were generally higher than those of the corresponding cultivated soil treatments. The application of composts generally decreased sediment yield and soil erodibility but did not always decrease runoff. The comparison of measured and modeled infiltration rates indicated that the model represented the infiltration processes well with an N-S coefficient of 0.84 for overall treatments. Significant negative logarithmic correlations have been found between final infiltration rate (FIR) and the four soil erodibility factors, and the relationship between USLE-K and FIR demonstrated the best correlation. The application of poultry composts would not influence the logarithmic relationship between FIR and soil erodibility. Our study provided a useful tool to estimate soil erodibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, W.; Lohmann, G.
2014-12-01
The major contribution to global mean sea level (GMSL) change under contemporary climate conditions involves thermal expansion of the ocean and outflow from the land ice, with the latter increasing more rapidly in percentage as a form of ice sheets. Current earth system models (EMS) can constrain thermal expansion with high confidence in projections; however, few of them have been successfully coupled to an ice sheet model (ISM) to incorporate future evolution of ice sheets. In this study, a coupled EMS - ISM is applied to estimate potential range of their contribution to GMSL change over the next several centuries, by simulating the new emission scenarios from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Our results indicate that the thermal contribution to GMSL rise still dominants within this century, with up to 0.4 m in the highest CO2 case, and continue to increase for many centuries even after stabilization of CO2. This increase can reach to almost 3.5 m GMSL rise by the end of 25th century in RCP8.5, when equivalent CO2 concentration exceeds 2500 ppm. Nevertheless, over longer time scales, GMSL contribution from ice sheets enhances more dramatically than linearly with increase in temperature and can eventually overweigh thermal contribution after 24th century. This contribution mainly results from a negative surface mass balance (SMB) of Greenland ice sheet and can exceed 4 m GMSL rise in RCP8.5. Projection of Antarctic SMB demonstrates a negative contribution to GMSL rise in all scenarios except RCP8.5, in which it can lead to more than 2 m GMSL rise. Moreover, we emphasize that sea level change contribution from these two effects exhibits substantial regional pattern, which requires more comprehensive attention from the policy makers to make their plan against this issue in the future.
McNamara, Elizabeth A; Kilim, Holly P; Malabanan, Alan O; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Rosen, Harold N
2016-07-12
The International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines recommend using locally derived precision data for spine bone mineral densities (BMDs), but do not specify whether data derived from L1-L4 spines correctly reflect the precision for spines reporting fewer than 4 vertebrae. Our experience suggested that the decrease in precision with successively fewer vertebrae is progressive as more vertebrae are excluded and that the precision for the newer Horizon Hologic model might be better than that for the previous model, and we sought to quantify. Precision studies were performed on Hologic densitometers by acquiring spine BMD in fast array mode twice on 30 patients, according to International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines. This was done 10 different times on various Discovery densitometers, and once on a Horizon densitometer. When 1 vertebral body was excluded from analysis, there was no significant deterioration in precision. When 2 vertebrae were excluded, there was a nonsignificant trend to poorer precision, and when 3 vertebrae were excluded, there was significantly worse precision. When 3 or 4 vertebrae were reported, the precision of the spine BMD measurement was significantly better on the Hologic Horizon than on the Discovery, but the difference in precision between densitometers narrowed and was no longer significant when 1 or 2 vertebrae were reported. The results suggest that (1) the measurement of in vivo spine BMD on the new Hologic Horizon densitometer is significantly more precise than on the older Discovery model; (2) the difference in precision between the Horizon and Discovery models decreases as fewer vertebrae are included; (3) the measurement of spine BMD is less precise as more vertebrae are excluded, but still quite reasonable even when only 1 vertebral body is included; and (4) when 3 vertebrae are reported, L1-L4 precision data can reasonably be used to report significance of changes in BMD. When 1 or 2 vertebrae are
Dellen, Babette; Aksoy, Eren Erdal; Wörg