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Sample records for relationships phylogeography reproductive

  1. Spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) mitochondrial COI phylogeny reviewed: host plant relationships, phylogeography, reproductive parasites and barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The past 15 years have witnessed a number of molecular studies that aimed to resolve issues of species delineation and phylogeny of mites in the family Tetranychidae. The central part of the mitochondrial COI region has frequently been used for investigating intra- and interspecific variation. All these studies combined yield an extensive database of sequence information of the family Tetranychidae. We assembled this information in a single alignment and performed an overall phylogenetic analysis. The resulting phylogeny shows that important patterns have been overlooked in previous studies, whereas others disappear. It also reveals that mistakes were made in submitting the data to GenBank, which further disturbed interpretation of the data. Our total analysis clearly shows three clades that most likely correspond to the species T. urticae, T. kanzawai and T. truncatus. Intraspecific variation is very high, possibly due to selective sweeps caused by reproductive parasites. We found no evidence for host plant associations and phylogeographic patterns in T. urticae are absent. Finally we evaluate the application of DNA barcoding. PMID:17712605

  2. Controversial snake relationships supported by reproductive anatomy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Dustin S; Miralles, Aurélien; Aldridge, Robert D

    2011-03-01

    Since the advent of molecular character sets in phylogenetic systematics our understanding of the evolutionary history of snakes has changed considerably. In some cases the novel topologies reconstructed from molecular datasets have left researchers puzzled, as no morphological feature seems to support the new relationships found. This is the case for 'Amerophidia'sensu Vidal et al. (2007; Biology of the Boas and Pythons, Eagle Mountain: Eagle Mountain Publishing; Aniliidae+ Tropidophiidae), a grouping of the Red Pipesnakes and Neotropical Dwarf Boas. We contend that in some cases the apparent lack of historical morphological support for the molecular phylogenies is due to our poor understanding of the organisms as a whole, and not the complete lack of morphological support for controversial clades. For example, we found novel evidence from reproductive anatomy that demonstrates a unique association of the oviducts and cloaca in Amerophidia. Whereas in all other female squamates the oviducts communicate directly with the cloaca, the oviducts of Aniliidae and Tropidophiidae communicate with diverticuli of the cloaca. At present this is the only unambiguous synapomorphy for the Amerophidia. We feel that confirmation of controversial molecular relationships will revolve around the investigation of non-traditional morphological characters such as reproductive anatomy.

  3. Molecular phylogeography of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) and genetic relationships with congeners using cytochrome b gene marker.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Song, Sze-Looi; Prasartvit, Anchana; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important emerging zoonotic parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in many parts of the world. To-date there is only a single study using mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) gene to determine its genetic structure in eight geographical localities in Thailand. The present study examined the molecular phylogeography of this rat lungworm and its phylogenetic relationship with congeners using CYTB gene marker. A total of 15 CYTB haplotypes was found in 37 sequences from 14 geographical localities (covering north, west, east, central and south regions) in Thailand. These CYTB haplotypes were distinct from those of A. cantonensis for China and Hawaii. In Thailand, some CYTB haplotypes appeared to be confined to specific geographical localities. The partial CYTB DNA nucleotide sequences separated unequivocally the A. cantonensis isolates of Thailand, China and Hawaii as well as the congeners Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, A. costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum, with A. malaysiensis grouped with A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis grouped with A. vasorum. Likewise the congeners of Metastrongylus and Onchocerca genera could also be clearly differentiated. The present study added two new definitive hosts (Bandicota savilei and Rattus losea) and three new localities (Mae Hong Son in the north, Tak in the west, and Phang Nga in the south) for A. malaysiensis in Thailand, indicating its wide occurrence in the country. Three CYTB haplotypes were found in the Thailand samples of A. malaysiensis. In addition to differentiation of congeners, CYTB gene marker could be used for determining the genetic diversity of a given population/taxon.

  4. Phylogeography of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and its relationships with climatic factors.

    PubMed

    Zemtsova, Galina E; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Reeves, Will K; Hahn, Micah; Snellgrove, Alyssa; Levin, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Brown dog ticks morphologically identifiable as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, are distributed world-wide and their systematics is controversial. Results of genetic and reproductive compatibility studies of geographically distinct populations of R. sanguineus s.l. indicate that the R. sanguineus complex is paraphyletic. To further elucidate systematic relationships within R. sanguineus s.l. and geographic boundaries of its lineages, we conducted a phylogeographical study of 136 tick specimens from 23 countries. Voucher specimens were morphologically identified. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using concatenated partial mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA gene sequences and analyzed by the Neighbor-Joining method. A set of 19 bioclimatic variables within the WorldClim dataset were extracted and analyzed to assess correlations between distribution of R. sanguineus s.l. lineages and climatic variables. The following four branches are clearly recognized on the phylogenetic tree: R. sanguineus s.l.-tropical and temperate clades, R. leporis, and R. turanicus. DNA sequences of Rhipicephalus ticks from Israel differ from those of other groups. Strong association between geographical locations of major clades of R. sanguineus s.l. and temperature was identified. The tropical clade of R. sanguineus s.l. occupies areas with the annual mean temperature >20 °C, whereas the temperate clade is present in areas with the annual mean temperature <20 °C. Our results indicate that ticks in two closely related phylogenetic clades are adapted to different environmental conditions and support proposals for re-classification of R. sanguineus complex. Differences in R. sanguineus s.l. ecology and human/animal pathogens transmitted by different taxa of brown dog tick need to be studied. PMID:27003273

  5. Scent of a break-up: phylogeography and reproductive trait divergences in the red-tailed bumblebee (Bombus lapidarius)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pleistocene climatic oscillations are considered as a major driving force of intraspecific divergence and speciation. During Ice Ages, populations isolated in allopatric glacial refugia can experience differentiation in reproductive traits through divergence in selection regimes. This phenomenon may lead to reproductive isolation and dramatically accentuates the consequences of the climatic oscillations on species. Alternatively, when reproductive isolation is incomplete and populations are expanding again, further mating between the formerly isolated populations can result in the formation of a hybrid zone, genetic introgression or reinforcement speciation through reproductive trait displacements. Therefore changes in reproductive traits driven by population movements during climatic oscillations can act as an important force in promoting pre-zygotic isolation. Notwithstanding, divergence of reproductive traits has not been approached in the context of climatic oscillations. Here we investigate the impact of population movements driven by climatic oscillations on a reproductive trait of a bumblebee species (Bombus lapidarius). We characterise the pattern of variation and differentiation across the species distribution (i) with five genes (nuclear and mitochondrial), and (ii) in the chemical composition of male marking secretions (MMS), a key trait for mate attraction in bumblebees. Results Our results provide evidence that populations have experienced a genetic allopatric differentiation, in at least three main refugia (the Balkans, Centre-Eastern Europe, and Southern Italy) during Quaternary glaciations. The comparative chemical analyses show that populations from the Southern Italian refugium have experienced MMS differentiation and an incipient speciation process from another refugium. The meeting of Southern Italian populations with other populations as a result of range expansion at a secondary contact zone seems to have led to a reinforcement

  6. Phylogeography and reproductive variation of the poecilogonous polychaete Boccardia proboscidea (Annelida: Spionidae) along the West Coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Mahon, Andrew R; Swalla, Billie J; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    The ability to produce more than one kind of offspring, or poecilogony, is a striking example of reproductive variability. Traditionally, larval nutrition has been classified as a dichotomy: if offspring obtain nutrition from their mothers (lecithotrophy), there is lower fecundity and greater chance of offspring survival than when they get their nutrition from plankton (planktotrophy). The polychaete Boccardia proboscidea (Spionidae) produces both types of embryos using three different reproductive strategies. In this study, we examined the roles of genetic history and phenotypic plasticity on explaining natural variation in B. proboscidea along the Pacific coast of the United States using two genetic mitochondrial markers, 16S rDNA and Cyt b, and common garden experiments. These data show a single North American West Coast network that is structured, geographically, by the well-documented biogeographic break near Point Conception, California. The southern group within this network covers a smaller range, but has larger haplotype diversity, than the northern group. Some individuals differing in reproductive type had the same haplotype, indicating independence of these features; however, differences between laboratory and field data suggest additional geographic variation within one of the reproductive types. Females from higher latitudes provide offspring with larger supplies of extra embryonic nutrition than females from southern latitudes. Results herein suggest that both genetic history and developmental plasticity are playing a role in the maintenance of this reproductive polymorphism.

  7. Diet mediates the relationship between longevity and reproduction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-06-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis posits a negative correlation between longevity and reproduction, presumably because these aspects of fitness compete for a limited pool of nutrients. However, diet, which varies widely among animals, could affect the availability of key nutrients required for both reproduction and longevity, especially protein. We used a comparative database of mammal life history data to test the hypothesis that carnivores experience less of a negative relationship between reproduction and longevity than herbivores. Annual reproduction and adult mass were significant predictors of longevity among all mammals; although, the relative importance of reproduction and mass for explaining longevity varied among trophic levels. In herbivores, reproduction was a stronger predictor of longevity than mass. Carnivores showed the opposite pattern with reproduction explaining much less of the variation in longevity. Omnivores showed an intermediate pattern with mass and reproduction explaining similar amounts of variation in longevity. In addition, longevity and reproduction were significantly higher in omnivores than herbivores and carnivores, which were not different from each other. Higher dietary protein at higher trophic levels may allow mammals to avoid potential conflicts between reproduction and longevity. However, there may be potential costs of carnivorous diets that limit the overall performance of carnivores and explain the peak in reproduction and longevity for omnivores.

  8. Phylogeography in Response to Reproductive Strategies and Ecogeographic Isolation in Ant Species on Madagascar: Genus Mystrium (Formicidae: Amblyoponinae).

    PubMed

    Graham, Natalie R; Fisher, Brian L; Girman, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of models used to understand the species diversification on Madagascar have been constructed using vertebrate taxa. It is not clear how these models affect less vagile species that may interact at a variety of spatial scales. Several studies on vertebrates have divided Madagascar into east-west bioclimatic regions, suggesting there is a fundamental division between eastern wet-adapted and western dry-adapted taxa. An alternative model of ecogeographic constraints shows a north-south division. We test whether the diversification in a small arthropod with variable degrees of dispersal conform to either model of ecogeographic constraints proposed for vertebrate taxa. We employ a molecular taxonomic dataset using ~2 kilobases nuDNA (Wg, LW Rh, Abd-A, 28s) and 790 basepairs mtDNA (CO1), along with geographic and habitat data, to examine the diversification patterns of the ant genus Mystrium Roger, 1862, (Subfamily Amblyoponinae) from Madagascar. The nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were both congruent with morphospecies as indicated in a recent revision of the genus. Species of Mystrium practice different colony reproductive strategies (winged queens vs non-winged queens). Alternate reproductive strategies led to inequalities in female dispersal ability among species, providing an additional layer for examination of the impacts of vagility on divergence, especially when measured using a maternally inherited locus. Mystrium species distribution patterns support these models of ecogeographic constraints. Reproductive strategy effected how Mystrium mtDNA lineages were associated with large-scale habitat distinctions and various topographical features. Furthermore, in some cases we find microgeographic population structure which appears to have been impacted by localized habitat differences (tsingy limestone formations, littoral forest) on a scale much smaller than that found in vertebrates. The current system offers a finer scale look at species

  9. Phylogeography in Response to Reproductive Strategies and Ecogeographic Isolation in Ant Species on Madagascar: Genus Mystrium (Formicidae: Amblyoponinae).

    PubMed

    Graham, Natalie R; Fisher, Brian L; Girman, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of models used to understand the species diversification on Madagascar have been constructed using vertebrate taxa. It is not clear how these models affect less vagile species that may interact at a variety of spatial scales. Several studies on vertebrates have divided Madagascar into east-west bioclimatic regions, suggesting there is a fundamental division between eastern wet-adapted and western dry-adapted taxa. An alternative model of ecogeographic constraints shows a north-south division. We test whether the diversification in a small arthropod with variable degrees of dispersal conform to either model of ecogeographic constraints proposed for vertebrate taxa. We employ a molecular taxonomic dataset using ~2 kilobases nuDNA (Wg, LW Rh, Abd-A, 28s) and 790 basepairs mtDNA (CO1), along with geographic and habitat data, to examine the diversification patterns of the ant genus Mystrium Roger, 1862, (Subfamily Amblyoponinae) from Madagascar. The nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were both congruent with morphospecies as indicated in a recent revision of the genus. Species of Mystrium practice different colony reproductive strategies (winged queens vs non-winged queens). Alternate reproductive strategies led to inequalities in female dispersal ability among species, providing an additional layer for examination of the impacts of vagility on divergence, especially when measured using a maternally inherited locus. Mystrium species distribution patterns support these models of ecogeographic constraints. Reproductive strategy effected how Mystrium mtDNA lineages were associated with large-scale habitat distinctions and various topographical features. Furthermore, in some cases we find microgeographic population structure which appears to have been impacted by localized habitat differences (tsingy limestone formations, littoral forest) on a scale much smaller than that found in vertebrates. The current system offers a finer scale look at species

  10. Phylogeography in Response to Reproductive Strategies and Ecogeographic Isolation in Ant Species on Madagascar: Genus Mystrium (Formicidae: Amblyoponinae)

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Natalie R.; Fisher, Brian L.; Girman, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of models used to understand the species diversification on Madagascar have been constructed using vertebrate taxa. It is not clear how these models affect less vagile species that may interact at a variety of spatial scales. Several studies on vertebrates have divided Madagascar into east-west bioclimatic regions, suggesting there is a fundamental division between eastern wet-adapted and western dry-adapted taxa. An alternative model of ecogeographic constraints shows a north-south division. We test whether the diversification in a small arthropod with variable degrees of dispersal conform to either model of ecogeographic constraints proposed for vertebrate taxa. We employ a molecular taxonomic dataset using ~2 kilobases nuDNA (Wg, LW Rh, Abd-A, 28s) and 790 basepairs mtDNA (CO1), along with geographic and habitat data, to examine the diversification patterns of the ant genus Mystrium Roger, 1862, (Subfamily Amblyoponinae) from Madagascar. The nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were both congruent with morphospecies as indicated in a recent revision of the genus. Species of Mystrium practice different colony reproductive strategies (winged queens vs non-winged queens). Alternate reproductive strategies led to inequalities in female dispersal ability among species, providing an additional layer for examination of the impacts of vagility on divergence, especially when measured using a maternally inherited locus. Mystrium species distribution patterns support these models of ecogeographic constraints. Reproductive strategy effected how Mystrium mtDNA lineages were associated with large-scale habitat distinctions and various topographical features. Furthermore, in some cases we find microgeographic population structure which appears to have been impacted by localized habitat differences (tsingy limestone formations, littoral forest) on a scale much smaller than that found in vertebrates. The current system offers a finer scale look at species

  11. Life Beyond the Eating Disorder: Education, Relationships, and Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Millie; Thornton, Laura M.; Root, Tammy L.; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Strober, Michael; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L.; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Plotnicov, Kathy; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated sociodemographic characteristics in women with and without lifetime eating disorders. Method Participants were from a multi-site international study of eating disorders (N = 2096). Education level, relationship status, and reproductive status were examined across eating disorder subtypes and compared with a healthy control group. Results Overall, women with eating disorders were less educated than controls, and duration of illness and age of onset were associated with educational attainment. Menstrual status was associated with both relationship and reproductive status, but eating disorder subtypes did not differ significantly from each other or from healthy controls on these dimensions. Conclusion Differences in educational attainment, relationships, and reproduction do exist in individuals with eating disorders and are differentially associated with various eating disorder symptoms and characteristics. These data could assist with educating patients and family members about long-term consequences of eating disorders. PMID:20143323

  12. Phylogeny and phylogeography of functional genes shared among seven terrestrial subsurface metagenomes reveal N-cycling and microbial evolutionary relationships

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Cameron, Connor; Magnabosco, Cara; Brown, C. Titus; Schilkey, Faye; Grim, Sharon; Hendrickson, Sarah; Pullin, Michael; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; van Heerden, Esta; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on community phylogenetics and phylogeography of microorganisms living in extreme environments are rare. Terrestrial subsurface habitats are valuable for studying microbial biogeographical patterns due to their isolation and the restricted dispersal mechanisms. Since the taxonomic identity of a microorganism does not always correspond well with its functional role in a particular community, the use of taxonomic assignments or patterns may give limited inference on how microbial functions are affected by historical, geographical and environmental factors. With seven metagenomic libraries generated from fracture water samples collected from five South African mines, this study was carried out to (1) screen for ubiquitous functions or pathways of biogeochemical cycling of CH4, S, and N; (2) to characterize the biodiversity represented by the common functional genes; (3) to investigate the subsurface biogeography as revealed by this subset of genes; and (4) to explore the possibility of using metagenomic data for evolutionary study. The ubiquitous functional genes are NarV, NPD, PAPS reductase, NifH, NifD, NifK, NifE, and NifN genes. Although these eight common functional genes were taxonomically and phylogenetically diverse and distinct from each other, the dissimilarity between samples did not correlate strongly with geographical or environmental parameters or residence time of the water. Por genes homologous to those of Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii detected in all metagenomes were deep lineages of Nitrospirae, suggesting that subsurface habitats have preserved ancestral genetic signatures that inform the study of the origin and evolution of prokaryotes. PMID:25400621

  13. Genetic relationship between growth and reproductive traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S; Mattos, E C

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic relationship between postweaning weight gain (PWG), heifer pregnancy (HP), scrotal circumference (SC) at 18 months of age, stayability at 6 years of age (STAY) and finishing visual score at 18 months of age (PREC), and to determine the potential of these traits as selection criteria for the genetic improvement of growth and reproduction in Nellore cattle. The HP was defined as the observation that a heifer conceived and remained pregnant, which was assessed by rectal palpation at 60 days. The STAY was defined as whether or not a cow calved every year up to the age of 6 years, given that she was provided the opportunity to breed. The Bayesian linear-threshold analysis via the Gibbs sampler was used to estimate the variance and covariance components applying a multitrait model. Posterior mean estimates of direct heritability were 0.15 ± 0.00, 0.42 ± 0.02, 0.49 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.01 and 0.19 ± 0.00 for PWG, HP, SC, STAY and PREC, respectively. The genetic correlations between traits ranged from 0.17 to 0.62. The traits studied generally have potential for use as selection criteria in genetic breeding programs. The genetic correlations between all traits show that selection for one of these traits does not imply the loss of the others.

  14. Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility: A Mutual Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Tvrda, Eva; Agarwal, Ashok; Alkuhaimi, Nawaf

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction and malignancies related to the male gender represent a serious health concern, whose incidence has significantly risen over the past years. Prior to treatment, testicular or prostate cancer patients often display poor semen characteristics similar to subfertile or infertile patients. This fact is underscored by cases where the malignancy is often diagnosed in males who undergo a general fertility screening. This review aims to examine the associations between male infertility and reproductive cancers focusing on common etiologies and biological mechanisms underlining these pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss compelling epidemiological data hypothesizing that male reproductive failure may act as a precursor of future andrological malignancies, including testicular or prostate cancer, thus providing a stimulus for a more specific research in male reproductive health and emphasizing the importance of this relation for physicians taking care of male patients with a reproductive disease. PMID:25837470

  15. Tree size and its relationship with flowering phenology and reproductive output in Wild Nutmeg trees.

    PubMed

    Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Sazima, Marlies; Solferini, Vera N

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive strategies, sexual selection, and their relationship with the phenotype of individuals are topics widely studied in animals, but this information is less abundant for plants. Variability in flowering phenology among individuals has direct impact on their fitness, but how reproductive phenology is affected by the size of the individuals needs further study. We quantified the flowering intensity, length, and reproductive synchronization of two sympatric dioecious Wild Nutmeg tree species (Virola, Myristicaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and analyzed its relationships with tree size. Two distinct strategies in flowering timing and intensity were found between species (annual versus biennial flowering), and among individuals in the annual flowering species (extended versus peak flowering). Only for the annual flowering species the reproductive output is related to tree size and large trees present proportionally higher flower coverage, and lower synchronization than smaller ones. Flowering is massive and highly synchronized in the biennial species. Sex ratios are not different from 1:1 in the two species, and in the two segregated reproductive subgroups in the biennial flowering species. The biennial flowering at individual level is a novelty among reproductive patterns in plants, separating the population in two reproductive subgroups. A proportional increase in the reproductive output with size exists only for the annual flowering species. A biennial flowering can allow resource storage favouring massive flowering for all the individuals diluting their relationship with size. PMID:24223288

  16. Male reproductive traits and their relationship to reproductive traits in their female progeny: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Burns, B M; Gazzola, C; Holroyd, R G; Crisp, J; McGowan, M R

    2011-06-01

    The overall objective of one of the major research programs in the Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Beef Genetic Technologies is to 'Improve female reproductive performance' in tropical, northern Australian beef cattle herds. To address this overall objective, a quantitative genetics project focused on investigation of male reproductive traits was designed and linked to three female reproduction-focussed projects, (i) discovery of genes associated with post-partum re-conception and age at puberty; (ii) expression of genes associated with post-partum re-conception; and (iii) early predictors of lifetime female reproductive performance. During the initial planning of this male reproductive traits project, the CRC Scientific Review Committee recommended that the research team investigate and evaluate potentially new, early-life (i.e able to be measured before 2 years of age) predictors of both male and female reproductive performance. To address this recommendation, the following was carried out: (i) criteria for selection of traditional and candidate traits were established; (ii) methodology for tabulation of potential traits/phenotypes that define male and female reproductive function was developed; and (iii) a systematic scientific review of early-life predictors of male and female fertility was prepared. This review concluded that although factors that might be useful in predicting male reproductive performance have been studied for many years, there was relatively little useful information available to meet the objectives of this review. It was also concluded that the direction of future research should be guided not only by previous research which was scarce, but also by speculative hypotheses arising from an understanding of the physiological, endocrinological and genetic processes active in reproduction. A small number of new traits were recommended in addition to traditional sperm morphology, sexual behaviour, anatomical structure and growth traits

  17. Allozymic variation and phylogeography of two genetic types of Onychodactylus japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata: Hynobiidae) sympatric in the Kinki District, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Natsuhiko; Matsui, Masafumi; Nishikawa, Kanto

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of allozyme and mtDNA sequence variation, we elucidated genetic relationships between two sympatric genetic types of Onychodactylus japonicus in Kinki and adjacent districts, and investigated their phylogeography. Allozymic analysis revealed the presence of two distinct genetic types (the SW-Honshu and Kinki groups) in this area, and their sympatric occurrence in three of 10 sampling sites. Fixed or nearly fixed allele differences in several loci strongly suggested reproductive isolation between the two types, although one hybrid specimen was found in a locality. Analyses of mtDNA using 194 specimens from 22 localities also demonstrated two genetic types. From phylogeographic and population genetic analyses, it was surmised that these two types diverged allopatrically, and secondarily contacted to become sympatric by the Pleistocene uplift of mountains. Our results indicate different specific status for these two types and separation of the Kinki group from O. japonicus, to which the SW-Honshu group belongs.

  18. Mammal reproductive strategies driven by offspring mortality-size relationships.

    PubMed

    Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2009-06-01

    Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifestyle. Results suggest that preweaning vulnerability to predation has been the major factor determining how female placental mammals allocate production between a few large and many small offspring within a litter and between a few large litters and many small ones within a reproductive season. Artiodactyls, perissodactyls, cetaceans, and pinnipeds, which give birth in the open on land or in the sea, produce a few large offspring, at infrequent intervals, because this increases their chances of escaping predation. Insectivores, fissiped carnivores, lagomorphs, and rodents, whose offspring are protected in burrows or nests, produce large litters of small newborns. Primates, bats, sloths, and anteaters, which carry their young from birth until weaning, produce litters of one or a few offspring because of the need to transport and care for them. PMID:19374555

  19. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  20. Human phylogeography and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Harcourt, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    Homo sapiens phylogeography begins with the species’ origin nearly 200 kya in Africa. First signs of the species outside Africa (in Arabia) are from 125 kya. Earliest dates elsewhere are now 100 kya in China, 45 kya in Australia and southern Europe (maybe even 60 kya in Australia), 32 kya in northeast Siberia, and maybe 20 kya in the Americas. Humans reached arctic regions and oceanic islands last—arctic North America about 5 kya, mid- and eastern Pacific islands about 2–1 kya, and New Zealand about 700 y ago. Initial routes along coasts seem the most likely given abundant and easily harvested shellfish there as indicated by huge ancient oyster shell middens on all continents. Nevertheless, the effect of geographic barriers—mountains and oceans—is clear. The phylogeographic pattern of diasporas from several single origins—northeast Africa to Eurasia, southeast Eurasia to Australia, and northeast Siberia to the Americas—allows the equivalent of a repeat experiment on the relation between geography and phylogenetic and cultural diversity. On all continents, cultural diversity is high in productive low latitudes, presumably because such regions can support populations of sustainable size in a small area, therefore allowing a high density of cultures. Of course, other factors operate. South America has an unusually low density of cultures in its tropical latitudes. A likely factor is the phylogeographic movement of peoples from the Old World bringing novel and hence, lethal diseases to the New World, a foretaste, perhaps, of present day global transport of tropical diseases. PMID:27432967

  1. Human phylogeography and diversity.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Alexander H

    2016-07-19

    Homo sapiens phylogeography begins with the species' origin nearly 200 kya in Africa. First signs of the species outside Africa (in Arabia) are from 125 kya. Earliest dates elsewhere are now 100 kya in China, 45 kya in Australia and southern Europe (maybe even 60 kya in Australia), 32 kya in northeast Siberia, and maybe 20 kya in the Americas. Humans reached arctic regions and oceanic islands last-arctic North America about 5 kya, mid- and eastern Pacific islands about 2-1 kya, and New Zealand about 700 y ago. Initial routes along coasts seem the most likely given abundant and easily harvested shellfish there as indicated by huge ancient oyster shell middens on all continents. Nevertheless, the effect of geographic barriers-mountains and oceans-is clear. The phylogeographic pattern of diasporas from several single origins-northeast Africa to Eurasia, southeast Eurasia to Australia, and northeast Siberia to the Americas-allows the equivalent of a repeat experiment on the relation between geography and phylogenetic and cultural diversity. On all continents, cultural diversity is high in productive low latitudes, presumably because such regions can support populations of sustainable size in a small area, therefore allowing a high density of cultures. Of course, other factors operate. South America has an unusually low density of cultures in its tropical latitudes. A likely factor is the phylogeographic movement of peoples from the Old World bringing novel and hence, lethal diseases to the New World, a foretaste, perhaps, of present day global transport of tropical diseases. PMID:27432967

  2. The significance of growth in Chironomus tentans sediment toxicity tests: Relationship to reproduction and demographic endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, P.K.; Benoit, D.A.; Ankley, G.T.

    1997-02-01

    In the Chironomus tentans 10-d growth test, changes in larval growth relative to sediment contamination are often ascribed ecological relevance by assuming that such changes become manifest at the population level through effects on reproductive output. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between growth and reproduction in C. tentans and to use these data in a demographic model to predict the growth and size of a theoretical population. Growth was manipulated by varying food supply. The test was initiated with 12 newly hatched larvae per replicate and carried through one complete generation. Larval growth and survival were determined at 20 d, and reproduction was monitored daily during emergence. Food supply did not significantly affect survivorship at any life stage; survival of larvae at 20 d, pupae, and adults exceeded 83%, while survival of larvae in the reproduction replicates exceeded 65%. Both larval and adult dry weight declined significantly with a reduction in food supply. Total emergence was reduced at the lowest feeding level only, whereas the rate of emergence declined at food supplies below 0.42 mg/individual per d. Based on the relationship between larval and adult dry weight, a minimum larval tissue mass of between 0.5 and 0.6 mg dry weight/individual appears to be necessary before emergence can take place. The number of eggs/female declined significantly with a decrease in food supply below 0.42 mg/individual per d. Above this level, the addition of more food had no effect on reproductive output. Fecundity (number of daughters/female) and expected number of progeny declined linearly with reduced food supply. Application of the data in a demographic model showed that the growth and predicted size of a population would decline significantly with a decline in larval growth and reproductive output.

  3. Genetic relationship between boar taint compounds, human nose scores, and reproduction traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mathur, P K; ten Napel, J; Crump, R E; Mulder, H A; Knol, E F

    2013-09-01

    A reduction in boar taint, an unpleasant odor arising in pork from some intact males, is desirable if routine castration of piglets needs to be stopped. Commercial slaughter pigs are typically crosses between sire lines mainly selected for finishing traits and dam lines mainly selected for reproduction traits. Previous studies suggest the possibility of reducing boar taint in sire lines due to favorable genetic correlations between boar taint and finishing traits. However, there are indications of unfavorable genetic associations between boar taint and female reproduction traits, but a lack of genetic correlation estimates remain a major roadblock in reducing boar taint in dam lines. This study was conducted to estimate genetic correlations between boar taint traits and female reproduction traits, investigate differences in these genetic relationships among sire and dam lines, and evaluate possible consequences of selection against boar taint in dam lines. The data consisted of 32,549 reproduction records from a Landrace dam line, 23,874 records from a Yorkshire dam line, and 3,745 records from a Pietrain sire line. Androstenone, skatole, and indole were measured on 1,896 carcasses, and human nose scores were recorded on 7,742 carcass samples. In general, the level of boar taint was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the two dam lines than in the sire line. A majority of genetic correlations of boar taint compounds with reproduction traits were either low or nonsignificant, except for those of skatole and indole, with age at first insemination in dam lines that were -0.32 and -0.46, respectively. Genetic correlations also differed (P < 0.05) between sire and dam lines. The consequences of selection against boar taint in dam lines were evaluated, using selection indexes based on reproduction traits only, boar taint traits only, and both boar taint and reproduction traits. Selection on an index of only reproduction traits increased the number of carcasses with boar

  4. Women's perceptions and experiences of sexual violence in marital relationships and its effect on reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rafat; Khan, Adeel

    2008-05-01

    In this article we explore women's perceptions and experiences of sexual violence in marital relationships and its effects on reproductive health. We conducted a qualitative study composed of key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews in two low- to middle-income areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Results show sexual coercion and nonconsensual sex were common and not limited to abusive relationships. Difficulties in negotiating safe sex resulted in unwanted pregnancies, some leading to unsafe abortions. The women reported escalation of violence during pregnancy to be common. Social norms prevented disclosure of sexual violence leading to limited support or intervention or both. The link between women's social status, marital violence, and reproductive health is discussed. PMID:18437595

  5. Evolutionary lessons from California plant phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Sork, Victoria L; Gugger, Paul F; Chen, Jin-Ming; Werth, Silke

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography documents the spatial distribution of genetic lineages that result from demographic processes, such as population expansion, population contraction, and gene movement, shaped by climate fluctuations and the physical landscape. Because most phylogeographic studies have used neutral markers, the role of selection may have been undervalued. In this paper, we contend that plants provide a useful evolutionary lesson about the impact of selection on spatial patterns of neutral genetic variation, when the environment affects which individuals can colonize new sites, and on adaptive genetic variation, when environmental heterogeneity creates divergence at specific loci underlying local adaptation. Specifically, we discuss five characteristics found in plants that intensify the impact of selection: sessile growth form, high reproductive output, leptokurtic dispersal, isolation by environment, and the potential to evolve longevity. Collectively, these traits exacerbate the impact of environment on movement between populations and local selection pressures-both of which influence phylogeographic structure. We illustrate how these unique traits shape these processes with case studies of the California endemic oak, Quercus lobata, and the western North American lichen, Ramalina menziesii Obviously, the lessons we learn from plant traits are not unique to plants, but they highlight the need for future animal, plant, and microbe studies to incorporate its impact. Modern tools that generate genome-wide sequence data are now allowing us to decipher how evolutionary processes affect the spatial distribution of different kinds of genes and also to better model future spatial distribution of species in response to climate change. PMID:27432984

  6. Evolutionary lessons from California plant phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Sork, Victoria L.; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography documents the spatial distribution of genetic lineages that result from demographic processes, such as population expansion, population contraction, and gene movement, shaped by climate fluctuations and the physical landscape. Because most phylogeographic studies have used neutral markers, the role of selection may have been undervalued. In this paper, we contend that plants provide a useful evolutionary lesson about the impact of selection on spatial patterns of neutral genetic variation, when the environment affects which individuals can colonize new sites, and on adaptive genetic variation, when environmental heterogeneity creates divergence at specific loci underlying local adaptation. Specifically, we discuss five characteristics found in plants that intensify the impact of selection: sessile growth form, high reproductive output, leptokurtic dispersal, isolation by environment, and the potential to evolve longevity. Collectively, these traits exacerbate the impact of environment on movement between populations and local selection pressures—both of which influence phylogeographic structure. We illustrate how these unique traits shape these processes with case studies of the California endemic oak, Quercus lobata, and the western North American lichen, Ramalina menziesii. Obviously, the lessons we learn from plant traits are not unique to plants, but they highlight the need for future animal, plant, and microbe studies to incorporate its impact. Modern tools that generate genome-wide sequence data are now allowing us to decipher how evolutionary processes affect the spatial distribution of different kinds of genes and also to better model future spatial distribution of species in response to climate change. PMID:27432984

  7. Relationship quality in lesbian and heterosexual couples undergoing treatment with assisted reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Borneskog, Catrin; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Lampic, Claudia; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the major factors impacting on a couple's relationship is the desire to have children. To many couples having a child is a confirmation of their love and relationship and a means to deepen and develop their intimate relationship. At the same time parental stress can impact on relationship quality. Relationship quality in lesbian couples is, currently, sparsely studied. The aim of the present study was to compare lesbian and heterosexual couples' perceptions of their relationship quality at the commencement of assisted reproduction, and to relate this to background data such as educational level, having previous children and, for lesbian couples, the use of a known versus anonymous donor. METHODS The present study is part of the prospective longitudinal ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’, including all fertility clinics performing donation treatment in Sweden. Of a consecutive cohort of 214 lesbian couples about to receive donor insemination and 212 heterosexual couples starting regular IVF treatment, 166 lesbian couples (78% response) and 151 heterosexual couples (71% response) accepted participation in the study. At commencement of assisted reproduction participants individually completed questionnaires including the instrument ‘ENRICH’, which is a standardized measure concerning relationship quality. RESULTS In general, the couples rated their relationship quality as good, the lesbian couple better than the heterosexuals. In addition, the lesbian women with previous children assessed their relationship quality lower than did the lesbian woman without previous children. For heterosexual couples previous children did not influence their relationship quality. Higher educational levels reduced the satisfaction with the sexual relationship (P = 0.04) for treated lesbian women, and enhanced the rating of conflict resolution for treated lesbian women (P = 0.03) and their partners (P = 0.02). Heterosexual women with high levels of education

  8. Relationships among reproductive morphology, behavior, and testosterone in a natural population of green anole lizards.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michele A; Cohen, Rachel E; Vandecar, Joseph R; Wade, Juli

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory studies of reproductive systems have long supported the idea that neural and/or muscular structures used frequently are often enhanced in size. However, field studies integrating behavioral, morphological, and hormonal data are needed to better understand relationships in natural environments. We examined a natural population of green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) to determine whether variation in reproductive morphology both within and between the sexes paralleled differences in courtship and copulatory behaviors and circulating testosterone levels. Display rate in males was positively correlated with the sizes of the cartilage supporting the dewlap (a throat fan used in courtship and aggression) and renal sex segments (portions of the kidney that function similarly to the mammalian prostate), but correlated negatively with seminiferous tubule size. Plasma testosterone in males was negatively correlated with display behavior and was not correlated with any measures of morphology. Females, which display rarely, exhibited no relationships between morphology and frequency of behavior. Comparisons between the sexes show that males have consistently larger courtship and copulation morphologies than females, even when accounting for sex differences in body size. The results not only support the idea of relationships between increased function and enhanced structures, but also show the complexity of mechanistic interactions associated with reproductive behavior in wild animals.

  9. Determining the pattern of cementum annuli and relationship to reproduction in male sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by

  10. Genetic relationships among traits related to reproduction and growth of Nelore females.

    PubMed

    Eler, J P; Bignardi, A B; Ferraz, J B S; Santana, M L

    2014-09-15

    The objective of the study presented here was to analyze the genetic relationships among heifer pregnancy (HP), age at first calving (AFC), stayability (STAY), average annual productivity of the cow, in kilograms of weaned calf per cow per year (PRODAM), postweaning weight gain (PWG), and hip height (HH) of Nelore females from 12 Brazilian herds. (Co)variance components were obtained by six-trait animal model using Gibbs sampling. The posterior mean of the heritability estimates were 0.37, 0.18, 0.19, 0.16, 0.21, and 0.37 for HP, AFC, STAY, PRODAM, PWG, and HH, respectively. In general, the genetic correlations were strong between traits related to reproduction, for example, -0.85 between HP and AFC, and 0.94 between STAY and PRODAM. Weak genetic correlations were obtained between reproductive and growth traits (absolute values ranging from 0.02 to 0.30). Although weak, the genetic correlations between PWG and reproductive traits were favorable, whereas the genetic correlations between HH and reproductive traits were close to zero and slightly unfavorable for HP, AFC, and STAY. An increase of HH is therefore expected to have little or no negative effect on the reproductive performance of females. The posterior mean of genetic correlation between PWG and HH was moderate (0.50). On the basis of the heritability, genetic correlation estimates, and time to obtain data, HP and PRODAM seems to show the best potential as selection criteria to improve the productive and reproductive performance of Nelore females. In principle, it is possible to select for increased PWG without compromising the reproduction of Nelore females. However, selection for PWG may result in an increase of female HH as a correlated response, a fact that could increase management costs in advanced generations of selection. In the light of the results, all traits studied here can be used as selection criteria and there is no strong evidence of genetic antagonism among traits related to reproduction

  11. The significance of growth in Chironomus tentans sediment toxicity tests: Relationship to reproduction and demographic endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, P.K.; Benoit, D.A.; Ankley, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    This study assessed the biological relevance of growth, as used in sediment toxicity bioassessment, through evaluation of the relationship between growth and reproduction in the midge C. tentans. Newly-hatched larvae were fed one of six food levels (3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 mg Tetrafin fish food) on a daily basis for one complete generation. Larvae were exposed in 300 ml beakers containing 100 ml of 75/{micro}m sand housed within an intermittent water renewal system. Food supply had no effect on larval (65--82%), pupal (93--95%), or adult (90--98%) survivorship. Larval growth and adult weight decreased significantly (p{<=}0.05) with decreasing food supply (r{sup 2} = 0.92, 0.91 respectively). The data suggest that a threshold larval dry weight of approximately 0.6 mg must be obtained for emergence to occur. This value also corresponded to the approximate minimum adult weight observed in this study. Emergence rate and total emergence were delayed at lower feeding levels; however, total emergence was not less than 60% for any treatment. Egg mass production, oviposition rate, and mean number of eggs produced per female declined significantly with reduced food supply. Larval growth and adult weight were significantly correlated with age-specific fecundity (r{sup 2} = 0.96). Application of the reproductive data in a demographic model showed that the expected number of offspring recruited to subsequent generations declined significantly with a decrease in food supply. The results of this study demonstrate a direct relationship between growth and reproduction in C. tentans and clearly emphasize the biological and ecological relevance of the growth endpoint in sediment toxicity bioassessment.

  12. The relationships between temperature changes and reproductive investment in a Mediterranean goby: Insights for the assessment of climate change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetta, M.; Cipolato, G.; Pranovi, F.; Antonetti, P.; Torricelli, P.; Franzoi, P.; Malavasi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relationships between changes in water temperature and the timing and level of reproductive investment were investigated in an estuarine fish, inhabiting the Venice lagoon: the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. A time series of the mean monthly values of gonado-somatic index was coupled with thermal profiles of lagoon water temperatures over 14 years, from 1997 to 2010. Results showed that the reproductive investment was positively affected by water temperature changes, both in terms of monthly thermal anomalies and cumulative degree days. A predictive model was also developed to assess the temporal shift of reproductive peaks as a response to inter-annual thermal fluctuations. This model allowed the detection of deviations from the median level, indicating that during warmer years, the reproductive peak tended to occur earlier than during colder years. The model is therefore proposed as a tool to predict anticipated consequences of climate change on fish phenology in transitional waters, regarding recurrent biological phenomena, such as reproduction and recruitment.

  13. Relationship between body colour, feeding, and reproductive arrest under short-day development in Tetranychus pueraricola (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Ito, Katsura; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Ryo; Saito, Yutaka

    2013-08-01

    In Tetranychus spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae), diapausing females have a conspicuous orange body colour, which is used as an indicator of diapause induction in many laboratory studies. However, to which extent body colour reflects reproductive activity is scarcely investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship between body colour, reproductive arrest, and food intake in the inbred strain of T. pueraricola individually reared at 20 °C with a 10:14 h light: dark photoperiod. Our results showed that (1) body colour is a good indicator of reproductive arrest 11 days after adult emergence but does not completely reflect reproductive status at an earlier age; (2) even orange females intermittently feed, and the arrest of feeding comes after the change in body colour; and (3) reproducing females have a higher risk of death than non-reproducing females. These results suggest that measurement of diapause incidence by body colour alone may miss the variation in reproductive status in early adult life.

  14. Phylogeography illuminates maternal origins of exotic Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Tracie M; Jones, Susan C; Lee, Chow-Yang; Forschler, Brian T; Chen, Zhenbang; Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Gallagher, Nicola T; Brown, Graham; Neal, Michael; Thistleton, Brian; Kleinschmidt, Scott

    2007-03-01

    Coptotermes gestroi, the Asian subterranean termite (AST), is an economically important structural and agricultural pest that has become established in many areas of the world. For the first time, phylogeography was used to illuminate the origins of new found C. gestroi in the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; Ohio, USA; Florida, USA; and Brisbane, Australia. Phylogenetic relationships of C. gestroi collected in indigenous locations within Malaysia, Thailand, and Singapore as well as from the four areas of introduction were investigated using three genes (16S rRNA, COII, and ITS) under three optimality criteria encompassing phenetic and cladistic assumptions (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining). All three genes showed consistent support for a close genetic relationship between C. gestroi samples from Singapore and Ohio, whereas termite samples from Australia, Puerto Rico, and Key West, FL were more closely related to those from Malaysia. Shipping records further substantiated that Singapore and Malaysia were the likely origin of the Ohio and Australia C. gestroi, respectively. These data provide support for using phylogeography to understand the dispersal history of exotic termites. Serendipitously, we also gained insights into concerted evolution in an ITS cluster from rhinotermitid species in two genera. PMID:17254806

  15. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies.

  16. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies. PMID:25936819

  17. Relationship of plasma sex steroid concentrations in female fathead minnows to reproductive success and population status.

    PubMed

    Ankley, Gerald T; Miller, David H; Jensen, Kathleen M; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Martinović, Dalma

    2008-06-01

    Concentration and/or production of sex steroids such as 17beta-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in fish have commonly been measured in field studies concerned with endocrine-active chemicals. There is a reasonable mechanistic basis for using E2 or T as biomarkers, as chemicals can alter steroid production through both direct and indirect effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. There is uncertainty, however, as to what changes in steroid status may mean relative to apical endpoints, such as reproduction, that directly affect population status. In this study, we analyzed data from fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction studies in which decreases in fecundity were associated with depressed steroid production as a result of chemical exposure. Although the chemicals acted on the HPG axis through different mechanisms, reproductive effects appeared to be expressed through a common pathway, depression of vitellogenin production in females. Plasma concentrations of E2 or T in the females were significantly, positively correlated with fecundity. Linear regression models describing the relationship between E2 or T concentrations and relative fecundity were linked to a population model to predict population trajectories of fathead minnows exposed to chemicals that inhibit steroid production. For example, a population existing at carrying capacity and exposed to a chemical stressor(s) that causes a 50% decrease in E2 production was predicted to exhibit a 92% decrease in population size over a 5-year period. Results of our analysis illustrate a conceptual framework whereby a commonly measured biomarker, sex steroid status, could be linked to individual- and population-level effects in fish.

  18. Shifting phenology and abundance under experimental warming alters trophic relationships and plant reproductive capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinzhan; Reich, Peter B; Li, Guoyong; Sun, Shucun

    2011-06-01

    Phenological mismatches due to climate change may have important ecological consequences. In a three-year study, phenological shifts due to experimental warming markedly altered trophic relationships between plants and insect herbivores, causing a dramatic decline of reproductive capacity for one of the plant species. In a Tibetan meadow, the gentian (Gentiana formosa) typically flowers after the peak larva density of a noctuid moth (Melanchra pisi) that primarily feeds on a dominant forb (anemone, Anemone trullifolia var. linearis). However, artificial warming of approximately 1.5 degrees C advanced gentian flower phenology and anemone vegetative phenology by a week, but delayed moth larvae emergence by two weeks. The warming increased larval density 10-fold, but decreased anemone density by 30%. The phenological and density shifts under warmed conditions resulted in the insect larvae feeding substantially on the gentian flowers and ovules; there was approximately 100-fold more damage in warmed than in unwarmed chambers. This radically increased trophic connection reduced gentian plant reproduction and likely contributed to its reduced abundance in the warmed chambers.

  19. Bayesian phylogeography of the Arawak expansion in lowland South America

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert S.; Ribeiro, Lincoln A.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference based on language is a vital tool for tracing the dynamics of human population expansions. The timescale of agriculture-based expansions around the world provides an informative amount of linguistic change ideal for reconstructing phylogeographies. Here we investigate the expansion of Arawak, one of the most widely dispersed language families in the Americas, scattered from the Antilles to Argentina. It has been suggested that Northwest Amazonia is the Arawak homeland based on the large number of diverse languages in the region. We generate language trees by coding cognates of basic vocabulary words for 60 Arawak languages and dialects to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among Arawak societies, while simultaneously implementing a relaxed random walk model to infer phylogeographic history. Estimates of the Arawak homeland exclude Northwest Amazonia and are bi-modal, with one potential homeland on the Atlantic seaboard and another more likely origin in Western Amazonia. Bayesian phylogeography better supports a Western Amazonian origin, and consequent dispersal to the Caribbean and across the lowlands. Importantly, the Arawak expansion carried with it not only language but also a number of cultural traits that contrast Arawak societies with other lowland cultures. PMID:21247954

  20. [The relationship between clinical outcomes of reproduc-tive abnormalities and chromosome polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Rong; Deng, Jian-Xia; Li, Jin-Jin

    2007-11-01

    To study the relationship between chromosome polymorphism and clinical effect of reproductive abnormalities, we prepared chromosomes from peripheral blood lymphocytes and carried out G/C banding and karyotype analyses. Out of 1 414 cases who came in for genetic counseling, 273 had chromosome abnormalities. Among these 273 cases, 180 cases (65.93%) were karyotype variations, with the remaining 93 cases (34.07%) being non-polymorphic chromosomal abnormalities. Karyotype variations included 10 cases of satellite increases in the D/G group, 35 cases of secondary constriction increases, 99 cases of big or small Y chromosome, 6 cases of pericentric inversion of chromosome Y and 30 cases of pericentric inversion of chromosome 9. These results indicated that clinical effect such as abortion, sterility, stillbirth and congenital malformation are mainly related to chromosome polymorphisms.

  1. Thermal Tolerance in Anuran Embryos with Different Reproductive Modes: Relationship to Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Anurans are ectothermic animals very sensitive to temperature, mainly during the embryonic stage. In addition, environmental temperature decreases with altitude, and the amphibian fauna changes. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the embryonic thermal tolerances of twelve species of anurans and the temperatures of their microhabitat along an altitudinal gradient from 430 m to 2600 m. We hypothesized that there is a strong thermal adjustment of embryos to their microhabitat and, consequently, that temperature could be a limiting factor of altitudinal distribution of the anurans. We also compared the embryonic thermal tolerances according to six postulated reproductive modes of the study species. We found a significant relationship between the maximum and minimum thermal tolerances of the anuran embryos and the maximum and minimum temperatures of their microhabitat and altitudinal distribution. We also found a wide range of embryonic thermal tolerances for aquatic breeding species and a narrower range for terrestrial breeding species. Particularly, embryos of direct development species were the most sensitive to temperature. These results show the strong thermal adjustment of anuran embryos to their microhabitat and elevation and do not reject the hypothesis that temperature can be a limiting factor of their altitudinal distribution. PMID:23766678

  2. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans.

    PubMed

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  3. Relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Jae-Kwan; Choi, In-Soo; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Hur, Tai-Young; Jung, Young-Hun; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2015-07-15

    We determined the relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive disorders and performance in dairy cows. Blood samples from 213 dairy cows were collected at 4 and 2 weeks prepartum, just after calving, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum to measure serum β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glucose, total cholesterol, urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and progesterone concentrations. Cows were grouped on the basis of the β-hydroxybutyrate concentration at 1 and/or 2 weeks postpartum into two groups: the ketotic group (≥1200 μmol/L, n = 59) and the nonketotic group (<1200 μmol/L, n = 154). The body condition score (BCS) was assessed simultaneously with blood collection. Clinical endometritis was diagnosed by observation of vaginal discharges (>50% pus), and subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by evaluation of uterine cytology (>18% neutrophils) at 4 weeks postpartum. Ovarian cysts were diagnosed by ultrasonography, and resumption of postpartum cyclicity was evaluated by progesterone concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum. In the ketotic group, NEFA levels were higher (P ≤ 0.0005), whereas glucose (P < 0.05-0.0005) and urea nitrogen levels (P < 0.05-0.01) were lower than those in the nonketotic group during the postpartum period. Aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher (P < 0.01) in the ketotic group than those in the nonketotic group at 2 weeks postpartum. The BCS of the ketotic group was higher than the nonketotic group during the prepartum (P < 0.001) and postpartum (P < 0.05-0.001) periods. The probabilities of clinical endometritis (odds ratio = 2.55) and ovarian cysts (odds ratio = 2.80) were higher (P < 0.05) in the ketotic group than those in the nonketotic group. The hazards of resumption of postpartum cyclicity by 8 weeks postpartum (hazard ratio = 0.67) and pregnancy by 360 days postpartum (hazard ratio = 0.68) were lower (P < 0

  4. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Rissler, Leslie J

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the "microgeographic races" of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography. PMID:27432989

  5. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rissler, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the “microgeographic races” of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography. PMID:27432989

  6. Comparative phylogeography of the ocean planet.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Brian W; Gaither, Michelle R; DiBattista, Joseph D; Iacchei, Matthew; Andrews, Kimberly R; Grant, W Stewart; Toonen, Robert J; Briggs, John C

    2016-07-19

    Understanding how geography, oceanography, and climate have ultimately shaped marine biodiversity requires aligning the distributions of genetic diversity across multiple taxa. Here, we examine phylogeographic partitions in the sea against a backdrop of biogeographic provinces defined by taxonomy, endemism, and species composition. The taxonomic identities used to define biogeographic provinces are routinely accompanied by diagnostic genetic differences between sister species, indicating interspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. In cases where individual species are distributed across two or more biogeographic provinces, shifts in genotype frequencies often align with biogeographic boundaries, providing intraspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. Here, we provide examples of comparative phylogeography from (i) tropical seas that host the highest marine biodiversity, (ii) temperate seas with high productivity but volatile coastlines, (iii) migratory marine fauna, and (iv) plankton that are the most abundant eukaryotes on earth. Tropical and temperate zones both show impacts of glacial cycles, the former primarily through changing sea levels, and the latter through coastal habitat disruption. The general concordance between biogeography and phylogeography indicates that the population-level genetic divergences observed between provinces are a starting point for macroevolutionary divergences between species. However, isolation between provinces does not account for all marine biodiversity; the remainder arises through alternative pathways, such as ecological speciation and parapatric (semiisolated) divergences within provinces and biodiversity hotspots. PMID:27432963

  7. Comparative phylogeography of the ocean planet.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Brian W; Gaither, Michelle R; DiBattista, Joseph D; Iacchei, Matthew; Andrews, Kimberly R; Grant, W Stewart; Toonen, Robert J; Briggs, John C

    2016-07-19

    Understanding how geography, oceanography, and climate have ultimately shaped marine biodiversity requires aligning the distributions of genetic diversity across multiple taxa. Here, we examine phylogeographic partitions in the sea against a backdrop of biogeographic provinces defined by taxonomy, endemism, and species composition. The taxonomic identities used to define biogeographic provinces are routinely accompanied by diagnostic genetic differences between sister species, indicating interspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. In cases where individual species are distributed across two or more biogeographic provinces, shifts in genotype frequencies often align with biogeographic boundaries, providing intraspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. Here, we provide examples of comparative phylogeography from (i) tropical seas that host the highest marine biodiversity, (ii) temperate seas with high productivity but volatile coastlines, (iii) migratory marine fauna, and (iv) plankton that are the most abundant eukaryotes on earth. Tropical and temperate zones both show impacts of glacial cycles, the former primarily through changing sea levels, and the latter through coastal habitat disruption. The general concordance between biogeography and phylogeography indicates that the population-level genetic divergences observed between provinces are a starting point for macroevolutionary divergences between species. However, isolation between provinces does not account for all marine biodiversity; the remainder arises through alternative pathways, such as ecological speciation and parapatric (semiisolated) divergences within provinces and biodiversity hotspots.

  8. Comparative phylogeography of the ocean planet

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Brian W.; Gaither, Michelle R.; DiBattista, Joseph D.; Iacchei, Matthew; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Grant, W. Stewart; Toonen, Robert J.; Briggs, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how geography, oceanography, and climate have ultimately shaped marine biodiversity requires aligning the distributions of genetic diversity across multiple taxa. Here, we examine phylogeographic partitions in the sea against a backdrop of biogeographic provinces defined by taxonomy, endemism, and species composition. The taxonomic identities used to define biogeographic provinces are routinely accompanied by diagnostic genetic differences between sister species, indicating interspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. In cases where individual species are distributed across two or more biogeographic provinces, shifts in genotype frequencies often align with biogeographic boundaries, providing intraspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. Here, we provide examples of comparative phylogeography from (i) tropical seas that host the highest marine biodiversity, (ii) temperate seas with high productivity but volatile coastlines, (iii) migratory marine fauna, and (iv) plankton that are the most abundant eukaryotes on earth. Tropical and temperate zones both show impacts of glacial cycles, the former primarily through changing sea levels, and the latter through coastal habitat disruption. The general concordance between biogeography and phylogeography indicates that the population-level genetic divergences observed between provinces are a starting point for macroevolutionary divergences between species. However, isolation between provinces does not account for all marine biodiversity; the remainder arises through alternative pathways, such as ecological speciation and parapatric (semiisolated) divergences within provinces and biodiversity hotspots. PMID:27432963

  9. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Rissler, Leslie J

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the "microgeographic races" of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography.

  10. Phylogeography and evolution of a fungal-insect association on the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Shu; Li, Yuling; Ma, Shaoli; Wang, Chengshu; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xin; An, Zhiqiang; Xu, Jianping; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-11-01

    Parasitoidism refers to a major form of interspecies interactions where parasitoids sterilize and/or kill their hosts typically before hosts reach reproductive age. However, relatively little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of parasitoidism. Here, we investigate the spatial patterns of genetic variation of Chinese cordyceps, including both the parasitoidal fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its host insects. We sampled broadly from alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau and obtained sequences on seven fungal and three insect DNA fragments from each of the 125 samples. Seven and five divergent lineages/cryptic species were identified within the fungus and host insects, respectively. Our analyses suggested that O. sinensis and host insects originated at similar geographic regions in southern Tibet/Yunnan, followed by range expansion to their current distributions. Cophylogenetic analyses revealed a complex evolutionary relationship between O. sinensis and its host insects. Significant congruence was found between host and parasite phylogenies and the time estimates of divergence were similar, raising the possibility of the occurrence of cospeciation events, but the incongruences suggested that host shifts were also prevalent. Interestingly, one fungal genotype was broadly distributed, consistent with recent gene flow. In contrast, the high-frequency insect genotypes showed limited geographic distributions. The dominant genotypes from both the fungus and the insect hosts may represent ideal materials from which to develop artificial cultivation of this important Chinese traditional medicine. Our results demonstrate that both historical and contemporary events have played important roles in the phylogeography and evolution of the O. sinensis-ghost moth parasitoidism on the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25263531

  11. The relationship between leptin gene polymorphisms and reproductive traits in Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Komisarek, J; Antkowiak, I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between three leptin gene polymorphisms, and indices of reproductive performance--age at first calving, days open, calving interval, number of inseminations per conception, and gestation length in Jersey cattle. A total of 219 cows were tested for the R4C, A59V and C(-963)T mutations using the PCR-RFLP technique. The following allele frequencies were found: R4C--0.80 (C) and 0.20 (T), A59V--0.67 (C) and 0.33 (T), C(-963)T--0.83 (C) and 0.17 (T). The statistically significant correlation (P < or = 0.05) was found only for the A59V mutation. Cows with the TT genotype were characterized by shorter calving interval and time of days open than animals with CT and CC genotype. Also, the number of inseminations per conception was lower in A59V--TT homozygotes compared with two other genotypes. The association analysis did not reveal any significant correlations for both R4C and C(-963)T polymorphisms.

  12. Relationship between Reproductive Allocation and Relative Abundance among 32 Species of a Tibetan Alpine Meadow: Effects of Fertilization and Grazing

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Kechang; Schmid, Bernhard; Choler, Philippe; Du, Guozhen

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between species traits and species abundance is an important goal in ecology and biodiversity science. Although theoretical studies predict that traits related to performance (e.g. reproductive allocation) are most directly linked to species abundance within a community, empirical investigations have rarely been done. It also remains unclear how environmental factors such as grazing or fertilizer application affect the predicted relationship. Methodology We conducted a 3-year field experiment in a Tibetan alpine meadow to assess the relationship between plant reproductive allocation (RA) and species relative abundance (SRA) on control, grazed and fertilized plots. Overall, the studied plant community contained 32 common species. Principal Findings At the treatment level, (i) RA was negatively correlated with SRA on control plots and during the first year on fertilized plots. (ii) No negative RA–SRA correlations were observed on grazed plots and during the second and third year on fertilized plots. (iii) Seed size was positively correlated with SRA on control plots. At the plot level, the correlation between SRA and RA were not affected by treatment, year or species composition. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that the performance-related trait RA can negatively affect SRA within communities, which is possibly due to the tradeoffs between clonal growth (for space occupancy) and sexual reproduction. We propose that if different species occupy different positions along these tradeoffs it will contribute to biodiversity maintenance in local communities or even at lager scale. PMID:22536385

  13. Evolutionary relationships among food habit, loss of flight, and reproductive traits: life-history evolution in the Silphinae (Coleoptera: Silphidae).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kagaya, Takashi; Kubota, Kohei; Abe, Toshio

    2008-08-01

    Flightlessness in insects is generally thought to have evolved due to changes in habitat environment or habitat isolation. Loss of flight may have changed reproductive traits in insects, but very few attempts have been made to assess evolutionary relationships between flight and reproductive traits in a group of related species. We elucidated the evolutionary history of flight loss and its relationship to evolution in food habit, relative reproductive investment, and egg size in the Silphinae (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Most flight-capable species in this group feed primarily on vertebrate carcasses, whereas flightless or flight-dimorphic species feed primarily on soil invertebrates. Ancestral state reconstruction based on our newly constructed molecular phylogenetic tree implied that flight muscle degeneration occurred twice in association with food habit changes from necrophagy to predatory, suggesting that flight loss could evolve independently from changes in the environmental circumstances per se. We found that total egg production increased with flight loss. We also found that egg size increased with decreased egg number following food habit changes in the lineage leading to predaceous species, suggesting that selection for larger larvae intensified with the food habit change. This correlated evolution has shaped diverse life-history patterns among extant species of Silphinae.

