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Sample records for relationships phylogeography reproductive

  1. Species limits, phylogeography and reproductive mode in the Metarhizium anisopliae complex.

    PubMed

    Rehner, Stephen A; Kepler, Ryan M

    2017-09-01

    An essential first step to elucidating the ecology and life histories of Metarhizium anisopliae-group species as entomopathogens, endophytes and soil-adapted fungi is the ability to define species limits and confidently infer a species phylogeny. In a multilocus phylogeny of the core Metarhizium anisopliae species complex, the majority of isolates sampled herein group within the currently defined limits of M. pingshaense, M. anisopliae, M. robertsii and M. brunneum, designated informally as the "PARB" clade. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses reveal pervasive congruent hierarchical structure among the genomic regions analyzed, which suggest that current PARB species delimitations likely encompass additional cryptic complexes. Further, the interpolation of isolates from different continents throughout each species lineage indicates periodic inter-continental dispersals. Although no PARB species has yet been confirmed to produce a sexual state, we demonstrate the mutually exclusive incidence of the MAT1 and MAT2 mating type idiomorphs among individuals in all PARB species. This configuration of mating type is diagnostic of a heterothallic, obligately outcrossing mating system, indicating the conservation of and ongoing potential for sexual reproduction in all PARB species. As one example of the utility of IGS markers, the commercially registered M. anisopliae strain F52, which is widely used for pest control in North America, Canada and Europe, is shown to be a member of the M. brunneum complex. While current PARB species delimitations evidently encompass cryptic partitions, formal recognition of segregate species should be approached cautiously until further evidence of their phylogenetic exclusivity, ecological distinctiveness or other unique attributes is demonstrated. Nevertheless, acknowledgment of these intraspecific partitions will provide a useful conceptual framework to guide future investigations of the community structure, phylogeography, population genetics

  2. Genetic connectivity in the Florida reef system: comparative phylogeography of commensal invertebrates with contrasting reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Richards, Vincent P; Thomas, James D; Stanhope, Michael J; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2007-01-01

    Effective spatial management of coral reefs including design of marine protected areas requires an understanding of interpopulation genetic connectivity. We assessed gene flow along 355 km of the Florida reef system and between Florida and Belize in three commensal invertebrates occupying the same host sponge (Callyspongia vaginalis) but displaying contrasting reproductive dispersal strategies: the broadcast-spawning brittle star Ophiothrix lineata and two brooding amphipods Leucothoe kensleyi and Leucothoe ashleyae. Multiple analytical approaches to sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI gene demonstrated a high degree of overall connectivity for all three species along the Florida reef system. Ophiothrix lineata showed significant genetic structuring between Florida and Belize, and a pattern of isolation by distance but no significant genetic structuring along the Florida coastline. Bayesian estimates of migration detected a strong southerly dispersal bias for O. lineata along the Florida reef system, contrary to the general assumption of northerly gene flow in this region based on the direction of the Florida Current. Both amphipods, despite direct development, also showed high gene flow along the Florida reef system. Multiple inferences of long-distance dispersal from a nested clade analysis support the hypothesis that amphipod transport, possibly in detached sponge fragments, could generate the high levels of overall gene flow observed. However, this transport mechanism appears much less effective across deep water as connectivity between Florida and Belize (1072 km) is highly restricted.

  3. Scent of a break-up: phylogeography and reproductive trait divergences in the red-tailed bumblebee (Bombus lapidarius)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pleistocene climatic oscillations are considered as a major driving force of intraspecific divergence and speciation. During Ice Ages, populations isolated in allopatric glacial refugia can experience differentiation in reproductive traits through divergence in selection regimes. This phenomenon may lead to reproductive isolation and dramatically accentuates the consequences of the climatic oscillations on species. Alternatively, when reproductive isolation is incomplete and populations are expanding again, further mating between the formerly isolated populations can result in the formation of a hybrid zone, genetic introgression or reinforcement speciation through reproductive trait displacements. Therefore changes in reproductive traits driven by population movements during climatic oscillations can act as an important force in promoting pre-zygotic isolation. Notwithstanding, divergence of reproductive traits has not been approached in the context of climatic oscillations. Here we investigate the impact of population movements driven by climatic oscillations on a reproductive trait of a bumblebee species (Bombus lapidarius). We characterise the pattern of variation and differentiation across the species distribution (i) with five genes (nuclear and mitochondrial), and (ii) in the chemical composition of male marking secretions (MMS), a key trait for mate attraction in bumblebees. Results Our results provide evidence that populations have experienced a genetic allopatric differentiation, in at least three main refugia (the Balkans, Centre-Eastern Europe, and Southern Italy) during Quaternary glaciations. The comparative chemical analyses show that populations from the Southern Italian refugium have experienced MMS differentiation and an incipient speciation process from another refugium. The meeting of Southern Italian populations with other populations as a result of range expansion at a secondary contact zone seems to have led to a reinforcement

  4. Morphological and physiological changes during reproduction and their relationships to reproductive performance in a capital breeder.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Lourdais, Olivier; Lorioux, Sophie; Butler, Michael W; Davis, Jon R; Salin, Karine; Voituron, Yann; DeNardo, Dale F

    2013-01-01

    Current reproductive effort typically comes at a cost to future reproductive value by altering somatic function (e.g., growth or self-maintenance). Furthermore, effects of reproduction often depend on both fecundity and stage of reproduction, wherein allocation of resources into additional offspring and/or stages of reproduction results in increased costs. Despite these widely accepted generalities, interindividual variation in the effects of reproduction is common-yet the proximate basis that allows some individuals to mitigate these detrimental effects is unclear. We serially measured several variables of morphology (e.g., musculature) and physiology (e.g., antioxidant defenses) in female Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni) throughout reproduction to examine how these traits change over the course of reproduction and whether certain physiological traits are associated with reduced effects of reproduction in some individuals. Reproduction in this capital breeder was associated with changes in both morphology and physiology, but only morphological changes varied with fecundity and among specific reproductive stages. During reproduction, we detected negative relationships between morphology and self-maintenance (e.g., increased muscle allocation to reproduction was related to reduced immune function). Additionally, females that allocated resources more heavily into current reproduction also did so during future reproduction, and these females assimilated resources more efficiently, experienced reduced detriments to self-maintenance (e.g., lower levels of oxidative damage and glucocorticoids) during reproduction, and produced clutches with greater hatching success. Our results suggest that interindividual variation in specific aspects of physiology (assimilation efficiency and oxidative status) may drive variation in reproductive performance.

  5. Phylogeography in Response to Reproductive Strategies and Ecogeographic Isolation in Ant Species on Madagascar: Genus Mystrium (Formicidae: Amblyoponinae)

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Natalie R.; Fisher, Brian L.; Girman, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of models used to understand the species diversification on Madagascar have been constructed using vertebrate taxa. It is not clear how these models affect less vagile species that may interact at a variety of spatial scales. Several studies on vertebrates have divided Madagascar into east-west bioclimatic regions, suggesting there is a fundamental division between eastern wet-adapted and western dry-adapted taxa. An alternative model of ecogeographic constraints shows a north-south division. We test whether the diversification in a small arthropod with variable degrees of dispersal conform to either model of ecogeographic constraints proposed for vertebrate taxa. We employ a molecular taxonomic dataset using ~2 kilobases nuDNA (Wg, LW Rh, Abd-A, 28s) and 790 basepairs mtDNA (CO1), along with geographic and habitat data, to examine the diversification patterns of the ant genus Mystrium Roger, 1862, (Subfamily Amblyoponinae) from Madagascar. The nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were both congruent with morphospecies as indicated in a recent revision of the genus. Species of Mystrium practice different colony reproductive strategies (winged queens vs non-winged queens). Alternate reproductive strategies led to inequalities in female dispersal ability among species, providing an additional layer for examination of the impacts of vagility on divergence, especially when measured using a maternally inherited locus. Mystrium species distribution patterns support these models of ecogeographic constraints. Reproductive strategy effected how Mystrium mtDNA lineages were associated with large-scale habitat distinctions and various topographical features. Furthermore, in some cases we find microgeographic population structure which appears to have been impacted by localized habitat differences (tsingy limestone formations, littoral forest) on a scale much smaller than that found in vertebrates. The current system offers a finer scale look at species

  6. Phylogeography in Response to Reproductive Strategies and Ecogeographic Isolation in Ant Species on Madagascar: Genus Mystrium (Formicidae: Amblyoponinae).

    PubMed

    Graham, Natalie R; Fisher, Brian L; Girman, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of models used to understand the species diversification on Madagascar have been constructed using vertebrate taxa. It is not clear how these models affect less vagile species that may interact at a variety of spatial scales. Several studies on vertebrates have divided Madagascar into east-west bioclimatic regions, suggesting there is a fundamental division between eastern wet-adapted and western dry-adapted taxa. An alternative model of ecogeographic constraints shows a north-south division. We test whether the diversification in a small arthropod with variable degrees of dispersal conform to either model of ecogeographic constraints proposed for vertebrate taxa. We employ a molecular taxonomic dataset using ~2 kilobases nuDNA (Wg, LW Rh, Abd-A, 28s) and 790 basepairs mtDNA (CO1), along with geographic and habitat data, to examine the diversification patterns of the ant genus Mystrium Roger, 1862, (Subfamily Amblyoponinae) from Madagascar. The nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were both congruent with morphospecies as indicated in a recent revision of the genus. Species of Mystrium practice different colony reproductive strategies (winged queens vs non-winged queens). Alternate reproductive strategies led to inequalities in female dispersal ability among species, providing an additional layer for examination of the impacts of vagility on divergence, especially when measured using a maternally inherited locus. Mystrium species distribution patterns support these models of ecogeographic constraints. Reproductive strategy effected how Mystrium mtDNA lineages were associated with large-scale habitat distinctions and various topographical features. Furthermore, in some cases we find microgeographic population structure which appears to have been impacted by localized habitat differences (tsingy limestone formations, littoral forest) on a scale much smaller than that found in vertebrates. The current system offers a finer scale look at species

  7. Diet mediates the relationship between longevity and reproduction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-06-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis posits a negative correlation between longevity and reproduction, presumably because these aspects of fitness compete for a limited pool of nutrients. However, diet, which varies widely among animals, could affect the availability of key nutrients required for both reproduction and longevity, especially protein. We used a comparative database of mammal life history data to test the hypothesis that carnivores experience less of a negative relationship between reproduction and longevity than herbivores. Annual reproduction and adult mass were significant predictors of longevity among all mammals; although, the relative importance of reproduction and mass for explaining longevity varied among trophic levels. In herbivores, reproduction was a stronger predictor of longevity than mass. Carnivores showed the opposite pattern with reproduction explaining much less of the variation in longevity. Omnivores showed an intermediate pattern with mass and reproduction explaining similar amounts of variation in longevity. In addition, longevity and reproduction were significantly higher in omnivores than herbivores and carnivores, which were not different from each other. Higher dietary protein at higher trophic levels may allow mammals to avoid potential conflicts between reproduction and longevity. However, there may be potential costs of carnivorous diets that limit the overall performance of carnivores and explain the peak in reproduction and longevity for omnivores.

  8. Comparative phylogeography, genetic differentiation and contrasting reproductive modes in three fungal symbionts of a multipartite bark beetle symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Roe, Amanda D; Rice, Adrianne V; Coltman, David W; Cooke, Janice E K; Sperling, Felix A H

    2011-02-01

    Multipartite symbioses are complex symbiotic relationships involving multiple interacting partners. These types of partnerships provide excellent opportunities in which to apply a comparative approach to identify common historical patterns of population differentiation and species-specific life history traits. Using three symbiotic blue-stain fungal species (Ophiostomatacea) associated with outbreaking populations of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western Canada, we applied phylogenetic, population genetic and demographic approaches to clarify phylogeographic patterns among the three fungal species. Broadly, the three species showed significant population differentiation, forming northern and southern populations, despite dramatic differences in haplotype diversity. Finer structuring and population demographic patterns were less consistent, showing some interspecific incongruence. By contrasting these species simultaneously, we were able to identify differences in recombination rate and ecological traits that can explain the observed patterns of incongruence among the fungal species. By applying a comparative approach to partners of a multipartite symbiosis, we were able to distinguish congruent population structuring and species-specific differences that help us to understand the complexity and evolution of this symbiotic system.

  9. Advancing adolescent sexual and reproductive health by promoting healthy relationships.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Andra Teten; Carter, Marion; Fasula, Amy M; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Jayne, Paula E; Latzman, Natasha E; Kinsey, Jennine

    2013-11-01

    The field of public health faces a challenge in preventing adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes such as sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancy, and dating and sexual violence among adolescents. Innovative approaches are needed to better address these issues. Focusing on healthy relationships is an emerging approach that may be used to promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. In this report, we discuss the need for innovative and efficient strategies for adolescent sexual and reproductive health, the benefits of a healthy relationships approach, describe the need for a science-based conceptual framework on healthy relationships, and provide some considerations for developing a conceptual framework of healthy relationships in order to move the field of public health forward.

  10. Life Beyond the Eating Disorder: Education, Relationships, and Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Millie; Thornton, Laura M.; Root, Tammy L.; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Strober, Michael; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L.; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Plotnicov, Kathy; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated sociodemographic characteristics in women with and without lifetime eating disorders. Method Participants were from a multi-site international study of eating disorders (N = 2096). Education level, relationship status, and reproductive status were examined across eating disorder subtypes and compared with a healthy control group. Results Overall, women with eating disorders were less educated than controls, and duration of illness and age of onset were associated with educational attainment. Menstrual status was associated with both relationship and reproductive status, but eating disorder subtypes did not differ significantly from each other or from healthy controls on these dimensions. Conclusion Differences in educational attainment, relationships, and reproduction do exist in individuals with eating disorders and are differentially associated with various eating disorder symptoms and characteristics. These data could assist with educating patients and family members about long-term consequences of eating disorders. PMID:20143323

  11. Adolescent relationship abuse and reproductive and sexual coercion among teens.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) involves a range of coercive and violent behaviours in romantic or consensual relationships. ARA is prevalent and is associated with multiple poor reproductive and sexual health outcomes, especially for adolescent girls. Recent studies and reviews of ARA research point to the prevalence of ARA, health consequences of ARA and the contribution of social and cultural norms to ARA perpetration, all of which can inform how to address ARA more effectively with adolescents. Emerging research on reproductive and sexual coercion among adolescents and technology-based abuse is directly relevant to the reproductive and sexual healthcare of adolescents. Current findings underscore the extent to which young, reproductive-aged women may particularly benefit from more effective methods to address ARA. In line with recent American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendations, clinicians should assess for and counsel their adolescent female patients about how ARA and reproductive and sexual coercion may influence adolescent girls' reproductive health. Recent evidence also highlights that ARA manifests in ways that may be less recognizable to clinicians, such as cyber dating abuse. Finally, ARA prevention and intervention efforts should continue to promote gender equity and address the social and cultural norms that shape adolescent girls' experiences of abuse.

  12. Phylogeny and phylogeography of functional genes shared among seven terrestrial subsurface metagenomes reveal N-cycling and microbial evolutionary relationships.

    PubMed

    Lau, Maggie C Y; Cameron, Connor; Magnabosco, Cara; Brown, C Titus; Schilkey, Faye; Grim, Sharon; Hendrickson, Sarah; Pullin, Michael; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; van Heerden, Esta; Kieft, Thomas L; Onstott, Tullis C

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on community phylogenetics and phylogeography of microorganisms living in extreme environments are rare. Terrestrial subsurface habitats are valuable for studying microbial biogeographical patterns due to their isolation and the restricted dispersal mechanisms. Since the taxonomic identity of a microorganism does not always correspond well with its functional role in a particular community, the use of taxonomic assignments or patterns may give limited inference on how microbial functions are affected by historical, geographical and environmental factors. With seven metagenomic libraries generated from fracture water samples collected from five South African mines, this study was carried out to (1) screen for ubiquitous functions or pathways of biogeochemical cycling of CH4, S, and N; (2) to characterize the biodiversity represented by the common functional genes; (3) to investigate the subsurface biogeography as revealed by this subset of genes; and (4) to explore the possibility of using metagenomic data for evolutionary study. The ubiquitous functional genes are NarV, NPD, PAPS reductase, NifH, NifD, NifK, NifE, and NifN genes. Although these eight common functional genes were taxonomically and phylogenetically diverse and distinct from each other, the dissimilarity between samples did not correlate strongly with geographical or environmental parameters or residence time of the water. Por genes homologous to those of Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii detected in all metagenomes were deep lineages of Nitrospirae, suggesting that subsurface habitats have preserved ancestral genetic signatures that inform the study of the origin and evolution of prokaryotes.

  13. Phylogeny and phylogeography of functional genes shared among seven terrestrial subsurface metagenomes reveal N-cycling and microbial evolutionary relationships

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Cameron, Connor; Magnabosco, Cara; Brown, C. Titus; Schilkey, Faye; Grim, Sharon; Hendrickson, Sarah; Pullin, Michael; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; van Heerden, Esta; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on community phylogenetics and phylogeography of microorganisms living in extreme environments are rare. Terrestrial subsurface habitats are valuable for studying microbial biogeographical patterns due to their isolation and the restricted dispersal mechanisms. Since the taxonomic identity of a microorganism does not always correspond well with its functional role in a particular community, the use of taxonomic assignments or patterns may give limited inference on how microbial functions are affected by historical, geographical and environmental factors. With seven metagenomic libraries generated from fracture water samples collected from five South African mines, this study was carried out to (1) screen for ubiquitous functions or pathways of biogeochemical cycling of CH4, S, and N; (2) to characterize the biodiversity represented by the common functional genes; (3) to investigate the subsurface biogeography as revealed by this subset of genes; and (4) to explore the possibility of using metagenomic data for evolutionary study. The ubiquitous functional genes are NarV, NPD, PAPS reductase, NifH, NifD, NifK, NifE, and NifN genes. Although these eight common functional genes were taxonomically and phylogenetically diverse and distinct from each other, the dissimilarity between samples did not correlate strongly with geographical or environmental parameters or residence time of the water. Por genes homologous to those of Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii detected in all metagenomes were deep lineages of Nitrospirae, suggesting that subsurface habitats have preserved ancestral genetic signatures that inform the study of the origin and evolution of prokaryotes. PMID:25400621

  14. Patterns of marriage and reproductive practices: is there any relationship?

    PubMed

    Vedadhir, Abouali; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Ebadi, Abbas; Pourreza, Abulghasem; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal

    2017-04-01

    Today, a transition from traditional to modern marriages can be observed in many countries. This shift in patterns of marriage has evidently affected childbearing and reproductive practices. This study aimed to examine the relationship between patterns of marriage and reproductive practices in Iran. Hence, 880 married women, aged 15-49 years old, living in the North of Iran were selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling strategy and their patterns of marriage and reproductive practices were cross sectionally studied. The results revealed that there were no significant differences in the reproductive practices by three main patterns of marriage in Babol, Iran. The study also indicated that there were no significant differences in reproductive practices in three patterns of marriage after controlling for socio-economic variables. It seems that apart from the patterns of marriage, other influencing factors are the determinants of fertility in women, and the policy-makers of Iran need to pay attention to these determinants before making any decisions in this area.

  15. Phylogeography and modes of reproduction in diploid and tetraploid halophytes of Limonium species (Plumbaginaceae): evidence for a pattern of geographical parthenogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Sádio, Flávio; Paulo, Octávio S.; Teixeira, Generosa; Paes, Ana Paula; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Sharbel, Timothy F.; Caperta, Ana D.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) has long been recognized to have sexual and apomictic (asexual seed formation) modes of reproduction. This study aimed to elucidate phylogeographical patterns and modes of reproduction in diploid and tetraploid Limonium species, namely three putative sexual diploid species with morphological affinities (L. nydeggeri, L. ovalifolium, L. lanceolatum) and three related, probably apomict tetraploid species (L. binervosum, L. dodartii, L. multiflorum). Methods cpDNA diversity and differentiation between natural populations of the species were investigated using two chloroplast sequence regions (trnL intron and trnL–trnF intergenic spacer). Floral heteromorphies, ovule cytoembryological analyses and pollination and crossing tests were performed in representative species of each ploidy group, namely diploid L. ovalifolium and tetraploid L. multiflorum, using plants from greenhouse collections. Key Results and Conclusions Genetic analyses showed that diploid species have a higher haplotype diversity and a higher number of unique (endemic) haplotypes than tetraploid species. Network analysis revealed correlations between cpDNA haplotype distribution and ploidy groups, species groups and geographical origin, and haplotype sharing within and among species with distinct ploidy levels. Reproductive biology analyses showed that diploid L. ovalifolium mainly forms meiotically reduced tetrasporic embryo sacs of Gagea ova, Adoxa and Drusa types. Limonium multiflorum, however, has only unreduced, diplosporic (apomictic) embryo sacs of Rudbeckia type, and autonomous apomictic development seems to occur. Taken together, the findings provide evidence of a pattern of ‘geographical parthenogenesis’ in which quaternary climatic oscillations appear to be involved in the geographical patterns of coastal diploid and tetraploid Limonium species. PMID:26424783

  16. Phylogeography and modes of reproduction in diploid and tetraploid halophytes of Limonium species (Plumbaginaceae): evidence for a pattern of geographical parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Sádio, Flávio; Paulo, Octávio S; Teixeira, Generosa; Paes, Ana Paula; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Sharbel, Timothy F; Caperta, Ana D

    2016-01-01

    The genus Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) has long been recognized to have sexual and apomictic (asexual seed formation) modes of reproduction. This study aimed to elucidate phylogeographical patterns and modes of reproduction in diploid and tetraploid Limonium species, namely three putative sexual diploid species with morphological affinities (L. nydeggeri, L. ovalifolium, L. lanceolatum) and three related, probably apomict tetraploid species (L. binervosum, L. dodartii, L. multiflorum). cpDNA diversity and differentiation between natural populations of the species were investigated using two chloroplast sequence regions (trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer). Floral heteromorphies, ovule cytoembryological analyses and pollination and crossing tests were performed in representative species of each ploidy group, namely diploid L. ovalifolium and tetraploid L. multiflorum, using plants from greenhouse collections. Genetic analyses showed that diploid species have a higher haplotype diversity and a higher number of unique (endemic) haplotypes than tetraploid species. Network analysis revealed correlations between cpDNA haplotype distribution and ploidy groups, species groups and geographical origin, and haplotype sharing within and among species with distinct ploidy levels. Reproductive biology analyses showed that diploid L. ovalifolium mainly forms meiotically reduced tetrasporic embryo sacs of Gagea ova, Adoxa and Drusa types. Limonium multiflorum, however, has only unreduced, diplosporic (apomictic) embryo sacs of Rudbeckia type, and autonomous apomictic development seems to occur. Taken together, the findings provide evidence of a pattern of 'geographical parthenogenesis' in which quaternary climatic oscillations appear to be involved in the geographical patterns of coastal diploid and tetraploid Limonium species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  17. Extended Multilocus Sequence Analysis to Describe the Global Population Structure of the Genus Brucella: Phylogeography and Relationship to Biovars

    PubMed Central

    Whatmore, Adrian M.; Koylass, Mark S.; Muchowski, Jakub; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Gopaul, Krishna K.; Perrett, Lorraine L.

    2016-01-01

    An extended multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme applicable to the Brucella, an expanding genus that includes zoonotic pathogens that severely impact animal and human health across large parts of the globe, was developed. The scheme, which extends a previously described nine locus scheme by examining sequences at 21 independent genetic loci in order to increase discriminatory power, was applied to a globally and temporally diverse collection of over 500 isolates representing all 12 known Brucella species providing an expanded and detailed understanding of the population genetic structure of the group. Over 100 sequence types (STs) were identified and analysis of data provided insights into both the global evolutionary history of the genus, suggesting that early emerging Brucella abortus lineages might be confined to Africa while some later lineages have spread worldwide, and further evidence of the existence of lineages with restricted host or geographical ranges. The relationship between biovar, long used as a crude epidemiological marker, and genotype was also examined and showed decreasing congruence in the order Brucella suis > B. abortus > Brucella melitensis. Both the previously described nine locus scheme and the extended 21 locus scheme have been made available at http://pubmlst.org/brucella/ to allow the community to interrogate existing data and compare with newly generated data. PMID:28066370

  18. Extended Multilocus Sequence Analysis to Describe the Global Population Structure of the Genus Brucella: Phylogeography and Relationship to Biovars.

    PubMed

    Whatmore, Adrian M; Koylass, Mark S; Muchowski, Jakub; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Gopaul, Krishna K; Perrett, Lorraine L

    2016-01-01

    An extended multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme applicable to the Brucella, an expanding genus that includes zoonotic pathogens that severely impact animal and human health across large parts of the globe, was developed. The scheme, which extends a previously described nine locus scheme by examining sequences at 21 independent genetic loci in order to increase discriminatory power, was applied to a globally and temporally diverse collection of over 500 isolates representing all 12 known Brucella species providing an expanded and detailed understanding of the population genetic structure of the group. Over 100 sequence types (STs) were identified and analysis of data provided insights into both the global evolutionary history of the genus, suggesting that early emerging Brucella abortus lineages might be confined to Africa while some later lineages have spread worldwide, and further evidence of the existence of lineages with restricted host or geographical ranges. The relationship between biovar, long used as a crude epidemiological marker, and genotype was also examined and showed decreasing congruence in the order Brucella suis > B. abortus > Brucella melitensis. Both the previously described nine locus scheme and the extended 21 locus scheme have been made available at http://pubmlst.org/brucella/ to allow the community to interrogate existing data and compare with newly generated data.

  19. The relationship between gut and adipose hormones, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Comninos, Alexander N; Jayasena, Channa N; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive function is tightly regulated by nutritional status. Indeed, it has been well described that undernutrition or obesity can lead to subfertility or infertility in humans. The common regulatory pathways which control energy homeostasis and reproductive function have, to date, been poorly understood due to limited studies or inconclusive data. However, gut hormones and adipose tissue hormones have recently emerged as potential regulators of both energy homeostasis and reproductive function. A PubMed search was performed using keywords related to gut and adipose hormones and associated with keywords related to reproduction. Currently available evidence that gut (ghrelin, obestatin, insulin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, oxyntomodulin, cholecystokinin) and adipose hormones (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, omentin, chemerin) interact with the reproductive axis is presented. The extent, site and direction of their effects on the reproductive axis are variable and also vary depending on species, sex and pubertal stage. Gut and adipose hormones interact with the reproductive axis as well as with each other. While leptin and insulin have stimulatory effects and ghrelin has inhibitory effects on hypothalamic GnRH secretion, there is increasing evidence for their roles in other sites of the reproductive axis as well as evidence for the roles of other gut and adipose hormones in the complex interplay between nutrition and reproduction. As our understanding improves, so will our ability to identify and design novel therapeutic options for reproductive disorders and accompanying metabolic disorders.

  20. Genetic relationship between growth and reproductive traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S; Mattos, E C

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic relationship between postweaning weight gain (PWG), heifer pregnancy (HP), scrotal circumference (SC) at 18 months of age, stayability at 6 years of age (STAY) and finishing visual score at 18 months of age (PREC), and to determine the potential of these traits as selection criteria for the genetic improvement of growth and reproduction in Nellore cattle. The HP was defined as the observation that a heifer conceived and remained pregnant, which was assessed by rectal palpation at 60 days. The STAY was defined as whether or not a cow calved every year up to the age of 6 years, given that she was provided the opportunity to breed. The Bayesian linear-threshold analysis via the Gibbs sampler was used to estimate the variance and covariance components applying a multitrait model. Posterior mean estimates of direct heritability were 0.15 ± 0.00, 0.42 ± 0.02, 0.49 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.01 and 0.19 ± 0.00 for PWG, HP, SC, STAY and PREC, respectively. The genetic correlations between traits ranged from 0.17 to 0.62. The traits studied generally have potential for use as selection criteria in genetic breeding programs. The genetic correlations between all traits show that selection for one of these traits does not imply the loss of the others.