  14. The Relationship between AMH and AMHR2 Polymorphisms and the Follicular Phase in Late Reproductive Stage Women

    PubMed Central

    Jurczak, Anna; Szkup, Małgorzata; Grzywacz, Anna; Safranow, Krzysztof; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was the analysis of the relationships between the genotypes of the AMH and AMH receptor type 2 genes, hormone levels and the menstrual cycle in a group of Polish women in the late reproductive stage. The study was conducted using a measurement-based method (body weight and height), laboratory method (serum hormone levels AMH, FSH and E2), and genetic analysis (DNA isolated from whole blood by a salting-out method). The study involved 345 healthy, late-reproductive-stage women from Poland, aged 42.3 ± 4.5 years. The analysis demonstrated that neither the T/T and G/T+G/G genotypes of the AMH Ile49Ser polymorphism (rs10407022), nor the A/A and the G/A + G/G genotypes of the AMHR2 2482 A > G polymorphism (rs2002555), nor the C/C and C/T + T/T genotypes of the AMH polymorphism (rs11170547) were statistically significantly related (p > 0.05) to such factors as age, BMI, hormone (FSH and E2) levels and ovarian parameters (AMH) in the follicular phase. No relationships were found between ovarian parameters (FSH, E2, AMH) and genetic variants of AMH (rs10407022) and AMHR2 (rs11170547, rs2002555) in healthy women in the late reproductive stage. PMID:26848671

  15. The relationship between sex change and reproductive success in a protandric marine gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Brante, Antonio; Quiñones, Adriana; Silva, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Protandric species switch sex during their lifetime. According to theory, the time (body size) at which sex change occurs is determined by the reproductive success of individuals affected by social interactions as well as by post-copulatory factors. Experimental evidence is biased to few social systems making the exploration of general patterns difficult. We used the protandric marine gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis that partakes in intrabrood sibling cannibalism to test the following hypotheses: 1. Male-male competition for access to females and sibling cannibalism determine male reproductive success; 2. Males with greater access to females and with higher reproductive success will have reduced growth rates and will delay sex change. Artificial aggregations with different social structures were constructed and male reproductive success was estimated by paternity analysis. The results supported our expectations showing that male competitive ability for access to the female, time spent by males in the copulatory position, and sibling cannibalism affect reproductive success and influence time to sex change, with less successful males hastening sex change. Also, males that spent more time in the copulatory position had reduced growth rates. Comparing these results with those reported for other sequential hermaphrodites provides evidence supporting general patterns of sex change in nature. PMID:27385040

  16. The relationship between sex change and reproductive success in a protandric marine gastropod.

    PubMed

    Brante, Antonio; Quiñones, Adriana; Silva, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Protandric species switch sex during their lifetime. According to theory, the time (body size) at which sex change occurs is determined by the reproductive success of individuals affected by social interactions as well as by post-copulatory factors. Experimental evidence is biased to few social systems making the exploration of general patterns difficult. We used the protandric marine gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis that partakes in intrabrood sibling cannibalism to test the following hypotheses: 1. Male-male competition for access to females and sibling cannibalism determine male reproductive success; 2. Males with greater access to females and with higher reproductive success will have reduced growth rates and will delay sex change. Artificial aggregations with different social structures were constructed and male reproductive success was estimated by paternity analysis. The results supported our expectations showing that male competitive ability for access to the female, time spent by males in the copulatory position, and sibling cannibalism affect reproductive success and influence time to sex change, with less successful males hastening sex change. Also, males that spent more time in the copulatory position had reduced growth rates. Comparing these results with those reported for other sequential hermaphrodites provides evidence supporting general patterns of sex change in nature. PMID:27385040

  17. The relationship of dominance, reproductive state and stress in female horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    York, Carly A; Schulte, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    Maintaining a dominant position in a hierarchy requires energetically expensive aggressive displays and physical exertion. Lab based winner-loser studies, often conducted with individuals from non-social species, have shown that subordinates have higher stress hormone levels than dominant individuals. However, in wild studies on cooperative breeders, displays of aggression used to maintain dominance status are associated with elevated stress hormone levels. The effect of reproductive state on dominance and stress has not been addressed within either of these situations. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological stress levels in relation to dominance rank and reproductive state in a non-cooperative breeder and herbivore, the domestic horse. The social interactions and measured faecal glucocorticoids were recorded in pastured, female horses that were either lactating or non-lactating. While faecal glucocorticoid metabolite level did not differ between reproductive state and rank, activity behaviour demonstrated significant differences between reproductive states. Higher energetic requirements of lactation were reflected in significantly longer bouts of eating and significantly less time spent alert and socializing. As non-cooperative breeders, the social nature of horses does not limit their reproduction or resource acquisition based upon rank, and therefore does not fit with the dominance-stress hypothesis or subordinate-stress hypothesis and instead supports a rank-independent stress hypothesis. PMID:25058621

  18. The relationship of dominance, reproductive state and stress in female horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    York, Carly A; Schulte, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    Maintaining a dominant position in a hierarchy requires energetically expensive aggressive displays and physical exertion. Lab based winner-loser studies, often conducted with individuals from non-social species, have shown that subordinates have higher stress hormone levels than dominant individuals. However, in wild studies on cooperative breeders, displays of aggression used to maintain dominance status are associated with elevated stress hormone levels. The effect of reproductive state on dominance and stress has not been addressed within either of these situations. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological stress levels in relation to dominance rank and reproductive state in a non-cooperative breeder and herbivore, the domestic horse. The social interactions and measured faecal glucocorticoids were recorded in pastured, female horses that were either lactating or non-lactating. While faecal glucocorticoid metabolite level did not differ between reproductive state and rank, activity behaviour demonstrated significant differences between reproductive states. Higher energetic requirements of lactation were reflected in significantly longer bouts of eating and significantly less time spent alert and socializing. As non-cooperative breeders, the social nature of horses does not limit their reproduction or resource acquisition based upon rank, and therefore does not fit with the dominance-stress hypothesis or subordinate-stress hypothesis and instead supports a rank-independent stress hypothesis.

  19. Metabolic Measurements in the Sow and Relationship to Post-Weaning Reproductive Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive weight (wt) loss during lactation is an indicator of tissue catabolism in exchange for maintaining metabolic output and can have adverse effects on reproductive parameters. Creatine is a nonprotein nitrogen that acts as a phosphagen and aids in tissue repair. Creatine may provide an indica...

  20. Relationship between pre-weaning gain, age at puberty, and reproductive tract development in Angus heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef heifers should initiate reproductive cycles by 12 mo of age to insure multiple estrous cycles before the start of the breeding season to maximize fertility. Previous research indicated that pre-weaning gain positively influenced the onset of puberty and antral follicle numbers. Therefore, the...

  1. Jezebel at the welfare office: How racialized stereotypes of poor women's reproductive decisions and relationships shape policy implementation

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Lindhorst, Taryn P.; Meyers, Marcia K.

    2013-01-01

    Current welfare scholarship lacks an analysis of how caseworkers discuss sexuality-related issues with clients. Seventy-two of 232 transcribed welfare interviews in three states included discussion of reproductive decisions and relationships. Overall, caseworkers’ language reflected negative myths regarding African American women's sexuality and motherhood. By virtue of their status as welfare recipients, regardless of their individual races, clients were placed into racialized myths through workers’ talk. This analysis demonstrates that though not present in every welfare interview and often veiled in bureaucratic language, negative ideas about poor women's sexuality persist in welfare policy and are deeply embedded in its day-to-day implementation. PMID:24791134

  2. The relationship of spectral sensitivity with growth and reproductive response in avian breeders (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Song; Pan, Jin-Ming; Ying, Yi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Lu, Min-Si; Chen, Xian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that birds that are exposed to light at night develop advanced reproductive systems. However, spectrum might also affect the photoperiodic response of birds. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of spectral composition on the growth and reproductive physiology of female breeders, using pure light-emitting diode spectra. A total of 1,000 newly hatched female avian breeders (Gallus gallus) were equally allocated to white-, red-, yellow-, green- and blue-light treated groups. We found that blue-light treated birds had a greater and faster weight gain than did red- and yellow-light treated birds (P = 0.02 and 0.05). The red light expedited the sexual maturation of the chicks, whose age at sexual maturity was 7 and 14 days earlier than that of the green- and blue-light treated birds, respectively. The accumulative egg production of the red-light treated birds was 9 and 8 eggs more than that of the blue- and green-light treated birds. The peak lay rate of the red-light treated groups was significantly greater than the blue-light treated birds (P = 0.028). In conclusion, exposure to short-wavelength light appears to promote growth of female breeder birds, whereas exposure to long-wavelength light appears to accelerate reproductive performance. PMID:26765747

  3. The relationship of spectral sensitivity with growth and reproductive response in avian breeders (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Song; Pan, Jin-Ming; Ying, Yi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Lu, Min-Si; Chen, Xian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that birds that are exposed to light at night develop advanced reproductive systems. However, spectrum might also affect the photoperiodic response of birds. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of spectral composition on the growth and reproductive physiology of female breeders, using pure light-emitting diode spectra. A total of 1,000 newly hatched female avian breeders (Gallus gallus) were equally allocated to white-, red-, yellow-, green- and blue-light treated groups. We found that blue-light treated birds had a greater and faster weight gain than did red- and yellow-light treated birds (P = 0.02 and 0.05). The red light expedited the sexual maturation of the chicks, whose age at sexual maturity was 7 and 14 days earlier than that of the green- and blue-light treated birds, respectively. The accumulative egg production of the red-light treated birds was 9 and 8 eggs more than that of the blue- and green-light treated birds. The peak lay rate of the red-light treated groups was significantly greater than the blue-light treated birds (P = 0.028). In conclusion, exposure to short-wavelength light appears to promote growth of female breeder birds, whereas exposure to long-wavelength light appears to accelerate reproductive performance. PMID:26765747

  4. The relationship of spectral sensitivity with growth and reproductive response in avian breeders (Gallus gallus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Song; Pan, Jin-Ming; Ying, Yi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Lu, Min-Si; Chen, Xian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that birds that are exposed to light at night develop advanced reproductive systems. However, spectrum might also affect the photoperiodic response of birds. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of spectral composition on the growth and reproductive physiology of female breeders, using pure light-emitting diode spectra. A total of 1,000 newly hatched female avian breeders (Gallus gallus) were equally allocated to white-, red-, yellow-, green- and blue-light treated groups. We found that blue-light treated birds had a greater and faster weight gain than did red- and yellow-light treated birds (P = 0.02 and 0.05). The red light expedited the sexual maturation of the chicks, whose age at sexual maturity was 7 and 14 days earlier than that of the green- and blue-light treated birds, respectively. The accumulative egg production of the red-light treated birds was 9 and 8 eggs more than that of the blue- and green-light treated birds. The peak lay rate of the red-light treated groups was significantly greater than the blue-light treated birds (P = 0.028). In conclusion, exposure to short-wavelength light appears to promote growth of female breeder birds, whereas exposure to long-wavelength light appears to accelerate reproductive performance.

  5. Relationship between Dietary Fat Intake, Its Major Food Sources and Assisted Reproduction Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background High dietary fat consumption may alter oocyte development and embryonic development. This prospective study was conducted to determine the relation between dietary fat consumption level, its food sources and the assisted reproduction parameters. Methods A prospective study was conducted on 240 infertile women. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle, fat consumption and major food sources over the previous three months were identified. The number of retrieved oocytes, metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes numbers, fertilization rate, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy rate were also determined. The data were analyzed using multiple regression, binary logistic regression, chi-square and t-test. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results Total fat intake adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity and etiology of infertility was positively associated with the number of retrieved oocytes and inversely associated with the high embryo quality rate. An inverse association was observed between sausage and turkey ham intake and the number of retrieved oocytes. Also, oil intake level had an inverse association with good cleavage rate. Conclusion The results revealed that higher levels of fat consumption tend to increase the number of retrieved oocytes and were adversely related to embryonic development. Among food sources of fat, vegetable oil, sausage and turkey ham intake may adversely affect assisted reproduction parameters. PMID:25473630

  6. Relationship between multiple paternity and reproductive parameters for Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Trombetas River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freda, F P; Bernardes, V C D; Eisemberg, C C; Fantin, C; Vogt, R C

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of multiple paternity are a valuable tool to gain information on the reproductive biology of turtles. We analyzed paternity type in Podocnemis sextuberculata and related number of fathers per nest to nesting period (beginning, middle, or end of nesting season); clutch size (number of eggs); female size; and hatchling success. Females were captured and maximum linear carapace lengths measured during the 60 days that encompass the nesting season at Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (Pará, Brazil). Nests were marked and blood samples collected from hatchlings. Six heterologous loci were used: five from Podocnemis unifilis and one from Podocnemis expansa. Hatchlings were analyzed from 23 nests, and the rate of multiple paternity was 100%. The mean number of fathers per nest was six (± 0.9), and no significant difference between number of fathers in a nest and nesting period. Similarly there was no significant relationship between number of fathers in a nest and female size or hatchling success rate. Number of fathers was, however, positively correlated with clutch size (Spearman correlation rho = 0.47; P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the relationship between multiple paternity and ecological aspects of the reproductive ecology of turtles in the genus Podocnemis. PMID:26909934

  7. Relationship between multiple paternity and reproductive parameters for Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Trombetas River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freda, F P; Bernardes, V C D; Eisemberg, C C; Fantin, C; Vogt, R C

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of multiple paternity are a valuable tool to gain information on the reproductive biology of turtles. We analyzed paternity type in Podocnemis sextuberculata and related number of fathers per nest to nesting period (beginning, middle, or end of nesting season); clutch size (number of eggs); female size; and hatchling success. Females were captured and maximum linear carapace lengths measured during the 60 days that encompass the nesting season at Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (Pará, Brazil). Nests were marked and blood samples collected from hatchlings. Six heterologous loci were used: five from Podocnemis unifilis and one from Podocnemis expansa. Hatchlings were analyzed from 23 nests, and the rate of multiple paternity was 100%. The mean number of fathers per nest was six (± 0.9), and no significant difference between number of fathers in a nest and nesting period. Similarly there was no significant relationship between number of fathers in a nest and female size or hatchling success rate. Number of fathers was, however, positively correlated with clutch size (Spearman correlation rho = 0.47; P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the relationship between multiple paternity and ecological aspects of the reproductive ecology of turtles in the genus Podocnemis.

  8. Reticulation, divergence, and the phylogeography-phylogenetics continuum.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott V; Potter, Sally; Schmitt, C Jonathan; Bragg, Jason G; Moritz, Craig

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography, and its extensions into comparative phylogeography, have their roots in the layering of gene trees across geography, a paradigm that was greatly facilitated by the nonrecombining, fast evolution provided by animal mtDNA. As phylogeography moves into the era of next-generation sequencing, the specter of reticulation at several levels-within loci and genomes in the form of recombination and across populations and species in the form of introgression-has raised its head with a prominence even greater than glimpsed during the nuclear gene PCR era. Here we explore the theme of reticulation in comparative phylogeography, speciation analysis, and phylogenomics, and ask how the centrality of gene trees has fared in the next-generation era. To frame these issues, we first provide a snapshot of multilocus phylogeographic studies across the Carpentarian Barrier, a prominent biogeographic barrier dividing faunas spanning the monsoon tropics in northern Australia. We find that divergence across this barrier is evident in most species, but is heterogeneous in time and demographic history, often reflecting the taxonomic distinctness of lineages spanning it. We then discuss a variety of forces generating reticulate patterns in phylogeography, including introgression, contact zones, and the potential selection-driven outliers on next-generation molecular markers. We emphasize the continued need for demographic models incorporating reticulation at the level of genomes and populations, and conclude that gene trees, whether explicit or implicit, should continue to play a role in the future of phylogeography. PMID:27432956

  9. Musculoskeletal pain and the reproductive life stage in women: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Frange, C; Hirotsu, C; Hachul, H; Pires, J S; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between reproductive life stage, pain perception and musculoskeletal pain complaint in a representative sample of women from São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A population-based survey was carried out with 574 women who were classified as being in the premenopausal or postmenopausal stage. They answered questions about pain perception and musculoskeletal pain. Follicle stimulating hormone was collected to confirm menopausal condition along with clinical evaluation. Results In the whole sample, we found a prevalence of 56% for pain perception and 20.2% for complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Regarding the topography of musculoskeletal pain, the distributions were similar among the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. No significant association was found between reproductive life stage and pain perception, as 58.1% of the premenopausal group and 52.0% of the postmenopausal group reported pain. Similarly, there was no significant association between menopausal stage and musculoskeletal pain, as 19.5% and 21.6% of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively, complained of musculoskeletal pain. There was no significant association of postmenopausal stage (early or late) with pain perception or musculoskeletal pain. The use of analgesics was significantly higher in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women (p < 0.001). Conclusion A high prevalence of pain was found in women from the city of São Paulo. However, neither the presence of musculoskeletal pain nor pain perception were associated with the reproductive life stage, showing that both parameters was independent from the menopausal status in the studied women.

  10. Ambiguities in the relationship between gonadal steroids and reproduction in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Eisthen, Heather L; Krause, Brianne Chung

    2012-05-01

    Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) are aquatic salamanders that are widely used in research. Axolotls have been bred in laboratories for nearly 150 years, yet little is known about the basic biology of reproduction in these animals. We investigated the effects of changing day length, time of year, and food availability on levels of circulating estradiol and androgens in adult female and male axolotls, respectively. In addition, we examined the effects of these variables on the mass of ovaries, oviducts, and eggs in females and on mass of testes in males relative to each individual's body weight, to calculate a form of gonadosomatic index (GSI). In both sexes, GSI was not correlated with levels of circulating steroids. In female axolotls, estradiol levels were influenced by food availability, changes in day length, and season, even when animals were held at a constant temperature and day length was decorrelated with calendar date. In addition, the mass of ovaries, oviducts, and eggs varied seasonally, peaking in the winter months and declining during the summer months, even though our animals were not breeding and shedding eggs. In males, levels of androgens appeared to vary independently of external conditions, but GSI varied dramatically with changes in day length. These results suggest that reproduction in axolotls may vary seasonally, as it does in many other ambystomid species, although both male and female axolotls are capable of reproducing several times each year. The physiological basis of this ability remains enigmatic, given the indications of seasonality contained in our data.

  11. Ambiguities in the relationship between gonadal steroids and reproduction in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Eisthen, Heather L; Krause, Brianne Chung

    2012-05-01

    Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) are aquatic salamanders that are widely used in research. Axolotls have been bred in laboratories for nearly 150 years, yet little is known about the basic biology of reproduction in these animals. We investigated the effects of changing day length, time of year, and food availability on levels of circulating estradiol and androgens in adult female and male axolotls, respectively. In addition, we examined the effects of these variables on the mass of ovaries, oviducts, and eggs in females and on mass of testes in males relative to each individual's body weight, to calculate a form of gonadosomatic index (GSI). In both sexes, GSI was not correlated with levels of circulating steroids. In female axolotls, estradiol levels were influenced by food availability, changes in day length, and season, even when animals were held at a constant temperature and day length was decorrelated with calendar date. In addition, the mass of ovaries, oviducts, and eggs varied seasonally, peaking in the winter months and declining during the summer months, even though our animals were not breeding and shedding eggs. In males, levels of androgens appeared to vary independently of external conditions, but GSI varied dramatically with changes in day length. These results suggest that reproduction in axolotls may vary seasonally, as it does in many other ambystomid species, although both male and female axolotls are capable of reproducing several times each year. The physiological basis of this ability remains enigmatic, given the indications of seasonality contained in our data. PMID:22245262

  12. Relationships between heavy metal concentrations in three different body fluids and male reproductive parameters: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown the reproductive toxicity of a number of heavy metals. Very few human observational studies have analyzed the relationship between male reproductive function and heavy metal concentrations in diverse biological fluids. Methods The current study assessed the associations between seminal and hormonal parameters and the concentration of the 3 most frequent heavy metal toxicants (lead, cadmium and mercury) in three different body fluids. Sixty one men attending infertility clinics that participated in a case-control study to explore the role of environmental toxins and lifestyles on male infertility were analyzed. Concentration of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in blood and seminal plasma and whole blood using anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rank correlations were used for unadjusted analyses. Multiple linear regression models were performed controlling for age, body mass index and number of cigarettes per day. Results There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the concentrations of heavy metals in any of the three body fluids. In multivariate analyses using all subjects no significant associations were found between serum hormone levels and metal concentrations. However there was a significant positive association between the percentage of immotile sperms and seminal plasma levels of lead and cadmium. Conclusions Our results suggest that the presence of lead and cadmium in the reproductive tract of men may be related to a moderate alteration of their seminal parameters. PMID:21247448

  13. Next generation phylogeography of cave and surface Astyanax mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Coghill, Lyndon M; Darrin Hulsey, C; Chaves-Campos, Johel; García de Leon, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traits is a commonly observed evolutionary pattern in cave organisms, but due to extensive morphological convergence, inferring relationships between cave and surface populations can be difficult. For instance, Astyanax mexicanus (the blind Mexican cavefish) is thought to have repeatedly lost its eyes following colonization of cave environments, but the number of evolutionarily independent invasions of this species into caves remains unclear. Because of these repeated losses, it has become a model organism for studying the genetic basis of phenotypic trait loss. Here we reconstruct a high-resolution phylogeography for A. mexicanus inferred from both mitochondrial DNA and several thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms. We provide novel insight into the origin of cave populations from the Sabinos and Río Subterráneo caves and present evidence that the Sabinos cave population is part of a unique cave lineage unrelated to other A. mexicanus cave populations. Our results indicate A. mexicanus cave populations have at least four independent origins. PMID:25014568

  14. Reproduction in free-ranging Propithecus verreauxi: estrus and the relationship between multiple partner matings and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Brockman, D K; Whitten, P L

    1996-05-01

    Female sifaka mate selectively with one or more resident and/or non-resident males during the breeding season. Various adaptive explanations have been advanced to explain why female primates mate with multiple males including that 1) females seek to confuse paternity and thereby forestall male infanticide and/or ensure male infant care or 2) females seek to ensure fertilization. Assessing the power of fertilization insurance to explain mating patterns in females requires information on the temporal relationship between mating and ovarian hormones. The hormonal correlates of reproduction and mating in free-ranging Propithecus verreauxi were investigated using excreted steroids as indices of reproductive state. Solid-phase extraction and radioimmunoassay techniques were used to measure unconjugated estradiol (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4)) in 485 desiccated fecal samples collected from five female sifaka before and during the breeding season at Beza Mahafaly, Madagascar. Results suggest that behavioral estrus was characterized by 10 to 15-day elevations in E(2); hormonal activity was observed to be similar to pseudo-estrus reported for other lemur species; apparent conception was associated with sustained P4 elevations beginning 1 to 3 days post-estrus with gestational phase elevations of E2 beginning 42 to 45 days post-conception; and mating with multiple partners appeared not to be a prerequisite to fertilization, as conception resulted from both monoandrous and polyandrous matings. These preliminary data suggest that fertilization insurance is not adequate to explain polyandrous mating in sifaka at Beza Mahafaly.

  15. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badzinski, S.S.; Flint, P.L.; Gorman, K.B.; Petrie, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 ??g g-1 dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 ??g g-1 dw), and selenium (Se: >10 ??g g-1 dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Environmental effects of dredging. Relationship between pcb tissue residues and reproductive success of fathead minnows. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    This technical note provides initial guidance for interpreting the biological consequences of bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. Specifically, the relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) tissue residues and reproductive success in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, is examined. The US Army Corps of Engineers often conducts, or requires to be conducted, an assessment of potential bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants from sediments scheduled for dredging and open-water disposal. At present, however, there is no generally accepted guidance to assist in the interpretation of the biological consequences of specific levels of bioacumulation. To provide an initial basis for such guidance, the Environmental Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station is conducting both literature data base analyses and experimental laboratory studies as part of its Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations (LEDO) Program. This technical note discusses a portion of the laboratory effort.

  17. Relationship between metabolism, sex and reproductive tactics in young Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Rossignol, O; Dodson, J J; Guderley, H

    2011-05-01

    Atlantic salmon can differ markedly in their growth and in the timing of reproductive maturation, leading to the dramatic contrast between the large anadromous adults and the diminutive mature male parr. This study examined the growth rates, anatomical and physiological characteristics of parr during the adoption of their discrete life histories to ascertain whether these properties can explain tactic choice. To minimise the impact of habitat differences upon these attributes, salmon were reared in the laboratory until 1.5years of age, when the "decisions" to undergo smoltification or to mature as parr had been taken. At 1.5years, both males and females showed bimodal size-frequency distributions. Neither the population of origin nor the paternal reproductive tactic influenced the "decision" to mature or the growth trajectories. Growth rate (% massday(-1) during their final 10months) and the % male and female offspring in the upper modal group were strongly correlated and varied markedly among families. Mean growth rate per family was negatively correlated with mean metabolic rate per family at emergence. Growth rate decreased as a function of parr size in January and the growth rates of upper modal fish were displaced upwards relative to those of lower modal fish. Most males in the smaller size mode matured, whereas all other fish began smoltification. Mature male parr did not differ from similarly sized female pre-smolt in routine metabolic rate, but these smaller fish had higher metabolic rates than larger male and female pre-smolts. However, mature parr differed markedly from similarly sized females and from larger male and female pre-smolts in possessing higher oxidative and lower glycolytic capacities in muscle. Overall, these data are consistent with the interpretation that growth rates dictate the distribution of parr between upper and lower modal groups. Individuals from faster growing families would be more likely to pass the threshold for smoltification

  18. Phylogeography of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum from China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Hu, Ningyan; Peng, Weidong

    2011-08-01

    In order to obtain further understanding of genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs, phylogeography study on 12 populations from six endemic regions in China was conducted using mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) and NAD1) and the software programs of DnaSP 5.0, Arlequin 3.0, MEGA 4.0, and NETWORK 4.5.1.6. Results showed that (a) genetic diversity of Ascaris varied with hosts and locations, but no distinct geographical distribution pattern was found, (b) a higher level of genetic diversity and differentiation was found in pig-derived populations in contrast to human-derived ones, and in populations of human-derived Ascaris from the southern regions in comparison to that from the middle and northern locations, but similar geographical difference was not observed within pig-derived populations, (c) historical population expanding was detected from a large part of human-derived Ascaris populations but not in pig-derived Ascaris, (d) a high level of gene flow was detected between human- and pig-derived Ascaris and also among human-derived populations, and (e) network analysis from haplotype of COX1 indicated an ancestral haplotype from human-derived Ascaris. In conclusion, the present study revealed new information on Ascaris on the aspects of genetic diversity, population differentiation and historical demographic patterns, gene flow, phylogenesis reconstruction, and haplotype network, discussed the results with historical demographic migration of humans and domestication of wild boar in China, and raised a different assumption about the evolutionary relationship of the two roundworms. This study should have certain enlightenment for the epidemiology and the evolutionary and taxonomy relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs.

  19. IPV among Adolescent Reproductive Health Patients: The Role of Relationship Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Davidson, Leslie L.; Rickert, Vaughn I.

    2011-01-01

    Population-specific data on factors that affect intimate partner violence (IPV) are needed on female adolescents and young adults, a cohort at greatest risk of IPV in the United States (Rennison, 2001). Studies have frequently overlooked the role of relationship communication as a gatekeeper to IPV (Ridley & Feldman, 2003). To address this gap,…

  20. Melatonin concentrations in the two jugular veins, and relationship with the seasonal reproductive activity in goats.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2010-07-15

    The authors investigated whether melatonin concentrations vary between the two jugular veins and whether absolute (nocturnal) or relative (nocturnal/diurnal ratio) plasma melatonin concentrations are associated with seasonal reproductive activity measured by oestrus or ovulatory activity in Payoya goats. Thirty-two adult Payoya goats were penned under natural photoperiod. Oestrus activity was tested daily using aproned males-twice a week plasma was sampled for progesterone. Melatonin plasma concentrations were studied at each equinox and solstice of the year in jugular samples taken simultaneously by venipuncture. Nocturnal and diurnal plasma melatonin concentrations from each jugular vein were assessed in 3 and 2 plasma samples per goat, respectively, taken at hourly intervals in each period. No differences in melatonin concentrations between the two veins were observed, but there was a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between jugular vein and animal in nocturnal melatonin concentrations. There was no effect of sampling period on melatonin concentrations and the coefficient of correlation between sampling periods was very high. The analyses performed indicated that neither absolute nor relative melatonin concentrations were related with the dates of onset or end of ovulatory/oestrus activity. Therefore, we concluded that in goats (1) melatonin concentrations are highly variable between jugular veins in the same individual but not in the general population, (2) melatonin concentrations are highly repeatable for each individual, and (3) absolute and relative amplitudes of melatonin concentrations are not linked to the seasonal breeding activity in Mediterranean goats. PMID:20451998

  1. Phylogeography above the species level for perennial species in a composite genus

    PubMed Central

    Tremetsberger, Karin; Ortiz, María Ángeles; Terrab, Anass; Balao, Francisco; Casimiro-Soriguer, Ramón; Talavera, María; Talavera, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    In phylogeography, DNA sequence and fingerprint data at the population level are used to infer evolutionary histories of species. Phylogeography above the species level is concerned with the genealogical aspects of divergent lineages. Here, we present a phylogeographic study to examine the evolutionary history of a western Mediterranean composite, focusing on the perennial species of Helminthotheca (Asteraceae, Cichorieae). We used molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), internal transcribed spacer and plastid DNA sequences) to infer relationships among populations throughout the distributional range of the group. Interpretation is aided by biogeographic and molecular clock analyses. Four coherent entities are revealed by Bayesian mixture clustering of AFLP data, which correspond to taxa previously recognized at the rank of subspecies. The origin of the group was in western North Africa, from where it expanded across the Strait of Gibraltar to the Iberian Peninsula and across the Strait of Sicily to Sicily. Pleistocene lineage divergence is inferred within western North Africa as well as within the western Iberian region. The existence of the four entities as discrete evolutionary lineages suggests that they should be elevated to the rank of species, yielding H. aculeata, H. comosa, H. maroccana and H. spinosa, whereby the latter two necessitate new combinations. PMID:26644340

  2. Phylogeography above the species level for perennial species in a composite genus.

    PubMed

    Tremetsberger, Karin; Ortiz, María Ángeles; Terrab, Anass; Balao, Francisco; Casimiro-Soriguer, Ramón; Talavera, María; Talavera, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    In phylogeography, DNA sequence and fingerprint data at the population level are used to infer evolutionary histories of species. Phylogeography above the species level is concerned with the genealogical aspects of divergent lineages. Here, we present a phylogeographic study to examine the evolutionary history of a western Mediterranean composite, focusing on the perennial species of Helminthotheca (Asteraceae, Cichorieae). We used molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), internal transcribed spacer and plastid DNA sequences) to infer relationships among populations throughout the distributional range of the group. Interpretation is aided by biogeographic and molecular clock analyses. Four coherent entities are revealed by Bayesian mixture clustering of AFLP data, which correspond to taxa previously recognized at the rank of subspecies. The origin of the group was in western North Africa, from where it expanded across the Strait of Gibraltar to the Iberian Peninsula and across the Strait of Sicily to Sicily. Pleistocene lineage divergence is inferred within western North Africa as well as within the western Iberian region. The existence of the four entities as discrete evolutionary lineages suggests that they should be elevated to the rank of species, yielding H. aculeata, H. comosa, H. maroccana and H. spinosa, whereby the latter two necessitate new combinations. PMID:26644340

  3. Sexual dimorphism in sister species of Leucoraja skate and its relationship to reproductive strategy and life history.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Christopher M; Rohlf, F James; Frisk, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Instances of sexual dimorphism occur in a great variety of forms and manifestations. Most skates (Batoidea: Rajoidei) display some level of body shape dimorphism in which the pectoral fins of mature males develop to create a distinct bell-shaped body not found in females. This particular form of dimorphism is present in each of the sister species Leucoraja erinacea and Leucoraja ocellata, but differences between sexes are much greater in the former. In order to understand the nature and potential causes of pectoral dimorphism, we used geometric morphometrics to investigate allometry of fin shape in L. erinacea and L. ocellata and its relationship to the development of reproductive organs, based on previous work on the bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo. We found that allometric trajectories of overall pectoral shape were different in both species of skate, but only L. erinacea varied significantly with respect to endoskeleton development. Male maturation was characterized by a number of sex-specific morphological changes, which appeared concurrently in developmental timing with elongation of cartilage-supported claspers. We suggest that external sexual dimorphism of pectoral fins in skates is a byproduct of skeletal growth needed for clasper development. Further, the magnitude of male shape change appears to be linked to the differential life histories of species. This work reports for the first time that pectoral dimorphism is a persistent feature in rajoid fishes, occurring in varying degrees across several genera. Lastly, our results suggest that pectoral morphology may be useful as a relative indicator of reproductive strategy in some species. PMID:26771079

  4. Relationships between intrauterine infusion of N-acetylcysteine, equine endometrial pathology, neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Gores-Lindholm, Alicia R; LeBlanc, Michelle M; Causey, Robert; Hitchborn, Anna; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A; Kruger, Marius; Vandenplas, Michel L; Flores, Paty; Ahlschwede, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Persistent endometritis in the mare is associated with hypersecretion of mucus by endometrial epithelium and migration of neutrophils into the uterine lumen. This study examines the relationships between N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory properties, and endometrial architecture, serum neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance of NAC-treated mares in a clinical setting. In study 1, endometrial biopsies from mares receiving intrauterine saline (fertile-control, n = 6) or 3.3% NAC (fertile-treatment, n = 6; barren-treatment, n = 10) were evaluated by histology and image analysis. In study 2, phagocytic activity of serum-derived neutrophils was measured after adding 0.5% or 3% NAC. In study 3, pregnancy rates of repeat breeders (n = 44) receiving an intrauterine infusion of 3.3% NAC 24-36 hours before mating (group 1) was recorded, as was first cycle of the season pregnancy rates of reproductively normal mares (group 2, n = 85), and mares treated for bacterial endometritis the cycle before mating (group 3, n = 25). Intrauterine NAC did not adversely affect endometrial histology. Extracellular mucus thickness and staining intensity were reduced in fertile-treatment mares (P < 0.03). Neutrophil function was inhibited by 3% NAC solution, but not by 0.5% NAC (P < 0.05). In study 3, for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, the first-cycle pregnancy rates were 77%, 74%, and 56%, and early embryonic death rates were 15%, 13%, and 7%. In group 2 mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin post-mating, the pregnancy rate was 89% (39/44), whereas in mares treated with uterine lavage and 1 g ceftiofur, it was 60% (24/40). Of the oxytocin-treated mares, 18% (8/44) had ≥ 1 cm of intrauterine fluid or marked uterine edema, whereas 80% (32/40) of the antibiotic-treated mares did. In conclusion, intrauterine infusion of a 3.3% solution of NAC was not irritating and inhibited the oxidative burst of neutrophils. Repeat

  5. Relationships between intrauterine infusion of N-acetylcysteine, equine endometrial pathology, neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Gores-Lindholm, Alicia R; LeBlanc, Michelle M; Causey, Robert; Hitchborn, Anna; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A; Kruger, Marius; Vandenplas, Michel L; Flores, Paty; Ahlschwede, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Persistent endometritis in the mare is associated with hypersecretion of mucus by endometrial epithelium and migration of neutrophils into the uterine lumen. This study examines the relationships between N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory properties, and endometrial architecture, serum neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance of NAC-treated mares in a clinical setting. In study 1, endometrial biopsies from mares receiving intrauterine saline (fertile-control, n = 6) or 3.3% NAC (fertile-treatment, n = 6; barren-treatment, n = 10) were evaluated by histology and image analysis. In study 2, phagocytic activity of serum-derived neutrophils was measured after adding 0.5% or 3% NAC. In study 3, pregnancy rates of repeat breeders (n = 44) receiving an intrauterine infusion of 3.3% NAC 24-36 hours before mating (group 1) was recorded, as was first cycle of the season pregnancy rates of reproductively normal mares (group 2, n = 85), and mares treated for bacterial endometritis the cycle before mating (group 3, n = 25). Intrauterine NAC did not adversely affect endometrial histology. Extracellular mucus thickness and staining intensity were reduced in fertile-treatment mares (P < 0.03). Neutrophil function was inhibited by 3% NAC solution, but not by 0.5% NAC (P < 0.05). In study 3, for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, the first-cycle pregnancy rates were 77%, 74%, and 56%, and early embryonic death rates were 15%, 13%, and 7%. In group 2 mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin post-mating, the pregnancy rate was 89% (39/44), whereas in mares treated with uterine lavage and 1 g ceftiofur, it was 60% (24/40). Of the oxytocin-treated mares, 18% (8/44) had ≥ 1 cm of intrauterine fluid or marked uterine edema, whereas 80% (32/40) of the antibiotic-treated mares did. In conclusion, intrauterine infusion of a 3.3% solution of NAC was not irritating and inhibited the oxidative burst of neutrophils. Repeat

  6. Phenotypes in phylogeography: Species' traits, environmental variation, and vertebrate diversification.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, Kelly R; Bell, Rayna C; Mason, Nicholas A

    2016-07-19

    Almost 30 y ago, the field of intraspecific phylogeography laid the foundation for spatially explicit and genealogically informed studies of population divergence. With new methods and markers, the focus in phylogeography shifted to previously unrecognized geographic genetic variation, thus reducing the attention paid to phenotypic variation in those same diverging lineages. Although phenotypic differences among lineages once provided the main data for studies of evolutionary change, the mechanisms shaping phenotypic differentiation and their integration with intraspecific genetic structure have been underexplored in phylogeographic studies. However, phenotypes are targets of selection and play important roles in species performance, recognition, and diversification. Here, we focus on three questions. First, how can phenotypes elucidate mechanisms underlying concordant or idiosyncratic responses of vertebrate species evolving in shared landscapes? Second, what mechanisms underlie the concordance or discordance of phenotypic and phylogeographic differentiation? Third, how can phylogeography contribute to our understanding of functional phenotypic evolution? We demonstrate that the integration of phenotypic data extends the reach of phylogeography to explain the origin and maintenance of biodiversity. Finally, we stress the importance of natural history collections as sources of high-quality phenotypic data that span temporal and spatial axes. PMID:27432983

  7. Phenotypes in phylogeography: Species’ traits, environmental variation, and vertebrate diversification

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Rayna C.; Mason, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Almost 30 y ago, the field of intraspecific phylogeography laid the foundation for spatially explicit and genealogically informed studies of population divergence. With new methods and markers, the focus in phylogeography shifted to previously unrecognized geographic genetic variation, thus reducing the attention paid to phenotypic variation in those same diverging lineages. Although phenotypic differences among lineages once provided the main data for studies of evolutionary change, the mechanisms shaping phenotypic differentiation and their integration with intraspecific genetic structure have been underexplored in phylogeographic studies. However, phenotypes are targets of selection and play important roles in species performance, recognition, and diversification. Here, we focus on three questions. First, how can phenotypes elucidate mechanisms underlying concordant or idiosyncratic responses of vertebrate species evolving in shared landscapes? Second, what mechanisms underlie the concordance or discordance of phenotypic and phylogeographic differentiation? Third, how can phylogeography contribute to our understanding of functional phenotypic evolution? We demonstrate that the integration of phenotypic data extends the reach of phylogeography to explain the origin and maintenance of biodiversity. Finally, we stress the importance of natural history collections as sources of high-quality phenotypic data that span temporal and spatial axes. PMID:27432983

  8. Speciation and phylogeography of giant petrels Macronectes.

    PubMed

    Techow, N M S M; O'Ryan, C; Phillips, R A; Gales, R; Marin, M; Patterson-Fraser, D; Quintana, F; Ritz, M S; Thompson, D R; Wanless, R M; Weimerskirch, H; Ryan, P G

    2010-02-01

    We examine global phylogeography of the two forms of giant petrel Macronectes spp. Although previously considered to be a single taxon, and despite debate over the status of some populations and the existence of minimal genetic data (one mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence per form), the current consensus based on morphology is that there are two species, Northern Giant Petrel M. halli and Southern Giant Petrel M. giganteus. This study examined genetic variation at cytochrome b as well as six microsatellite loci in giant petrels from 22 islands, representing most island groups at which the two species breed. Both markers support separate species status, although sequence divergence in cytochrome b was only 0.42% (corrected). Divergence was estimated to have occurred approximately 0.2mya, but with some colonies apparently separated for longer (up to 0.5 my). Three clades were found within giant petrels, which separated approximately 0.7mya, with the Southern Giant Petrel paraphyletic to a monophyletic Northern Giant Petrel. There was evidence of past fragmentation during the Pleistocene, with subsequent secondary contact within Southern Giant Petrels. The analysis also suggested a period of past population expansion that corresponded roughly to the timing of speciation and the separation of an ancestral giant petrel population from the fulmar Fulmarus clade. PMID:19755164

  9. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  10. Genetic relationships and reproductive-isolation mechanisms among the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Indonesia (Java) and other Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Djong, Tjong Hon; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Nishioka, Midori; Matsui, Masafumi; Ota, Hidetoshi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Khan, Md Mukhlesur Rahman; Alam, Mohammad Shafiqul; Anslem, De Silva; Khonsue, Wichase; Sumida, Masayuki

    2007-04-01

    In order to elucidate the genetic relationships and reproductive-isolation mechanisms among the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Indonesia and other Asian countries, allozyme analyses and crossing experiments were carried out using 208 individuals from 21 localities in eight Asian countries. The allozyme analyses revealed that 17 enzymes examined were controlled by genes at 27 loci, and that 7.9 phenotypes were produced by 5.2 alleles on average. The two species recognized in F. limnocharis sensu lato from Southeast Asia (i.e., F. limnocharis sensu stricto and F. iskandari) were found to occur sympatrically at three localities (Bogor, Cianjur and Malingping), all on Java, Indonesia. Fejervaya iskandari was dominant at each of these localities and showed substantial geographic genetic variation. Laboratory-produced hybrids between F. limnocharis and F. iskandari from Java became underdeveloped and died at the tadpole stage, suggesting that these species are completely isolated by hybrid inviability. Hybrids between topotypic F. limnocharis and the Malaysian and Japanese conspecific populations developed normally to metamorphosis. Likewise, hybrids between topotypic F. iskandari and the Thailand and Bangladesh conspecific populations also showed normal viability throughout larval development. The present allozyme analyses and crossing experiments strongly suggested the presence of two distinct forms, the large type and the small type, in the F. limnocharis complex from Asia, and further subdivision of the large type into the F. limnocharis assemblage and the F. iskandari assemblage. The small type was found in samples from India, Thailand, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and included at least three different species. The sample from Pilok, Thailand, was considered to represent an undescribed species.

  11. Gonadotropins and Growth Hormone Family Characterization in an Endangered Siluriform Species, Steindachneridion parahybae (Pimelodidae): Relationship With Annual Reproductive Cycle and Induced Spawning in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Caneppele, Danilo; Pandolfi, Matias; Nostro, Fabiana Laura Lo; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pituitary cells of Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, highlighting the possible relationship with reproductive disorders at this level, since this species shows oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning dysfunction in captivity. The localization and distribution of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), somatolactin (SL), β-luteinizing hormone (β-LH), and β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH) immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the adenohypophysis was studied by immunohistochemical and Western blot methods. In addition, cellular morphometric analyses and semi-quantification of ir-cells optical density (OD) during the annual reproductive cycle and after artificial induced spawning (AIS) were performed. Results showed that the distribution and general localization of pituitary cell types were similar to that of other teleost species. However, the morphometrical study of adenohypophysial cells showed differences along the reproductive cycle and following AIS. In general, females at the vitellogenic stage presented greater OD values for GH, PRL and SL than at other maturation stages (previtellogenic and regression stages), probably indicating an increased cellular activity during this stage. Conversely, β-LH OD did not vary during the annual reproductive cycle. After AIS, β-LH, SL and GH ir-cells showed an increase in OD values suggesting a possible involvement on oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning or a feedback control on the brain-pituitary-gonads axis. Reproductive dysfunction in S. parahybae females in captivity may be due to alteration of the synthesis pathways of β-LH. In addition, GH family of hormones could modulate associated mechanisms that influence the reproductive status in this species.

  12. The assesment of follicular fluid presepsin levels in poor ovarian responder womenandits relationship with the reproductive outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ovayolu, Ali; Özdamar, Özkan; Gün, İsmet; Arslanbuğa, Cansev Y; Kutlu, Tayfun; Tunalı, Gülden; Uluhan, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    A considerable proportion of all women undergoing IVFrespond poorly to gonadotropin stimulation. These women are reported to be associated with increased cancellation rates and lower pregnancy rates. It has been hypothesized that poor response to ovarian stimulation is a first sign of ovarian ageing or premature ovarian failure, which might be related to altered inflammatory response in the body. We aimed to compare follicular fluid presepsin levels between poor- and normo-responder patients to ovarian stimulation, to assess its relationship with reproductive outcomes. This study included infertility patients who underwent ovulation induction with either long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist protocols and who subsequently underwent IVF/ICSI. Included patients were assigned to two groups according to the Bologna criteria for poor ovarian response. Group 1 and 2 consisted of normo- and poor-responder patients, respectively.The 2 groups were compared in terms of FF presepsin levels. Also, any relationship between the FF presepsin levels and fertility outcomes was assessed within the groups. The groups were compared by using student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and X2 test, where appropriate. Pregnancy rates were not significantly different between the groups (22.6% and 17.6%; P=0.650, respectively). FF presepsin levels were higher in Group 1, however, the difference was not statistically significant (298.0±797.4 and 149.2±422.3; P=0.190, respectively). FF presepsin levels did not significantly differ between pregnancy positive and the pregnancy negative patients in both Group 1 (243.6±531.1 and 314.3±866.5; P=0.055, respectively) and Group 2 (112.2±79.8 and 157.1±464.3; P=0.394, respectively). Consequently, FF presepsin seems not to be a reliable marker in predicting pregnancy in both normo-responder and poor-responder infertility groups. PMID:26309683

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  14. The relationship of the female reproductive success of Eucalyptus globulus to the endogenous properties of the flower.

    PubMed

    Suitor, Shaun; Potts, B M; Brown, P H; Gracie, A J; Gore, P L

    2009-03-01

    Low capsule and seed set is a major factor limiting seed production in Eucalyptus globulus seed orchards. Controlled pollination studies showed that the reproductive success (number of seeds produced per flower pollinated) was primarily determined by the female. We aimed to identify the factors contributing to the differences in reproductive success between female genotypes in terms of the physical and anatomical properties of the flower. We studied pairs of genotypes of high and low reproductive success from each of three races (Furneaux Group, Strzelecki Ranges and Western Otways) growing in a seed orchard. Controlled pollinations were performed on six females and along with flower physical measurements, pollen tube growth and seed set were assessed. Overall tree reproductive success was positively correlated with flower size, ovule numbers, style size, cross-sectional area of conductive tissue within the style (all of which were inter-correlated) and the proportion of pollen tubes reaching the bottom of the style. Significant positive correlations of reproductive success and flower physical properties between different ramets of the same genotypes across seasons suggests a genetic basis to the variation observed. The majority of pollen tube attrition occurred within the first millimetre of the cut style and appeared to be associated with differences in style physiology. When examined as pairs within races the difference in reproductive success for the Western Otways pair was simply explained by differences in flower size and the number of ovules per flower. Physical features did not differ significantly for the Strzelecki Ranges pair, but the proportion of pollen tubes reaching the bottom of the style was lower in the less reproductively successful genotype, suggesting an endogenous physiological constraint to pollen tube growth. The difference in reproductive success between the females from the Furneaux Group was associated with a combination of these factors.

  15. The relationship between self-report and biomarkers of stress in low-income, reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Ann E.B; Grobman, William A.; Amsden, Laura B.; McDade, Thomas W.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Holl, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if there is an association between self-reported and biologic measures of stress in low-income, reproductive age women. STUDY DESIGN Between 1999 and 2005, randomly selected reproductive age women from the 1998 welfare rolls in Chicago were interviewed yearly to assess psychosocial, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. The association of two stress sensitive biomarkers (Epstein-Barr virus antibody titer (EBV) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level) with self-reported stress was assessed. RESULTS Of the 206 women interviewed, 205 (99%) agreed to provide a blood sample. There was no difference in mean EBV or CRP levels based on age, race, parity, employment, marital status, or education. Women who reported a higher degree of perceived stress or reported experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of EBV (p < .05). CONCLUSION Measures of self-reported psychosocial stress are associated with elevated levels EBV antibody in a low-income population of reproductive age women. PMID:20870203

  16. Population genetics and phylogeography of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Bowen, B W; Karl, S A

    2007-12-01

    The seven species of sea turtles occupy a diversity of niches, and have a history tracing back over 100 million years, yet all share basic life-history features, including exceptional navigation skills and periodic migrations from feeding to breeding habitats. Here, we review the biogeographic, behavioural, and ecological factors that shape the distribution of genetic diversity in sea turtles. Natal homing, wherein turtles return to their region of origin for mating and nesting, has been demonstrated with mtDNA sequences. These maternally inherited markers show strong population structure among nesting colonies while nuclear loci reveal a contrasting pattern of male-mediated gene flow, a phenomenon termed 'complex population structure'. Mixed-stock analyses indicate that multiple nesting colonies can contribute to feeding aggregates, such that exploitation of turtles in these habitats can reduce breeding populations across the region. The mtDNA data also demonstrate migrations across entire ocean basins, some of the longest movements of marine vertebrates. Multiple paternity occurs at reported rates of 0-100%, and can vary by as much as 9-100% within species. Hybridization in almost every combination among members of the Cheloniidae has been documented but the frequency and ultimate ramifications of hybridization are not clear. The global phylogeography of sea turtles reveals a gradient based on habitat preference and thermal regime. The cold-tolerant leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) shows no evolutionary partitions between Indo-Pacific and Atlantic populations, while the tropical green (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), and ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea vs. L. kempi) have ancient separations between oceans. Ridleys and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) also show more recent colonization between ocean basins, probably mediated by warm-water gyres that occasionally traverse the frigid upwelling zone in southern Africa. These rare events may

  17. A statistical phylogeography of influenza A H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Robert G.; HoDac, HoangMinh; Lathrop, Richard H.; Fitch, Walter M.

    2007-01-01

    The geographic diffusion of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 has largely been traced from the perspective of the virus's victims. Birds of a variety of avian orders have been sampled across localities, and their infection has been identified by a general genetic test. Another approach tracks the migration from the perspective of the virus alone, by way of a phylogeography of H5N1 genetic sequences. Although several phylogenies in the literature have labeled H5N1 clades by geographic region, none has analytically inferred the history of the virus's migration. With a statistical phylogeography of 192 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase isolates, we show that the Chinese province of Guangdong is the source of multiple H5N1 strains spreading at both regional and international scales. In contrast, Indochina appears to be a regional sink, at the same time demonstrating bidirectional dispersal among localities within the region. An evolutionary trace of HA1 across the phylogeography suggests a mechanism by which H5N1 is able to infect repeated cycles of host species across localities, regardless of the host species first infected in each locale. The trace also hypothesizes amino acid replacements that preceded the first recorded outbreak of pathogenic H5N1 in Hong Kong, 1997. PMID:17360548

  18. Work and Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Prossin, Albert

    1986-01-01

    This article presents a short overview of the area of work effects on reproduction. Much speculation and confusion exist in this area of the relationship between the physical and social effects of work and the health of the elements of reproduction. Fulfilling the need for increased resources for research in this challenging and interesting area is most desirable. PMID:21267324

  19. Innervation of vas deferens and accessory male genital glands in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Neurochemical characteristics and relationships to the reproductive activity.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Nicola; Squillacioti, Caterina; Varricchio, Ettore; Genovese, Angelo; Paino, Giuseppe

    2003-05-01

    Autonomic nerves supplying mammalian male internal genital organs have an important role in the regulation of reproductive function. To find out the relationships between the neurochemical content of these nerves and the reproductive activity, we performed a histochemical and immunohistochemical study in a species, the water buffalo, exhibiting a seasonal sexual behaviour. The distribution of noradrenergic and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- and peptide-containing nerves was evaluated during the mating and non-mating periods. Fresh segments of vas deferens and accessory genital glands were collected immediately after slaughter and immersed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Frozen sections were obtained and processed according to single and double labelling immunofluorescent procedures or NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. During the mating period, a dense noradrenergic innervation was observed to supply the vas deferens as well as the accessory genital glands. NOS- and peptide-containing nerves were also observed but with a lower density. During the non-mating period noradrenergic nerves dramatically reduced. In addition, neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-containing nerves were also reduced. These findings suggest the presence of complex interactions between androgen hormones and the autonomic nerve supply in the regulation of male water buffalo reproductive functions.

  20. Comparative phylogeography clarifies the complexity and problems of continental distribution that drove A. R. Wallace to favor islands

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering the geographic context of diversification and distributional dynamics in continental biotas has long been an interest of biogeographers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. Thirty years ago, the approach now known as comparative phylogeography was introduced in a landmark study of a continental biota. Here, I use a set of 455 studies to explore the current scope of continental comparative phylogeography, including geographic, conceptual, temporal, ecological, and genomic attributes. Geographically, studies are more frequent in the northern hemisphere, but the south is catching up. Most studies focus on a Quaternary timeframe, but the Neogene is well represented. As such, explanations for geographic structure and history include geological and climatic events in Earth history, and responses include vicariance, dispersal, and range contraction-expansion into and out of refugia. Focal taxa are biased toward terrestrial or semiterrestrial vertebrates, although plants and invertebrates are well represented in some regions. The use of various kinds of nuclear DNA markers is increasing, as are multiple locus studies, but use of organelle DNA is not decreasing. Species distribution models are not yet widely incorporated into studies. In the future, continental comparative phylogeographers will continue to contribute to erosion of the simple vicariance vs. dispersal paradigm, including exposure of the widespread nature of temporal pseudocongruence and its implications for models of diversification; provide new templates for addressing a variety of ecological and evolutionary traits; and develop closer working relationships with earth scientists and biologists in a variety of disciplines. PMID:27432953

  1. Comparative phylogeography clarifies the complexity and problems of continental distribution that drove A. R. Wallace to favor islands.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Brett R

    2016-07-19

    Deciphering the geographic context of diversification and distributional dynamics in continental biotas has long been an interest of biogeographers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. Thirty years ago, the approach now known as comparative phylogeography was introduced in a landmark study of a continental biota. Here, I use a set of 455 studies to explore the current scope of continental comparative phylogeography, including geographic, conceptual, temporal, ecological, and genomic attributes. Geographically, studies are more frequent in the northern hemisphere, but the south is catching up. Most studies focus on a Quaternary timeframe, but the Neogene is well represented. As such, explanations for geographic structure and history include geological and climatic events in Earth history, and responses include vicariance, dispersal, and range contraction-expansion into and out of refugia. Focal taxa are biased toward terrestrial or semiterrestrial vertebrates, although plants and invertebrates are well represented in some regions. The use of various kinds of nuclear DNA markers is increasing, as are multiple locus studies, but use of organelle DNA is not decreasing. Species distribution models are not yet widely incorporated into studies. In the future, continental comparative phylogeographers will continue to contribute to erosion of the simple vicariance vs. dispersal paradigm, including exposure of the widespread nature of temporal pseudocongruence and its implications for models of diversification; provide new templates for addressing a variety of ecological and evolutionary traits; and develop closer working relationships with earth scientists and biologists in a variety of disciplines. PMID:27432953

  2. Growth characteristics, reproductive performance, and evaluation of their associative relationships in Brangus cattle managed in a Chihuahuan Desert production system1.

    PubMed

    Luna-Nevarez, P; Bailey, D W; Bailey, C C; VanLeeuwen, D M; Enns, R M; Silver, G A; DeAtley, K L; Thomas, M G

    2010-05-01

    Balancing growth and reproductive performance in beef cattle managed in desert environments is challenging. Our objectives were to 1) evaluate trends in growth and reproductive traits, and 2) assess associative relationships between growth characteristics and reproductive performance in a Brangus herd managed in a Chihuahuan Desert production system from 1972 to 2006. Data were from bull (n = 597) and heifer calves (n = 585; 1988 to 2006) and cows (n = 525; repeated records of cows, n = 2,611; 1972 to 2006). Variables describing the growth curve of each cow were estimated using a nonlinear logistic function (each cow needed 6 yr of data). Mixed-effect models and logistic regression were used to analyze trends across years in growth and reproductive traits (both continuous and categorical). For continuous traits of calves, a slight cubic response (P < 0.01) described the dynamics of birth weight, 205-d BW, and 365-d BW across years. For categorical traits of females, positive linear trends (P < 0.05) across years were observed in percent pregnant as yearlings, calved at 2 yr of age, and first-calf heifer rebreeding (slopes ranged from 0.007 to 0.014%/yr). Autumn cow BW increased gradually until 1997 (509 kg +/- 8.8) and then decreased gradually by 0.6 kg/yr, whereas pregnancy percentage decreased gradually until 1995 (78.4% +/- 1.0) and then increased slightly by 0.2%/yr. A quadratic effect best described the dynamics of these 2 variables across years (P < 0.01) as well as estimates describing the growth curve of each cow. Specifically, asymptotic BW and age increased (P < 0.05) from 1972 to 1983 and 1990, respectively. Asymptotic age then decreased by 27% from 1983 to 1996 (P < 0.05). The maturing rate index was negatively correlated with age at first calving and calving interval (r = -0.42 and -0.18, P < 0.01), which suggested that early-maturing cows had enhanced fertility in this environment and production system. In summary, minimal changes were observed in

  3. Reproductive success of kittiwakes and murres in sequential stages of the nesting period: Relationships with diet and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Heather M.; Drummond, Brie A.; Benson, Anna-Marie; Paredes, Rosana

    2014-11-01

    Reproductive success is one of the most easily-measured and widely studied demographic parameters of colonial nesting seabirds. Nevertheless, factors affecting the sequential stages (egg laying, incubation, chick-rearing) of reproductive success are less understood. We investigated the separate sequential stages of reproductive success in piscivorous black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) using a 36-year dataset (1975-2010) on the major Pribilof Islands (St. Paul and St. George), which have recently had contrasting population trajectories. Our objectives were to evaluate how the proportion of successful nests varied among stages, and to quantify factors influencing the probability of nest success at each stage in each island. We modeled the probability of nest success at each stage using General Linear Mixed Models incorporating broad-scale and local climate variables, and diet as covariates as well as other measures of reproduction such as timing of breeding and reproductive output in the previous year and previous stage. For both species we found: (1) Success in previous stages of the breeding cycle and success in the prior year better explained overall success than any environmental variables. Phenology was also an important predictor of laying success for kittiwakes. (2) Fledging success was lower when chick diets contained oceanic fish found farther from the colonies and small invertebrates, rather than coastal fish species. (3) Differences in reproductive variables at St. Paul and St. George islands did not correspond to population trends between the two islands. Our results highlight the potential importance of adult condition and annual survival to kittiwake and murre productivity and ultimately, populations. Adult condition carrying over from the previous year ultimately seems to drive annual breeding success in a cascade effect. Furthermore, condition and survival appear to be important contributors to population

  4. Reciprocal relationships between behaviour and parasites suggest that negative feedback may drive flexibility in male reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Snider, Matthew H

    2016-05-25

    Parasites are ubiquitous components of the environment that contribute to behavioural and life-history variation among hosts. Although it is well known that host behaviour can affect parasite infection risk and that parasites can alter host behaviour, the potential for dynamic feedback between these processes is poorly characterized. Using Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) as a model, we tested for reciprocal effects of behaviour on parasites and parasites on behaviour to understand whether behaviour-parasite feedback could play a role in maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour. Adult male gazelles either defend territories to attract mates or reside in bachelor groups. Territoriality is highly variable both within- and between-individuals, suggesting that territory maintenance is costly. Using a combination of longitudinal and experimental studies, we found that individual males transition frequently between territorial and bachelor reproductive status, and that elevated parasite burdens are a cost of territoriality. Moreover, among territorial males, parasites suppress aspects of behaviour related to territory maintenance and defence. These results suggest that territorial behaviour promotes the accumulation of parasites in males, and these parasites dampen the very behaviours required for territory maintenance. Our findings suggest that reciprocal feedback between host behaviour and parasitism could be a mechanism maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour in the system. PMID:27194703

  5. Reciprocal relationships between behaviour and parasites suggest that negative feedback may drive flexibility in male reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Snider, Matthew H

    2016-05-25

    Parasites are ubiquitous components of the environment that contribute to behavioural and life-history variation among hosts. Although it is well known that host behaviour can affect parasite infection risk and that parasites can alter host behaviour, the potential for dynamic feedback between these processes is poorly characterized. Using Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) as a model, we tested for reciprocal effects of behaviour on parasites and parasites on behaviour to understand whether behaviour-parasite feedback could play a role in maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour. Adult male gazelles either defend territories to attract mates or reside in bachelor groups. Territoriality is highly variable both within- and between-individuals, suggesting that territory maintenance is costly. Using a combination of longitudinal and experimental studies, we found that individual males transition frequently between territorial and bachelor reproductive status, and that elevated parasite burdens are a cost of territoriality. Moreover, among territorial males, parasites suppress aspects of behaviour related to territory maintenance and defence. These results suggest that territorial behaviour promotes the accumulation of parasites in males, and these parasites dampen the very behaviours required for territory maintenance. Our findings suggest that reciprocal feedback between host behaviour and parasitism could be a mechanism maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour in the system.