  1. Species delimitation and phylogeography of the Pectenia species-complex: A misunderstood case of species-pairs in lichenized fungi, where reproduction mode does not delimit lineages.

    PubMed

    Otálora, Mónica A G; Martínez, Isabel; Aragón, Gregorio; Wedin, Mats

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to study species boundaries in the genus Pectenia and elucidate the biogeographic history of the four currently accepted species. To accomplish this, we included 92 specimens across the range of Pectenia in Europe and northern Africa. We used three nuclear loci and assessed species circumscription using two Bayesian coalescent-based methods and the Bayes Factor approach. We reviewed the value of reproductive mode and other morphological features as predictors of monophyletic groups. Our results suggest that the production of asexual propagules and sexual structures are not characterizing monophyletic groups. The genus includes two morphologically well-characterized main lineages, where one lineage is composed by two sub-lineages that are with a case of cryptic speciation explained by a biogeographic pattern. We suggest treating the two lineages as two species, which are characterized by lobe structure: Pectenia plumbea and P. atlantica. Both of these species include samples with asexual propagules and apothecia, and thus do not correspond to any of the earlier morphologically defined species. The results of the biogeographic analysis indicate that the Mediterranean basin is the most likely ancestral distribution area of P. plumbea, whereas P. atlantica probably originated in Macaronesia.

  2. Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility: A Mutual Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Tvrda, Eva; Agarwal, Ashok; Alkuhaimi, Nawaf

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction and malignancies related to the male gender represent a serious health concern, whose incidence has significantly risen over the past years. Prior to treatment, testicular or prostate cancer patients often display poor semen characteristics similar to subfertile or infertile patients. This fact is underscored by cases where the malignancy is often diagnosed in males who undergo a general fertility screening. This review aims to examine the associations between male infertility and reproductive cancers focusing on common etiologies and biological mechanisms underlining these pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss compelling epidemiological data hypothesizing that male reproductive failure may act as a precursor of future andrological malignancies, including testicular or prostate cancer, thus providing a stimulus for a more specific research in male reproductive health and emphasizing the importance of this relation for physicians taking care of male patients with a reproductive disease. PMID:25837470

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND REPRODUCTIVE IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES): EFFECTS OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have measured various physiological responses in fish from exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds, while others have observed higher level effects on reproduction and development. However, little is understood about the relationship that might exist between a...

  4. Relationships of sire scrotal circumference to offspring reproduction and growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, B A; Brinks, J S; Richardson, G V

    1989-11-01

    Reproductive and growth data were obtained on 779 and 564 yearling beef heifers and bulls, respectively, that had sires with yearling scrotal circumference data at the San Juan Basin Research Center, Hesperus, CO. Partial regression coefficients of reproductive and growth traits on inbreeding (FXC) and age of the individual and adjusted scrotal circumference of sire (SCSI) were obtained. Growth and reproductive traits of heifers and growth and breeding soundness traits of bulls were analyzed. Separate analyses for each sex were performed, but least squares models were similar. Models included fixed effects of breed, birth year (BY), age of dam (AOD) and the covariates FXC, age (day of birth in heifer analyses) and SCSI. Scrotal circumference of sire was adjusted for age, FXC, AOD and BY using values obtained in a separate analysis. Seminal traits improved as age increased, and there was a seasonal effect present for age of puberty. Inbreeding had a detrimental effect on reproductive traits. Partial regression coefficients for the reproductive traits on SCSI were: age of puberty, -.796 d/cm; age of first calving, -.826 d/cm; julian day of first calving, -.667 d/cm; julian day of second calving, .597 d/cm; most probable producing ability, .132 %/cm; percent sperm motility, -.74 %/cm; percent primary sperm abnormalities, .08 %/cm; percent secondary sperm abnormalities, .92 %/cm; percent normal sperm, -1.28 %/cm; total breeding soundness examination score, .28 units/cm and scrotal circumference, .306 cm/cm. A heritability of .39 was obtained for scrotal circumference.

  5. Tree size and its relationship with flowering phenology and reproductive output in Wild Nutmeg trees

    PubMed Central

    Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Sazima, Marlies; Solferini, Vera N

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive strategies, sexual selection, and their relationship with the phenotype of individuals are topics widely studied in animals, but this information is less abundant for plants. Variability in flowering phenology among individuals has direct impact on their fitness, but how reproductive phenology is affected by the size of the individuals needs further study. We quantified the flowering intensity, length, and reproductive synchronization of two sympatric dioecious Wild Nutmeg tree species (Virola, Myristicaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and analyzed its relationships with tree size. Two distinct strategies in flowering timing and intensity were found between species (annual versus biennial flowering), and among individuals in the annual flowering species (extended versus peak flowering). Only for the annual flowering species the reproductive output is related to tree size and large trees present proportionally higher flower coverage, and lower synchronization than smaller ones. Flowering is massive and highly synchronized in the biennial species. Sex ratios are not different from 1:1 in the two species, and in the two segregated reproductive subgroups in the biennial flowering species. The biennial flowering at individual level is a novelty among reproductive patterns in plants, separating the population in two reproductive subgroups. A proportional increase in the reproductive output with size exists only for the annual flowering species. A biennial flowering can allow resource storage favouring massive flowering for all the individuals diluting their relationship with size. PMID:24223288

  6. Tree size and its relationship with flowering phenology and reproductive output in Wild Nutmeg trees.

    PubMed

    Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Sazima, Marlies; Solferini, Vera N

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive strategies, sexual selection, and their relationship with the phenotype of individuals are topics widely studied in animals, but this information is less abundant for plants. Variability in flowering phenology among individuals has direct impact on their fitness, but how reproductive phenology is affected by the size of the individuals needs further study. We quantified the flowering intensity, length, and reproductive synchronization of two sympatric dioecious Wild Nutmeg tree species (Virola, Myristicaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and analyzed its relationships with tree size. Two distinct strategies in flowering timing and intensity were found between species (annual versus biennial flowering), and among individuals in the annual flowering species (extended versus peak flowering). Only for the annual flowering species the reproductive output is related to tree size and large trees present proportionally higher flower coverage, and lower synchronization than smaller ones. Flowering is massive and highly synchronized in the biennial species. Sex ratios are not different from 1:1 in the two species, and in the two segregated reproductive subgroups in the biennial flowering species. The biennial flowering at individual level is a novelty among reproductive patterns in plants, separating the population in two reproductive subgroups. A proportional increase in the reproductive output with size exists only for the annual flowering species. A biennial flowering can allow resource storage favouring massive flowering for all the individuals diluting their relationship with size.

  7. Human phylogeography and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Harcourt, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    Homo sapiens phylogeography begins with the species’ origin nearly 200 kya in Africa. First signs of the species outside Africa (in Arabia) are from 125 kya. Earliest dates elsewhere are now 100 kya in China, 45 kya in Australia and southern Europe (maybe even 60 kya in Australia), 32 kya in northeast Siberia, and maybe 20 kya in the Americas. Humans reached arctic regions and oceanic islands last—arctic North America about 5 kya, mid- and eastern Pacific islands about 2–1 kya, and New Zealand about 700 y ago. Initial routes along coasts seem the most likely given abundant and easily harvested shellfish there as indicated by huge ancient oyster shell middens on all continents. Nevertheless, the effect of geographic barriers—mountains and oceans—is clear. The phylogeographic pattern of diasporas from several single origins—northeast Africa to Eurasia, southeast Eurasia to Australia, and northeast Siberia to the Americas—allows the equivalent of a repeat experiment on the relation between geography and phylogenetic and cultural diversity. On all continents, cultural diversity is high in productive low latitudes, presumably because such regions can support populations of sustainable size in a small area, therefore allowing a high density of cultures. Of course, other factors operate. South America has an unusually low density of cultures in its tropical latitudes. A likely factor is the phylogeographic movement of peoples from the Old World bringing novel and hence, lethal diseases to the New World, a foretaste, perhaps, of present day global transport of tropical diseases. PMID:27432967

  8. Human phylogeography and diversity.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Alexander H

    2016-07-19

    Homo sapiens phylogeography begins with the species' origin nearly 200 kya in Africa. First signs of the species outside Africa (in Arabia) are from 125 kya. Earliest dates elsewhere are now 100 kya in China, 45 kya in Australia and southern Europe (maybe even 60 kya in Australia), 32 kya in northeast Siberia, and maybe 20 kya in the Americas. Humans reached arctic regions and oceanic islands last-arctic North America about 5 kya, mid- and eastern Pacific islands about 2-1 kya, and New Zealand about 700 y ago. Initial routes along coasts seem the most likely given abundant and easily harvested shellfish there as indicated by huge ancient oyster shell middens on all continents. Nevertheless, the effect of geographic barriers-mountains and oceans-is clear. The phylogeographic pattern of diasporas from several single origins-northeast Africa to Eurasia, southeast Eurasia to Australia, and northeast Siberia to the Americas-allows the equivalent of a repeat experiment on the relation between geography and phylogenetic and cultural diversity. On all continents, cultural diversity is high in productive low latitudes, presumably because such regions can support populations of sustainable size in a small area, therefore allowing a high density of cultures. Of course, other factors operate. South America has an unusually low density of cultures in its tropical latitudes. A likely factor is the phylogeographic movement of peoples from the Old World bringing novel and hence, lethal diseases to the New World, a foretaste, perhaps, of present day global transport of tropical diseases.

  9. Relationships of efficiency to reproductive disorders in Danish milk production: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawson, L G; Bruun, J; Coelli, T; Agger, J F; Lund, M

    2004-01-01

    Relationships of various reproductive disorders and milk production performance of Danish dairy farms were investigated. A stochastic frontier production function was estimated using data collected in 1998 from 514 Danish dairy farms. Measures of farm-level milk production efficiency relative to this production frontier were obtained, and relationships between milk production efficiency and the incidence risk of reproductive disorders were examined. There were moderate positive relationships between milk production efficiency and retained placenta, induction of estrus, uterine infections, ovarian cysts, and induction of birth. Inclusion of reproductive management variables showed that these moderate relationships disappeared, but directions of coefficients for almost all those variables remained the same. Dystocia showed a weak negative correlation with milk production efficiency. Farms that were mainly managed by young farmers had the highest average efficiency scores. The estimated milk losses due to inefficiency averaged 1142, 488, and 256 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow, respectively, for low-, medium-, and high-efficiency herds. It is concluded that the availability of younger cows, which enabled farmers to replace cows with reproductive disorders, contributed to high cow productivity in efficient farms. Thus, a high replacement rate more than compensates for the possible negative effect of reproductive disorders. The use of frontier production and efficiency/inefficiency functions to analyze herd data may enable dairy advisors to identify inefficient herds and to simulate the effect of alternative management procedures on the individual herd's efficiency.

  10. INTRASPECIFIC PHYLOGEOGRAPHY ACROSS THE POINT CONCEPTION BIOGEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARY.

    PubMed

    Burton, Ronald S

    1998-06-01

    Recent studies of intraspecific phylogeography have suggested that the geographic location of genetic discontinuities, or phylogeographic breaks, may frequently coincide with biogeographic boundaries. The concordance is hypothesized to reflect similarity in the processes governing species boundaries and intraspecific lineage boundaries. This concordance has not, however, been widely tested. In the case of the Point Conception biogeographic boundary between the Oregonian and Californian marine biotas, only the supralittoral copepod Tigriopus californicus has been found to have a coincident phylogeographic break. Here I show that the apparent relationship between this break and Point Conception was, in fact, an artifact of insufficient geographic sampling. Mitochondrial DNA analyses of T. californicus populations between Morro Bay and San Diego reveal at least five equally deep phylogeographic breaks in the region (where only one biogeographic boundary is recognized). Limited nuclear DNA sequence data and allozyme data also support the occurrence of multiple genetic discontinuities along this geographic range. Lack of one-to-one correspondence between intraspecific phylogeography and biogeographic boundaries indicates that the processes affecting the genetic differentiation of populations of T. californicus differ from those responsible for determining species distributional limits at the Point Conception biogeographic boundary. A review of genetic data from other species also fails to provide evidence for concordance of biogeography and intraspecific phylogeography across Point Conception. I suggest that the concordance of phylogeography with biogeography will only be pronounced where the biogeographic boundary separates biotas that are phylogenetically related. The numerous cases of interspecific hybrid zones in the region of Cape Canaveral, for example, indicate that many sister-species pairs occur across this biogeographic boundary. Such hybrid zones are not

  11. Mammal Reproductive Strategies Driven by Offspring Mortality-Size Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifestyle. Results suggest that preweaning vulnerability to predation has been the major factor determining how female placental mammals allocate production between a few large and many small offspring within a litter and between a few large litters and many small ones within a reproductive season. Artiodactyls, perissodactyls, cetaceans, and pinnipeds, which give birth in the open on land or in the sea, produce a few large offspring, at infrequent intervals, because this increases their chances of escaping predation. Insectivores, fissiped carnivores, lagomorphs, and rodents, whose offspring are protected in burrows or nests, produce large litters of small newborns. Primates, bats, sloths, and anteaters, which carry their young from birth until weaning, produce litters of one or a few offspring because of the need to transport and care for them. PMID:19374555

  12. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  13. Relationships of surrounding riparian habitat to nest-box use and reproductive outcome in House Wrens

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1989-01-01

    I assessed relationships among habitat structure, nest-site selection, and reproductive outcome of House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) by establishing three nest-box grids in riparian woodlands in southeastern Wyoming. Over a 3-year period, 37% of the boxes contained House Wren nests; 20% contained unused nests built by male House Wrens; and 42% were never used by wrens....

  14. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  15. "It just alienated us": a case study to explore the impact of assisted reproductive technology on family relationships.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra; Rudge, Trudy

    2007-01-01

    New reproductive technologies have the capacity to impact on both personal and healthcare relationships. This article utilizes a case study approach to unpack experiences of one couple who encountered immense and unforeseen difficulties as a result of treatment with assisted reproductive technology. Findings of this case reveal both difficulties and breaches in obtaining informed consent and the consequences these breaches have on relationships. Comprehensive information contributes to positive relationships between patients and healthcare providers. Maintaining supportive relationships between all parties concerned with assisted reproductive technology services is essential, as rifts in these relationships can be devastating and long-lasting.

  16. Evolutionary lessons from California plant phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Sork, Victoria L.; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography documents the spatial distribution of genetic lineages that result from demographic processes, such as population expansion, population contraction, and gene movement, shaped by climate fluctuations and the physical landscape. Because most phylogeographic studies have used neutral markers, the role of selection may have been undervalued. In this paper, we contend that plants provide a useful evolutionary lesson about the impact of selection on spatial patterns of neutral genetic variation, when the environment affects which individuals can colonize new sites, and on adaptive genetic variation, when environmental heterogeneity creates divergence at specific loci underlying local adaptation. Specifically, we discuss five characteristics found in plants that intensify the impact of selection: sessile growth form, high reproductive output, leptokurtic dispersal, isolation by environment, and the potential to evolve longevity. Collectively, these traits exacerbate the impact of environment on movement between populations and local selection pressures—both of which influence phylogeographic structure. We illustrate how these unique traits shape these processes with case studies of the California endemic oak, Quercus lobata, and the western North American lichen, Ramalina menziesii. Obviously, the lessons we learn from plant traits are not unique to plants, but they highlight the need for future animal, plant, and microbe studies to incorporate its impact. Modern tools that generate genome-wide sequence data are now allowing us to decipher how evolutionary processes affect the spatial distribution of different kinds of genes and also to better model future spatial distribution of species in response to climate change. PMID:27432984

  17. Phenotypic relationships between docility and reproduction in Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    White, K L; Bormann, J M; Olson, K C; Jaeger, J R; Johnson, S; Downey, B; Grieger, D M; Waggoner, J W; Moser, D W; Weaber, R L

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the phenotypic relationships between docility and first-service AI conception rate in heifers. Data ( = 337) collected from 3 cooperator herds in Kansas at the start of synchronization protocol included exit velocity (EV), chute score (CS), fecal cortisol (FC), and blood serum cortisol (BC). Data were analyzed using logistic regression with 30-d pregnancy rate as the dependent variable. The model included the fixed effect of contemporary group and the covariates FC, BC, EV, CS, BW, and age. Correlation coefficients were calculated between all continuous traits. Pregnancy rate ranged from 34% to 60% between herds. Blood cortisol positively correlated with EV ( = 0.22, < 0.01), negatively correlated with age ( = -0.12, < 0.03), and tended to be negatively correlated with BW ( = -0.10, = 0.09). Exit velocity was positively correlated with CS ( = 0.24, < 0.01) and negatively correlated with BW ( = -0.15, < 0.01) and age ( = -0.12, < 0.03). Chute score negatively correlated with age ( = -0.14, < 0.01), and age and BW were moderately positively correlated ( = 0.42, < 0.01), as expected. Older, heavier animals generally had better temperament, as indicated by lower BC, EV, and CS. The power of our test could detect no significant predictors of 30-d pregnancy for the combined data from all ranches. When the data were divided by ranch, CS ( < 0.03) and BW ( < 0.01) were both significant predictors for 30-d pregnancy for ranch 1. The odds ratio estimate for CS has an inverse relationship with pregnancy, meaning that a 1-unit increase in average CS will reduce the probability of pregnancy at ranch 1 by 48.1%. Weight also has a negative impact on pregnancy because a 1-kg increase in BW will decrease the probability of pregnancy by 2.2%. Fertility is a complex trait that depends on many factors; our data suggest that docility is 1 factor that warrants further investigation.

  18. Relationship between reproductive success and male plasma vitellogenin concentrations in cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Lesley J; Gutjahr-Gobell, Ruth E; Horowitz, Doranne Borsay; Denslow, Nancy D; Chow, Marjorie C; Zaroogian, Gerald E

    2003-01-01

    The gene for vitellogenin, an egg yolk protein precursor, is usually silent in male fish but can be induced by estrogen exposure. For this reason, vitellogenin production in male fish has become a widely used indicator of exposure to exogenous estrogens or estrogen mimics in the aquatic environment. The utility of this indicator to predict impacts on fish reproductive success is unclear because information on the relationship between male plasma vitellogenin and reproductive end points in male and female fish is limited. In the research reported in this article, we investigated whether the presence of male plasma vitellogenin is a reliable indicator of decreased reproductive success in mature fish. Adult and sexually mature male and female cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) were exposed to 17ss-estradiol, ethynylestradiol, or estrone, three steroidal estrogens that elicit the vitellogenic response. Data were gathered and pooled on egg production, egg viability, egg fertility, sperm motility, and male plasma vitellogenin concentrations. All males, including two with plasma vitellogenin levels exceeding 300 mg/mL, produced motile sperm. Neither percent fertile eggs nor percent viable eggs produced by reproductively active fish demonstrated a significant correlation with male plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Male gonadosomatic index and average daily egg production by females showed significant, but weak, negative correlation with male plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Results suggest that male plasma vitellogenin expression is not a reliable indicator of male reproductive dysfunction in adult cunner exposed to estrogens for 2-8 weeks during their reproductive season, at least in relation to capacity to produce motile sperm or fertilize eggs. Male plasma vitellogenin expression may serve as an indicator of reduced female reproductive function caused by estrogen exposure. PMID:12515685

  19. Relationship between reproduction traits and functional longevity in canadian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Sewalem, A; Miglior, F; Kistemaker, G J; Sullivan, P; Van Doormaal, B J

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to use survival analysis to assess the relationship between reproduction traits and functional longevity of Canadian dairy cattle. Data consisted of 1,702,857; 67,470; and 33,190 Holstein, Ayrshire, and Jersey cows, respectively. Functional longevity was defined as the number of days from first calving to culling, death, or censoring; adjusted for the effect of milk yield. The reproduction traits included calving traits (calving ease, calf size, and calf survival) and female fertility traits (number of services, days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open). The statistical model was a Weibull proportional hazards model and included the fixed effects of stage of lactation, season of production, the annual change in herd size, and type of milk recording supervision, age at first calving, effects of milk, fat, and protein yields calculated as within herd-year-parity deviations for each reproduction trait. Herd-year-season of calving and sire were included as random effects. Analysis was performed separately for each reproductive trait. Significant associations between reproduction traits and longevity were observed in all breeds. Increased risk of culling was observed for cows that required hard pull, calved small calves, or dead calves. Moreover, cows that require more services per conception, a longer interval between first service to conception, an interval between calving to first service greater than 90 d, and increased days open were at greater risk of being culled.

  20. Relationships among reproductive morphology, behavior, and testosterone in a natural population of green anole lizards.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michele A; Cohen, Rachel E; Vandecar, Joseph R; Wade, Juli

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory studies of reproductive systems have long supported the idea that neural and/or muscular structures used frequently are often enhanced in size. However, field studies integrating behavioral, morphological, and hormonal data are needed to better understand relationships in natural environments. We examined a natural population of green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) to determine whether variation in reproductive morphology both within and between the sexes paralleled differences in courtship and copulatory behaviors and circulating testosterone levels. Display rate in males was positively correlated with the sizes of the cartilage supporting the dewlap (a throat fan used in courtship and aggression) and renal sex segments (portions of the kidney that function similarly to the mammalian prostate), but correlated negatively with seminiferous tubule size. Plasma testosterone in males was negatively correlated with display behavior and was not correlated with any measures of morphology. Females, which display rarely, exhibited no relationships between morphology and frequency of behavior. Comparisons between the sexes show that males have consistently larger courtship and copulation morphologies than females, even when accounting for sex differences in body size. The results not only support the idea of relationships between increased function and enhanced structures, but also show the complexity of mechanistic interactions associated with reproductive behavior in wild animals.

  1. Determining the pattern of cementum annuli and relationship to reproduction in male sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by

  2. Genetic relationships among traits related to reproduction and growth of Nelore females.

    PubMed

    Eler, J P; Bignardi, A B; Ferraz, J B S; Santana, M L

    2014-09-15

    The objective of the study presented here was to analyze the genetic relationships among heifer pregnancy (HP), age at first calving (AFC), stayability (STAY), average annual productivity of the cow, in kilograms of weaned calf per cow per year (PRODAM), postweaning weight gain (PWG), and hip height (HH) of Nelore females from 12 Brazilian herds. (Co)variance components were obtained by six-trait animal model using Gibbs sampling. The posterior mean of the heritability estimates were 0.37, 0.18, 0.19, 0.16, 0.21, and 0.37 for HP, AFC, STAY, PRODAM, PWG, and HH, respectively. In general, the genetic correlations were strong between traits related to reproduction, for example, -0.85 between HP and AFC, and 0.94 between STAY and PRODAM. Weak genetic correlations were obtained between reproductive and growth traits (absolute values ranging from 0.02 to 0.30). Although weak, the genetic correlations between PWG and reproductive traits were favorable, whereas the genetic correlations between HH and reproductive traits were close to zero and slightly unfavorable for HP, AFC, and STAY. An increase of HH is therefore expected to have little or no negative effect on the reproductive performance of females. The posterior mean of genetic correlation between PWG and HH was moderate (0.50). On the basis of the heritability, genetic correlation estimates, and time to obtain data, HP and PRODAM seems to show the best potential as selection criteria to improve the productive and reproductive performance of Nelore females. In principle, it is possible to select for increased PWG without compromising the reproduction of Nelore females. However, selection for PWG may result in an increase of female HH as a correlated response, a fact that could increase management costs in advanced generations of selection. In the light of the results, all traits studied here can be used as selection criteria and there is no strong evidence of genetic antagonism among traits related to reproduction

  3. [Prospect of application of molecular phylogeography in study of geoherbs].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingjun; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Lanping; Shao, Aijuan

    2009-08-01

    This paper firstly introduces the concept, method and current research of molecular phylogeography and then discusses its application in the study of geoherbs. The relativity between three genetic differentiation patterns of plant inferred by molecular phylogeography (i.e. allopatric fragmentation, restricted gene flow with isolation by distance and range expansion) and the formation of genuine character is analysed. Molecular authentication of geoherbs based on molecular phylogeography has the advantage of former molecular identification at technology and knowing genetic differentiation of geoherbs. Using molecular phylogeography for study on changing history of geoherbs habitat is also explicated. The problem of germplasm degeneration in cultural geoherbs could be effectively resolved by molecular phylogeography method. The application of molecular phylogeography in these subjects opens up prospects for study on geoherbs by using the principle and method of molecular phylogeography.

  4. Families created by assisted reproduction: parent-child relationships in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 in vitro fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63 natural conception families matched for demographic characteristics. A significantly higher level of mother-adolescent warmth was found between the assisted reproduction and the adoptive families, between the DI and natural conception families and between the DI and IVF families. IVF mothers showed significantly greater disciplinary indulgence than natural conception mothers, and significantly lower disciplinary aggression than DI mothers. No differences were identified between fathers for warmth or conflict. Only 2 DI children were aware of their donor conception.

  5. Growing more positive with age: The relationship between reproduction and survival in aging flies.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Joost; Zandveld, Jelle; Brakefield, Paul M; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Shanley, Daryl P; Zwaan, Bas J

    2017-04-01

    Populations of laboratory animals that are selected for increased lifespan often show negative correlated responses in early fecundity. However, late fecundity and/or total lifetime fecundity can be higher in the populations selected for increased lifespan. This has been interpreted by some as being at odds with the disposable soma theory, which predicts decreased lifespan to increase total reproductive output. Alternatively, the Y-model explores the effects of variation in resource allocation and acquisition on life histories. In this model, a negative relationship between lifespan and reproduction can be viewed as variation in allocation, whereas a positive relationship is the result of variation in acquisition. However, a frequently neglected complication of the Y-model is that older individuals often show a decline in resource acquisition. Therefore, differential allocation to maintenance and survival might affect this decline in late-life acquisition which will affect resource availability across the whole lifespan. In this paper we show that a model which incorporates the ideas of the Y-model, the disposable soma theory, and an age-related decrease in resource acquisition, i.e. feeding senescence, can explain how the relationship between fecundity and lifespan changes with age. Furthermore, by modeling environments with contrasting extrinsic mortality rates, we explored how the outcome of the model depended on the relative importance of early and late-life reproduction. In high mortality environments a relatively higher early fecundity, lower late fecundity, and lower lifespans were more optimal, whereas the opposite was true for low mortality environments. We applied predictions from the model to a cohort of individually-housed female Drosophila melanogaster flies for which we measured age specific fecundity and lifespan. Early fecundity was negatively associated with lifespan, while late fecundity related positively with lifespan in the same cohort. This

  6. Reproduction, foraging and the negative density-area relationship of a generalist rodent.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Meikle, Douglas B

    2005-07-01

    While many species show positive relationships between population density and habitat patch area, some species consistently show higher densities in smaller patches. Few studies have examined mechanisms that may cause species to have negative density-area relationships. We tested the hypothesis that greater reproduction in edge versus interior habitats and small versus large fragments contributes to higher densities of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in small versus large forest fragments. We also examined vegetation structure and foraging tray utilization to evaluate if greater reproduction was a result of higher food availability. There were greater number of litters and proportion of females producing litters in the edge versus interior of forest fragments, which may have contributed to greater population growth rates and higher densities in edge versus interior and small versus large fragments. Data on vegetation structure and giving-up densities of seeds in artificial patches suggest that food availability may be higher in edge versus interior habitats and small versus large fragments. These results, in an area with few or no long-tailed weasels, provide a distinct contrast to the findings of Morris and Davidson (Ecology 81:2061, 2000) who observed lower reproduction in forest edge habitat as a result of high weasel predation, suggesting that specialist predators may be important in affecting the quality of edge habitat. While we cannot exclude the potential contributions of immigration, emigration, and mortality, our data suggest that greater reproduction in edge versus interior habitat is an important factor contributing to higher densities of P. leucopus in small fragments.

  7. Relationships of Reproductive Traits With the Phylogeny of the African Noctuid Stem Borers.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane; Frérot, Brigitte; Genestier, Gilles; Ahuya, Peter; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Le Ru, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B. sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M. sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis, and S. nonagrioides. For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night) were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA), Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA), showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed.

  8. Relationships of Reproductive Traits With the Phylogeny of the African Noctuid Stem Borers

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane; Frérot, Brigitte; Genestier, Gilles; Ahuya, Peter; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Le Ru, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B. sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M. sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis, and S. nonagrioides. For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night) were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA), Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA), showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed. PMID:27867304

  9. The relationships between temperature changes and reproductive investment in a Mediterranean goby: Insights for the assessment of climate change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetta, M.; Cipolato, G.; Pranovi, F.; Antonetti, P.; Torricelli, P.; Franzoi, P.; Malavasi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relationships between changes in water temperature and the timing and level of reproductive investment were investigated in an estuarine fish, inhabiting the Venice lagoon: the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. A time series of the mean monthly values of gonado-somatic index was coupled with thermal profiles of lagoon water temperatures over 14 years, from 1997 to 2010. Results showed that the reproductive investment was positively affected by water temperature changes, both in terms of monthly thermal anomalies and cumulative degree days. A predictive model was also developed to assess the temporal shift of reproductive peaks as a response to inter-annual thermal fluctuations. This model allowed the detection of deviations from the median level, indicating that during warmer years, the reproductive peak tended to occur earlier than during colder years. The model is therefore proposed as a tool to predict anticipated consequences of climate change on fish phenology in transitional waters, regarding recurrent biological phenomena, such as reproduction and recruitment.

  10. Comparative phylogeography of the ocean planet

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Brian W.; Gaither, Michelle R.; DiBattista, Joseph D.; Iacchei, Matthew; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Grant, W. Stewart; Toonen, Robert J.; Briggs, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how geography, oceanography, and climate have ultimately shaped marine biodiversity requires aligning the distributions of genetic diversity across multiple taxa. Here, we examine phylogeographic partitions in the sea against a backdrop of biogeographic provinces defined by taxonomy, endemism, and species composition. The taxonomic identities used to define biogeographic provinces are routinely accompanied by diagnostic genetic differences between sister species, indicating interspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. In cases where individual species are distributed across two or more biogeographic provinces, shifts in genotype frequencies often align with biogeographic boundaries, providing intraspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. Here, we provide examples of comparative phylogeography from (i) tropical seas that host the highest marine biodiversity, (ii) temperate seas with high productivity but volatile coastlines, (iii) migratory marine fauna, and (iv) plankton that are the most abundant eukaryotes on earth. Tropical and temperate zones both show impacts of glacial cycles, the former primarily through changing sea levels, and the latter through coastal habitat disruption. The general concordance between biogeography and phylogeography indicates that the population-level genetic divergences observed between provinces are a starting point for macroevolutionary divergences between species. However, isolation between provinces does not account for all marine biodiversity; the remainder arises through alternative pathways, such as ecological speciation and parapatric (semiisolated) divergences within provinces and biodiversity hotspots. PMID:27432963

  11. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rissler, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the “microgeographic races” of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography. PMID:27432989

  12. Comparative phylogeography of the ocean planet.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Brian W; Gaither, Michelle R; DiBattista, Joseph D; Iacchei, Matthew; Andrews, Kimberly R; Grant, W Stewart; Toonen, Robert J; Briggs, John C

    2016-07-19

    Understanding how geography, oceanography, and climate have ultimately shaped marine biodiversity requires aligning the distributions of genetic diversity across multiple taxa. Here, we examine phylogeographic partitions in the sea against a backdrop of biogeographic provinces defined by taxonomy, endemism, and species composition. The taxonomic identities used to define biogeographic provinces are routinely accompanied by diagnostic genetic differences between sister species, indicating interspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. In cases where individual species are distributed across two or more biogeographic provinces, shifts in genotype frequencies often align with biogeographic boundaries, providing intraspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. Here, we provide examples of comparative phylogeography from (i) tropical seas that host the highest marine biodiversity, (ii) temperate seas with high productivity but volatile coastlines, (iii) migratory marine fauna, and (iv) plankton that are the most abundant eukaryotes on earth. Tropical and temperate zones both show impacts of glacial cycles, the former primarily through changing sea levels, and the latter through coastal habitat disruption. The general concordance between biogeography and phylogeography indicates that the population-level genetic divergences observed between provinces are a starting point for macroevolutionary divergences between species. However, isolation between provinces does not account for all marine biodiversity; the remainder arises through alternative pathways, such as ecological speciation and parapatric (semiisolated) divergences within provinces and biodiversity hotspots.

  13. Shifting phenology and abundance under experimental warming alters trophic relationships and plant reproductive capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinzhan; Reich, Peter B; Li, Guoyong; Sun, Shucun

    2011-06-01

    Phenological mismatches due to climate change may have important ecological consequences. In a three-year study, phenological shifts due to experimental warming markedly altered trophic relationships between plants and insect herbivores, causing a dramatic decline of reproductive capacity for one of the plant species. In a Tibetan meadow, the gentian (Gentiana formosa) typically flowers after the peak larva density of a noctuid moth (Melanchra pisi) that primarily feeds on a dominant forb (anemone, Anemone trullifolia var. linearis). However, artificial warming of approximately 1.5 degrees C advanced gentian flower phenology and anemone vegetative phenology by a week, but delayed moth larvae emergence by two weeks. The warming increased larval density 10-fold, but decreased anemone density by 30%. The phenological and density shifts under warmed conditions resulted in the insect larvae feeding substantially on the gentian flowers and ovules; there was approximately 100-fold more damage in warmed than in unwarmed chambers. This radically increased trophic connection reduced gentian plant reproduction and likely contributed to its reduced abundance in the warmed chambers.

  14. [The relationship between clinical outcomes of reproduc-tive abnormalities and chromosome polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Rong; Deng, Jian-Xia; Li, Jin-Jin

    2007-11-01

    To study the relationship between chromosome polymorphism and clinical effect of reproductive abnormalities, we prepared chromosomes from peripheral blood lymphocytes and carried out G/C banding and karyotype analyses. Out of 1 414 cases who came in for genetic counseling, 273 had chromosome abnormalities. Among these 273 cases, 180 cases (65.93%) were karyotype variations, with the remaining 93 cases (34.07%) being non-polymorphic chromosomal abnormalities. Karyotype variations included 10 cases of satellite increases in the D/G group, 35 cases of secondary constriction increases, 99 cases of big or small Y chromosome, 6 cases of pericentric inversion of chromosome Y and 30 cases of pericentric inversion of chromosome 9. These results indicated that clinical effect such as abortion, sterility, stillbirth and congenital malformation are mainly related to chromosome polymorphisms.

  15. Allometric Relationships to Estimate Seasonal Above‐ground Vegetative and Reproductive Biomass of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    CASTELAN‐ESTRADA, M.; VIVIN, P.; GAUDILLlÈRE, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure is described for obtaining allometric regression equations to estimate non‐destructively and in a cost‐effective manner the current year’s above‐ground vegetative and reproductive biomass of Vitis vinifera L. ‘Merlot’ throughout the growing season. Significant relationships were obtained over a 3‐year period (1998–2000) between the dimensions of an individual shoot per vine (i.e. diameter and length) and dry weights of its primary stem, primary leaves and lateral growth. The dry mass of a grape was best estimated from measurements of the basal diameter of the bunch peduncle. Introducing cumulative degree‐days as an additional explanatory variable in the equations allowed them to be used irrespective of year and growth stage. Multi‐year regressions were used to quantify in detail the seasonal evolution of mature grapevine biomass under the climatic conditions of the Bordeaux area, France, and for differing levels of soil nitrogen. PMID:12096800

  16. Twins conceived using assisted reproduction: parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment at middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kayla N; Koh, Bibiana D; Connor, Jennifer J; Koerner, Ascan F; Damario, Mark; Rueter, Martha A

    2014-10-10

    Compared with singletons, what is the parent mental health, parent-child and couple relationship satisfaction, and child adjustment of 6- to 12-year-old assisted reproduction technology (ART) twins and their families? There are no differences between 6- and 12-year-old ART twin and singleton families in parent mental health or family relationships; however, twins had significantly fewer behavior and attention problems than singletons in middle childhood. When ART twins are younger than 5 years old, parents have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child relationship quality, and no differences have been found in ART twin and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. However, studies have only examined the implications of ART twin status in families with infant and toddler aged children. A cross-sectional study of 300 6-12-year-old ART children (n = 124 twins and n = 176 singletons) from 206 families at a reproductive endocrinology clinic in the USA. Patients from one clinic with a child born between 1998 and 2004 were invited to participate in an online survey (82% recruitment rate). Participants provided information on each 6- to 12-year-old ART child in the family, and responded to questions on parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment. There were no differences in parent mental health or family relationships in families with 6- to 12-year-old ART twins versus singletons. However, twins (M = 2.40, SE = 0.35) had significantly fewer behavior problems than singletons (M = 3.47, SE = 0.36; F(1, 201) = 4.54, b = 1.08, P < 0.05). Twins (M = 1.86, SD = 0.23) also had fewer attention problems than singletons (M = 2.64, SD = 0.23; F(1, 156) = 5.75, b = 0.78, P < 0.05). Results also suggest that full-term twins had significantly fewer attention problems (M = 1.37, SE = 0.33; F(1, 222) = 2.65, P = 0.05) than premature twins (M = 2.32, SE = 0.32, b = 0.95, P < 0.05), full-term singletons (M = 2.25, SE = 0.21, b = 0.88, P < 0.05) and premature

  17. Resolving postglacial phylogeography using high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Kevin J.; Merz, Clayton R.; Catchen, Julian M.; Hohenlohe, Paul A.; Cresko, William A.; Bradshaw, William E.; Holzapfel, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    The distinction between model and nonmodel organisms is becoming increasingly blurred. High-throughput, second-generation sequencing approaches are being applied to organisms based on their interesting ecological, physiological, developmental, or evolutionary properties and not on the depth of genetic information available for them. Here, we illustrate this point using a low-cost, efficient technique to determine the fine-scale phylogenetic relationships among recently diverged populations in a species. This application of restriction site-associated DNA tags (RAD tags) reveals previously unresolved genetic structure and direction of evolution in the pitcher plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, from a southern Appalachian Mountain refugium following recession of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at 22,000–19,000 B.P. The RAD tag method can be used to identify detailed patterns of phylogeography in any organism regardless of existing genomic data, and, more broadly, to identify incipient speciation and genome-wide variation in natural populations in general. PMID:20798348

  18. Relationships among specific reasons for culling, reproductive data, and gross morphology of the genital tracts in gilts culled due to reproductive failure in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, P; Kesdangsakonwut, S; Kunavongkrit, A

    2009-01-15

    The present study aims to investigate genital organs of replacement gilts culled due to reproductive failure, and the relationship between gross morphological findings and historical reproductive data. The study was conducted from July 2005 to September 2006 and included a random sample of 200 genital organs from six swine herds in Thailand. Historical data and the reasons for culling were analyzed. Gross morphological examinations focused on the normality and abnormalities of the ovaries, as well as the remainder of the reproductive tract. Descriptive statistics and frequency analysis were conducted for all reproductive parameters. On average, the gilts were culled at 321.2+/-51.1d of age, at a body weight of 145.3+/-24.2kg. Gilts expressed first estrus at 253.2+/-32.7d and were artificially inseminated for the first time at 268.2+/-30.8d of age. The interval from entry to culling averaged 96.9+/-53.7d. Reasons for culling included anestrus (44.0%), vaginal discharge (20.5%), repeat breeding (15.5%), not being pregnant (10.0%), and miscellaneous causes (10.0%). Overall, 50.5% of gilts had normal genital organs, whereas 49.5% had at least one abnormality. Abnormalities of the ovary, oviduct, uterus, cervix and vagina-vestibule were found in 15.5%, 14.0%, 22.0%, 16.2%, and 17.6% of the gilts, respectively. The most common post-mortem abnormalities included endometritis (14.0%), cystic ovaries (10.5%) and congenital abnormalities of the reproductive tract (8.0%). Of the gilts culled due to anestrus, 52.2% were pre-pubertal. Most of the gilts culled due to vaginal discharge or repeat breeding had been cycling (90.2% and 96.8%, respectively).

  19. Thermal Tolerance in Anuran Embryos with Different Reproductive Modes: Relationship to Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Anurans are ectothermic animals very sensitive to temperature, mainly during the embryonic stage. In addition, environmental temperature decreases with altitude, and the amphibian fauna changes. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the embryonic thermal tolerances of twelve species of anurans and the temperatures of their microhabitat along an altitudinal gradient from 430 m to 2600 m. We hypothesized that there is a strong thermal adjustment of embryos to their microhabitat and, consequently, that temperature could be a limiting factor of altitudinal distribution of the anurans. We also compared the embryonic thermal tolerances according to six postulated reproductive modes of the study species. We found a significant relationship between the maximum and minimum thermal tolerances of the anuran embryos and the maximum and minimum temperatures of their microhabitat and altitudinal distribution. We also found a wide range of embryonic thermal tolerances for aquatic breeding species and a narrower range for terrestrial breeding species. Particularly, embryos of direct development species were the most sensitive to temperature. These results show the strong thermal adjustment of anuran embryos to their microhabitat and elevation and do not reject the hypothesis that temperature can be a limiting factor of their altitudinal distribution. PMID:23766678

  20. The Relationship of Appetitive, Reproductive and Posterior Pituitary Hormones to Alcoholism and Craving in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder. PMID:22772772

  1. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans.

    PubMed

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  2. Relationship between urinary concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites and reproductive hormones in polyvinyl chloride production workers.

    PubMed

    Fong, Jer-Pei; Lee, Fang-Jin; Lu, I-Syuan; Uang, Shi-Nian; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and reproductive hormones in workers of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production plants. After exposure, most of the DEHP is rapidly metabolised to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), which may be associated with reproductive hormone interruption and testicular toxicity. Some studies report that urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites for plastics workers are significantly higher than for the general population. However, little is known about the disruption of reproductive hormones for DEHP exposure workers. This cross-sectional study of 82 male workers measured the biomarkers for their reproductive hormones and their exposure to DEHP. Relationships between urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites were estimated using multivariate linear regression and quartile analysis models. The geometric means of urinary creatinine-adjusted (μg/g-Cre) concentrations of MEHP, MEOHP and MEHHP during the post-shift period were 23.9, 66.9 and 84.6, respectively. In multiple regression models adjusted for potential confounders, there were significant positive associations between urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and estradiol (E2) (p<0.01), and in the ratio of E2 to testosterone (p<0.05). Moreover, quartile analysis showed significant positive relationships between the total urinary concentration of DEHP metabolites and E2 (ptrend=0.024), and in the ratio of E2 to testosterone (ptrend=0.031). Relationships between reproductive hormones and the total urinary concentration of DEHP metabolites in male PVC production workers were significantly positive. This indicated that aromatase activity had increased in male workers exposed to DEHP, which is consistent with animal studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  3. The relationship between mood and sleep in different female reproductive states.

    PubMed

    Toffol, Elena; Kalleinen, Nea; Urrila, Anna Sofia; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Partonen, Timo; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2014-06-16

    Sleep is disrupted in depressed subjects, but it also deteriorates with age and possibly with the transition to menopause. The nature of interaction between mood, sleep, age and reproductive state is not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mood and sleep among healthy women in different reproductive states. We analyzed data from 11 younger (20-26 years), 21 perimenopausal (43-51 years) and 29 postmenopausal (58-71 years) healthy women who participated in a study on menopause, sleep and cognition. The 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to assess mood. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ). Objective sleep was measured with all-night polysomnography (PSG) recordings. Perimenopausal and younger women were examined during the first days of their menstrual cycle at the follicular phase. Among younger women, less arousals associated with higher BDI total scores (p = 0.026), and higher SWS percentages with more dissatisfaction (p = 0.001) and depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.025), but with less depressive-emotional symptoms (p = 0.001). In specific, less awakenings either from REM sleep or SWS, respectively, associated with more punishment (p = 0.005; p = 0.036), more dissatisfaction (p < 0.001; p = 0.001) and more depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.001; p = 0.009), but with less depressive-emotional symptoms (p = 0.002; p = 0.003). In perimenopausal women, higher BNSQ insomnia scores (p = 0.005), lower sleep efficiencies (p = 0.022) and shorter total sleep times (p = 0.024) associated with higher BDI scores, longer sleep latencies with more depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.032) and longer REM latencies with more dissatisfaction (p = 0.017). In postmenopausal women, higher REM percentages associated with higher BDI total scores (p = 0.019) and more depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.005), and longer SWS latencies with more depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0

  4. The relationship between mood and sleep in different female reproductive states

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep is disrupted in depressed subjects, but it also deteriorates with age and possibly with the transition to menopause. The nature of interaction between mood, sleep, age and reproductive state is not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mood and sleep among healthy women in different reproductive states. Methods We analyzed data from 11 younger (20–26 years), 21 perimenopausal (43–51 years) and 29 postmenopausal (58–71 years) healthy women who participated in a study on menopause, sleep and cognition. The 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to assess mood. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ). Objective sleep was measured with all-night polysomnography (PSG) recordings. Perimenopausal and younger women were examined during the first days of their menstrual cycle at the follicular phase. Results Among younger women, less arousals associated with higher BDI total scores (p = 0.026), and higher SWS percentages with more dissatisfaction (p = 0.001) and depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.025), but with less depressive-emotional symptoms (p = 0.001). In specific, less awakenings either from REM sleep or SWS, respectively, associated with more punishment (p = 0.005; p = 0.036), more dissatisfaction (p < 0.001; p = 0.001) and more depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.001; p = 0.009), but with less depressive-emotional symptoms (p = 0.002; p = 0.003). In perimenopausal women, higher BNSQ insomnia scores (p = 0.005), lower sleep efficiencies (p = 0.022) and shorter total sleep times (p = 0.024) associated with higher BDI scores, longer sleep latencies with more depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.032) and longer REM latencies with more dissatisfaction (p = 0.017). In postmenopausal women, higher REM percentages associated with higher BDI total scores (p = 0.019) and more

  5. Relationships between blood mercury levels, reproduction, and return rate in a small seabird.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Ingrid L; Leonard, Marty L; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Burgess, Neil M; Shutler, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous heavy metal that occurs naturally in the environment, but its levels have been supplemented for decades by a variety of human activities. Mercury can have serious deleterious effects on a variety of organisms, with top predators being particularly susceptible because methylmercury bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in food webs. Among birds, seabirds can have especially high levels of Hg contamination and Leach's storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), in particular, have amongst the highest known levels. Several populations of Leach's storm-petrels have declined recently in the Northwest Atlantic. The causes of these declines remain uncertain, but the toxic effects of Hg could be a potential factor in this decline. Here, we tested for relationships between adult blood total Hg (THg) concentration and several offspring development parameters, and adult return rate of Leach's storm-petrels breeding on Bon Portage Island (43° 28' N, 65° 44' W), Nova Scotia, Canada, between 2011 and 2015 (blood samples n = 20, 36, 6, 15, and 13 for each year, respectively). Overall, THg levels were elevated (0.78 ± 0.43 μg/g wet wt.) compared to other species of seabirds in this region, and varied significantly among years. However, we found no associations between THg levels and reproductive parameters or adult return rate. Our results indicate that levels of mercury observed in Leach's storm-petrel blood, although elevated, appear not to adversely affect their offspring development or adult return rate on Bon Portage Island.

  6. Relationships between early foal health, future performance and their dams reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Hemberg, E; Kindahl, H; Lundeheim, N; Einarsson, S

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate: (i) relationships between early foal health and their dams' reproductive health at mating/conception as well as after parturition and (ii) health status during early foal life and its association with performance as an adult. The study included 35 foals showing clinical symptoms indicating septicaemia, sometimes in combination with other disturbances, within their first 18 h postpartum (Group I). Eighty-eight foals that were healthy during their first few days of life were used as control (Group II). All foals were born in the same region of Sweden and during the same period, and were expected to become performance athletes based upon the pedigree of their parents. Cytological and bacteriological examination of uterus at the time of mating/insemination at which the foal was conceived, revealed no difference between dams of Group I and Group II foals. Within 2-3 days after parturition, 29% and 4% of dams (p < 0.001) of Group I and Group II foals had metritis, respectively. At 30 days post-parturition, 64% of the dams of Group I foals and 32% of the dams of Group II foals (p = 0.002) had cytological indication of endometritis, and 57% of the dams of Group I foals and 21% of the dams of Group II foals (p < 0.001) showed bacterial growth upon culture. Altogether 29% of the Group I foals and 7% of the Group II foals were killed or died before 2 years of age (p = 0.001). The majority of the remaining Group I foals were poor performers and some were used just for pleasure riding. It is hypothesized that (i) mares--delivering foals that compromised within their first 18 h postpartum--might have suffered from an ascending infection during late gestation and (ii) health status during early foal life might be associated with their performance as adult.

  7. [Is there any relationship between rural environmental factors and reproductive health in the Pampa Humeda in Argentina?].

    PubMed

    Oliva, Alejandro; Biasatti, Ricardo; Cloquell, Silvia; González, Cristina; Olego, Susana; Gelin, Alberto

    2008-04-01

    The relationship between environmental factors and health is well known. Rural environmental influences on reproductive health have been properly proved, both in animals and humans. In Latin America, few studies have been conducted in this area. The current project is based on the description of relationships between reproductive health and environmental factors in rural populations, characterized by specific environmental characteristics. Three variables were evaluated: male-to-female birth ratio, male urogenital malformations (cryptorchidism and hypospadias), and endocrine-related cancer incidence. Five rural communities in the Pampa Humeda in Argentina were selected, and the data were compared to the national mean. Biomedical data and environmental risk factors were correlated through a geographic information system. The ratio of male to female births did not show any differences. Malformations showed very significant differences. Endocrine-related cancers showed higher incidence rates compared to the national mean, particularly in some communities. In conclusion, there is a relationship between environmental factors and reproductive health conditions in this region.

  8. Relationship satisfaction in lesbian and heterosexual couples before and after assisted reproduction: a longitudinal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Borneskog, Catrin; Lampic, Claudia; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Svanberg, Agneta Skoog

    2014-12-12

    More and more lesbian couples are planning parenthood through donor insemination and IVF and the number of planned lesbian families is growing in Sweden and other western countries. Research has shown that lesbian couples report as much overall satisfaction in their relationships as do heterosexual couples. However, although parenthood is highly desired, many parents are unaware of the demands of parenthood and the strain on their relationship that the arrival of the baby might bring. The aim of this study was to compare lesbian and heterosexual couples' perceptions of relationship satisfaction at a three-year follow up after assisted reproduction. The present study is a part of the Swedish study on gamete donation, a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The present study constitutes a three-year follow up assessment of lesbian and heterosexual couples after assisted reproduction. Participants requesting assisted reproduction at all fertility clinics performing gamete donation in Sweden, were recruited consecutively during 2005-2008. A total of 114 lesbian women (57 treated women and 57 partners) and 126 heterosexual women and men (63 women and 63 men) participated. Participants responded to the ENRICH inventory at two time points during 2005-2011; at the commencement of treatment (time point 1) and about three years after treatment termination (time point 3). To evaluate the bivariate relationships between the groups (heterosexual and lesbian) and socio-demographic factors Pearson's Chi- square test was used. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for testing of normality, Mann-Whitney U- test to examine differences in ENRICH between the groups and paired samples t-test to examine scores over time. Lesbian couples reported higher relationship satisfaction than heterosexual couples, however the heterosexual couples satisfaction with relationship quality was not low. Both lesbian and heterosexual couples would be classified accordingly to ENRICH-typology as vitalized or

  9. Evolutionary relationships among food habit, loss of flight, and reproductive traits: life-history evolution in the Silphinae (Coleoptera: Silphidae).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kagaya, Takashi; Kubota, Kohei; Abe, Toshio

    2008-08-01

    Flightlessness in insects is generally thought to have evolved due to changes in habitat environment or habitat isolation. Loss of flight may have changed reproductive traits in insects, but very few attempts have been made to assess evolutionary relationships between flight and reproductive traits in a group of related species. We elucidated the evolutionary history of flight loss and its relationship to evolution in food habit, relative reproductive investment, and egg size in the Silphinae (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Most flight-capable species in this group feed primarily on vertebrate carcasses, whereas flightless or flight-dimorphic species feed primarily on soil invertebrates. Ancestral state reconstruction based on our newly constructed molecular phylogenetic tree implied that flight muscle degeneration occurred twice in association with food habit changes from necrophagy to predatory, suggesting that flight loss could evolve independently from changes in the environmental circumstances per se. We found that total egg production increased with flight loss. We also found that egg size increased with decreased egg number following food habit changes in the lineage leading to predaceous species, suggesting that selection for larger larvae intensified with the food habit change. This correlated evolution has shaped diverse life-history patterns among extant species of Silphinae.

  10. Reticulation, divergence, and the phylogeography-phylogenetics continuum.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott V; Potter, Sally; Schmitt, C Jonathan; Bragg, Jason G; Moritz, Craig

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography, and its extensions into comparative phylogeography, have their roots in the layering of gene trees across geography, a paradigm that was greatly facilitated by the nonrecombining, fast evolution provided by animal mtDNA. As phylogeography moves into the era of next-generation sequencing, the specter of reticulation at several levels-within loci and genomes in the form of recombination and across populations and species in the form of introgression-has raised its head with a prominence even greater than glimpsed during the nuclear gene PCR era. Here we explore the theme of reticulation in comparative phylogeography, speciation analysis, and phylogenomics, and ask how the centrality of gene trees has fared in the next-generation era. To frame these issues, we first provide a snapshot of multilocus phylogeographic studies across the Carpentarian Barrier, a prominent biogeographic barrier dividing faunas spanning the monsoon tropics in northern Australia. We find that divergence across this barrier is evident in most species, but is heterogeneous in time and demographic history, often reflecting the taxonomic distinctness of lineages spanning it. We then discuss a variety of forces generating reticulate patterns in phylogeography, including introgression, contact zones, and the potential selection-driven outliers on next-generation molecular markers. We emphasize the continued need for demographic models incorporating reticulation at the level of genomes and populations, and conclude that gene trees, whether explicit or implicit, should continue to play a role in the future of phylogeography.

  11. The relationship of dominance, reproductive state and stress in female horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    York, Carly A; Schulte, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    Maintaining a dominant position in a hierarchy requires energetically expensive aggressive displays and physical exertion. Lab based winner-loser studies, often conducted with individuals from non-social species, have shown that subordinates have higher stress hormone levels than dominant individuals. However, in wild studies on cooperative breeders, displays of aggression used to maintain dominance status are associated with elevated stress hormone levels. The effect of reproductive state on dominance and stress has not been addressed within either of these situations. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological stress levels in relation to dominance rank and reproductive state in a non-cooperative breeder and herbivore, the domestic horse. The social interactions and measured faecal glucocorticoids were recorded in pastured, female horses that were either lactating or non-lactating. While faecal glucocorticoid metabolite level did not differ between reproductive state and rank, activity behaviour demonstrated significant differences between reproductive states. Higher energetic requirements of lactation were reflected in significantly longer bouts of eating and significantly less time spent alert and socializing. As non-cooperative breeders, the social nature of horses does not limit their reproduction or resource acquisition based upon rank, and therefore does not fit with the dominance-stress hypothesis or subordinate-stress hypothesis and instead supports a rank-independent stress hypothesis.