  6. Multi-model inference in comparative phylogeography: an integrative approach based on multiple lines of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Collevatti, Rosane G.; Terribile, Levi C.; Diniz-Filho, José A. F.; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography has its roots in classical biogeography and, historically, relies on a pattern-based approach. Here, we present a model-based framework for comparative phylogeography. Our framework was initially developed for statistical phylogeography based on a multi-model inference approach, by coupling ecological niche modeling, coalescent simulation and direct spatio-temporal reconstruction of lineage diffusion using a relaxed random walk model. This multi-model inference framework is particularly useful to investigate the complex dynamics and current patterns in genetic diversity in response to processes operating on multiple taxonomic levels in comparative phylogeography. In addition, because of the lack, or incompleteness of fossil record, the understanding of the role of biogeographical events (vicariance and dispersal routes) in most regions worldwide is barely known. Thus, we believe that the expansion of that framework for multiple species under a comparative approach may give clues on genetic legacies in response to Quaternary climate changes and other biogeographical processes. PMID:25741360

  7. Multi-model inference in comparative phylogeography: an integrative approach based on multiple lines of evidence.

    PubMed

    Collevatti, Rosane G; Terribile, Levi C; Diniz-Filho, José A F; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S

    2015-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography has its roots in classical biogeography and, historically, relies on a pattern-based approach. Here, we present a model-based framework for comparative phylogeography. Our framework was initially developed for statistical phylogeography based on a multi-model inference approach, by coupling ecological niche modeling, coalescent simulation and direct spatio-temporal reconstruction of lineage diffusion using a relaxed random walk model. This multi-model inference framework is particularly useful to investigate the complex dynamics and current patterns in genetic diversity in response to processes operating on multiple taxonomic levels in comparative phylogeography. In addition, because of the lack, or incompleteness of fossil record, the understanding of the role of biogeographical events (vicariance and dispersal routes) in most regions worldwide is barely known. Thus, we believe that the expansion of that framework for multiple species under a comparative approach may give clues on genetic legacies in response to Quaternary climate changes and other biogeographical processes. PMID:25741360

  8. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Shannon N.; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24852723

  9. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shannon N; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses.

  10. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shannon N; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24852723

  11. Relationship between body condition score at calving and reproductive performance in young postpartum cows grazing native range.

    PubMed

    Mulliniks, J T; Cox, S H; Kemp, M E; Endecott, R L; Waterman, R C; Vanleeuwen, D M; Petersen, M K

    2012-08-01

    Body condition score is used as a management tool to predict competency of reproduction in beef cows. Therefore, a retrospective study was performed to evaluate association of BCS at calving with subsequent pregnancy rate, days to first postpartum ovulation, nutrient status (assessed by blood metabolites), and calf BW change in 2- and 3-yr-old cows (n = 351) managed and selected to fit their environment of grazing native range over 6 yr at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center, Corona, NM. Cows were managed similarly before calving, without manipulation of management, to achieve predetermined BCS at parturition. Palpable BCS (scale of 1 to 9) were determined by 2 experienced technicians before calving. Cows were classified to 1 of 3 BCS groups prior calving: BCS 4 (mean BCS = 4.3 ± 0.02), 5 (mean BCS = 5.0 ± 0.03), or 6 (mean BCS = 5.8 ± 0.06). Cows were weighed weekly after calving and serum was collected once weekly (1 yr) or twice weekly (5 yr) for progesterone analysis to estimate first postpartum ovulation beginning 35 d postpartum. Year effects also were evaluated, with years identified as either above or below average precipitation. Days to first postpartum ovulation did not differ among calving BCS groups (P = 0.93). Pregnancy rates were not influenced by calving BCS (P = 0.83; 92%, 91%, 90% for BCS 4, 5, and 6, respectively). Days to BW nadir was not influenced by BCS at calving (P = 0.95). Cow BW was different at all measuring points (P < 0.01) with BCS 6 cows having the heaviest BW and cows with BCS 4 the lightest. Cows with calving BCS 4 and 5 lost more (P = 0.06) BW from the initiation of the study to the end of breeding than cows with BCS 6. However, cow BW change at all other measurement periods was not different (P ≥ 0.49) among calving BCS groups. Serum glucose and NEFA concentrations were not influenced by calving BCS (P ≥ 0.51). Calf BW at birth (P = 0.60), branding (55-d BW; P = 0.76), and weaning (205-d BW; P = 0.60) were not

  12. The relationship between growth hormone polymorphism and growth hormone receptor genes with milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Z; Atashi, H; Dadpasand, M; Derakhshandeh, A; Ghahramani Seno, M. M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between growth hormone GH/AluI and growth hormone receptor GHR/AluI polymorphisms with milk yield and reproductive performances in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. Blood samples of 150 Holstein cows were collected and their genomic DNA was extracted using Gene-Fanavaran DNA extracting kit. Fragments of the 428 bp of exon 5 growth hormone (GH) gene and the 342 bp of exon 10 growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. PCR products were digested by the AluI restriction enzyme and electrophoresed on 3% agarose gel. Continuous and categorical data were analyzed using linear mixed models through Proc MIXED and logistic regression models through Proc GENMOD of SAS software, respectively. The results showed no relationship between the examined traits and GH/AluI or GHR/AluI genes. A significant relationship was found between GH/AluI polymorphism and dystocia, but the presence of the GH-L allele reduced the incidence of dystocia. The results suggest that the GH-LL genotype reduces dystocia probably by affecting the release of growth hormone; nevertheless, further studies will be needed to examine the relationship between dystocia and GH genotypes. PMID:27175183

  13. Phylogeography, Salinity Adaptations and Metabolic Potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria Based on a Partial Single Cell Genome.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Lisa M; Hyde, Andrew S; MacGregor, Barbara J; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis - previously developed based on (14)C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines - that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source. PMID:27597842

  14. Phylogeography, Salinity Adaptations and Metabolic Potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria Based on a Partial Single Cell Genome

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Lisa M.; Hyde, Andrew S.; MacGregor, Barbara J.; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis – previously developed based on 14C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines – that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source.

  15. Phylogeography and the conservation of coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, L. A.; Craig, M. T.; Bowen, B. W.

    2007-09-01

    Here we present a review of how the study of the geographic distribution of genetic lineages (phylogeography) has helped identify management units, evolutionary significant units, cryptic species, and areas of endemism, and how this information can help efforts to achieve effective conservation of coral reefs. These studies have confirmed the major biogeographic barriers that were originally identified by tropical species distributions. Ancient separations, identified primarily with mtDNA sequence comparisons, became apparent between populations on each side of the barriers. The general lack of correlation between pelagic larval duration and genetic connectivity across barriers indicates that life history and ecology can be as influential as oceanography and geography in shaping evolutionary partitions within ocean basins. Hence, conservation strategies require a recognition of ecological hotspots, those areas where habitat heterogeneity promotes speciation, in addition to more traditional approaches based on biogeography. Finally, the emerging field of genomics will add a new dimension to phylogeography, allowing the study of genes that are pertinent to recent and ongoing differentiation, and ultimately providing higher resolution to detect evolutionary significant units that have diverged in an ecological time scale.

  16. Relationship between Body Weight of Primiparous Sows during Late Gestation and Subsequent Reproductive Efficiency over Six Parities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Soo; Yang, Xiaojian; Baidoo, Samuel Kofi

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the impact of parity 1 gilt body weight during late gestation (d 109) on subsequent reproductive performance of sows and performance of suckling pigs. A total of 2,404 farrowing records over 6 parities were divided into six groups on the basis of body weight (190, 200, 210, 220, 230, and 240 kg) at d 109 of gestation of 585 gilts. Significant effects (p< 0.05) of body weight on sow retention rate was noticed, with the 210 kg group having the lowest culling rate and highest total number of piglets born alive over the 6 parities. With increase of body weight, a linear increase (p<0.05) in losses of body weight and backfat during the lactation period of parity 1 and a linear decrease (p<0.05) in backfat loss for parities 4 and 6 were found. Compared with light sows, heavy sows had higher (p<0.05) litter weight at birth for parities 1 and 2 and at weaning in parity 1. Sow weaning-to-estrus interval of sows was not influenced (p>0.05) by body weight. In conclusion, maintaining optimal body weight during gestation would be beneficial to sows and suckling piglets.

  17. Female reproductive organs and breast cancer mortality in New Jersey counties and the relationship with certain environmental variables

    SciTech Connect

    Najem, G.R.; Greer, T.W.

    1985-09-01

    Age-adjusted female reproductive organs and breast cancer mortality rates (all sites combined) were higher in 19 of 21 New Jersey counties than the U.S. national rates. Compared with national trends, New Jersey cervical cancer and corpus uteri rates have declined less than the national rate among all races. Ovarian and breast cancer rates have not changed over the years, a pattern similar to that of the nation. New Jersey cancer mortality rates during the period 1968-1977 that highly significantly (P less than 0.0005) exceeded national rates were cancers of the cervix in 2 counties among whites and in one county among nonwhites; of the corpus uteri and uterus not specified in 3 counties among whites; of the ovaries in 3 counties among whites; and of the breast in 10 counties among whites. The overall New Jersey cancer mortality significantly (P less than 0.0005) exceeded national rates for ovarian cancer among whites and nonwhites and for breast cancer among whites. Statistically significant and positive correlations were found between breast cancer mortality and chemical toxic waste disposal sites, annual per capita income, urbanization index, and population density among whites in 21 New Jersey counties. Ovarian cancer mortality was also significantly and positively correlated with annual per capita income, and negatively with birth defects. Cervical cancer mortality showed a significant negative correlation with annual per capita income and a significant positive correlation with birth defects and low birth weight among nonwhites in 21 New Jersey counties.

  18. Relationship between Body Weight of Primiparous Sows during Late Gestation and Subsequent Reproductive Efficiency over Six Parities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Yang, Xiaojian; Baidoo, Samuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of parity 1 gilt body weight during late gestation (d 109) on subsequent reproductive performance of sows and performance of suckling pigs. A total of 2,404 farrowing records over 6 parities were divided into six groups on the basis of body weight (190, 200, 210, 220, 230, and 240 kg) at d 109 of gestation of 585 gilts. Significant effects (p< 0.05) of body weight on sow retention rate was noticed, with the 210 kg group having the lowest culling rate and highest total number of piglets born alive over the 6 parities. With increase of body weight, a linear increase (p<0.05) in losses of body weight and backfat during the lactation period of parity 1 and a linear decrease (p<0.05) in backfat loss for parities 4 and 6 were found. Compared with light sows, heavy sows had higher (p<0.05) litter weight at birth for parities 1 and 2 and at weaning in parity 1. Sow weaning-to-estrus interval of sows was not influenced (p>0.05) by body weight. In conclusion, maintaining optimal body weight during gestation would be beneficial to sows and suckling piglets. PMID:26954198

  19. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  20. New insights on postglacial colonization in western Europe: the phylogeography of the Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri)

    PubMed Central

    Boston, Emma S. M.; Ian Montgomery, W.; Hynes, Rosaleen; Prodöhl, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of the interplay between a dynamic physical environment and phylogeography in Europe, the origins of contemporary Irish biota remain uncertain. Current thinking is that Ireland was colonized post-glacially from southern European refugia, following the end of the last glacial maximum (LGM), some 20 000 years BP. The Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri), one of the few native Irish mammal species, is widely distributed throughout Europe but, with the exception of Ireland, is generally rare and considered vulnerable. We investigate the origins and phylogeographic relationships of Irish populations in relation to those across Europe, including the closely related species N. azoreum. We use a combination of approaches, including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, in addition to approximate Bayesian computation and palaeo-climatic species distribution modelling. Molecular analyses revealed two distinct and diverse European mitochondrial DNA lineages, which probably diverged in separate glacial refugia. A western lineage, restricted to Ireland, Britain and the Azores, comprises Irish and British N. leisleri and N. azoreum specimens; an eastern lineage is distributed throughout mainland Europe. Palaeo-climatic projections indicate suitable habitats during the LGM, including known glacial refugia, in addition to potential novel cryptic refugia along the western fringe of Europe. These results may be applicable to populations of many species. PMID:25716786

  1. Phylogeography of a post-glacial colonizer: Microtus longicaudus (Rodentia: muridae).

    PubMed

    Conroy, C J; Cook, J A

    2000-02-01

    The molecular phylogeography of Microtus longicaudus was investigated with DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We used phylogenetic and pairwise distance methods to reconstruct the history of the species with particular emphasis on the Pacific Northwest. Genetic variation across the species was consistent with vicariant events during the Pleistocene and subsequent northern postglacial expansion following the receding Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. The largest break (> 6% uncorrected sequence divergence) was found to exist between populations found southeast of the Colorado River (eastern Arizona, Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico) and all other western populations. Other well-supported subclades were composed of samples from: (i) the islands and north coast of southeast Alaska; (ii) eastern Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon; and (iii) northern California, Idaho and Montana. Within subclades, divergence was low. Our results suggest that the close relationships among haplotypes within northern subclades are a result of recent colonization, whereas higher among-subclade divergence is caused by genetic differentiation during prolonged periods of isolation, possibly as a result of mid-Pleistocene climatic events. PMID:10672160

  2. Cryptic diversity and comparative phylogeography of the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa on the US Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Hare, Matthew P

    2011-06-01

    Unexpectedly strong geographic structures in many cosmopolitan species of marine holoplankton challenge the traditional view of their unrestrained dispersal and presumably high gene flow. We investigated cryptic lineage diversity and comparative phylogeography of a common estuarine copepod, Acartia tonsa, on the US Atlantic coast, using mitochondrial (mtCOI) and nuclear (nITS) gene markers. Three broadly sympatric lineages (F, S, X) were defined by genealogically concordant clades across both gene trees, strongly supporting recognition as reproductively isolated species. Limited dispersal seems to have had a major role in population differentiation of A. tonsa in general, with gene flow propensities rank ordered X > S > F. Geographic structure was found only at large scales (1000-2000 km) in X and S. Phylogeographic patterns in all three lineages were mostly concordant with previously recognized zoogeographic provinces but a large mid-Atlantic gap in the occurrence of lineage X, coupled with its presence in Europe, suggests possible nonindigenous origins. For lineage F, physiological adaptation to low-salinity environments is likely to have accentuated barriers to gene flow and allopatric differentiation at both regional and continental scales. Three allopatric F sublineages inferred a southern centre of origin and a stepwise northward diversification history at the continental scale. The most recently derived F sublineages, in the mid-Atlantic Bight, showed strong phylogeographic patterns at nITS albeit weaker at mtCOI. Applying a crustacean mtCOI molecular clock suggests that A. tonsa lineages diverged pre-Pleistocene but mid-Atlantic F lineage diversification may be post-Pleistocene.

  3. Relationship of concentrations of cortisol in hair with health, biomarkers in blood, and reproductive status in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Nadalin, Audrey; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol has been used to measure chronic stress in dairy cows as it offers the advantage of being noninvasive, fast, and able to indicate levels of cortisol over long periods. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between hair cortisol with clinical disorders, reproductive status, and the development of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the association between hair cortisol concentrations and blood markers associated with metabolic status and acute inflammation. In experiment 1, cows (n=64) were hair sampled every 3wk from the tail switch beginning at calving (d 0) until d 126 for cortisol analysis; blood samples were collected every 3wk from d 0 until 42 for β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose analysis. In experiment 2, cows (n=54) were chosen retrospectively by diagnosis of subclinical endometritis (END), subclinical endometritis and at least 1 clinical disease (END+CLIN), or as healthy (control) using a cytobrush and ultrasonography at 30±3d in milk. At the same time, animals were hair sampled for cortisol analysis and blood sampled for haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin analysis. Health records were recorded throughout both experimental periods. Animals with clinical disease presented higher cortisol concentrations than clinically healthy animals in experiment 1 [geometric mean (95% confidence interval); 8.8 (7.8, 9.9) vs. 10.7 (9.6, 12.0) pg/mg]; however, animals diagnosed with subclinical endometritis in experiment 2 did not differ in hair cortisol concentrations [11.7 (9.8, 14.0), 12.2 (9.3, 15.9), 10.5 (8.1, 13.6) pg/mg for control, END, and END+CLIN, respectively]. In experiment 1, an effect of sample day was noted, where d 21 had higher cortisol concentrations than d 42, 84, and 126, but not from d 0 for both parities. Within both experiments, a parity effect was present where multiparous animals consistently had higher cortisol concentrations than primiparous animals. Multiparous cows that became

  4. Relationship of concentrations of cortisol in hair with health, biomarkers in blood, and reproductive status in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Nadalin, Audrey; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol has been used to measure chronic stress in dairy cows as it offers the advantage of being noninvasive, fast, and able to indicate levels of cortisol over long periods. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between hair cortisol with clinical disorders, reproductive status, and the development of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the association between hair cortisol concentrations and blood markers associated with metabolic status and acute inflammation. In experiment 1, cows (n=64) were hair sampled every 3wk from the tail switch beginning at calving (d 0) until d 126 for cortisol analysis; blood samples were collected every 3wk from d 0 until 42 for β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose analysis. In experiment 2, cows (n=54) were chosen retrospectively by diagnosis of subclinical endometritis (END), subclinical endometritis and at least 1 clinical disease (END+CLIN), or as healthy (control) using a cytobrush and ultrasonography at 30±3d in milk. At the same time, animals were hair sampled for cortisol analysis and blood sampled for haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin analysis. Health records were recorded throughout both experimental periods. Animals with clinical disease presented higher cortisol concentrations than clinically healthy animals in experiment 1 [geometric mean (95% confidence interval); 8.8 (7.8, 9.9) vs. 10.7 (9.6, 12.0) pg/mg]; however, animals diagnosed with subclinical endometritis in experiment 2 did not differ in hair cortisol concentrations [11.7 (9.8, 14.0), 12.2 (9.3, 15.9), 10.5 (8.1, 13.6) pg/mg for control, END, and END+CLIN, respectively]. In experiment 1, an effect of sample day was noted, where d 21 had higher cortisol concentrations than d 42, 84, and 126, but not from d 0 for both parities. Within both experiments, a parity effect was present where multiparous animals consistently had higher cortisol concentrations than primiparous animals. Multiparous cows that became

  5. Comparative phylogeography of Mississippi embayment fishes.

    PubMed

    Egge, Jacob J D; Hagbo, Taylor J

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi Embayment is a prominent physiographic feature of eastern North America consisting of primarily lowland aquatic habitats and a fish fauna that is largely distinct from nearby highland regions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene events have had a strong influence on the distributions and relationships of highland fishes in eastern North America. However, the extent to which these same events affected Embayment distributed taxa remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative roles of pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene events in shaping phylogeographic relationships of four stream dwelling fishes in the Mississippi Embayment. Molecular genetic analyses of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b were performed for three ictalurid catfish species (Noturus miurus, n = 67; Noturus hildebrandi, n = 93, and Noturus phaeus, n = 44) and one minnow species (Cyprinella camura, n = 78), all distributed in tributary streams of the Mississippi Embayment. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among haplotypes for each species were estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 6 major haplotype clades within N. miurus, 5 within N. hildbrandi, 8 within N. phaeus, and 8 within C. camura. All three Noturus species show a high degree of isolation by drainage, which is less evident in C. camura. A clade of haplotypes from tributaries in the southern portion of the Mississippi Embayment was consistently recovered in all four species. Divergence times among clades spanned the Pleistocene, Pliocene, and Miocene. Novel relationships presented here for C. camura and N. phaeus suggest the potential for cryptic species. Pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene era sea level fluctuations coincide with some divergence events, but no single event explains any common divergence across all taxa. Like their highland relatives, a combination of both pre-Pleistocene and

  6. Comparative Phylogeography of Mississippi Embayment Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Egge, Jacob J. D.; Hagbo, Taylor J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi Embayment is a prominent physiographic feature of eastern North America consisting of primarily lowland aquatic habitats and a fish fauna that is largely distinct from nearby highland regions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene events have had a strong influence on the distributions and relationships of highland fishes in eastern North America. However, the extent to which these same events affected Embayment distributed taxa remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative roles of pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene events in shaping phylogeographic relationships of four stream dwelling fishes in the Mississippi Embayment. Molecular genetic analyses of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b were performed for three ictalurid catfish species (Noturus miurus, n = 67; Noturus hildebrandi, n = 93, and Noturus phaeus, n = 44) and one minnow species (Cyprinella camura, n = 78), all distributed in tributary streams of the Mississippi Embayment. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among haplotypes for each species were estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 6 major haplotype clades within N. miurus, 5 within N. hildbrandi, 8 within N. phaeus, and 8 within C. camura. All three Noturus species show a high degree of isolation by drainage, which is less evident in C. camura. A clade of haplotypes from tributaries in the southern portion of the Mississippi Embayment was consistently recovered in all four species. Divergence times among clades spanned the Pleistocene, Pliocene, and Miocene. Novel relationships presented here for C. camura and N. phaeus suggest the potential for cryptic species. Pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene era sea level fluctuations coincide with some divergence events, but no single event explains any common divergence across all taxa. Like their highland relatives, a combination of both pre-Pleistocene and

  7. Leptin in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Caprio, M; Fabbrini, E; Isidori, A M; Aversa, A; Fabbri, A

    2001-03-01

    In mammals, the function of the reproductive system is dependent on the availability of energy in the environment. It is well established that acute modifications of energy balance modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In several species, fasting and caloric restriction have been shown to cause the suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion, via an inhibition of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator. Such a mechanism probably prevents energy being wasted for reproduction. By contrast, excessive energy storage and obesity interfere with the correct regulation of the reproductive axis. The identification of leptin and leptin receptors, along with studies performed in animal models of leptin deficiency and resistance, has focused attention on the role of this molecule in reproduction, and disclosed new aspects of the relationship between energy stores, adipose tissue and reproductive function. Here, we discuss the central and peripheral effects of leptin on reproductive tissues, and try to fit a complex reality into a simplified model. In particular, the roles of leptin in reproduction at different anatomical levels and in various clinical and experimental settings are discussed.

  8. Size-dependent reproductive pattern and short-term reproductive cost in Rumex obtusifolius L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Joan; Sans, F. Xavier; Masalles, Ramon M.

    2002-10-01

    This paper analyses the size-dependent reproductive pattern of Rumex obtusifolius L. growing in lucerne crops ( Medicago sativa L.), and its importance in determining the existence of a short-term reproductive cost. Size effects on reproductive pattern were evaluated by determining the role of plant size at the time of first reproduction, and the size-dependency of flowering probability (estimated as the proportion of flowering plants), plant fecundity, and reproductive effort (estimated as the ratio between reproductive and vegetative biomass). These parameters were recorded over the reproductive episodes determined by crop harvesting during the reproductive period. The results showed that size was much more important than age in determining time of first reproduction. Seed output decreased progressively over the reproductive period, probably in relation to an increasing short-term reproductive cost caused by a gradual depletion of plant resources. Probability of flowering over the successive reproductive episodes increased with plant size. The allometric relationship of vegetative versus reproductive biomass indicated that reproductive biomass increased less sharply than vegetative biomass and, consequently, reproductive effort decreased as plant size increased. Assuming a direct relationship between reproductive effort and reproductive cost, the size-dependent flowering probability could reflect, in turn, the existence of a size-dependent reproductive cost that would decrease as plant size increased. Ecological implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Comparative Phylogeography in Rainforest Trees from Lower Guinea, Africa

    PubMed Central

    Heuertz, Myriam; Duminil, Jérôme; Dauby, Gilles; Savolainen, Vincent; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography is an effective approach to assess the evolutionary history of biological communities. We used comparative phylogeography in fourteen tree taxa from Lower Guinea (Atlantic Equatorial Africa) to test for congruence with two simple evolutionary scenarios based on physio-climatic features 1) the W-E environmental gradient and 2) the N-S seasonal inversion, which determine climatic and seasonality differences in the region. We sequenced the trnC-ycf6 plastid DNA region using a dual sampling strategy: fourteen taxa with small sample sizes (dataset 1, mean n = 16/taxon), to assess whether a strong general pattern of allele endemism and genetic differentiation emerged; and four taxonomically well-studied species with larger sample sizes (dataset 2, mean n = 109/species) to detect the presence of particular shared phylogeographic patterns. When grouping the samples into two alternative sets of two populations, W and E, vs. N and S, neither dataset exhibited a strong pattern of allelic endemism, suggesting that none of the considered regions consistently harboured older populations. Differentiation in dataset 1 was similarly strong between W and E as between N and S, with 3–5 significant FST tests out of 14 tests in each scenario. Coalescent simulations indicated that, given the power of the data, this result probably reflects idiosyncratic histories of the taxa, or a weak common differentiation pattern (possibly with population substructure) undetectable across taxa in dataset 1. Dataset 2 identified a common genetic break separating the northern and southern populations of Greenwayodendron suaveolens subsp. suaveolens var. suaveolens, Milicia excelsa, Symphonia globulifera and Trichoscypha acuminata in Lower Guinea, in agreement with differentiation across the N–S seasonal inversion. Our work suggests that currently recognized tree taxa or suspected species complexes can contain strongly differentiated genetic lineages, which could

  10. Phylogeography of human lymphatic filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti in India.

    PubMed

    Thangadurai, R; Hoti, S L; Kumar, N Pradeep; Das, P K

    2006-07-01

    Wuchereria bancrofti, a nematode parasite causing human lymphatic filariasis is widely distributed in India. The phylogeography of this parasite was studied by constructing RAPD profiles of parasite populations collected from 71 microfilaria carriers residing in different geoclimatic regions of India. The analysis showed that the phylogeography of W. bancrofti populations is complex, with a high genetic divergence and gene flow among populations. The total genetic diversity (H(T)) and genetic differentiation (G(ST)) estimated for all the parasite populations were 0.0926 and 0.5859, respectively. The gene flow (Nm) between different regions indicated that two strains of W. bancrofti were prevalent in the country, one in the eastern side and the other on the western side of the Western Ghats. A highly significant genetic differentiation (F(ST) [theta] = 0.7978) was estimated between these two strains (chi 2 = 308.2789; P < 0.001). The gene flow between these strains was very low (0.2338). These two strains appear to have drifted genetically because of their geographic isolation by this thickly forested mountain range. The strain in the eastern side was found to be monophyletic in origin and is undergoing genetic divergence as the major parasite population in the country, spanning from eastern peninsular region to the northern plains. The variable geoclimatic factors and the antifilarial chemotherapeutical pressure on the parasite, which is in place for the past half a century, might have contributed for the high genetic heterogeneity its strains/populations in the country. The route of entry of the parasite into Indian sub-continent possibly appeared to be from an ancient origin from the countries of the Southeast Asian archipelago, through the eastern coastal line of the southern peninsula.

  11. Comparative phylogeography in marginal seas of the northwestern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ni, Gang; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The maturation of marine phylogeography depends on integration of comparative information across different regions globally. The northwestern Pacific, characterized by unique tectonic setting, however, is still underrepresented. This study seeks to highlight its phylogeographical history based on the available population data, focusing on three seas: the East China Sea (ECS), the South China Sea (SCS) and the Sea of Japan (SOJ). We first conducted a literature survey to evaluate current research efforts and then reanalysed the population structure, historical demography and genealogy for two selections of studies (namely ‘the ECS category’ and ‘the multiple-sea category’) to elucidate the evolutionary processes within and across the seas, respectively. For the ECS category, the meta-analyses revealed most studies displayed a shallow phylogeny, indicating a single origin from the sea. Significant population structure was commonplace, particularly in molluck and crustacean studies, with proportions of 89% and 80%, respectively. Nearly all studies selected showed signals of population expansion: the times estimated were closely linked to a period of ~120-140 Kya rather than the last glacial maximum. For the latter category, divergent intraspecific lineages appeared among seas and overlapped in the adjacent regions, a pattern implying each sea had served as an independent refugium during glaciations. The genetic splits, however, were estimated to arise from separate events dating from late Miocene to middle Pleistocene. As phylogeography is still in its infancy in the region, more effort is needed to test and complement the general rules abstracted here. Finally, challenges and prospects were discussed to accelerate further research.

  12. Phylogeography of the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Takao; White, Thomas J; Koenig, Gina; McEwen, Juan; Restrepo, Angela; Castañeda, Elizabetha; Da Silva Lacaz, Carlos; Heins-Vaccari, Elisabeth M; De Freitas, Roseli S; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M; Qin, Zhenyu; Negroni, Ricardo; Carter, Deidre A; Mikami, Yuzuru; Tamura, Miki; Taylor, María Lucía; Miller, Georgina F; Poonwan, Natteewan; Taylor, John W

    2003-12-01

    Until recently, Histoplasma capsulatum was believed to harbour three varieties, var. capsulatum (chiefly a New World human pathogen), var. duboisii (an African human pathogen) and var. farciminosum (an Old World horse pathogen), which varied in clinical manifestations and geographical distribution. We analysed the phylogenetic relationships of 137 individuals representing the three varieties from six continents using DNA sequence variation in four independent protein-coding genes. At least eight clades were idengified: (i) North American class 1 clade; (ii) North American class 2 clade; (iii) Latin American group A clade; (iv) Latin American group B clade; (v) Australian clade; (vi) Netherlands (Indonesian?) clade; (vii) Eurasian clade and (viii) African clade. Seven of eight clades represented genetically isolated groups that may be recognized as phylogenetic species. The sole exception was the Eurasian clade which originated from within the Latin American group A clade. The phylogenetic relationships among the clades made a star phylogeny. Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum individuals were found in all eight clades. The African clade included all of the H. capsulatum var. duboisii individuals as well as individuals of the other two varieties. The 13 individuals of var. farciminosum were distributed among three phylogenetic species. These findings suggest that the three varieties of Histoplasma are phylogenetically meaningless. Instead we have to recognize the existence of genetically distinct geographical populations or phylogenetic species. Combining DNA substitution rates of protein-coding genes with the phylogeny suggests that the radiation of Histoplasma started between 3 and 13 million years ago in Latin America. PMID:14629354

  13. Species-wide phylogeography of North American mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus): cryptic glacial refugia and postglacial recolonization.

    PubMed

    Latch, Emily K; Heffelfinger, James R; Fike, Jennifer A; Rhodes, Olin E

    2009-04-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations greatly influenced the present-day population genetic structure of animals and plants. For species with high dispersal and reproductive potential, phylogeographic patterns resulting from historical processes can be cryptic, overshadowed by contemporary processes. Here we report a study of the phylogeography of Odocoileus hemionus, a large, vagile ungulate common throughout western North America. We examined sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA (control region and cytochrome b) within and among 70 natural populations across the entire range of the species. Among the 1766 individual animals surveyed, we recovered 496 haplotypes. Although fine-scale phylogenetic structure was weakly resolved using phylogenetic methods, network analysis clearly revealed the presence of 12 distinct haplogroups. The spatial distribution of haplogroups showed a strong genetic discontinuity between the two morphological types of O. hemionus, mule deer and black-tailed deer, east and west of the Cascade Mountains in the Pacific Northwest. Within the mule deer lineage, we identified several haplogroups that expanded before or during the Last Glacial Maximum, suggesting that mule deer persisted in multiple refugia south of the ice sheets. Patterns of genetic diversity within the black-tailed deer lineage suggest a single refugium along the Pacific Northwest coast, and refute the hypothesis that black-tailed deer persisted in one or more northern refugia. Our data suggest that black-tailed deer recolonized areas in accordance with the pattern of glacial retreat, with initial recolonization northward along a coastal route and secondary recolonization inland.

  14. Relationships between body weight of overwintering larvae and supercooling capacity; diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential in Chilo suppressalis Walker.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Wang, Ming-Liang; Ding, Nan; Ma, Wei-Hua; Li, Yan-Ning; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2011-05-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, overwinters in China as a larva in facultative diapause. The instars and body weights of overwintering larvae vary widely. In this paper, the relationships between body weight and supercooling capacity, diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential of overwintering larvae collected in late-stage rice field were examined. There was a significant positive correlation between body weight, instar, and head capsule width, thus the overwintering larvae were divided into five groups based on body weight (I, up to 35.0mg; II, 35.1-57.0mg; III, 57.1-79.0mg; IV, 79.1-101.0mg; and V, over 101.1mg) for further analysis. The body water content of the lighter group (I) was significantly higher than that of the heavier groups (IV-V). However, the mean supercooling point decreased with an increase of the mean larval body weight in five groups; mean supercooling point of group I was significantly lower than that of group V, except in January 2009. After transfer of overwintering larvae to 15, 20 and 25°C on different dates, smaller individuals pupated slightly faster than larger ones at the same temperature, suggesting that diapause was less intense in smaller overwintering larvae. On 19 March 2009 there was a strong positive correlation between larval body weight and the weight of 3 day-old pupae, and the number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females at 15, 20 and 25°C. The average number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females differed significantly among different groups. The average number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females in group V was significantly greater than those of other groups, and that of group I was significantly lower than those of other groups, suggesting that post-diapause reproductive potential was determined, to a certain extent, by body weight of the overwintering larvae.

  15. No sympatric speciation here: multiple data sources show that the ant Myrmica microrubra is not a separate species but an alternate reproductive morph of Myrmica rubra.

    PubMed

    Steiner, F M; Schlick-Steiner, B C; Konrad, H; Moder, K; Christian, E; Seifert, B; Crozier, R H; Stauffer, C; Buschinger, A

    2006-05-01

    No aspect of speciation is as controversial as the view that new species can evolve sympatrically, among populations in close physical contact. Social parasitism has been suggested to yield necessary disruptive selection for sympatric speciation. Recently, mitochondrial DNA phylogeography has shown that the ant Myrmica microrubra is closely related to its host, Myrmica rubra, leading to the suggestion that sympatric speciation has occurred. We investigated the relationships between the two ant forms using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, microsatellite genotyping and morphometrics. Molecular phylogenetic and population structure analyses showed that M. microrubra does not evolve separately to its host but rather shares a gene pool with it. Probability analysis showed that mitochondrial DNA data previously adduced in favour of sympatric speciation do not in fact do so. Morphometrically, M. microrubra is most readily interpreted as a miniature queen form of M. rubra, not a separate species. Myrmica microrubra is not an example of speciation. The large (typical M. rubra) and small (M. microrubra) queen forms are alternative reproductive strategies of the same species. Myrmica microrubraSeifert 1993 is consequently synonymized here with M. rubra Linnaeus, 1758.

  16. Phylogeography and genetic structure of a Tertiary relict tree species, Tapiscia sinensis (Tapisciaceae): implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinju; Li, Zuozhou; Fritsch, Peter W.; Tian, Hua; Yang, Aihong; Yao, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The phylogeography of plant species in sub-tropical China remains largely unclear. This study used Tapiscia sinensis, an endemic and endangered tree species widely but disjunctly distributed in sub-tropical China, as a model to reveal the patterns of genetic diversity and phylogeographical history of Tertiary relict plant species in this region. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to its conservation management. Methods Samples were taken from 24 populations covering the natural geographical distribution of T. sinensis. Genetic structure was investigated by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes were constructed with maximum parsimony and haplotype network methods. Historical population expansion events were tested with pairwise mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Species potential range was deduced by ecological niche modelling (ENM). Key Results A low level of genetic diversity was detected at the population level. A high level of genetic differentiation and a significant phylogeographical structure were revealed. The mean divergence time of the haplotypes was approx. 1·33 million years ago. Recent range expansion in this species is suggested by a star-like haplotype network and by the results from the mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Conclusions Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene have had pronounced effects on the extant distribution of Tapiscia relative to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Spatial patterns of molecular variation and ENM suggest that T. sinensis may have retreated in south-western and central China and colonized eastern China prior to the LGM. Multiple montane refugia for T. sinense existing during the LGM are inferred in central and western China. The populations adjacent to or within these refugia of T. sinense should be given high priority in the development of

  17. Phylogeography of Pogonomyrmex barbatus and P. rugosus harvester ants with genetic and environmental caste determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present a phylogeographic study of at least six reproductively isolated lineages of new world harvester ants within the Pogonomyrmex barbatus and P. rugosus species group. The genetic and geographic relationships within this clade are complex: four of the identified lineages are divided into...

  18. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  19. New Routes to Phylogeography: A Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation

    PubMed Central

    De Maio, Nicola; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; O’Reilly, Kathleen M; Wilson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic methods aim to infer migration trends and the history of sampled lineages from genetic data. Applications of phylogeography are broad, and in the context of pathogens include the reconstruction of transmission histories and the origin and emergence of outbreaks. Phylogeographic inference based on bottom-up population genetics models is computationally expensive, and as a result faster alternatives based on the evolution of discrete traits have become popular. In this paper, we show that inference of migration rates and root locations based on discrete trait models is extremely unreliable and sensitive to biased sampling. To address this problem, we introduce BASTA (BAyesian STructured coalescent Approximation), a new approach implemented in BEAST2 that combines the accuracy of methods based on the structured coalescent with the computational efficiency required to handle more than just few populations. We illustrate the potentially severe implications of poor model choice for phylogeographic analyses by investigating the zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus. Whereas the structured coalescent analysis correctly infers that successive human Ebola outbreaks have been seeded by a large unsampled non-human reservoir population, the discrete trait analysis implausibly concludes that undetected human-to-human transmission has allowed the virus to persist over the past four decades. As genomics takes on an increasingly prominent role informing the control and prevention of infectious diseases, it will be vital that phylogeographic inference provides robust insights into transmission history. PMID:26267488

  20. Phylogeography and pleistocene evolution in the North American black bear.

    PubMed

    Wooding, S; Ward, R

    1997-11-01

    To determine the extent of phylogeographic structuring in North American black bear (Ursus americanus) populations, we examined mitochondrial DNA sequences (n = 118) and restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles (n = 258) in individuals from 16 localities. Among the bears examined, 19 lineages falling into two highly divergent clades were identified. The clades differ at 5.0% of nucleotide positions, a distance consistent with an origin 1.8 MYA, and have different but overlapping geographical distributions. Areas of clade cooccurrence show that eastern and western populations are currently mixing, but regional differences in lineage distribution suggest that mixing has begun only recently. The long-term population history of black bears appears to be characterized predominantly by long-term regional isolation followed by recent contact and hybridization. Congruence between the pattern of diversity observed in black bears and patterns of forest refuge formation during the Pleistocene supports earlier speculation that Pleistocene forest fragmentations underlie a common pattern in the phylogeography of North American forest taxa. PMID:9364767

  1. Phylogeography of Trichuris populations isolated from different Cricetidae rodents.

    PubMed

    Callejón, Rocío; De Rojas, Manuel; Feliú, Carlos; Balao, Francisco; Marrugal, Angela; Henttonen, Heikki; Guevara, Diego; Cutillas, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    The phylogeography of Trichuris populations (Nematoda) collected from Cricetidae rodents (Muroidea) from different geographical regions was studied. Ribosomal DNA (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2, and mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c- oxidase subunit 1 partial gene) have been used as molecular markers. The nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) 1 and 2 showed 2 clear-cut geographical and genetic lineages: one of the Nearctic region (Oregon), although the second was widespread throughout the Palaearctic region and appeared as a star-like structure in the minimum spanning network. The mitochondrial results revealed that T. arvicolae populations from the Palaearctic region were separated into 3 clear-cut geographical and genetic lineages: populations from Northern Europe, populations from Southern (Spain) and Eastern Europe (Croatia, Belarus, Kazahstan), and populations from Italy and France (Eastern Pyrénean Mountains). Phylogenetic analysis obtained on the basis of ITS1-5·8S-ITS2 rDNA sequences did not show a differential geographical structure; however, these markers suggest a new Trichuris species parasitizing Chionomys roberti and Cricetulus barabensis. The mitochondrial results revealed that Trichuris populations from arvicolinae rodents show signals of a post-glacial northward population expansion starting from the Pyrenees and Italy. Apparently, the Pyrenees and the Alps were not barriers to the dispersal of Trichuris populations.

  2. Reproductive health.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    This article explores the reproductive health status of China. Since 1990, China has stepped up its efforts in promoting reproductive health and maternal and child health. Several studies demonstrated a remarkable progress made in this area. By 1997, maternal and infant mortality rates have declined, while the penetration rate for the immunization program and inpatient delivery rate increased. Despite these achievements, however, much remains to be done such as the lack of client-centered approaches to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the population for family planning services. A survey conducted in 1995 showed that the country's family planning program was focused primarily on demographic issues while little attention was given to reproductive health objectives. The situation improved when the State Planning Commission implemented its pilot program called the Quality of Care in Family Planning in China. The program yielded encouraging results including a reoriented philosophy towards reproductive health services, enhanced service facilities, informed choices for family planning methods, and the development of an operational information system. Another strategy adopted to address fertility and reproductive health issues was the implementation of adolescent reproductive health education as a required course for senior middle schools. Lastly, this article provided a brief overview of China's HIV/AIDS situation.

  3. Credit programs for the poor and reproductive behavior in low-income countries: are the reported causal relationships the result of heterogeneity bias?

    PubMed

    Pitt, M M; Khandker, S R; McKernan, S M; Abdul Latif, M

    1999-02-01

    Group-based lending programs for the poor have drawn much attention recently. As many of these programs target women, an important research question is whether program participation significantly changes reproductive behavior and whether the gender of the participant matters. Using survey data from 87 Bangladeshi villages, we estimate the impact of female and male participation in group-based credit programs on reproductive behavior while attending to issues of self-selection and endogeneity. We find no evidence that women's participation in group-based credit programs increases contraceptive use or reduces fertility. Men's participation reduces fertility and may slightly increase contraceptive use. PMID:10036590

  4. Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, David

    2006-01-01

    The author of this brief article asserts that one of the keys to being successful--whether one is a music teacher, a college professor, a business owner, a doctor, a lawyer, or in any other career--is his or her relationship with people. Music educators are in the people business. They do not make a tangible product. Instead, they provide a…

  5. Parallel Mitogenome Sequencing Alleviates Random Rooting Effect in Phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Hirase, Shotaro; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Nishida, Mutsumi; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Reliably rooted phylogenetic trees play irreplaceable roles in clarifying diversification in the patterns of species and populations. However, such trees are often unavailable in phylogeographic studies, particularly when the focus is on rapidly expanded populations that exhibit star-like trees. A fundamental bottleneck is known as the random rooting effect, where a distant outgroup tends to root an unrooted tree “randomly.” We investigated whether parallel mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing alleviates this effect in phylogeography using a case study on the Sea of Japan lineage of the intertidal goby Chaenogobius annularis. Eighty-three C. annularis individuals were collected and their mitogenomes were determined by high-throughput and low-cost parallel sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of these mitogenome sequences was conducted to root the Sea of Japan lineage, which has a star-like phylogeny and had not been reliably rooted. The topologies of the bootstrap trees were investigated to determine whether the use of mitogenomes alleviated the random rooting effect. The mitogenome data successfully rooted the Sea of Japan lineage by alleviating the effect, which hindered phylogenetic analysis that used specific gene sequences. The reliable rooting of the lineage led to the discovery of a novel, northern lineage that expanded during an interglacial period with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, the finding of this lineage suggested the existence of additional glacial refugia and provided a new recent calibration point that revised the divergence time estimation between the Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean lineages. This study illustrates the effectiveness of parallel mitogenome sequencing for solving the random rooting problem in phylogeographic studies. PMID:27016485

  6. Connectivity in the deep: Phylogeography of the velvet belly lanternshark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubili, Chrysoula; Macleod, Kirsty; Perry, William; Hanel, Pia; Batzakas, Ioannis; Farrell, Edward D.; Lynghammar, Arve; Mancusi, Cecilia; Mariani, Stefano; Menezes, Gui M.; Neat, Francis; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Griffiths, Andrew M.

    2016-09-01

    The velvet belly lanternshark, Etmopterus spinax, is a deep-sea bioluminescent squaloid shark, found predominantly in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. It has been exposed to relatively high levels of mortality associated with by-catch in some regions. Its late maturity and low fecundity potentially renders it vulnerable to over-exploitation, although little remains known about processes of connectivity between key habitats/regions. This study utilised DNA sequencing of partial regions of the mitochondrial control region and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 to investigate population structure and phylogeography of this species across the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Basin. Despite the inclusion of samples from the range edges or remote locations, no evidence of significant population structure was detected. An important exception was identified using the control region sequence, with much greater (and statistically significant) levels of genetic differentiation between the Mediterranean and Atlantic. This suggests that the Strait of Gibraltar may represent an important bathymetric barrier, separating regions with very low levels of female dispersal. Bayesian estimation of divergence time also places the separation between the Mediterranean and Atlantic lineages within the last 100,000 years, presumably connected with perturbations during the last Glacial Period. These results demonstrate population subdivision at a much smaller geographic distance than has generally been identified in previous work on deep-sea sharks. This highlights a very significant role for shallow bathymetry in promoting genetic differentiation in deepwater taxa. It acts as an important exception to a general paradigm of marine species being connected by high levels of gene-flow, representing single stocks over large scales. It may also have significant implications for the fisheries management of this species.

  7. Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Jardón-Barbolla, Lev; Delgado-Valerio, Patricia; Geada-López, Gretel; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Four species of Pinus subsection Australes occur in the Caribbean Basin: P. caribaea, P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis. This study analyses the phylogeography of these species to assess possible colonization events from Central America to the islands and subsequent population expansions during glacial periods driven by both drier climate and larger emerged land areas. Methods Allele size data were obtained for plastid microsatellites for 314 individuals from 24 populations, covering the distribution range of subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Key Results In total, 113 plastid haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations of P. caribaea. Overall, Caribbean Basin populations fit the isolation by distance model. Significant phylogeographical structure was found (RST = 0·671 > permuted RST = 0·101; P < 0·0001). The haplotype network and a Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) indicated different Central American origins for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea plastids, with Central America populations in northern and south-eastern groups. Sudden expansion times for BAPS clusters were close to three glacial maxima. Conclusions Central America contains ancestral plastid haplotypes. Population expansion has played a major role in the distribution of genetic diversity in P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Two colonization events gave rise to the P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea lineages. Plastid variation in the eastern species (P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis) evolved independently from that in P. caribaea var. caribaea. Incomplete lineage sorting between P. cubensis and P. maestrensis is apparent. Inferred expansion times for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and for the eastern lineages correspond to glacial maxima, whereas those for P. caribaea var. hondurensis correspond to the beginning of the temperature decrease that

  8. Quantitative variation in water-use efficiency across water regimes and its relationship with circadian, vegetative, reproductive, and leaf gas-exchange traits.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2012-05-01

    Drought limits light harvesting, resulting in lower plant growth and reproduction. One trait important for plant drought response is water-use efficiency (WUE). We investigated (1) how the joint genetic architecture of WUE, reproductive characters, and vegetative traits changed across drought and well-watered conditions, (2) whether traits with distinct developmental bases (e.g. leaf gas exchange versus reproduction) differed in the environmental sensitivity of their genetic architecture, and (3) whether quantitative variation in circadian period was related to drought response in Brassica rapa. Overall, WUE increased in drought, primarily because stomatal conductance, and thus water loss, declined more than carbon fixation. Genotypes with the highest WUE in drought expressed the lowest WUE in well-watered conditions, and had the largest vegetative and floral organs in both treatments. Thus, large changes in WUE enabled some genotypes to approach vegetative and reproductive trait optima across environments. The genetic architecture differed for gas-exchange and vegetative traits across drought and well-watered conditions, but not for floral traits. Correlations between circadian and leaf gas-exchange traits were significant but did not vary across treatments, indicating that circadian period affects physiological function regardless of water availability. These results suggest that WUE is important for drought tolerance in Brassica rapa and that artificial selection for increased WUE in drought will not result in maladaptive expression of other traits that are correlated with WUE.

  9. The Relationship between the Numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, or S. Hadar Colonizing Reproductive Tissues of Experimentally Infected Laying Hens and Deposition inside Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella deposition inside eggs results from reproductive tract colonization in laying hens. In the present study, groups of hens were orally infected with S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, or S. Hadar. No significant differences were observed between strains in either the frequency or numbers of Sal...

  10. Measurements of body composition during late gestation and lactation in first and second parity sows and its relationship to piglet production and post-weaning reproductive performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize variation of multiple body condition traits in a white crossbred composite population of first- and second-parity sows and determine if these traits relate to litter production and reproductive parameters. As expected, parity 2 dams were heavier (P < 0...

  11. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, co...

  12. Quantitative variation in water-use efficiency across water regimes and its relationship with circadian, vegetative, reproductive, and leaf gas-exchange traits.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2012-05-01

    Drought limits light harvesting, resulting in lower plant growth and reproduction. One trait important for plant drought response is water-use efficiency (WUE). We investigated (1) how the joint genetic architecture of WUE, reproductive characters, and vegetative traits changed across drought and well-watered conditions, (2) whether traits with distinct developmental bases (e.g. leaf gas exchange versus reproduction) differed in the environmental sensitivity of their genetic architecture, and (3) whether quantitative variation in circadian period was related to drought response in Brassica rapa. Overall, WUE increased in drought, primarily because stomatal conductance, and thus water loss, declined more than carbon fixation. Genotypes with the highest WUE in drought expressed the lowest WUE in well-watered conditions, and had the largest vegetative and floral organs in both treatments. Thus, large changes in WUE enabled some genotypes to approach vegetative and reproductive trait optima across environments. The genetic architecture differed for gas-exchange and vegetative traits across drought and well-watered conditions, but not for floral traits. Correlations between circadian and leaf gas-exchange traits were significant but did not vary across treatments, indicating that circadian period affects physiological function regardless of water availability. These results suggest that WUE is important for drought tolerance in Brassica rapa and that artificial selection for increased WUE in drought will not result in maladaptive expression of other traits that are correlated with WUE. PMID:22319207

  13. Phylogeography, Salinity Adaptations and Metabolic Potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria Based on a Partial Single Cell Genome

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Lisa M.; Hyde, Andrew S.; MacGregor, Barbara J.; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis – previously developed based on 14C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines – that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source. PMID:27597842

  14. Balearic insular isolation and large continental spread framed the phylogeography of the western Mediterranean Cheirolophus intybaceus s.l. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Garnatje, T; Pérez-Collazos, E; Pellicer, J; Catalán, P

    2013-01-01

    Recent Quaternary geological and climate events have shaped the evolutionary histories of plant species in the Mediterranean basin, one of the most important hotspots of biodiversity. Genetic analyses of the western Mediterranean Cheirolophus intybaceus s.l. (Asteraceae) based on AFLP were conducted to establish the relationships between its close species and populations, to reconstruct the phylogeography of the group and to analyse potential unidirectional versus bidirectional dispersals between the Ibero-Provençal belt and the Balearic Islands. AFLP data revealed two main genetic groups, one constituted by the Balearic populations and Garraf (NE Iberia) and the other formed by the remaining mainland populations that were further sub-structured into two geographically separated subgroups (SE + E Iberia and NE Iberia + SW France). Genetic diversity and spatial structure analyses suggested a mid-Pleistocene scenario for the origin of C. intybaceus in southern Iberia, followed by dispersal to the north and a single colonisation event of the Balearic archipelago from the near Dianic NE Iberian area. This hypothesis was supported by paleogeographic data, which showed the existence of terrestrial connections between the continent and the islands during the Middle-Late Pleistocene marine regressions, whereas the more recent single back-colonisation of the mainland from Mallorca might be explained by several hypotheses, such as long-distance dispersal mediated by migratory marine birds or sea currents.

  15. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  16. Reproductive hacking

    PubMed Central

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  17. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  18. Relationship between implementing interpersonal communication and mass education campaigns in emergency settings and use of reproductive healthcare services: evidence from Darfur, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Izzeldin Fadl; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Al Rifai, Rami; Vanching, Urnaa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To examine changes in women's awareness and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services in emergency settings following provision of interpersonal communication (IPC) and mass education campaigns, and (2) to describe factors associated with reproductive healthcare service use in internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Setting Three camps containing 88 984 IDPs in Darfur, Sudan. Participants 640 women aged 15−49 who had experienced pregnancy in the camp during the previous 2 years were enrolled in each of two independent cross-sectional surveys 26 months apart. Interventions IPC and mass education campaigns where community health workers disseminated information by home/shelter visits, clinic sessions, public meetings and other means to raise awareness and promote reproductive healthcare service use. Primary outcome measures Awareness of the existence of antenatal care (ANC) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination services, reception of ANC and TT vaccination, place of delivery and use of postnatal care (PNC). Results The percentage of women who received home visits, and attended in-clinic sessions and public meetings increased from 61.6% to 86.7%, from 43.0% to 68.8%, and from 3.8% to 39.8%, respectively, between the initial and follow-up surveys. More women were aware of ANC (OR 18.6, 95% CI 13.1 to 26.5) and TT vaccination (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4 to 4.4) in the follow-up than the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. More women received ≥3 ANC visits (OR 8.8, 95% CI 6.4 to 12.0) and ≥3 doses of TT (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.3), delivered at a healthcare facility (OR 5.4, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.4) and received a PNC visit (OR 5.5, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.7) in the follow-up than in the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions Awareness about and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services were higher in the follow-up survey. An integrated IPC and mass education campaign is effective for improving women's reproductive health

  19. The phylogeography of Fagus hayatae (Fagaceae): genetic isolation among populations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ling-Xiao; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Chiu, Ching-An; Chen, Tze-Ying; Luo, Shu-Jin; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Shen, Ze-Hao

    2016-05-01

    The beech species Fagus hayatae is an important relict tree species in subtropical China, whose biogeographical patterns may reflect floral responses to climate change in this region during the Quaternary. Previous studies have revealed phylogeography for three of the four Fagus species in China, but study on F. hayatae, the most sparsely distributed of these species, is still lacking. Here, molecular methods based on eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of nuclear DNA (nDNA) and three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences were applied for analyses of genetic diversity and structure in 375 samples from 14 F. hayatae populations across its whole range. Both nDNA and cpDNA indicated a high level of genetic diversity in this species. Significant fixation indexes and departures from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with a genetic differentiation parameter of R st of 0.233, were detected in nDNA SSR loci among populations, especially those on Taiwan Island, indicating strong geographic partitioning. The populations were classified into two clusters, without a prominent signal of isolation-by-distance. For the 15 haplotypes detected in the cpDNA sequence fragments, there was a high genetic differentiation parameter (G st = 0.712) among populations. A high G st of 0.829 was also detected outside but not within the Sichuan Basin. Consistent with other Fagus species in China, no recent population expansion was detected from tests of neutrality and mismatch distribution analysis. Overall, genetic isolation with limited gene flow was prominent for this species and significant phylogeographic structures existed across its range except for those inside the Sichuan Basin. Our study suggested long-term geographic isolation in F. hayatae with limited population admixture and the existence of multiple refugia in the mountainous regions of the Sichuan Basin and southeast China during the Quaternary. These results may provide useful information critical for the conservation of F

  20. Phylogeography of the inshore fish, Bostrychus sinensis, along the Pacific coastline of China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fan; Li, Hai; Lin, Hungdu; Ding, Shaoxiong; Miyamoto, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    This study assesses the phylogeography of the Chinese four-eyed sleeper (Bostrychus sinensis) with one mitochondrial and one nuclear genes and two morphological characters. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of the sequences reveals two phylogeographic lineages from the East and South China Seas, which are corroborated by the morphological data. The vicariance of the two lineages is attributed to the Pleistocene Ice Age exposure of the Taiwan Strait and consequent connection of Taiwan to the mainland, which thereby introduced an ecological barrier to gene flow between populations in the East and South China Seas. The distributions of the two lineages now overlap in the East China Sea and this secondary contact is attributed to biased northward migration along the two main currents of the Taiwan Strait following its interglacial re-flooding. In conclusion, this study reinforces the importance of "vicariance, then secondary contact" due to Late Pliocene and Pleistocene sea-level changes to the phylogeography of marine species. Specifically, it corroborates the importance of Pleistocene sea-level changes in the Taiwan Strait to the phylogeography of Chinese inshore species.

  1. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of endangered and endemic shrub Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae) in Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae), an endangered endemic species in western Inner Mongolia, China. For endemic species with a limited geographical range and declining populations, historical patterns of demography and hierarchical genetic structure are important for determining population structure, and also provide information for developing effective and sustainable management plans. In this study, we assess genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of T. mongolica from eight populations. Furthermore, we evaluate the conservation and management units to provide the information for conservation. Results Sequence variation and spatial apportionment of the atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer region of the chloroplast DNA were used to reconstruct the phylogeography of T. mongolica. A total of 880 bp was sequenced from eight extant populations throughout the whole range of its distribution. At the cpDNA locus, high levels of genetic differentiation among populations and low levels of genetic variation within populations were detected, indicating that most seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Conclusions Demographic fluctuations, which led to random losses of genetic polymorphisms from populations, due to frequent flooding of the Yellow River and human disturbance were indicated by the analysis of BEAST skyline plot. Nested clade analysis revealed that restricted gene flow with isolation by distance plus occasional long distance dispersal is the main evolutionary factor affecting the phylogeography and population structure of T. mongolica. For setting a conservation management plan, each population of T. mongolica should be recognized as a conservation unit. PMID:21205287

  2. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms. PMID:19249025

  3. Reproductive ethics and the family.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J L

    2000-06-01

    The phrase 'reproductive ethics', as used by bioethicists, typically refers to concerns over morally appropriate employment of assisted reproductive technologies and, perhaps somewhat less commonly, to issues arising from technologies that block conception or end pregnancies. I here recommend to the attention of the field a more commodious use of 'reproductive ethics', one that takes seriously how humans are brought into the world as moral and social beings, and not simply as biological individuals. As a focus for this expanded agenda, I examine prevalent disagreements over the patterns and sources of the responsibilities and prerogatives that help define family structures, both as these are reflected in assisted reproductive practices involving the purchase of gametes, and in U.S. legal controversies about whether parents, or family courts, should determine who has the right to a relationship with children. PMID:15586970

  4. Reproductive ethics and the family.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J L

    2000-06-01

    The phrase 'reproductive ethics', as used by bioethicists, typically refers to concerns over morally appropriate employment of assisted reproductive technologies and, perhaps somewhat less commonly, to issues arising from technologies that block conception or end pregnancies. I here recommend to the attention of the field a more commodious use of 'reproductive ethics', one that takes seriously how humans are brought into the world as moral and social beings, and not simply as biological individuals. As a focus for this expanded agenda, I examine prevalent disagreements over the patterns and sources of the responsibilities and prerogatives that help define family structures, both as these are reflected in assisted reproductive practices involving the purchase of gametes, and in U.S. legal controversies about whether parents, or family courts, should determine who has the right to a relationship with children.