  12. The relationship between sex change and reproductive success in a protandric marine gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Brante, Antonio; Quiñones, Adriana; Silva, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Protandric species switch sex during their lifetime. According to theory, the time (body size) at which sex change occurs is determined by the reproductive success of individuals affected by social interactions as well as by post-copulatory factors. Experimental evidence is biased to few social systems making the exploration of general patterns difficult. We used the protandric marine gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis that partakes in intrabrood sibling cannibalism to test the following hypotheses: 1. Male-male competition for access to females and sibling cannibalism determine male reproductive success; 2. Males with greater access to females and with higher reproductive success will have reduced growth rates and will delay sex change. Artificial aggregations with different social structures were constructed and male reproductive success was estimated by paternity analysis. The results supported our expectations showing that male competitive ability for access to the female, time spent by males in the copulatory position, and sibling cannibalism affect reproductive success and influence time to sex change, with less successful males hastening sex change. Also, males that spent more time in the copulatory position had reduced growth rates. Comparing these results with those reported for other sequential hermaphrodites provides evidence supporting general patterns of sex change in nature. PMID:27385040

  13. A longitudinal study of families formed through reproductive donation: Parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent adjustment at age 14.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Ilioi, Elena; Blake, Lucy; Roman, Gabriela; Jadva, Vasanti

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the 6th phase of this longitudinal study was to establish whether children born through assisted reproduction involving reproductive donation were at risk for psychological problems following the transition to adolescence at age 14 and, if so, to examine the nature of these problems and the mechanisms involved. Eighty-seven families formed through reproductive donation, including 32 donor insemination families, 27 egg donation families, and 28 surrogacy families, were compared with 54 natural conception families. Standardized interviews, questionnaires, and observational assessments of the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent adjustment were administered to mothers, adolescents, and teachers. The mothers in surrogacy families showed less negative parenting and reported greater acceptance of their adolescent children and fewer problems in family relationships as a whole compared with gamete donation mothers. In addition, less positive relationships were found between mothers and adolescents in egg donation families than in donor insemination families as rated by both mothers and adolescents. There were no differences between family types for the adolescents themselves in terms of adjustment problems, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. Longitudinal analyses showed no differences between family types in negative parenting from age 7 to age 14, and a weaker association between negative parenting and adjustment difficulties for gamete donation than natural conception and surrogacy families. The findings suggest that the absence of a genetic link between mothers and their children is associated with less positive mother-adolescent relationships whereas the absence of a gestational link does not have an adverse effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Families Formed Through Reproductive Donation: Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the 6th phase of this longitudinal study was to establish whether children born through assisted reproduction involving reproductive donation were at risk for psychological problems following the transition to adolescence at age 14 and, if so, to examine the nature of these problems and the mechanisms involved. Eighty-seven families formed through reproductive donation, including 32 donor insemination families, 27 egg donation families, and 28 surrogacy families, were compared with 54 natural conception families. Standardized interviews, questionnaires, and observational assessments of the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent adjustment were administered to mothers, adolescents, and teachers. The mothers in surrogacy families showed less negative parenting and reported greater acceptance of their adolescent children and fewer problems in family relationships as a whole compared with gamete donation mothers. In addition, less positive relationships were found between mothers and adolescents in egg donation families than in donor insemination families as rated by both mothers and adolescents. There were no differences between family types for the adolescents themselves in terms of adjustment problems, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. Longitudinal analyses showed no differences between family types in negative parenting from age 7 to age 14, and a weaker association between negative parenting and adjustment difficulties for gamete donation than natural conception and surrogacy families. The findings suggest that the absence of a genetic link between mothers and their children is associated with less positive mother-adolescent relationships whereas the absence of a gestational link does not have an adverse effect. PMID:28758779

  15. Metabolic Measurements in the Sow and Relationship to Post-Weaning Reproductive Performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excessive weight (wt) loss during lactation is an indicator of tissue catabolism in exchange for maintaining metabolic output and can have adverse effects on reproductive parameters. Creatine is a nonprotein nitrogen that acts as a phosphagen and aids in tissue repair. Creatine may provide an indica...

  16. Relationship between Marteilioides chungmuensis infection and reproduction in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Tun, Kay Lwin; Itoh, Naoki; Ueki, Noriyuki; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2007-11-01

    Marteilioides chungmuensis, a protozoan paramyxean parasite, infects the oocytes of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The effects of infection on the reproductive cycle of C. gigas were investigated over two consecutive years at Okayama Prefecture, Japan. In male oysters, gonadal development began during February/March, maturity was achieved in June and spawning activity extended from July to September. In November and December, male oysters were not seen, probably because their gonads regressed to connective tissue and they transformed into undifferentiated oysters. By contrast, female oysters, in which parasite spore formation occurred, were still carrying oocytes until the following March and the spawning process of female oysters took 5 months longer than that of males in epizootic areas. The prevalence of M. chungmuensis infection increased from July to September, when most female oysters had their spawning period, and declined from October to the following April when oysters were at the spent stage. The prevalence of infection increased again in May of the following year and high prevalence was observed in the following July. When prevalence was compared between oysters of different age classes, higher prevalence was detected in older than in younger oysters. Histological examination showed that infected oysters produced oocytes continuously and spawned repeatedly from October to March, during which period healthy oysters were reproductively inactive. Parasites can infect the oocytes of infected oysters throughout the longer spawning period. These observations suggest that M. chungmuensis extends the reproductive period of infected oysters for its own reproductive benefit.

  17. Jezebel at the welfare office: How racialized stereotypes of poor women's reproductive decisions and relationships shape policy implementation

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Lindhorst, Taryn P.; Meyers, Marcia K.

    2013-01-01

    Current welfare scholarship lacks an analysis of how caseworkers discuss sexuality-related issues with clients. Seventy-two of 232 transcribed welfare interviews in three states included discussion of reproductive decisions and relationships. Overall, caseworkers’ language reflected negative myths regarding African American women's sexuality and motherhood. By virtue of their status as welfare recipients, regardless of their individual races, clients were placed into racialized myths through workers’ talk. This analysis demonstrates that though not present in every welfare interview and often veiled in bureaucratic language, negative ideas about poor women's sexuality persist in welfare policy and are deeply embedded in its day-to-day implementation. PMID:24791134

  18. Jezebel at the welfare office: How racialized stereotypes of poor women's reproductive decisions and relationships shape policy implementation.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Lindhorst, Taryn P; Meyers, Marcia K

    2014-01-01

    Current welfare scholarship lacks an analysis of how caseworkers discuss sexuality-related issues with clients. Seventy-two of 232 transcribed welfare interviews in three states included discussion of reproductive decisions and relationships. Overall, caseworkers' language reflected negative myths regarding African American women's sexuality and motherhood. By virtue of their status as welfare recipients, regardless of their individual races, clients were placed into racialized myths through workers' talk. This analysis demonstrates that though not present in every welfare interview and often veiled in bureaucratic language, negative ideas about poor women's sexuality persist in welfare policy and are deeply embedded in its day-to-day implementation.

  19. Next generation phylogeography of cave and surface Astyanax mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Coghill, Lyndon M; Darrin Hulsey, C; Chaves-Campos, Johel; García de Leon, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traits is a commonly observed evolutionary pattern in cave organisms, but due to extensive morphological convergence, inferring relationships between cave and surface populations can be difficult. For instance, Astyanax mexicanus (the blind Mexican cavefish) is thought to have repeatedly lost its eyes following colonization of cave environments, but the number of evolutionarily independent invasions of this species into caves remains unclear. Because of these repeated losses, it has become a model organism for studying the genetic basis of phenotypic trait loss. Here we reconstruct a high-resolution phylogeography for A. mexicanus inferred from both mitochondrial DNA and several thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms. We provide novel insight into the origin of cave populations from the Sabinos and Río Subterráneo caves and present evidence that the Sabinos cave population is part of a unique cave lineage unrelated to other A. mexicanus cave populations. Our results indicate A. mexicanus cave populations have at least four independent origins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.

    PubMed

    Nersting, L G; Arctander, P

    2001-03-01

    The phylogeography of the bush habituated African bovid species impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from Southern Africa toward Eastern regions in the greater kudu. Results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. The study reveals a similar pattern, that is a marked divergence of lineages from South-western Africa relative to other regions. This pattern is opposed to previously published findings in other African bovid species. In the impala, the genetically isolated region is consistent with morphology because it is recognized as the subspecies A. m. petersi, the black-faced impala. In contrast, the similar split of South-western mitochondrial lineages was not expected in the greater kudu on the basis of morphology. Both species show a significant population genetic differentiation. Beyond their phylogeographical value, our results should raise conservation concerns about South-western populations of both species. The black-faced impala is categorized as vulnerable and our data show indications of hybridization with common impala A. m. melampus. The previously unrecognized genetic status of the South-western kudus could also imply conservation regulations.

  1. Relationship between prolactin, reproductive experience, and parental care in a biparental songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Smiley, Kristina O; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Hormonal systems have long been thought to play an important role in stimulating the onset of parental behavior, a critical component of reproductive success in a variety of taxa. Elevations in the peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) have been repeatedly positively correlated with the onset and maintenance of parental care across vertebrate species. A causal role for PRL in parental care has been established in several mammalian species, but less evidence for a causal role of PRL and parental care exists in birds. The zebra finch, a socially monogamous, biparental songbird, is an exceptionally useful animal model to study parental care and other close social relationships. Both sexes share parental care equally, exhibit the same parental behaviors, and show a marked improvement in breeding success with experience. We hypothesize that PRL is critically involved in the expression of zebra finch parental care and predict that circulating PRL levels will increase with breeding experience. To begin testing this, we measured plasma PRL concentrations in 14 male-female zebra finch pairs (N=28) across two breeding cycles, using a repeated measures design. PRL was measured in the birds' first, reproductively inexperienced, breeding cycle beginning at courtship and extending through chick fledging. PRL was measured again during the birds' second, reproductively experienced, breeding cycle, beginning with egg laying until chick fledging. We found that plasma PRL is significantly elevated from non-breeding concentrations during late incubation and early post-hatch care and that this elevation is greater in the reproductively experienced cycle compared to the inexperienced cycle. Findings of this study will be used to inform hypotheses and predictions for future experimental manipulations of PRL during parental care.

  2. The relationship of spectral sensitivity with growth and reproductive response in avian breeders (Gallus gallus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Song; Pan, Jin-Ming; Ying, Yi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Lu, Min-Si; Chen, Xian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that birds that are exposed to light at night develop advanced reproductive systems. However, spectrum might also affect the photoperiodic response of birds. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of spectral composition on the growth and reproductive physiology of female breeders, using pure light-emitting diode spectra. A total of 1,000 newly hatched female avian breeders (Gallus gallus) were equally allocated to white-, red-, yellow-, green- and blue-light treated groups. We found that blue-light treated birds had a greater and faster weight gain than did red- and yellow-light treated birds (P = 0.02 and 0.05). The red light expedited the sexual maturation of the chicks, whose age at sexual maturity was 7 and 14 days earlier than that of the green- and blue-light treated birds, respectively. The accumulative egg production of the red-light treated birds was 9 and 8 eggs more than that of the blue- and green-light treated birds. The peak lay rate of the red-light treated groups was significantly greater than the blue-light treated birds (P = 0.028). In conclusion, exposure to short-wavelength light appears to promote growth of female breeder birds, whereas exposure to long-wavelength light appears to accelerate reproductive performance.

  3. The relationship of spectral sensitivity with growth and reproductive response in avian breeders (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Song; Pan, Jin-Ming; Ying, Yi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Lu, Min-Si; Chen, Xian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that birds that are exposed to light at night develop advanced reproductive systems. However, spectrum might also affect the photoperiodic response of birds. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of spectral composition on the growth and reproductive physiology of female breeders, using pure light-emitting diode spectra. A total of 1,000 newly hatched female avian breeders (Gallus gallus) were equally allocated to white-, red-, yellow-, green- and blue-light treated groups. We found that blue-light treated birds had a greater and faster weight gain than did red- and yellow-light treated birds (P = 0.02 and 0.05). The red light expedited the sexual maturation of the chicks, whose age at sexual maturity was 7 and 14 days earlier than that of the green- and blue-light treated birds, respectively. The accumulative egg production of the red-light treated birds was 9 and 8 eggs more than that of the blue- and green-light treated birds. The peak lay rate of the red-light treated groups was significantly greater than the blue-light treated birds (P = 0.028). In conclusion, exposure to short-wavelength light appears to promote growth of female breeder birds, whereas exposure to long-wavelength light appears to accelerate reproductive performance. PMID:26765747

  4. The relationship of spectral sensitivity with growth and reproductive response in avian breeders (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Song; Pan, Jin-Ming; Ying, Yi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Lu, Min-Si; Chen, Xian-Hui

    2016-01-14

    A previous study demonstrated that birds that are exposed to light at night develop advanced reproductive systems. However, spectrum might also affect the photoperiodic response of birds. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of spectral composition on the growth and reproductive physiology of female breeders, using pure light-emitting diode spectra. A total of 1,000 newly hatched female avian breeders (Gallus gallus) were equally allocated to white-, red-, yellow-, green- and blue-light treated groups. We found that blue-light treated birds had a greater and faster weight gain than did red- and yellow-light treated birds (P = 0.02 and 0.05). The red light expedited the sexual maturation of the chicks, whose age at sexual maturity was 7 and 14 days earlier than that of the green- and blue-light treated birds, respectively. The accumulative egg production of the red-light treated birds was 9 and 8 eggs more than that of the blue- and green-light treated birds. The peak lay rate of the red-light treated groups was significantly greater than the blue-light treated birds (P = 0.028). In conclusion, exposure to short-wavelength light appears to promote growth of female breeder birds, whereas exposure to long-wavelength light appears to accelerate reproductive performance.

  5. Relationship between multiple paternity and reproductive parameters for Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Trombetas River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freda, F P; Bernardes, V C D; Eisemberg, C C; Fantin, C; Vogt, R C

    2016-01-29

    Genetic studies of multiple paternity are a valuable tool to gain information on the reproductive biology of turtles. We analyzed paternity type in Podocnemis sextuberculata and related number of fathers per nest to nesting period (beginning, middle, or end of nesting season); clutch size (number of eggs); female size; and hatchling success. Females were captured and maximum linear carapace lengths measured during the 60 days that encompass the nesting season at Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (Pará, Brazil). Nests were marked and blood samples collected from hatchlings. Six heterologous loci were used: five from Podocnemis unifilis and one from Podocnemis expansa. Hatchlings were analyzed from 23 nests, and the rate of multiple paternity was 100%. The mean number of fathers per nest was six (± 0.9), and no significant difference between number of fathers in a nest and nesting period. Similarly there was no significant relationship between number of fathers in a nest and female size or hatchling success rate. Number of fathers was, however, positively correlated with clutch size (Spearman correlation rho = 0.47; P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the relationship between multiple paternity and ecological aspects of the reproductive ecology of turtles in the genus Podocnemis.

  6. Phylogeography of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum from China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Hu, Ningyan; Peng, Weidong

    2011-08-01

    In order to obtain further understanding of genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs, phylogeography study on 12 populations from six endemic regions in China was conducted using mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) and NAD1) and the software programs of DnaSP 5.0, Arlequin 3.0, MEGA 4.0, and NETWORK 4.5.1.6. Results showed that (a) genetic diversity of Ascaris varied with hosts and locations, but no distinct geographical distribution pattern was found, (b) a higher level of genetic diversity and differentiation was found in pig-derived populations in contrast to human-derived ones, and in populations of human-derived Ascaris from the southern regions in comparison to that from the middle and northern locations, but similar geographical difference was not observed within pig-derived populations, (c) historical population expanding was detected from a large part of human-derived Ascaris populations but not in pig-derived Ascaris, (d) a high level of gene flow was detected between human- and pig-derived Ascaris and also among human-derived populations, and (e) network analysis from haplotype of COX1 indicated an ancestral haplotype from human-derived Ascaris. In conclusion, the present study revealed new information on Ascaris on the aspects of genetic diversity, population differentiation and historical demographic patterns, gene flow, phylogenesis reconstruction, and haplotype network, discussed the results with historical demographic migration of humans and domestication of wild boar in China, and raised a different assumption about the evolutionary relationship of the two roundworms. This study should have certain enlightenment for the epidemiology and the evolutionary and taxonomy relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs.

  7. Relationships between body weight at first mating and subsequent body development, feed intake, and reproductive performance of rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Rommers, J M; Meijerhoft, R; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kemp, B

    2002-08-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the relationships between BW at first insemination and subsequent body development, feed intake, reproductive performance, and culling rate of rabbit does. Young rabbit does are vulnerable to body energy deficit in first lactation, resulting in decreased reproductive performance and high replacement rate. Heavy does at first insemination might be able to benefit from the extra amount of BW to cope with the energy deficit during first lactation. Data of three experiments were used in which does were given ad libitum access to feed during rearing and inseminated at 14.5 wk of age. The first two parities of each doe were recorded. Does were categorized in three groups based on their BW at 14.5 wk of age (first insemination): heavy (BW > or = 4,000 g), medium (BW 3,500 to 4,000 g), and small (BW < 3,500 g). Among does that kindled, differences in BW at first insemination were related to differences in voluntary feed intake and body growth rate during rearing. Heavy does consumed more feed per day (+ 45 g/d, P < 0.001) and had a higher BW gain (+ 12 g/d, P < 0.001) than small does from weaning (4.5 wk) to 14.5 wk of age. Body weight at first insemination did not affect BW, feed intake, and culling rate during the first two parities. Heavy does were heavier at first insemination and remained so throughout the reproductive period, but they followed a similar BW curve as medium and small does. A higher BW at first insemination (14.5 wk of age) improved litter size in the first parity (8.9, 7.7, and 6.4 for heavy, medium, and small does, respectively, P < 0.05). Extra BW at start of reproduction improves litter size in the first parity but does not contribute to an improved feed intake or increased BW development during reproduction.

  8. Comparative phylogeography of unglaciated eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Douglas E; Morris, Ashley B; McLachlan, Jason S; Manos, Paul S; Soltis, Pamela S

    2006-12-01

    Regional phylogeographical studies involving co-distributed animal and plant species have been conducted for several areas, most notably for Europe and the Pacific Northwest of North America. Until recently, phylogeographical studies in unglaciated eastern North America have been largely limited to animals. As more studies emerge for diverse lineages (including plants), it seems timely to assess the phylogeography across this region: (i) comparing and contrasting the patterns seen in plants and animals; (ii) assessing the extent of pseudocongruence; and (iii) discussing the potential applications of regional phylogeography to issues in ecology, such as response to climatic change. Unglaciated eastern North America is a large, geologically and topographically complex area with the species examined having diverse distributions. Nonetheless, some recurrent patterns emerge: (i) maritime - Atlantic vs. Gulf Coast; (ii) Apalachicola River discontinuity; (iii) Tombigbee River discontinuity; (iv) the Appalachian Mountain discontinuity; (v) the Mississippi River discontinuity; and (vi) the Apalachicola River and Mississippi River discontinuities. Although initially documented in animals, most of these patterns are also apparent in plants, providing support for phylogeographical generalizations. These patterns may generally be attributable to isolation and differentiation during Pleistocene glaciation, but in some cases may be older (Pliocene). Molecular studies sometimes agree with longstanding hypotheses of glacial refugia, but also suggest additional possible refugia, such as the southern Appalachian Mountains and areas close to the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Many species exhibit distinct patterns that reflect the unique, rather than the shared, aspects of species' phylogeographical histories. Furthermore, similar modern phylogeographical patterns can result from different underlying causal factors operating at different times (i.e. pseudocongruence). One underemphasized

  9. Identifying cryptic diversity with predictive phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Espíndola, Anahí; Ruffley, Megan; Smith, Megan L; Carstens, Bryan C; Tank, David C; Sullivan, Jack

    2016-10-26

    Identifying units of biological diversity is a major goal of organismal biology. An increasing literature has focused on the importance of cryptic diversity, defined as the presence of deeply diverged lineages within a single species. While most discoveries of cryptic lineages proceed on a taxon-by-taxon basis, rapid assessments of biodiversity are needed to inform conservation policy and decision-making. Here, we introduce a predictive framework for phylogeography that allows rapidly identifying cryptic diversity. Our approach proceeds by collecting environmental, taxonomic and genetic data from codistributed taxa with known phylogeographic histories. We define these taxa as a reference set, and categorize them as either harbouring or lacking cryptic diversity. We then build a random forest classifier that allows us to predict which other taxa endemic to the same biome are likely to contain cryptic diversity. We apply this framework to data from two sets of disjunct ecosystems known to harbour taxa with cryptic diversity: the mesic temperate forests of the Pacific Northwest of North America and the arid lands of Southwestern North America. The predictive approach presented here is accurate, with prediction accuracies placed between 65% and 98.79% depending of the ecosystem. This seems to indicate that our method can be successfully used to address ecosystem-level questions about cryptic diversity. Further, our application for the prediction of the cryptic/non-cryptic nature of unknown species is easily applicable and provides results that agree with recent discoveries from those systems. Our results demonstrate that the transition of phylogeography from a descriptive to a predictive discipline is possible and effective. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Musculoskeletal pain and the reproductive life stage in women: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Frange, C; Hirotsu, C; Hachul, H; Pires, J S; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between reproductive life stage, pain perception and musculoskeletal pain complaint in a representative sample of women from São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A population-based survey was carried out with 574 women who were classified as being in the premenopausal or postmenopausal stage. They answered questions about pain perception and musculoskeletal pain. Follicle stimulating hormone was collected to confirm menopausal condition along with clinical evaluation. Results In the whole sample, we found a prevalence of 56% for pain perception and 20.2% for complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Regarding the topography of musculoskeletal pain, the distributions were similar among the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. No significant association was found between reproductive life stage and pain perception, as 58.1% of the premenopausal group and 52.0% of the postmenopausal group reported pain. Similarly, there was no significant association between menopausal stage and musculoskeletal pain, as 19.5% and 21.6% of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively, complained of musculoskeletal pain. There was no significant association of postmenopausal stage (early or late) with pain perception or musculoskeletal pain. The use of analgesics was significantly higher in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women (p < 0.001). Conclusion A high prevalence of pain was found in women from the city of São Paulo. However, neither the presence of musculoskeletal pain nor pain perception were associated with the reproductive life stage, showing that both parameters was independent from the menopausal status in the studied women.

  11. The relationship between reproductive success and demographic structure in remnant populations of Primula veris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans; Endels, Patrick; Hermy, Martin; De Blust, Geert

    2003-12-01

    Plants often suffer reductions in fecundity due to fragmentation, degradation and destruction of populations and their sites. Whether this decrease in seed production has population-level consequences is generally unknown. Here, we aimed to determine the current status of remnant populations in the perennial herb Primula veris in Belgium. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of reduced population size and morph bias on reproductive success and explored if changes in demographic structure could be associated with population fecundity. We studied 69 populations that differed in population size from three to nearly 1500 flowering plants. Three different population types could be distinguished: (a) "dynamic" populations, characterized by high densities of 1 year old juveniles, (b) "normal" populations with adult age-stages prevailing, but still a considerable number of juveniles, and (c) "regressive" populations, in which only flowering adults dominate and rejuvenation hardly occurs. The three population types differed with respect to population size and morph frequency. Dynamic populations were significantly larger and showed a weaker morph bias compared to the intermediate normal and the small regressive populations. Reproductive success, studied the previous year in 26 populations, decreased significantly with decreasing population size and was significantly associated with the demographic structure of the populations. Coefficients of variation for the proportion of flowers setting fruit, the number of seeds per fruit and the total number of seeds per plant decreased significantly with increasing population size. Hence, the observed variability in seed set may be one of the causal factors affecting the observed types of population demographic structure.

  12. The Relationship between Organic Loading and Effects on Fish Reproduction for Pulp Mill Effluents across Canada.

    PubMed

    Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Kovacs, Tibor G; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Hewitt, L Mark

    2017-03-09

    This study builds upon the work of a multiagency consortium tasked with determining cost-effective solutions for the effects of pulp mill effluents on fish reproduction. A laboratory fathead minnow egg production test and chemical characterization tools were used to benchmark 81 effluents from 20 mills across Canada, representing the major pulping, bleaching, and effluent treatment technologies. For Kraft and mechanical pulp mills, effluents containing less than 20 mg/L BOD5 were found to have the greatest probability of having no effects. Organic loading, expressed as the total detected solvent-extractable components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), also correlated with decreased egg laying. Exceptions were found for specific Kraft, mechanical, and sulfite mills, suggesting yet unidentified causative agents are involved. Recycled fiber mill effluents, tested for the first time, were found to have little potential for reproductive effects despite large variations in BOD5 and GC/MS profiles. Effluent treatment systems across all production types were generally efficient, achieving a combined 82-98% BOD5 removal. Further reductions of final effluent organic loadings toward the target of less than 20 mg/L are recommended and can be realized through biotreatment optimization, the reduction of organic losses associated with production upsets and selecting best available technologies that reduce organic loadings to biotreatment.

  13. Phylogeography above the species level for perennial species in a composite genus

    PubMed Central

    Tremetsberger, Karin; Ortiz, María Ángeles; Terrab, Anass; Balao, Francisco; Casimiro-Soriguer, Ramón; Talavera, María; Talavera, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    In phylogeography, DNA sequence and fingerprint data at the population level are used to infer evolutionary histories of species. Phylogeography above the species level is concerned with the genealogical aspects of divergent lineages. Here, we present a phylogeographic study to examine the evolutionary history of a western Mediterranean composite, focusing on the perennial species of Helminthotheca (Asteraceae, Cichorieae). We used molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), internal transcribed spacer and plastid DNA sequences) to infer relationships among populations throughout the distributional range of the group. Interpretation is aided by biogeographic and molecular clock analyses. Four coherent entities are revealed by Bayesian mixture clustering of AFLP data, which correspond to taxa previously recognized at the rank of subspecies. The origin of the group was in western North Africa, from where it expanded across the Strait of Gibraltar to the Iberian Peninsula and across the Strait of Sicily to Sicily. Pleistocene lineage divergence is inferred within western North Africa as well as within the western Iberian region. The existence of the four entities as discrete evolutionary lineages suggests that they should be elevated to the rank of species, yielding H. aculeata, H. comosa, H. maroccana and H. spinosa, whereby the latter two necessitate new combinations. PMID:26644340

  14. Phylogeography above the species level for perennial species in a composite genus.

    PubMed

    Tremetsberger, Karin; Ortiz, María Ángeles; Terrab, Anass; Balao, Francisco; Casimiro-Soriguer, Ramón; Talavera, María; Talavera, Salvador

    2015-12-07

    In phylogeography, DNA sequence and fingerprint data at the population level are used to infer evolutionary histories of species. Phylogeography above the species level is concerned with the genealogical aspects of divergent lineages. Here, we present a phylogeographic study to examine the evolutionary history of a western Mediterranean composite, focusing on the perennial species of Helminthotheca (Asteraceae, Cichorieae). We used molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), internal transcribed spacer and plastid DNA sequences) to infer relationships among populations throughout the distributional range of the group. Interpretation is aided by biogeographic and molecular clock analyses. Four coherent entities are revealed by Bayesian mixture clustering of AFLP data, which correspond to taxa previously recognized at the rank of subspecies. The origin of the group was in western North Africa, from where it expanded across the Strait of Gibraltar to the Iberian Peninsula and across the Strait of Sicily to Sicily. Pleistocene lineage divergence is inferred within western North Africa as well as within the western Iberian region. The existence of the four entities as discrete evolutionary lineages suggests that they should be elevated to the rank of species, yielding H. aculeata, H. comosa, H. maroccana and H. spinosa, whereby the latter two necessitate new combinations.

  15. Relationships between milk fatty acids composition in early lactation and subsequent reproductive performance in Czech Fleckvieh cows.