  5. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams

    PubMed Central

    Mayden, Richard L.; Allen, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay. PMID:26114110

  6. Phylogeography of Swine Influenza H3N2 in the United States: Translational Public Health for Zoonotic Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Scotch, Matthew; Mei, Changjiang

    2012-01-01

    The field of phylogeography has received a lot of attention for its application to molecular evolution and geographic migration of species. More recent work has included infectious diseases especially zoonotic RNA viruses like influenza and rabies. Phylogeography of viruses has the potential to advance surveillance at agencies such as public health departments, agriculture departments, and wildlife agencies. However, little is known about how these agencies could use phylogeography for applied surveillance and the integration of animal and human sequence data. Here, we highlight its potential to support ‘translational public health’ that could bring sequence data to the forefront of surveillance. We focus on swine influenza H3N2 because of the recent link to a variant form in humans. We discuss the implications to applied surveillance and the need for an integrated biomedical informatics approach for adoption at agencies of animal and public health. PMID:23137647

  7. Expression of regulatory neuropeptides in the hypothalamus of red deer (Cervus elaphus) reveals anomalous relationships in the seasonal control of appetite and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Barrell, G K; Ridgway, M J; Wellby, M; Pereira, A; Henry, B A; Clarke, I J

    2016-04-01

    Red deer are seasonal with respect to reproduction and food intake, so we tested the hypothesis that their brains would show seasonal changes in numbers of cells containing hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate these functions. We examined the brains of male and female deer in non-breeding and breeding seasons to quantify the production of kisspeptin, gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH - an index of pro-opiomelanocortin production), using immunohistochemistry. These neuropeptides are likely to be involved in the regulation of reproductive function and appetite. During the annual breeding season there were more cells producing kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus than during the non-breeding season in males and females whereas there was no seasonal difference in the expression of GnIH. There were more cells producing the appetite stimulating peptide, NPY, in the arcuate/median eminence regions of the hypothalamus of females during the non-breeding season whereas the levels of an appetite suppressing peptide, γ-MSH, were highest in the breeding season. Male deer brains exhibited the converse, with NPY cell numbers highest in the breeding season and γ-MSH levels highest in the non-breeding season. These results support a role for kisspeptin as an important stimulatory regulator of seasonal breeding in deer, as in other species, but suggest a lack of involvement of GnIH in the seasonality of reproduction in deer. In the case of appetite regulation, the pattern exhibited by females for NPY and γ-MSH was as expected for the breeding and non-breeding seasons, based on previous studies of these peptides in sheep and the seasonal cycle of appetite reported for various species of deer. An inverse result in male deer most probably reflects the response of appetite regulating cells to negative energy balance during the mating season. Differences between the sexes in the seasonal

  8. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk On This Page Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Are any pregnancy-related factors associated with ...

  9. Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorobiphenyl, and mercury residues in bald eagle eggs--1969-79--and their relationships to shell thinning and reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Lamont, T.G.; Bunck, C.M.; Sindelar, C.R.; Gramlich, F.J.; Fraser, J.D.; Byrd, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected in 14 States in 1969-79 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, and mercury. Moderate shell thinning occurred in eggs from several areas. Eggs from the Chesapeake Bay area contained the highest residue levels of most organochlorines. DDE was detected in all eggs; other organochlorines were detected less frequently. Mercury levels were highest in eggs from Maine. Eight contaminants were significantly negatively correlated with shell thickness or reproduction at sampled breeding areas; DDE was most closely related to these factors. Production of young was near normal at breeding areas when DDE was 15 ppm. Five ppm DDE was associated with 10% shell thinning. The other contaminants that were associated with these factors were also highly correlated with DDE; their impact appeared minor in relation to those of DDE.

  10. Relationships between anthropogenic chemical contaminant exposure and associated changes in reproductive parameters in male English sole (Parophrys vetulus) collected from Hylebos Waterway, Puget Sound, Washington.

    PubMed

    Sol, Sean Y; Johnson, Lyndal L; Boyd, Daryle; Olson, O Paul; Lomax, Dan P; Collier, Tracy K

    2008-11-01

    Effects of chemical contaminant exposure on gonadal development in adult male English sole (Parophrys vetulus) from Hylebos Waterway and Colvos Passage, Puget Sound, Washington were investigated. Hylebos Waterway sediment is contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines (OCs), and Colvos Passage, a nearby nonurban area, is minimally contaminated. Fish from Hylebos Waterway had higher concentrations of both PAHs and OCs in tissues than fish from Colvos Passage. Overall, little correlation was observed between PAH exposure and biological parameters, but strong correlations were observed between OCs and the biological parameters. Migration of fish from less contaminated areas into the Hylebos Waterway during the reproductive season might have influenced these results, based on temporal changes in fish age and contaminant concentrations. PMID:18274819

  11. Relationships between anthropogenic chemical contaminant exposure and associated changes in reproductive parameters in male English sole (Parophrys vetulus) collected from Hylebos Waterway, Puget Sound, Washington.

    PubMed

    Sol, Sean Y; Johnson, Lyndal L; Boyd, Daryle; Olson, O Paul; Lomax, Dan P; Collier, Tracy K

    2008-11-01

    Effects of chemical contaminant exposure on gonadal development in adult male English sole (Parophrys vetulus) from Hylebos Waterway and Colvos Passage, Puget Sound, Washington were investigated. Hylebos Waterway sediment is contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines (OCs), and Colvos Passage, a nearby nonurban area, is minimally contaminated. Fish from Hylebos Waterway had higher concentrations of both PAHs and OCs in tissues than fish from Colvos Passage. Overall, little correlation was observed between PAH exposure and biological parameters, but strong correlations were observed between OCs and the biological parameters. Migration of fish from less contaminated areas into the Hylebos Waterway during the reproductive season might have influenced these results, based on temporal changes in fish age and contaminant concentrations.

  12. The relationship of seminal transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukin-18 with reproductive success in women exposed to seminal plasma during IVF/ICSI treatment.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Marina A; Babayan, Alina A; Stepanova, Elena O; Smolnikova, Veronika Y; Kalinina, Elena A; Fernández, Nelson; Krechetova, Lubov V; Vanko, Ludmila V; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 present in seminal plasma (SP) triggers a female immune response favorable for implantation. We hypothesize that seminal interleukin (IL)-18, a cytokine that can potentially cause implantation failure, interferes with the beneficial effect of TGF-β1. This study aims to determine whether the levels of seminal TGF-β1 and IL-18 are associated with reproductive outcomes in patients exposed to SP during in vitro fertilization (IVF) or IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study, which included 71 couples undergoing IVF/ICSI was carried out. Female patients were exposed to their partners' SP via timed intercourse before the day of ovum pick-up (OPU) and also subjected to intravaginal SP application just after OPU. Quantitative measurements of total TGF-β1 (active plus latent) as well as IL-18 were determined by FlowCytomix™ technology in the SP to be used for intravaginal applications. Comparison of SP cytokine profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant groups revealed that pregnancy was correlated with a lower concentration of IL-18 (P=0.018) and lower content per ejaculate for both of IL-18 (P=0.0003) and TGF-β1 (P=0.047). The ratio of TGF-β1-to-IL-18 concentration was significantly higher in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant group (P=0.026). This study supports the notion that two key cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-18, both present in SP are associated with reproductive outcomes in female patients exposed to SP during IVF/ICSI treatment. PMID:27423966

  13. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine corona virus (BCV) affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001) bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01) of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great importance and that herds can

  14. The relationship of seminal transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukin-18 with reproductive success in women exposed to seminal plasma during IVF/ICSI treatment.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Marina A; Babayan, Alina A; Stepanova, Elena O; Smolnikova, Veronika Y; Kalinina, Elena A; Fernández, Nelson; Krechetova, Lubov V; Vanko, Ludmila V; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 present in seminal plasma (SP) triggers a female immune response favorable for implantation. We hypothesize that seminal interleukin (IL)-18, a cytokine that can potentially cause implantation failure, interferes with the beneficial effect of TGF-β1. This study aims to determine whether the levels of seminal TGF-β1 and IL-18 are associated with reproductive outcomes in patients exposed to SP during in vitro fertilization (IVF) or IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study, which included 71 couples undergoing IVF/ICSI was carried out. Female patients were exposed to their partners' SP via timed intercourse before the day of ovum pick-up (OPU) and also subjected to intravaginal SP application just after OPU. Quantitative measurements of total TGF-β1 (active plus latent) as well as IL-18 were determined by FlowCytomix™ technology in the SP to be used for intravaginal applications. Comparison of SP cytokine profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant groups revealed that pregnancy was correlated with a lower concentration of IL-18 (P=0.018) and lower content per ejaculate for both of IL-18 (P=0.0003) and TGF-β1 (P=0.047). The ratio of TGF-β1-to-IL-18 concentration was significantly higher in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant group (P=0.026). This study supports the notion that two key cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-18, both present in SP are associated with reproductive outcomes in female patients exposed to SP during IVF/ICSI treatment.

  15. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  16. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  17. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  18. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  19. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  20. Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Osteocalcin Gene Relationship in Energy Regulation, Bone Homeostasis and Reproductive Organs Analyzed by mRNA Quantitative Evaluation and Linear Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camerino, Claudia; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Caloiero, Roberta; Fonzino, Adriano; Tricarico, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)/Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and osteocalcin share common effects regulating energy, bone mass, reproduction and neuronal functions. To investigate on the gene-relationship between NGF, BDNF, and Osteocalcin we compared by RT-PCR the transcript levels of Ngf, Bdnf and Osteocalcin as well as of their receptors p75NTR/NTRK1, NTRK2, and Gprc6a in brain, bone, white/brown adipose tissue (WAT/BAT) and reproductive organs of 3 months old female and male mice. Brain and bone were used as positive controls for NGF/BDNF and Osteocalcin respectively. The role of oxitocin(Oxt) and its receptor(Oxtr) was also investigated. Ngf expression shows an opposite trend compared to Bdnf. Ngf /p75NTR expression is 50% higher in BAT than brain, in both genders, but lower in bone. In contrast, Bdnf expression in bone is higher than in brain, but low in BAT/WAT. We found Osteocalcin gene expressed in brain in both genders, but Gprc6a expression is low in brain and BAT/WAT. As expected, Gprc6a gene is expressed in bone. Oxt gene was markedly expressed in brain, Oxtr in the ovaries and in fat and bone in both genders. Ngf is highly expressed in reproductive tissues and p75NTR mRNA levels are respectively 300, 100, and 50% higher in testis/ovaries/uterus than in brain. In contrast, BDNF genes are not expressed in reproductive tissues. As expected, Gprc6a is expressed in testis but not in the ovaries/uterus. A significant correlation was found between the expression levels of the gene ligands and their receptors in brain, BAT and testis suggesting a common pathway of different genes in these tissues in either male and female. Changes in the expression levels of osteocalcin, Ngf, or Bdnf genes may mutually affect the expression levels of the others. Moreover, it may be possible that different ligands may operate through different receptor subtypes. Oxt and Oxtr failed to show significant correlation. The up-regulation of Ngf /p75NTR in BAT is consistent

  1. Genetic Basis of the Relationship Between Reproduction and Longevity: A Study on Common Variants of Three Genes in Steroid Hormone Metabolism--CYP17, HSD17B1, and COMT.

    PubMed

    Scarabino, Daniela; Scacchi, Renato; Pinto, Alessandro; Corbo, Rosa Maria

    2015-10-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging predict an antagonistic relationship between fertility and life span in humans, but the genetic basis of this phenomenon is not clear. The variation of three genes in steroid hormone metabolism--CYP17 (rs743572), HSD17B1 (rs 605059), and COMT (rs4680)--was examined to elucidate the genetic basis of the relationship between fertility and life span. A sample of 277 individuals (mean age, 82.9 years) was recruited in 2000. On the basis of mortality data collected in 2009, the sample was divided into two groups of subjects surviving to over 90 years (long-lived) or not (controls). Fertility data (number of children) were collected in the same sample. The HSD17B1 AA genotype was found to be significantly associated (p = 0.0085) with longevity only in the females (estimated odds ratio = 3.77). Because the HSD17B1 AA genotype was also associated with a higher number of children (5.3 ± 2.1) than the other genotypes (p = 0.006), we may infer that HSD17B1 genotypes could exert a positive pleiotropic action on longevity and fertility. CYP17 and COMT gene variation did not influence either life span or fertility. We then searched the literature for genes studied in relation to both reproduction and aging. A review of the studies showed a pleiotropic action for six out of 16 genes and revealed that genes may exert positive, or negative, or antagonistic pleiotropic actions. These potential actions may be modified by such environmental factors such as changing reproductive behaviors, which seem to be able to mitigate or enhance a gene's phenotypic effects.

  2. New Neotropical Sebacinales Species from a Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea Forest in the Guayana Region, Southern Venezuela: Structural Diversity and Phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Moyersoen, Bernard; Weiß, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, a member of the Dipterocarpaceae endemic in the Guayana region, is associated with a diverse community of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Amongst the 41 ECM fungal species detected in a 400 m2 P. dipterocarpacea ssp. nitida plot in Southern Venezuela, three species belonged to the Sebacinales. We tested whether ECM anatomotype characterization can be used as a feasible element in an integrative taxonomy in this diverse fungal group, where the relevance of fruitbody morphology for species delimitation seems limited. Using a combination of ECM morpho-anatomical characterizations and phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequences, we report three new species. The main distinguishing features of Sebacina guayanensis are the yellowish cell walls together with conspicuous undifferentiated, uniform compact (type B) rhizomorphs. Staghorn-like hyphae are characteristic of S. tomentosa. The combination of clusters of thick-walled emanating hyphae, including hyphae similar to awl-shaped cystidia with basal dichotomous or trichotomous ramifications, and the presence of type B rhizomorphs were characteristic of a third, yet unnamed species. The three species belong to three different, possibly specifically tropical clades in Sebacinales Group A. The geographic distribution of phylogenetically related strains was wide, including a Dicymbe forest in Guyana and an Ecuadorian rainforest with Coccoloba species. We show that ECM morpho-anatomy can be used, in combination with other analyses, to delineate species within Sebacinales Group A. In addition to phylogenetic information, type B rhizomorphs observed in different Sebacinales clades have important ecological implications for this fungal group. The phylogeography of Sebacinales suggests that dispersion and host jump are important radiation mechanisms that shaped P. dipterocarpacea ECM fungal community. This study emphasizes the need for more sequence data to evaluate the hypothesis that

  3. Phylogeography, colonization and population history of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) in the Nicaraguan crater lakes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elucidation of the mechanisms driving speciation requires detailed knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of the incipient species within their entire ranges as well as their colonization history. The Midas cichlid species complex Amphilophus spp. has been proven to be a powerful model system for the study of ecological specialization, sexual selection and the mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Here we present a comprehensive and integrative phylogeographic analysis of the complete Midas Cichlid species complex in Nicaragua (> 2000 individuals) covering the entire distributional range, using two types of molecular markers (the mitochondrial DNA control region and 15 microsatellites). We investigated the majority of known lake populations of this species complex and reconstructed their colonization history in order to distinguish between alternative speciation scenarios. Results We found that the large lakes contain older and more diverse Midas Cichlid populations, while all crater lakes hold younger and genetically less variable species assemblages. The large lakes appear to have repeatedly acted as source populations for all crater lakes, and our data indicate that faunal exchange among crater lakes is extremely unlikely. Despite their very recent (often only a few thousand years old) and common origin from the two large Nicaraguan lakes, all crater lake Midas Cichlid radiations underwent independent, but parallel, evolution, and comprise distinct genetic units. Indeed several of these crater lakes contain multiple genetically distinct incipient species that most likely arose through sympatric speciation. Several crater lake radiations can be traced back to a single ancestral line, but some appear to have more than one founding lineage. The timing of the colonization(s) of each crater lake differs, although most of them occurred more (probably much more) recently than 20,000 years ago. Conclusion The genetic differentiation

  4. Manipulating reproductive effort leads to changes in female reproductive scheduling but not oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Aloise King, Edith D; Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The trade-off between reproductive investment and lifespan is the single most important concept in life-history theory. A variety of sources of evidence support the existence of this trade-off, but the physiological costs of reproduction that underlie this relationship remain poorly understood. The Free Radical Theory of Ageing suggests that oxidative stress, which occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of damaging Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and protective antioxidants, may be an important mediator of this trade-off. We sought to test this theory by manipulating the reproductive investment of female mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and measuring the effects on a number of life history and oxidative stress variables. Females with a greater reproductive load showed no consistent increase in oxidative damage above females who had a smaller reproductive load. The groups differed, however, in their food consumption, reproductive scheduling and mean offspring mass. Of particular note, females with a very high reproductive load delayed blastocyst implantation of their second litter, potentially mitigating the costs of energetically costly reproductive periods. Our results highlight that females use strategies to offset particularly costly periods of reproduction and illustrate the absence of a simple relationship between oxidative stress and reproduction. PMID:24324867

  5. Analyzing Whispers: College Students' Representation and Reproduction of Sociocultural Discourses about Bodies, Relationships, and (Hetero)sexuality Using a Mobile Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Erich N.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research about college students' social media usage emphasizes social media "practices," often ignoring the "content" that students' post. Increasing knowledge about the language that college students use to describe their intimate relationships can inform student affairs practice. Using a digital ethnographic data…

  6. Creatine for women: a review of the relationship between creatine and the reproductive cycle and female-specific benefits of creatine therapy.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Stacey J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine/creatine kinase circuit is instrumental in regulating high-energy phosphate metabolism, and the maintenance of cellular energy turnover. The mechanisms by which creatine is able to buffer and regulate cellular energy balance, maintain acid-base balance, and reduce the effects of oxidative stress have led to a large number of studies into the use of creatine supplementation in exercise performance and to treat diseases associated with cellular energy depletion. Some of these studies have identified sex-specific responses to creatine supplementation, as such; there is the perception, that females might be less receptive to the benefits of creatine supplementation and therapy, compared to males. This review will describe the differences in male and female physique and physiology that may account for such differences, and discuss the apparent endocrine modulation of creatine metabolism in females. Hormone-driven changes to endogenous creatine synthesis, creatine transport and creatine kinase expression suggest that significant changes in this cellular energy circuit occur during specific stages of a female's reproductive life, including pregnancy and menopause. Recent studies suggest that creatine supplementation may be highly beneficial for women under certain conditions, such as depression. A greater understanding of these pathways, and the consequences of alterations to creatine bioavailability in females are needed to ensure that creatine is used to full advantage as a dietary supplement to optimize and enhance health outcomes for women. PMID:26898548

  7. Creatine for women: a review of the relationship between creatine and the reproductive cycle and female-specific benefits of creatine therapy.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Stacey J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine/creatine kinase circuit is instrumental in regulating high-energy phosphate metabolism, and the maintenance of cellular energy turnover. The mechanisms by which creatine is able to buffer and regulate cellular energy balance, maintain acid-base balance, and reduce the effects of oxidative stress have led to a large number of studies into the use of creatine supplementation in exercise performance and to treat diseases associated with cellular energy depletion. Some of these studies have identified sex-specific responses to creatine supplementation, as such; there is the perception, that females might be less receptive to the benefits of creatine supplementation and therapy, compared to males. This review will describe the differences in male and female physique and physiology that may account for such differences, and discuss the apparent endocrine modulation of creatine metabolism in females. Hormone-driven changes to endogenous creatine synthesis, creatine transport and creatine kinase expression suggest that significant changes in this cellular energy circuit occur during specific stages of a female's reproductive life, including pregnancy and menopause. Recent studies suggest that creatine supplementation may be highly beneficial for women under certain conditions, such as depression. A greater understanding of these pathways, and the consequences of alterations to creatine bioavailability in females are needed to ensure that creatine is used to full advantage as a dietary supplement to optimize and enhance health outcomes for women.

  8. Phylogeography of cylindrospermopsin and paralytic shellfish toxin-producing nostocales cyanobacteria from mediterranean europe (Spain).

    PubMed

    Cirés, Samuel; Wörmer, Lars; Ballot, Andreas; Agha, Ramsy; Wiedner, Claudia; Velázquez, David; Casero, María Cristina; Quesada, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Planktonic Nostocales cyanobacteria represent a challenge for microbiological research because of the wide range of cyanotoxins that they synthesize and their invasive behavior, which is presumably enhanced by global warming. To gain insight into the phylogeography of potentially toxic Nostocales from Mediterranean Europe, 31 strains of Anabaena (Anabaena crassa, A. lemmermannii, A. mendotae, and A. planctonica), Aphanizomenon (Aphanizomenon gracile, A. ovalisporum), and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were isolated from 14 freshwater bodies in Spain and polyphasically analyzed for their phylogeography, cyanotoxin production, and the presence of cyanotoxin biosynthesis genes. The potent cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was produced by all 6 Aphanizomenon ovalisporum strains at high levels (5.7 to 9.1 μg CYN mg(-1) [dry weight]) with low variation between strains (1.5 to 3.9-fold) and a marked extracellular release (19 to 41% dissolved CYN) during exponential growth. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) neurotoxins (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and decarbamoylsaxitoxin) were detected in 2 Aphanizomenon gracile strains, both containing the sxtA gene. This gene was also amplified in non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon gracile and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. Phylogenetic analyses supported the species identification and confirmed the high similarity of Spanish Anabaena and Aphanizomenon strains with other European strains. In contrast, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Spain grouped together with American strains and was clearly separate from the rest of the European strains, raising questions about the current assumptions of the phylogeography and spreading routes of C. raciborskii. The present study confirms that the nostocalean genus Aphanizomenon is a major source of CYN and PSP toxins in Europe and demonstrates the presence of the sxtA gene in CYN-producing Aphanizomenon ovalisporum.

  9. Toward a paradigm shift in comparative phylogeography driven by trait-based hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Knowles, L. Lacey

    2016-01-01

    For three decades, comparative phylogeography has conceptually and methodologically relied on the concordance criterion for providing insights into the historical/biogeographic processes driving population genetic structure and divergence. Here we discuss how this emphasis, and the corresponding lack of methods for extracting information about biotic/intrinsic contributions to patterns of genetic variation, may bias our general understanding of the factors driving genetic structure. Specifically, this emphasis has promoted a tendency to attribute discordant phylogeographic patterns to the idiosyncracies of history, as well as an adherence to generic null expectations of concordance with reduced predictive power. We advocate that it is time for a paradigm shift in comparative phylogeography, especially given the limited utility of the concordance criterion as genomic data provide ever-increasing levels of resolution. Instead of adhering to the concordance-discordance dichotomy, comparative phylogeography needs to emphasize the contribution of taxon-specific traits that will determine whether concordance is a meaningful criterion for evaluating hypotheses or may predict discordant phylogeographic structure. Through reference to some case studies we illustrate how refined hypotheses based on taxon-specific traits can provide improved predictive frameworks to forecast species responses to climatic change or biogeographic barriers while gaining unique insights about the taxa themselves and their interactions with their environment. We outline a potential avenue toward a synthetic comparative phylogeographic paradigm that includes addressing some important conceptual and methodological challenges related to study design and application of model-based approaches for evaluating support of trait-based hypotheses under the proposed paradigm. PMID:27432974

  10. Toward a paradigm shift in comparative phylogeography driven by trait-based hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Knowles, L Lacey

    2016-07-19

    For three decades, comparative phylogeography has conceptually and methodologically relied on the concordance criterion for providing insights into the historical/biogeographic processes driving population genetic structure and divergence. Here we discuss how this emphasis, and the corresponding lack of methods for extracting information about biotic/intrinsic contributions to patterns of genetic variation, may bias our general understanding of the factors driving genetic structure. Specifically, this emphasis has promoted a tendency to attribute discordant phylogeographic patterns to the idiosyncracies of history, as well as an adherence to generic null expectations of concordance with reduced predictive power. We advocate that it is time for a paradigm shift in comparative phylogeography, especially given the limited utility of the concordance criterion as genomic data provide ever-increasing levels of resolution. Instead of adhering to the concordance-discordance dichotomy, comparative phylogeography needs to emphasize the contribution of taxon-specific traits that will determine whether concordance is a meaningful criterion for evaluating hypotheses or may predict discordant phylogeographic structure. Through reference to some case studies we illustrate how refined hypotheses based on taxon-specific traits can provide improved predictive frameworks to forecast species responses to climatic change or biogeographic barriers while gaining unique insights about the taxa themselves and their interactions with their environment. We outline a potential avenue toward a synthetic comparative phylogeographic paradigm that includes addressing some important conceptual and methodological challenges related to study design and application of model-based approaches for evaluating support of trait-based hypotheses under the proposed paradigm. PMID:27432974

  11. Phylogeography of influenza A H5N1 clade 2.2.1.1 in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza A H5N1 has killed millions of birds and raises serious public health concern because of its potential to spread to humans and cause a global pandemic. While the early focus was in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is a new epicenter for the disease. This includes characterization of a variant clade 2.2.1.1, which has been found almost exclusively in Egypt. We analyzed 226 HA and 92 NA sequences with an emphasis on the H5N1 2.2.1.1 strains in Egypt using a Bayesian discrete phylogeography approach. This allowed modeling of virus dispersion between Egyptian governorates including the most likely origin. Results Phylogeography models of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) suggest Ash Sharqiyah as the origin of virus spread, however the support is weak based on Kullback–Leibler values of 0.09 for HA and 0.01 for NA. Association Index (AI) values and Parsimony Scores (PS) were significant (p-value < 0.05), indicating that dispersion of H5N1 in Egypt was geographically structured. In addition, the Ash Sharqiyah to Al Gharbiyah and Al Fayyum to Al Qalyubiyah routes had the strongest statistical support. Conclusion We found that the majority of routes with strong statistical support were in the heavily populated Delta region. In particular, the Al Qalyubiyah governorate appears to represent a popular location for virus transition as it represented a large portion of branches in both trees. However, there remains uncertainty about virus dispersion to and from this location and thus more research needs to be conducted in order to examine this. Phylogeography can highlight the drivers of H5N1 emergence and spread. This knowledge can be used to target public health efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality. For Egypt, future work should focus on using data about vaccination and live bird markets in phylogeography models to study their impact on H5N1 diffusion within the country. PMID:24325606

  12. High-throughput identification of informative nuclear loci for shallow-scale phylogenetics and phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Lemmon, Alan R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty

    2012-10-01

    One of the major challenges for researchers studying phylogeography and shallow-scale phylogenetics is the identification of highly variable and informative nuclear loci for the question of interest. Previous approaches to locus identification have generally required extensive testing of anonymous nuclear loci developed from genomic libraries of the target taxon, testing of loci of unknown utility from other systems, or identification of loci from the nearest model organism with genomic resources. Here, we present a fast and economical approach to generating thousands of variable, single-copy nuclear loci for any system using next-generation sequencing. We performed Illumina paired-end sequencing of three reduced-representation libraries (RRLs) in chorus frogs (Pseudacris) to identify orthologous, single-copy loci across libraries and to estimate sequence divergence at multiple taxonomic levels. We also conducted PCR testing of these loci across the genus Pseudacris and outgroups to determine whether loci developed for phylogeography can be extended to deeper phylogenetic levels. Prior to sequencing, we conducted in silico digestion of the most closely related reference genome (Xenopus tropicalis) to generate expectations for the number of loci and degree of coverage for a particular experimental design. Using the RRL approach, we: (i) identified more than 100,000 single-copy nuclear loci, 6339 of which were obtained for divergent conspecifics and 904 of which were obtained for heterospecifics; (ii) estimated average nuclear sequence divergence at 0.1% between alleles within an individual, 1.1% between conspecific individuals that represent two different clades, and 1.8% between species; and (iii) determined from PCR testing that 53% of the loci successfully amplify within-species and also many amplify to the genus-level and deeper in the phylogeny (16%). Our study effectively identified nuclear loci present in the genome that have levels of sequence divergence on

  13. Relationships of metabolic hormones and serum glucose to growth and reproductive development in performance-tested Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M G; Enns, R M; Hallford, D M; Keisler, D H; Obeidat, B S; Morrison, C D; Hernandez, J A; Bryant, W D; Flores, R; Lopez, R; Narro, L

    2002-03-01

    Understanding mechanisms that regulate growth and reproduction are important for improving selection strategies in cattle. In this study, Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls (n = 7 per breed) of similar age were selected from a group of 65 weanlings. Bulls were evaluated after weaning (i.e., approximately 6 mo of age) for 112 d for serum concentrations of metabolic hormones and glucose, growth, and reproductive traits. Performance data and blood sera were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, and 112. Sera were also collected in periods from d 50 to 59 (56D) and 103 to 112 (112D). Angus bulls were heavier (P < 0.05) throughout the study than Brahman bulls and were heavier than Brangus bulls on d 56, 84, and 112. Initial and final BW for Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls were 292.7, 260.6, and 230.4 and 468.3, 435.6, and 350.7 +/- 12 kg, respectively. Conversely, Brahman bulls had greater hip height (P < 0.05) than Brangus, and Brangus were taller (P < 0.05) than Angus. Angus bulls had the greatest (P < 0.05) scrotal circumference (SC) and Brahman bulls the least. Mean SC across days was 31.5, 29.7, and 25.0 +/- 0.6 cm for the three respective breeds. Serum testosterone was greater (P < 0.01) in Angus and Brangus bulls (10.0 and 8.9 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) than in Brahman bulls (4.0 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) throughout the study. After d 112, 100, 86, and 57% of the Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls passed a breeding soundness exam (P = 0.51). Serum concentrations of IGF-I and leptin were greater (P < or = 0.06) in Angus bulls on d 56, 84, and 112 than in Brangus and Brahman bulls. Serum concentrations of GH (P < 0.08) and glucose (P < 0.03) were greater in Brangus bulls than in Angus or Brahman bulls throughout the study. Prediction analyses suggested that serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict (P < or = 0.08) BW and SC (R2 > 0.82) in the 56D and 112D periods among these breeds. Leptin was also useful in predicting (P < or = 0.09) serum concentrations of GH and testosterone in

  14. Obesity and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Bray, G A

    1997-10-01

    Obesity produces a variety of alterations in the reproductive system and, similarly, manipulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis produce changes in food intake, body weight and fat distribution. In men, the primary effects of obesity are a weight related reduction in testosterone and, with massive overweight, a reduction in free testosterone. In females, the weight-related development of menarche leads to earlier menarche in obese girls than in normal weight girls. One explanation for the relationship of fatness to menarche may be the ob protein (leptin) which is defective in the obese (ob/ob) mouse. Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue in proportion to the quantity of fat and may serve as a signal to the hypothalamus that fat stores are adequate to nourish a conceptus to term. In women, parity affects obesity and obesity in turn affects the regularity of the menstrual cycle. In many experimental animals with obesity, particularly the genetic forms of obesity, there is complete infertility in the females and marked impairment of reproductive function in the males. In animals with hypothalamic lesions, there is a gender effect on the magnitude of weight gain associated with the sexually dimorphic regions in the medial preoptic area. Castration with removal of oestrogen is followed by obesity in female animals and this can be prevented, as can most forms of obesity, by adrenalectomy. The inhibitory effects of oestrogen on food intake may result from suppression of neuropeptide-Y or galanin peptidergic systems in the arcuate nucleus or medial preoptic area.

  15. Origin and primary dispersal of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype: Clues from human phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Mokrousov, Igor; Ly, Ho Minh; Otten, Tatiana; Lan, Nguyen Ngoc; Vyshnevskyi, Boris; Hoffner, Sven; Narvskaya, Olga

    2005-01-01

    We suggest that the evolution of the population structure of microbial pathogens is influenced by that of modern humans. Consequently, the timing of hallmark changes in bacterial genomes within the last 100,000 yr may be attempted by comparison with relevant human migrations. Here, we used a lineage within Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a Beijing genotype, as a model and compared its phylogeography with human demography and Y chromosome-based phylogeography. We hypothesize that two key events shaped the early history of the Beijing genotype: (1) its Upper Palaeolithic origin in the Homo sapiens sapiens K-M9 cluster in Central Asia, and (2) primary Neolithic dispersal of the secondary Beijing NTF::IS6110 lineage by Proto-Sino-Tibetan farmers within east Asia (human O-M214/M122 haplogroup). The independent introductions of the Beijing strains from east Asia to northern Eurasia and South Africa were likely historically recent, whereas their differential dissemination within these areas has been influenced by demographic and climatic factors. PMID:16169923

  16. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii: review of the distribution, phylogeography, and ecophysiology of a global invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Jorge T.; Leão, Pedro N.; Vasconcelos, Vítor M.

    2015-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterial species extensively studied for its toxicity, bloom formation and invasiveness potential, which have consequences to public and environmental health. Its current geographical distribution, spanning different climates, suggests that C. raciborskii has acquired the status of a cosmopolitan species. From phylogeography studies, a tropical origin for this species seems convincing, with different conjectural routes of expansion toward temperate climates. This expansion may be a result of the species physiological plasticity, or of the existence of different ecotypes with distinct environmental requirements. In particular, C. raciborskii is known to tolerate wide temperature and light regimes and presents diverse nutritional strategies. This cyanobacterium is also thought to have benefited from climate change conditions, regarding its invasiveness into temperate climates. Other factors, recently put forward, such as allelopathy, may also be important to its expansion. The effect of C. raciborskii in the invaded communities is still mostly unknown but may strongly disturb species diversity at different trophic levels. In this review we present an up-to-date account of the distribution, phylogeography, ecophysiology, as well some preliminary reports of the impact of C. raciborskii in different organisms. PMID:26042108

  17. Phylogeography, Genetic Diversity, and Management Units of Hawksbill Turtles in the Indo-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Sarah M; Jensen, Michael P; Ho, Simon Y W; Mobaraki, Asghar; Broderick, Damien; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Whiting, Scott D; Miller, Jeff; Prince, Robert I T; Bell, Ian P; Hoenner, Xavier; Limpus, Colin J; Santos, Fabrício R; FitzSimmons, Nancy N

    2016-05-01

    Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) populations have experienced global decline because of a history of intense commercial exploitation for shell and stuffed taxidermied whole animals, and harvest for eggs and meat. Improved understanding of genetic diversity and phylogeography is needed to aid conservation. In this study, we analyzed the most geographically comprehensive sample of hawksbill turtles from the Indo-Pacific Ocean, sequencing 766 bp of the mitochondrial control region from 13 locations (plus Aldabra, n = 4) spanning over 13500 km. Our analysis of 492 samples revealed 52 haplotypes distributed in 5 divergent clades. Diversification times differed between the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic lineages and appear to be related to the sea-level changes that occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum. We found signals of demographic expansion only for turtles from the Persian Gulf region, which can be tied to a more recent colonization event. Our analyses revealed evidence of transoceanic migration, including connections between feeding grounds from the Atlantic Ocean and Indo-Pacific rookeries. Hawksbill turtles appear to have a complex pattern of phylogeography, showing a weak isolation by distance and evidence of multiple colonization events. Our novel dataset will allow mixed-stock analyses of hawksbill turtle feeding grounds in the Indo-Pacific by providing baseline data needed for conservation efforts in the region. Eight management units are proposed in our study for the Indo-Pacific region that can be incorporated in conservation plans of this critically endangered species. PMID:26615184

  18. Phylogeography, Genetic Diversity, and Management Units of Hawksbill Turtles in the Indo-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Sarah M; Jensen, Michael P; Ho, Simon Y W; Mobaraki, Asghar; Broderick, Damien; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Whiting, Scott D; Miller, Jeff; Prince, Robert I T; Bell, Ian P; Hoenner, Xavier; Limpus, Colin J; Santos, Fabrício R; FitzSimmons, Nancy N

    2016-05-01

    Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) populations have experienced global decline because of a history of intense commercial exploitation for shell and stuffed taxidermied whole animals, and harvest for eggs and meat. Improved understanding of genetic diversity and phylogeography is needed to aid conservation. In this study, we analyzed the most geographically comprehensive sample of hawksbill turtles from the Indo-Pacific Ocean, sequencing 766 bp of the mitochondrial control region from 13 locations (plus Aldabra, n = 4) spanning over 13500 km. Our analysis of 492 samples revealed 52 haplotypes distributed in 5 divergent clades. Diversification times differed between the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic lineages and appear to be related to the sea-level changes that occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum. We found signals of demographic expansion only for turtles from the Persian Gulf region, which can be tied to a more recent colonization event. Our analyses revealed evidence of transoceanic migration, including connections between feeding grounds from the Atlantic Ocean and Indo-Pacific rookeries. Hawksbill turtles appear to have a complex pattern of phylogeography, showing a weak isolation by distance and evidence of multiple colonization events. Our novel dataset will allow mixed-stock analyses of hawksbill turtle feeding grounds in the Indo-Pacific by providing baseline data needed for conservation efforts in the region. Eight management units are proposed in our study for the Indo-Pacific region that can be incorporated in conservation plans of this critically endangered species.

  19. Multilocus phylogeography of the European ground squirrel: cryptic interglacial refugia of continental climate in Europe.

    PubMed

    Říčanová, Štěpánka; Koshev, Yordan; Říčan, Oldřich; Ćosić, Nada; Ćirović, Duško; Sedláček, František; Bryja, Josef

    2013-08-01

    The theory of classical and cryptic Pleistocene refugia is based mainly on historical changes in temperature, and the refugia are usually defined within a latitudinal gradient. However, the gradient of oceanic-continental climate (i.e. longitudinal) was also significantly variable during glacial cycles with important biotic consequences. Range-wide phylogeography of the European ground squirrel (EGS) was used to interpret the evolutionary and palaeogeographical history of the species in Europe and to shed light on its glacial-interglacial dynamic. The EGS is a steppe-inhabiting species and the westernmost member of the genus in the Palaearctic region. We have analysed 915 specimens throughout the present natural range by employing mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b gene) and 12 nuclear microsatellite markers. The reconstructed phylogeography divides the species into two main geographical groups, with deep substructuring within both groups. Bulgaria is the centre of the ancestral area, and it also has the highest genetic diversity within the species. The northernmost group of the EGS survived in the southern part of Pannonia throughout several glacial-interglacial cycles. Animals from this population probably repeatedly colonized areas further to the north and west during the glacial periods, while in the interglacial periods, the EGS distribution contracted back to this Pannonian refugium. The EGS thus represents a species with a glacial expansion/interglacial contraction palaeogeographical dynamics, and the Pannonian and southeastern Balkanian steppes are supported as cryptic refugia of continental climate during Pleistocene interglacials.

  20. Reproductive technologies and the quality of offspring in Asia: reproductive pioneering and moral pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues relevant to this special issue of Culture, Health & Sexuality on the quality of offspring, including gender selection, ecofeminism, eugenics, reproductive agency, moral pioneering and reproductive pragmatism in China, India and Japan. First, it discusses various approaches to choice in sex selection, focusing on an instrumentalist and an ecofeminist approach. Second, it discusses issues of reproductive choice in the light of various concepts of eugenics and power, which have been used to characterise the relationship between the state, the individual and prenatal genetic testing. Third, it queries Foucault's notion of biopower in relation to reproductive agency. In reviewing the evidence, the chapter raises questions about how women and parents in Asian societies can be understood in terms of 'reproductive pragmatism', 'empowerment' and/or 'moral pioneering' when faced with the use of new reproductive technologies in modern societies.

  1. Reproductive technologies and the quality of offspring in Asia: reproductive pioneering and moral pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues relevant to this special issue of Culture, Health & Sexuality on the quality of offspring, including gender selection, ecofeminism, eugenics, reproductive agency, moral pioneering and reproductive pragmatism in China, India and Japan. First, it discusses various approaches to choice in sex selection, focusing on an instrumentalist and an ecofeminist approach. Second, it discusses issues of reproductive choice in the light of various concepts of eugenics and power, which have been used to characterise the relationship between the state, the individual and prenatal genetic testing. Third, it queries Foucault's notion of biopower in relation to reproductive agency. In reviewing the evidence, the chapter raises questions about how women and parents in Asian societies can be understood in terms of 'reproductive pragmatism', 'empowerment' and/or 'moral pioneering' when faced with the use of new reproductive technologies in modern societies. PMID:19499397

  2. [Sexual reproduction in animals].

    PubMed

    Jordana, R; Herrea, L

    1974-01-01

    Both asexual and sexual reproduction are described, with most attention given the latter, and all basic aspects of reproduction are discussed including gender, gametogenesis, genes and chromosomes, fecundation, and hormonal control. Female and male reproductive hormones and their modes of operation are given special attention. Innate reproductive and sexual behavior in various species is detailed and a discussion of the role of sexual attraction in human and animal reproduction is included. Contraception and abortion are described as human efforts to separate sexuality and reproduction unique in the biological world.

  3. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  4. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  5. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production. PMID:27080552

  6. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia.

  7. Molecular phylogeography of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations in Xinjiang of China: comparison with other Asian, European, and North American populations.

    PubMed

    Mahmut, Halik; Masuda, Ryuichi; Onuma, Manabu; Takahashi, Manami; Nagata, Junko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2002-04-01

    To illustrate phylogeography of red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations of Xinjiang, we determined their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, and then investigated geographic variations and phylogenetic relationships between Xinjiang populations and other populations from Asia, Europe, and North America. The C. elaphus mtDNA control region shared different copy numbers of tandem repeats of 38 to 43-bp motifs which clearly distinguished the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage of this species in Eurasia. The western lineage comprised the Tarim populations from southern Xinjiang and the European populations, all of which had four copies of the motifs. By contrast, the Eastern lineage consisted of populations from northern Xinjiang (Tianshan and Altai Mountains), other Asian areas (Alashan, Gansu, Tibet, Mongolia, and northeastern China), and North America, all of which shared six copies of the motifs. MtDNA phylogenetic trees showed that there are two major clusters of haplotypes which referred to the Western and Eastern lineages, and that subgroupings of haplotypes in each cluster were congruent with their geographic distributions. The present study revealed that a boundary separating the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage occurs between Tarim Basin and Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang. Meanwhile, North American populations were genetically closer to those of northern Xinjiang, northeastern China, and Mongolia, supporting that C. elaphus immigrated from northeastern Eurasia to North America through the glacier-induced land-bridge (Beringia) which had formed between the two continents after Late Pleistocene.

  8. Evolution and Conservation on Top of the World: Phylogeography of the Marbled Water Frog (Telmatobius marmoratus Species Complex; Anura, Telmatobiidae) in Protected Areas of Chile.

    PubMed

    Victoriano, Pedro F; Muñoz-Mendoza, Carla; Sáez, Paola A; Salinas, Hugo F; Muñoz-Ramírez, Carlos; Sallaberry, Michel; Fibla, Pablo; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    The Andean Altiplano has served as a complex setting throughout its history, driving dynamic processes of diversification in several taxa. We investigated phylogeographic processes in the Telmatobius marmoratus species complex occurring in this region by studying the geographic patterns of genetic variability, genealogies, and historical migration, using the cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene as a marker. DNA sequences from Telmatobius gigas and Telmatobius culeus, Bolivian species with an uncertain taxonomic status, were also included. Additionally, we evaluated the phylogenetic diversity (PD) represented within Chilean protected areas and the complementary contribution from unprotected populations. Phylogenetic reconstructions from 148 cyt-b sequences revealed 4 main clades, one of which corresponded to T. culeus. T. gigas was part of T. marmoratus clade indicating paraphyletic relationships. Haplotypes from Chilean and Bolivian sites were not reciprocally monophyletic. Geographic distribution of lineages, spatial Bayesian analysis, and migration patterns indicated that T. marmoratus displays a weaker geographic structure than expected based on habitat distribution and physiological requirements. Demographic and statistical phylogeography analyses pointed out to a scenario of recent population expansion and high connectivity events of a more recent age than the post Last Glacial Maximum, probably associated to more humid events in Altiplano. PD of T. marmoratus populations within protected areas represents 55.6% of the total estimated PD. The unprotected populations that would contribute the most to PD are Caquena and Quebe (21%). Recent evolutionary processes and paleoclimatic changes, potentially driving shifts in habitat connectivity levels and population sizes, could explain the phylogeographic patterns recovered herein.

  9. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. PMID:25780854

  10. Comparative molecular phylogeography of two Xenopus species, X. gilli and X. laevis, in the south-western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Evans, B J; Morales, J C; Picker, M D; Kelley, D B; Melnick, D J

    1997-04-01

    Xenopus gilli is a vulnerable anuran with a patchy distribution along the south-western coast of the Cape Province, South Africa. This species is sympatric with Xenopus laevis laevis, a widespread relative found over much of southern Africa. We examined the molecular phylogeography and population structure of the contact zone between these species to obtain information about historical biogeography and conservation management of this region. Analyses of the distribution, frequency, and cladistic and phenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA haplotypes indicate that population subdivision is present in both taxa but that long-term isolation of sets of populations has occurred in X. gilli only. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity are also considerably higher within and among X. gilli ponds than X. l. laevis ponds in this region. We attribute the genetic segregation of X. gilli populations to ancient habitat fragmentation by ocean transgression into X. gilli habitat and to continued habitat alteration by human activity. The lower level of genetic diversity in X. L. laevis in this region is likely a result of a recent arrival of this taxon to the south-western Cape region relative to X. gilli. Population structure in X. l. laevis may be a result of isolation by distance. Clear evidence exists for at least two management units within X. gilli and strongly supports the establishment of protective measures east of False Bay in order to conserve a substantial portion of this species' extant genetic diversity.

  11. Gender and social reproduction: historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Laslett, B; Brenner, J

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that gender relations and social reproduction were both shaped by macrohistorical processes and shaped the processes. Social reproduction is defined within feminist theory as more than production in the Marxist sense. Societal reproduction is a combination of the organization of production, the organization of social reproduction, the perpetuation of gender, and the continuation of class relations. Social reproduction includes the care and socialization of children and care of the elderly or infirm. Social reproduction includes the organization of sexuality, biological reproduction, and how food, clothing, and shelter are made available. Most social reproduction occurs within the family unit. It is pointed out that variations in the distribution of the work of social reproduction are affected by the family, market, community, and state. The ways in which women construct their own worlds of activity is a central concern. The feminist concept of social reproduction differs from modernization theory, which is concerned with the institutional location of the tasks of social reproduction and the structural effects on the family and gender relations. This literature review focuses only on the history of family strategies and separate gender-related activities. The authors describe the changes in family organization that define men as income producers and women as caretakers, who base child rearing on love and feminine virtue rather than patriarchal authority and religious doctrine. The discussion focuses on the differences in marital relationships, motherhood, and sexuality between upper and middle class and working class women in the 19th century. Among working class women, a good wife was an efficient manager, a skilled domestic worker, and an income earner. The turn of the century was a period of social change marked by smaller average family size, the decline of household production, the rise in real wages, and increased consumption. It is argued that

  12. Reproductive Information and Reproductive Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of reproductive choice are attempting to limit reproductive decisions based on certain underlying reasons. This commentary explores the rationales for these limitations and the objections to them. It concludes that reasoned-based limitations are unsupportable and unenforceable. PMID:26242944

  13. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.

  14. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  15. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  16. Acupuncture for reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Lin, J H; Panzer, R

    1992-03-01

    The use of acupuncture to treat reproductive disorders can produce excellent results. Two proposed physiologic mechanisms for its effects on the reproductive system include an endorphin-mediated mechanism affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis and a direct effect on gonadal paracrine and autocrine control of steroidogenesis. This chapter discusses reproductive disorders from both western and traditional Chinese perspectives, and details the use of acupuncture for the treatment of eight specific categories of reproductive dysfunction.

  17. The phylogeography of Eurasian Fraxinus species reveals ancient transcontinental reticulation.

    PubMed

    Hinsinger, Damien D; Gaudeul, Myriam; Couloux, Arnaud; Bousquet, Jean; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the biogeographical history of ashes species of the Eurasian section Fraxinus and to test the hypothesis of ancient reticulations, we sequenced nuclear DNA (nETS and nITS, 1075 bp) for 533 samples and scored AFLP for 63 samples of Eurasian ashes within the section Fraxinus. The nITS phylogeny retrieved the classical view of the evolution of the section, whereas nETS phylogeny indicated an unexpected separation of F. angustifolia in two paraphyletic groups, respectively found in southeastern Europe and in the other parts of the Mediterranean basin. In the nETS phylogeny, the former group was closely related to F. excelsior, whereas the later was closely related to F. mandshurica, a species which is restricted nowadays to northeastern Asia. This topological incongruence between the two loci indicated the occurrence of an ancient reticulation between European and Asian ash species. Several other ancient reticulation events between the two European species and the other species of the section were supported by the posterior predictive checking method. Some of these reticulation events would have occurred during the Miocene, when climatic variations may have lead these species to expand their distribution range and come into contact. The recurrent reticulations observed among Eurasian ash species indicate that they should be considered as conspecific taxa, with subspecific status for some groups. Altogether, the results of the present study provide a rare documented evidence for the occurrence of multiple ancient reticulations within a group of temperate tree taxa with modern disjunct distributions in Eurasia. These ancient reticulation events indicate that the speciation process is slow in ashes, necessitating long periods of geographical isolation. The implications for speciation processes in temperate trees with similar life history and reproductive biology are discussed. PMID:24795215

  18. The relationship of maternal characteristics and circulating progesterone concentrations with reproductive outcome in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) after artificial insemination, with and without ovulation induction, and natural breeding.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Robeck, T R

    2012-08-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) undergoing natural breeding and artificial insemination (AI) were examined to characterize serum progesterone concentrations and determine relationships among age, parity, and reproductive outcome. Progesterone profiles of five cycle types (n = 119 total cycles from 54 animals) were characterized as follows: (i) conception and production of a live term calf (conceptive-term, n = 73); (ii) conception and abortion after Day 60 (conceptive-abortion, n = 12); (iii) unknown conception status with prolonged, elevated progesterone and absence of a fetus (conceptive-unknown, n = 14); (iv) conception failure with normal luteal phase progesterone concentrations (non-conceptive, n = 14, AI cycles only); and (v) conception failure with progesterone insufficiency occuring after spontaneous ovulation or owing to premature ovulation induction using GnRH (non-conceptive-PI, n = 6, AI cycles only). By Day 21 post-insemination (PI), progesterone concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) among conceptive-term, conceptive-abortion and conceptive-unknown, and higher (P < 0.05) for conceptive-term than non-conceptive and non-conceptive-PI cycles. Progesterone concentrations of known conceptive cycles peaked by Week 7 PI (P < 0.05) and remained elevated for the remainder of pregnancy (Weeks 8 up to 54, ≥ 5 days pre-partum). During midpregnancy (Days 121-240), conceptive-term cycles had higher (P > 0.05) progesterone concentrations than conceptive-abortion and unknown conception status cycles. Parity was not associated with reproductive outcome based on cycle type (P > 0.05). Age of females in conceptive-unknown (26.5 ± 10.1 yrs) and conceptive-abortion (22.1 ± 9.4 yrs) groups was higher (P < 0.05) than in conceptive-term (15.7 ± 7.2 yrs). The conceptive-unknown cycle type possibly represents undetected early embryonic loss occurring before Day 60 PI. Length of gestation using known conception dates was 376.1 ± 11.0 days and the range of this

  19. The relationship of maternal characteristics and circulating progesterone concentrations with reproductive outcome in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) after artificial insemination, with and without ovulation induction, and natural breeding.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Robeck, T R

    2012-08-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) undergoing natural breeding and artificial insemination (AI) were examined to characterize serum progesterone concentrations and determine relationships among age, parity, and reproductive outcome. Progesterone profiles of five cycle types (n = 119 total cycles from 54 animals) were characterized as follows: (i) conception and production of a live term calf (conceptive-term, n = 73); (ii) conception and abortion after Day 60 (conceptive-abortion, n = 12); (iii) unknown conception status with prolonged, elevated progesterone and absence of a fetus (conceptive-unknown, n = 14); (iv) conception failure with normal luteal phase progesterone concentrations (non-conceptive, n = 14, AI cycles only); and (v) conception failure with progesterone insufficiency occuring after spontaneous ovulation or owing to premature ovulation induction using GnRH (non-conceptive-PI, n = 6, AI cycles only). By Day 21 post-insemination (PI), progesterone concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) among conceptive-term, conceptive-abortion and conceptive-unknown, and higher (P < 0.05) for conceptive-term than non-conceptive and non-conceptive-PI cycles. Progesterone concentrations of known conceptive cycles peaked by Week 7 PI (P < 0.05) and remained elevated for the remainder of pregnancy (Weeks 8 up to 54, ≥ 5 days pre-partum). During midpregnancy (Days 121-240), conceptive-term cycles had higher (P > 0.05) progesterone concentrations than conceptive-abortion and unknown conception status cycles. Parity was not associated with reproductive outcome based on cycle type (P > 0.05). Age of females in conceptive-unknown (26.5 ± 10.1 yrs) and conceptive-abortion (22.1 ± 9.4 yrs) groups was higher (P < 0.05) than in conceptive-term (15.7 ± 7.2 yrs). The conceptive-unknown cycle type possibly represents undetected early embryonic loss occurring before Day 60 PI. Length of gestation using known conception dates was 376.1 ± 11.0 days and the range of this

  20. Influence of individual body size on reproductive traits in Melanopline grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body size is a fundamental trait of an organism, affecting most aspects of its performance, including reproduction. Numerous biotic and environmental factors can influence individual body size and reproduction in grasshoppers. Using data from four experiments, I examined intraspecific relationships ...

  1. Natural Language Processing Methods for Enhancing Geographic Metadata for Phylogeography of Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tahsin, Tasnia; Beard, Rachel; Rivera, Robert; Lauder, Rob; Wallstrom, Garrick; Scotch, Matthew; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic viruses represent emerging or re-emerging pathogens that pose significant public health threats throughout the world. It is therefore crucial to advance current surveillance mechanisms for these viruses through outlets such as phylogeography. Despite the abundance of zoonotic viral sequence data in publicly available databases such as GenBank, phylogeographic analysis of these viruses is often limited by the lack of adequate geographic metadata. However, many GenBank records include references to articles with more detailed information and automated systems may help extract this information efficiently and effectively. In this paper, we describe our efforts to determine the proportion of GenBank records with “insufficient” geographic metadata for seven well-studied viruses. We also evaluate the performance of four different Named Entity Recognition (NER) systems for automatically extracting related entities using a manually created gold-standard. PMID:25717409

  2. Phylogeography of Rickettsia rickettsii Genotypes Associated with Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Christopher D.; Denison, Amy M.; Lash, R. Ryan; Liu, Lindy; Bollweg, Brigid C.; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Kanamura, Cristina T.; Angerami, Rodrigo N.; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana C.; Brasil Martines, Roosecelis; Karpathy, Sandor E.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the deadliest of all infectious diseases. To identify the distribution of various genotypes of R. rickettsii associated with fatal RMSF, we applied molecular typing methods to samples of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at autopsy from 103 case-patients from seven countries who died of RMSF. Complete sequences of one or more intergenic regions were amplified from tissues of 30 (29%) case-patients and revealed a distribution of genotypes consisting of four distinct clades, including the Hlp clade, regarded previously as a non-pathogenic strain of R. rickettsii. Distinct phylogeographic patterns were identified when composite case-patient and reference strain data were mapped to the state and country of origin. The phylogeography of R. rickettsii is likely determined by ecological and environmental factors that exist independently of the distribution of a particular tick vector. PMID:24957541

  3. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the Labeobarbus intermedius complex (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Beshera, K A; Harris, P M

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of populations of the Labeobarbus intermedius complex (hexaploid barb) was investigated using 88 complete and 71 partial cytochrome b (cytb) sequences originating from 21 localities in five major drainages in Ethiopia and two localities in northern Kenya. The samples included 14 of the 15 Labeobarbus species described from Lake Tana. Discrete phylogeographic analyses of 159 cytb sequences employing Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations using Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees (BEAST) supported the monophyly of the L. intermedius complex, including the Lake Tana species. This analysis, in combination with statistical parsimony analysis, identified two mitochondrial DNA lineages within the complex. Divergence dating employing coalescent simulations suggested that the geographic split in the L. intermedius complex that led to the formation of these lineages occurred during the Pleistocene (c. 0.5 M b.p.), consistent with the timing of volcano-tectonic events postulated to have shaped the current landscape of East Africa.

  4. Phylogeography of Rickettsia rickettsii genotypes associated with fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Denison, Amy M; Lash, R Ryan; Liu, Lindy; Bollweg, Brigid C; Dahlgren, F Scott; Kanamura, Cristina T; Angerami, Rodrigo N; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana C; Brasil Martines, Roosecelis; Karpathy, Sandor E

    2014-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the deadliest of all infectious diseases. To identify the distribution of various genotypes of R. rickettsii associated with fatal RMSF, we applied molecular typing methods to samples of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at autopsy from 103 case-patients from seven countries who died of RMSF. Complete sequences of one or more intergenic regions were amplified from tissues of 30 (29%) case-patients and revealed a distribution of genotypes consisting of four distinct clades, including the Hlp clade, regarded previously as a non-pathogenic strain of R. rickettsii. Distinct phylogeographic patterns were identified when composite case-patient and reference strain data were mapped to the state and country of origin. The phylogeography of R. rickettsii is likely determined by ecological and environmental factors that exist independently of the distribution of a particular tick vector.

  5. [Phylogeography of southern Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma krascheninnikovi: genealogical analysis of mitochondrial DNA].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Chukova, E I

    2010-02-01

    Phylogeography of southern Asian Dolly Varden char was studied using the data on mtDNA variation (regions ND1/ND2, ND5/ND6, and Cytb/D loop) obtained using PCR-RFLP analysis. Analysis of contemporary population genetic structure showed that S. m. krascheninnikovi throughout the whole species range was characterized by high population differentiation in combination with rather small differences between the populations from remote regions. The genealogy of mtDNA haplotypes was reconstructed and nested clade analysis of geographical distances was performed. Geographical distribution of mtDNA haplotypes of S. m. krascheninnikovi was explained by population genetic processes (restricted gene flow), as well as by historical demographic events (range expansion and fragmentation). It was demonstrated that the main demographic events were associated with cyclic processes of the geological formation of the Sea of Japan and adjacent territories. Furthermore, genealogical tree of S. m. krascheninnikovi contained the traces of secondary contact between isolated phylogeographical lineages.

  6. Caves as microrefugia: Pleistocene phylogeography of the troglophilic North American scorpion Pseudouroctonus reddelli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival in microrefugia represents an important paradigm in phylogeography for explaining rapid postglacial re-colonization by species in temperate regions. Microrefugia may allow populations to persist in areas where the climatic conditions on the surface have become unfavourable. Caves generally contain stable microclimates and may represent microrefugia for species capable of exploiting both cave and surface habitats (troglophiles). We examine the phylogeography of the troglophilic North American vaejovid scorpion Pseudouroctonus reddelli using 1,993 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data generated from 12 populations. We use (i) descriptive measures of genetic diversity and population genetics statistics, (ii) reconstructions of phylogeographical structure, spatial diffusion during diversification, and population sizes through time, and (iii) species distribution modelling to test predictions of the hypothesis that caves serve as microrefugia. We compare phylogeographical patterns in P. reddelli with other troglophilic species across the Edwards Plateau karst region of Texas. Results Results revealed high haplotype and nucleotide diversity and substantial phylogeographical structure, probably generated during the Pleistocene. Spatial diffusion occurred along the southern edge of the Edwards Plateau from multiple refugia along the Balcones Escarpment. There was little evidence for population and geographical expansion. Species distribution models predicted substantial reductions in suitable epigean habitat for P. reddelli at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Conclusions High genetic diversity, strong phylogeographical structure, diffusion from multiple refugia, and unfavourable climatic conditions at the LGM collectively support the hypothesis that caves served as microrefugia for P. reddelli. Similar patterns of genetic structure in P. reddelli and other troglophilic species across the Edwards Plateau karst region of Texas suggest

  7. Phylogeography and biogeography concordance in the marine gastropod Crepipatella dilatata (Calyptraeidae) along the southeastern Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Brante, Antonio; Fernández, Miriam; Viard, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    The biogeography and phylogeography concordance hypothesis suggests that the same factors, for instance physical barriers or environmental gradients, shape both species assemblages and intraspecific genetic structure. In the marine realm, previous studies have however suggested that phylogeographic patterns are also explained by the life-history strategy of the species. However, evidence is contradictory and comes mainly from the northern hemisphere, which is characterized by specific environmental conditions and evolutionary histories of species. In this work, we evaluated the concordance hypothesis in the southern Pacific using the marine gastropod Crepipatella dilatata as a case study. This intertidal species with direct development exhibited a restricted dispersal potential, a feature that contrasts with previous species studied in the same area. Using the gene cytochrome oxidase I, we analyzed 253 individuals sampled at 10 locations covering 543 km of the coast of Chile. The study sites also incorporated 2 biogeographic regions separated by a well-studied biogeographic break (at 30°S). Populations of C. dilatata displayed a high degree of genetic structure and a perfect match between phylogeographic and biogeographic breaks at 30°S. When comparing our data with previous research over the same geographic range, life history traits related to dispersal ability seem to be a good proxy for explaining the concordance between biogeography and phylogeography along the southeastern pacific coast. In addition, in this and other marine invertebrate species, gene flow limitations across both sides of the 30°S break may act as a driver of the speciation process. PMID:22573790

  8. One Species, Three Pleistocene Evolutionary Histories: Phylogeography of the Italian Crested Newt, Triturus carnifex

    PubMed Central

    Canestrelli, Daniele; Salvi, Daniele; Maura, Michela; Bologna, Marco A.; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographic patterns of temperate species from the Mediterranean peninsulas have been investigated intensively. Nevertheless, as more phylogeographies become available, either unique patterns or new lines of concordance continue to emerge, providing new insights on the evolution of regional biotas. Here, we investigated the phylogeography and evolutionary history of the Italian crested newt, Triturus carnifex, through phylogenetic, molecular dating and population structure analyses of two mitochondrial gene fragments (ND2 and ND4; overall 1273 bp). We found three main mtDNA lineages having parapatric distribution and estimated divergence times between Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. One lineage (S) was widespread south of the northern Apennine chain and was further geographically structured into five sublineages, likely of Middle Pleistocene origin. The second lineage (C) was widespread throughout the Padano–Venetian plain and did not show a clear phylogeographic structure. The third lineage (N) was observed in only two populations located on western Croatia/Slovenia. Results of analysis of molecular variance suggested that partitioning populations according to the geographic distribution of these lineages and sublineages explains 76% of the observed genetic variation. The phylogeographic structure observed within T. carnifex and divergence time estimates among its lineages, suggest that responses to Pleistocene environmental changes in this single species have been as diverse as those found previously among several codistributed temperate species combined. Consistent with the landscape heterogeneity, physiographic features, and palaeogeographical evolution of its distribution range, these responses encompass multiple refugia along the Apennine chain, lowland refugia in large peri-coastal plains, and a ‘cryptic’ northern refugium. PMID:22848590

  9. Out of the Black Sea: Phylogeography of the Invasive Killer Shrimp Dikerogammarus villosus across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rewicz, Tomasz; Wattier, Remi; Grabowski, Michał; Rigaud, Thierry; Bącela-Spychalska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    The amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus has colonized most of the European main inland water bodies in less than 20 years, having deteriorating effect on the local benthic communities. Our aim was to reveal the species phylogeography in the native Black Sea area, to define the source populations for the colonization routes in continental Europe and for the newly established UK populations. We tested for the loss of genetic diversity between source and invasive populations as well as along invasion route. We tested also for isolation by distance. Thirty three native and invasive populations were genotyped for mtDNA (COI, 16S) and seven polymorphic nuclear microsatellites to assess cryptic diversity (presence of deeply divergent lineages), historical demography, level of diversity within lineage (e.g., number of alleles), and population structure. A wide range of methods was used, including minimum spanning network, molecular clock, Bayesian clustering and Mantel test. Our results identified that sea level and salinity changes during Pleistocene impacted the species phylogeography in the Black Sea native region with four differentiated populations inhabiting, respectively, the Dnieper, Dniester, Danube deltas and Durungol liman. The invasion of continental Europe is associated with two sources, i.e., the Danube and Dnieper deltas, which gave origin to two independent invasion routes (Western and Eastern) for which no loss of diversity and no isolation by distance were observed. The UK population has originated in the Western Route and, despite very recent colonization, no drastic loss of diversity was observed. The results show that the invasion of the killer shrimp is not associated with the costs of loosing genetic diversity, which may contribute to the success of this invader in the newly colonized areas. Additionally, while it has not yet occurred, it might be expected that future interbreeding between the genetically diversified populations from two independent

  10. Phylogeography of the prehensile-tailed skink Corucia zebrata on the Solomon Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Ingerid J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Bull, C Michael

    2012-01-01

    The biogeography of islands is often strongly influenced by prior geological events. Corucia zebrata (Squamata: Scincidae) is endemic to the geologically complex Solomon Archipelago in Northern Melanesia. We examined the level of divergence for different island populations of C. zebrata and discussed these patterns in light of Pleistocene land bridges, island isolation, and island age. Corucia zebrata was sampled from 14 locations across the Solomon Archipelago and sequenced at two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4; 1697 bp in total) and four nuclear loci (rhodopsin, an unknown intron, AKAP9, and PTPN12). Measures of genetic divergence, analyses of genetic variation, and Bayesian phylogenetic inference were used and the data assessed in light of geological information. Populations of C. zebrata on separate islands were found to be genetically different from each other, with reciprocal monophyly on mitochondrial DNA. Populations on islands previously connected by Pleistocene land bridges were marginally less divergent from each other than from populations on other nearby but isolated islands. There are indications that C. zebrata has radiated across the eastern islands of the archipelago within the last 1–4 million years. Nuclear loci were not sufficiently informative to yield further information about the phylogeography of C. zebrata on the Solomon Archipelago. Analyses of the mitochondrial data suggest that dispersal between islands has been very limited and that there are barriers to gene flow within the major islands. Islands that have been isolated during the Pleistocene glacial cycles are somewhat divergent in their mitochondrial genotypes, however, isolation by distance (IBD) and recent colonization of isolated but geologically younger islands appear to have had stronger effects on the phylogeography of C. zebrata than the Pleistocene glacial cycles. This contrasts with patterns reported for avian taxa, and highlights the fact that biogeographic regions for

  11. Autoimmune diseases and reproductive aging

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Riley

    2013-01-01

    As the population ages, more individuals with autoimmune diseases are experiencing reproductive senescence. Understanding the impact of menopause and age-related androgen decline on disease onset and course, as well as the potential for hormonal interventions, is critically important. In men, lupus erythematosis (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with lower androgen levels. However, the impact of age-related declines in testosterone, as well as of testosterone replacement, on disease course remains underexplored. In women, the course of all three diseases with onset after the age of menopause differs from that with onset before menopause. Early age at menopause is associated with increased disease risk, and after menopause, disease course changes in SLE and RA. Less is known about MS. This article summarizes what is known about the relationship between reproductive aging and autoimmune diseases in men and women, and highlights areas for further investigation. PMID:23522436

  12. Young women's reproductive health survey.

    PubMed

    Lewis, H

    1987-08-12

    A survey of reproductive health issues was conducted on 15 year old Hutt Valley secondary school girls by means of a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in the sample was 29%. Sixteen percent of the sexually active respondents used no method of contraception. Knowledge of reproductive health facts and contraception was poor both amongst sexually experienced and inexperienced respondents. Twenty-six percent relied on peers for this information, with mothers, teachers and books being other important sources cited. Respondents requested more information on sexually transmitted diseases, contraception and sexual relationships. Most would like this information more readily accessible. Preferred sources of information mentioned were: parents, books, films/videos, family planning clinics and friends.

  13. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  14. Molecular systematics and global phylogeography of angel sharks (genus Squatina).

    PubMed

    Stelbrink, Björn; von Rintelen, Thomas; Cliff, Geremy; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    Angel sharks of the genus Squatina represent a group comprising 22 extant benthic species inhabiting continental shelves and upper slopes. In the present study, a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of 17 Squatina species based on two mitochondrial markers (COI and 16S rRNA) is provided. The phylogenetic reconstructions are used to test biogeographic patterns. In addition, a molecular clock analysis is conducted to estimate divergence times of the emerged clades. All analyses show Squatina to be monophyletic. Four geographic clades are recognized, of which the Europe-North Africa-Asia clade is probably a result of the Tethys Sea closure. A second sister group relationship emerged in the analyses, including S. californica (eastern North Pacific) and S. dumeril (western North Atlantic), probably related to the rise of the Panamanian isthmus. The molecular clock analysis show that both lineage divergences coincide with the estimated time of these two geological events. PMID:19647086

  15. Phylogeography of Sylvirana latouchii (Anura, Ranidae) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Lee, Tsung-Han; Chou, Wen-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Biogeographic studies are important for understanding the natural history of faunas. To comprehend the geographical patterns of genetic variation in anurans in Taiwan, we investigated the genetic structure of Sylvirana latouchii (Anura, Ranidae) from 31 populations by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences. A neighbor-joining tree of 38 haplotypes revealed three major divergences in Taiwanese S. latouchii: the northern, western, and eastern-and-southern clades. Each clade was restricted to a single geographical district and showed obvious differentiation. The patterns of geographical divergence in this species reflect common historical events experienced by other native animals distributed in Taiwan. The order of divergence times between clades was inferred using a molecular clock test. The population relationship of S. latouchii between Taiwan and mainland China is discussed. Further study employing more populations of S. latouchii from mainland China is necessary to clarify the original geographical patterns and migratory history of this species.

  16. Reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality: A sibling comparison analysis using Swedish register data.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron; Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kolk, Martin; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reproductive history influences post-reproductive mortality. A potential explanation for this association is confounding by socioeconomic status in the family of origin, as socioeconomic status is related to both fertility behaviours and to long-term health. We examine the relationship between age at first birth, completed parity, and post-reproductive mortality and address the potential confounding role of family of origin. We use Swedish population register data for men and women born 1932-1960, and examine both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The contributions of our study are the use of a sibling comparison design that minimizes residual confounding from shared family background characteristics and assessment of cause-specific mortality that can shed light on the mechanisms linking reproductive history to mortality. Our results were entirely consistent with previous research on this topic, with teenage first time parents having higher mortality, and the relationship between parity and mortality following a U-shaped pattern where childless men and women and those with five or more children had the highest mortality. These results indicate that selection into specific fertility behaviours based upon socioeconomic status and experiences within the family of origin does not explain the relationship between reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality. Additional analyses where we adjust for other lifecourse factors such as educational attainment, attained socioeconomic status, and post-reproductive marital history do not change the results. Our results add an important new level of robustness to the findings on reproductive history and mortality by showing that the association is robust to confounding by factors shared by siblings. However it is still uncertain whether reproductive history causally influences health, or whether other confounding factors such as childhood health or risk-taking propensity could

  17. A molecular approach to comparative phylogeography of extant Malagasy lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Pastorini, Jennifer; Thalmann, Urs; Martin, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    The lemurs of Madagascar provide an excellent model for exploring evolutionary diversification. This study investigates genetic divergence among most extant lemur taxa in relation to potential geographical boundaries to gene flow. For this purpose, ≈2,400 bp of mitochondrial DNA (part of the COIII gene; ND3, ND4L, and ND4 genes; and five tRNAs) were sequenced in a total of 131 lemurs from 5 families, 12 genera, 25 species, and 18 subspecies to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among them. The comprehensive range of taxa makes this a particularly suitable molecular data set to examine lemur evolution. Those data clearly reveal that the Betsiboka River acts as an isolating barrier between populations of lemurs in north-western Madagascar. The Tsiribihina River similarly serves as a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern populations of lemurs in central western Madagascar, whereas the Mahavavy River does not seem to lead to genetic isolation of lemur populations. Several discrepancies among molecular data, current taxonomy, and geographic distribution along the western coast emerged. Examination of geographical distribution of the taxa concerned in comparison with distribution boundaries of other lemur taxa in that region yielded explanations for these inconsistencies. Eulemur fulvus and Eulemur mongoz are the only lemur taxa that also occur outside Madagascar, on the Comoro Islands. Genetic data show no significant differentiation between Malagasy and Comorian populations of these species, supporting the interpretation that both were introduced only recently to the Comoro Islands. PMID:12719521

  18. Radiation and phylogeography in the Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata.

    PubMed

    Marmi, Josep; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Terradas, Jaume; Takenaka, Osamu; Domingo-Roura, Xavier

    2004-03-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) presumably differentiated from eastern rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) populations during the Pleistocene and the two species are closely related. In order to analyse speciation and subspeciation events in the Japanese macaque and to describe historical and current relationships among their populations, we sequenced and analysed a fragment of 392bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region in 50 individuals belonging to six populations of Japanese macaque and compared these sequences with 89 eastern rhesus macaque control region sequences from GenBank/EMBL database. There were high genetic similarities between both species and only two positions were fixed within each species, which supports the inclusion of the Japanese macaque in a single species with eastern populations of rhesus macaques. Japanese macaque ancestors colonised Japan after the separation of the two species, estimated at between 0.31 and 0.88 million years ago (Mya). The star-like phylogeny, multimodal mismatch distribution, and lack of correlation between geographic and genetic distances are in accordance with a rapid dispersion of macaques throughout the archipelago after the arrival into Japan. The species shows low genetic variation within populations and high levels of genetic differentiation among populations with no mtDNA haplotype shared across populations. Genetic distances between Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) and any other population of Macaca fuscata fuscata subspecies are comparable to the distances between populations of Honshu, Awajishima, and Kyushu, not supporting the classification of Yakushima macaques as a different subspecies.

  19. Phylogeography of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Talbot, S.L.; Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, B. J.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Using molecular genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution, we examined levels and partitioning of genetic variation for seven nominal subspecies (11 breeding populations) of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America. Gene trees constructed from mtDNA control region sequence data show that subspecies of Canada Geese do not have distinct mtDNA. Large- and small-bodied forms of Canada Geese were highly diverged (0. 077 average sequence divergence) and represent monophyletic groups. A majority (65%) of 20 haplotypes resolved were observed in single breeding locales. However, within both large- and small-bodied forms certain haplotypes occurred across multiple subspecies. Population trees for both nuclear (microsatellites) and mitochondrial markers were generally concordant and provide resolution of population and subspecific relationships indicating incomplete lineage sorting. All populations and subspecies were genetically diverged, but to varying degrees. Analyses of molecular variance, nested-clade and coalescence-based analyses of mtDNA suggest that both historical (past fragmentation) and contemporary forces have been important in shaping current spatial genetic distributions. Gene flow appears to be ongoing though at different rates, even among currently recognized subspecies. The efficacy of current subspecific taxonomy is discussed in light of hypothesized historical vicariance and current demographic trends of management and conservation concern.

  20. Phylogeography and systematics of zebra mussels and related species.

    PubMed

    Gelembiuk, Gregory W; May, Gemma E; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The genus Dreissena includes two widespread and aggressive aquatic invaders, the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis. This genus evolved in the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin, characterized by dynamic instability over multiple timescales and a unique evolutionary environment that may predispose to invasiveness. The objectives of this study were to gain insights into the demographic history of Dreissena species in their endemic range, to reconstruct intraspecific phylogeographic relationships among populations, and to clarify systematics of the genus, using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. We found four deeply diverged clades within this genus, with a basal split that approximately coincided with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Divergence events within the four base clades were much more recent, corresponding to geographically disjunct sets of populations, which might represent species complexes. Across all taxa, populations of Dreissena shared a common pattern of genetic signatures indicating historical population bottlenecks and expansions. Haplotype diversity was relatively low in Ponto-Caspian drainages relative to more stable tectonic lakes in Greece, Macedonia, and Turkey. The phylogeographic and demographic patterns in the endemic range of Dreissena might have resulted from vicariance events, habitat instability, and the high fecundity and passive dispersal of these organisms.

  1. Bubaline versus bovine reproduction.

    PubMed

    Drost, M

    2007-08-01

    Fertility in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is considerably lower than that in cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). Poor breeding efficiency is attributed to late onset of puberty, seasonality, poor estrus expression, and long calving intervals. Accurate estrus detection is a prerequisite for efficient reproductive management. Established reproductive management techniques in cattle can be successfully applied to water buffalo because of the similarities in the anatomy, physiology, and endocrinology of reproduction between the two genera.

  2. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  3. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species.

  4. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  5. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of the argan tree of Morocco.

    PubMed

    el Mousadik, A; Petit, R J

    1996-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the chloroplast genome of the argan tree (Sapotaceae), an endemic species of south-western Morocco, have been detected by restriction site studies of PCR-amplified fragments. A total of 12 chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments were amplified and digested with a single restriction enzyme (HinfI). Polymorphisms were identified in six of the cpDNA fragments, whereas no mtDNA polymorphisms were detected in a survey of 95 individuals from 19 populations encompassing most of the natural range of the species. The cpDNA polymorphisms allowed the identification of 11 haplotypes. Two lineages, one in the south-east and the other in the north-west, divide the range of the argan tree into two distinct areas. The level of genetic differentiation measured at the haplotype level (GSTc = 0.60) (i.e. with unordered haplotypes) was smaller than when phylogenetic relationships were taken into account (NSTc = 0.71-0.74) (ordered haplotypes), indicating that population history must be considered in the study of the geographical distribution of cpDNA lineages in this species. If contrasted with the level of nuclear genetic differentiation measured in a previous study with isozymes (GSTn = 0.25), the results indicate a relatively high level of gene flow by seeds, or conversely a relatively low level of gene flow by pollen, as compared with other tree species. Goats and camels could have played an important role in disseminating the fruits of this tree.

  6. [HIV and reproductive choices].

    PubMed

    Boer, K; de Vries, J W; de Beaufort, I E

    1995-05-13

    It is estimated that there are about 120-150 hemophilic men infected with HIV in the Netherlands as well as 1000 men infected via intravenous drug use. The majority of them are in reproductive age with relationships with seronegative women. In the event they want to have a child, artificial insemination with donor sperm (KID) is an option. In 1994 there were 147 instances of insemination of 66 women with the processed semen of HIV-positive men and no infection resulted. The annual risk of HIV infection was 7.2% of a woman engaging in unprotected intercourse, according to a prospective Italian study. The risk of HIV infection per contact was estimated at 0.1-5.6%. However, it is not yet proven that processed sperm of an HIV-seropositive man can produce a pregnancy without the risk of infecting the woman. The risk of transmission of HIV to the fetus is higher in artificial insemination of a seropositive woman with the sperm of her partner. In vitro fertilization is not a sure method either for the prevention of HIV infection of the mother because of the possibility of an egg cell being infected before fertilization. HIV-infected pregnant women face the problems of caring for HIV-infected offspring. For HIV discordant couples the advice is to use both condoms for the prevention of infection and oral contraceptives for the prevention of pregnancy. In the case of a lesbian relationship, if the partners want to have a child, HIV infection is still a factor because of previous heterosexual contacts.

  7. Introduction: Microbiome in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has been termed the "second human genome" and data that has come about of late certainly makes it appear every bit as complex. The human body contains 10-fold more microbial cells than the human cells and accounts for 1%-3% of our total body mass. As we learn more about this symbiotic relationship, it appears this complex interaction occurs in nearly every part of the body, even those areas at one time considered to be sterile. Indeed, the microbiome in human reproduction has been investigated in terms of both the lower and upper reproductive tract and includes interactions even at the point of gametogenesis. What is all the more fascinating is that we have known about the importance of microbes for over 150 years, even before they existed in name. And now, with the assistance of an exciting technologic revolution which has pushed forward our understanding of the microbiome, we appear to stand on the precipice of a higher level of understanding of microbes, the biofilms they create, and their impact of health and disease in human reproduction.

  8. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  9. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  10. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  11. The Relation Between Reproductive Value and Genetic Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Nicholas H.; Etheridge, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    What determines the genetic contribution that an individual makes to future generations? With biparental reproduction, each individual leaves a “pedigree” of descendants, determined by the biparental relationships in the population. The pedigree of an individual constrains the lines of descent of each of its genes. An individual’s reproductive value is the expected number of copies of each of its genes that is passed on to distant generations conditional on its pedigree. For the simplest model of biparental reproduction (analogous to the Wright–Fisher model), an individual’s reproductive value is determined within ∼10 generations, independent of population size. Partial selfing and subdivision do not greatly slow this convergence. Our central result is that the probability that a gene will survive is proportional to the reproductive value of the individual that carries it and that, conditional on survival, after a few tens of generations, the distribution of the number of surviving copies is the same for all individuals, whatever their reproductive value. These results can be generalized to the joint distribution of surviving blocks of the ancestral genome. Selection on unlinked loci in the genetic background may greatly increase the variance in reproductive value, but the above results nevertheless still hold. The almost linear relationship between survival probability and reproductive value also holds for weakly favored alleles. Thus, the influence of the complex pedigree of descendants on an individual’s genetic contribution to the population can be summarized through a single number: its reproductive value. PMID:21624999

  12. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  13. Differences in Reliability of Reproductive History Recall among Women in North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliman, Amr; Allen, Katharine; Lo, An-Chi; Banerjee, Mousumi; Hablas, Ahmed; Benider, Abdellatif; Benchekroun, Nadya; Samir, Salwa; Omar, Hoda G.; Merajver, Sofia; Mullan, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in North Africa. Women in this region have unique reproductive profiles. It is essential to obtain reliable information on reproductive histories to help better understand the relationship between reductive health and breast cancer. We tested the reliability of a reproductive history-based…

  14. Phylogeography of the pantropical sea urchin Tripneustes: contrasting patterns of population structure between oceans.

    PubMed

    Lessios, H A; Kane, J; Robertson, D R

    2003-09-01

    To understand how allopatric speciation proceeds, we need information on barriers to gene flow, their antiquity, and their efficacy. For marine organisms with planktonic larvae, much of this information can only be obtained through the determination of divergence between populations. We evaluated the importance of ocean barriers by studying the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Tripneustes, a pantropical genus of shallow water sea urchin. A region of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was sequenced in 187 individuals from locations around the globe. The COI phylogeny agreed with a previously published phylogeny of bindin that barriers important to the evolution of Tripneustes are: (1) the cold water upwelling close to the tip of South Africa, (2) the Isthmus of Panama, (3) the long stretch of deep water separating the eastern from the western Atlantic, and (4) the freshwater plume of the Orinoco and the Amazon rivers between the Caribbean and the coast of Brazil. These barriers have previously been shown to be important in at least a subset of the shallow water marine organisms in which phylogeography has been studied. In contrast, the Eastern Pacific Barrier, 5000 km of deep water between the central and the eastern Pacific that has caused the deepest splits in other genera of sea urchins, is remarkably unimportant as a cause of genetic subdivision in Tripneustes. There is also no discernible subdivision between the Pacific and Indian Ocean populations of this genus. The most common COI haplotype is found in the eastern, central, and western Pacific as well as the Indian Ocean. Morphology, COI, and bindin data agree that T. depressus from the eastern Pacific and T. gratilla from the western Pacific are, in fact, the same species. The distribution of haplotype differences in the Indo-Pacific exhibits characteristics expected from a sea urchin genus with ephemeral local populations, but with high fecundity, dispersal, and growth: there is little phylogenetic structure

  15. Phylogeography sheds light on the central–marginal hypothesis in a Mediterranean narrow endemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Marine; Youssef, Sami; Migliore, Jérémy; Juin, Marianick; Médail, Frédéric; Baumel, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding the factors that shape variation in genetic diversity across the geographic ranges of species is an important challenge in the effort to conserve evolutionary processes sustaining biodiversity. The historical influences leading to a central–marginal organization of genetic diversity have been explored for species whose range is known to have expanded from refugia after glacial events. However, this question has rarely been addressed for Mediterranean endemic plants of azonal habitats such as rocky slopes or screes. In this context, this comprehensive study examined molecular and field data from Arenaria provincialis (Caryophyllaceae), a narrow endemic plant of south-eastern France. Methods Across the whole geographic range, an investigation was made of whether high levels of abundance and genetic diversity (estimated from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers) are centrally distributed, to evaluate the relevance of the central–marginal hypothesis. Phylogeographic patterns inferred from chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) were used, applying Bayesian methods to test the influence of past biogeographic events. Multivariate analysis combining phylogeographic and ecological data was used to reveal the historical and ecological distinctiveness of populations. Key Results Despite the narrow distribution of A. provincialis, a high level of nucleotide variation is found within cpDNA loci, supporting its persistence throughout the Pleistocene period. The area characterized by the highest genetic diversity is centrally located. Structured phylogeography and Bayesian factor analysis supported the hypothesis that the central area of the distribution was the source of both westward and eastward migrations, probably during arid periods of the Pleistocene, and more recently was a crossroads of backward migrations. By contrast, the two areas located today at the range limits are younger, have reduced genetic diversity and are marginal in the

  16. Race and reproductive coercion: A qualitative assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nikolajski, Cara; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather; Akers, Aletha; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Freedman, Lori; Steinberg, Julia; Ibrahim, Said; Borrero, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is common and disproportionately occurs among low-income and African American (AA) women. Male partners may influence women’s risk of unintended pregnancy through reproductive coercion, although studies have not assessed whether racial differences in reproductive coercion impact AA women’s disparate risk for unintended pregnancy. We sought to describe women’s experiences with pregnancy-promoting behaviors by male partners and explore differences in such experiences by race. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with low-income, AA and white women aged 18–45 recruited from reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania to explore contextual factors that shape women’s contraceptive behaviors. Narratives were analyzed using content analysis and the constant comparison method. Findings Among the 66 participants (36 AA and 30 white), 25 (38%) described experiences with male partner reproductive coercion. Narratives provided accounts of contraceptive sabotage, verbal pressure to promote pregnancy and specific pregnancy outcomes, and potential motives behind these behaviors. AA women in the sample reported experiences of reproductive coercion more often than white women (53% and 20%, respectively). AA women were also more likely than white women to attribute a current or prior pregnancy to reproductive coercion. AA women identified relationship transiency and impending incarceration as potential motivations for men to secure a connection with a female partner via pregnancy. Conclusions Our findings suggest that reproductive coercion may be a factor contributing to disparities in unintended pregnancy. More research, including population-level studies, is needed to determine the impact of reproductive coercion on unintended pregnancy and to understand the social and structural factors associated with pregnancy-promoting behaviors. PMID:25748823

  17. Going where traditional markers have not gone before: utility of and promise for RAD sequencing in marine invertebrate phylogeography and population genomics.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, A M; Herrera, S; Layden, M J; Martindale, M Q; Shank, T M

    2013-06-01

    Characterization of large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout a genome has the power to refine the understanding of population demographic history and to identify genomic regions under selection in natural populations. To this end, population genomic approaches that harness the power of next-generation sequencing to understand the ecology and evolution of marine invertebrates represent a boon to test long-standing questions in marine biology and conservation. We employed restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify SNPs in natural populations of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, an emerging cnidarian model with a broad geographic range in estuarine habitats in North and South America, and portions of England. We identified hundreds of SNP-containing tags in thousands of RAD loci from 30 barcoded individuals inhabiting four locations from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Population genomic analyses using high-confidence SNPs resulted in a highly-resolved phylogeography, a result not achieved in previous studies using traditional markers. Plots of locus-specific FST against heterozygosity suggest that a majority of polymorphic sites are neutral, with a smaller proportion suggesting evidence for balancing selection. Loci inferred to be under balancing selection were mapped to the genome, where 90% were located in gene bodies, indicating potential targets of selection. The results from analyses with and without a reference genome supported similar conclusions, further highlighting RAD-seq as a method that can be efficiently applied to species lacking existing genomic resources. We discuss the utility of RAD-seq approaches in burgeoning Nematostella research as well as in other cnidarian species, particularly corals and jellyfishes, to determine phylogeographic relationships of populations and identify regions of the genome undergoing selection.

  18. Ain't no mountain high enough, ain't no valley low enough? Phylogeography of the rupicolous Cape girdled lizard (Cordylus cordylus) reveals a generalist pattern.

    PubMed

    Diedericks, Genevieve; Daniels, Savel R

    2014-02-01

    In the present study we examined the phylogeography of the rupicolous Cape girdled lizard, Cordylus cordylus. Samples were collected from 63 localities across the species distribution range in the Eastern and Western Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa, yielding a total sample size of 207 specimens. Four partial DNA loci, two mitochondrial (16S rRNA and ND2) and two nuclear (PRLR and PTPN12), were sequenced. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods were employed to test evolutionary relationships among populations, followed by population structure analyses, divergence time estimations and niche modelling. Our results confirm the species monophyly and revealed the presence of two distinct clades. Clade 1 comprised specimens from the western and southern portions of the Western Cape coast, while clade 2 comprised specimens from the southern and eastern Cape coast and adjacent interior of the Eastern and Western Cape and Free State provinces. An area of sympatry between the two clades was observed in the Breede river valley. The divergence time estimates revealed an Early Pliocene (4.31 Ma), Late Miocene (6.01 Ma) divergence for each of the two clades retrieved. Phylogeographic data suggest that clade 1 coalesced more recently (lower haplotypic and nucleotide diversity), when compared to clade 2. Furthermore, the niche modelling shows that C. cordylus occupies a wide range of unfavourable habitats, though slight niche differentiation was observed for each clade. The absence of marked phylogeographic patterning within clades is very uncharacteristic for a rupicolous vertebrate species. The ecological pliability and generalist nature of C. cordylus presumably contributed to the observed phylogeographic pattern and have facilitated the absence of within clade differentiation. Moreover, we suggest that microclimatic variables, rather than geographic barriers influence the genetic structuring of C. cordylus. PMID:24184337

  19. Going where traditional markers have not gone before: utility of and promise for RAD sequencing in marine invertebrate phylogeography and population genomics

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, A.M.; Herrera, S.; Layden, M.J.; Martindale, M.Q.; Shank, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout a genome has the power to refine the understanding of population demographic history and to identify genomic regions under selection in natural populations. To this end, population genomic approaches that harness the power of next-generation sequencing to understand the ecology and evolution of marine invertebrates represent a boon to test long-standing questions in marine biology and conservation. We employed restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify SNPs in natural populations of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, an emerging cnidarian model with a broad geographic range in estuarine habitats in North and South America, and portions of England. We identified hundreds of SNP-containing tags in thousands of RAD loci from 30 barcoded individuals inhabiting four locations from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Population genomic analyses using high-confidence SNPs resulted in a highly-resolved phylogeography, a result not achieved in previous studies using traditional markers. Plots of locus-specific FST against heterozygosity suggest that a majority of polymorphic sites are neutral, with a smaller proportion suggesting evidence for balancing selection. Loci inferred to be under balancing selection were mapped to the genome, where 90% were located in gene bodies, indicating potential targets of selection. Results from analyses with and without a reference genome supported similar conclusions, further supporting RAD-seq as a method that can be efficiently applied to species lacking existing genomic resources. We discuss the utility of RAD-seq approaches in burgeoning Nematostella research as well as in other cnidarian species, particularly corals, to determine phylogeographic relationships of populations and identify regions of the genome undergoing selection. PMID:23473066

  20. Going where traditional markers have not gone before: utility of and promise for RAD sequencing in marine invertebrate phylogeography and population genomics.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, A M; Herrera, S; Layden, M J; Martindale, M Q; Shank, T M

    2013-06-01

    Characterization of large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout a genome has the power to refine the understanding of population demographic history and to identify genomic regions under selection in natural populations. To this end, population genomic approaches that harness the power of next-generation sequencing to understand the ecology and evolution of marine invertebrates represent a boon to test long-standing questions in marine biology and conservation. We employed restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify SNPs in natural populations of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, an emerging cnidarian model with a broad geographic range in estuarine habitats in North and South America, and portions of England. We identified hundreds of SNP-containing tags in thousands of RAD loci from 30 barcoded individuals inhabiting four locations from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Population genomic analyses using high-confidence SNPs resulted in a highly-resolved phylogeography, a result not achieved in previous studies using traditional markers. Plots of locus-specific FST against heterozygosity suggest that a majority of polymorphic sites are neutral, with a smaller proportion suggesting evidence for balancing selection. Loci inferred to be under balancing selection were mapped to the genome, where 90% were located in gene bodies, indicating potential targets of selection. The results from analyses with and without a reference genome supported similar conclusions, further highlighting RAD-seq as a method that can be efficiently applied to species lacking existing genomic resources. We discuss the utility of RAD-seq approaches in burgeoning Nematostella research as well as in other cnidarian species, particularly corals and jellyfishes, to determine phylogeographic relationships of populations and identify regions of the genome undergoing selection. PMID:23473066

  1. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies. PMID:12803888

  2. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Amat, Francisco; Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Since Darwin’s time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs), and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data) in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA) to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (ΦST of 0.92), indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern). RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result in substantial

  3. Human reproduction: Jewish perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2013-11-01

    Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. This paper presents the attitude of Jewish Law -- Halacha to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  4. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF A HOLARCTIC NEMATODE: SOBOLIPHYME BATURINI AMONG MUSTELIDS: CLIMATE CHANGE, EPISODIC COLONIZATION AND DIVERSIFICATION IN A COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Phylogeography of Soboliphyme baturini, a nematode parasite in mustelids, is explored across Beringia. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were evaluated from 38 individuals representing 19 lo...

  5. Pangaea and the Out-of-Africa Model of Varicella-Zoster Virus Evolution and Phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this minireview is to provide an overview of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) phylogenetics and phylogeography when placed in the broad context of geologic time. Planet Earth was formed over 4 billion years ago, and the supercontinent Pangaea coalesced around 400 million years ago (mya). Based on detailed tree-building models, the base of the phylogenetic tree of the Herpesviridae family has been estimated at 400 mya. Subsequently, Pangaea split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland; in turn, Africa rifted from Gondwanaland. Based on available data, the hypothesis of this minireview is that the ancestral alphaherpesvirus VZV coevolved in simians, apes, and hominins in Africa. When anatomically modern humans first crossed over the Red Sea 60,000 years ago, VZV was carried along in their dorsal root ganglia. Currently, there are five VZV clades, distinguishable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. These clades likely represent continued VZV coevolution, as humans with latent VZV infection left Arabia and dispersed into Asia (clades 2 and 5) and Europe (clades 1, 3, and 4). The prototype VZV sequence contains nearly 125,000 bp, divided into 70 open reading frames. Generally, isolates within a clade display >99.9% identity to one another, while members of one clade compared to a second clade show 99.8% identity to one another. Recently, four different VZV genotypes that do not segregate into the previously defined five clades have been identified, a result indicating a wider than anticipated diversity among newly collected VZV strains around the world. PMID:22761371

  6. Human-aided dispersal has altered but not erased the phylogeography of the tench

    PubMed Central

    Lajbner, Zdeněk; Linhart, Otomar; Kotlík, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Human-aided dispersal can result in phylogeographic patterns that do not reflect natural historical processes, particularly in species prone to intentional translocations by humans. Here, we use a multiple-gene sequencing approach to assess the effects of human-aided dispersal on phylogeography of the tench Tinca tinca, a widespread Eurasian freshwater fish with a long history in aquaculture. Spatial genetic analysis applied to sequence data from four unlinked loci and 67 geographic localities (38–382 gene copies per locus) defined two groups of populations that were little structured geographically but were significantly differentiated from each other, and it identified locations of major genetic breaks, which were concordant across genes and were driven by distributions of two phylogroups. This pattern most reasonably reflects isolation in two major glacial refugia and subsequent range expansions, with the Eastern and Western phylogroups remaining largely allopatric throughout the tench range. However, this phylogeographic variation was also present in all 17 cultured breeds studied, and some populations at the western edge of the native range contained the Eastern phylogroup. Thus, natural processes have played an important role in structuring tench populations, but human-aided dispersal has also contributed significantly, with the admixed genetic composition of cultured breeds most likely contributing to the introgression. PMID:25568004

  7. Phylogeography and population genetics of the endangered Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia, Sirenia).

    PubMed

    Cantanhede, Andréa Martins; Da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves-Gomes, José

    2005-02-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to examine phylogeography and population differentiation of the endangered Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis. We observe lack of molecular differentiation among localities and we find weak association between geographical and genetic distances. However, nested clade analysis supports restricted gene flow and/or dispersal with some long-distance dispersal. Although this species has a history of extensive hunting, genetic diversity and effective population sizes are relatively high when compared to the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus. Patterns of mtDNA haplotype diversity in T. inunguis suggest a genetic disequilibrium most likely explained by demographic expansion resulting from secession of hunting and enforcement of conservation and protective measures. Phylogenetic analysis of T. manatus and T. inunguis haplotypes suggests that T. inunguis is nested within T. manatus, effectively making T. manatus a paraphyletic entity. Paraphyly of T. manatus and recent divergence times of T. inunguis and the three main T. manatus lineages suggest a possible need for a taxonomic re-evaluation of the western Atlantic Trichechus.

  8. Phylogeography of declining relict and lowland leopard frogs in the desert Southwest of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olah-Hemmings, V.; Jaeger, J.R.; Sredl, M.J.; Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Jennings, R.D.; Drost, C.A.; Bradford, D.F.; Riddle, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog Rana onca (=Lithobates onca) and lowland leopard frog Rana yavapaiensis (=Lithobates yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of south-western North America. We used sequence data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to assess 276 individuals representing 30 sites from across current distributions. Our analysis supports a previously determined phylogenetic break between these taxa, and we found no admixing of R. onca and R. yavapaiensis haplotypes within our extensive sampling of sites. Our phylogeographic assessment, however, further divided R. yavapaiensis into two distinct mtDNA lineages, one representing populations across Arizona and northern Mexico and the other a newly discovered population within the western Grand Canyon, Arizona. Estimates of sequence evolution indicate a possible Early Pleistocene divergence of R. onca and R. yavapaiensis, followed by a Middle Pleistocene separation of the western Grand Canyon population of R. yavapaiensis from the main R. yavapaiensis clade. Phylogeographic and demographic analyses indicate population or range expansion for R. yavapaiensis within its core distribution that appears to predate the latest glacial maximum. Species distribution models under current and latest glacial climatic conditions suggest that R. onca and R. yavapaiensis may not have greatly shifted ranges.

  9. Comparative phylogeography in Fijian coral reef fishes: a multi-taxa approach towards marine reserve design.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua A; Barber, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, Φ(st) = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis Φ(st) = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity.

  10. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Bast, Felix; Rani, Pooja; Meena, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil "Tulsi", is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5 × 10(-4). However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km(2) encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting.

  11. Pangaea and the Out-of-Africa Model of Varicella-Zoster Virus Evolution and Phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Grose, Charles

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this minireview is to provide an overview of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) phylogenetics and phylogeography when placed in the broad context of geologic time. Planet Earth was formed over 4 billion years ago, and the supercontinent Pangaea coalesced around 400 million years ago (mya). Based on detailed tree-building models, the base of the phylogenetic tree of the Herpesviridae family has been estimated at 400 mya. Subsequently, Pangaea split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland; in turn, Africa rifted from Gondwanaland. Based on available data, the hypothesis of this minireview is that the ancestral alphaherpesvirus VZV coevolved in simians, apes, and hominins in Africa. When anatomically modern humans first crossed over the Red Sea 60,000 years ago, VZV was carried along in their dorsal root ganglia. Currently, there are five VZV clades, distinguishable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. These clades likely represent continued VZV coevolution, as humans with latent VZV infection left Arabia and dispersed into Asia (clades 2 and 5) and Europe (clades 1, 3, and 4). The prototype VZV sequence contains nearly 125,000 bp, divided into 70 open reading frames. Generally, isolates within a clade display >99.9% identity to one another, while members of one clade compared to a second clade show 99.8% identity to one another. Recently, four different VZV genotypes that do not segregate into the previously defined five clades have been identified, a result indicating a wider than anticipated diversity among newly collected VZV strains around the world.

  12. Phylogeography of the montane caddisfly Drusus discolor: evidence for multiple refugia and periglacial survival.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Steffen U; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Haase, Peter

    2006-07-01

    We studied the genetic population structure and phylogeography of the montane caddisfly Drusus discolor across its entire range in central and southern Europe. The species is restricted to mountain regions and exhibits an insular distribution across the major mountain ranges. Mitochondrial sequence data (COI) of 254 individuals from the entire species range is analysed to reveal population genetic structure. The data show little molecular variation within populations and regions, but distinct genetic differentiation between mountain ranges. Most populations are significantly differentiated based on F(ST) and exact tests of population differentiation and most haplotypes are unique to a single mountain range. Phylogenetic analyses reveal deep divergence between geographically isolated lineages. Combined, these results suggest that past fragmentation is the prominent process structuring the populations across Europe. We use tests of selective neutrality and mismatch distributions, to study the demographic population history of regions with haplotype overlap. The high level of genetic differentiation between mountain ranges and estimates of demographic history provide evidence for the existence of multiple glacial refugia, including several in central Europe. The study shows that these aquatic organisms reacted differently to Pleistocene cooling than many terrestrial species. They persisted in numerous refugia over multiple glacial cycles, allowing many local endemic clades to form. PMID:16780432

  13. Phylogeography of the endangered Eryngium alpinum L. (Apiaceae) in the European Alps.

    PubMed

    Naciri, Y; Gaudeul, M

    2007-07-01

    We studied the phylogeography of Eryngium alpinum by sequencing two intergenic chloroplast spacers, trnH-psbA and trnS-trnG (1322 bp). The sampling design included 36 populations and 397 individuals spanning the entire distribution range of the species, from France to Bosnia. Twenty-one haplotypes were characterized and polymorphism was observed both within and among populations. Population differentiation was strong (F(ST) = 0.92) and largely explained by the distinction of five geographic regions: Southwestern, Western, Middle, Eastern Alps and Balkans (F(CT) = 0.62). Moreover, N(ST) was significantly higher than G(ST) (P < 0.05), showing the existence of a phylogeographic pattern. Six major lineages were recognized using samova and median-joining networks. One lineage, highly divergent from the other ones, was only found in the Balkans and probably persisted in situ during last glaciations. All other lineages might have survived in a Southwestern refugium (Mercantour) and colonized the entire Alpine arc (Southwestern, Western, Middle and Eastern Alps) through repeated colonization events at different time periods. This is the first empirical study suggesting Southern refugia for calcareous Alpine plants, although the existence of a secondary refugium in northern Italy/Austria is also suspected. We also observed recent haplotype diversification, especially in the Southwestern Alps.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA-Based phylogeography of North American rubber boas, Charina bottae (Serpentes: Boidae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Robles, J A; Stewart, G R; Papenfuss, T J

    2001-02-01

    We used 783 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequences to study the phylogeography of Charina bottae (rubber boa) in western North America, with an emphasis on populations from California (U.S.A.). Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods identified a basal divergence within C. bottae that corresponds to southern and northern segments of its current distribution. These clades coincide with the ranges of the two recognized subspecies, C. b. umbratica in the south and C. b. bottae to the north. A subsequent cladogenetic event in the C. b. bottae clade resulted in two groupings, which we refer to as the Sierra Nevada and the Northwestern subclades, based on the geographic distribution of their constituent populations. The two subclades have completely allopatric distributions, with a genetic break in the vicinity of Lassen Volcanic National Park in northeastern California, an area that was subjected to glaciation during the Pleistocene and that has been volcanically active in the past 100 years. An earlier genetic study documented fixed differences between populations of bottae and umbratica in four of seven allozymes surveyed, and despite noticeable variation and overlap in the characters that define C. b. bottae and C. b. umbratica, the two forms still can be separated in most cases using a suite of morphological traits. All available evidence thus indicates that C. b. umbratica is a genetically cohesive, allopatric taxon that is morphologically diagnosable, and we conclude that it is an independent evolutionary unit that should be recognized as a distinct species, Charina umbratica.

  15. European phylogeography of the epiphytic lichen fungus Lobaria pulmonaria and its green algal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Ivo; Dal Grande, Francesco; Excoffier, Laurent; Holderegger, Rolf; Keller, Christine; Mikryukov, Vladimir S; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    In lichen symbiosis, fungal and algal partners form close associations, often codispersed by vegetative propagules. Due to the particular interdependence, processes such as colonization, dispersal or genetic drift are expected to result in congruent patterns of genetic structure in the symbionts. To study the population structure of an obligate symbiotic system in Europe, we genotyped the fungal and algal symbionts of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria at eight and seven microsatellite loci, respectively, and analysed about 4300 L. pulmonaria thalli from 142 populations from the species' European distribution range. Based on a centroid approach, which localizes centres of genetic differentiation with a high frequency of geographically restricted alleles, we identified the South Italy-Balkan region as the primary glacial refugial area of the lichen symbiosis. Procrustean rotation analysis and a distance congruence test between the fungal and algal population graphs indicated general concordance between the phylogeographies of the symbionts. The incongruent patterns found in areas of postglacial recolonization may show the presence of an additional refugial area for the fungal symbiont, and the impact that horizontal photobiont transmission and different mutation rates of the symbionts have on their genotypic associations at a continental scale. PMID:23094600

  16. Circum Black Sea phylogeography of Barbus freshwater fishes: divergence in the Pontic glacial refugium.

    PubMed

    Kotlík, P; Bogutskaya, N G; Ekmekçi, F G

    2004-01-01

    We used DNA sequence variation at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1141 bp) to assess the phylogeography of Barbus fishes in the Black Sea region. Our aim was to test whether the recent ( approximately 22 000-7500 years ago) freshwater phase of the Black Sea was a conduit for gene flow among freshwater fishes that today are found in streams entering the saltwater Black Sea. Deep phylogeographical breaks suggestive of allopatric divergence were observed between four regional groups of populations. Coalescent simulation used to distinguish between this and an alternative scenario that the phylogeographical structure was due to random lineage sorting showed that the contemporary populations were unlikely (P < 0.001) to have been founded by a single ancestral population. Divergences between the lineages (0.86-2.54%) were dated to the Middle to Late Pleistocene using distances and a molecular clock corrected for superimposed substitutions. Taken together, this evidence suggests that multiple refugial populations survived over several later glaciations in the vicinity of the Black Sea. This Pontic refugium served as the primary source for the postglacial expansion throughout Europe as far as the Atlantic basin. However, only one of the phylogeographical lineages contributed to this dispersion, whereas the others remain restricted to the Black Sea region and followed independent evolutionary trajectories.

  17. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shields, Gerald F.; Adams, Deborah; Garner, Gerald; Labelle, Martine; Pietsch, Jacy; Ramsay, Malcolm; Schwartz, Charles; Titus, Kimberly; Williamson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples.

  18. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mynhardt, Samantha; Maree, Sarita; Pelser, Illona; Bennett, Nigel C; Bronner, Gary N; Wilson, John W; Bloomer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus) endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5-3 million years ago (Ma), habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity. PMID:26683828

  19. Global phylogeography of the band-rumped storm-petrel (Oceanodroma castro; Procellariiformes: Hydrobatidae).

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrea L; Monteiro, Luis; Hasegawa, Osamu; Friesen, Vicki L

    2007-06-01

    Factors shaping population differentiation in low latitude seabirds are not well-understood. In this study, we examined global patterns of DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region of the band-rumped storm-petrel (Oceanodroma castro), a highly pelagic seabird distributed across the sub-tropical and tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Despite previous classification as a single, monotypic species, fixed haplotype differences occurred between Atlantic and Pacific populations, and among all Pacific populations. In addition, Cape Verde and Galapagos birds formed distinct clades, estimated to have diverged from all other populations at least 150,000years ago. Azores hot season populations were also genetically distinct, lending support to previous phenotypic evidence that they be recognized as a separate species. Seasonal populations in Madeira probably represent separate genetic management units. The phylogeography of the band-rumped storm-petrel appears to have been shaped by both nonphysical barriers to gene flow and Pleistocene oceanographic conditions. Ancestral populations likely expanded through contiguous range expansion and infrequent long-distance colonization into their current breeding range. These findings suggest several possible revisions to the taxonomy of the band-rumped storm-petrel. PMID:17408975

  20. Combining Phylogeography and Spatial Epidemiology to Uncover Predictors of H5N1 Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Daniel; Beard, Rachel; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe; Scotch, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin like highly pathogenic avian influenza pose a significant threat to human and animal health due to their elevated transmissibility. Identifying the drivers of such viruses is challenging and complicates the estimation of spatial diffusion because the variability of viral spread from locations could be caused by a complex array of unknown factors. Several techniques exist to help identify these drivers including bioinformatics, phylogeography, and spatial epidemiology but these methods are generally evaluated separately and do not consider the complementary nature of each other. Here we studied an approach that integrates these techniques and identifies the most important drivers of viral spread by focusing on H5N1 in Egypt because of its recent emergence as an epicenter for the disease. We used a Bayesian phylogeographic generalized linear model (GLM) to reconstruct spatiotemporal patterns of viral diffusion while simultaneously assessing the impact of factors contributing to transmission. We also calculated the cross-species transmission rates among hosts in order to identify the species driving transmission. Density of both human and avian species were supported contributors along with latitude, longitude, elevation, and several meteorological variables. Also supported was the presence of a genetic motif found near the hemagglutinin cleavage site. Various genetic, geographic, demographic, and environmental predictors each play a role in H1N1 diffusion. Further development and expansion of phylogeographic GLMs such as this will enable health agencies to identify variables that can curb virus diffusion and reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:25355432

  1. Chloroplast sequence of treegourd (Crescentia cujete, Bignoniaceae) to study phylogeography and domestication1

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Priscila Ambrósio; Mariac, Cédric; Scarcelli, Nora; Couderc, Marie; Rodrigues, Doriane Picanço; Clement, Charles R.; Vigouroux, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae) fruit rinds are traditionally used for storage vessels and handicrafts. We assembled its chloroplast genome and identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods and Results: Using a genome skimming approach, the whole chloroplast of C. cujete was assembled using 3,106,928 sequence reads of 150 bp. The chloroplast is 154,662 bp in length, structurally divided into a large single copy region (84,788 bp), a small single copy region (18,299 bp), and two inverted repeat regions (51,575 bp) with 88 genes annotated. By resequencing the whole chloroplast, we identified 66 SNPs in C. cujete (N = 30) and 68 SNPs in C. amazonica (N = 6). Nucleotide diversity was estimated at 1.1 × 10−3 and 3.5 × 10−3 for C. cujete and C. amazonica, respectively. Conclusions: This broadened C. cujete genetic toolkit will be important to study the origin, domestication, diversity, and phylogeography of treegourds in the Neotropics. PMID:27785381

  2. Multilocus phylogeography reveals nested endemism in a gecko across the monsoonal tropics of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, C; Fujita, M K; Rosauer, D; Agudo, R; Bourke, G; Doughty, P; Palmer, R; Pepper, M; Potter, S; Pratt, R; Scott, M; Tonione, M; Donnellan, S

    2016-03-01

    Multilocus phylogeography can uncover taxonomically unrecognized lineage diversity across complex biomes. The Australian monsoonal tropics include vast, ecologically intact savanna-woodland plains interspersed with ancient sandstone uplands. Although recognized in general for its high species richness and endemism, the biodiversity of the region remains underexplored due to its remoteness. This is despite a high rate of ongoing species discovery, especially in wetter regions and for rock-restricted taxa. To provide a baseline for ongoing comparative analyses, we tested for phylogeographic structure in an ecologically generalized and widespread taxon, the gecko Heteronotia binoei. We apply coalescent analyses to multilocus sequence data (mitochondrial DNA and eight nuclear DNA introns) from individuals sampled extensively and at fine scale across the region. The results demonstrate surprisingly deep and geographically nested lineage diversity. Several intra-specific clades previously shown to be endemic to the region were themselves found to contain multiple, short-range lineages. To infer landscapes with concentrations of unique phylogeographic diversity, we probabilistically estimate the ranges of lineages from point data and then, combining these estimates with the nDNA species tree, estimate phyloendemism across the region. Highest levels of phyloendemism occur in northern Top End, especially on islands, across the topographically complex Arnhem escarpment, and across the sandstone ranges of the western Gulf region. These results drive home that deep phylogeographic structure is prevalent in tropical low-dispersal taxa, even ones that are ubiquitous across geography and habitats. PMID:26671627

  3. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Shan; Liu, Hsiao-Lei; Moncada, Ximena; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2015-11-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17-carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the "out of Taiwan" hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China "into North Taiwan," the "out of South China-Indochina" expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania. PMID:26438853

  4. Next-Generation Phylogeography: A Targeted Approach for Multilocus Sequencing of Non-Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Puritz, Jonathan B.; Addison, Jason A.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The field of phylogeography has long since realized the need and utility of incorporating nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences into analyses. However, the use of nDNA sequence data, at the population level, has been hindered by technical laboratory difficulty, sequencing costs, and problematic analytical methods dealing with genotypic sequence data, especially in non-model organisms. Here, we present a method utilizing the 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing platform with the capacity to simultaneously sequence two species of sea star (Meridiastra calcar and Parvulastra exigua) at five different nDNA loci across 16 different populations of 20 individuals each per species. We compare results from 3 populations with traditional Sanger sequencing based methods, and demonstrate that this next-generation sequencing platform is more time and cost effective and more sensitive to rare variants than Sanger based sequencing. A crucial advantage is that the high coverage of clonally amplified sequences simplifies haplotype determination, even in highly polymorphic species. This targeted next-generation approach can greatly increase the use of nDNA sequence loci in phylogeographic and population genetic studies by mitigating many of the time, cost, and analytical issues associated with highly polymorphic, diploid sequence markers. PMID:22470543

  5. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice.

    PubMed

    Searle, Jeremy B; Jones, Catherine S; Gündüz, Islam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P; Herman, Jeremy S; Rambau, R Victor; Noble, Leslie R; Berry, R J; Giménez, Mabel D; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríoa

    2009-01-22

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA lineage revealed by both RFLP and sequence analyses, which is restricted to the northern and western peripheries of the British Isles, and also occurs in Norway. This distribution of the 'Orkney' lineage fits well with the sphere of influence of the Norwegian Vikings and was probably generated through inadvertent transport by them. To form viable populations, house mice would have required large human settlements such as the Norwegian Vikings founded. The other parts of the British Isles (essentially most of mainland Britain) are characterized by house mice with different mtDNA sequences, some of which are also found in Germany, and which probably reflect both Iron Age movements of people and mice and earlier development of large human settlements. MtDNA studies on house mice have the potential to reveal novel aspects of human history.

  6. Global molecular phylogeography reveals persistent Arctic circumpolar isolation in a marine planktonic protist.

    PubMed

    Darling, Kate F; Kucera, Michal; Wade, Christopher M

    2007-03-20

    The high-latitude planktonic foraminifera have proved to be particularly useful model organisms for the study of global patterns of vicariance and gene flow in the oceans. Such studies demonstrate that gene flow can occur over enormous distances in the pelagic marine environment leading to cosmopolitanism but also that there are ecological and geographical barriers to gene flow producing biogeographic structure. Here, we have undertaken a comprehensive global study of genetic diversity within a marine protist species, the high-latitude planktonic foraminiferan Neogloboquadrina pachyderma. We present extensive new data sets from the North Pacific and Arctic Oceans that, in combination with our earlier data from the North Atlantic and Southern Oceans, allow us to determine the global phylogeography of this species. The new genetic data reveal a pattern of Arctic circumpolar isolation and bipolar asymmetry between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. We show that the ancestry of North Pacific N. pachyderma is relatively recent. It lies within the upwelling systems and subpolar waters of the Southern Hemisphere and remarkably not within the neighboring Arctic Ocean. Instead, the Arctic Ocean population forms a genetic continuum with the North Atlantic population, which became isolated from the southern populations much earlier, after the onset of Northern hemisphere glaciation. Data from the planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies Globigerina bulloides is also introduced to highlight the isolation and endemism found within the subpolar North Pacific gyre. These data provide perspective for interpretation and discussion of global gene flow and speciation patterns in the plankton.

  7. Phylogeography and support vector machine classification of colour variation in panther chameleons.

    PubMed

    Grbic, Djordje; Saenko, Suzanne V; Randriamoria, Toky M; Debry, Adrien; Raselimanana, Achille P; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2015-07-01

    Lizards and snakes exhibit colour variation of adaptive value for thermoregulation, camouflage, predator avoidance, sexual selection and speciation. Furcifer pardalis, the panther chameleon, is one of the most spectacular reptilian endemic species in Madagascar, with pronounced sexual dimorphism and exceptionally large intraspecific variation in male coloration. We perform here an integrative analysis of molecular phylogeography and colour variation after collecting high-resolution colour photographs and blood samples from 324 F. pardalis individuals in locations spanning the whole species distribution. First, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence analyses uncover strong genetic structure among geographically restricted haplogroups, revealing limited gene flow among populations. Bayesian coalescent modelling suggests that most of the mitochondrial haplogroups could be considered as separate species. Second, using a supervised multiclass support vector machine approach on five anatomical components, we identify patterns in 3D colour space that efficiently predict assignment of male individuals to mitochondrial haplogroups. We converted the results of this analysis into a simple visual classification key that can assist trade managers to avoid local population overharvesting.

  8. Multilocus phylogeography reveals nested endemism in a gecko across the monsoonal tropics of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, C; Fujita, M K; Rosauer, D; Agudo, R; Bourke, G; Doughty, P; Palmer, R; Pepper, M; Potter, S; Pratt, R; Scott, M; Tonione, M; Donnellan, S

    2016-03-01

    Multilocus phylogeography can uncover taxonomically unrecognized lineage diversity across complex biomes. The Australian monsoonal tropics include vast, ecologically intact savanna-woodland plains interspersed with ancient sandstone uplands. Although recognized in general for its high species richness and endemism, the biodiversity of the region remains underexplored due to its remoteness. This is despite a high rate of ongoing species discovery, especially in wetter regions and for rock-restricted taxa. To provide a baseline for ongoing comparative analyses, we tested for phylogeographic structure in an ecologically generalized and widespread taxon, the gecko Heteronotia binoei. We apply coalescent analyses to multilocus sequence data (mitochondrial DNA and eight nuclear DNA introns) from individuals sampled extensively and at fine scale across the region. The results demonstrate surprisingly deep and geographically nested lineage diversity. Several intra-specific clades previously shown to be endemic to the region were themselves found to contain multiple, short-range lineages. To infer landscapes with concentrations of unique phylogeographic diversity, we probabilistically estimate the ranges of lineages from point data and then, combining these estimates with the nDNA species tree, estimate phyloendemism across the region. Highest levels of phyloendemism occur in northern Top End, especially on islands, across the topographically complex Arnhem escarpment, and across the sandstone ranges of the western Gulf region. These results drive home that deep phylogeographic structure is prevalent in tropical low-dispersal taxa, even ones that are ubiquitous across geography and habitats.