    PubMed

    Stádník, L; Ducháček, J; Beran, J; Toušová, R; Ptáček, M

    2015-04-01

    Increase of milk yield after calving causes changes in milk fatty acids (FA) composition and simultaneously corresponds with reproduction performance decrease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between milk FA group composition (SFA, saturated fatty acids; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; and PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids) during the first 5 lactation weeks and subsequent reproductive results (INT, calving to first service interval; NUM, number of services per conception, and DO, days open) in Czech Fleckvieh cows. A total of 1231 individual milk samples from 382 cows were collected and subsequently analyzed. Simultaneously, body condition score (BCS) was weekly evaluated as well. Software SAS 9.1 was used for statistical analysis. Daily milk yields increased whereas BCS, milk fat and protein contents decreased during period observed. The reduction of basic milk components (% of fat, % of protein) was associated with increased SFA and decreased MUFA, respectively PUFA contents. Significant (P<0.01-0.05 days) increase in NUM (+0.15 to +0.29 AI dose) and DO (+8.16 to 15.44 days) were detected in cows with the lowest SFA content. On the contrary, cows with the highest content of MUFA presented significantly (P<0.01-0.05) higher values of NUM (+0.13 to +0.30) and DO (+7.26 to +15.35 days). Milk FA groups composition in early lactation potentially used as NEB indicators, especially SFA and MUFA proportion, affected subsequent reproductive results of Czech Fleckvieh cows. Therefore, its post-partum values could serve as predictors of potential fertility of dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcontinental Phylogeography of the Daphnia pulex Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, Katie S.; Taylor, Derek J.

    2012-01-01

    Daphnia pulex is quickly becoming an attractive model species in the field of ecological genomics due to the recent release of its complete genome sequence, a wide variety of new genomic resources, and a rich history of ecological data. Sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 genes were used to assess the global phylogeography of this species, and to further elucidate its phylogenetic relationship to other members of the Daphnia pulex species complex. Using both newly acquired and previously published data, we analyzed 398 individuals from collections spanning five continents. Eleven strongly supported lineages were found within the D. pulex complex, and one lineage in particular, panarctic D. pulex, has very little phylogeographical structure and a near worldwide distribution. Mismatch distribution, haplotype network, and population genetic analyses are compatible with a North American origin for this lineage and subsequent spatial expansion in the Late Pleistocene. In addition, our analyses suggest that dispersal between North and South America of this and other species in the D. pulex complex has occurred multiple times, and is predominantly from north to south. Our results provide additional support for the evolutionary relationships of the eleven main mitochondrial lineages of the D. pulex complex. We found that the well-studied panarctic D. pulex is present on every continent except Australia and Antarctica. Despite being geographically very widespread, there is a lack of strong regionalism in the mitochondrial genomes of panarctic D. pulex – a pattern that differs from that of most studied cladocerans. Moreover, our analyses suggest recent expansion of the panarctic D. pulex lineage, with some continents sharing haplotypes. The hypothesis that hybrid asexuality has contributed to the recent and unusual geographic success of the panarctic D. pulex lineage warrants further study. PMID:23056371

  17. Transcontinental phylogeography of the Daphnia pulex species complex.

    PubMed

    Crease, Teresa J; Omilian, Angela R; Costanzo, Katie S; Taylor, Derek J

    2012-01-01

    Daphnia pulex is quickly becoming an attractive model species in the field of ecological genomics due to the recent release of its complete genome sequence, a wide variety of new genomic resources, and a rich history of ecological data. Sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 genes were used to assess the global phylogeography of this species, and to further elucidate its phylogenetic relationship to other members of the Daphnia pulex species complex. Using both newly acquired and previously published data, we analyzed 398 individuals from collections spanning five continents. Eleven strongly supported lineages were found within the D. pulex complex, and one lineage in particular, panarctic D. pulex, has very little phylogeographical structure and a near worldwide distribution. Mismatch distribution, haplotype network, and population genetic analyses are compatible with a North American origin for this lineage and subsequent spatial expansion in the Late Pleistocene. In addition, our analyses suggest that dispersal between North and South America of this and other species in the D. pulex complex has occurred multiple times, and is predominantly from north to south. Our results provide additional support for the evolutionary relationships of the eleven main mitochondrial lineages of the D. pulex complex. We found that the well-studied panarctic D. pulex is present on every continent except Australia and Antarctica. Despite being geographically very widespread, there is a lack of strong regionalism in the mitochondrial genomes of panarctic D. pulex--a pattern that differs from that of most studied cladocerans. Moreover, our analyses suggest recent expansion of the panarctic D. pulex lineage, with some continents sharing haplotypes. The hypothesis that hybrid asexuality has contributed to the recent and unusual geographic success of the panarctic D. pulex lineage warrants further study.

  18. Speaking of home truth: (re)productions of dyadic-containment in non-monogamous relationships.

    PubMed

    Finn, Mark; Malson, Helen

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a critical exploration of the discursive and socio-historical practice of 'dyadic-containment' as a principle index for how we know, experience, and authenticate romantic relationships. Making intelligible an 'authentic' relationship as something which is fixed, enclosed and exclusive, the pervasive principle of dyadic-containment has considerable implications for what it means to live out 'authentic' but ostensibly liberated relationships. Using post-structuralist discourse analysis to explore ways in which people can account for their consensual non-monogamous relationships (same and cross-sex, dyadic and non-dyadic), we critique the liberal-humanist framework from which such relationships can be played out. In that dyadic-containment as an aspect of an ontology of interiorized and contained 'realness' can be viewed as serving to characterize and authorize monogamous relationships (as we illustrate), practices of consensual non-monogamy that reproduce dyadic-containment as an organizing and authenticating principle are problematized. Limits to understandings and practices of some 'alternative' romantic relationships are therefore expounded and consideration is given to how relational difference might be otherwise premised.

  19. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badzinski, S.S.; Flint, P.L.; Gorman, K.B.; Petrie, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 ??g g-1 dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 ??g g-1 dw), and selenium (Se: >10 ??g g-1 dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Relationship between brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone and final reproductive period of the adult male sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    PubMed

    Fahien, C M; Sower, S A

    1990-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) concentrations were measured in brains of adult male sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, during their final reproductive period. The lampreys were collected during their upstream migration in coastal New Hampshire rivers and sampled at the trap (referred to as Group A) or they were transferred to an artificial spawning channel (referred to as Group B). Plasma estradiol and progesterone were also measured, and histological examination of the gonadal stages was done as well. The concentrations of brain GnRH and plasma estradiol fluctuated significantly through time. There was a rise in brain concentrations of GnRH coincident with an increase in temperature just prior to spawning. In addition, there was a significant progressive correlation between increasing plasma estradiol and temperature in lampreys from Group B during the period studied. These studies provide evidence for progressive seasonal relationships between changes in brain GnRH and gametogenic and steroidogenic activity of the gonads in adult male sea lampreys during their final reproductive period.

  1. Evaluation of vaginal discharge with the Metricheck device and the relationship to reproductive performance in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, Christian; Völker, Denise; Janowitz, Ulrich; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Vaginal mucus during estrus was examined with the Metricheck device and the relationship to the reproduction of high-yielding dairy cows was studied. The study was conducted in 99 dairy herds located in Western Germany and 1348 Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows showing spontaneous estrus were examined. Independent of the Metricheck result, the animals were inspected by professional insemination technicians and those suitable for insemination (n = 989) were bred by artificial insemination (AI). Reproductive performance was characterized by non-return rate at 90 days (NRR90). The discharge of the animals predominantly had a clear appearance (70%) and a stringy consistency (80%). Animals with clear vaginal discharge had higher NRR90 (56%; n = 697) than animals with abnormal (turbid, mucopurulent, purulent, sanguineous) vaginal secretion (48%, n = 292; P < 0.05). NRR90 was lower in animals with short calving to AI interval (< 70 days; 39%) than with medium (70-130 days; 54%) or long (> 130 days; 62%) intervals (P < 0.05). NRR90 decreased by 12% from the lowest (< 15 kg) to the highest (> 45 kg) milk yield class. In conclusion, the use of the Metricheck device integrated into the insemination procedure is recommended to identify dairy cows suffering severely from uterine disease.

  2. Ambiguities in the relationship between gonadal steroids and reproduction in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Eisthen, Heather L; Krause, Brianne Chung

    2012-05-01

    Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) are aquatic salamanders that are widely used in research. Axolotls have been bred in laboratories for nearly 150 years, yet little is known about the basic biology of reproduction in these animals. We investigated the effects of changing day length, time of year, and food availability on levels of circulating estradiol and androgens in adult female and male axolotls, respectively. In addition, we examined the effects of these variables on the mass of ovaries, oviducts, and eggs in females and on mass of testes in males relative to each individual's body weight, to calculate a form of gonadosomatic index (GSI). In both sexes, GSI was not correlated with levels of circulating steroids. In female axolotls, estradiol levels were influenced by food availability, changes in day length, and season, even when animals were held at a constant temperature and day length was decorrelated with calendar date. In addition, the mass of ovaries, oviducts, and eggs varied seasonally, peaking in the winter months and declining during the summer months, even though our animals were not breeding and shedding eggs. In males, levels of androgens appeared to vary independently of external conditions, but GSI varied dramatically with changes in day length. These results suggest that reproduction in axolotls may vary seasonally, as it does in many other ambystomid species, although both male and female axolotls are capable of reproducing several times each year. The physiological basis of this ability remains enigmatic, given the indications of seasonality contained in our data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic and environmental effects on age at menarche, and its relationship with reproductive health in twins.

    PubMed

    Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy S

    2013-04-01

    Menarche or first menstrual period is a landmark in reproductive life span and it is the most prominent change of puberty. The timing of menarche can be under the influence of genes as well as individual environmental factors interacting with genetic factors. Our study objectives were (a) to investigate the heritability of age of menarche in twins, (b) to obtain the association between age of menarche and childhood factors, and reproductive events/behavior, (c) to examine whether or not having a male co-twin affects early/late menarche. A group of female-female identical (n = 108, 54 pairs), non-identical twins (n = 68, 34 pairs) and 17 females from opposite-sex twin sets were identified from twin registries of Malaysia and Iran. Genetic analysis was performed via two methods of Falconers' formula and maximum likelihood. Heritability was found to be 66% using Falconers' formula and 15% using univariate twin analysis. Model analysis revealed that shared environmental factors have a major contribution in determining the age of menarche (82%) followed by non-shared environment (18%). Result of this study is consistent with that of the literature. Timing of menarche could be under the influence of shared and non-shared environmental effects. Hirsutism was found to have a higher frequency among subjects with late menarche. There was no significant difference in age of menarche between females of opposite-sex twins and females of same-sex twins. It is concluded that twin models provide a powerful means of examining the total genetic contribution to age of menarche. Longitudinal studies of twins may clarify the type of environmental effects that determine the age of menarche.

  4. Negotiation of risk in sexual relationships and reproductive decision-making amongst HIV sero-different couples.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Carmel; Lohan, Maria; Alderdice, Fiona; Spence, Dale

    2011-08-01

    The paper focuses on the ways in which medical discourses of HIV transmission risk, personal bodily meanings and reproductive decision-making are re-negotiated within the context of sero-different relationships, in which one partner is known to be HIV-positive. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 individuals in Northern Ireland during 2008-2009. Drawing on an embodied sociological approach, the findings show that physical pleasure, love, commitment, a desire to conceive without medical interventions and a dislike of condoms within regular ongoing relationships, shaped individuals' sense of biological risk. In addition, the subjective logic that a partner had not previously become infected through unprotected sex prior to knowledge of HIV status and the added security of an undetectable viral load significantly impacted upon women's and, especially, men's decisions to have unprotected sex in order to conceive. The findings speak to the importance of reframing public health campaigns and clinical counselling discourses on HIV risk transmission to acknowledge how couples negotiate this risk, alongside pleasure and commitment within ongoing relationships.

  5. [Relationship between reproductive history and preterm births in the last pregnancy, in Shaanxi province].

    PubMed

    Qin, B W; Ying, J; Lei, Q; Qu, P F; Lei, F L; Li, J M; Yan, H

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To analyze the incidence of preterm delivery among single live neonates and the association between maternal reproductive history and preterm birth. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted on reproductive history among women at childbearing age who were selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling method in Shaanxi, during 2010-2013. Samples would include women at childbearing age and in pregnancy or having had definite pregnancy outcomes. Results: A total of 29 608 women at childbearing age with their infants, were studied. The overall incidence of premature delivery among the single live birth neonates under this study, was 2.7% during 2010-2013. Results from the logistic regression model showed that factors as: having had history with preterm delivery (OR=7.99, 95%CI: 5.59-11.43), age of the mothers, older than 35 (OR= 2.03, 95% CI: 1.59-2.59) and with history of birth defects (OR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.01-2.34) were at higher risks for premature delivery in neonates. Intervals on pregnancies between 3-4 years (compared with ≤2 years, OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.58-0.93), between 5-6 years (compared with ≤2 years, OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.52-0.82), or> 6 years (compared with ≤2 years, OR=0.48, 95%CI:0.37-0.61) together with numbers of parity as 1 (compared with primiparas, OR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.95), as ≥2 (compared with primiparas, OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-0.97) etc. were protective factors to preterm delivery. Factors as: history of preterm delivery, mothers age (older than 35 years) and intervals of pregnancy, appeared influential to the age of gestation, under the ordinal polytomous logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The incidence of preterm births among single live birth neonates in Shaanxi was lower than the average national level. Programs related to health care services prior to conception and during pregnancy, together with increasing the self-care consciousness of childbearing aged women etc, should all be strengthened in order to

  6. Effects of apelin on reproductive functions: relationship with feeding behavior and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Suat; Erden, Yavuz; Sandal, Suleyman; Etem Onalan, Ebru; Ozyalin, Fatma; Ozen, Hasan; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2017-02-01

    Apelin is an adipose tissue derived peptidergic hormone. In this study, 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used (four groups; n = 10). Apelin-13 at three different dosages (1, 5 and 50 μg/kg) was given intraperitoneally while the control group received vehicle the same route for a period of 14 days. In results, apelin-13 caused significant decreases in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p < 0.05). Administration of apelin-13 significantly increased body weights, food intake, serum low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels (p < 0.05), but caused significant decreases in high-density lipoprotein levels (p < 0.05). Serum glucose and triglyceride levels were not significantly altered by apelin-13 administration. Significant decreases in both uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 levels in the white and brown adipose tissues and UCP-3 levels in the biceps muscle (p < 0.05) were noted. The findings of the study suggest that apelin-13 may not only lead to obesity by increasing body weight but also cause infertility by suppressing reproductive hormones.

  7. IPV among Adolescent Reproductive Health Patients: The Role of Relationship Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Davidson, Leslie L.; Rickert, Vaughn I.

    2011-01-01

    Population-specific data on factors that affect intimate partner violence (IPV) are needed on female adolescents and young adults, a cohort at greatest risk of IPV in the United States (Rennison, 2001). Studies have frequently overlooked the role of relationship communication as a gatekeeper to IPV (Ridley & Feldman, 2003). To address this…

  8. IPV among Adolescent Reproductive Health Patients: The Role of Relationship Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Davidson, Leslie L.; Rickert, Vaughn I.

    2011-01-01

    Population-specific data on factors that affect intimate partner violence (IPV) are needed on female adolescents and young adults, a cohort at greatest risk of IPV in the United States (Rennison, 2001). Studies have frequently overlooked the role of relationship communication as a gatekeeper to IPV (Ridley & Feldman, 2003). To address this…

  9. Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Schaal, Barbara A.

    1999-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop’s domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava’s evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava’s origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants. PMID:10318928

  10. Epidemiologic evidence of relationships between reproductive and child health outcomes and environmental chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wigle, Donald T; Arbuckle, Tye E; Turner, Michelle C; Bérubé, Annie; Yang, Qiuying; Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    This review summarizes the level of epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and/or early life exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and fetal, child, and adult health. Discussion focuses on fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, birth defects, respiratory and other childhood diseases, neuropsychological deficits, premature or delayed sexual maturation, and certain adult cancers linked to fetal or childhood exposures. Environmental exposures considered here include chemical toxicants in air, water, soil/house dust and foods (including human breast milk), and consumer products. Reports reviewed here included original epidemiologic studies (with at least basic descriptions of methods and results), literature reviews, expert group reports, meta-analyses, and pooled analyses. Levels of evidence for causal relationships were categorized as sufficient, limited, or inadequate according to predefined criteria. There was sufficient epidemiological evidence for causal relationships between several adverse pregnancy or child health outcomes and prenatal or childhood exposure to environmental chemical contaminants. These included prenatal high-level methylmercury (CH(3)Hg) exposure (delayed developmental milestones and cognitive, motor, auditory, and visual deficits), high-level prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related toxicants (neonatal tooth abnormalities, cognitive and motor deficits), maternal active smoking (delayed conception, preterm birth, fetal growth deficit [FGD] and sudden infant death syndrome [SIDS]) and prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (preterm birth), low-level childhood lead exposure (cognitive deficits and renal tubular damage), high-level childhood CH(3)Hg exposure (visual deficits), high-level childhood exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (chloracne), childhood ETS exposure (SIDS, new-onset asthma, increased

  11. New reproductive technology and the family: the parent-child relationship following in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Colpin, H; Demyttenaere, K; Vandemeulebroecke, L

    1995-11-01

    Parent-child relationships and the parents' psychosocial functioning were assessed in families with a 24-30-month-old, single born child conceived by homologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in a control group of families with a naturally conceived child. The investigation included behavioural observations of mother-child interactions in the home, and self-rated questionnaires. No significant multivariate group effects were found for indicators of the parent-child relationship, nor for the parents' psychosocial functioning. However, in the case of IVF the employment status of the mother was associated with her behaviour towards her child: employed IVF-mothers showed less respect for their child's autonomy compared with both nonemployed IVF-mothers and employed control mothers.

  12. Multilocus phylogeography and phylogenetics using sequence-based markers.

    PubMed

    Brito, Patrícia H; Edwards, Scott V

    2009-04-01

    We review recent trends in phylogeography and phylogenetics and argue that these two fields stand to be reunited by the common yardstick provided by sequence and SNP data and by new multilocus methods for phylogenetic analysis. Whereas the modern incarnation of both fields was spawned by PCR approaches applied to mitochondrial DNA in the late 1980s, the two fields diverged during the 1990s largely due to the adoption by phylogeographers of microsatellites, in contrast to the adoption of nuclear sequence data by phylogeneticists. Sequence-based markers possess a number of advantages over microsatellites, even on the recent time scales that are the purview of phylogeography. Using examples primarily from vertebrates, we trace the maturation of nuclear gene phylogeography and phylogenetics and suggest that the abundant instances of gene tree heterogeneity beckon a new generation of phylogenetic methods that focus on estimating species trees as distinct from gene trees. Whole genomes provide a powerful common yardstick on which both phylogeography and phylogenetics can assume their proper place as ends of a continuum.

  13. Phenotypes in phylogeography: Species’ traits, environmental variation, and vertebrate diversification

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Rayna C.; Mason, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Almost 30 y ago, the field of intraspecific phylogeography laid the foundation for spatially explicit and genealogically informed studies of population divergence. With new methods and markers, the focus in phylogeography shifted to previously unrecognized geographic genetic variation, thus reducing the attention paid to phenotypic variation in those same diverging lineages. Although phenotypic differences among lineages once provided the main data for studies of evolutionary change, the mechanisms shaping phenotypic differentiation and their integration with intraspecific genetic structure have been underexplored in phylogeographic studies. However, phenotypes are targets of selection and play important roles in species performance, recognition, and diversification. Here, we focus on three questions. First, how can phenotypes elucidate mechanisms underlying concordant or idiosyncratic responses of vertebrate species evolving in shared landscapes? Second, what mechanisms underlie the concordance or discordance of phenotypic and phylogeographic differentiation? Third, how can phylogeography contribute to our understanding of functional phenotypic evolution? We demonstrate that the integration of phenotypic data extends the reach of phylogeography to explain the origin and maintenance of biodiversity. Finally, we stress the importance of natural history collections as sources of high-quality phenotypic data that span temporal and spatial axes. PMID:27432983

  14. Speciation and phylogeography of giant petrels Macronectes.

    PubMed

    Techow, N M S M; O'Ryan, C; Phillips, R A; Gales, R; Marin, M; Patterson-Fraser, D; Quintana, F; Ritz, M S; Thompson, D R; Wanless, R M; Weimerskirch, H; Ryan, P G

    2010-02-01

    We examine global phylogeography of the two forms of giant petrel Macronectes spp. Although previously considered to be a single taxon, and despite debate over the status of some populations and the existence of minimal genetic data (one mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence per form), the current consensus based on morphology is that there are two species, Northern Giant Petrel M. halli and Southern Giant Petrel M. giganteus. This study examined genetic variation at cytochrome b as well as six microsatellite loci in giant petrels from 22 islands, representing most island groups at which the two species breed. Both markers support separate species status, although sequence divergence in cytochrome b was only 0.42% (corrected). Divergence was estimated to have occurred approximately 0.2mya, but with some colonies apparently separated for longer (up to 0.5 my). Three clades were found within giant petrels, which separated approximately 0.7mya, with the Southern Giant Petrel paraphyletic to a monophyletic Northern Giant Petrel. There was evidence of past fragmentation during the Pleistocene, with subsequent secondary contact within Southern Giant Petrels. The analysis also suggested a period of past population expansion that corresponded roughly to the timing of speciation and the separation of an ancestral giant petrel population from the fulmar Fulmarus clade. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic parameters estimation for preweaning traits and their relationship with reproductive, productive and morphological traits in alpaca.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for preweaning traits and their relationship with reproductive, productive and morphological traits in alpacas. The data were collected from 2001 to 2015 in the Pacomarca experimental farm. The data set contained data from 4330 females and 3788 males corresponding to 6396 and 1722 animals for Huacaya and Suri variants, respectively. The number of records for Huacaya and Suri variants were 5494 and 1461 for birth weight (BW), 5429 and 1431 for birth withers height (BH), 3320 and 896 for both weaning weight (WW) and average daily gain (DG) from birth to weaning, 3317 and 896 for weaning withers height (WH), and 5514 and 1474 for survival to weaning. The reproductive traits analyzed were age at first calving and calving interval. The fiber traits were fiber diameter (FD), standard deviation of FD (SD), comfort factor and coefficient of variation of FD and the morphological traits studied were density, crimp in Huacaya and lock structure in Suri, head, coverage and balance. Regarding preweaning traits, model of analysis included additive, maternal and residual random effects for all traits, with sex, coat color, number of calving, month-year and contemporary group as systematic effects, and age at weaning as linear covariate for WW and WH. The most relevant direct heritabilities for Huacaya and Suri were 0.50 and 0.34 for WW, 0.36 and 0.66 for WH, 0.45 and 0.20 for DG, respectively. Maternal heritabilities were 0.25 and 0.38 for BW, 0.18 and 0.32 for BH, 0.29 and 0.39 for WW, 0.19 and 0.26 for WH, 0.27 and 0.36 for DG, respectively. Direct genetic correlations within preweaning traits were high and favorable and lower between direct and maternal genetic effects. The genetic correlations of preweaning traits with fiber traits were moderate and unfavorable. With morphological traits they were high and positive for Suri but not for Huacaya and favorable for direct genetic effect but unfavorable for maternal

  16. Normal serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels in the general female population and the relationship with reproductive history.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Antonio; Spada, Elena; Grisendi, Valentina; Argento, Cindy; Papaleo, Enrico; Milani, Silvano; Volpe, Annibale

    2012-08-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has been evaluated by several groups as a potential novel clinical marker of ovarian reserve. Considering the wide use of AMH measurement in daily clinical practice and the large number of conditions in which it may be used, it is essential to establish reference values in the healthy female population. In this study we aim to calculate the age-by-age normal values of circulating AMH. In addition, we report on AMH levels in women according to BMI, smoking status and reproductive history. The study was performed at the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Modena, between January 2008 and December 2010. A total of 416 healthy women (aged 18-51) were recruited and serum AMH levels were measured for all of them. The centiles of AMH distribution were estimated with the CG-LMS method. The relationship between AMH levels and the womens' characteristics such as BMI, smoking status and reproductive history was analysed by using the uni- and multi-variable regression analysis and the Chi-square test. Serum AMH concentrations show a progressive decline with female ageing. Age-related nomograms for the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles of AMH were produced. Mean AMH concentrations were not modified by smoking habit and BMI and were independent of parity of the women. In the present study, we established age-specific reference values for circulating AMH levels in the eumenorrheic female population. AMH measurement produces new information on ovarian pathophysiology and ovarian reserve and the establishment of reference values for AMH is the first step for a correct interpretation of the assay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial phylogeography of a Beringian relict: the endemic freshwater genus of blackfish Dallia (Esociformes).

    PubMed

    Campbell, M A; Lopéz, J A

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondrial genetic variability among populations of the blackfish genus Dallia (Esociformes) across Beringia was examined. Levels of divergence and patterns of geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages were characterized using phylogenetic inference, median-joining haplotype networks, Bayesian skyline plots, mismatch analysis and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) to infer genealogical relationships and to assess patterns of phylogeography among extant mitochondrial lineages in populations of species of Dallia. The observed variation includes extensive standing mitochondrial genetic diversity and patterns of distinct spatial segregation corresponding to historical and contemporary barriers with minimal or no mixing of mitochondrial haplotypes between geographic areas. Mitochondrial diversity is highest in the common delta formed by the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers where they meet the Bering Sea. Other regions sampled in this study host comparatively low levels of mitochondrial diversity. The observed levels of mitochondrial diversity and the spatial distribution of that diversity are consistent with persistence of mitochondrial lineages in multiple refugia through the last glacial maximum.

  18. [Planned children--supporting and inhibiting influences on the development of personality and relationships after technology-assisted reproduction].

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, Karin J

    2016-03-01

    In the western industrial countries more and more couples with an unfulfilled desire for a child use assisted reproductive technology (ART). This focusses on physical processes and doesn't sufficiently provide necessary supportive psychological/psychotherapeutic guidance.Neglecting the psychological dimension causes ART to enhance the risk for negative processes of emotional development of a child.After a brief overview of prevalence and summarizing the legal situation three areas will be discussed which involve a high risk potential and their influences on relationship- and personality development will be described: • The psychological burden for potential parents during the treatment. • Wishes of perfection and high expectations concerning the child which can turn normative crises into severe problems. • The frequent handling of the treatment as a taboo which can become a destructive family secret between parents and child.The paper will conclude with thoughts concerning prevention and treatment.Every person working in the field of childhood and adolescence can contribute to a healthy psychological development of these children. This means acknowledging and working through the emotional burden and the wishes and explaining about the dangers of taboos like in foster care and adoption.