  9. A comprehensive phylogeography of the Hyles euphorbiae complex (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) indicates a 'glacial refuge belt'.

    PubMed

    Mende, Michael B; Bartel, Manuela; Hundsdoerfer, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    We test the morphology based hypothesis that the Western Palaearctic spurge hawkmoths represent two species, the Eurasian H. euphorbiae and Afro-Macaronesian H. tithymali. It has been suggested that these species merged into several hybrid swarm populations, although a mitochondrial phylogeography revealed substructure with local differentiation. We analysed a three-gene mt-dataset (889 individuals) and 12 microsatellite loci (892 individuals). Microsatellite analyses revealed an overall weak differentiation and corroborated the superordinate division into two clusters. The data indicate that the populations studied belong to only one species according to the biological species concept, refuting the opening hypothesis. A future taxonomic revision appears necessary to reflect the division into two subgroups. Ancestral mitochondrial polymorphisms are retained in H. euphorbiae, indicating gene flow within a broad 'glacial refuge belt' and ongoing postglacial gene flow. Diverse patterns of extensive mito-nuclear discordance in the Mediterranean and the Middle East presumably evolved by more recent processes. This discordance indicates introgression of H. tithymali-related mitochondrial haplogroups, accompanied (to a lesser degree) by nuclear alleles, into Italian and Aegean H. euphorbiae populations as recently as the late Holocene. The complex mosaic of divergence and reintegration is assumed to have been influenced by locally differing environmental barriers to gene flow. PMID:27439775

  10. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Bast, Felix; Rani, Pooja; Meena, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil "Tulsi", is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5 × 10(-4). However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km(2) encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting. PMID:24523650

  11. Dynamics of molecular evolution and phylogeography of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV.

    PubMed

    Wu, Beilei; Blanchard-Letort, Alexandra; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Guanghe; Wang, Xifeng; Elena, Santiago F

    2011-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) species PAV occurs frequently in irrigated wheat fields worldwide and can be efficiently transmitted by aphids. Isolates of BYDV-PAV from different countries show great divergence both in genomic sequences and pathogenicity. Despite its economical importance, the genetic structure of natural BYDV-PAV populations, as well as of the mechanisms maintaining its high diversity, remain poorly explored. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of BYDV-PAV genome evolution utilizing time-structured data sets of complete genomic sequences from 58 isolates from different hosts obtained worldwide. First, we observed that BYDV-PAV exhibits a high frequency of homologous recombination. Second, our analysis revealed that BYDV-PAV genome evolves under purifying selection and at a substitution rate similar to other RNA viruses (3.158×10(-4) nucleotide substitutions/site/year). Phylogeography analyses show that the diversification of BYDV-PAV can be explained by local geographic adaptation as well as by host-driven adaptation. These results increase our understanding of the diversity, molecular evolutionary characteristics and epidemiological properties of an economically important plant RNA virus. PMID:21326861

  12. Phylogeography and demographic history of Babina pleuraden (Anura, Ranidae) in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zejun; Yu, Guohua; Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

    2012-01-01

    Factors that determine genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and cyt b) were determined to investigate the phylogeography and demography of Babina pleuraden, a pond frog endemic to southwestern China. A total of 262 individuals from 22 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. Our results indicate that B. pleuraden comprises five well-supported mitochondrial lineages roughly corresponding to five geographical areas. The phylogeographic structure of B. pleuraden has been shaped primarily by the unique regional responses of the Yunnan Plateau to the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau occurred c. 2.5 Mya (B phrase of Qingzang Movement) and climatic oscillation during middle Pleistocene (c. 0.64-0.36 Mya), rather than by the paleo-drainage systems. The present wide distribution of the species has resulted from recent population expansion (c. 0.053-0.025 Mya) from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, corresponding to the scenario of "refugia within refugia".

  13. Phylogeography Study of Ammodytes personatus in Northwestern Pacific: Pleistocene Isolation, Temperature and Current Conducted Secondary Contact

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhiqiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Zhang, Yaping; Gao, Tianxiang

    2012-01-01

    To assess the role of historical process and contemporary factors in shaping population structures in Northwestern Pacific, mitochondrial control region sequences were analyzed to characterize the phylogeography and population structure of the Japanese sand lance Ammodytes personatus. A total of 429 individuals sampled from 17 populations through the species' range are sequenced. Two distinct lineages are detected, which might have been divergent in the Sea of Japan and Pacific costal waters of Japanese Island, during the low sea level. Significant genetic structure is revealed between the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. However, significant genetic structure is also detected in the Sea of Japan, contracting expected homogenization hypothesis in Tsushima Current. The haplotype frequency of lineages in both sides of Japanese Island and significant genetic structure between north and south groups revealed that the distribution of lineage B and north group were highly limited by the annual sea temperature. The lack of lineage B in Qingdao population with low sea temperature reflects the sea temperature barrier. Lack of genetic structure in the south group and north group populations indicated that ocean currents within groups facilitated the dispersal of A. personatus. PMID:22685527

  14. Comparative Phylogeography in Fijian Coral Reef Fishes: A Multi-Taxa Approach towards Marine Reserve Design

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Joshua A.; Barber, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, Φst = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis Φst = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity. PMID:23118892

  15. Phylogeography of the sand dollar genus Mellita: cryptic speciation along the coasts of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Coppard, Simon E; Zigler, Kirk S; Lessios, H A

    2013-12-01

    Sand dollars of the genus Mellita are members of the sandy shallow-water fauna. The genus ranges in tropical and subtropical regions on the two coasts of the Americas. To reconstruct the phylogeography of the genus we sequenced parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and of 16S rRNA as well as part of the nuclear 28S rRNA gene from a total of 185 specimens of all ten described morphospecies from 31 localities. Our analyses revealed the presence of eleven species, including six cryptic species. Sequences of five morphospecies do not constitute monophyletic molecular units and thus probably represent ecophenotypic variants. The fossil-calibrated phylogeny showed that the ancestor of Mellita diverged into a Pacific lineage and an Atlantic+Pacific lineage close to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Atlantic M. tenuis, M. quinquiesperforata and two undescribed species of Mellita have non-overlapping distributions. Pacific Mellita consist of two highly divergent lineages that became established at different times, resulting in sympatric M. longifissa and M. notabilis. Judged by modern day ranges, not all divergence in this genus conforms to an allopatric speciation model. Only the separation of M. quinquiesperforata from M. notabilis is clearly due to vicariance as the result of the completion of the Isthmus of Panama. The molecular phylogeny calibrated on fossil evidence estimated this event as having occurred ~3 Ma, thus providing evidence that, contrary to a recent proposal, the central American Isthmus was not completed until this date. PMID:23792155

  16. Phylogeography study of Ammodytes personatus in Northwestern Pacific: Pleistocene isolation, temperature and current conducted secondary contact.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiqiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Zhang, Yaping; Gao, Tianxiang

    2012-01-01

    To assess the role of historical process and contemporary factors in shaping population structures in Northwestern Pacific, mitochondrial control region sequences were analyzed to characterize the phylogeography and population structure of the Japanese sand lance Ammodytes personatus. A total of 429 individuals sampled from 17 populations through the species' range are sequenced. Two distinct lineages are detected, which might have been divergent in the Sea of Japan and Pacific costal waters of Japanese Island, during the low sea level. Significant genetic structure is revealed between the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. However, significant genetic structure is also detected in the Sea of Japan, contracting expected homogenization hypothesis in Tsushima Current. The haplotype frequency of lineages in both sides of Japanese Island and significant genetic structure between north and south groups revealed that the distribution of lineage B and north group were highly limited by the annual sea temperature. The lack of lineage B in Qingdao population with low sea temperature reflects the sea temperature barrier. Lack of genetic structure in the south group and north group populations indicated that ocean currents within groups facilitated the dispersal of A. personatus.

  17. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Shan; Liu, Hsiao-Lei; Moncada, Ximena; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2015-11-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17-carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the "out of Taiwan" hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China "into North Taiwan," the "out of South China-Indochina" expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania.

  18. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mynhardt, Samantha; Maree, Sarita; Pelser, Illona; Bennett, Nigel C.; Bronner, Gary N.; Wilson, John W.; Bloomer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus) endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5–3 million years ago (Ma), habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity. PMID:26683828

  19. Enhanced reproduction and its economic implications.

    PubMed

    Britt, J H

    1985-06-01

    Reproductive performance affects profit of dairy herds because it directly affects milk produced per cow per day, number of replacements produced, and rates of voluntary and involuntary culling. High producing cows will reproduce at a satisfactory rate if they are managed properly. There appears to be direct relationship between herd management and reproductive performance. Thus, reproductive performance and profit respond positively to improvements of rates of detection of estrus, improvements of rates of conception, and improvements of management of the periparturient cow. Pharmacological procedures are now available for controlling time of estrus and insemination in groups of cattle. It is feasible to limit the breeding period in a herd to 1 wk of each 3-wk interval. Primary benefits of controlled breeding are convenience and efficient use of labor for detection of estrus and insemination. Biotechnical procedures such as embryo transfer and insertion of specific genes may enhance rates of genetic improvement for important economic traits. PMID:3894450

  20. Melanocortins and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Watanobe, Hajime

    2002-02-01

    Obesity, anorexia and general body weight fluctuations cause a variety of effects on the reproductive system. Our understanding of the neuro-biological mechanisms of the connections between body weight and the reproductive axis is not especially developed despite a number of interesting physiological observations. Several reports suggest that leptin could play a key role in connecting energy balance and reproduction. The melanocortin system, involving melanocyte stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, agouti related peptide and the central melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors, plays a major role in the hypothalamic regulation of energy balance. The melanocortins have also been suggested to participate in possible downstream events of the adipose cell derived hormone, leptin. Leptin has importance for several aspects of reproduction including regulation of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release. This review discusses the interplay of hypothalamic regulation of food intake and the hormones involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis with special emphasis on putative roles of the melanocortin system.

  1. Programming and reproductive functioning.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael J; Norman, Robert J

    2002-11-01

    Here, we explore the influence of fetal programming and early life exposures on lifelong reproductive health through modification of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A range of programming issues are considered with examples from the literature demonstrating that environmental or nutritive exposures have a crucial role in reproductive performance, fetal growth, postnatal development and reproduction-related disease risk. We pay particular attention to recent research on associations between indicators of fetal and postnatal growth and the etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome in women. We conclude that the concept of programming can be applied to reproductive development and related health outcomes, and that the complex potential for interactions between parameters controlling fetal development and postnatal exposures invokes a need to adopt a perspective across the life course of an individual.

  2. My Reproductive Life Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... use with their patients. How to Make a Plan First, think about your goals for school, for ...

  3. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  4. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  5. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians

    PubMed Central

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed. PMID:25405228

  6. Asexual reproduction in holothurians.

    PubMed

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed.

  7. Reproduction in the water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Presicce, G A

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, an account of various aspects related to buffalo reproduction are given. Fundamental concepts of the reproductive physiology as well as manipulation of the reproductive function will be presented. This will include an overview of the most recent developments of the oestrous cycle and the ovulation control, new strategies of reproductive management for the improvement of genetic gain and the application of newly developed reproductive technologies, such as in vitro embryo production, embryo and sperm sexing and cloning.

  8. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Kaufer, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that stress, measured by increased glucocorticoid secretion, leads to profound reproductive dysfunction. In times of stress, glucocorticoids activate many parts of the fight or flight response, mobilizing energy and enhancing survival, while inhibiting metabolic processes that are not necessary for survival in the moment. This includes reproduction, an energetically costly procedure that is very finely regulated. In the short term, this is meant to be beneficial, so that the organism does not waste precious energy needed for survival. However, long-term inhibition can lead to persistent reproductive dysfunction, even if no longer stressed. This response is mediated by the increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which orchestrate complex inhibition of the entire reproductive axis. Stress and glucocorticoids exhibits both central and peripheral inhibition of the reproductive hormonal axis. While this has long been recognized as an issue, understanding the complex signaling mechanism behind this inhibition remains somewhat of a mystery. What makes this especially difficult is attempting to differentiate the many parts of both of these hormonal axes, and new neuropeptide discoveries in the last decade in the reproductive field have added even more complexity to an already complicated system. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and other hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as well as contributors in the sympathetic system) can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at all levels-GCs can inhibit release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release in the pituitary, and inhibit testosterone synthesis and release from the gonads, while also influencing gametogenesis and sexual behavior. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of all the known literature, however is aimed at giving a brief look at both the central and peripheral effects of glucocorticoids on the reproductive function.

  9. Evolutionary relationships and reproductive isolating mechanisms in the rice frog (Fejervarya limnocharis) species complex from Sri Lanka, Thailand, Taiwan and Japan, inferred from mtDNA gene sequences, allozymes, and crossing experiments.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Masayuki; Kotaki, Manabu; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Djong, Tjong Hon; Igawa, Takeshi; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Matsui, Masafumi; Anslem, De Silva; Khonsue, Wichase; Nishioka, Midori

    2007-06-01

    The rice frog (Fejervarya limnocharis) species complex is widely distributed, from India to Japan, and most prevalently in Southeast Asia. Conspicuous morphological variation has been reported for this species complex throughout its distribution range. In the present study, we used mtDNA gene sequence and allozyme analyses to infer evolutionary affinities within this species complex using eight populations (Sri Lanka; Bangkok and Ranong in Thailand; Taiwan; and Hiroshima, Okinawa, Ishigaki and Iriomote in Japan). We also conducted crossing experiments among four populations from Japan, Thailand, and Sri Lanka in order to find out more about the reproductive isolating mechanisms that might exist among the East, Southeast, and South Asian populations of this species complex. The crossing experiments revealed that the Sri Lanka population is reproductively isolated from the Hiroshima, Bangkok, and Ranong populations by complete hybrid inviability, and that the Bangkok population may be reproductively isolated from the Hiroshima population by partial hybrid inviability. Thus, it is not unreasonable to regard the Sri Lanka population as a species separated from F. limnocharis. The mtDNA and allozyme data showed that the Ranong population is most closely related to the Bangkok population in nuclear genome, but more similar to the Okinawa and Taiwan populations in mtDNA genome. The present, preliminary survey may raise questions about the species status of these particular populations and also about the nature of the biological species concept.

  10. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. PMID:26763090

  11. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution.

  12. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  13. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  14. Melatonin and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-06-15

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland whose concentrations in the body are regulated by both the dark-light and seasonal cycles. The reproductive function of seasonal breeding animals is clearly influenced by the circadian variation in melatonin levels. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates that melatonin has important effects in the reproduction of some non-seasonal breeding animals. In males, melatonin affects reproductive regulation in three main ways. First, it regulates the secretion of two key neurohormones, GnRH and LH. Second, it regulates testosterone synthesis and testicular maturation. Third, as a potent free radical scavenger that is both lipophilic and hydrophilic, it prevents testicular damage caused by environmental toxins or inflammation. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible biological roles of melatonin in male reproduction. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin affects the secretion of both gonadotropins and testosterone while also improving sperm quality. This implies that it has important effects on the regulation of testicular development and male reproduction.

  15. Speeding the reproductive revolution.

    PubMed

    Robey, B; Upadhyay, U

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, the international community set the goal of ensuring universal access to reproductive health care by 2015 and agreed to finance its costs. Few governments and donor countries, however, have made good on commitments made at the ICPD. Reproductive health is not improving and may actually be getting worse. Specific goals to be reached by 2015 include meeting all unmet need for family planning, reducing maternal mortality by 75% compared with 1990 levels, and reducing infant mortality to lower than 35 deaths/1000 births. Reaching these and the related reproductive health goals of the ICPD was calculated to cost about US$17 billion/year until 2000, then to increase to $22 billion/year by 2015 (in constant 1993 US dollars). Developing countries agreed to pay 66% of the cost, while donor countries paid the remainder. Immediately after the ICPD, reproductive health funding increased substantially, then declined again, with most donor countries failing to meet their funding commitments. Failure to deliver on the promised financial support for the ICPD goals will result in higher levels of unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, cases of maternal mortality, and infant deaths. Governments need to be convinced that paying for reproductive health programs is an urgent priority and that developing countries, donor countries, and multilateral institutions all have much to gain from reaching the ICPD goals. PMID:12322000

  16. Inherited thrombophilia and reproductive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liatsikos, Spyros A.; Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Manav, Bachar; Csorba, Roland; von Tempelhoff, Georg Friedrich; Galazios, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Apart from its established role in the pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE), inherited thrombophilia has been proposed as a possible cause of pregnancy loss and vascular gestational complications. There is a lot of controversy in the literature on the relationship between inherited prothrombotic defects and these obstetric complications. This is a review of the literature on inherited thrombophilia and reproductive disorders. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutation, and protein S deficiency seem to be associated with late and recurrent early pregnancy loss, while their impact on other pregnancy complications is conflicting. No definite association has been established between protein C and antithrombin deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcome, primarily due to their low prevalence. Screening is suggested only for women with early recurrent loss or late pregnancy loss. Anticoagulant treatment during pregnancy should be considered for women with complications who were tested positive for thrombophilia. PMID:27026779

  17. Legal developments in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-05-01

    Courts have been quite consistent in allowing ex-partners in marriages or similar relationships, usually men, to veto the other partner's reproductive use of jointly-created IVF embryos. This supports the principle of voluntary parenthood. In contrast, child custody disputes following surrogate motherhood may favor the commissioning couple or the surrogate. Decisive are the best interests of the child, which a court may find favorable to the former or the latter, or custody shared between them. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may be restricted by governmental licensing regulations, and raises concerns about diagnosis showing noninheritance of a feared disorder, but not other conditions harming a subsequently born child. Travel abroad raises concerns of legality. Some countries explicitly allow nationals to go to other countries for services legally barred in their own, but others would bind nationals by their prohibitive laws if they were to receive, or counsel, services abroad that are lawful where delivered. PMID:18289543

  18. Phylogeography of competing sexual and parthenogenetic forms of a freshwater flatworm: patterns and explanations

    PubMed Central

    Pongratz, Norbert; Storhas, Martin; Carranza, Salvador; Michiels, Nicolaas K

    2003-01-01

    Background Models of the maintenance of sex predict that one reproductive strategy, sexual or parthenogenetic, should outcompete the other. Distribution patterns may reflect the outcome of this competition as well as the effect of chance and historical events. We review the distribution data of sexual and parthenogenetic biotypes of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Results S. polychroa lives in allopatry or sympatry across Europe except for Central and North-Western Europe, where sexual individuals have never been reported. A phylogenetic relationship between 36 populations based on a 385 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that haplotypes were often similar over large geographic distances. In North Italian lakes, however, diversity was extreme, with sequence differences of up to 5% within the same lake in both sexuals and parthenogens. Mixed populations showed "endemic" parthenogenetic lineages that presumably originated from coexisting sexuals, and distantly related ones that probably result from colonization by parthenogens independent from sexuals. Conclusions Parthenogens originated repeatedly from sexuals, mainly in Italy, but the same may apply to other Mediterranean regions (Spain, Greece). The degree of divergence between populations suggests that S. polychroa survived the ice ages in separate ice-free areas in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe and re-colonised Europe after the retreat of the major glaciers. Combining these results with those based on nuclear markers, the data suggest that repeated hybridisation between sexuals and parthenogenetic lineages in mixed populations maintains high levels of genetic diversity in parthenogens. This can explain why parthenogens persist in populations that were originally sexual. Exclusive parthenogenesis in central and western populations suggests better colonisation capacity, possibly because of inbreeding costs as well as hybridisation of sexuals with parthenogens. PMID

  19. Evolutionary Origin and Phylogeography of the Diploid Obligate Parthenogen Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi; Amat, Francisco; Rico, Ciro

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the evolutionary origin and the phylogeographic patterns of asexual taxa can shed light on the origin and maintenance of sexual reproduction. We assessed the geographic origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic history of obligate parthenogen diploid Artemia parthenogenetica populations, a widespread halophilic crustacean. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed a partial sequence of the Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I mitochondrial gene from an extensive set of localities (including Eurasia, Africa, and Australia), and examined their phylogeographic patterns and the phylogenetic relationships of diploid A. parthenogenetica and its closest sexual relatives. Populations displayed an extremely low level of mitochondrial genetic diversity, with one widespread haplotype shared by over 79% of individuals analysed. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses indicated a multiple and recent evolutionary origin of diploid A. parthenogenetica, and strongly suggested that the geographic origin of parthenogenesis in Artemia was in Central Asia. Our results indicate that the maternal sexual ancestors of diploid A. parthenogenetica were an undescribed species from Kazakhstan and A. urmiana. Conclusions/Significance We found evidence for multiple origin of parthenogenesis in Central Asia. Our results indicated that, shortly after its origin, diploid A. parthenogenetica populations underwent a rapid range expansion from Central Asia towards the Mediterranean region, and probably to the rest of its current geographic distribution. This contrasts with the restricted geographic distribution, strong genetic structure, and regional endemism of sexual Artemia lineages and other passively dispersed sexual continental aquatic invertebrates. We hypothesize that diploid parthenogens might have reached their current distribution in historical times, with a range expansion possibly facilitated by an increased availability of suitable habitat provided by

  20. Phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): how many populations and how many taxa?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A I; Bowen, B W; Domning, D; Mignucci-Giannoni, A; Marmontel, M; Montoya-Ospina, A; Morales-Vela, B; Rudin, M; Bonde, R K; McGuire, P M

    1998-09-01

    To resolve the population genetic structure and phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences were compared among eight locations across the western Atlantic region. Fifteen haplotypes were identified among 86 individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Columbia, Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. Despite the manatee's ability to move thousands of kilometers along continental margins, strong population separations between most locations were demonstrated with significant haplotype frequency shifts. These findings are consistent with tagging studies which indicate that stretches of open water and unsuitable coastal habitats constitute substantial barriers to gene flow and colonization. Low levels of genetic diversity within Florida and Brazilian samples might be explained by recent colonization into high latitudes or bottleneck effects. Three distinctive mtDNA lineages were observed in an intraspecific phylogeny of T. manatus, corresponding approximately to: (i) Florida and the West Indies; (ii) the Gulf of Mexico to the Caribbean rivers of South America; and (iii) the northeast Atlantic coast of South America. These lineages, which are not concordant with previous subspecies designations, are separated by sequence divergence estimates of d = 0.04-0.07, approximately the same level of divergence observed between T. manatus and the Amazonian manatee (T. inunguis, n = 16). Three individuals from Guyana, identified as T. manatus, had mtDNA haplotypes which are affiliated with the endemic Amazon form T. inunguis. The three primary T. manatus lineages and the T. inunguis lineage may represent relatively deep phylogeographic partitions which have been bridged recently due to changes in habitat availability (after the Wisconsin glacial period, 10 000 B P), natural colonization, and human-mediated transplantation.

  1. The Whereabouts of an Ancient Wanderer: Global Phylogeography of the Solitary Ascidian Styela plicata

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Mari Carmen; López-Legentil, Susanna; Turon, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Genetic tools have greatly aided in tracing the sources and colonization history of introduced species. However, recurrent introductions and repeated shuffling of populations may have blurred some of the genetic signals left by ancient introductions. Styela plicata is a solitary ascidian distributed worldwide. Although its origin remains unclear, this species is believed to have spread worldwide by travelling on ship's hulls. The goals of this study were to infer the genetic structure and global phylogeography of S. plicata and to look for present-day and historical genetic patterns. Two genetic markers were used: a fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and a fragment of the nuclear gene Adenine Nucleotide Transporter/ADP-ATP Translocase (ANT). A total of 368 individuals for COI and 315 for ANT were sequenced from 17 locations worldwide. The levels of gene diversity were moderate for COI to high for ANT. The Mediterranean populations showed the least diversity and allelic richness for both markers, while the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans had the highest gene and nucleotide diversities. Network and phylogenetic analyses with COI and ANT revealed two groups of alleles separated by 15 and 4 mutational steps, respectively. The existence of different lineages suggested an ancient population split. However, the geographic distributions of these groups did not show any consistent pattern, indicating different phylogeographic histories for each gene. Genetic divergence was significant for many population-pairs irrespective of the geographic distance among them. Stochastic introduction events are reflected in the uneven distribution of COI and ANT allele frequencies and groups among many populations. Our results confirmed that S. plicata has been present in all studied oceans for a long time, and that recurrent colonization events and occasional shuffling among populations have determined the actual genetic structure of this species

  2. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Shan; Liu, Hsiao-Lei; Moncada, Ximena; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17–carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the “out of Taiwan” hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China “into North Taiwan,” the “out of South China–Indochina” expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania. PMID:26438853

  3. Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula.

    PubMed

    Schorr, G; Holstein, N; Pearman, P B; Guisan, A; Kadereit, J W

    2012-06-01

    The major intention of the present study was to investigate whether an approach combining the use of niche-based palaeodistribution modeling and phylo-geography would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. Our study system comprised two closely related species of Alpine Primula. We used species distribution models based on the extant distribution of the species and last glacial maximum (LGM) climate models to predict the distribution of the two species during the LGM. Phylogeographic data were generated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In Primula hirsuta, models of past distribution and phylogeographic data are partly congruent and support the hypothesis of widespread nunatak survival in the Central Alps. Species distribution models (SDMs) allowed us to differentiate between alpine regions that harbor potential nunatak areas and regions that have been colonized from other areas. SDMs revealed that diversity is a good indicator for nunataks, while rarity is a good indicator for peripheral relict populations that were not source for the recolonization of the inner Alps. In P. daonensis, palaeo-distribution models and phylogeographic data are incongruent. Besides the uncertainty inherent to this type of modeling approach (e.g., relatively coarse 1-km grain size), disagreement of models and data may partly be caused by shifts of ecological niche in both species. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the combination of palaeo-distribution modeling with phylogeographical approaches provides a more differentiated picture of the distributional history of species and partly supports (P. hirsuta) and partly modifies (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data. PMID:22833799

  4. Comparative cytogenetics and molecular phylogeography in the group astyanax altiparanae--Astyanax aff. bimaculatus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Kavalco, K F; Pazza, R; Brandão, K D O; Garcia, C; Almeida-Toledo, L F

    2011-01-01

    The genus Astyanax comprises small characin fish of the neotropical region. The so-called 'yellow-tailed characins' compose one of the most widely distributed Astyanax groups. A. altiparanae and A. aff. bimaculatus, are evolutionarily closely related and commonly found in several Brazilian hydrographic basins. In the present work, chromosomal data of specimens of A. altiparanae and A. aff. bimaculatus from 4 hydrographic basins in the states of São Paulo (Upper Tietê, Paranapanema, Ribeira de Iguape) and Rio de Janeiro (Guapimirim) are shown. All the populations showed 50 chromosomes, with different karyotypic formula. Although only a single Ag-NOR bearing chromosome pair was observed, all populations possess multiple cistrons of 18S rDNA. FISH with the 5S rDNA probe showed single signals at the interstitial position of one metacentric chromosome pair. C-bands are distributed in the terminal and interstitial regions of several chromosomes. However, the As-51 satDNA are frugally located in a few chromosomes of fishes from Upper Tietê, Paranapanema and Guapimirim Rivers, being absent in individuals of A. aff. bimaculatus from Ribeira de Iguape River basin. Beside these 4 populations, molecular phylogeography studies were also performed in individuals from Middle and Lower Tietê River basin and from 2 additional collection sites in the Paranapanema and Ribeira de Iguape River basins. The phylogeographic analysis using 2 mtDNA regions (totalizing 1.314 bp of ND2 and ATPase6/8 genes) of 8 populations of the group of 'yellow-tailed characins' from 3 major hydrographic basins showed structuring of populations, suggesting a correlation between chromosomal (nuclear) and molecular (mitochondrial) data. PMID:21447941

  5. Late Quaternary distribution dynamics and phylogeography of the red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, R. S.; Zachos, F. E.; Street, M.; Jöris, O.; Skog, A.; Benecke, N.

    2008-04-01

    Here we present spatial-temporal patterns for European late Quaternary red deer (Cervus elaphus), based on radiocarbon-supported evidence derived mainly from archaeological sites. This is followed by an overview of the recent phylogeography of this species using haplogroup studies of recent molecular data. The implications of the synthesis of palaeontological and genetic data are discussed and we propose that present day European red deer haplogroup distributions are best explained against the history of late Quaternary population contractions into and expansions from glacial refugia. Around 800 records of Cervus elaphus were assigned to the period covering the later part of the Last Glacial and the Early to Middle Holocene. Red deer becomes increasingly visible in faunal assemblages dated to late OIS-3 (<40.0 ka 14C BP). The species persisted throughout the LGM on the Iberian Peninsula, in adjacent regions of South-Western France (Gascony, Dordogne, Languedoc), on the Italian Peninsula, in the Balkans and Greece, and east of the Carpathians in Moldavia. We suggest that genetic exchange between the populations of the Balkans and the East of the Carpathians remained uninterrupted during the LGM. The expansion of red deer from its southern refugia into Central and Northern Europe begins rapidly at 12,500 14C BP. The expansion of red deer coincides with the sudden rise in temperature at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1e and the dispersion of open birch woodland into the northern half of Europe. Radiocarbon supported records show a more or less universal distribution of Cervus elaphus across Europe following the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic change at 10.0 ka 14C BP for the first time. Molecular data and fossil record combined provide a clearer temporal and spatial pattern for the Lateglacial recolonisation process of the northern part of Europe.

  6. Phylogeny, phylogeography, and evolution in the Mediterranean region: News from a freshwater mussel (Potomida, Unionida).

    PubMed

    Froufe, Elsa; Prié, Vincent; Faria, João; Ghamizi, Mohamed; Gonçalves, Duarte V; Gürlek, Mustafa Emre; Karaouzas, Ioannis; Kebapçi, Ümit; Şereflişan, Hülya; Sobral, Carina; Sousa, Ronaldo; Teixeira, Amílcar; Varandas, Simone; Zogaris, Stamatis; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    The Potomida genus (Bivalvia, Unionida) has a Circum-Mediterranean distribution and like other freshwater mussel species, its populations have suffered dramatic declines. Although this genus is currently considered as monotypic, it has a long history of taxonomic revisions and presently many aspects of its systematics and evolutionary history are unclear. We sampled a total of 323 individuals from 39 different sites across the Potomida genus distribution, and sequenced two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I) and one nuclear (28S rDNA) genes to clarify its phylogeny and phylogeographic history. Our results show that the genus includes two well-supported clades, one comprising solely the western Mediterranean species Potomida littoralis, and the other including two eastern Mediterranean species, the Greek endemic P. acarnanica and the Anatolian and Middle Eastern P. semirugata. We suggest that Potomida started radiating during the upper Miocene, and that both vicariance and dispersal events shaped the diversification and distribution of the genus along the Mediterranean region. P. littoralis is further divided in two mitochondrial lineages, one restricted to Europe and the other occurring mostly in North Africa. Moreover, some European basins present both lineages in sympatry. The conservation status of the three recognized species should be reevaluated, particularly P. acarnanica, since it is restricted to two Greek river basins presenting a high risk of extinction. Overall, our results clarify some important gaps in knowledge concerning the phylogeny, phylogeography and evolution of the Potomida genus in the Mediterranean region with important taxonomical, ecological and conservational implications.

  7. Postglacial Colonization of the Qinling Mountains: Phylogeography of the Swelled Vent Frog (Feirana quadranus)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Jianping; Xie, Feng; Li, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on intraspecific diversification in the Qinling–Daba Mountains of East Asia remains poorly investigated. We tested hypotheses concerning refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM) in this region by examining the phylogeography of the swelled vent frog (Feirana quadranus; Dicroglossidae, Anura, Amphibia). Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained complete mitochondrial ND2 gene sequences of 224 individuals from 34 populations of Feirana quadranus for phylogeographic analyses. Additionally, we obtained nuclear tyrosinase gene sequences of 68 F. quadranus, one F. kangxianensis and three F. taihangnica samples to test for mitochondrial introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on all genes revealed no introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on ND2 datasets revealed that F. quadranus was comprised of six lineages which were separated by deep valleys; the sole exception is that the Main Qinling and Micang–Western Qinling lineages overlap in distribution. Analyses of population structure indicated restricted gene flow among lineages. Coalescent simulations and divergence dating indicated that the basal diversification within F. quadranus may be associated with the dramatic uplifts of the Tibetan Plateau during the Pliocene. Coalescent simulations indicated that Wuling, Daba, and Western Qinling–Micang–Longmen Mountains were refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Demographic analyses indicated that the Daba lineage experienced population size increase prior to the LGM but the Main Qinling and the Micang–Western Qinling lineages expanded in population size and range after the LGM, and the other lineages almost have stable population size or slight slow population size decline. Conclusions/Significance The Qinling–Daba Mountains hosted three refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Populations that originated in the Daba Mountains colonized the Main Qinling Mountains

  8. Radically different phylogeographies and patterns of genetic variation in two European brown frogs, genus Rana.

    PubMed

    Vences, Miguel; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Künzel, Sven; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Vieites, David R; Nieto-Roman, Sandra; Haas, Sabrina; Laugsch, Clara; Gehara, Marcelo; Bruchmann, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Ludewig, Ann-Kathrin; Rudert, Dirk; Angelini, Claudio; Borkin, Leo J; Crochet, Pierre-André; Crottini, Angelica; Dubois, Alain; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Galán, Pedro; Geniez, Philippe; Hachtel, Monika; Jovanovic, Olga; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Ohler, Annemarie; Smirnov, Nazar A

    2013-09-01

    We reconstruct range-wide phylogeographies of two widespread and largely co-occurring Western Palearctic frogs, Rana temporaria and R. dalmatina. Based on tissue or saliva samples of over 1000 individuals, we compare a variety of genetic marker systems, including mitochondrial DNA, single-copy protein-coding nuclear genes, microsatellite loci, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of transcriptomes of both species. The two focal species differ radically in their phylogeographic structure, with R. temporaria being strongly variable among and within populations, and R. dalmatina homogeneous across Europe with a single strongly differentiated population in southern Italy. These differences were observed across the various markers studied, including microsatellites and SNP density, but especially in protein-coding nuclear genes where R. dalmatina had extremely low heterozygosity values across its range, including potential refugial areas. On the contrary, R. temporaria had comparably high range-wide values, including many areas of probable postglacial colonization. A phylogeny of R. temporaria based on various concatenated mtDNA genes revealed that two haplotype clades endemic to Iberia form a paraphyletic group at the base of the cladogram, and all other haplotypes form a monophyletic group, in agreement with an Iberian origin of the species. Demographic analysis suggests that R. temporaria and R. dalmatina have genealogies of roughly the same time to coalescence (TMRCA ~3.5 mya for both species), but R. temporaria might have been characterized by larger ancestral and current effective population sizes than R. dalmatina. The high genetic variation in R. temporaria can therefore be explained by its early range expansion out of Iberia, with subsequent cycles of differentiation in cryptic glacial refugial areas followed by admixture, while the range expansion of R. dalmatina into central Europe is a probably more recent event.

  9. Sympatric Asian felid phylogeography reveals a major Indochinese-Sundaic divergence.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Zhang, Yue; Johnson, Warren E; Miao, Lin; Martelli, Paolo; Antunes, Agostinho; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The dynamic geological and climatological history of Southeast Asia has spawned a complex array of ecosystems and 12 of the 37 known cat species, making it the most felid-rich region in the world. To examine the evolutionary histories of these poorly studied fauna, we compared phylogeography of six species (leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis, fishing cat P. viverrinus, Asiatic golden cat Pardofelis temminckii, marbled cat P. marmorata, tiger Panthera tigris and leopard P. pardus) by sequencing over 5 kb of DNA each from 445 specimens at multiple loci of mtDNA, Y and X chromosomes. All species except the leopard displayed significant phylogenetic partitions between Indochina and Sundaland, with the central Thai-Malay Peninsula serving as the biogeographic boundary. Concordant mtDNA and nuclear DNA genealogies revealed deep Indochinese-Sundaic divergences around 2 MYA in both P. bengalensis and P. marmorata comparable to previously described interspecific distances within Felidae. The divergence coincided with serial sea level rises during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, and was probably reinforced by repeated isolation events associated with environmental changes throughout the Pleistocene. Indochinese-Sundaic differentiations within P. tigris and P. temminckii were more recent at 72-108 and 250-1570 kya, respectively. Overall, these results illuminate unexpected, deep vicariance events in Southeast Asian felids and provide compelling evidence of species-level distinction between the Indochinese and Sundaic populations in the leopard cat and marbled cat. Broader sampling and further molecular and morphometric analyses of these species will be instrumental in defining conservation units and effectively preserving Southeast Asian biodiversity. PMID:24629132

  10. Sympatric Asian felid phylogeography reveals a major Indochinese-Sundaic divergence.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Zhang, Yue; Johnson, Warren E; Miao, Lin; Martelli, Paolo; Antunes, Agostinho; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The dynamic geological and climatological history of Southeast Asia has spawned a complex array of ecosystems and 12 of the 37 known cat species, making it the most felid-rich region in the world. To examine the evolutionary histories of these poorly studied fauna, we compared phylogeography of six species (leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis, fishing cat P. viverrinus, Asiatic golden cat Pardofelis temminckii, marbled cat P. marmorata, tiger Panthera tigris and leopard P. pardus) by sequencing over 5 kb of DNA each from 445 specimens at multiple loci of mtDNA, Y and X chromosomes. All species except the leopard displayed significant phylogenetic partitions between Indochina and Sundaland, with the central Thai-Malay Peninsula serving as the biogeographic boundary. Concordant mtDNA and nuclear DNA genealogies revealed deep Indochinese-Sundaic divergences around 2 MYA in both P. bengalensis and P. marmorata comparable to previously described interspecific distances within Felidae. The divergence coincided with serial sea level rises during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, and was probably reinforced by repeated isolation events associated with environmental changes throughout the Pleistocene. Indochinese-Sundaic differentiations within P. tigris and P. temminckii were more recent at 72-108 and 250-1570 kya, respectively. Overall, these results illuminate unexpected, deep vicariance events in Southeast Asian felids and provide compelling evidence of species-level distinction between the Indochinese and Sundaic populations in the leopard cat and marbled cat. Broader sampling and further molecular and morphometric analyses of these species will be instrumental in defining conservation units and effectively preserving Southeast Asian biodiversity.

  11. Global phylogeography of Dengue type 1 and 2 viruses reveals the role of India.

    PubMed

    Walimbe, Atul M; Lotankar, Mrunalini; Cecilia, D; Cherian, Sarah S

    2014-03-01

    Patterns in virus dispersal and epidemiology of viral diseases can be revealed by phylogeographic studies. Currently knowledge about phylogeography of Dengue virus (DENV) Types 1 and 2 is limited. We carried out the phylogeographic analyses for DENV-1 and DENV-2, by the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, with emphasis on Indian isolates in relation to the global evolutionary dynamics of the viruses. More than 250 E-gene sequences of each virus, available in GenBank, were used for the analyses. The study was focused on understanding the most likely geographical origin for the major genotypes and sub-lineages of DENV-1/DENV-2 and also the possible pathways in the dispersal of the virus. The results showed that for DENV-1, Southeast Asia was the most likely geographical origin and India was determined to be the ancestral location of the Cosmopolitan genotype circulating in India, Sri Lanka, West and East Africa, Caribbean region, East and Southeast Asia. For DENV-2, the ancestral source could not be precisely inferred. Further, in spite of the earliest isolate from Trinidad-1953 of the American genotype, it was depicted that India may have been the probable ancestor of this genotype. India was also determined to be the ancestral location of a subgroup of the Cosmopolitan genotype. It was noted that DENV-1 and DENV-2 were introduced into India during 1940s and 1910s respectively. Subsequently, dispersal of both the viruses between India and different regions including West, East and Central Africa, Southeast and East Asia and Caribbean was inferred. Overall, the current study provides insight into the spatial as well as temporal dynamics of dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2.

  12. Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula.

    PubMed

    Schorr, G; Holstein, N; Pearman, P B; Guisan, A; Kadereit, J W

    2012-06-01

    The major intention of the present study was to investigate whether an approach combining the use of niche-based palaeodistribution modeling and phylo-geography would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. Our study system comprised two closely related species of Alpine Primula. We used species distribution models based on the extant distribution of the species and last glacial maximum (LGM) climate models to predict the distribution of the two species during the LGM. Phylogeographic data were generated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In Primula hirsuta, models of past distribution and phylogeographic data are partly congruent and support the hypothesis of widespread nunatak survival in the Central Alps. Species distribution models (SDMs) allowed us to differentiate between alpine regions that harbor potential nunatak areas and regions that have been colonized from other areas. SDMs revealed that diversity is a good indicator for nunataks, while rarity is a good indicator for peripheral relict populations that were not source for the recolonization of the inner Alps. In P. daonensis, palaeo-distribution models and phylogeographic data are incongruent. Besides the uncertainty inherent to this type of modeling approach (e.g., relatively coarse 1-km grain size), disagreement of models and data may partly be caused by shifts of ecological niche in both species. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the combination of palaeo-distribution modeling with phylogeographical approaches provides a more differentiated picture of the distributional history of species and partly supports (P. hirsuta) and partly modifies (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data.

  13. Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula

    PubMed Central

    Schorr, G; Holstein, N; Pearman, P B; Guisan, A; Kadereit, J W

    2012-01-01

    The major intention of the present study was to investigate whether an approach combining the use of niche-based palaeodistribution modeling and phylo-geography would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. Our study system comprised two closely related species of Alpine Primula. We used species distribution models based on the extant distribution of the species and last glacial maximum (LGM) climate models to predict the distribution of the two species during the LGM. Phylogeographic data were generated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In Primula hirsuta, models of past distribution and phylogeographic data are partly congruent and support the hypothesis of widespread nunatak survival in the Central Alps. Species distribution models (SDMs) allowed us to differentiate between alpine regions that harbor potential nunatak areas and regions that have been colonized from other areas. SDMs revealed that diversity is a good indicator for nunataks, while rarity is a good indicator for peripheral relict populations that were not source for the recolonization of the inner Alps. In P. daonensis, palaeo-distribution models and phylogeographic data are incongruent. Besides the uncertainty inherent to this type of modeling approach (e.g., relatively coarse 1-km grain size), disagreement of models and data may partly be caused by shifts of ecological niche in both species. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the combination of palaeo-distribution modeling with phylogeographical approaches provides a more differentiated picture of the distributional history of species and partly supports (P. hirsuta) and partly modifies (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data. PMID:22833799

  14. Phylogeny and phylogeography of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo): fast dispersal and shallow genetic structure.

    PubMed

    Trontelj, Peter; Utevsky, Serge Y

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) are among the best-studied invertebrates in many aspects of their biology. Yet, relatively little is known about their biogeography, ecology and evolution. Previous studies found vast ranges but suggested low genetic diversity for some species. To examine this apparent contradiction, the phylogeny and phylogeography of the widespread Hirudo verbana, Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo orientalis were investigated in a comparative manner. Populations from across their ranges in Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus and Central Asia, were analyzed by various phylogenetic and population genetic approaches using both mitochondrial (COI and 12S) and nuclear DNA sequences (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2). The populations showed surprisingly little genetic differentiation despite vast ranges. The only clear structure was observed in H. verbana. This species is subdivided into an Eastern (southern Ukraine, North Caucasus, Turkey and Uzbekistan) and a Western phylogroup (Balkans and Italy). The two phylogroups do not overlap, suggesting distinct postglacial colonization from separate refugia. Leeches supplied by commercial facilities belong to the Eastern phylogroup of H. verbana; they originate from Turkey and the Krasnodar Territory in Russia, two leading areas of leech export. H. verbana and H. medicinalis have experienced recent rapid population growth and range expansion, while isolation by distance has shaped the genetic setup of H. orientalis. The habitat of the latter is patchy and scattered about inhospitable arid and alpine areas of Central Asia and Transcaucasia. Centuries of leech collecting and transport across Europe seem not to have affected the natural distribution of genetic diversity, as the observed patterns can be explained by a combination of historical factors and present day climatic influences.

  15. Phylogeography and population structure of the red stingray, Dasyatis akajei inferred by mitochondrial control region.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Chen, Xiao; Sun, Dianrong; Song, Na; Lin, Qin; Gao, Tianxiang

    2015-08-01

    The red stingray Dasyatis akajei is distributed in both marine and freshwater, but little is known about its phylogeography and population structure. We sampled 107 individuals from one freshwater region and 6 coastal localities within the distribution range of D. akajei. Analyses of the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA control region of 474 bp revealed only 17 polymorphism sites that defined 28 haplotypes, with no unique haplotype for the freshwater population. A high level of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity were observed in both marine (h = 0.9393 ± 0.0104, π = 0.0069 ± 0.0040) and freshwater populations (h = 0.8333 ± 0.2224, π = 0.0084 ± 0.0063). Significant level of genetic structure was detected between four marine populations (TZ, WZ, ND and ZZ) via both hierarchical molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) and pairwise FST (with two exceptions), which is unusual for elasmobranchs detected previously over such short geographical distance. However, limited sampling suggested that the freshwater population was not particularly distinct (p > 0.05), but additional samples would be needed to confirm it. Demersal and slow-moving characters likely have contributed to the genetically heterogeneous population structure. The demographic history of D. akajei examined by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline analyses suggested a sudden population expansion dating to upper Pleistocene. The information on genetic diversity and genetic structure will have implications for the management of fisheries and conservation efforts. PMID:24409898

  16. Tracing an invasion: landbridges, refugia, and the phylogeography of the Neotropical rattlesnake (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalus durissus).

    PubMed

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Ferguson, Julia E; Quijada-Mascareñas, J Adrian; Pook, Catharine E; Salomão, Maria da Graça; Thorpe, Roger S

    2005-04-01

    Abstract Pleistocene fragmentation of the Amazonian rainforest has been hypothesized to be a major cause of Neotropical speciation and diversity. However, the role and even the reality of Pleistocene forest refugia have attracted much scepticism. In Amazonia, previous phylogeographical studies have focused mostly on organisms found in the forests themselves, and generally found speciation events to have predated the Pleistocene. However, molecular studies of open-formation taxa found both north and south of the Amazonian forests, probably because of vicariance resulting from expansion of the rainforests, may provide novel insights into the age of continuous forest cover across the Amazon basin. Here, we analyse three mitochondrial genes to infer the phylogeography of one such trans-Amazonian vicariant, the Neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), which occupies primarily seasonal formations from Mexico to Argentina, but avoids the rainforests of Central and tropical South America. The phylogeographical pattern is consistent with gradual dispersal along the Central American Isthmus, followed by more rapid dispersal into and across South America after the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama. Low sequence divergence between populations from north and south of the Amazon rainforest is consistent with mid-Pleistocene divergence, approximately 1.1 million years ago (Ma). This suggests that the Amazonian rainforests must have become fragmented or at least shrunk considerably during that period, lending support to the Pleistocene refugia theory as an important cause of distribution patterns, if not necessarily speciation, in Amazonian forest organisms. These results highlight the potential of nonforest species to contribute to an understanding of the history of the Amazonian rainforests themselves.

  17. Global phylogeography of the avian malaria pathogen Plasmodium relictum based on MSP1 allelic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hellgren, Olof; Atkinson, Carter T.; Bensch, Staffan; Albayrak, Tamer; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Ewen, John G.; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Lima, Marcos R.; Martin, Lynn; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Ricklefs, Robert; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.; Gediminas, Valkiunas; Tsuda, Yoshio; Marzal, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the genetic variation that occurs in pathogen populations and how it is distributed across geographical areas is essential to understand parasite epidemiology, local patterns of virulence, and evolution of host-resistance. In addition, it is important to identify populations of pathogens that are evolutionarily independent and thus ‘free’ to adapt to hosts and environments. Here, we investigated genetic variation in the globally distributed, highly invasive avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, which has several distinctive mitochondrial haplotyps (cyt b lineages, SGS1, GRW11 and GRW4). The phylogeography of P. relictum was accessed using the highly variable nuclear gene merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), a gene linked to the invasion biology of the parasite. We show that the lineage GRW4 is evolutionarily independent of GRW11 and SGS1 whereas GRW11 and SGS1 share MSP1 alleles and thus suggesting the presence of two distinct species (GRW4 versus SGS1 and GRW11). Further, there were significant differences in the global distribution of MSP1 alleles with differences between GRW4 alleles in the New and the Old World. For SGS1, a lineage formerly believed to have both tropical and temperate transmission, there were clear differences in MSP1 alleles transmitted in tropical Africa compared to the temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Further, we highlight the occurrence of multiple MSP1 alleles in GRW4 isolates from the Hawaiian Islands, where the parasite has contributed to declines and extinctions of endemic forest birds since it was introduced. This study stresses the importance of multiple independent loci for understanding patterns of transmission and evolutionary independence across avian malaria parasites.

  18. Phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): How many populations and how many taxa?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A. I.; Bowen, B.W.; Domning, D.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Marmontel, M.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Morales-Vela, B.; Rudin, M.; Bonde, R.K.; McGuire, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    To resolve the population genetic structure and phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences were compared among eight locations across the western Atlantic region. Fifteen haplotypes were identified among 86 individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. Despite the manatee's ability to move thousands of kilometres along continental margins, strong population separations between most locations were demonstrated with significant haplotype frequency shifts. These findings are consistent with tagging studies which indicate that stretches of open water and unsuitable coastal habitats constitute substantial barriers to gene flow and colonization. Low levels of genetic diversity within Florida and Brazilian samples might be explained by recent colonization into high latitudes or bottleneck effects. Three distinctive mtDNA lineages were observed in an intraspecific phylogeny of T. manatus, corresponding approximately to: (i) Florida and the West Indies; (ii) the Gulf of Mexico to the Caribbean rivers of South America; and (iii) the northeast Atlantic coast of South America. These lineages, which are not concordant with previous subspecies designations, are separated by sequence divergence estimates of d = 0.04-0.07, approximately the same level of divergence observed between T. manatus and the Amazonian manatee (T. inunguis, n = 16). Three individuals from Guyana, identified as T. manatus, had mtDNA haplotypes which are affiliated with the endemic Amazon form T. inunguis. The three primary T. manatus lineages and the T. inunguis lineage may represent relatively deep phylogeographic partitions which have been bridged recently due to changes in habitat availability (after the Wisconsin glacial period, 10 000 BP), natural colonization, and human-mediated transplantation.

  19. Genetic phylogeography and maternal lineages of 18 Chinese black goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Zhao, Qian Jun; Niu, Li Li; Wang, Jie; Jin, Peng Fei; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Lin Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hong Ping; Ma, Yue Hui

    2013-11-01

    To understand the origin and genetic phylogeography of Chinese black goats, variations of mitochondrial DNA were characterised with 394 goats from 18 breeds, including 91 new individuals from regions poorly studied until now. Comparison of a 481-bp segment revealed a total of 192 haplotypes with 141 variable sites. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.782 ± 0.079 to 1.000 ± 0.020 and from 0.009 ± 0.001 to 0.045 ± 0.006, respectively, indicating a relatively high genetic diversity in Chinese black goats. Phylogenetic analyses identified five haplogroups (A, B1, B2, C and D). The dominant haplogroups A, B1 and B2 were distributed in most of breeds, while the haplogroups C and D were only presented in the breeds located in north or northwest of China. Analysis of molecular variance and multidimensional scaling plot of F ST analyses indicated no obvious geographic structure among breeds. Furthermore, the migration rates revealed that a wide range of gene flow or gene exchange occurred among breeds, which may result in the weak geographic structure of Chinese black goats. Population expansion analysis based on mismatch distribution indicated that two expansion events in Chinese black goats occurred at 10 and 28 mutational time units. Finally, our findings indicate the multiple maternal origins of Chinese black goats and more gene flow (female-mediated) which occurred during their domestic and breeding histories. PMID:23780786

  20. Phylogeography and evolutionary history of hepatitis B virus genotype F in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype F (HBV/F) is considered to be indigenous to the Americas, but its emergence and spread in the continent remain unknown. Previously, only two HBV/F complete genome sequences from Brazil were available, limiting the contribution of Brazilian isolates to the phylogenetic studies of HBV/F. The present study was carried out to assess the proportion and geographic distributions of HBV/F subgenotypes in Brazil, to determine the full-length genomic sequences of HBV/F isolates from different Brazilian geographic regions, and to investigate the detailed evolutionary history and phylogeography of HBV/F in Brazil. Methods Complete HBV/F genomes isolated from 12 Brazilian patients, representing the HBV/F subgenotypes circulating in Brazil, were sequenced and analyzed together with sequences retrieved from GenBank, using the Bayesian coalescent and phylogeographic framework. Results Phylogenetic analysis using all Brazilian HBV/F S-gene sequences available in GenBank showed that HBV/F2a is found at higher frequencies countrywide and corresponds to all sequences isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. In addition, the evolutionary analysis using complete genome sequences estimated an older median ancestral age for the Brazilian HBV/F2a compared to the Brazilian HBV/F1b and HBV/F4 subgenotypes, suggesting that HBV/F2a represents the original native HBV of Brazil. The phylogeographic patterns suggested a north-to-south flow of HBV/F2a from Venezuela to Brazil, whereas HBV/F1b and HBV/F4 strains appeared to have spread from Argentina to Brazil. Conclusions This study suggests a plausible route of introduction of HBV/F subgenotypes in Brazil and demonstrates the usefulness of recently developed computational tools for investigating the evolutionary history of HBV. PMID:23855930

  1. Biofluidmechanics of Reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Lisa J.; Dillon, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian fertilization requires the coordinated activity of motile spermatozoa, muscular contractions of the uterus and oviduct, as well as ciliary beating. These elastic structures generate forces that drive fluid motion, but their configurations are, in turn, determined by the fluid dynamics. We review the basic fluid mechanical aspects of reproduction, including flagellar/ciliary beating and peristalsis. We report on recent biological studies that have shed light on the relative importance of the mechanical ingredients of reproduction. In particular, we examine sperm motility in the reproductive tract, ovum pickup and transport in the oviduct, as well as sperm-egg interactions. We review recent advances in understanding the internal mechanics of cilia and flagella, flagellar surface interaction, sperm motility in complex fluids, and the role of fluid dynamics in embryo transfer. We outline promising computational fluid dynamics frameworks that may be used to investigate these complex, fluid-structure interactions.

  2. Biotechnology in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Illmensee, Karl

    2002-01-01

    In this review I am summarizing the past and current progress in the field of pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and reproductive cloning in mammals. Several human gene products can be pharmaceutically explored in transgenic farm animals and employed for medical applications. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is utilizing modern molecular cloning techniques to detect genetic and chromosomal aberrations in early embryos originating from patients with inborn errors at risk for hereditary diseases or age-related risk for abnormal karyotype. Stem cell engineering from early human embryos is creating new and promising but also controversial applications for therapeutic and regenerative medicine. Potential risk factors for reproductive cloning are presented and discussed in the context of possible developmental malformations, frequently observed after embryo culture and cloning in farm animals. Future extension of biotechnology to human reproductive cloning is currently under worldwide dispute.

  3. Human reproduction: Jewish perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2013-11-01

    Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. This paper presents the attitude of Jewish Law -- Halacha to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning. PMID:24000935

  4. [Reproduction of beef cattle].

    PubMed

    de Kruif, A; Mijten, P; Van den Branden, J; Opsomer, G

    1992-03-01

    The literature on the reproduction of beef cattle is reviewed in the present paper. To begin with the differences between dairy and beef cattle are elucidated. Secondly, the most important reproductive problems of beef cows are discussed. Items discussed include: the arrival of puberty, the interval between parturition and the first service and infertility. In Belgium, where nearly all beef cows belong to the double muscled White and Blue breed and have to be delivered by caesarean sections, many fertility problems are due to adhesions between the uterus and the surrounding tissues. Besides the quality of the semen of many of the bulls used is rather poor. This is probably caused by the extreme selection for beef production. Finally, the criteria which should be used to determine the reproductive efficiency of beef cows are discussed. Such as the percentage of pregnant cows, the proportion of live and weaned calves and the calving interval. PMID:1542865

  5. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  6. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  7. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  8. Tribbles role in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Basatvat, Shaghayegh; Carter, Deborah Angela Louise; Kiss-Toth, Endre; Fazeli, Alireza

    2015-10-01

    Tribbles (TRIB) proteins, a family of evolutionary conserved psuedokinase proteins, modulate various signalling pathways within the cell. The regulatory roles of TRIB make them an important part of a number of biological processes ranging from cell proliferation to metabolism, immunity, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Innate immune system plays a pivotal role during the regulation of reproductive processes that allows successful creation of an offspring. Its involvement initiates from fertilization of the oocyte by spermatozoon and lasts throughout early embryonic development, pregnancy and labour. Therefore, there is a close cooperation between the reproductive system and the innate immune system. Evidence from our lab has demonstrated that improper activation of the innate immune system can reduce embryo implantation, thus leading to infertility. Therefore, control mechanisms regulating the innate immune system function can be critical for successful reproductive events.

  9. A Hybrid Computational Method for the Discovery of Novel Reproduction-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Guohua; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction is of great importance to infertility treatment and to the generation of healthy offspring. In this study, we discovered novel reproduction-related genes with a hybrid computational method, integrating three different types of method, which offered new clues for further reproduction research. This method was first executed on a weighted graph, constructed based on known protein-protein interactions, to search the shortest paths connecting any two known reproduction-related genes. Genes occurring in these paths were deemed to have a special relationship with reproduction. These newly discovered genes were filtered with a randomization test. Then, the remaining genes were further selected according to their associations with known reproduction-related genes measured by protein-protein interaction score and alignment score obtained by BLAST. The in-depth analysis of the high confidence novel reproduction genes revealed hidden mechanisms of reproduction and provided guidelines for further experimental validations. PMID:25768094

  10. A hybrid computational method for the discovery of novel reproduction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Guohua; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction is of great importance to infertility treatment and to the generation of healthy offspring. In this study, we discovered novel reproduction-related genes with a hybrid computational method, integrating three different types of method, which offered new clues for further reproduction research. This method was first executed on a weighted graph, constructed based on known protein-protein interactions, to search the shortest paths connecting any two known reproduction-related genes. Genes occurring in these paths were deemed to have a special relationship with reproduction. These newly discovered genes were filtered with a randomization test. Then, the remaining genes were further selected according to their associations with known reproduction-related genes measured by protein-protein interaction score and alignment score obtained by BLAST. The in-depth analysis of the high confidence novel reproduction genes revealed hidden mechanisms of reproduction and provided guidelines for further experimental validations.

  11. Feminism and reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Joan C

    1994-01-01

    ... Rowland is a social scientist and a radical feminist, and she has undertaken the task of making readers think twice about reproductive technologies. If a reader isn't thinking twice, it will not do to blame it on Rowland and the shortcomings of her book. She has a good deal to say that is extremely important and that needs to be considered by anyone who is interested in the moral issues, in general, and the issues for women and children, in particular, that are raised by the new and emerging reproductive technologies. Her book should be widely read. And it should generate the worries it is written to generate. PMID:11644539

  12. Deciphering the Costs of Reproduction in Mango – Vegetative Growth Matters

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Mathilde; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Irregular fruit production across successive years is a major issue that limits the profitability of most temperate and tropical fruit crops. It is particularly affected by the reciprocal relationships between vegetative and reproductive growth. The concept of the costs of reproduction is defined in terms of losses in the potential future reproductive success caused by current investment in reproduction. This concept, developed in ecology and evolutionary biology, could provide a methodological framework to analyze irregular bearing in fruit crops, especially in relation to the spatial scale at which studies are done. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effects of reproduction during a growing cycle on reproduction during the following growing cycle and the indirect effects through vegetative growth between these two reproductive events, for four mango cultivars and during two growing cycles. Two spatial scales were considered: the growth unit (GU) and the scaffold branch. Costs of reproduction were detected between two successive reproductive events and between reproduction and vegetative growth. These costs were scale-dependent, generally detected at the GU scale and infrequently at the scaffold branch scale, suggesting partial branch autonomy with respect to processes underlying the effects of reproduction on vegetative growth. In contrast, the relationships between vegetative growth and reproduction were positive at the GU scale and at the scaffold branch scale in most cases, suggesting branch autonomy for the processes, mainly local, underlying flowering and fruiting. The negative effect of reproduction on vegetative growth prevailed over the positive effect of vegetative growth on the subsequent reproduction. The costs of reproduction were also cultivar-dependent. Those revealed at the GU scale were related to the bearing behavior of each cultivar. Our results put forward the crucial role of vegetative growth occurring between two

  13. Variation in probability of first reproduction of Weddell seals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadley, G.L.; Rotella, J.J.; Garrott, R.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Summary 1. For many species, when to begin reproduction is an important life-history decision that varies by individual and can have substantial implications for lifetime reproductive success and fitness. 2. We estimated age-specific probabilities of first-time breeding and modelled variation in these rates to determine age at first reproduction and understand why it varies in a population of Weddell seals in Erebus Bay, Antarctica. We used multistate mark?recapture modelling methods and encounter histories of 4965 known-age female seals to test predictions about age-related variation in probability of first reproduction and the effects of annual variation, cohort and population density. 3. Mean age at first reproduction in this southerly located study population (7.62 years of age, SD =1.71) was greater than age at first reproduction for a Weddell seal population at a more northerly and typical latitude for breeding Weddell seals (mean =4?5 years of age). This difference suggests that age at first reproduction may be influenced by whether a population inhabits the core or periphery of its range. 4. Age at first reproduction varied from 4 to 14 years, but there was no age by which all seals recruited to the breeding population, suggesting that individual heterogeneity exists among females in this population. 5. In the best model, the probability of breeding for the first time varied by age and year, and the amount of annual variation varied with age (average variance ratio for age-specific rates =4.3%). 6. Our results affirmed the predictions of life-history theory that age at first reproduction in long-lived mammals will be sensitive to environmental variation. In terms of life history evolution, this variability suggests that Weddell seals display flexibility in age at first reproduction in order to maximize reproductive output under varying environmental conditions. Future analyses will attempt to test predictions regarding relationships between environmental

  14. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  15. Reproduction in domestic buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2008-07-01

    The domestic buffalo is an indispensable livestock resource to millions of smallholder farmers in developing countries, particularly in Asia. Although its reproductive biology is basically similar to that of cattle, there are important differences and unique characteristics that need to be considered in order to apply modern reproductive technologies to improve its productivity. Under most smallholder production systems, the reproductive efficiency of buffalo is compromised by factors related to climate, management, nutrition and diseases. However, when managed and fed properly, buffalo can have good fertility and provide milk, calves and draught power over a long productive life. The basic technical problems associated with artificial insemination in buffalo were largely overcome two decades ago, but the technology has not had the expected impact in some developing countries, because largely of infrastructural and logistic problems. Approaches involving the use of hormones for treating anoestrus and for synchronizing oestrus have had varying rates of success, depending on the protocols used and the incidence of underlying problems that cause infertility. Embryo technologies such as multiple ovulation embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production, cryopreservation and cloning are being intensively studied but have had far lower success rates than in cattle. Improving the productivity of buffalo requires an understanding of their potential and limitations under each farming system, development of simple intervention strategies to ameliorate deficiencies in management, nutrition and healthcare, followed by judicious application of reproductive technologies that are sustainable with the resources available to buffalo farmers.

  16. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  17. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field.

  18. Male Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkington, B. A.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

  19. Drug abuse and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Smith, C G; Asch, R H

    1987-09-01

    It is clear that a number of CNS agents, including drugs of abuse, can inhibit reproductive function. Figure 1 shows the chemical diversity of some of the drug groups that affect reproductive hormones. Their structural dissimilarity to the steroid hormones is also readily apparent in the figure. These chemically diverse drugs share an important pharmacologic property: they are highly potent neuroactive drugs, and they can disrupt hypothalamic-pituitary function. Although it is frequently difficult to distinguish between direct drug actions on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and subsequent effects on gonadal hormones and sex accessory gland function, the distinction is an important one. Most neuroactive drugs produce only transient effects on the central nervous pathways necessary for normal gonadotropin secretion. The disruptive effects of these drugs are likely to be transient and completely reversible, and tolerance to the inhibitory drug effects may occur even with continued drug use. Under these circumstances, normal adults may experience only subtle changes in sexual function. However, individuals with compromised reproductive function may exhibit major problems. It is also likely that adolescents may be at substantial risk for reproductive damage from these neuroactive drugs since the endocrine events associated with puberty are dependent on the normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  20. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  1. Reproduction in domestic buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2008-07-01

    The domestic buffalo is an indispensable livestock resource to millions of smallholder farmers in developing countries, particularly in Asia. Although its reproductive biology is basically similar to that of cattle, there are important differences and unique characteristics that need to be considered in order to apply modern reproductive technologies to improve its productivity. Under most smallholder production systems, the reproductive efficiency of buffalo is compromised by factors related to climate, management, nutrition and diseases. However, when managed and fed properly, buffalo can have good fertility and provide milk, calves and draught power over a long productive life. The basic technical problems associated with artificial insemination in buffalo were largely overcome two decades ago, but the technology has not had the expected impact in some developing countries, because largely of infrastructural and logistic problems. Approaches involving the use of hormones for treating anoestrus and for synchronizing oestrus have had varying rates of success, depending on the protocols used and the incidence of underlying problems that cause infertility. Embryo technologies such as multiple ovulation embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production, cryopreservation and cloning are being intensively studied but have had far lower success rates than in cattle. Improving the productivity of buffalo requires an understanding of their potential and limitations under each farming system, development of simple intervention strategies to ameliorate deficiencies in management, nutrition and healthcare, followed by judicious application of reproductive technologies that are sustainable with the resources available to buffalo farmers. PMID:18638124

  2. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  3. Reproductive decisions after fetal genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Pergament, Eugene; Pergament, Deborah

    2012-10-01

    A broad range of testing modalities for fetal genetic disease has been established. These include carrier screening for single-gene mutations, first-trimester and second-trimester screening for chromosome abnormalities and open neural-tube defects, prenatal diagnosis by means of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Reproductive decisions before and after fetal genetic counselling represent the culmination of a dynamic interaction between prospective parents, obstetrician and genetic counsellor. The decision to undergo genetic testing before and after genetic counselling is influenced by a host of interrelated factors, including patient-partner and family relationships, patient-physician communication, societal mores, religious beliefs, and the media. Because of the complexity of personal and societal factors involved, it is not surprising that genetic counselling concerning reproductive decision-making must be individualised. A limited number of principles, guidelines and standards apply when counselling about testing for fetal genetic disease. These principles are that genetic counselling should be non-directive and unbiased and that parental decisions should be supported regardless of the reproductive choice. A critical responsibility of the obstetrician and genetic counsellor is to provide accurate and objective information about the implications, advantages, disadvantages and consequences of any genetic testing applied to prospective parents and their fetuses. These principles and responsibilities will be tested as newer technologies, such as array comparative genome hybridisation, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and sequencing of the entire genome are introduced into the field of reproductive genetics and become routine practice.

  4. Indonesian survey looks at adolescent reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Achmad, S I; Westley, S B

    1999-10-01

    The Baseline Survey of Young Adult Reproductive Welfare in Indonesia, conducted from September to December 1998, provides information about young Indonesians on topics concerning work, education, marriage, family life, sexuality, fertility, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The survey interviewed 4106 men and 3978 women aged 15-24 years in three provinces of Java. Survey findings showed that 42% of the women and 8% of the men are currently or have been married. There was a strong inverse relationship between marriage and schooling, which suggests that greater educational attainment and a higher average age at marriage are likely to go together. Although most young couples prefer to delay and space births, only half of currently married young women are using any type of contraception. These results indicate that there is a need for better reproductive health care as well as improved reproductive health education. Moreover, the current economic crisis has lead to a decline in the use of the private sector for health care. Instead, young people are using the less-expensive government services, and young women are turning to pharmacies and midwives rather than to private doctors to obtain contraceptives. These findings have several policy implications including the need for reproductive health programs that provide services needed by young people. PMID:12295693

  5. Dynamics of asexual reproduction in flatworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoetz, Eva-Maria; Talbot, Jared; Dunkel, Joern

    2010-03-01

    Planarians (flatworms) are one of the simplest bilaterally symmetric organisms and famous for their extraordinary regenerative capabilities. One can cut a worm in 100 pieces and after a few weeks one obtains 100 new worms that have reconstructed their entire body, including a central nervous system. This amazing regenerative capability is due to a population of stem cells distributed throughout the planarian body. These stem cells do not only allow the worms to heal without scarring after wounding, they also allow for asexual reproduction: Planarians can split themselves in two, and then regenerate the missing body parts within about a week. Naively, one would think that this kind of asexual reproduction could be captured by simple models that describe cell growth in bacteria or other lower organisms. However, we find that there is much more to the story by monitoring >15 generations of many individuals, as well as the long-term behavior (> 9 months) of worm populations under different environmental conditions, such as population density, temperature, and feeding frequency. Surprisingly, we observe that reproduction decreases with increasing food supply, opposite to the relationship between food and reproduction in other asexually reproducing organisms (e.g. bacteria, yeast), and causing obese worms. Finally, our data allows us to address the question of aging in an organism that is thought to be ``forever young''.

  6. Survival costs of reproduction in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus): a role for blood parasites?

    PubMed Central

    Stjernman, Martin; Råberg, Lars; Nilsson, Jan-Ake

    2004-01-01

    One of the central tenets in life-history theory is that there is a trade-off between current and future reproduction (i.e. a cost of reproduction). The mechanism for this cost of reproduction is, however, largely unknown. One hypothesis is that the high workload during reproduction compromises resistance to parasites and that the resulting increase in parasitaemia has negative effects on the prospects of future survival. Although empirical evidence for a negative relationship between reproductive effort and parasite resistance exists, the causal relationships between reproductive effort, parasite resistance and future reproduction are still unclear. We use a path analytical approach to investigate whether a change in parasite resistance (as measured by intensities of infections by the blood parasite Haemoproteus) after manipulation of reproductive effort, translates into altered survival in female blue tits. Our results show a negative relationship between reproductive effort and parasite resistance, although evident only in first-year breeders. Moreover, we found survival costs of reproduction in first-year breeders. These costs were, however, not mediated by the blood parasite studied. PMID:15556892

  7. Reproductive conflict and the separation of reproductive generations in humans

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Michael A.; Johnstone, Rufus A.

    2008-01-01

    An enduring puzzle of human life history is why women cease reproduction midway through life. Selection can favor postreproductive survival because older females can help their offspring to reproduce. But the kin-selected fitness gains of helping appear insufficient to outweigh the potential benefits of continued reproduction. Why then do women cease reproduction in the first place? Here, we suggest that early reproductive cessation in humans is the outcome of reproductive competition between generations, and we present a simple candidate model of how this competition will be resolved. We show that among primates exhibiting a postreproductive life span, humans exhibit an extraordinarily low degree of reproductive overlap between generations. The rapid senescence of the human female reproductive system coincides with the age at which, in natural fertility populations, women are expected to encounter reproductive competition from breeding females of the next generation. Several lines of evidence suggest that in ancestral hominids, this younger generation typically comprised immigrant females. In these circumstances, relatedness asymmetries within families are predicted to give younger females a decisive advantage in reproductive conflict with older females. A model incorporating both the costs of reproductive competition and the benefits of grandmothering can account for the timing of reproductive cessation in humans and so offers an improved understanding of the evolution of menopause. PMID:18378891

  8. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Vijayan K.; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Design Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. Results The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health. PMID:22184501

  9. Evolutionary history of the endangered fish Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Bean, 1898) (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae) using a sequential approach to phylogeography based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Tectonic, volcanic and climatic events that produce changes in hydrographic systems are the main causes of diversification and speciation of freshwater fishes. Elucidate the evolutionary history of freshwater fishes permits to infer theories on the biotic and geological evolution of a region, which can further be applied to understand processes of population divergence, speciation and for conservation purposes. The freshwater ecosystems in Central Mexico are characterized by their genesis dynamism, destruction, and compartmentalization induced by intense geologic activity and climatic changes since the early Miocene. The endangered goodeid Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis is widely distributed across Central México, thus making it a good model for phylogeographic analyses in this area. Results We addressed the phylogeography, evolutionary history and genetic structure of populations of Z. quitzeoensis through a sequential approach, based on both microsatellite and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Most haplotypes were private to particular locations. All the populations analysed showed a remarkable number of haplotypes. The level of gene diversity within populations was H¯d = 0.987 (0.714 – 1.00). However, in general the nucleotide diversity was low, π = 0.0173 (0.0015 – 0.0049). Significant genetic structure was found among populations at the mitochondrial and nuclear level (ΦST = 0.836 and FST = 0.262, respectively). We distinguished two well-defined mitochondrial lineages that were separated ca. 3.3 million years ago (Mya). The time since expansion was ca. 1.5 × 106 years ago for Lineage I and ca. 860,000 years ago for Lineage II. Also, genetic patterns of differentiation, between and within lineages, are described at different historical timescales. Conclusion Our mtDNA data indicates that the evolution of the different genetic groups is more related to ancient geological and climatic events (Middle Pliocene, ca. 3.3 Mya) than to the current

  10. Phylogeography of amphi-boreal fish: tracing the history of the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in North-East European seas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations of C. pallasii are also present in the border waters of the North-East Atlantic in Europe. These populations show considerable regional and life history differentiation and have been recognized in subspecies classification. The chronology of the inter-oceanic invasions and genetic basis of the phenotypic structuring however remain unclear. Results The Atlantic and Pacific herrings both feature high mtDNA diversities (large long-term population sizes) in their native basins, but an ocean-wide homogeneity of C. harengus is contrasted by deep east-west Pacific subdivision within Pacific C. pallasii. The outpost populations of C. pallasii in NE Europe are identified as members of the western Pacific C. pallasii clade, with some retained inter-oceanic haplotype sharing. They have lost diversity in colonization bottlenecks, but have also thereafter accumulated abundant new variation. The data delineate three phylogeographic groups within the European C. pallasii: herring from the inner White Sea; herring from the Mezen and Chesha Bays; and a strongly bottlenecked peripheral population in Balsfjord of the Norwegian Sea. Conclusions The NE European outposts of C. pallasii are judged to be early post-glacial colonists from the NW Pacific. A strong regional substructure has evolved since that time, in contrast to the apparent broad-scale uniformity maintained by herrings in their native basins. The structure only partly matches the

  11. Phylogeography of Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) in South Florida: mtDNA evidence for human-aided dispersal.

    PubMed

    Damal, Kavitha; Murrell, Ebony G; Juliano, Steven A; Conn, Jan E; Loew, Sabine S

    2013-09-01

    The invasive dengue vector Aedes aegypti has persisted for > 200 years in South Florida in the United States. We tested the hypotheses that Florida's landscape creates dispersal barriers and corridors and that long-distance human-aided dispersal structures populations of Ae. aegypti. We evaluated the phylogeography of 362 individuals from Florida's East and West Coasts with a 760-bp (418- and 342-bp fragments of ND5 and ND4, respectively) mitochondrial sequence. Populations from these two coasts were not significantly differentiated, suggesting that limited urbanization in central Florida is not a strong barrier to gene flow. Evidence for long-distance dispersal between Ft. Lauderdale and the West and Ft. Myers and the East indicates the importance of human-aided dispersal. West Coast populations showed no genetic differentiation, indicating that West Coast rivers and bays did not significantly impede gene flow. Phylogeographic analysis of haplotypes showed two distinct matrilines with no geographic patterns, suggesting multiple introductions or balancing selection.

  12. RE-EVALUATION OF THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SIGMODON HISPIDUS COMPLEX BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Henson, Dallas D.; Durish, Nevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Geographic distribution among members of the Sigmodon hispidus complex (Sigmodon hirsutus, S. hispidus, and S. toltecus) were examined using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Geographic distribution of each taxon was defined based on DNA sequences obtained from 69 samples (19 newly obtained and 50 from previous studies) collected from North, Central, and South America. These data indicated that S. hispidus is restricted to the southern one-half of the United States and northeastern Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas), S. toltecus occupies the eastern one-third of Mexico (central Tamaulipas) to northern Honduras, and S. hirsutus is distributed from central Chiapas and southeastern Oaxaca to northern South America (Venezuela). The newly collected data extend distributions of S. hispidus from the southern United States southward into northeastern Mexico and that of S. toltecus from Chiapas, Mexico, southward to Honduras. Genetic divergence and patterns of phylogeography were examined within each taxon. PMID:20613884

  13. Phylogeography of the southern skua complex-rapid colonization of the southern hemisphere during a glacial period and reticulate evolution.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Markus S; Millar, Craig; Miller, Gary D; Phillips, Richard A; Ryan, Peter; Sternkopf, Viviane; Liebers-Helbig, Dorit; Peter, Hans-Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    Whilst we have now a good understanding how past glaciation influenced species at the northern hemisphere, our knowledge of patterns and modes of speciation is far more limited for the southern hemisphere. We provide mtDNA based data on the phylogeography of a circumpolar distributed southern hemisphere seabird group-the southern skua complex (Catharacta spp.). Diversification of southern skuas dates between 210,000 yBP and 150,000 yBP and coincides with a glacial spanning 230,000-140,000 yBP. Skuas most likely first inhabited the Antarctic continent, in the course of global cooling and increasing glaciation spread to the sub-antarctic islands and Tristan da Cunha and finally colonized Patagonia and the Falkland Islands at the glacial maximum. Despite significant differences between taxa most populations still exchange genes with neighboring populations of other taxa and speciation is incomplete.

  14. Limited, episodic diversification and contrasting phylogeography in a New Zealand cicada radiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The New Zealand (NZ) cicada fauna contains two co-distributed lineages that independently colonized the isolated continental fragment in the Miocene. One extensively studied lineage includes 90% of the extant species (Kikihia + Maoricicada + Rhodopsalta; ca 51 spp.), while the other contains just four extant species (Amphipsalta – 3 spp. + Notopsalta – 1 sp.) and has been little studied. We examined mitochondrial and nuclear-gene phylogenies and phylogeography, Bayesian relaxed-clock divergence timing (incorporating literature-based uncertainty of molecular clock estimates) and ecological niche models of the species from the smaller radiation. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear-gene trees supported the monophyly of Amphipsalta. Most interspecific diversification within Amphipsalta-Notopsalta occurred from the mid-Miocene to the Pliocene. However, interspecific divergence time estimates had large confidence intervals and were highly dependent on the assumed tree prior, and comparisons of uncorrected and patristic distances suggested difficulty in estimation of branch lengths. In contrast, intraspecific divergence times varied little across analyses, and all appear to have occurred during the Pleistocene. Two large-bodied forest taxa (A. cingulata, A. zelandica) showed minimal phylogeographic structure, with intraspecific diversification dating to ca. 0.16 and 0.37 Ma, respectively. Mid-Pleistocene-age phylogeographic structure was found within two smaller-bodied species (A. strepitans – 1.16 Ma, N. sericea – 1.36 Ma] inhabiting dry open habitats. Branches separating independently evolving species were long compared to intraspecific branches. Ecological niche models hindcast to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) matched expectations from the genetic datasets for A. zelandica and A. strepitans, suggesting that the range of A. zelandica was greatly reduced while A. strepitans refugia were more extensive. However, no LGM habitat could be

  15. Comparative phylogeography of woodland reptiles in California: repeated patterns of cladogenesis and population expansion.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Chris R; Spicer, Greg S

    2006-07-01

    The ultimate goal of comparative phylogeographical analyses is to infer processes of diversification from contemporary geographical patterns of genetic diversity. When such studies are employed across diverse groups in an array of communities, it may be difficult to discover common evolutionary and ecological processes associated with diversification. In order to identify taxa that have responded in a similar fashion to historical events, we conducted comparative phylogeographical analyses on a phylogenetically and ecologically limited set of taxa. Here, we focus on a group of squamate reptiles (snakes and lizards) that share similar ecological requirements and generally occupy the same communities in the western USA. At a gross level, deep genetic division in Contia tenuis, Diadophis punctatus, Elgaria multicarinata, the Charina bottae complex, and Lampropeltis zonata are often concordant in the Transverse Ranges, the Monterey Bay and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region, and the southern Sierra Nevada in California. Molecular clock estimates suggest that major phyletic breaks within many of these taxa roughly coincide temporally, and may correspond to important geological events. Furthermore, significant congruence between the phylogeographies of E. multicarinata and L. zonata suggests that the succession of vicariance and dispersal events in these species progressed in concert. Such congruence suggests that E. multicarinata and L. zonata have occupied the same communities through time. However, across our entire multi-taxon data set, the sequence of branching events rarely match between sympatric taxa, indicating the importance of subtle differences in life history features as well as random processes in creating unique genetic patterns. Lastly, coalescent and noncoalescent estimates of population expansion suggest that populations in the more southerly distributed clades of C. tenuis, D. punctatus, E. multicarinata, and L. zonata have been stable, while

  16. Stress and the reproductive axis.

    PubMed

    Toufexis, D; Rivarola, M A; Lara, H; Viau, V

    2014-09-01

    There exists a reciprocal relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, wherein the activation of one affects the function of the other and vice versa. For example, both testosterone and oestrogen modulate the response of the HPA axis, whereas activation of the stress axis, especially activation that is repeating or chronic, has an inhibitory effect upon oestrogen and testosterone secretion. Alterations in maternal care can produce significant effects on both HPG and HPA physiology, as well as behaviour in the offspring at adulthood. For example, changes in reproductive behaviour induced by altered maternal care may alter the expression of sex hormone receptors such as oestrogen receptor (ER)α that govern sexual behaviour, and may be particularly important in determining the sexual strategies utilised by females. Stress in adulthood continues to mediate HPG activity in females through activation of a sympathetic neural pathway originating in the hypothalamus and releasing norepinephrine into the ovary, which produces a noncyclic anovulatory ovary that develops cysts. In the opposite direction, sex differences and sex steroid hormones regulate the HPA axis. For example, although serotonin (5-HT) has a stimulatory effect on the HPA axis in humans and rodents that is mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, only male rodents respond to 5-HT1A antagonism to show increased corticosterone responses to stress. Furthermore, oestrogen appears to decrease 5-HT1A receptor function at presynaptic sites, yet increases 5-HT1A receptor expression at postsynaptic sites. These mechanisms could explain the heightened stress HPA axis responses in females compared to males. Studies on female rhesus macaques show that chronic stress in socially subordinate female monkeys produces a distinct behavioural phenotype that is largely unaffected by oestrogen, a hyporesponsive HPA axis that is hypersensitive to the modulating effects

  17. Stress and the Reproductive Axis

    PubMed Central

    Toufexis, Donna; Rivarola, Maria Angelica; Lara, Hernan; Viau, Victor

    2014-01-01

    There exists a reciprocal relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes wherein the activation of one affects the function of the other and vice versa. For instance, both testosterone and oestrogen modulate the response of the HPA axis, while activation of the stress axis, especially activation that is repeating or chronic, has an inhibitory effect upon oestrogen and testosterone secretion. Alterations in maternal care can produce significant effects on both HPG and HPA physiology and behaviour in the offspring at adulthood. For example, changes in reproductive behaviour induced by altered maternal care may alter the expression of sex hormone receptors like ERα that govern sexual behaviour, and may be particularly important in determining the sexual strategies utilized by females. Stress in adulthood continues to mediate HPG activity in females through activation of a sympathetic neural pathway originating in the hypothalamus and releasing norepinephrine (NE) into the ovary, which produces a non-cyclic anovulatory ovary that develops cysts. In the opposite direction, sex differences and sex steroid hormones regulate the HPA axis. For example, although serotonin (5-HT) has a stimulatory effect on the HPA axis in humans and rodents that is mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, only male rodents respond to 5-HT1A antagonism to show increased corticosterone responses to stress. Furthermore, oestrogen appears to decrease 5-HT1A receptor function at presynaptic sites, yet increase 5-HT1A receptor expression at postsynaptic sites. These mechanisms could explain heightened stress HPA axis responses in females compared to males. Studies on female rhesus macaques show that chronic stress in socially subordinate female monkeys produces a distinct behavioral phenotype that is largely unaffected by oestrogen, a hypo-responsive HPA axis that is hypersensitive to the modulating effects of oestrogen, and changes in 5-HT

  18. Does energy availability predict gastropod reproductive strategies?

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Craig R.; Filler, Ryan; Auld, Josh R.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of reproductive strategies in nature is shaped by a plethora of factors including energy availability. For example, both low temperatures and limited food availability could increase larval exposure to predation by slowing development, selecting against pelagic and/or feeding larvae. The frequency of hermaphroditism could increase under low food availability as population density (and hence mate availability) decreases. We examine the relationship between reproductive/life-history traits and energy availability for 189 marine gastropod families. Only larval type was related to energy availability with the odds of having planktotrophic larvae versus direct development decreasing by 1% with every one-unit increase in the square root of carbon flux. Simultaneous hermaphroditism also potentially increases with carbon flux, but this effect disappears when accounting for evolutionary relationships among taxa. Our findings are in contrast to some theory and empirical work demonstrating that hermaphroditism should increase and planktotrophic development should decrease with decreasing productivity. Instead, they suggest that some reproductive strategies are too energetically expensive at low food availabilities, or arise only when energy is available, and others serve to capitalize on opportunities for aggregation or increased energy availability. PMID:25009058

  19. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on islands at its northern range.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Sozos; Cornish, Nina; Griffiths, Richard; Groombridge, Jim; Zajac, Natalia; Walters, Graham J; Aubret, Fabien; While, Geoffrey M; Uller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France) populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR) of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction.

  20. High-resolution phylogenetics and phylogeography of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C epidemic in South America.

    PubMed

    Véras, Nazle Mendonca Collaço; Gray, Rebecca R; Brígido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Rodrigues, Rosângela; Salemi, Marco

    2011-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C (HIV-1C) represents 30-65% of HIV infections in southern Brazil, and isolated cases of HIV-1C infection have also been reported in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Venezuela. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that the Brazilian subtype C epidemic was initiated by the introduction of closely related strains. Nevertheless, because of sampling limitations, the point of entry and the timing of subtype C introduction into Brazil, as well as the origin of the founder lineage, remain controversial. The present study investigated the origin, spread and phylogeography of HIV-1C in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed a well-supported monophyletic clade including all available strains from Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Only one lineage from Venezuela was unrelated to the epidemic involving the other three countries. Molecular clock and likelihood mapping analysis showed that HIV-1C introduction in Brazil dated back to the period 1960-1970, much earlier than previously thought, and was followed by a nearly simultaneous star-like outburst of viral lineages, indicating a subsequent rapid spread. Phylogeographic patterns suggested Paraná or Rio Grande do Sul as the possible entrance points of subtype C and an asymmetrical gene flow from Paraná to Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, as well as from Rio Grande do Sul to Sao Paulo fostered by the strong inter-connectivity between population centres in southern Brazil. The study illustrates how coupling phylogeography inference with geographical information system data is critical to understand the origin and dissemination of viral pathogens and potentially predict their future spread.

  1. Phylogeography of endemic Xantus' hummingbird (Hylocharis xantusii) shows a different history of vicariance in the Baja California Peninsula.

    PubMed

    González-Rubio, Cristina; García-De León, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    Studies of phylogeographic patterns provide insight into the processes driving lineage divergence in a particular region. To identify the processes that caused phylogeographic breaks, it is necessary to use historical information and a set of appropriate molecular data to explain current patterns. To understand the influence of geological or ecological processes on the phylogeography of the only species of hummingbird endemic to the Baja California Peninsula, Hylocharis xantusii, mitochondrial DNA sequences of three concatenated genes (Cyt-b, COI and ND2; 2297bp in total) in 100 individuals were analyzed. The spatial analyses of genetic variation showed phylogeographic structure consisting of a north, central and south regions. According to estimated divergence times, two vicariant events are supported, permanent separation of the peninsula and formation of the Gulf of California at 5mya and temporary isolation of the southern region at the Isthmus of La Paz at 3mya. The temporal frame of genetic differentiation of intraspecific haplotypes indicates that 90% of haplotypes diverged within the last 500,000years, with a population expansion 80,000years ago. Only four haplotypes diverged ∼2.2 my and occurred in the south (Hxan_36, 38 and 45), and north (Hxan_45 and 56) regions; only haplotype 45 is shared between south and north populations. These regions also have the most recent haplotypes from 12,500 to 16,200years ago, and together with high levels of genetic diversity, we suggest two refuge areas, the Northern and Southern regions. Our results indicate that the phylogeographic pattern first results from vicariance processes, then is followed by historical and recent climate fluctuations that influenced conditions on the peninsula, and it is also related to oases distribution. This study presents the first investigation of phylogeography of the peninsular' endemic Xantus' hummingbird. PMID:27261252

  2. Phylogeography and Conservation Genetics of the Common Wall Lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Islands at Its Northern Range

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Sozos; Cornish, Nina; Griffiths, Richard; Groombridge, Jim; Zajac, Natalia; Walters, Graham J.; Aubret, Fabien; While, Geoffrey M.; Uller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France) populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR) of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction. PMID:25659074

  3. Historical and recent processes shaping the geographic range of a rocky intertidal gastropod: phylogeography, ecology, and habitat availability

    PubMed Central

    Fenberg, Phillip B; Posbic, Karine; Hellberg, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Factors shaping the geographic range of a species can be identified when phylogeographic patterns are combined with data on contemporary and historical geographic distribution, range-wide abundance, habitat/food availability, and through comparisons with codistributed taxa. Here, we evaluate range dynamism and phylogeography of the rocky intertidal gastropod Mexacanthina lugubris lugubris across its geographic range – the Pacific coast of the Baja peninsula and southern California. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA (CO1) from ten populations and compliment these data with museum records, habitat availability and range-wide field surveys of the distribution and abundance of M. l. lugubris and its primary prey (the barnacle Chthamalus fissus). The geographic range of M. l. lugubris can be characterized by three different events in its history: an old sundering in the mid-peninsular region of Baja (∼ 417,000 years ago) and more recent northern range expansion and southern range contraction. The mid-peninsular break is shared with many terrestrial and marine species, although M. l. lugubris represents the first mollusc to show it. This common break is often attributed to a hypothesized ancient seaway bisecting the peninsula, but for M. l. lugubris it may result from large habitat gaps in the southern clade. Northern clade populations, particularly near the historical northern limit (prior to the 1970s), have high local abundances and reside in a region with plentiful food and habitat – which makes its northern range conducive to expansion. The observed southern range contraction may result from the opposite scenario, with little food or habitat nearby. Our study highlights the importance of taking an integrative approach to understanding the processes that shape the geographic range of a species via combining range-wide phylogeography data with temporal geographic distributions and spatial patterns of habitat/food availability. PMID:25473477

  4. Reproductive ageing in women.

    PubMed

    Djahanbakhch, O; Ezzati, M; Zosmer, A

    2007-01-01

    The traditional view in respect to female reproduction is that the number of oocytes at birth is fixed and continuously declines towards the point when no more oocytes are available after menopause. In this review we briefly discuss the embryonic development of female germ cells and ovarian follicles. The ontogeny of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is then discussed, with a focus on pubertal transition and normal ovulatory menstrual cycles during female adult life. Biochemical markers of menopausal transition are briefly examined. We also examine the effects of age on female fertility, the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities of the oocyte to the observed decline in female fertility with age and the possible biological basis for the occurrence of such abnormalities. Finally, we consider the effects of maternal age on obstetric complications and perinatal outcome. New data that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of mammalian oogenesis and follicular formation, and of the female reproductive ageing process, are also briefly considered.

  5. Ghrelin and reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Repaci, Andrea; Gambineri, Alessandra; Pagotto, Uberto; Pasquali, Renato

    2011-06-20

    Ghrelin is an important factor involved in most of the metabolic and hormonal signals which adapt the reproductive functions in conditions of altered energy balance. Moreover, the coordinated role of leptin and ghrelin appears in fact to have a specific role in the regulation of puberty. Systemic action of ghrelin on the reproductive axis involves the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gondal axis. In addition, it has been shown that ghrelin may directly act at a gonadal level in both females and males. Available data also demonstrate that sex steroid hormones and gonadotropins may in turn regulate the gonadal effect of ghrelin, as documented by studies performed in females with the polycystic ovary syndrome and in hypogonadal men. Notably, recent studies also confirm a potentially important role for ghrelin in fetal and neonatal energy balance, and specifically in allowing fetal adaptation to an adverse intrauterine environment.

  6. Reproductive capability is associated with lifespan and cause of death in companion dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is a risky affair; a lifespan cost of maintaining reproductive capability, and of reproduction itself, has been demonstrated in a wide range of animal species. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Most cost-of-reproduction studies simply ask how reproduction influences age at death, but are blind to the subjects' actual causes of death. Lifespan is a composite variable of myriad causes of death and it has not been clear whether the consequences of reproduction or of reproductive capability influence all causes of death equally. To address this gap in understanding, we compared causes of death among over 40,000 sterilized and reproductively intact domestic dogs, Canis lupus familiaris. We found that sterilization was strongly associated with an increase in lifespan, and while it decreased risk of death from some causes, such as infectious disease, it actually increased risk of death from others, such as cancer. These findings suggest that to understand how reproduction affects lifespan, a shift in research focus is needed. Beyond the impact of reproduction on when individuals die, we must investigate its impact on why individuals die, and subsequently must identify the mechanisms by which these causes of death are influenced by the physiology associated with reproductive capability. Such an approach may also clarify the effects of reproduction on lifespan in people.

  7. Whither Artificial Reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Percival-Smith, Robin

    1985-01-01

    Artificial reproduction now offers sub fertile couples a number of options which raise scientific and ethical questions. This article discusses the Canadian and British experiences in formulating regulations and legislation in this important field. Current work on mammalian embryo research foretells the direction which human research will take. This article stresses the need for family physicians' participation in the ethical decisions that accompany these new developments. PMID:21274181

  8. Interventions in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D S; Sheriff, S Omer

    2006-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology has helped many childless couples. It has also raised questions about how appropriate the technology might be in different situations. How we understand parenthood is crucial in taking a stand on such scientific intervention. It is suggested that physicians should decide on offering artificial insemination, surrogacy and in-vitro fertilisation only after considering if the child will have good parents and if there will be legal complications from the use of the technology. PMID:17223683

  9. [Sexual and reproductive rights: challenges for health policies].

    PubMed

    Avila, Maria Betânia

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses sexual and reproductive rights in the sense of a stance that assumes a perspective of transformations in social relations, the struggle against prejudices, the guarantee of well-being, and finally the relationship between sexuality, reproduction, and citizenship. The article then proceeds to reflect on health policy challenges in these fields, emphasizing such issues as: guaranteed resources, quality and quantity of health services in response to demands by the population, and cultural changes that produce a new view of the relationship between health professionals and health system clients, based on the principles of citizenship: recognition others as entitled to freedom and equality.

  10. Mitochondria and mammalian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ramalho-Santos, João; Amaral, Sandra

    2013-10-15

    Mitochondria are cellular organelles with crucial roles in ATP synthesis, metabolic integration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and management, the regulation of apoptosis (namely via the intrinsic pathway), among many others. Additionally, mitochondria in different organs or cell types may have distinct properties that can decisively influence functional analysis. In terms of the importance of mitochondria in mammalian reproduction, and although there are species-specific differences, these aspects involve both energetic considerations for gametogenesis and fertilization, control of apoptosis to ensure the proper production of viable gametes, and ROS signaling, as well as other emerging aspects. Crucially, mitochondria are the starting point for steroid hormone biosynthesis, given that the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone (a common precursor for all steroid hormones) takes place via the activity of the cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Furthermore, mitochondrial activity in reproduction has to be considered in accordance with the very distinct strategies for gamete production in the male and female. These include distinct gonad morpho-physiologies, different types of steroids that are more prevalent (testosterone, estrogens, progesterone), and, importantly, the very particular timings of gametogenesis. While spermatogenesis is complete and continuous since puberty, producing a seemingly inexhaustible pool of gametes in a fixed environment; oogenesis involves the episodic production of very few gametes in an environment that changes cyclically. These aspects have always to be taken into account when considering the roles of any common element in mammalian reproduction.

  11. Clonal reproduction in fungi.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John W; Hann-Soden, Christopher; Branco, Sara; Sylvain, Iman; Ellison, Christopher E

    2015-07-21

    Research over the past two decades shows that both recombination and clonality are likely to contribute to the reproduction of all fungi. This view of fungi is different from the historical and still commonly held view that a large fraction of fungi are exclusively clonal and that some fungi have been exclusively clonal for hundreds of millions of years. Here, we first will consider how these two historical views have changed. Then we will examine the impact on fungal research of the concept of restrained recombination [Tibayrenc M, Ayala FJ (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (48):E3305-E3313]. Using animal and human pathogenic fungi, we examine extrinsic restraints on recombination associated with bottlenecks in genetic variation caused by geographic dispersal and extrinsic restraints caused by shifts in reproductive mode associated with either disease transmission or hybridization. Using species of the model yeast Saccharomyces and the model filamentous fungus Neurospora, we examine intrinsic restraints on recombination associated with mating systems that range from strictly clonal at one extreme to fully outbreeding at the other and those that lie between, including selfing and inbreeding. We also consider the effect of nomenclature on perception of reproductive mode and a means of comparing the relative impact of clonality and recombination on fungal populations. Last, we consider a recent hypothesis suggesting that fungi thought to have the most severe intrinsic constraints on recombination actually may have the fewest.

  12. Clonal reproduction in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John W.; Hann-Soden, Christopher; Branco, Sara; Sylvain, Iman; Ellison, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past two decades shows that both recombination and clonality are likely to contribute to the reproduction of all fungi. This view of fungi is different from the historical and still commonly held view that a large fraction of fungi are exclusively clonal and that some fungi have been exclusively clonal for hundreds of millions of years. Here, we first will consider how these two historical views have changed. Then we will examine the impact on fungal research of the concept of restrained recombination [Tibayrenc M, Ayala FJ (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (48):E3305–E3313]. Using animal and human pathogenic fungi, we examine extrinsic restraints on recombination associated with bottlenecks in genetic variation caused by geographic dispersal and extrinsic restraints caused by shifts in reproductive mode associated with either disease transmission or hybridization. Using species of the model yeast Saccharomyces and the model filamentous fungus Neurospora, we examine intrinsic restraints on recombination associated with mating systems that range from strictly clonal at one extreme to fully outbreeding at the other and those that lie between, including selfing and inbreeding. We also consider the effect of nomenclature on perception of reproductive mode and a means of comparing the relative impact of clonality and recombination on fungal populations. Last, we consider a recent hypothesis suggesting that fungi thought to have the most severe intrinsic constraints on recombination actually may have the fewest. PMID:26195774

  13. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Roca, Alfred L; Luo, Shujin; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica). Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road) from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  14. Mitochondrial Phylogeography Illuminates the Origin of the Extinct Caspian Tiger and Its Relationship to the Amur Tiger

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Carlos A.; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Roca, Alfred L.; Luo, Shujin; Macdonald, David W.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica). Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road) from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented. PMID:19142238

  15. The association between religious homogamy and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fieder, Martin; Huber, Susanne

    2016-07-13

    Individuals more strongly affiliated to religion have on average more children than less religious ones. Here, based on census data of 3 658 650 women aged 46-60 years from 32 countries provided by IPUMS International and data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 2400 women, aged 53-57 years), we show that religious homogamy is also associated with higher reproduction in terms of a higher number of children and a lower chance of remaining childless. We argue that, together with the relationship between general religious intensity and number of children, religious homogamy has reproductive consequences. These may impact future demographic developments and could have also played a role in the biological evolution of humans. PMID:27412283

  16. [Toxocariasis: spread and impact on reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Gasanova, T A

    2003-01-01

    To study the prevalence of toxocariasis and its impact on the reproductive health of inhabitants in the Saratov Region, enzyme immunoassay was used to examine 1404 patients, including 210 children, 912 females, and 282 males. Toxocariasis was shown to be a risk factor of male (oligoasthenozoospermia) and female (tuboperitoneal) infertility. The high incidence of toxocariasis in females with reproductive dysfunction (recurrent abortion) and an aggravated obstetric history complicated by chronic renal diseases is indicative of the existence of the urogenital form of toxocariasis. Toxocariasis greatly increases a risk of giving birth to a baby with clinical manifestations of intrauterine infection (IUI), promotes homeostatic disorder and the formation of long-term pathology in babies with IUI. At the same time, there was a significant relationship of abnormal cardiotocograms to toxocariasis and to the presence of Trichomonas, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Cytomegalovirus. PMID:14727482

  17. Occupational mercury exposure and male reproductive health

    SciTech Connect

    Alcser, K.H.; Brix, K.A.; Fine, L.J.; Kallenbach, L.R.; Wolfe, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the relationship of male occupational exposure to elemental mercury and several reproductive outcomes. All subjects worked at least 4 months between 1953 and 1966 at a plant that used elemental mercury; 247 white male employees who had the highest exposures were compared to 255 matched nonexposed employees. Individual exposure to mercury was estimated from urinary mercury measurement records. Information on reproductive history and potential confounding variables was obtained through personal interview with each of the employees and with a subset of their wives. No associations were demonstrated between mercury exposure and decreased fertility or increased rates of major malformations or serious childhood illnesses. After controlling for previous miscarriage history, mercury exposure was not a significant risk factor for miscarriage. Because of this study's potential problems with long-term recall, further studies of the effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome are warranted in other populations.

  18. The evolution of non-reproductive workers in insect colonies with haplodiploid genetics.

    PubMed

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    Eusociality is a distinct form of biological organization. A key characteristic of advanced eusociality is the presence of non-reproductive workers. Why evolution should produce organisms that sacrifice their own reproductive potential in order to aid others is an important question in evolutionary biology. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the selective forces that determine the emergence and stability of non-reproductive workers. We study the effects, in situations where the queen of the colony has mated once or several times, of recessive and dominant sterility alleles acting in her offspring. Contrary to widespread belief based on heuristic arguments of genetic relatedness, non-reproductive workers can easily evolve in polyandrous species. The crucial quantity is the functional relationship between a colony's reproductive rate and the fraction of non-reproductive workers present in that colony. We derive precise conditions for natural selection to favor the evolution of non-reproductive workers.

  19. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Diego P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Materials and Methods: Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site), and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Results: Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Discussion: Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the diversity

  20. Whose baby is it? The impact of reproductive technologies on kinship.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bridget

    2005-09-01

    Birth is not merely a biological event; it is also a social event in that it creates relationships. As a consequence of reproductive technologies, the boundaries between the biological and social basis of kinship have become blurred. Reproductive technologies challenge previously held cultural constructions of kinship and bring about new kinds of social relations in that kinship boundaries are redefined. This paper discusses the societal effects that reproductive technologies have had in challenging previously held notions of parenthood, kinship and relatedness. PMID:16234204

  1. Reproductive biology of freshwater fishes from the Venezuelan floodplains.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, H Y; Cardillo, E; Poleo, G; Marcano, D

    2009-03-01

    This review describes the endocrine changes that occur during the annual reproductive cycle of Pygocentrus cariba, Pimelodus blochii, and Oxydoras sifontesi and their relationships with the environmental characteristics of Venezuelan floodplains. Most reproductive studies of teleosts have focused on changes that occur during annual cycles in temperate species but, in tropical fish, this has been examined less frequently. P. cariba, P. blochii, and O. sifontesi are seasonal breeders widely distributed along the Orinoco River. Under natural conditions they have an annual gonadal cycle closely related to changes in the annual hydrology cycle of the Orinoco River which defines two seasons on the floodplain: inundation and isolation. The reproductive cycle of these species seems to be controlled by cues from the external environment. Relevant data about gonadal maturation, for example gonadosomatic index and sexual hormones secretion, are contrasted. The role of catecholamines in neuroendocrine control of the reproductive axis is also considered in this work.

  2. Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Male Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can interfere with normal hormonal balance and may exert adverse consequences on humans. The male reproductive system may be susceptible to the effects of such environmental toxicants. This review discusses the recent progress in scientific data mainly from epidemiology studies on the associations between EDCs and male reproductive health and our understanding of possible mechanisms associated with the effects of EDCs on male reproductive health. Finally, the review provides recommendations on future research to enhance our understanding of EDCs and male reproductive health. The review highlights the need for (1) well-defined longitudinal epidemiology studies, with appropriately designed exposure assessment to determine potential causal relationships; (2) chemical and biochemical approaches aimed at a better understanding of the mechanism of action of xenoestrogens with regard to low-dose effects, and assessment of identify genetic susceptibility factors associated with the risk of adverse effects following exposure to EDCs. PMID:24926476

  3. Reproductive health professionals' adoption of emerging technologies for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peggy B; Buzi, Ruth S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reproductive health professionals' familiarity with and use of various electronic technologies to support health promotion. The study also examined the relationship between demographic characteristics and attitudes and beliefs of the effectiveness of new technologies and perceived barriers for usage. A total of 165 reproductive health professionals at two conferences related to reproductive health in the United States completed the study survey. Personal and organizational factors affected the adoption of electronic technologies for health promotion. This included lack of knowledge, skills, and confidence as well as privacy concerns. The results of the study also suggested that being from an older generation was associated with having lower levels of knowledge, skills, and confidence in using new media. These findings highlight the importance of creating learning opportunities on the use of new technology for health promotion as well as addressing specific perceived barriers among reproductive health professionals in order to promote the adoption of these technologies. PMID:25411221

  4. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  5. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  6. A perspective on the importance of reproductive mode in astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Van Doninck, Karine; Schön, Isa; Martens, Koen

    2003-01-01

    Reproduction is a vital characteristic of life, and sex is the most common reproductive mode in the eukaryotic world. Sex and reproduction are not necessarily linked mechanisms: Sexuality without reproduction exists, while several forms of asexual reproduction are known. The occurrence of sexuality itself is paradoxical, as it is very costly in evolutionary terms. Most of the hypotheses (more than 20) attempting to explain the prevalence of sex fall into two categories: Sex either creates good gene combinations for adaptation to environments or eliminates bad gene combinations counteracting the accumulation of mutations. In spite of this apparent wealth of beneficial effects of sex, asexuality is not rare. Most eukaryotic, asexual lineages are short-lived and can only persist through the presence of sexual roots, but at least two animal groups, bdelloid rotifers and darwinulid ostracods, seem to claim the status of ancient asexuals. Research on (a)sexuality is relevant to astrobiology in a number of ways. First, strong relationships between the origin and persistence of life in extreme environments and reproductive mode are known. Second, the "habitability" of nonterrestrial environments to life greatly depends on reproductive mode. Whereas asexuals can do equally well or better in harsh environments, they fail to adapt fast enough to changing abiotic and biotic environments. Third, it has been shown that plants reproduce mainly asexually in space, and sperm production and motility in some vertebrates are hampered. Both findings indicate that extraterrestrial life under conditions different from Earth might be dominated by asexual reproduction. Finally, for exchange of biological material between planets, the choice of reproductive mode will be important.

  7. A Perspective on the Importance of Reproductive Mode in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doninck, Karine; Schön, Isa; Martens, Koen

    2003-12-01

    Reproduction is a vital characteristic of life, and sex is the most common reproductive mode in the eukaryotic world. Sex and reproduction are not necessarily linked mechanisms: Sexuality without reproduction exists, while several forms of asexual reproduction are known. The occurrence of sexuality itself is paradoxical, as it is very costly in evolutionary terms. Most of the hypotheses (more than 20) attempting to explain the prevalence of sex fall into two categories: Sex either creates good gene combinations for adaptation to environments or eliminates bad gene combinations counteracting the accumulation of mutations. In spite of this apparent wealth of beneficial effects of sex, asexuality is not rare. Most eukaryotic, asexual lineages are short-lived and can only persist through the presence of sexual roots, but at least two animal groups, bdelloid rotifers and darwinulid ostracods, seem to claim the status of ancient asexuals. Research on (a)sexuality is relevant to astrobiology in a number of ways. First, strong relationships between the origin and persistence of life in extreme environments and reproductive mode are known. Second, the "habitability" of nonterrestrial environments to life greatly depends on reproductive mode. Whereas asexuals can do equally well or better in harsh environments, they fail to adapt fast enough to changing abiotic and biotic environments. Third, it has been shown that plants reproduce mainly asexually in space, and sperm production and motility in some vertebrates are hampered. Both findings indicate that extraterrestrial life under conditions different from Earth might be dominated by asexual reproduction. Finally, for exchange of biological material between planets, the choice of reproductive mode will be important.

  8. Reproductive function in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Cramer, J A; Jones, E E

    1991-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is a complex system within which both positive and negative feedback occur among its elements and higher brain systems. The occurrence of seizures and changes in the secretion of pituitary hormones can affect the feedback loop. Both seizures and antiepileptic drugs can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of males and females and cause changes in hormones and sexuality. Reproductive dysfunction has a social impact because of reduced fertility. Once conception occurs, live birth rates are not diminished. Prospective studies of men and women with epilepsy are needed.

  9. Religious Attendance as Reproductive Support

    PubMed Central

    Weeden, Jason; Cohen, Adam B.; Kenrick, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that a central function of religious attendance in the contemporary U.S. is to support a high-fertility, monogamous mating strategy. Although religious attendance is correlated with many demographic, personality, moral, and behavioral variables, we propose that sexual and family variables are at the core of many of these relationships. Numerous researchers have assumed that religious socialization causes people to feel moral reactions and engage in behaviors promoted by religious groups. On our view, mating preferences are centrally involved in individual differences in attraction to religious groups. In a sample of 21,131 individuals who participated in the U.S. General Social Survey, sexual behaviors were the relatively strongest predictors of religious attendance, even after controlling for age and gender. Effects of age and gender on religious attendance were weaker, and substantially reduced when controlling for sexual and family patterns. A sample of 902 college students provided more detailed information on religious, moral, and sexual variables. Results suggest that 1) moral views about sexual behavior are more strongly linked to religious attendance than other moral issues, and 2) mating strategy is more powerful than standard personality variables in predicting religious attendance. These findings suggest that reproductive strategies are at the heart of variations in religious attendance. PMID:21874105

  10. Human reproductive issues in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  11. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  12. Stem cells and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the latest developments in reproductive tract stem cell biology. Recent findings In 2004, two studies indicated that ovaries contain stem cells which form oocytes in adults and that can be cultured in vitro into mature oocytes. A live birth after orthotopic transplantation of cyropreserved ovarian tissue in a woman whose ovaries were damaged by chemotherapy demonstrates the clinical potential of these cells. In the same year, another study provided novel evidence of endometrial regeneration by stem cells in women who received bone marrow transplants. This finding has potential for the use in treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the cause of endometriosis, which may have its origin in ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and generate microchimerism in the mother. The uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells, capable of transdifferentiation and an end organ in which bone marrow stem cells may differentiate. Finally stem cell transformation can be an underlying cause of ovarian cancer. Summary Whereas we are just beginning to understand stem cells, the potential implications of stem cells to reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:20305558

  13. Inequalities cause reproductive deaths.

    PubMed

    Dillner, L

    1995-07-15

    A US organization, Population Action International, is reported in this article to have released findings on the health risks for women in 118 countries. Countries are ranked on 10 indicators, including such indicators as the number of births to women aged under 19 years, the availability of legal abortion, maternal mortality, and level of prenatal care. Italy, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden are identified as countries with low reproductive risk for women. The worst ranked countries are identified as Zaire, Angola, and Somalia. 21 countries were placed in the high risk group, of which only two, Haiti and Afghanistan, are not located in Africa. Editorial comment in the report is described in this article as reflecting the position that countries fail in investing in women's health, with devastating consequences. Some poor countries, such as Cuba, Tunisia, and Costa Rica, are cited for their investments in health care and family planning. The report is described as asserting that low status also prevents women from maintaining good health. Both access to reproductive health services and changing social norms supporting traditional roles in early and frequent childbearing are important to women's improved health status. It is also important for women to have educational and economic opportunities. Population Action International is seeking greater foreign aid contributions for family planning services in developing countries, emergency care in childbirth, health education, AIDS education, and access to safe abortion services.

  14. Reproduction and advances in reproductive studies in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, Katarina; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse among species, even within the same phylogenetic clade. Due to this, it has been difficult to directly apply reproductive technologies developed in human and livestock to genetically manage ex situ wildlife, including carnivores. To date, more common, closely related species, e.g., domestic cats, dogs and ferrets have served as valuable models for developing reproductive technologies for managing rare, endangered carnivores. Artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation have already been successfully used to manage ex situ populations in some carnivore species, such as the black-footed ferret, cheetah and giant panda. However, technologies aiming at preserving genetics of valuable females have not been fully developed in carnivores, due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about reproductive anatomy and physiology, gamete development, embryogenesis and cryopreservation. The present chapter is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on current knowledge about carnivore reproduction, with emphasis on species diversity in reproductive mechanisms. The second part highlights the progress in reproductive science and related technologies made during the last decade. In addition, we provide examples of how reproductive technologies can contribute to carnivore management and conservation. Although carnivores are comprised of 19 families, we will only focus our attention on four taxonomic groups, including felids, canids, ursids and mustelids. PMID:25091912

  15. Reproduction and advances in reproductive studies in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, Katarina; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse among species, even within the same phylogenetic clade. Due to this, it has been difficult to directly apply reproductive technologies developed in human and livestock to genetically manage ex situ wildlife, including carnivores. To date, more common, closely related species, e.g., domestic cats, dogs and ferrets have served as valuable models for developing reproductive technologies for managing rare, endangered carnivores. Artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation have already been successfully used to manage ex situ populations in some carnivore species, such as the black-footed ferret, cheetah and giant panda. However, technologies aiming at preserving genetics of valuable females have not been fully developed in carnivores, due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about reproductive anatomy and physiology, gamete development, embryogenesis and cryopreservation. The present chapter is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on current knowledge about carnivore reproduction, with emphasis on species diversity in reproductive mechanisms. The second part highlights the progress in reproductive science and related technologies made during the last decade. In addition, we provide examples of how reproductive technologies can contribute to carnivore management and conservation. Although carnivores are comprised of 19 families, we will only focus our attention on four taxonomic groups, including felids, canids, ursids and mustelids.

  16. Female Adolescents' Educational Choices about Reproductive Health Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…

  17. Access and Reproduction Policies of University Digital Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koulouris, Alexandros; Kapidakis, Sarantos

    2005-01-01

    The access and reproduction policies of the digital collections of 10 leading university digital libraries worldwide are classified according to factors such as the creation type of the material, acquisition method, copyright ownership etc. The relationship of these factors is analysed, showing how acquisition methods and copyright ownership…

  18. Knowledge and Perceptions of Reproductive Health among Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Price, Kimberly L. J.; Young, Kathleen; King, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess potential relationships among reproductive health knowledge, preventive health behaviors, perceived severity and risk of breast cancer, cervical cancer, and sexually transmitted infections and selected demographical variables and characteristics related to acculturation among Latina immigrants.…

  19. Assisted reproduction in contemporary Jewish law and ethics.

    PubMed

    Grazi, R V; Wolowelsky, J B; Jewelewicz, R

    1994-01-01

    This article recapitulates and extends a discussion of the position of halakhic Judaism (traditional Jewish law and ethics) on various issues that relate to assisted reproduction, including genetic and legal relationships, disposal of untransplanted embryos, embryo tissue research, multifetal pregnancy reduction, preimplantation genetic screening and sex selection and donor gametes. PMID:8050723

  20. General Dissection of Female Ant Reproductive System and Brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissection of the reproductive system of ant workers and queens can be useful for answering many questions. Observations of ovarian status in both female castes can be used to identify relationships between other factors and the ovaries, determine whether an individual has laid eggs, and, with more ...

  1. The future of mothering: reproductive technology and feminist theory.

    PubMed

    Donchin, A

    1986-01-01

    An exploration of (I) alternative perspectives toward recent innovations in reproductive technology: support for new techniques for the sake of the kind of feminist future they facilitate; unqualified opposition despite therapeutic benefit to individual women; or qualified opposition depending upon specific threats to women's interests and (II) relationships between these positions and values bound up with mothering practices.

  2. Assisted reproductive practice: religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joscph G

    2005-03-01

    It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  3. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    EPA Science Inventory

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  4. Plasticity in reproduction and growth among 52 range-wide populations of a Mediterranean conifer: adaptive responses to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Santos-Del-Blanco, L; Bonser, S P; Valladares, F; Chambel, M R; Climent, J

    2013-09-01

    A plastic response towards enhanced reproduction is expected in stressful environments, but it is assumed to trade off against vegetative growth and efficiency in the use of available resources deployed in reproduction [reproductive efficiency (RE)]. Evidence supporting this expectation is scarce for plants, particularly for long-lived species. Forest trees such as Mediterranean pines provide ideal models to study the adaptive value of allocation to reproduction vs. vegetative growth given their among-population differentiation for adaptive traits and their remarkable capacity to cope with dry and low-fertility environments. We studied 52 range-wide Pinus halepensis populations planted into two environmentally contrasting sites during their initial reproductive stage. We investigated the effect of site, population and their interaction on vegetative growth, threshold size for female reproduction, reproductive-vegetative size relationships and RE. We quantified correlations among traits and environmental variables to identify allocation trade-offs and ecotypic trends. Genetic variation for plasticity was high for vegetative growth, whereas it was nonsignificant for reproduction. Size-corrected reproduction was enhanced in the more stressful site supporting the expectation for adverse conditions to elicit plastic responses in reproductive allometry. However, RE was unrelated with early reproductive investment. Our results followed theoretical predictions and support that phenotypic plasticity for reproduction is adaptive under stressful environments. Considering expectations of increased drought in the Mediterranean, we hypothesize that phenotypic plasticity together with natural selection on reproductive traits will play a relevant role in the future adaptation of forest tree species.

  5. Toward a gender-sensitive assisted reproduction policy.

    PubMed

    Donchin, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The recent case of the UK woman who lost her legal struggle to be impregnated with her own frozen embryos, raises critical issues about the meaning of reproductive autonomy and the scope of regulatory practices. I revisit this case within the context of contemporary debate about the moral and legal dimensions of assisted reproduction. I argue that the gender neutral context that frames discussion of regulatory practices is unjust unless it gives appropriate consideration to the different positions women and men occupy in relation to reproductive processes and their options for autonomous choice. First, I consider relevant legal rulings, media debate, and scholarly commentary. Then I discuss the concept of reproductive autonomy imbedded in this debate. I argue that this concept conflates informed consent and reproductive autonomy, thereby providing an excessively narrow reading of autonomy that fails to give due regard to relations among individuals or the social, political and economic environment that shapes their options. I contrast this notion of autonomy with feminist formulations that seek to preserve respect for the agency of individuals without severing them from the conditions of their embodiment, their surrounding social relationships, or the political contexts that shape their options. Taking these considerations into account I weigh the advantages of regulation over the commercial market arrangement that prevails in some countries and suggest general guidelines for a regulatory policy that would more equitably resolve conflicting claims to reproductive autonomy.