  19. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  20. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  1. Inferring causal relationships between reproductive and metabolic health disorders and production traits in first-lactation US Holsteins using recursive models.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, K; Tiezzi, F; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2015-04-01

    Health disorders in dairy cows have a substantial effect on the profitability of a dairy enterprise because of loss in milk sales, culling of unhealthy cows, and replacement costs. Complex relationships exist between health disorders and production traits. Understanding the causal structures among these traits may help us disentangle these complex relationships. The principal objective of this study was to use producer-recorded data to explore phenotypic and genetic relationships among reproductive and metabolic health disorders and production traits in first-lactation US Holsteins. A total of 77,004 first-lactation daughters' records of 2,183 sires were analyzed using recursive models. Health data contained information on reproductive health disorders [retained placenta (RP); metritis (METR)] and metabolic health disorders [ketosis (KETO); displaced abomasum (DA)]. Production traits included mean milk yield (MY) from early lactation (mean MY from 6 to 60 d in milk and from 61 to 120 d in milk), peak milk yield (PMY), day in milk of peak milk yield (PeakD), and lactation persistency (LP). Three different sets of traits were analyzed in which recursive effects from each health disorder on culling, recursive effects of one health disorder on another health disorder and on MY, and recursive effects of each health disorder on production traits, including PeakD, PMY, and LP, were assumed. Different recursive Gaussian-threshold and threshold models were implemented in a Bayesian framework. Estimates of the structural coefficients obtained between health disorders and culling were positive; on the liability scale, the structural coefficients ranged from 0.929 to 1.590, confirming that the presence of a health disorder increased culling. Positive recursive effects of RP to METR (0.117) and of KETO to DA (0.122) were estimated, whereas recursive effects from health disorders to production traits were negligible in all cases. Heritability estimates of health disorders ranged

  2. Relationships between intrauterine infusion of N-acetylcysteine, equine endometrial pathology, neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Gores-Lindholm, Alicia R; LeBlanc, Michelle M; Causey, Robert; Hitchborn, Anna; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A; Kruger, Marius; Vandenplas, Michel L; Flores, Paty; Ahlschwede, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Persistent endometritis in the mare is associated with hypersecretion of mucus by endometrial epithelium and migration of neutrophils into the uterine lumen. This study examines the relationships between N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory properties, and endometrial architecture, serum neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance of NAC-treated mares in a clinical setting. In study 1, endometrial biopsies from mares receiving intrauterine saline (fertile-control, n = 6) or 3.3% NAC (fertile-treatment, n = 6; barren-treatment, n = 10) were evaluated by histology and image analysis. In study 2, phagocytic activity of serum-derived neutrophils was measured after adding 0.5% or 3% NAC. In study 3, pregnancy rates of repeat breeders (n = 44) receiving an intrauterine infusion of 3.3% NAC 24-36 hours before mating (group 1) was recorded, as was first cycle of the season pregnancy rates of reproductively normal mares (group 2, n = 85), and mares treated for bacterial endometritis the cycle before mating (group 3, n = 25). Intrauterine NAC did not adversely affect endometrial histology. Extracellular mucus thickness and staining intensity were reduced in fertile-treatment mares (P < 0.03). Neutrophil function was inhibited by 3% NAC solution, but not by 0.5% NAC (P < 0.05). In study 3, for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, the first-cycle pregnancy rates were 77%, 74%, and 56%, and early embryonic death rates were 15%, 13%, and 7%. In group 2 mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin post-mating, the pregnancy rate was 89% (39/44), whereas in mares treated with uterine lavage and 1 g ceftiofur, it was 60% (24/40). Of the oxytocin-treated mares, 18% (8/44) had ≥ 1 cm of intrauterine fluid or marked uterine edema, whereas 80% (32/40) of the antibiotic-treated mares did. In conclusion, intrauterine infusion of a 3.3% solution of NAC was not irritating and inhibited the oxidative burst of neutrophils. Repeat

  3. Evolutionary differentiation in the Neotropical montane region: molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of Buarremon brush-finches (Aves, Emberizidae).

    PubMed

    Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Klicka, John; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2007-09-01

    Studies on Neotropical phylogeography have largely focused on lowland organisms. Because lowland and highland biotas have different histories and are likely affected by different processes influencing population differentiation, understanding Neotropical diversification requires detailed studies on montane taxa. We present the most comprehensive analysis of population differentiation conducted so far on a widespread group of Neotropical montane organisms, focusing on the evolutionary relationships and phylogeography of Buarremon brush-finches (Aves: Emberizidae) in montane areas from Mexico through Argentina. Sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes demonstrate that Buarremon is not monophyletic with respect to Arremon and Lysurus. Genetic structure revealed by mtDNA is strong in both B. brunneinucha and B. torquatus. Gene genealogies and nucleotide diversity indicate that B. brunneinucha originated in Mexico and later expanded to South America, where it followed one colonization route through the east, and one through the west of the continent. Differentiation among populations of B. torquatus was substantial, reaching 8% uncorrected sequence divergence within South America. Relationships among major lineages of B. torquatus were not fully resolved owing to rapid differentiation, but the occurrence of closely related taxa in distant locations suggests a complex history of diversification. Some Colombian populations of B. brunneinucha have affinities with populations from Venezuela and the East Andean slope of Ecuador and Peru, and others with those from the Pacific slope of Ecuador. Moreover, five divergent lineages of B. torquatus occur within Colombia, highlighting the importance of dense sampling in northwest South America for studies on diversification of widespread Neotropical lineages.

  4. Applications of next-generation sequencing to phylogeography and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    McCormack, John E; Hird, Sarah M; Zellmer, Amanda J; Carstens, Bryan C; Brumfield, Robb T

    2013-02-01

    This is a time of unprecedented transition in DNA sequencing technologies. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) clearly holds promise for fast and cost-effective generation of multilocus sequence data for phylogeography and phylogenetics. However, the focus on non-model organisms, in addition to uncertainty about which sample preparation methods and analyses are appropriate for different research questions and evolutionary timescales, have contributed to a lag in the application of NGS to these fields. Here, we outline some of the major obstacles specific to the application of NGS to phylogeography and phylogenetics, including the focus on non-model organisms, the necessity of obtaining orthologous loci in a cost-effective manner, and the predominate use of gene trees in these fields. We describe the most promising methods of sample preparation that address these challenges. Methods that reduce the genome by restriction digest and manual size selection are most appropriate for studies at the intraspecific level, whereas methods that target specific genomic regions (i.e., target enrichment or sequence capture) have wider applicability from the population level to deep-level phylogenomics. Additionally, we give an overview of how to analyze NGS data to arrive at data sets applicable to the standard toolkit of phylogeography and phylogenetics, including initial data processing to alignment and genotype calling (both SNPs and loci involving many SNPs). Even though whole-genome sequencing is likely to become affordable rather soon, because phylogeography and phylogenetics rely on analysis of hundreds of individuals in many cases, methods that reduce the genome to a subset of loci should remain more cost-effective for some time to come. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic relationships and reproductive-isolation mechanisms among the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Indonesia (Java) and other Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Djong, Tjong Hon; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Nishioka, Midori; Matsui, Masafumi; Ota, Hidetoshi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Khan, Md Mukhlesur Rahman; Alam, Mohammad Shafiqul; Anslem, De Silva; Khonsue, Wichase; Sumida, Masayuki

    2007-04-01

    In order to elucidate the genetic relationships and reproductive-isolation mechanisms among the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Indonesia and other Asian countries, allozyme analyses and crossing experiments were carried out using 208 individuals from 21 localities in eight Asian countries. The allozyme analyses revealed that 17 enzymes examined were controlled by genes at 27 loci, and that 7.9 phenotypes were produced by 5.2 alleles on average. The two species recognized in F. limnocharis sensu lato from Southeast Asia (i.e., F. limnocharis sensu stricto and F. iskandari) were found to occur sympatrically at three localities (Bogor, Cianjur and Malingping), all on Java, Indonesia. Fejervaya iskandari was dominant at each of these localities and showed substantial geographic genetic variation. Laboratory-produced hybrids between F. limnocharis and F. iskandari from Java became underdeveloped and died at the tadpole stage, suggesting that these species are completely isolated by hybrid inviability. Hybrids between topotypic F. limnocharis and the Malaysian and Japanese conspecific populations developed normally to metamorphosis. Likewise, hybrids between topotypic F. iskandari and the Thailand and Bangladesh conspecific populations also showed normal viability throughout larval development. The present allozyme analyses and crossing experiments strongly suggested the presence of two distinct forms, the large type and the small type, in the F. limnocharis complex from Asia, and further subdivision of the large type into the F. limnocharis assemblage and the F. iskandari assemblage. The small type was found in samples from India, Thailand, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and included at least three different species. The sample from Pilok, Thailand, was considered to represent an undescribed species.

  6. Short communication: Herd-level reproductive performance and its relationship with lameness and leg injuries in freestall dairy herds in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, N; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Cerri, R L A; Ito, K; Leblanc, S J; Weary, D M

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe herd-level reproductive outcomes and their associations with the prevalence of lameness, hock injuries and knee injuries in freestall dairy herds in the northeastern United States. Five reproductive outcomes (calving to conception interval, CCI; calving interval, CI; conception risk at the first artificial insemination, CR1; insemination rate, IR; and pregnancy rate, PR) were measured from Dairy Comp 305 (Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA) for a 12-mo period for all multiparous cows in each of the 53 herds assessed. The prevalence of lameness, hock injuries, and knee injuries was assessed in 1 high-producing group. The means (± standard deviation) for the 5 reproductive outcomes were as follows: CCI = 128 ± 10 d, CI = 404 ± 10 d, CR1 = 36 ± 5%, IR = 60 ± 7%, and PR = 20 ± 3%. The average prevalence of clinical lameness, hock injuries, and knee injuries were 45 ± 20%, 58 ± 31%, and 16 ± 15%, respectively. Univariable associations between the reproductive outcomes and the prevalence of lameness and leg injuries were tested and significant predictors were submitted to a model that controlled for the confounding effects of herd size, 305-d mature equivalent milk production of the high-producing group, and use of deep bedding. A higher prevalence of lameness was associated with poorer reproductive performance, although the relationships were weak: herds with a higher prevalence of lameness had longer average CCI (slope estimate = 0.16 ± 0.07; R(2)= 0.09) and CI (slope estimate = 0.14 ± 0.07; R(2) = 0.07). These results indicate that management to reduce lameness may improve reproductive performance.

  7. Gonadotropins and Growth Hormone Family Characterization in an Endangered Siluriform Species, Steindachneridion parahybae (Pimelodidae): Relationship With Annual Reproductive Cycle and Induced Spawning in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Caneppele, Danilo; Pandolfi, Matias; Nostro, Fabiana Laura Lo; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pituitary cells of Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, highlighting the possible relationship with reproductive disorders at this level, since this species shows oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning dysfunction in captivity. The localization and distribution of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), somatolactin (SL), β-luteinizing hormone (β-LH), and β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH) immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the adenohypophysis was studied by immunohistochemical and Western blot methods. In addition, cellular morphometric analyses and semi-quantification of ir-cells optical density (OD) during the annual reproductive cycle and after artificial induced spawning (AIS) were performed. Results showed that the distribution and general localization of pituitary cell types were similar to that of other teleost species. However, the morphometrical study of adenohypophysial cells showed differences along the reproductive cycle and following AIS. In general, females at the vitellogenic stage presented greater OD values for GH, PRL and SL than at other maturation stages (previtellogenic and regression stages), probably indicating an increased cellular activity during this stage. Conversely, β-LH OD did not vary during the annual reproductive cycle. After AIS, β-LH, SL and GH ir-cells showed an increase in OD values suggesting a possible involvement on oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning or a feedback control on the brain-pituitary-gonads axis. Reproductive dysfunction in S. parahybae females in captivity may be due to alteration of the synthesis pathways of β-LH. In addition, GH family of hormones could modulate associated mechanisms that influence the reproductive status in this species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Population genetics and phylogeography of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Bowen, B W; Karl, S A

    2007-12-01

    The seven species of sea turtles occupy a diversity of niches, and have a history tracing back over 100 million years, yet all share basic life-history features, including exceptional navigation skills and periodic migrations from feeding to breeding habitats. Here, we review the biogeographic, behavioural, and ecological factors that shape the distribution of genetic diversity in sea turtles. Natal homing, wherein turtles return to their region of origin for mating and nesting, has been demonstrated with mtDNA sequences. These maternally inherited markers show strong population structure among nesting colonies while nuclear loci reveal a contrasting pattern of male-mediated gene flow, a phenomenon termed 'complex population structure'. Mixed-stock analyses indicate that multiple nesting colonies can contribute to feeding aggregates, such that exploitation of turtles in these habitats can reduce breeding populations across the region. The mtDNA data also demonstrate migrations across entire ocean basins, some of the longest movements of marine vertebrates. Multiple paternity occurs at reported rates of 0-100%, and can vary by as much as 9-100% within species. Hybridization in almost every combination among members of the Cheloniidae has been documented but the frequency and ultimate ramifications of hybridization are not clear. The global phylogeography of sea turtles reveals a gradient based on habitat preference and thermal regime. The cold-tolerant leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) shows no evolutionary partitions between Indo-Pacific and Atlantic populations, while the tropical green (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), and ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea vs. L. kempi) have ancient separations between oceans. Ridleys and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) also show more recent colonization between ocean basins, probably mediated by warm-water gyres that occasionally traverse the frigid upwelling zone in southern Africa. These rare events may

  9. Genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies in four closely related bromeliads adapted to neotropical ‘inselbergs’: Alcantarea glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis (Bromeliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Barbará, Thelma; Martinelli, Gustavo; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Fay, Michael F.; Mayo, Simon; Lexer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) adapted to rock outcrops or ‘inselbergs’ in neotropical rain forests have been identified as suitable plant models for studying population divergence and speciation during continental plant radiations. Little is known about genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies within and among inselberg-adapted species, yet knowledge of these parameters is important for understanding divergence processes and for conservation planning. Methods Nuclear microsatellites were used to assess the role of clonal reproduction, estimate genetic diversity and explore genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies for a total of 15 populations of four closely related Alcantarea inselberg species in south-eastern Brazil: A. glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Key Results Clonal propagation is frequent in coastal populations of A. glaziouana and A. regina, but absent in the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Considerable variation in clonal diversity, gene diversity (He), allelic richness, and Wright's inbreeding coefficient (FIS) exists within and between species of Alcantarea. A Bayesian analysis of coastal inselberg species indicated pronounced genetic structure. A neighbor-joining analysis grouped populations of each species together with moderate bootstrap support, except for the high altitude species A. imperialis. Conclusions The coastal inselberg species A. glaziouana and A. regina tend to propagate asexually via vegetative clonal growth, and both reproductive strategies and breeding systems vary greatly between populations and species of Alcantarea. The microsatellite data indicate a history of hybridization and reticulation involving the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis in areas of co-occurrence. The results highlight the need to understand similarities and differences in reproductive strategies both within and between related species

  10. The assesment of follicular fluid presepsin levels in poor ovarian responder womenandits relationship with the reproductive outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ovayolu, Ali; Özdamar, Özkan; Gün, İsmet; Arslanbuğa, Cansev Y; Kutlu, Tayfun; Tunalı, Gülden; Uluhan, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    A considerable proportion of all women undergoing IVFrespond poorly to gonadotropin stimulation. These women are reported to be associated with increased cancellation rates and lower pregnancy rates. It has been hypothesized that poor response to ovarian stimulation is a first sign of ovarian ageing or premature ovarian failure, which might be related to altered inflammatory response in the body. We aimed to compare follicular fluid presepsin levels between poor- and normo-responder patients to ovarian stimulation, to assess its relationship with reproductive outcomes. This study included infertility patients who underwent ovulation induction with either long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist protocols and who subsequently underwent IVF/ICSI. Included patients were assigned to two groups according to the Bologna criteria for poor ovarian response. Group 1 and 2 consisted of normo- and poor-responder patients, respectively.The 2 groups were compared in terms of FF presepsin levels. Also, any relationship between the FF presepsin levels and fertility outcomes was assessed within the groups. The groups were compared by using student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and X2 test, where appropriate. Pregnancy rates were not significantly different between the groups (22.6% and 17.6%; P=0.650, respectively). FF presepsin levels were higher in Group 1, however, the difference was not statistically significant (298.0±797.4 and 149.2±422.3; P=0.190, respectively). FF presepsin levels did not significantly differ between pregnancy positive and the pregnancy negative patients in both Group 1 (243.6±531.1 and 314.3±866.5; P=0.055, respectively) and Group 2 (112.2±79.8 and 157.1±464.3; P=0.394, respectively). Consequently, FF presepsin seems not to be a reliable marker in predicting pregnancy in both normo-responder and poor-responder infertility groups. PMID:26309683

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  13. Comparative phylogeography clarifies the complexity and problems of continental distribution that drove A. R. Wallace to favor islands

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering the geographic context of diversification and distributional dynamics in continental biotas has long been an interest of biogeographers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. Thirty years ago, the approach now known as comparative phylogeography was introduced in a landmark study of a continental biota. Here, I use a set of 455 studies to explore the current scope of continental comparative phylogeography, including geographic, conceptual, temporal, ecological, and genomic attributes. Geographically, studies are more frequent in the northern hemisphere, but the south is catching up. Most studies focus on a Quaternary timeframe, but the Neogene is well represented. As such, explanations for geographic structure and history include geological and climatic events in Earth history, and responses include vicariance, dispersal, and range contraction-expansion into and out of refugia. Focal taxa are biased toward terrestrial or semiterrestrial vertebrates, although plants and invertebrates are well represented in some regions. The use of various kinds of nuclear DNA markers is increasing, as are multiple locus studies, but use of organelle DNA is not decreasing. Species distribution models are not yet widely incorporated into studies. In the future, continental comparative phylogeographers will continue to contribute to erosion of the simple vicariance vs. dispersal paradigm, including exposure of the widespread nature of temporal pseudocongruence and its implications for models of diversification; provide new templates for addressing a variety of ecological and evolutionary traits; and develop closer working relationships with earth scientists and biologists in a variety of disciplines. PMID:27432953

  14. Relations of Wolbachia Infection with Phylogeography of Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) Populations Within and Beyond the Carpathian Contact Zone.

    PubMed

    Lis, Agata; Maryańska-Nadachowska, Anna; Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2015-08-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread intracellular α-proteobacteria maternally inherited endosymbiont of insects and nematodes. These bacteria are associated with a number of different reproductive phenotypes of their hosts. Relatively few studies have dealt with distribution of infections across populations and with the influence of these bacteria on host genetic diversification and speciation. The aims of this study are to determine the distribution and rate of infection and to characterize the Wolbachia strains associated with Philaenus spumarius spittlebug (Hemiptera) by using multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) analysis and host phylogeography. The results showed that infection rate was significantly different between members of both main mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages of P. spumarius. We detected much higher infection rates of Wolbachia in P. spumarius populations from the north-east clade than the south-west clade. Moreover, the frequency of these infections varied within and outside the contact zone known from the Carpathians. Given the reproductive alterations which are often associated with this endosymbiont, Wolbachia probably maintain genetic differentiation of its hosts in its contact zone in the Carpathians. This is one of the first studies demonstrating the presence of Wolbachia across a large part of the range of insect species, including the contact zone. The spread of Wolbachia in P. spumarius populations can potentially cause speciation by compromising the potential reproductive barrier between infected and uninfected populations. We discuss possible implications of Wolbachia infection inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility in the population dynamics of this spittlebug but confirm that more studies are also required.

  15. The secretory activity of the seminal vesicles and its relationship to sperm motility: effects of infection in the male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Garcia-Hjarles, M A; Gutierrez, R; Guerra-Garcia, R

    1989-08-01

    In 146 males aged between 20 years and 40 years attending an infertility service, the secretory activity of the seminal vesicles was assessed by measurement of corrected seminal fructose concentration. This value was related to the presence of a positive semen culture, other evidence of inflammatory processes in the reproductive tract and sperm motility. Only 48% of subjects with a positive semen culture showed evidence of inflammation in the reproductive tract, as assessed by the presence of more than 20 white blood cells per high power field, and greater than 10% spermagglutination in the ejaculate. There was a relationship between the inflammatory process, hypofunction of the seminal vesicles and poor sperm motility. When the semen culture was positive but there was no evidence of inflammation neither seminal vesicle function nor sperm motility was affected. When the semen culture was negative, i.e. no evidence of inflammation and the subjects were asthenozoospermic, the corrected fructose levels were normal. It is proposed that in these conditions the cause of asthenozoospermia may be factors other than accessory sex organ dysfunction. In conclusion, there was no close relationship between the bacteriological results and evidence of inflammation of the accessory glands. A positive semen culture was related to lower levels of corrected fructose (hypofunction of the seminal vesicles) when the positive sperm culture was associated with inflammation of the reproductive tract and asthenozoospermia.

  16. Relationship between serum hormone concentrations, reproductive history, alcohol consumption and genetic polymorphisms in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    García-Closas, Montserrat; Herbstman, Julie; Schiffman, Mark; Glass, Andrew; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2002-11-10

    Reproductive characteristics, alcohol intake and polymorphisms in genes encoding sex-steroid metabolizing enzymes might influence the risk of hormone-related cancers by changing circulating concentrations of sex hormones. The relationship between these factors and serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone and DHEA was evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 218 pre-menopausal women from Kaiser Permanente Health Plan in Portland, Oregon. Risk factor information was obtained from questionnaires and hormone serum concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassays. Genotypes for CYP11A 5'UTR(tttta)n, CYP17 5'-UTR -34 T>C, CYP19 IVS4(ttta)n, CYP1B1 (L432V and S453N) and COMT (V158M) were determined from genomic DNA samples. Increasing number of full-term pregnancies was associated with a significant decrease in late-follicular progesterone levels (p-trend = 0.03). Increasing alcohol consumption was associated with higher estradiol levels averaged through the menstrual cycle (p-trend = 0.009) and higher progesterone levels during luteal phase (p-trend = 0.04). Androstenedione and testosterone levels were higher among light to moderate drinkers compared to non-drinkers, although we only observe a significant trend with increasing levels of alcohol consumption for androstenedione. Women heterozygous or homozygous for the CYP1B1 L432V or the S453N polymorphisms had increased luteal estradiol levels (p-value = 0.04 for L432V and 0.04 for S453N). None of the other factors evaluated was significantly associated with serum concentration of hormones. In conclusion, results from this cross-sectional study of pre-menopausal women provide support for an association between light to moderate alcohol intake and elevated levels of estrogen and androgen levels. Our data suggest that circulating levels of progesterone might be related to parity and alcohol consumption, however the biological plausibility of the observed associations is unclear. We

  17. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    PubMed

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  18. Relationship between body condition score at calving and reproductive performance in young postpartum cows grazing native range

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Body condition score is used as a management tool to predict competency of reproduction in beef cows. Therefore, a retrospective study was performed to evaluate association of BCS at calving with subsequent pregnancy rate, days to first estrus, nutrient status (assessed by blood metabolites), and c...

  19. Multi-model inference in comparative phylogeography: an integrative approach based on multiple lines of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Collevatti, Rosane G.; Terribile, Levi C.; Diniz-Filho, José A. F.; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography has its roots in classical biogeography and, historically, relies on a pattern-based approach. Here, we present a model-based framework for comparative phylogeography. Our framework was initially developed for statistical phylogeography based on a multi-model inference approach, by coupling ecological niche modeling, coalescent simulation and direct spatio-temporal reconstruction of lineage diffusion using a relaxed random walk model. This multi-model inference framework is particularly useful to investigate the complex dynamics and current patterns in genetic diversity in response to processes operating on multiple taxonomic levels in comparative phylogeography. In addition, because of the lack, or incompleteness of fossil record, the understanding of the role of biogeographical events (vicariance and dispersal routes) in most regions worldwide is barely known. Thus, we believe that the expansion of that framework for multiple species under a comparative approach may give clues on genetic legacies in response to Quaternary climate changes and other biogeographical processes. PMID:25741360

  20. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... ability to have children. Something that affects reproductive health is called a reproductive hazard. Examples include: Radiation Metals such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive ...

  1. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shannon N; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses.

  2. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Shannon N.; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24852723

  3. Reproductive success of kittiwakes and murres in sequential stages of the nesting period: Relationships with diet and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Heather M.; Drummond, Brie A.; Benson, Anna-Marie; Paredes, Rosana

    2014-11-01

    Reproductive success is one of the most easily-measured and widely studied demographic parameters of colonial nesting seabirds. Nevertheless, factors affecting the sequential stages (egg laying, incubation, chick-rearing) of reproductive success are less understood. We investigated the separate sequential stages of reproductive success in piscivorous black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) using a 36-year dataset (1975-2010) on the major Pribilof Islands (St. Paul and St. George), which have recently had contrasting population trajectories. Our objectives were to evaluate how the proportion of successful nests varied among stages, and to quantify factors influencing the probability of nest success at each stage in each island. We modeled the probability of nest success at each stage using General Linear Mixed Models incorporating broad-scale and local climate variables, and diet as covariates as well as other measures of reproduction such as timing of breeding and reproductive output in the previous year and previous stage. For both species we found: (1) Success in previous stages of the breeding cycle and success in the prior year better explained overall success than any environmental variables. Phenology was also an important predictor of laying success for kittiwakes. (2) Fledging success was lower when chick diets contained oceanic fish found farther from the colonies and small invertebrates, rather than coastal fish species. (3) Differences in reproductive variables at St. Paul and St. George islands did not correspond to population trends between the two islands. Our results highlight the potential importance of adult condition and annual survival to kittiwake and murre productivity and ultimately, populations. Adult condition carrying over from the previous year ultimately seems to drive annual breeding success in a cascade effect. Furthermore, condition and survival appear to be important contributors to population

  4. Growth characteristics, reproductive performance, and evaluation of their associative relationships in Brangus cattle managed in a Chihuahuan Desert production system1.

    PubMed

    Luna-Nevarez, P; Bailey, D W; Bailey, C C; VanLeeuwen, D M; Enns, R M; Silver, G A; DeAtley, K L; Thomas, M G

    2010-05-01

    Balancing growth and reproductive performance in beef cattle managed in desert environments is challenging. Our objectives were to 1) evaluate trends in growth and reproductive traits, and 2) assess associative relationships between growth characteristics and reproductive performance in a Brangus herd managed in a Chihuahuan Desert production system from 1972 to 2006. Data were from bull (n = 597) and heifer calves (n = 585; 1988 to 2006) and cows (n = 525; repeated records of cows, n = 2,611; 1972 to 2006). Variables describing the growth curve of each cow were estimated using a nonlinear logistic function (each cow needed 6 yr of data). Mixed-effect models and logistic regression were used to analyze trends across years in growth and reproductive traits (both continuous and categorical). For continuous traits of calves, a slight cubic response (P < 0.01) described the dynamics of birth weight, 205-d BW, and 365-d BW across years. For categorical traits of females, positive linear trends (P < 0.05) across years were observed in percent pregnant as yearlings, calved at 2 yr of age, and first-calf heifer rebreeding (slopes ranged from 0.007 to 0.014%/yr). Autumn cow BW increased gradually until 1997 (509 kg +/- 8.8) and then decreased gradually by 0.6 kg/yr, whereas pregnancy percentage decreased gradually until 1995 (78.4% +/- 1.0) and then increased slightly by 0.2%/yr. A quadratic effect best described the dynamics of these 2 variables across years (P < 0.01) as well as estimates describing the growth curve of each cow. Specifically, asymptotic BW and age increased (P < 0.05) from 1972 to 1983 and 1990, respectively. Asymptotic age then decreased by 27% from 1983 to 1996 (P < 0.05). The maturing rate index was negatively correlated with age at first calving and calving interval (r = -0.42 and -0.18, P < 0.01), which suggested that early-maturing cows had enhanced fertility in this environment and production system. In summary, minimal changes were observed in

  5. Pan-African phylogeography of a model organism, the African clawed frog 'Xenopus laevis'.

    PubMed

    Furman, Benjamin L S; Bewick, Adam J; Harrison, Tia L; Greenbaum, Eli; Gvoždík, Václav; Kusamba, Chifundera; Evans, Ben J

    2015-02-01

    The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis has a large native distribution over much of sub-Saharan Africa and is a model organism for research, a proposed disease vector, and an invasive species. Despite its prominent role in research and abundance in nature, surprisingly little is known about the phylogeography and evolutionary history of this group. Here, we report an analysis of molecular variation of this clade based on 17 loci (one mitochondrial, 16 nuclear) in up to 159 individuals sampled throughout its native distribution. Phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were incongruent with those among alleles of the putatively female-specific sex-determining gene DM-W, in contrast to the expectation of strict matrilineal inheritance of both loci. Population structure and evolutionarily diverged lineages were evidenced by analyses of molecular variation in these data. These results further contextualize the chronology, and evolutionary relationships within this group, support the recognition of X. laevis sensu stricto, X. petersii, X. victorianus and herein revalidated X. poweri as separate species. We also propose that portions of the currently recognized distributions of X. laevis (north of the Congo Basin) and X. petersii (south of the Congo Basin) be reassigned to X. poweri.