  6. Ficus insipida subsp. insipida (Moraceae) reveals the role of ecology in the phylogeography of widespread Neotropical rain forest tree species

    PubMed Central

    Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N; Dexter, Kyle G; Poelchau, Monica F; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Phillips, Oliver L; Pennington, R Toby; Carine, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Aim To examine the phylogeography of Ficus insipida subsp. insipida in order to investigate patterns of spatial genetic structure across the Neotropics and within Amazonia. Location Neotropics. Methods Plastid DNA (trnH–psbA; 410 individuals from 54 populations) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS; 85 individuals from 27 populations) sequences were sampled from Mexico to Bolivia, representing the full extent of the taxon's distribution. Divergence of plastid lineages was dated using a Bayesian coalescent approach. Genetic diversity was assessed with indices of haplotype and nucleotide diversities, and genetic structure was examined using spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) and haplotype networks. Population expansion within Amazonia was tested using neutrality and mismatch distribution tests. Results trnH–psbA sequences yielded 19 haplotypes restricted to either Mesoamerica or Amazonia; six haplotypes were found among ITS sequences. Diversification of the plastid DNA haplotypes began c. 14.6 Ma. Haplotype diversity for trnH–psbA was higher in Amazonia. Seven genetically differentiated SAMOVA groups were described for trnH–psbA, of which two were also supported by the presence of unique ITS sequences. Population expansion was suggested for both markers for the SAMOVA group that contains most Amazonian populations. Main conclusions Our results show marked population genetic structure in F. insipida between Mesoamerica and Amazonia, implying that the Andes and seasonally dry areas of northern South America are eco-climatic barriers to its migration. This pattern is shared with other widespread pioneer species affiliated to wet habitats, indicating that the ecological characteristics of species may impact upon large-scale phylogeography. Ficus insipida also shows genetic structure in north-western Amazonia potentially related to pre-Pleistocene historical events. In contrast, evident population expansion elsewhere in Amazonia, in

  7. Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Gillespie, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    According to life-history theory, any organism that maximizes fitness will face a trade-off between female fertility and offspring survivorship. This trade-off has been demonstrated in a variety of species, but explicit tests in humans have found a positive linear relationship between fitness and fertility. The failure to demonstrate a maximum beyond which additional births cease to enhance fitness is potentially at odds with the view that human fertility behaviour is currently adaptive. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first clear evidence for the predicted nonlinear relationship between female fertility and reproductive success in a human population, the Dogon of Mali, West Africa. The predicted maximum reproductive success of 4.1+/-0.3 surviving offspring was attained at a fertility of 10.5 births. Eighty-three per cent of the women achieved a lifetime fertility level (7-13 births) for which the predicted mean reproductive success was within the confidence limits (3.4 to 4.8) for reproductive success at the optimal fertility level. Child mortality, rather than fertility, was the primary determinant of fitness. Since the Dogon people are farmers, our results do not support the assumptions that: (i) contemporary foragers behave more adaptively than agriculturalists, and (ii) that adaptive fertility behaviour ceased with the Neolithic revolution some 9000 years ago. We also present a new method that avoids common biases in measures of reproductive success. PMID:11916470

  8. Sex differences in intimate relationships

    PubMed Central

    Palchykov, Vasyl; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, Janos; Barabási, Albert-László; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks based on dyadic relationships are fundamentally important for understanding of human sociality. However, we have little understanding of the dynamics of close relationships and how these change over time. Evolutionary theory suggests that, even in monogamous mating systems, the pattern of investment in close relationships should vary across the lifespan when post-weaning investment plays an important role in maximising fitness. Mobile phone data sets provide a unique window into the structure and dynamics of relationships. We here use data from a large mobile phone dataset to demonstrate striking sex differences in the gender-bias of preferred relationships that reflect the way the reproductive investment strategies of both sexes change across the lifespan, i.e. women's shifting patterns of investment in reproduction and parental care. These results suggest that human social strategies may have more complex dynamics than previously assumed and a life-history perspective is crucial for understanding them. PMID:22518274

  9. Mechanical Signaling in Reproductive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Soledad; Chang, Sydney; Barzilai, Joshua J.; Leppert, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    The organs of the female reproductive system are among the most dynamic tissues in the human body, undergoing repeated cycles of growth and involution from puberty through menopause. To achieve such impressive plasticity, reproductive tissues must respond not only to soluble signals (hormones, growth factors, and cytokines) but also to physical cues (mechanical forces and osmotic stress) as well. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying the process of mechanotransduction—how signals are conveyed from the extracellular matrix that surrounds the cells of reproductive tissues to the downstream molecules and signaling pathways that coordinate the cellular adaptive response to external forces. Our objective was to examine how mechanical forces contribute significantly to physiological functions and pathogenesis in reproductive tissues. We highlight how widespread diseases of the reproductive tract, from preterm labor to tumors of the uterus and breast, result from an impairment in mechanical signaling. PMID:25001021

  10. Monotreme and marsupial reproduction.

    PubMed

    Renfree, M B

    1995-01-01

    Marsupials were regarded as curiosities by their early European discoverers, animals to be wondered at. Monotremes were even more surprising; the platypus was such an amalgam of characters that it was thought to be a hoax. They were recognized very early as mammals that could make a major contribution to our understanding of reproductive processes, and work on marsupials at the turn of the century was much in evidence. It is, however, only in the past two decades, and especially in the past few years that marsupial research has regained this position. There is no doubt that future research will strengthen this contribution, but we are faced with serious conservation questions that must be solved if we are to maintain these wonderful animals as a resource for future generations. PMID:8848565

  11. The Reproductive System.

    PubMed

    Pask, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Correct sexual development is arguably the most important trait in an organism's life history since it is directly related to its genetic fitness. The developing gonad houses the germ cells, the only legacy we pass on to subsequent generations. Given the pivotal importance of correct reproductive function, it is confounding that disorders of sex development (DSDs) are among the most common congenital abnormalities in humans (Lee et al. J Pediatr Urol 8(6):611-615, 2012). Urogenital development is a highly complex process involving coordinated interactions between molecular and hormonal pathways in a tightly regulated order. The controls that regulate some of the key events in this process are beginning to be unraveled. This chapter provides an overview of our understanding of urogenital development from the gonads to the urogenital ducts and external genitalia. PMID:26659484

  12. Reproductive health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-06-11

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights.

  14. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights. PMID:26204578

  15. Genetic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Kourosh; Beigi Nassiri, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmatnejad, Enayat; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, Rostam; Hossaini, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Hagh Nadar, Saman

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, the current study reports the genetic and phenotypic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. The data were comprised of 4,309 records of lamb growth traits from 1,378 dams and 273 sires plus 2,588 records of reproductive traits from 577 ewes. These data were extracted from available performance records at Khojir Breeding Station of Zandi sheep in Tehran, Iran, from 1993 to 2008. Correlations were estimated from two animal models in a bivariate analysis using restricted maximum likelihood procedure between lamb growth traits [birth weight (BW), weaning weight at 3 months of age (WW), as well as six-month weight (6 MW)] and ewe reproductive traits [litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW)]. The genetic correlations between BW and reproductive traits varied from low to high ranges from 0.10 for BW-LSB to 0.86 for BW-TLWB. WW was moderately (0.37) to highly (0.96) correlated with all the reproductive traits. Moreover, the genetic correlations were observed between 6 MW and reproductive traits, varied from 0.19 to 0.95. Relationships between growth and reproductive traits ranged from 0.01 for BW-LSW to 0.28 for BW-TLWB in phenotypic effects. Results indicated that selection to improve WW would have high effect on genetic response in TLWW, and also, these results could be effective for all of the reproductive traits in Zandi sheep.

  16. Telomeres, Age and Reproduction in a Long-Lived Reptile

    PubMed Central

    Plot, Virginie; Criscuolo, François; Zahn, Sandrine; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    A major interest has recently emerged in understanding how telomere shortening, mechanism triggering cell senescence, is linked to organism ageing and life history traits in wild species. However, the links between telomere length and key history traits such as reproductive performances have received little attention and remain unclear to date. The leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea is a long-lived species showing rapid growth at early stages of life, one of the highest reproductive outputs observed in vertebrates and a dichotomised reproductive pattern related to migrations lasting 2 or 3 years, supposedly associated with different environmental conditions. Here we tested the prediction of blood telomere shortening with age in this species and investigated the relationship between blood telomere length and reproductive performances in leatherback turtles nesting in French Guiana. We found that blood telomere length did not differ between hatchlings and adults. The absence of blood telomere shortening with age may be related to an early high telomerase activity. This telomere-restoring enzyme was formerly suggested to be involved in preventing early telomere attrition in early fast-growing and long-lived species, including squamate reptiles. We found that within one nesting cycle, adult females having performed shorter migrations prior to the considered nesting season had shorter blood telomeres and lower reproductive output. We propose that shorter blood telomeres may result from higher oxidative stress in individuals breeding more frequently (i.e., higher costs of reproduction) and/or restoring more quickly their body reserves in cooler feeding areas during preceding migration (i.e., higher foraging costs). This first study on telomeres in the giant leatherback turtle suggests that blood telomere length predicts not only survival chances, but also reproductive performances. Telomeres may therefore be a promising new tool to evaluate individual reproductive

  17. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. PMID:26490188

  18. Telomeres, age and reproduction in a long-lived reptile.

    PubMed

    Plot, Virginie; Criscuolo, François; Zahn, Sandrine; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    A major interest has recently emerged in understanding how telomere shortening, mechanism triggering cell senescence, is linked to organism ageing and life history traits in wild species. However, the links between telomere length and key history traits such as reproductive performances have received little attention and remain unclear to date. The leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea is a long-lived species showing rapid growth at early stages of life, one of the highest reproductive outputs observed in vertebrates and a dichotomised reproductive pattern related to migrations lasting 2 or 3 years, supposedly associated with different environmental conditions. Here we tested the prediction of blood telomere shortening with age in this species and investigated the relationship between blood telomere length and reproductive performances in leatherback turtles nesting in French Guiana. We found that blood telomere length did not differ between hatchlings and adults. The absence of blood telomere shortening with age may be related to an early high telomerase activity. This telomere-restoring enzyme was formerly suggested to be involved in preventing early telomere attrition in early fast-growing and long-lived species, including squamate reptiles. We found that within one nesting cycle, adult females having performed shorter migrations prior to the considered nesting season had shorter blood telomeres and lower reproductive output. We propose that shorter blood telomeres may result from higher oxidative stress in individuals breeding more frequently (i.e., higher costs of reproduction) and/or restoring more quickly their body reserves in cooler feeding areas during preceding migration (i.e., higher foraging costs). This first study on telomeres in the giant leatherback turtle suggests that blood telomere length predicts not only survival chances, but also reproductive performances. Telomeres may therefore be a promising new tool to evaluate individual reproductive

  19. Genetic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Kourosh; Beigi Nassiri, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmatnejad, Enayat; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, Rostam; Hossaini, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Hagh Nadar, Saman

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, the current study reports the genetic and phenotypic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. The data were comprised of 4,309 records of lamb growth traits from 1,378 dams and 273 sires plus 2,588 records of reproductive traits from 577 ewes. These data were extracted from available performance records at Khojir Breeding Station of Zandi sheep in Tehran, Iran, from 1993 to 2008. Correlations were estimated from two animal models in a bivariate analysis using restricted maximum likelihood procedure between lamb growth traits [birth weight (BW), weaning weight at 3 months of age (WW), as well as six-month weight (6 MW)] and ewe reproductive traits [litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW)]. The genetic correlations between BW and reproductive traits varied from low to high ranges from 0.10 for BW-LSB to 0.86 for BW-TLWB. WW was moderately (0.37) to highly (0.96) correlated with all the reproductive traits. Moreover, the genetic correlations were observed between 6 MW and reproductive traits, varied from 0.19 to 0.95. Relationships between growth and reproductive traits ranged from 0.01 for BW-LSW to 0.28 for BW-TLWB in phenotypic effects. Results indicated that selection to improve WW would have high effect on genetic response in TLWW, and also, these results could be effective for all of the reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. PMID:24705699

  20. Food, stress, and reproduction: short-term fasting alters endocrine physiology and reproductive behavior in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Sharon E; Stamplis, Teresa B; Barrington, William T; Weida, Nicholas; Hudak, Casey A

    2010-07-01

    Stress is thought to be a potent suppressor of reproduction. However, the vast majority of studies focus on the relationship between chronic stress and reproductive suppression, despite the fact that chronic stress is rare in the wild. We investigated the role of fasting in altering acute stress physiology, reproductive physiology, and reproductive behavior of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with several goals in mind. First, we wanted to determine if acute fasting could stimulate an increase in plasma corticosterone and a decrease in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and testosterone. We then investigated whether fasting could alter expression of undirected song and courtship behavior. After subjecting males to fasting periods ranging from 1 to 10h, we collected plasma to measure corticosterone, CBG, and testosterone. We found that plasma corticosterone was elevated, and testosterone was decreased after 4, 6, and 10h of fasting periods compared with samples collected from the same males during nonfasted (control) periods. CBG was lower than control levels only after 10h of fasting. We also found that, coincident with these endocrine changes, males sang less and courted females less vigorously following short-term fasting relative to control conditions. Our data demonstrate that acute fasting resulted in rapid changes in endocrine physiology consistent with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activation and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis deactivation. Fasting also inhibited reproductive behavior. We suggest that zebra finches exhibit physiological and behavioral flexibility that makes them an excellent model system for studying interactions of acute stress and reproduction.

  1. The purchase of fruitfulness: assisted conception and reproductive disability in a seventeenth-century comedy.

    PubMed

    Belling, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between socioeconomic and biogenetic reproduction are always socially constructed but not always acknowledged. These relationships are examined as they apply to an instance of infertility and assisted reproduction presented in a seventeenth-century English play, Thomas Middleton's 1613 comedy, A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. Middleton's satirization of the effects of secrecy on the category of reproductive disability is analyzed and its applicability to our own time considered. The discussion is in four parts, focusing on: the attribution of disabled status to one member of the couple, the wife; the use of this attribution to protect the husband's reputation for sexual and reproductive health; the concealment of the nature of assisted reproduction; and the interests of the child conceived with such assistance.

  2. The purchase of fruitfulness: assisted conception and reproductive disability in a seventeenth-century comedy.

    PubMed

    Belling, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between socioeconomic and biogenetic reproduction are always socially constructed but not always acknowledged. These relationships are examined as they apply to an instance of infertility and assisted reproduction presented in a seventeenth-century English play, Thomas Middleton's 1613 comedy, A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. Middleton's satirization of the effects of secrecy on the category of reproductive disability is analyzed and its applicability to our own time considered. The discussion is in four parts, focusing on: the attribution of disabled status to one member of the couple, the wife; the use of this attribution to protect the husband's reputation for sexual and reproductive health; the concealment of the nature of assisted reproduction; and the interests of the child conceived with such assistance. PMID:15877192

  3. Unisexual reproduction reverses Muller's ratchet.

    PubMed

    Roach, Kevin C; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus that engages in outcrossing, inbreeding, and selfing forms of unisexual reproduction as well as canonical sexual reproduction between opposite mating types. Long thought to be clonal, >99% of sampled environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans are MATα, limiting the frequency of opposite mating-type sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction allows eukaryotic organisms to exchange genetic information and shuffle their genomes to avoid the irreversible accumulation of deleterious changes that occur in asexual populations, known as Muller's ratchet. We tested whether unisexual reproduction, which dispenses with the requirement for an opposite mating-type partner, is able to purge the genome of deleterious mutations. We report that the unisexual cycle can restore mutant strains of C. neoformans to wild-type genotype and phenotype, including prototrophy and growth rate. Furthermore, the unisexual cycle allows attenuated strains to purge deleterious mutations and produce progeny that are returned to wild-type virulence. Our results show that unisexual populations of C. neoformans are able to avoid Muller's ratchet and loss of fitness through a unisexual reproduction cycle involving α-α cell fusion, nuclear fusion, and meiosis. Similar types of unisexual reproduction may operate in other pathogenic and saprobic eukaryotic taxa.

  4. Comparative reproductive biology of elephants.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    The ability to serially collect blood samples and conduct ultrasound examinations in Asian and African elephants has provided unique opportunities to study the biology of these endangered species. As a result, many unique aspects of elephant reproduction have been identified. For females, there are interesting differences in luteal steroidogenic activity, follicular maturation, pituitary gonadotropin secretion, fetal development and reproductive tract anatomy, while males exhibit the unique phenomenon of musth and an unusual reproductive anatomy (internal testes, ampullary semen storage). However, problems associated with uterine and ovarian pathologies hamper captive propagation efforts. Older, nulliparous cows are particularly susceptible, leading to speculation that continuous ovarian cyclicity of non-bred females in zoos is having a negative and cumulative effect on reproductive health. There are notable species differences in reproductive mechanisms as well (e.g., ovarian acyclicity, prolactin secretion, sperm cryosensitivity), implying that species-specific approaches to management and application of assisted reproductive techniques are needed for maximal reproductive efficiency and enhancement of genetic management.

  5. Effect of Pleistocene climatic oscillations on the phylogeography and demography of red knobby newt (Tylototriton shanjing) from southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Mingwang; Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

    2013-01-01

    Factors that determine the genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, phylogeography and demography of Tylototriton shanjing was investigated from a mitochondrial perspective to address the role of the Quaternary ice ages in shaping phylogeographic history and genetic diversity of Yunnan. A total of 146 individuals from 19 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. We detected four maternal phylogenetic lineages corresponding to four population groups, and found that major glaciation events during the Pleistocene have triggered the intra-specific divergence. Coalescent simulations indicated that the populations retreated to different refugia located in southern Yunnan, northwestern Yunnan, the border region of western Yunnan with Myanmar, and middle-western Yunnan, respectively, during previous glacial periods in the Pleistocene, and these four refugia were not retained during the Last Glacial Maximum. Population expansions occurred during the last inter-glaciation, during which ice core and pollen data indicated that the temperature and precipitation gradually increased, and declines of population sizes started after the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum when the climate became cooler and dryer. The paleo-drainage system had no contribution to the current genetic structure and the rivers were not dispersal barriers for this salamander.

  6. Tracing the radiation of Maniola (Nymphalidae) butterflies: new insights from phylogeography hint at one single incompletely differentiated species complex

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzinger, Angelina J; Fiedler, Konrad; Letsch, Harald; Grill, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of DNA sequence data often leads to the recognition of cryptic species within putatively well-known taxa. The opposite case, detecting less diversity than originally described, has, however, far more rarely been documented. Maniola jurtina, the Meadow Brown butterfly, occurs all over Europe, whereas all other six species in the genus Maniola are restricted to the Mediterranean area. Among them, three are island endemics on Sardinia, Cyprus, and Chios, respectively. Maniola species are almost indistinguishable morphologically, and hybridization seems to occur occasionally. To clarify species boundaries and diversification history of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeography and phylogeny of all seven species within Maniola analyzing 138 individuals from across its range using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers. Examination of variation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA surprisingly revealed a case of taxonomic “oversplitting”. The topology of the recovered phylogenetic tree is not consistent with accepted taxonomy, but rather reveals haplotype clades that are incongruent with nominal species boundaries: instead of seven species, we recognized only two major, yet incompletely segregated, lineages. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Maniola originated in Africa. We suggest that one lineage dispersed over the Strait of Gibraltar and the Iberian Peninsula to the west of Europe, while the other lineage spreads eastward through Asia Minor and over the Bosporus to Eastern Europe. PMID:25628863

  7. Revisiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations.

    PubMed

    Frantz, A C; McDevitt, A D; Pope, L C; Kochan, J; Davison, J; Clements, C F; Elmeros, M; Molina-Vacas, G; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Balestrieri, A; Van Den Berge, K; Breyne, P; Do Linh San, E; Agren, E O; Suchentrunk, F; Schley, L; Kowalczyk, R; Kostka, B I; Cirović, D; Sprem, N; Colyn, M; Ghirardi, M; Racheva, V; Braun, C; Oliveira, R; Lanszki, J; Stubbe, A; Stubbe, M; Stier, N; Burke, T

    2014-11-01

    Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples from western Europe, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions about the location of refugia, patterns of postglacial expansion and recent demography. In the present study, continent-wide sampling and analyses with multiple markers provided evidence for two glacial refugia (Iberia and southeast Europe) that contributed to the genetic variation observed in badgers in Europe today. Approximate Bayesian computation provided support for a colonisation of Scandinavia from both Iberian and southeastern refugia. In the whole of Europe, we observed a decline in genetic diversity with increasing latitude, suggesting that the reduced diversity in the peripheral populations resulted from a postglacial expansion processes. Although MSVAR v.1.3 also provided evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks in some of these peripheral populations, the simulations performed to estimate the method's power to correctly infer the past demography of our empirical populations suggested that the timing and severity of bottlenecks could not be established with certainty. We urge caution against trying to relate demographic declines inferred using MSVAR with particular historic or climatological events. PMID:24781805

  8. The molecular phylogenetics of endangerment: cryptic variation and historical phylogeography of the California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, H Bradley; Pauly, Gregory B; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Trenham, Peter C

    2004-10-01

    A primary goal of conservation genetics is the discovery, delimitation and protection of phylogenetic lineages within sensitive or endangered taxa. Given the importance of lineage protection, a combination of phylogeography, historical geology and molecular clock analyses can provide an important historical context for overall species conservation. We present the results of a range-wide survey of genetic variation in the California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense, as well as a summary of the past several million years of inundation and isolation of the Great Central Valley and surrounding uplands that constitute its limited range. A combination of population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA variation among 696 samples from 84 populations revealed six well-supported genetic units that are geographically discrete and characterized by nonoverlapping haplotype distributions. Populations from Santa Barbara and Sonoma Counties are particularly well differentiated and geographically isolated from all others. The remaining units in the Southern San Joaquin Valley, Central Coast Range, Central Valley and Bay Area are separated by geological features, ecological zone boundaries, or both. The geological history of the California landscape is consistent with molecular clock evidence suggesting that the Santa Barbara unit has been isolated for at least 0.74-0.92 Myr, and the Sonoma clade is equally ancient. Our work places patterns of genetic differentiation into both temporal- and landscape-level contexts, providing important insights into the conservation genetics of the California tiger salamander.

  9. Phylogeography of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae): an evaluation of historical, geographical and ecological factors

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhen; Zhu, Gengping; Damgaard, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Chen, Pingping; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical China is a centre of speciation and well known for its high biological diversity and endemism. To understand the impact of historical, geographical and ecological factors on the intraspecific lineage divergence of invertebrates, we examined these processes in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Three hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENM). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial (COI + COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2). The phylogenic analysis revealed a shallow divergence in mitochondrial data. Clade I was mostly confined to the northern region and clade II was nearly restricted to the southern region. The historical process of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations during the LGM promoted divergence, along with such geographical barriers as the Wuyi, Nanling and Xuefeng mountains and ecological factors of temperature and vegetation type, contributed to these shallow genetic divergences and helped maintain them. The north-south population differentiation probably occurred during the transition from LIG to LGM, with post-LGM population expansion. The results of genetic data were mostly consistent with the spatial predictions from ENM. Our study emphasizes the multiple effects influencing genetic population differentiation, and also contributes to our knowledge of the phylogeography of other aquatic organisms in subtropical China. PMID:26923804

  10. Phylogeography of Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera L.) across China: aggregate effects of refugia, introgression and riverine barriers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lu; Heckel, Gerald; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Yanyun

    2013-06-01

    The role of Pleistocene glacial cycles in forming the contemporary genetic structure of organisms has been well studied in China with a particular focus on the Tibetan Plateau. However, China has a complex topography and diversity of local climates, and how glacial cycles may have shaped the subtropical and tropical biota of the region remains mostly unaddressed. To investigate the factors that affected the phylogeography and population history of a widely distributed and nondeciduous forest species, we analysed morphological characters, mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci in the Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). In a pattern generally consistent with phenotypic clusters, but not nominal subspecies, deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions were detected. Coalescent simulations indicated that the time of main divergence events corresponded to major glacial periods in the Pleistocene and gene flow was only partially lowered by drainage barriers between some populations. Intraspecific cytonuclear discordance was revealed in mitochondrial lineages from Hainan Island and the Sichuan Basin with evidence of nuclear gene flow from neighbouring populations into the latter. Unexpectedly, hybridization was revealed in Yingjiang between the Silver Pheasant and Kalij Pheasant (Lophura leucomelanos) with wide genetic introgression at both the mtDNA and nuclear levels. Our results highlight a novel phylogeographic pattern in a subtropical area generated from the combined effects of climate oscillation, partial drainage barriers and interspecific hybridization. Cytonuclear discordance combined with morphological differentiation implies that complex historical factors shaped the divergence process in this biodiversity hot spot area of southern China.

  11. Paleodistributions and Comparative Molecular Phylogeography of Leafcutter Ants (Atta spp.) Provide New Insight into the Origins of Amazonian Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Scott E.; Bacci, Mauricio; Martins, Joaquim; Vinha, Giovanna Gonçalves; Mueller, Ulrich G.

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary basis for high species diversity in tropical regions of the world remains unresolved. Much research has focused on the biogeography of speciation in the Amazon Basin, which harbors the greatest diversity of terrestrial life. The leading hypotheses on allopatric diversification of Amazonian taxa are the Pleistocene refugia, marine incursion, and riverine barrier hypotheses. Recent advances in the fields of phylogeography and species-distribution modeling permit a modern re-evaluation of these hypotheses. Our approach combines comparative, molecular phylogeographic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequence data with paleodistribution modeling of species ranges at the last glacial maximum (LGM) to test these hypotheses for three co-distributed species of leafcutter ants (Atta spp.). The cumulative results of all tests reject every prediction of the riverine barrier hypothesis, but are unable to reject several predictions of the Pleistocene refugia and marine incursion hypotheses. Coalescent dating analyses suggest that population structure formed recently (Pleistocene-Pliocene), but are unable to reject the possibility that Miocene events may be responsible for structuring populations in two of the three species examined. The available data therefore suggest that either marine incursions in the Miocene or climate changes during the Pleistocene—or both—have shaped the population structure of the three species examined. Our results also reconceptualize the traditional Pleistocene refugia hypothesis, and offer a novel framework for future research into the area. PMID:18648512

  12. The Phylogeography and Population Demography of the Yunnan Caecilian (Ichthyophis bannanicus): Massive Rivers as Barriers to Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Shaoquan; Bei, Yongjian; Song, Tao; Meng, Tao; Li, Guifen; Zhang, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyophis bannanicus is the only caecilian species in China. In this study, the phylogeography and population demography of I. bannanicus were explored, based on the mitochondrial DNA genes (cyt b and ND2) and 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Altogether 158 individuals were collected from five populations in Yunnan province, Guangxi province, Guangdong province, and Northern Vietnam. Phylogeographical and population structure analysis identified either two groups (Xishuangbanna, Northern Vietnam-Yulin-Yangchun-Deqing) or three groups (Xishuangbanna, Northern Vietnam-Yulin-Yangchun, and Deqing), indicating that the Red River and Pearl River systems may have acted as gene-flow barriers for I. bannanicus. Historical population expansion that happened 15–17 Ka ago was detected for mtDNA data and was possibly triggered by warmer weather after the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the Bayesian simulations of population history based on microsatellite data pinpointed population decline in all populations since 19,123 to 1,029 years ago, demonstrating a significant influence of anthropogenic habitat alteration on I. bannanicus. PMID:25915933

  13. Comparative Phylogeography Reveals Cryptic Diversity and Repeated Patterns of Cladogenesis for Amphibians and Reptiles in Northwestern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Pyron, R. Alexander; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Romero-Barreto, Paulina; Culebras, Jaime; Bustamante, Lucas; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H.; Guayasamin, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography allow us to understand how shared historical circumstances have shaped the formation of lineages, by examining a broad spectrum of co-distributed populations of different taxa. However, these types of studies are scarce in the Neotropics, a region that is characterized by high diversity, complex geology, and poorly understood biogeography. Here, we investigate the diversification patterns of five lineages of amphibians and reptiles, co-distributed across the Choco and Andes ecoregions in northwestern Ecuador. Mitochondrial DNA and occurrence records were used to determine the degree of geographic genetic divergence within species. Our results highlight congruent patterns of parapatric speciation and common geographical barriers for distantly related taxa. These comparisons indicate similar biological and demographic characteristics for the included clades, and reveal the existence of two new species of Pristimantis previously subsumed under P. walkeri, which we describe herein. Our data supports the hypothesis that widely distributed Chocoan taxa may generally experience their greatest opportunities for isolation and parapatric speciation across thermal elevational gradients. Finally, our study provides critical information to predict which unstudied lineages may harbor cryptic diversity, and how geology and climate are likely to have shaped their evolutionary history. PMID:27120100

  14. A comprehensive phylogeography of the Hyles euphorbiae complex (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) indicates a ‘glacial refuge belt’

    PubMed Central

    Mende, Michael B.; Bartel, Manuela; Hundsdoerfer, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    We test the morphology based hypothesis that the Western Palaearctic spurge hawkmoths represent two species, the Eurasian H. euphorbiae and Afro-Macaronesian H. tithymali. It has been suggested that these species merged into several hybrid swarm populations, although a mitochondrial phylogeography revealed substructure with local differentiation. We analysed a three-gene mt-dataset (889 individuals) and 12 microsatellite loci (892 individuals). Microsatellite analyses revealed an overall weak differentiation and corroborated the superordinate division into two clusters. The data indicate that the populations studied belong to only one species according to the biological species concept, refuting the opening hypothesis. A future taxonomic revision appears necessary to reflect the division into two subgroups. Ancestral mitochondrial polymorphisms are retained in H. euphorbiae, indicating gene flow within a broad ‘glacial refuge belt’ and ongoing postglacial gene flow. Diverse patterns of extensive mito-nuclear discordance in the Mediterranean and the Middle East presumably evolved by more recent processes. This discordance indicates introgression of H. tithymali-related mitochondrial haplogroups, accompanied (to a lesser degree) by nuclear alleles, into Italian and Aegean H. euphorbiae populations as recently as the late Holocene. The complex mosaic of divergence and reintegration is assumed to have been influenced by locally differing environmental barriers to gene flow. PMID:27439775

  15. Tectonic and climatic impacts on the biota within the Red River Fault, evidence from phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla (Cycadaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ying; Liu, Jian; Gong, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic crustal deformation and river incision in Southwest China induced by the Indo-Asian collision have long been argued to contribute to the complicated landscapes, heterogeneous environment and abundant biodiversity in this region. However, biological impacts in promoting intraspecific phylogeographical subdivision and divergence along the Red River Fault zone (RRF) remain poorly understood. To investigate the possible biological effects of tectonic movements and environment variations within the RRF, the phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla-an endemic but widely distributed Cycas in Southwest China and North Vietnam along the RRF were carried out based on four chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers (cpDNA), three nuclear DNA sequences (nDNA) and 16 simple sequence repeat variations (SSR). Two different phylogeographical patterns were detected: a Southwest-Northeast break across the RRF disclosed by chlorotypes and a China-Vietnam separation revealed by SSR. A Bayesian skyline plot from cpDNA data demonstrated a historical increasing, but a recent declining, dynamic in population size during the Pleistocene. Consequently, we infer it is the local environmental variation during Cenozoic that contributed to the complex landscape and microclimate mosaics, facilitating speciation and divergence of C. dolichophylla. Subsequently, the Quaternary climatic fluctuations coupled with human activities profoundly influenced the genetic structure and demographic history of this species. PMID:27629063

  16. Comparative phylogeography of two monogenean species (Mazocraeidae) on the host of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, along the coast of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chao-Pin; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, the phylogeographies of two monogenean species, Pseudokuhnia minor and Kuhnia scombri, on the same species of host, Scomber japonicus, were studied. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were sequenced for 264 individuals of P. minor and 224 individuals of K. scombri collected from 10 localities along the coast of China. Genetic diversity of K. scombri was higher than that of P. minor, which may imply that P. minor has a lower evolution rate and/or is a younger species. The neighbour-joining (NJ) trees of both parasites were comprised of two clades without association to sample sites, which is the signature of remixing populations following past division. Analyses of molecular variance and pairwise fixation index revealed different genetic structures for the populations of these two closely related species along the coast of China: P. minor without significant genetic structure, while K. scombri has some genetic differentiation. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution suggested that the populations of these two species of parasites experienced population expansion in the late Pleistocene era due to the glacial-interglacial cycles induced by climatic oscillations.

  17. Tectonic and climatic impacts on the biota within the Red River Fault, evidence from phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying; Liu, Jian; Gong, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic crustal deformation and river incision in Southwest China induced by the Indo-Asian collision have long been argued to contribute to the complicated landscapes, heterogeneous environment and abundant biodiversity in this region. However, biological impacts in promoting intraspecific phylogeographical subdivision and divergence along the Red River Fault zone (RRF) remain poorly understood. To investigate the possible biological effects of tectonic movements and environment variations within the RRF, the phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla-an endemic but widely distributed Cycas in Southwest China and North Vietnam along the RRF were carried out based on four chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers (cpDNA), three nuclear DNA sequences (nDNA) and 16 simple sequence repeat variations (SSR). Two different phylogeographical patterns were detected: a Southwest-Northeast break across the RRF disclosed by chlorotypes and a China-Vietnam separation revealed by SSR. A Bayesian skyline plot from cpDNA data demonstrated a historical increasing, but a recent declining, dynamic in population size during the Pleistocene. Consequently, we infer it is the local environmental variation during Cenozoic that contributed to the complex landscape and microclimate mosaics, facilitating speciation and divergence of C. dolichophylla. Subsequently, the Quaternary climatic fluctuations coupled with human activities profoundly influenced the genetic structure and demographic history of this species. PMID:27629063

  18. Revisiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, A C; McDevitt, A D; Pope, L C; Kochan, J; Davison, J; Clements, C F; Elmeros, M; Molina-Vacas, G; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Balestrieri, A; Van Den Berge, K; Breyne, P; Do Linh San, E; Ågren, E O; Suchentrunk, F; Schley, L; Kowalczyk, R; Kostka, B I; Ćirović, D; Šprem, N; Colyn, M; Ghirardi, M; Racheva, V; Braun, C; Oliveira, R; Lanszki, J; Stubbe, A; Stubbe, M; Stier, N; Burke, T

    2014-01-01

    Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples from western Europe, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions about the location of refugia, patterns of postglacial expansion and recent demography. In the present study, continent-wide sampling and analyses with multiple markers provided evidence for two glacial refugia (Iberia and southeast Europe) that contributed to the genetic variation observed in badgers in Europe today. Approximate Bayesian computation provided support for a colonisation of Scandinavia from both Iberian and southeastern refugia. In the whole of Europe, we observed a decline in genetic diversity with increasing latitude, suggesting that the reduced diversity in the peripheral populations resulted from a postglacial expansion processes. Although MSVAR v.1.3 also provided evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks in some of these peripheral populations, the simulations performed to estimate the method's power to correctly infer the past demography of our empirical populations suggested that the timing and severity of bottlenecks could not be established with certainty. We urge caution against trying to relate demographic declines inferred using MSVAR with particular historic or climatological events. PMID:24781805

  19. Phylogeography of the freshwater raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen confirms a recent expansion in northern Europe by a single haplotype.

    PubMed

    Lebret, Karen; Tesson, Sylvie V M; Kritzberg, Emma S; Tomas, Carmelo; Rengefors, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Gonyostmum semen is a freshwater raphidophyte that has increased in occurrence and abundance in several countries in northern Europe since the 1980s. More recently, the species has expanded rapidly also in north-eastern Europe, and it is frequently referred to as invasive. To better understand the species history, we have explored the phylogeography of G. semen using strains from northern Europe, United States, and Japan. Three regions of the ribosomal RNA gene (small subunit [SSU], internal transcribed spacer [ITS] and large subunit [LSU]) and one mitochondrial DNA marker (cox1) were analyzed. The SSU and partial LSU sequences were identical in all strains, confirming that they belong to the same species. The ITS region differentiated the American from the other strains, but showed high intra-strain variability. In contrast, the mitochondrial marker cox1 showed distinct differences between the European, American, and Japanese strains. Interestingly, only one cox1 haplotype was detected in European strains. The overall low diversity and weak geographic structure within northern European strains supported the hypothesis of a recent invasion of new lakes by G. semen. Our data also show that the invasive northern European lineage is genetically distinct from the lineages from the other continents. Finally, we concluded that the mitochondrial cox1 was the most useful marker in determining large-scale biogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:26986795

  20. Comparative Phylogeography Reveals Cryptic Diversity and Repeated Patterns of Cladogenesis for Amphibians and Reptiles in Northwestern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Alejandro; Pyron, R Alexander; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Romero-Barreto, Paulina; Culebras, Jaime; Bustamante, Lucas; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H; Guayasamin, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography allow us to understand how shared historical circumstances have shaped the formation of lineages, by examining a broad spectrum of co-distributed populations of different taxa. However, these types of studies are scarce in the Neotropics, a region that is characterized by high diversity, complex geology, and poorly understood biogeography. Here, we investigate the diversification patterns of five lineages of amphibians and reptiles, co-distributed across the Choco and Andes ecoregions in northwestern Ecuador. Mitochondrial DNA and occurrence records were used to determine the degree of geographic genetic divergence within species. Our results highlight congruent patterns of parapatric speciation and common geographical barriers for distantly related taxa. These comparisons indicate similar biological and demographic characteristics for the included clades, and reveal the existence of two new species of Pristimantis previously subsumed under P. walkeri, which we describe herein. Our data supports the hypothesis that widely distributed Chocoan taxa may generally experience their greatest opportunities for isolation and parapatric speciation across thermal elevational gradients. Finally, our study provides critical information to predict which unstudied lineages may harbor cryptic diversity, and how geology and climate are likely to have shaped their evolutionary history. PMID:27120100

  1. Evidence for multiple refugia at different time scales during Pleistocene climatic oscillations in southern Australia inferred from phylogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, M.

    2008-12-01

    Phylogeography uses the spatial distribution of genealogical lineages to deduce the influence of historical processes on the evolution of species, and can be informative in regard to location of refugia during extreme climatic conditions. Southern Australia is an ancient landscape with generally low geological relief that was not glaciated but did experience significant climatic oscillations from warm wet conditions in interglacials to cool dry environments during glacial maxima. Phylogeographic patterns in many of the biota of southern Australia reveal evidence of geographically structured divergent lineages indicative of contraction to, and expansion from, major refugia. The time frame for this divergence corresponds with mid Pleistocene climatic oscillations that became more extreme with greater amplitude, and with increased aridity and the formation of sandy deserts. Within lineages there is high haplotype diversity that is generally locally distributed, often specific to populations. These patterns do not reveal specific locations of major refugia that have high diversity and acted as an origin for recent range expansion, as has been observed in Northern Hemisphere glaciated regions. Rather it appears there have been multiple localised refugia throughout the distributions of the species, allowing them to persist through multiple climatic cycles in heterogeneous environments. Phylogeographic patterns in southern Australia indicate that major biotic responses to climatic change involve persistence and resilience rather than large-scale migration, indicating the importance of dynamic evolutionary processes and a mosaic of habitats in heterogeneous landscapes for species to persist though changing environmental conditions.

  2. Comparative Phylogeography Reveals Cryptic Diversity and Repeated Patterns of Cladogenesis for Amphibians and Reptiles in Northwestern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Alejandro; Pyron, R Alexander; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Romero-Barreto, Paulina; Culebras, Jaime; Bustamante, Lucas; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H; Guayasamin, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography allow us to understand how shared historical circumstances have shaped the formation of lineages, by examining a broad spectrum of co-distributed populations of different taxa. However, these types of studies are scarce in the Neotropics, a region that is characterized by high diversity, complex geology, and poorly understood biogeography. Here, we investigate the diversification patterns of five lineages of amphibians and reptiles, co-distributed across the Choco and Andes ecoregions in northwestern Ecuador. Mitochondrial DNA and occurrence records were used to determine the degree of geographic genetic divergence within species. Our results highlight congruent patterns of parapatric speciation and common geographical barriers for distantly related taxa. These comparisons indicate similar biological and demographic characteristics for the included clades, and reveal the existence of two new species of Pristimantis previously subsumed under P. walkeri, which we describe herein. Our data supports the hypothesis that widely distributed Chocoan taxa may generally experience their greatest opportunities for isolation and parapatric speciation across thermal elevational gradients. Finally, our study provides critical information to predict which unstudied lineages may harbor cryptic diversity, and how geology and climate are likely to have shaped their evolutionary history.

  3. Phylogeography of the Western Lyresnake (Trimorphodon biscutatus): testing aridland biogeographical hypotheses across the Nearctic-Neotropical transition.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Thomas J

    2006-12-01

    The Western Lyresnake (Trimorphodon biscutatus) is a widespread, polytypic taxon inhabiting arid regions from the warm deserts of the southwestern United States southward along the Pacific versant of Mexico to the tropical deciduous forests of Mesoamerica. This broadly distributed species provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a priori biogeographical hypotheses spanning two major distinct biogeographical realms (the Nearctic and Neotropical) that are usually treated separately in phylogeographical analyses. I investigated the phylogeography of T. biscutatus using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from across this species' range. Phylogenetic analyses recovered five well-supported clades whose boundaries are concordant with existing geographical barriers, a pattern consistent with a model of vicariant allopatric divergence. Assuming a vicariance model, divergence times between mitochondrial lineages were estimated using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock methods calibrated using geological information from putative vicariant events. Divergence time point estimates were bounded by broad confidence intervals, and thus these highly conservative estimates should be considered tentative hypotheses at best. Comparison of mtDNA lineages and taxa traditionally recognized as subspecies based on morphology suggest this taxon is comprised of multiple independent lineages at various stages of divergence, ranging from putative secondary contact and hybridization to sympatry of 'subspecies'.

  4. Tracing the radiation of Maniola (Nymphalidae) butterflies: new insights from phylogeography hint at one single incompletely differentiated species complex.

    PubMed

    Kreuzinger, Angelina J; Fiedler, Konrad; Letsch, Harald; Grill, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of DNA sequence data often leads to the recognition of cryptic species within putatively well-known taxa. The opposite case, detecting less diversity than originally described, has, however, far more rarely been documented. Maniola jurtina, the Meadow Brown butterfly, occurs all over Europe, whereas all other six species in the genus Maniola are restricted to the Mediterranean area. Among them, three are island endemics on Sardinia, Cyprus, and Chios, respectively. Maniola species are almost indistinguishable morphologically, and hybridization seems to occur occasionally. To clarify species boundaries and diversification history of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeography and phylogeny of all seven species within Maniola analyzing 138 individuals from across its range using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers. Examination of variation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA surprisingly revealed a case of taxonomic "oversplitting". The topology of the recovered phylogenetic tree is not consistent with accepted taxonomy, but rather reveals haplotype clades that are incongruent with nominal species boundaries: instead of seven species, we recognized only two major, yet incompletely segregated, lineages. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Maniola originated in Africa. We suggest that one lineage dispersed over the Strait of Gibraltar and the Iberian Peninsula to the west of Europe, while the other lineage spreads eastward through Asia Minor and over the Bosporus to Eastern Europe.

  5. Revisiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations.

    PubMed

    Frantz, A C; McDevitt, A D; Pope, L C; Kochan, J; Davison, J; Clements, C F; Elmeros, M; Molina-Vacas, G; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Balestrieri, A; Van Den Berge, K; Breyne, P; Do Linh San, E; Agren, E O; Suchentrunk, F; Schley, L; Kowalczyk, R; Kostka, B I; Cirović, D; Sprem, N; Colyn, M; Ghirardi, M; Racheva, V; Braun, C; Oliveira, R; Lanszki, J; Stubbe, A; Stubbe, M; Stier, N; Burke, T

    2014-11-01

    Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples from western Europe, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions about the location of refugia, patterns of postglacial expansion and recent demography. In the present study, continent-wide sampling and analyses with multiple markers provided evidence for two glacial refugia (Iberia and southeast Europe) that contributed to the genetic variation observed in badgers in Europe today. Approximate Bayesian computation provided support for a colonisation of Scandinavia from both Iberian and southeastern refugia. In the whole of Europe, we observed a decline in genetic diversity with increasing latitude, suggesting that the reduced diversity in the peripheral populations resulted from a postglacial expansion processes. Although MSVAR v.1.3 also provided evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks in some of these peripheral populations, the simulations performed to estimate the method's power to correctly infer the past demography of our empirical populations suggested that the timing and severity of bottlenecks could not be established with certainty. We urge caution against trying to relate demographic declines inferred using MSVAR with particular historic or climatological events.

  6. Genetic evidence for the effect of a postglacial population expansion on the phylogeography of a North American songbird.

    PubMed Central

    Milá, B; Girman, D J; Kimura, M; Smith, T B

    2000-01-01

    Phylogeographical studies of Nearctic songbirds conducted to date have yielded unexpectedly low levels of genetic differentiation and weak phylogeographical structure in mitochondrial DNA lineages as compared with species studied in Neotropical areas. Factors leading to this pattern may include (i) gene flow, (ii) population expansions from bottlenecked populations, and (iii) selective sweeps. Here we provide evidence for the role played by Pleistocene postglacial population expansions on the phylogeography of MacGillivray's warbler (Oporornis tolmiei), a long-distance migratory bird. Samples from 12 breeding localities in the temperate USA were compared with those from two localities in north-eastern Mexico. The former showed evidence of a Late Pleistocene population expansion as indicated by low haplotype and nucleotide diversity, a star-like phylogeny of alleles, and a mismatch distribution indicating a sudden increase in effective population size. By contrast, the Mexican population showed high levels of genetic diversity and a mismatch distribution as expected for a population unaffected by sudden demographic change. Haplotypes from the two regions formed two distinct phylogroups which separated roughly one million years ago according to a conventional molecular clock for songbirds. This study provides support for the Pleistocene expansion hypothesis in MacGillivray's warbler and suggests that postglacial expansion of bottlenecked populations is responsible for the lack of variation and structure reported for most North American songbird species. PMID:10874754

  7. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

  8. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary "forensic endocrine" analysis of events relevant to our specialty. PMID:27186562

  9. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P.; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary “forensic endocrine” analysis of events relevant to our specialty. PMID:27186562

  10. Evaluation of the relationships between biochemical endpoints of PAH exposure and physiological endpoints of reproduction in male California Halibut (Paralichthys californicus) exposed to sediments from a natural oil seep.

    PubMed

    Seruto, Cherlynn; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Schlenk, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    Coal Oil Point (COP) is a natural oil seep off the coast of Santa Barbara, California. Although most studies examining the fate and effects of petroleum have focused upon urbanized or anthropogenic sources of inputs, few have examined the effects of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from natural seeps. In order to evaluate the effects of PAHs derived from COP on marine fish populations, hatchery-reared California Halibut (Platichthys californicus) were exposed for 30 days to seven dilutions of sediments collected from COP. Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), gonadal somatic indices, and plasma steroid concentrations. Sixteen USEPA priority PAHs were targeted for analysis in each sediment dilution. In general, biochemical responses were somewhat recalcitrant to dose-response relationships and were less sensitive than the literature values established for the same indicators following exposure to urbanized PAHs. Trends toward reductions in plasma 17beta-estradiol concentrations were observed, but reductions in gonadal somatic indices were not observed. FAC values for naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene, phenanthrene-related compounds reached maximums at 33-100% COP sediment. The resulting insensitivity may be unique for exposure to "natural" petroleum due to a higher concentration of lower molecular weight PAHs or uncharacterized inhibitors.

  11. Serum concentrations of p, p'-DDE, HCB, PCBs and reproductive hormones among men of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kelly K; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Meeker, John D

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with changes in reproductive hormone levels, however most groups studied have been highly exposed. We investigated the association of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p, p'-DDE with serum sex hormones in 341 adult men from a US infertility clinic with exposure levels consistent with those observed in the general population. In crude regression models we observed several negative associations of PCBs and HCB with steroid hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and total and free testosterone. After adjustment for lipids, age and BMI, nearly all significant associations were attenuated. A negative relationship remained between PCB 118 and SHBG (p<0.01), and relationships of dioxin-like PCBs with SHBG and total testosterone, and between PCB 118 and total testosterone, were suggestive. These results suggest a minimal relationship between PCB exposures at low background levels similar to those observed in the general population of the US and circulating reproductive hormones.

  12. Developing a reproductive life plan.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Frey, Keith A; David, Paru S; Hunt, Katherine S; Noble, Brie N; Mayer, Anita P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is 2-fold: to emphasize the importance of a reproductive life plan and to define its key elements. We review the 2006 recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regarding ways to improve the delivery of preconception health care to women in the United States, with particular focus on encouraging individual reproductive responsibility throughout the life span and on encouraging every woman to develop a reproductive life plan. We propose recommendations for the content of a reproductive life plan and explore ways to incorporate the guidelines from the CDC into clinical practice. By encouraging women to consider their plans for childbearing before they become pregnant, clinicians have the opportunity to influence behavior before pregnancy, which may decrease the incidence of unintended pregnancies and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  13. Reproduction Symposium: developmental programming of reproductive and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, V; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2014-08-01

    Inappropriate programming of the reproductive system by developmental exposure to excess steroid hormones is of concern. Sheep are well suited for investigating developmental origin of reproductive and metabolic disorders. The developmental time line of female sheep (approximately 5 mo gestation and approximately 7 mo to puberty) is ideal for conducting sequential studies of the progression of metabolic and/or reproductive disruption from the developmental insult to manifestation of adult consequences. Major benefits of using sheep include knowledge of established critical periods to target adult defects, a rich understanding of reproductive neuroendocrine regulation, availability of noninvasive approaches to monitor follicular dynamics, established surgical approaches to obtain hypophyseal portal blood for measurement of hypothalamic hormones, and the ability to perform studies in natural setting thereby keeping behavioral interactions intact. Of importance is the ability to chronically instrument fetus and mother for determining early endocrine perturbations. Prenatal exposure of the female to excess testosterone (T) leads to an array of adult reproductive disorders that include LH excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, multifollicular ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction culminating in early reproductive failure. At the neuroendocrine level, all 3 feedback systems are compromised. At the pituitary level, gonadotrope (LH secretion) sensitivity to GnRH is increased. Multifollicular ovarian morphology stems from persistence of follicles as well as enhanced follicular recruitment. These defects culminate in progressive loss of cyclicity and reduced fecundity. Prenatal T excess also leads to fetal growth retardation, an early marker of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases, insulin resistance, hypertension, and behavioral deficits. Collectively, the reproductive and metabolic deficits of prenatal T-treated sheep provide proof of

  14. Hormonal regulation of female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A; Bentley, G E; Cabrera, R; Ortega, H H; Perfito, N; Wu, T J; Micevych, P

    2012-07-01

    Reproduction is an event that requires the coordination of peripheral organs with the nervous system to ensure that the internal and external environments are optimal for successful procreation of the species. This is accomplished by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that coordinates reproductive behavior with ovulation. The primary signal from the central nervous system is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which modulates the activity of anterior pituitary gonadotropes regulating follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) release. As ovarian follicles develop they release estradiol, which negatively regulates further release of GnRH and FSH. As estradiol concentrations peak they trigger the surge release of GnRH, which leads to LH release inducing ovulation. Release of GnRH within the central nervous system helps modulate reproductive behaviors providing a node at which control of reproduction is regulated. To address these issues, this review focuses on several critical questions. How is the HPG axis regulated in species with different reproductive strategies? What internal and external conditions modulate the synthesis and release of GnRH? How does GnRH modulate reproductive behavior within the hypothalamus? How does disease shift the activity of the HPG axis?

  15. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Martino-Andrade, Anderson Joel; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that in general display low-toxicity. Overall, the reproductive effects of these compounds are well characterized in adult's animals, with gonadal injury observed after high dose exposure. However, results of recent transgeneration studies indicate that the reproductive system of developing animals is particularly vulnerable to certain phthalates. The phenotypic alterations observed in male offspring rats exposed during the perinatal period have remarkable similarities with common human reproductive disorders, including cryptorchidism, hypospadias and low-sperm counts. Recent results also indicate that high phthalate doses can adversely affect adult and developing female rats. However, the main question involving phthalates is whether the current level of human exposure is sufficient to adversely affect male and/or female reproductive health. Here, we review the reproductive toxicity data of phthalates in adult and developing animals as well as possible modes of action. In addition, we briefly discuss the relevance of animal studies to humans in light of recent epidemiological data and experimental research with low (human relevant) doses. Finally, we point out some critical issues that should be addressed in order to clarify the implications of phthalates for human reproduction. PMID:19760678

  16. Plant reproduction in spaceflight environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Kuang, A.; Porterfield, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Because plant reproduction is a complex developmental process there are many possible sites of perturbation by the unusual environments of orbital spacecraft. Previous long-duration experiments on Soviet platforms shared features of slowed development through the vegetative stage of plant growth and aborted reproductive function. Our goal has been to understand how special features of the spaceflight environment impact physiological function and reproductive development. In a series of short-duration experiments in the Shuttle mid-deck we studied early reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen and ovule development aborted at an early stage in the first experiment on STS-54 which utilized closed plant growth chambers. Post-flight analysis suggested that the plants may have been carbon dioxide limited. Subsequent experiments utilized carbon dioxide enrichment (on STS-51) and cabin air flow-through with an air exchange system (on STS-68). Both modifications allowed pollen and ovule development to occur normally on orbit, and full reproductive development up to the stage of an immature seed occurred on STS-68. However, analysis of plant roots from these experiments demonstrated a limitation in rootzone aeration in the spaceflight material that was not mitigated by these procedures. In the future, additional resources (crew time, upgraded flight hardware, and special platforms) will invite more elaborate, long-duration experimentation. On the ISS, a variable speed centrifuge and upgraded plant habitats will permit detailed experiments on the role of gravity in shaping the plant micro-environment, and what influence this plays during reproduction.

  17. Inequity in India: the case of maternal and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Sanneving, Linda; Trygg, Nadja; Saxena, Deepak; Mavalankar, Dileep; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 is focused on reducing maternal mortality and achieving universal access to reproductive health care. India has made extensive efforts to achieve MDG 5 and in some regions much progress has been achieved. Progress has been uneven and inequitable however, and many women still lack access to maternal and reproductive health care. Objective In this review, a framework developed by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is used to categorize and explain determinants of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India. Design A review of peer-reviewed, published literature was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed and Popline. The search was performed using a carefully developed list of search terms designed to capture published papers from India on: 1) maternal and reproductive health, and 2) equity, including disadvantaged populations. A matrix was developed to sort the relevant information, which was extracted and categorized based on the CSDH framework. In this way, the main sources of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India and their inter-relationships were determined. Results Five main structural determinants emerged from the analysis as important in understanding equity in India: economic status, gender, education, social status (registered caste or tribe), and age (adolescents). These five determinants were found to be closely interrelated, a feature which was reflected in the literature. Conclusion In India, economic status, gender, and social status are all closely interrelated when influencing use of and access to maternal and reproductive health care. Appropriate attention should be given to how these social determinants interplay in generating and sustaining inequity when designing policies and programs to reach equitable progress toward improved maternal and reproductive health. PMID:23561028

  18. Invasive Fire Ants Reduce Reproductive Success and Alter the Reproductive Strategies of a Native Vertebrate Insectivore

    PubMed Central

    Ligon, Russell A.; Siefferman, Lynn; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Introduced organisms can alter ecosystems by disrupting natural ecological relationships. For example, red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) have disrupted native arthropod communities throughout much of their introduced range. By competing for many of the same food resources as insectivorous vertebrates, fire ants also have the potential to disrupt vertebrate communities. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the effects of fire ants on a native insectivorous vertebrate, we compared the reproductive success and strategies of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) inhabiting territories with different abundances of fire ants. We also created experimental dyads of adjacent territories comprised of one territory with artificially reduced fire ant abundance (treated) and one territory that was unmanipulated (control). We found that more bluebird young fledged from treated territories than from adjacent control territories. Fire ant abundance also explained significant variation in two measures of reproductive success across the study population: number of fledglings and hatching success of second clutches. Furthermore, the likelihood of bluebird parents re-nesting in the same territory was negatively influenced by the abundance of foraging fire ants, and parents nesting in territories with experimentally reduced abundances of fire ants produced male-biased broods relative to pairs in adjacent control territories. Conclusions/Significance Introduced fire ants altered both the reproductive success (number of fledglings, hatching success) and strategies (decision to renest, offspring sex-ratio) of eastern bluebirds. These results illustrate the negative effects that invasive species can have on native biota, including species from taxonomically distant groups. PMID:21799904

  19. High temperatures result in smaller nurseries which lower reproduction of pollinators and parasites in a brood site pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anusha; Pramanik, Gautam Kumar; Revadi, Santosh V; Venkateswaran, Vignesh; Borges, Renee M

    2014-01-01

    In a nursery pollination mutualism, we asked whether environmental factors affected reproduction of mutualistic pollinators, non-mutualistic parasites and seed production via seasonal changes in plant traits such as inflorescence size and within-tree reproductive phenology. We examined seasonal variation in reproduction in Ficus racemosa community members that utilise enclosed inflorescences called syconia as nurseries. Temperature, relative humidity and rainfall defined four seasons: winter; hot days, cold nights; summer and wet seasons. Syconium volumes were highest in winter and lowest in summer, and affected syconium contents positively across all seasons. Greater transpiration from the nurseries was possibly responsible for smaller syconia in summer. The 3-5°C increase in mean temperatures between the cooler seasons and summer reduced fig wasp reproduction and increased seed production nearly two-fold. Yet, seed and pollinator progeny production were never negatively related in any season confirming the mutualistic fig-pollinator association across seasons. Non-pollinator parasites affected seed production negatively in some seasons, but had a surprisingly positive relationship with pollinators in most seasons. While within-tree reproductive phenology did not vary across seasons, its effect on syconium inhabitants varied with season. In all seasons, within-tree reproductive asynchrony affected parasite reproduction negatively, whereas it had a positive effect on pollinator reproduction in winter and a negative effect in summer. Seasonally variable syconium volumes probably caused the differential effect of within-tree reproductive phenology on pollinator reproduction. Within-tree reproductive asynchrony itself was positively affected by intra-tree variation in syconium contents and volume, creating a unique feedback loop which varied across seasons. Therefore, nursery size affected fig wasp reproduction, seed production and within-tree reproductive phenology

  20. High temperatures result in smaller nurseries which lower reproduction of pollinators and parasites in a brood site pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anusha; Pramanik, Gautam Kumar; Revadi, Santosh V; Venkateswaran, Vignesh; Borges, Renee M

    2014-01-01

    In a nursery pollination mutualism, we asked whether environmental factors affected reproduction of mutualistic pollinators, non-mutualistic parasites and seed production via seasonal changes in plant traits such as inflorescence size and within-tree reproductive phenology. We examined seasonal variation in reproduction in Ficus racemosa community members that utilise enclosed inflorescences called syconia as nurseries. Temperature, relative humidity and rainfall defined four seasons: winter; hot days, cold nights; summer and wet seasons. Syconium volumes were highest in winter and lowest in summer, and affected syconium contents positively across all seasons. Greater transp