  6. Reciprocal relationships between behaviour and parasites suggest that negative feedback may drive flexibility in male reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Snider, Matthew H

    2016-05-25

    Parasites are ubiquitous components of the environment that contribute to behavioural and life-history variation among hosts. Although it is well known that host behaviour can affect parasite infection risk and that parasites can alter host behaviour, the potential for dynamic feedback between these processes is poorly characterized. Using Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) as a model, we tested for reciprocal effects of behaviour on parasites and parasites on behaviour to understand whether behaviour-parasite feedback could play a role in maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour. Adult male gazelles either defend territories to attract mates or reside in bachelor groups. Territoriality is highly variable both within- and between-individuals, suggesting that territory maintenance is costly. Using a combination of longitudinal and experimental studies, we found that individual males transition frequently between territorial and bachelor reproductive status, and that elevated parasite burdens are a cost of territoriality. Moreover, among territorial males, parasites suppress aspects of behaviour related to territory maintenance and defence. These results suggest that territorial behaviour promotes the accumulation of parasites in males, and these parasites dampen the very behaviours required for territory maintenance. Our findings suggest that reciprocal feedback between host behaviour and parasitism could be a mechanism maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour in the system. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Phylogeography and the conservation of coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, L. A.; Craig, M. T.; Bowen, B. W.

    2007-09-01

    Here we present a review of how the study of the geographic distribution of genetic lineages (phylogeography) has helped identify management units, evolutionary significant units, cryptic species, and areas of endemism, and how this information can help efforts to achieve effective conservation of coral reefs. These studies have confirmed the major biogeographic barriers that were originally identified by tropical species distributions. Ancient separations, identified primarily with mtDNA sequence comparisons, became apparent between populations on each side of the barriers. The general lack of correlation between pelagic larval duration and genetic connectivity across barriers indicates that life history and ecology can be as influential as oceanography and geography in shaping evolutionary partitions within ocean basins. Hence, conservation strategies require a recognition of ecological hotspots, those areas where habitat heterogeneity promotes speciation, in addition to more traditional approaches based on biogeography. Finally, the emerging field of genomics will add a new dimension to phylogeography, allowing the study of genes that are pertinent to recent and ongoing differentiation, and ultimately providing higher resolution to detect evolutionary significant units that have diverged in an ecological time scale.

  8. Matching loci surveyed to questions asked in phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Drovetski, Sergei V.; Zink, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has long been used for assessing genetic variation within and between populations, its workhorse role in phylogeography has been criticized owing to its single-locus nature. The only choice for testing mtDNA results is to survey nuclear loci, which brings into contrast the difference in locus effective size and coalescence times. Thus, it remains unclear how erroneous mtDNA-based estimates of species history might be, especially for evolutionary events in the recent past. To test the robustness of mtDNA and nuclear sequences in phylogeography, we provide one of the largest paired comparisons of summary statistics and demographic parameters estimated from mitochondrial, five Z-linked and 10 autosomal genes of 30 avian species co-distributed in the Caucasus and Europe. The results suggest that mtDNA is robust in estimating inter-population divergence but not in intra-population diversity, which is sensitive to population size change. Here, we provide empirical evidence showing that mtDNA was more likely to detect population divergence than any other single locus owing to its smaller Ne and thus faster coalescent time. Therefore, at least in birds, numerous studies that have based their inferences of phylogeographic patterns solely on mtDNA should not be readily dismissed. PMID:26962145

  9. Integrating life-history and reproductive success data to examine potential relationships with organochlorine compounds for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida.

    PubMed

    Wells, Randall S; Tornero, Victoria; Borrell, Asuncion; Aguilar, Alex; Rowles, Teri K; Rhinehart, Howard L; Hofmann, Suzanne; Jarman, Walter M; Hohn, Aleta A; Sweeney, Jay C

    2005-10-15

    Research initiated in 1970 has identified a long-term, year-round resident community of about 140 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida, providing unparalleled opportunities to investigate relationships between organochlorine contaminant residues and life-history and reproductive parameters. Many individual dolphins are identifiable and of known age, sex, and maternal lineage (< or =4 generations). Observational monitoring provides data on dolphin spatial and temporal occurrence, births and fates of calves, and birth-order. Capture-release operations conducted for veterinary examinations provide biological data and samples for life-history and contaminant residue measurement. Organochlorine concentrations in blubber and blood (plasma) can be examined relative to age, sex, lipid content, and birth-order. Reproductive success is evaluated through tracking of individual female lifetime calving success. For the current study, 47 blubber samples collected during June 2000 and 2001 were analyzed for PCB concentrations of 22 congeners relative to life-history factors and reproductive success. Prior to sexual maturity, males and females exhibited similar concentrations of about 15-50 ppm. Classical patterns of accumulation with age were identified in males, but not in females. Subsequently, males accumulated higher concentrations of PCBs through their lives (>100 ppm), whereas females begin to depurate with their first calf, reaching a balance between contaminant intake and lactational loss (<15 ppm). In primiparous females, PCB concentrations in blubber and plasma and the rates of first-born calf mortality were both high. First-born calves had higher concentrations than subsequent calves of similar age (>25 vs.<25 ppm). Maternal burdens were lower early in lactation and increased as calves approached nutritional independence. Empirical data were generally consistent with a published theoretical risk assessment and supported the need for

  10. Cryptic diversity and comparative phylogeography of the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa on the US Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Hare, Matthew P

    2011-06-01

    Unexpectedly strong geographic structures in many cosmopolitan species of marine holoplankton challenge the traditional view of their unrestrained dispersal and presumably high gene flow. We investigated cryptic lineage diversity and comparative phylogeography of a common estuarine copepod, Acartia tonsa, on the US Atlantic coast, using mitochondrial (mtCOI) and nuclear (nITS) gene markers. Three broadly sympatric lineages (F, S, X) were defined by genealogically concordant clades across both gene trees, strongly supporting recognition as reproductively isolated species. Limited dispersal seems to have had a major role in population differentiation of A. tonsa in general, with gene flow propensities rank ordered X > S > F. Geographic structure was found only at large scales (1000-2000 km) in X and S. Phylogeographic patterns in all three lineages were mostly concordant with previously recognized zoogeographic provinces but a large mid-Atlantic gap in the occurrence of lineage X, coupled with its presence in Europe, suggests possible nonindigenous origins. For lineage F, physiological adaptation to low-salinity environments is likely to have accentuated barriers to gene flow and allopatric differentiation at both regional and continental scales. Three allopatric F sublineages inferred a southern centre of origin and a stepwise northward diversification history at the continental scale. The most recently derived F sublineages, in the mid-Atlantic Bight, showed strong phylogeographic patterns at nITS albeit weaker at mtCOI. Applying a crustacean mtCOI molecular clock suggests that A. tonsa lineages diverged pre-Pleistocene but mid-Atlantic F lineage diversification may be post-Pleistocene.

  11. Phylogeography of the pitviper clade Agkistrodon: historical ecology, species status, and conservation of cantils.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, C L; Zamudio, K R; Greene, H W

    2000-04-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA sequences from three gene regions and two tRNAs (ND4, tRNA-HIS-SER, 12S, and 16S rDNA) to investigate the historical ecology of the New World pitviper clade Agkistrodon, with emphasis on the disjunct subspecies of the cantil, A. bilineatus. We found strong evidence that the copperhead (A. contortrix) is basal to its congeners, and that the cottonmouth (A. piscivorus) is basal to cantils. Phylogeography and natural history of the living terminal taxa imply that Agkistrodon primitively occupied relatively temperate habitats, with subsequent evolution of tropicality in ancestral A. bilineatus. Our best supported phylogeny rejects three gulf arc scenarios for the biogeography of A. bilineatus. We find significant statistical support for an initial divergence between populations on the east and west coasts of México and subsequent occupancy of the Yucatán Peninsula, by way of subhumid corridors in northern Central America. Based on phylogenetic relationships, morphological and molecular divergence, and allopatry we elevate A. b. taylori of northeastern México to species status. Taylor's cantil is likely threatened by habitat destruction and small geographical range, and we offer recommendations for its conservation and management.

  12. Bayesian estimation of the phylogeography of African gorillas with genome-differentiated population trees.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joungyoun; Larget, Bret

    2014-09-01

    Phylogeography investigates the historical process that is responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of populations in a species. The inference is made on the basis of molecular sequence data sampled from modern-day populations. The estimates, however, may fluctuate depending on the relevant genomic regions, because the evolution mechanism of each genome is unique, even within the same individual. In this article, we propose a genome-differentiated population tree model that allows the existence of separate population trees for each homologous genome. In each population tree, the unique evolutionary characteristics account for each genome, along with their homologous relationship; therefore, the approach can distinguish the evolutionary history of one genome from that of another. In addition to the separate divergence times, the new model can estimate separate effective population sizes, gene-genealogies and other mutation parameters. For Bayesian inference, we developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methodology with a novel MCMC algorithm which can mix over a complicated state space. The stability of the new estimator is demonstrated through comparison with the Monte Carlo samples and other methods, as well as MCMC convergence diagnostics. The analysis of African gorilla data from two homologous loci reveals discordant divergence times between loci, and this discrepancy is explained by male-mediated gene flows until the end of the last ice age.

  13. World phylogeography and male-mediated gene flow in the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, David S; McDowell, Jan R; Heist, Edward J; Musick, John A; Graves, John E

    2010-05-01

    The sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, is a large, cosmopolitan, coastal species. Females are thought to show philopatry to nursery grounds while males potentially migrate long distances, creating an opportunity for male-mediated gene flow that may lead to discordance in patterns revealed by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear markers. While this dynamic has been investigated in elasmobranchs over small spatial scales, it has not been examined at a global level. We examined patterns of historical phylogeography and contemporary gene flow by genotyping 329 individuals from nine locations throughout the species' range at eight nuclear microsatellite markers and sequencing the complete mtDNA control region. Pairwise comparisons often resulted in fixation indices and divergence estimates of greater magnitude using mtDNA sequence data than microsatellite data. In addition, multiple methods of estimation suggested fewer populations based on microsatellite loci than on mtDNA sequence data. Coalescent analyses suggest divergence and restricted migration among Hawaii, Taiwan, eastern and western Australia using mtDNA sequence data and no divergence and high migration rates, between Taiwan and both Australian sites using microsatellite data. Evidence of secondary contact was detected between several localities and appears to be discreet in time rather than continuous. Collectively, these data suggest complex spatial/temporal relationships between shark populations that may feature pulses of female dispersal and more continuous male-mediated gene flow.

  14. New insights on postglacial colonization in western Europe: the phylogeography of the Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri)

    PubMed Central

    Boston, Emma S. M.; Ian Montgomery, W.; Hynes, Rosaleen; Prodöhl, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of the interplay between a dynamic physical environment and phylogeography in Europe, the origins of contemporary Irish biota remain uncertain. Current thinking is that Ireland was colonized post-glacially from southern European refugia, following the end of the last glacial maximum (LGM), some 20 000 years BP. The Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri), one of the few native Irish mammal species, is widely distributed throughout Europe but, with the exception of Ireland, is generally rare and considered vulnerable. We investigate the origins and phylogeographic relationships of Irish populations in relation to those across Europe, including the closely related species N. azoreum. We use a combination of approaches, including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, in addition to approximate Bayesian computation and palaeo-climatic species distribution modelling. Molecular analyses revealed two distinct and diverse European mitochondrial DNA lineages, which probably diverged in separate glacial refugia. A western lineage, restricted to Ireland, Britain and the Azores, comprises Irish and British N. leisleri and N. azoreum specimens; an eastern lineage is distributed throughout mainland Europe. Palaeo-climatic projections indicate suitable habitats during the LGM, including known glacial refugia, in addition to potential novel cryptic refugia along the western fringe of Europe. These results may be applicable to populations of many species. PMID:25716786

  15. Phylogeography of the circumpolar Paranoplocephala arctica species complex (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) parasitizing collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx spp.).

    PubMed

    Wickström, L M; Haukisalmi, V; Varis, S; Hantula, J; Fedorov, V B; Henttonen, H

    2003-12-01

    The Paranoplocephla arctica complex (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae), host-specific cestodes of collared lemmings Dicrostonyx, include two morphospecies P. arctica and P. alternata, whose taxonomical status now must be considered ambiguous. The genetic population structure and phylogeography of the P. arctica complex was studied from 83 individuals sampled throughout the Holarctic distribution range using 600 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny divides the species complex into one main Nearctic and one main Palaearctic phylogroup, corresponding to the main phylogenetic division of the hosts. In the Palearctic phylogroup, the parasite clades correspond to the host clades although the parasites from Wrangel Island form an exception as the host on this island, D. groenlandicus, belongs to the Nearctic phylogroup. In the Nearctic, northern refugia beyond the ice limit of the Pleistocene glaciations are proposed for the hosts. All reconstructions of parasite phylogeny show a genetically differentiated population structure that in the Canadian Arctic lacks strict congruence between phylogeny and geography. The parasite phylogeny does not show complete congruence with host relationships, suggesting a history of colonization and secondary patterns of dispersal from Beringia into the Canadian Arctic, an event not proposed by the host phylogenies alone.

  16. New insights on postglacial colonization in western Europe: the phylogeography of the Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri).

    PubMed

    Boston, Emma S M; Ian Montgomery, W; Hynes, Rosaleen; Prodöhl, Paulo A

    2015-04-07

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of the interplay between a dynamic physical environment and phylogeography in Europe, the origins of contemporary Irish biota remain uncertain. Current thinking is that Ireland was colonized post-glacially from southern European refugia, following the end of the last glacial maximum (LGM), some 20 000 years BP. The Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri), one of the few native Irish mammal species, is widely distributed throughout Europe but, with the exception of Ireland, is generally rare and considered vulnerable. We investigate the origins and phylogeographic relationships of Irish populations in relation to those across Europe, including the closely related species N. azoreum. We use a combination of approaches, including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, in addition to approximate Bayesian computation and palaeo-climatic species distribution modelling. Molecular analyses revealed two distinct and diverse European mitochondrial DNA lineages, which probably diverged in separate glacial refugia. A western lineage, restricted to Ireland, Britain and the Azores, comprises Irish and British N. leisleri and N. azoreum specimens; an eastern lineage is distributed throughout mainland Europe. Palaeo-climatic projections indicate suitable habitats during the LGM, including known glacial refugia, in addition to potential novel cryptic refugia along the western fringe of Europe. These results may be applicable to populations of many species.

  17. Identification of pre-fertilization reproductive barriers and the underlying cytological mechanism in crosses among three petal-types of Jasminum sambac and their relevance to phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanming; Sun, Xiaobo; Gu, Chunsun; Jia, Xinping; Liang, Lijian; Su, Jiale

    2017-01-01

    Crosses among single-, double- and multi-petal jasmine cultivars (Jasminum sambac Aiton) are unable to easily generate hybrids. To identify the reproductive barriers restricting hybrid set, dynamic changes in jasmine pollen viability and pistil receptivity were compared at different flowering stages. Pollen-pistil interactions in six reciprocal crosses were also investigated to characterize pollen-stigma compatibility. Additionally, paraffin sections of pollinated embryo sacs were prepared for subsequent analyses of developmental status. Furthermore, pistil cell ultrastructural characteristics were observed to reveal cytological mechanism regulating pistil receptivity and the pollen-pistil interactions. We observed that pollen viability and stigma receptivity varied depending on petal phenotype and flowering stage and were easily lost during flowering. Different reciprocal crosses exhibited varied pollen-stigma compatibilities according to the pollen germination rates. Although some pollen grains germinated normally on maternal stigmas, the pollen tubes were arrested in the pistils and were unable to reach the ovaries. Additionally, the embryo sacs remained unfertilized until degenerating. Therefore, jasmine crosses are affected by pre-fertilization reproductive barriers. Low pollen fertility and poor stigma receptivity are detrimental to pollen germination and pollen-pistil compatibility, indicating they are two factors affecting hybrid set. Ultrastructural observation of the pistil cells revealed that cell death occurred during flowering. Thus, the early and rapid senescence of pistils is likely responsible for the decreased pistil receptivity and inhibited pollen tube growth. These findings may be relevant for future jasmine hybridizations. They provide new insights for the development of methods to overcome reproductive barriers and may also be useful for clarifying the phylogenetic relationships among jasmine cultivars with differing petal phenotypes.

  18. Identification of pre-fertilization reproductive barriers and the underlying cytological mechanism in crosses among three petal-types of Jasminum sambac and their relevance to phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanming; Sun, Xiaobo; Gu, Chunsun; Jia, Xinping; Liang, Lijian; Su, Jiale

    2017-01-01

    Crosses among single-, double- and multi-petal jasmine cultivars (Jasminum sambac Aiton) are unable to easily generate hybrids. To identify the reproductive barriers restricting hybrid set, dynamic changes in jasmine pollen viability and pistil receptivity were compared at different flowering stages. Pollen-pistil interactions in six reciprocal crosses were also investigated to characterize pollen-stigma compatibility. Additionally, paraffin sections of pollinated embryo sacs were prepared for subsequent analyses of developmental status. Furthermore, pistil cell ultrastructural characteristics were observed to reveal cytological mechanism regulating pistil receptivity and the pollen-pistil interactions. We observed that pollen viability and stigma receptivity varied depending on petal phenotype and flowering stage and were easily lost during flowering. Different reciprocal crosses exhibited varied pollen-stigma compatibilities according to the pollen germination rates. Although some pollen grains germinated normally on maternal stigmas, the pollen tubes were arrested in the pistils and were unable to reach the ovaries. Additionally, the embryo sacs remained unfertilized until degenerating. Therefore, jasmine crosses are affected by pre-fertilization reproductive barriers. Low pollen fertility and poor stigma receptivity are detrimental to pollen germination and pollen-pistil compatibility, indicating they are two factors affecting hybrid set. Ultrastructural observation of the pistil cells revealed that cell death occurred during flowering. Thus, the early and rapid senescence of pistils is likely responsible for the decreased pistil receptivity and inhibited pollen tube growth. These findings may be relevant for future jasmine hybridizations. They provide new insights for the development of methods to overcome reproductive barriers and may also be useful for clarifying the phylogenetic relationships among jasmine cultivars with differing petal phenotypes. PMID

  19. Relationship between brain gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and seasonal reproductive cycle of "caribe colorado," Pygocentrus notatus.

    PubMed

    Gentile, F; Lira, O; Marcano-de Cotte, D

    1986-11-01

    Immunoreactive gonadotrophic hormone-releasing hormone (ir-GnRH) was detected in hypothalamic and telencephalic extracts of the Venezuelan freshwater fish "caribe colorado," Pygocentrus notatus. Hypothalamic ir-GnRH from female fish demonstrated displacement curves parallel to those of synthetic mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). The content of hypothalamic and telencephalic ir-GnRH from female fish was more than four-fold greater than that of male animals. Also, fluctuations that depended on the reproductive state and environmental conditions (rainfall) occurred in females but not in males. Thus, ir-GnRH levels were higher in hypothalamic and telencephalic extracts from sexually mature females than in those from fish sampled outside the climatically determined breeding season.

  20. Relationships between sexual behaviour, dominant follicle area, uterus ultrasonic image and pregnancy rate in mares of two breeds differing in reproductive efficiency.

    PubMed

    Górecka, Aleksandra; Jezierski, Tadeusz A; Słoniewski, Krzysztof

    2005-07-01

    Weak or equivocal expression of oestrous behaviour, related to different level of mares' reactivity, may cause problems in oestrus detection and thus influence the reproductive efficiency. The aim of the study was to test whether a breed characterised by low pregnancy rate and high emotional reactivity (Thoroughbreds) differs in oestrous behaviour from a primitive breed with higher reproductive efficiency (Koniks). Additionally, the follicle size was examined to determine how it influences the intensity of oestrus and uterine ultrasonic image and whether the pregnancy rate differs in relation to the intensity of oestrous behaviour and the size of the dominant follicle(s) area on day preceding ovulation in both breeds. During four reproductive seasons the behaviour of 20 Konik polski (K) and 37 Thoroughbred (T) was observed during daily teasing. Simultaneously, the ultrasonic examinations of the reproductive system were carried out. The behaviour of mares was quantified by scoring on an 8-point scale (behavioural score, BS), according to increasing sexual receptivity. Cross-sectional follicular area (FA) was taken as a product of the two largest perpendicular follicular diameters and mean values for each breed were estimated on 1693 and 1982 mm2 for K and T mares, respectively (P < 0.05). Mares were classified according to the pooled area of dominant follicle (FA) during the preovulatory period: group A (FA < or = breed mean) and group B (FA > breed mean). Uterus image (UI) was scored (1-5) according to the increasing uterine echogenicity. The BS was higher (P < 0.01) in K mares (BS = 5.19) than in T mares (BS = 4.04). The BS was significantly related to increasing follicular area (FA). There was no breed difference in uterus image (UI) score. However, significant regression of UI on FA was found in K mares. The intensity of oestrus was positively related with UI (r = 0.29; P < 0.01) only in K mares, no such relationship was found in T mares. The pregnancy rate was

  1. B-cell lymphoma-2 localization in the female reproductive tract of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis and its relationship with sperm storage.

    PubMed

    Le, Yuan; Chen, Shaofan; Hu, Lisi; Zhang, Linli; Ullah, Shakeeb; Liu, Tengfei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qiusheng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and localization of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in the oviduct of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, during the reproductive cycle to analyze the relationship between Bcl-2 and sperm storage. Bcl-2 expression was confirmed in the P. sinensis oviduct by western blot analysis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that female P. sinensis stored sperm from November to April of the following year. The oviduct showed positive immunostaining for Bcl-2 of epithelial ciliated cells, gland ducts, and gland cells. Bcl-2 expression in the oviduct was associated with sperm storage occurrence. This indicates that the survival factor Bcl-2 may play a role in P. sinensis sperm storage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The relationship between growth hormone polymorphism and growth hormone receptor genes with milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Z; Atashi, H; Dadpasand, M; Derakhshandeh, A; Ghahramani Seno, M. M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between growth hormone GH/AluI and growth hormone receptor GHR/AluI polymorphisms with milk yield and reproductive performances in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. Blood samples of 150 Holstein cows were collected and their genomic DNA was extracted using Gene-Fanavaran DNA extracting kit. Fragments of the 428 bp of exon 5 growth hormone (GH) gene and the 342 bp of exon 10 growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. PCR products were digested by the AluI restriction enzyme and electrophoresed on 3% agarose gel. Continuous and categorical data were analyzed using linear mixed models through Proc MIXED and logistic regression models through Proc GENMOD of SAS software, respectively. The results showed no relationship between the examined traits and GH/AluI or GHR/AluI genes. A significant relationship was found between GH/AluI polymorphism and dystocia, but the presence of the GH-L allele reduced the incidence of dystocia. The results suggest that the GH-LL genotype reduces dystocia probably by affecting the release of growth hormone; nevertheless, further studies will be needed to examine the relationship between dystocia and GH genotypes. PMID:27175183

  3. Comparative phylogeography of Mississippi embayment fishes.

    PubMed

    Egge, Jacob J D; Hagbo, Taylor J

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi Embayment is a prominent physiographic feature of eastern North America consisting of primarily lowland aquatic habitats and a fish fauna that is largely distinct from nearby highland regions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene events have had a strong influence on the distributions and relationships of highland fishes in eastern North America. However, the extent to which these same events affected Embayment distributed taxa remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative roles of pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene events in shaping phylogeographic relationships of four stream dwelling fishes in the Mississippi Embayment. Molecular genetic analyses of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b were performed for three ictalurid catfish species (Noturus miurus, n = 67; Noturus hildebrandi, n = 93, and Noturus phaeus, n = 44) and one minnow species (Cyprinella camura, n = 78), all distributed in tributary streams of the Mississippi Embayment. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among haplotypes for each species were estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 6 major haplotype clades within N. miurus, 5 within N. hildbrandi, 8 within N. phaeus, and 8 within C. camura. All three Noturus species show a high degree of isolation by drainage, which is less evident in C. camura. A clade of haplotypes from tributaries in the southern portion of the Mississippi Embayment was consistently recovered in all four species. Divergence times among clades spanned the Pleistocene, Pliocene, and Miocene. Novel relationships presented here for C. camura and N. phaeus suggest the potential for cryptic species. Pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene era sea level fluctuations coincide with some divergence events, but no single event explains any common divergence across all taxa. Like their highland relatives, a combination of both pre-Pleistocene and

  4. Comparative Phylogeography of Mississippi Embayment Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Egge, Jacob J. D.; Hagbo, Taylor J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi Embayment is a prominent physiographic feature of eastern North America consisting of primarily lowland aquatic habitats and a fish fauna that is largely distinct from nearby highland regions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene events have had a strong influence on the distributions and relationships of highland fishes in eastern North America. However, the extent to which these same events affected Embayment distributed taxa remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative roles of pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene events in shaping phylogeographic relationships of four stream dwelling fishes in the Mississippi Embayment. Molecular genetic analyses of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b were performed for three ictalurid catfish species (Noturus miurus, n = 67; Noturus hildebrandi, n = 93, and Noturus phaeus, n = 44) and one minnow species (Cyprinella camura, n = 78), all distributed in tributary streams of the Mississippi Embayment. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among haplotypes for each species were estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 6 major haplotype clades within N. miurus, 5 within N. hildbrandi, 8 within N. phaeus, and 8 within C. camura. All three Noturus species show a high degree of isolation by drainage, which is less evident in C. camura. A clade of haplotypes from tributaries in the southern portion of the Mississippi Embayment was consistently recovered in all four species. Divergence times among clades spanned the Pleistocene, Pliocene, and Miocene. Novel relationships presented here for C. camura and N. phaeus suggest the potential for cryptic species. Pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene era sea level fluctuations coincide with some divergence events, but no single event explains any common divergence across all taxa. Like their highland relatives, a combination of both pre-Pleistocene and

  5. Phylogeography helps with investigating the building of human parasite communities.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge

    2012-12-01

    Phylogeography of parasites and microbes is a recent field. Phylogeographic studies have been performed mostly to test three major hypotheses that are not mutually exclusive on the origins and distributions of human parasites and microbes: (1) the "out of Africa" pattern where parasites are supposed to have followed the dispersal and expansion of modern humans in and out of Africa, (2) the "domestication" pattern where parasites were captured in the domestication centres and dispersed through them and (3) the "globalization" pattern, in relation to historical and more recent trade routes. With some exceptions, such studies of human protozoans, helminths and ectoparasites are quite limited. The conclusion emphasizes the need to acquire more phylogeographic data in non-Occidental countries, and particularly in Asia where all the animal domestications took place.

  6. Phylogeography and history of giant Galápagos tortoises.

    PubMed

    Caccone, Adalgisa; Gentile, Gabriele; Gibbs, James P; Frirts, Thomas H; Snell, Howard L; Betts, Jessica; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2002-10-01

    We examined the phylogeography and history of giant Galápagos tortoise populations based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data from 161 individuals from 21 sampling sites representing the 11 currently recognized extant taxa. Molecular clock and geological considerations indicate a founding of the monophyletic Galápagos lineage around 2-3 million years ago, which would allow for all the diversification to have occurred on extant islands. Founding events generally occurred from geologically older to younger islands with some islands colonized more than once. Six of the 11 named taxa can be associated with monophyletic maternal lineages. One, Geochelone porteri on Santa Cruz Island, consists of two distinct populations connected by the deepest node in the archipelago-wide phylogeny, whereas tortoises in northwest Santa Cruz are closely related to those on adjacent Pinzón Island. Volcan Wolf, the northernmost volcano of Isabela Island, consists of both a unique set of maternal lineages and recent migrants from other islands, indicating multiple colonizations possibly due to human transport or multiple colonization and partial elimination through competition. These genetic findings are consistent with the mixed morphology of tortoises on this volcano. No clear genetic differentiation between two taxa on the two southernmost volcanoes of Isabela was evident. Extinction of crucial populations by human activities confounds whether domed versus saddleback carapaces of different populations are mono- or polyphyletic. Our findings revealed a complex phylogeography and history for this tortoise radiation within an insular environment and have implications for efforts to conserve these endangered biological treasures.

  7. Comparative Phylogeography in Rainforest Trees from Lower Guinea, Africa

    PubMed Central

    Heuertz, Myriam; Duminil, Jérôme; Dauby, Gilles; Savolainen, Vincent; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography is an effective approach to assess the evolutionary history of biological communities. We used comparative phylogeography in fourteen tree taxa from Lower Guinea (Atlantic Equatorial Africa) to test for congruence with two simple evolutionary scenarios based on physio-climatic features 1) the W-E environmental gradient and 2) the N-S seasonal inversion, which determine climatic and seasonality differences in the region. We sequenced the trnC-ycf6 plastid DNA region using a dual sampling strategy: fourteen taxa with small sample sizes (dataset 1, mean n = 16/taxon), to assess whether a strong general pattern of allele endemism and genetic differentiation emerged; and four taxonomically well-studied species with larger sample sizes (dataset 2, mean n = 109/species) to detect the presence of particular shared phylogeographic patterns. When grouping the samples into two alternative sets of two populations, W and E, vs. N and S, neither dataset exhibited a strong pattern of allelic endemism, suggesting that none of the considered regions consistently harboured older populations. Differentiation in dataset 1 was similarly strong between W and E as between N and S, with 3–5 significant FST tests out of 14 tests in each scenario. Coalescent simulations indicated that, given the power of the data, this result probably reflects idiosyncratic histories of the taxa, or a weak common differentiation pattern (possibly with population substructure) undetectable across taxa in dataset 1. Dataset 2 identified a common genetic break separating the northern and southern populations of Greenwayodendron suaveolens subsp. suaveolens var. suaveolens, Milicia excelsa, Symphonia globulifera and Trichoscypha acuminata in Lower Guinea, in agreement with differentiation across the N–S seasonal inversion. Our work suggests that currently recognized tree taxa or suspected species complexes can contain strongly differentiated genetic lineages, which could

  8. Reproductive cycle and maternal-embryonic nutritional relationship of shovelnose guitarfish Pseudobatos productus in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Romo-Curiel, A E; Sosa-Nishizaki, O; Pérez-Jiménez, J C; Rodríguez-Medrano, M C

    2017-03-01

    Samples of the shovelnose guitarfish Pseudobatos productus were collected on board a vessel and at landings of artisanal commercial fisheries in the Gulf of California from May 2004 to June 2007. Samples of 650 females, 2047 embryos and 484 uterine eggs were examined. The reproductive cycle is annual, ovulation and parturition occur in July, the uterine eggs are in diapause for 9 months (July-March) before an accelerated growth of embryos of 3 months. Histological analyses of the uterine wall of pregnant females suggested that no secretions were used for embryo nourishment. The standard percentage of water content was 48·6% in fertilized eggs and 80·75% in full-term embryos. Dry mass loss during embryonic development was 16·3% and the chemical balance of development was 0·84. This indicates that P. productus is a strictly lecithotrophic, viviparous species, that makes no maternal contribution of nutrients during embryonic development. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Chronology and evolution of temporal lobe epilepsy and endocrine reproductive dysfunction in women: relationships to side of focus and catameniality.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir V; Zheleznova, Elena V

    2007-09-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the possible associations between side of focus, catameniality, reproductive dysfunction (RD), and chronology variables for epilepsy and concomitant RD in women. Eighty women of childbearing potential with temporal lobe epilepsy were included in the study. Catamenial epilepsy was observed mainly in women with left-sided foci, and a noncatamenial pattern in women with right-sided foci. Left-sided foci were associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, and right-sided foci with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Catamenial epilepsy with right-sided foci was associated with longer duration of epilepsy (P=0.021), trend toward earlier age at onset of epilepsy, and trend toward longer interval between onset of epilepsy and onset of RD compared with catamenial epilepsy with left-sided foci. On the other hand, noncatamenial epilepsy with right-sided foci was characterized by a shorter interval between onset of epilepsy and onset of RD in comparison with noncatamenial epilepsy with left-sided activity (P=0.03). In addition, comparison of patients with right-sided foci with catamenial and noncatamenial patterns of seizures revealed earlier age of epilepsy onset (P=0.049), longer duration of epilepsy (P=0.017) and of RD (P=0.036), and longer interval between onset of epilepsy and onset of RD (P=0.048) in patients with catamenial epilepsy. From an evolutionary point of view, catamenial epilepsy with right-sided focal activity seems to be the oldest subtype.

  10. Seasonal prevalence of Taenia taeniaeformis: relationship to age, sex, reproduction and abundance of an intermediate host (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    PubMed

    Theis, J H; Schwab, R G

    1992-01-01

    Livers from 4,501 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) collected from a weedy habitat in northeastern California during 48 consecutive monthly samplings were examined microscopically for Taenia taeniaeformis larva. Although there were pronounced seasonal fluctuations in host density, there were no significant annual or season-related differences in cestode intensities in adult deer mice. There were no significant differences in prevalences associated with sex of the host, nor were there significant changes in level of reproduction noted between infected and non-infected hosts. There were, however, significant differences in prevalences between young (1.2%) and adult (4.2%) hosts. Plausible mechanisms for this age-related difference in prevalence rates include (1) differential susceptibility due to the activity pattern of adult mice and/or (2) passive immunity in neonates as a result of colostrum- and/or transplacentally-transferred immunoglobulins and (3) capture of subadult animals before they had completed the period of highest susceptibility to T. taeniaeformis. Density of larvae per mouse liver was determined during a 21 mo consecutive period. The intensity of T. taeniaeformis larvae was not significantly different between the sexes of the adult mice. The larval stage showed an overdispersion pattern within the adult population. These results suggest that determinations of T. taeniaeformis abundances can be accurately made, at least in this P. maniculatus population, at any time of the year provided adjustment is made for the relative age structure of the host population.

  11. Polymorphism and reproductive mode in the rotifer, Asplanchna sieboldi: relationship between meiotic oogenesis and shape of body-wall outgrowths.

    PubMed

    Kabay, M E; Gilbert, J J

    1977-07-01

    Sexuality and polymorphism are closely coupled in the rotifer Asplanchna sieboldi. In a graded response to dietary tocopherol, embryos develop body-wall outgrowths of various sizes and shapes. Also in a graded response to this compound, some of the affected females produce eggs undergoing meiotic instead of mitotic oogenesis. The haploid eggs of such mictic females develop parthenogenetically into males instead of females. The incidence of mictic females among animals with different shapes was studied among cohorts from mothers subjected to different inducing conditions. The hypothesis that external tocopherol concentrations absolutely fix the probability of meiotic oogenesis was rejected. The other extreme hypothesis, that the probability of meiotic oogenesis is fixed by morphotype, was rejected for animals at the low end of the morphotypic scale but accepted for the more strongly-affected individuals. The probability of meiotic oogenesis is thus constant for the higher morphotypes. The ascertainment of morphotype frequencies in natural or laboratory populations may suffice for estimating the incidence of sexual forms; furthermore studies of factors affecting the body-wall-outgrowth response may also bear directly upon regulation of sexual reproduction in this species.

  12. Evaluation of relationships between reproductive metrics, gender and vitellogenin expression in demersal flatfish collected near the municipal wastewater outfall of Orange County, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Ann Rempel, Mary; Reyes, Jesus; Steinert, Scott; Hwang, Wendy; Armstrong, Jeff; Sakamoto, Ken; Kelley, Kevin; Schlenk, Daniel

    2006-05-10

    Estrogenic activity in fish has primarily been evaluated using vitellogenin (vtg) expression in male and juvenile animals. Although the response has been widespread in field and laboratory studies, the relevance of the response to higher level adverse effects, particularly in the field, is less than clear. Previous evaluations of vtg within flatfish species collected near the Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) outfall and stations as far as 7.7 km down current indicated bioavailable estrogens within demersal flatfish populations. In order to evaluate the persistence of estrogenic activity and relationships to reproduction and development, fish were sampled in the winter and summer of 2003 and 2004 at the outfall and a reference location. Vtg, plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations, gonadosomatic indices (GSI), sperm DNA damage, development, and gender ratios were measured in English Sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) and Hornyhead Turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis). Variable levels of vtg were continually observed in the plasma samples of fish collected at both locations. Vtg expression and plasma E2 levels were significantly correlated in females. A positive relationship was demonstrated between plasma E2 levels and sperm DNA damage. Rather than an expected feminization of populations, a trend toward masculinization was observed particularly at the OCSD outfall, as indicated by gender ratios and significantly higher GSI in males versus females. These results are consistent with previous studies showing vtg expression in male flatfish, but no alteration in overall flatfish abundance at the sampled sites.

  13. Relationship of concentrations of cortisol in hair with health, biomarkers in blood, and reproductive status in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Nadalin, Audrey; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol has been used to measure chronic stress in dairy cows as it offers the advantage of being noninvasive, fast, and able to indicate levels of cortisol over long periods. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between hair cortisol with clinical disorders, reproductive status, and the development of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the association between hair cortisol concentrations and blood markers associated with metabolic status and acute inflammation. In experiment 1, cows (n=64) were hair sampled every 3wk from the tail switch beginning at calving (d 0) until d 126 for cortisol analysis; blood samples were collected every 3wk from d 0 until 42 for β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose analysis. In experiment 2, cows (n=54) were chosen retrospectively by diagnosis of subclinical endometritis (END), subclinical endometritis and at least 1 clinical disease (END+CLIN), or as healthy (control) using a cytobrush and ultrasonography at 30±3d in milk. At the same time, animals were hair sampled for cortisol analysis and blood sampled for haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin analysis. Health records were recorded throughout both experimental periods. Animals with clinical disease presented higher cortisol concentrations than clinically healthy animals in experiment 1 [geometric mean (95% confidence interval); 8.8 (7.8, 9.9) vs. 10.7 (9.6, 12.0) pg/mg]; however, animals diagnosed with subclinical endometritis in experiment 2 did not differ in hair cortisol concentrations [11.7 (9.8, 14.0), 12.2 (9.3, 15.9), 10.5 (8.1, 13.6) pg/mg for control, END, and END+CLIN, respectively]. In experiment 1, an effect of sample day was noted, where d 21 had higher cortisol concentrations than d 42, 84, and 126, but not from d 0 for both parities. Within both experiments, a parity effect was present where multiparous animals consistently had higher cortisol concentrations than primiparous animals. Multiparous cows that became

  14. Size-dependent reproductive pattern and short-term reproductive cost in Rumex obtusifolius L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Joan; Sans, F. Xavier; Masalles, Ramon M.

    2002-10-01

    This paper analyses the size-dependent reproductive pattern of Rumex obtusifolius L. growing in lucerne crops ( Medicago sativa L.), and its importance in determining the existence of a short-term reproductive cost. Size effects on reproductive pattern were evaluated by determining the role of plant size at the time of first reproduction, and the size-dependency of flowering probability (estimated as the proportion of flowering plants), plant fecundity, and reproductive effort (estimated as the ratio between reproductive and vegetative biomass). These parameters were recorded over the reproductive episodes determined by crop harvesting during the reproductive period. The results showed that size was much more important than age in determining time of first reproduction. Seed output decreased progressively over the reproductive period, probably in relation to an increasing short-term reproductive cost caused by a gradual depletion of plant resources. Probability of flowering over the successive reproductive episodes increased with plant size. The allometric relationship of vegetative versus reproductive biomass indicated that reproductive biomass increased less sharply than vegetative biomass and, consequently, reproductive effort decreased as plant size increased. Assuming a direct relationship between reproductive effort and reproductive cost, the size-dependent flowering probability could reflect, in turn, the existence of a size-dependent reproductive cost that would decrease as plant size increased. Ecological implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J; Figuerola, Jordi; Amat, Francisco; Rico, Ciro

    2008-07-01

    There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading to their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI or cox1) gene to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of A. salina, an extreme halophilic sexual brine shrimp, over its known distribution range (Mediterranean Basin and South Africa) and to assess the extent of local endemism, the degree of population structure and the potential impact of traditional human saltpan management on this species. We also examined the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Artemia using COI sequences. Our results show extensive regional endemism and indicate an early Pleistocene expansion of A. salina in the Mediterranean Basin. Subsequent population isolation in a mosaic of Pleistocene refugia is suggested, with two or three refugia located in the Iberian Peninsula. Two instances of long-distance colonization were also observed. Surprisingly, given its strong phylogeographical structure, A. salina showed a signature of correlation between geographical and genetic distance. Owing to strong 'priority effects', extensive population differentiation is retained, despite dispersal via migrant birds and human management of saltpans. The foreseeable expansion of A. franciscana is likely to be followed by substantial loss of genetic diversity in Mediterranean A. salina. Large genetic divergences between Mediterranean and South African A. salina suggest that the latter deserves species status.

  16. Phylogeography and Coevolution of Bamboo Mosaic Virus and Its Associated Satellite RNA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ing-Nang; Yeh, Wen-Bin; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), a plant potexvirus, has been found only in infected bamboo species. It is frequently associated with a large, linear single-stranded satellite RNA (satBaMV) that encodes a non-structural protein. Decades of collecting across a wide geographic area in Asia have accumulated a sizable number of BaMV and satBaMV isolates. In this study, we reconstructed the BaMV phylogeny and satBaMV phylogeny with partial coat protein gene sequences and partial genomic sequences, respectively. The evolutionary relationships allowed us to infer the phylogeography of BaMV and satBaMV on the Asian continent and its outlying islands. The BaMV phylogeny suggests that the BaMV isolates from Taiwan, unsurprisingly, are most likely derived from China. Interestingly, the newly available satBaMV isolates from China were found to be most closely related to the previously established Clade III, which is found in India. The general pattern of clustering along the China/India and Taiwan divide led us to hypothesize that the Taiwan Strait has been a physical barrier to gene flow in the past evolutionary history of both BaMV and satBaMV. Lastly, cophylogeny analyses revealed a complex association pattern between BaMV and satBaMV isolates from China. In general, closely related BaMV sequences tend to carry closely related satBaMV sequences as well; but instances of mismatching with distantly related satBaMV isolates were also found. We hypothesize plausible scenarios of infection and superinfection of bamboo hosts that may be responsible for the observed association pattern. However, a more systematic sampling throughout the geographic distribution of various bamboo species is needed to unambiguously establish the origin, movement, and evolution of BaMV and satBaMV. PMID:28588562

  17. Phylogeography and genetic structure of a Tertiary relict tree species, Tapiscia sinensis (Tapisciaceae): implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinju; Li, Zuozhou; Fritsch, Peter W.; Tian, Hua; Yang, Aihong; Yao, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The phylogeography of plant species in sub-tropical China remains largely unclear. This study used Tapiscia sinensis, an endemic and endangered tree species widely but disjunctly distributed in sub-tropical China, as a model to reveal the patterns of genetic diversity and phylogeographical history of Tertiary relict plant species in this region. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to its conservation management. Methods Samples were taken from 24 populations covering the natural geographical distribution of T. sinensis. Genetic structure was investigated by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes were constructed with maximum parsimony and haplotype network methods. Historical population expansion events were tested with pairwise mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Species potential range was deduced by ecological niche modelling (ENM). Key Results A low level of genetic diversity was detected at the population level. A high level of genetic differentiation and a significant phylogeographical structure were revealed. The mean divergence time of the haplotypes was approx. 1·33 million years ago. Recent range expansion in this species is suggested by a star-like haplotype network and by the results from the mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Conclusions Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene have had pronounced effects on the extant distribution of Tapiscia relative to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Spatial patterns of molecular variation and ENM suggest that T. sinensis may have retreated in south-western and central China and colonized eastern China prior to the LGM. Multiple montane refugia for T. sinense existing during the LGM are inferred in central and western China. The populations adjacent to or within these refugia of T. sinense should be given high priority in the development of

  18. Phylogeography and genetic structure of a Tertiary relict tree species, Tapiscia sinensis (Tapisciaceae): implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinju; Li, Zuozhou; Fritsch, Peter W; Tian, Hua; Yang, Aihong; Yao, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    The phylogeography of plant species in sub-tropical China remains largely unclear. This study used Tapiscia sinensis, an endemic and endangered tree species widely but disjunctly distributed in sub-tropical China, as a model to reveal the patterns of genetic diversity and phylogeographical history of Tertiary relict plant species in this region. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to its conservation management. Samples were taken from 24 populations covering the natural geographical distribution of T. sinensis. Genetic structure was investigated by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes were constructed with maximum parsimony and haplotype network methods. Historical population expansion events were tested with pairwise mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Species potential range was deduced by ecological niche modelling (ENM). A low level of genetic diversity was detected at the population level. A high level of genetic differentiation and a significant phylogeographical structure were revealed. The mean divergence time of the haplotypes was approx. 1·33 million years ago. Recent range expansion in this species is suggested by a star-like haplotype network and by the results from the mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene have had pronounced effects on the extant distribution of Tapiscia relative to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Spatial patterns of molecular variation and ENM suggest that T. sinensis may have retreated in south-western and central China and colonized eastern China prior to the LGM. Multiple montane refugia for T. sinense existing during the LGM are inferred in central and western China. The populations adjacent to or within these refugia of T. sinense should be given high priority in the development of conservation policies and management strategies for

  19. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows.

    PubMed

    Forabosco, F; Bozzi, R; Boettcher, P; Filippini, F; Bijma, P; Van Arendonk, J A M

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in the birth of the first calf (FI), and length of productive life (LPL); and 3) to investigate the relationship between the phenotypic profit function and type traits as early predictors of profitability in the Chianina beef cattle population. The average profit was 196 Euros/(cow.yr) for the length of productive life (LPL) and was obtained as the difference between the average income of 1,375 Euros/(cow.yr) for LPL and costs of 1,178 Euros/(cow.yr) of LPL. The mean LPL was equal to 5.97 yr, so the average total phenotypic profit per cow on a lifetime basis was 1,175 Euros. A normative approach was used to derive the economic weights for the biological variables. The most important trait was the number of calves born alive (+4.03.cow(-1).yr(-1) and +24.06 Euros/cow). An increase of 1 d in LPL was associated with an increase of +0.19 Euros/(cow.yr) and +1.65 Euros/cow on a lifetime basis. Increasing FI by 1 d decreased profit by 0.42 Euros/(cow.yr) and 2.51 Euros/cow. Phenotypic profit per cow had a heritability of 0.29. Heritabilities for eight muscularity traits ranged from 0.16 to 0.23, and for the seven body size traits between 0.21 and 0.30. The conformation trait final score can be used as an early predictor of profitability. The sale price of the animal and differences in the revenue and costs of offspring due to muscularity should be included in a future profit function.

  20. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome.

    PubMed

    Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John C S

    2014-12-14

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant females infected with type 2 PRRSv (NVSL 97-7895) and to analyze potential relationships with viral load and fetal mortality rate. PRRSv infection caused a massive, acute drop in total leukocyte counts affecting all PBMC populations by two days post infection. Except for B cells, cell counts started to rebound by day six post infection. Our data also show a greater decrease of naïve B cells, T-helper cells and cytolytic T cells than their respective effector or memory counterparts. Absolute numbers of T cells and γδ T cells were negatively associated with PRRSv RNA concentration in gilt serum over time. Additionally, absolute numbers of T helper cells may be predictive of fetal mortality rate. The preceding three leukocyte populations may therefore be predictive of PRRSv-related pathological outcomes in pregnant gilts. Although many questions regarding the immune responses remain unanswered, these findings provide insight and clues that may help reduce the impact of PRRSv in pregnant gilts.

  1. Species limits, phylogeography and reproductive mode in the Metarhizium anisopliae complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An essential first step toward understanding the ecology and life histories of Metarhizium anisopliae-group species as entomopathogens, endophytes and soil-adapted fungi is the ability to accurately define species limits and confidently infer a species tree. Here we present a multilocus phylogeny of...

  2. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  3. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  4. Phylogeography and genetic diversity of a widespread Old World butterfly, Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Evolutionary genetics provides a rich theoretical framework for empirical studies of phylogeography. Investigations of intraspecific genetic variation can uncover new putative species while allowing inference into the evolutionary origin and history of extant populations. With a distribution on four continents ranging throughout most of the Old World, Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is one of the most widely distributed species of butterfly. It is placed in a monotypic genus with no commonly accepted subspecies. Here, we investigate the demographic history and taxonomic status of this widespread species, and screen for the presence or absence of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Results We performed phylogenetic, population genetic, and phylogeographic analyses using 1799 bp of mitochondrial sequence data from 57 specimens collected throughout the species' range. Most of the samples (>90%) were nearly genetically identical, with uncorrected pairwise sequence differences of 0 – 0.5% across geographic distances > 9,000 km. However, five samples from central Thailand, Madagascar, northern Australia and the Moluccas formed two divergent clades differing from the majority of samples by uncorrected pairwise distances ranging from 1.79 – 2.21%. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that L. boeticus is almost certainly monophyletic, with all sampled genes coalescing well after the divergence from three closely related taxa included for outgroup comparisons. Analyses of molecular diversity indicate that most L. boeticus individuals in extant populations are descended from one or two relatively recent population bottlenecks. Conclusion The combined analyses suggest a scenario in which the most recent common ancestor of L. boeticus and its sister taxon lived in the African region approximately 7 Mya; extant lineages of L. boeticus began spreading throughout the Old World at least 1.5 Mya. More recently, expansion after population bottlenecks

  5. Biodiversity, phylogeography, biogeography and conservation: lemurs as an example.

    PubMed

    Thalmann, Urs

    2007-01-01

    The lemurs of Madagascar represent a spectacular example of adaptive radiation among primates. Given the special setting under which they evolved (i.e. long isolation, geographical location, geological relief), they provide excellent models for study in many realms, and at different levels and scales, including diversity. At the same time, they occur in a 'hottest hot spot' region for biodiversity conservation. Although there is no single definition of biodiversity, the most commonly used units to measure biodiversity are species-species richness, species abundance and, for conservation purposes in particular, species endemism. However, what a species actually is or how, precisely, it should be defined are unresolved issues. Many species concepts have been proposed and several have been used in primatology in recent years. Nowadays, one of the more common approaches to measuring diversity, and eventually inferring species status, is to look at genetic diversity as reflected by mitochondrial DNA differences. Not enough attention has been paid, however, to the different levels at which genetic differences may occur. Lemurs provide instructive examples to highlight the questions involved in species recognition and definition. Using lemurs as examples, I will highlight the strengths and limitations of some analytical tools, including phylogeography and cladistic biogeography and, I will, in particular, emphasize the questions arising at the interface of scientific and conservation perceptions, both of which influence decisions in the field of biodiversity preservation. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Molecular epidemiology and phylogeography of Schistosoma mansoni around Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Standley, C J; Kabatereine, N B; Lange, C N; Lwambo, N J S; Stothard, J R

    2010-11-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis continues to be a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and is endemic in communities around Lake Victoria. Interest is growing in the molecular evolution and population genetic structure of Schistosoma mansoni and we describe a detailed analysis of the molecular epidemiology and phylogeography of S. mansoni from Lake Victoria. In total, 388 cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) sequences were obtained from 25 sites along the Ugandan, Tanzanian and Kenyan shorelines of Lake Victoria, and 122 unique barcodes were identified; 9 corresponded to previously discovered barcodes from Lakes Victoria and Albert. A subset of the data, composed of COI sequences from miracidia from 10 individual children, was used for population genetics analyses; these results were corroborated by microsatellite analysis of 4 isolates of lab-passaged adult worms. Overall, 12 barcodes were found to be shared across all 3 countries, whereas the majority occurred singly and were locally restricted. The population genetics analyses were in agreement in revealing high diversity at the level of the human host and negligible population structuring by location. The lack of correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance in these data may be attributed to the confounding influence of high intra-individual diversity as well as human migration between communities.

  7. Molecular phylogeography of European Sciurus vulgaris: refuge within refugia?

    PubMed

    Grill, Andrea; Amori, Giovanni; Aloise, Gaetano; Lisi, Irene; Tosi, Guido; Wauters, Lucas A; Randi, Ettore

    2009-06-01

    The red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is a well-known forest animal distributed all over Europe. Still, we are far from having a firm knowledge of the species' phylogeography. This study investigates the genetic differentiation of S. vulgaris across the species' Eurasian range, using sequence data from the mitochondrial DNA gene (D-loop, 252 base pairs, cytochrome b, 359 base pairs), and eight variable autosomal microsatellite loci genotyped for 236 individuals. The results reveal the presence of two main mitochondrial phylogroups. The first clade comprises the individuals from the region of Calabria in southern Italy, belonging to the subspecies S. v. meridionalis, while the second clade contains the remainder of the studied individuals. Bayesian analysis of microsatellite genotypes resulted in three main clusterings corresponding to the three S. vulgaris subspecies: infuscatus, meridionalis and fuscoater. Geographical distribution of mtDNA haplotypes and mismatch analysis suggest a common refugium for the red squirrel across most of its present range from which expansion happened rather rapidly. The genotype mixing of italicus with northern populations could be a residual of postglacial expansion. The lack of mixing between the Calabrian lineage and the rest of European red squirrel haplotypes can be seen as evidence for distinct histories throughout the Pleistocene. Calabrian mtDNA probably diverged in an ice age contraction and remained isolated from the neighbouring squirrel populations until very recent times.

  8. Phylogeography of Trichuris populations isolated from different Cricetidae rodents.

    PubMed

    Callejón, Rocío; De Rojas, Manuel; Feliú, Carlos; Balao, Francisco; Marrugal, Angela; Henttonen, Heikki; Guevara, Diego; Cutillas, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    The phylogeography of Trichuris populations (Nematoda) collected from Cricetidae rodents (Muroidea) from different geographical regions was studied. Ribosomal DNA (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2, and mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c- oxidase subunit 1 partial gene) have been used as molecular markers. The nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) 1 and 2 showed 2 clear-cut geographical and genetic lineages: one of the Nearctic region (Oregon), although the second was widespread throughout the Palaearctic region and appeared as a star-like structure in the minimum spanning network. The mitochondrial results revealed that T. arvicolae populations from the Palaearctic region were separated into 3 clear-cut geographical and genetic lineages: populations from Northern Europe, populations from Southern (Spain) and Eastern Europe (Croatia, Belarus, Kazahstan), and populations from Italy and France (Eastern Pyrénean Mountains). Phylogenetic analysis obtained on the basis of ITS1-5·8S-ITS2 rDNA sequences did not show a differential geographical structure; however, these markers suggest a new Trichuris species parasitizing Chionomys roberti and Cricetulus barabensis. The mitochondrial results revealed that Trichuris populations from arvicolinae rodents show signals of a post-glacial northward population expansion starting from the Pyrenees and Italy. Apparently, the Pyrenees and the Alps were not barriers to the dispersal of Trichuris populations.

  9. The origin and phylogeography of dog rabies virus

    PubMed Central

    Bourhy, Hervé; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Dunham, Eleca J.; Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Jiaxin; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Rabies is a progressively fatal and incurable viral encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus infection. Almost all of the 55 000 annual rabies deaths in humans result from infection with dog rabies viruses (RABV). Despite the importance of rabies for human health, little is known about the spread of RABV in dog populations, and patterns of biodiversity have only been studied in limited geographical space. To address these questions on a global scale, we sequenced 62 new isolates and performed an extensive comparative analysis of RABV gene sequence data, representing 192 isolates sampled from 55 countries. From this, we identified six clades of RABV in non-flying mammals, each of which has a distinct geographical distribution, most likely reflecting major physical barriers to gene flow. Indeed, a detailed analysis of phylogeographic structure revealed only limited viral movement among geographical localities. Using Bayesian coalescent methods we also reveal that the sampled lineages of canid RABV derive from a common ancestor that originated within the past 1500 years. Additionally, we found no evidence for either positive selection or widespread population bottlenecks during the global expansion of canid RABV. Overall, our study reveals that the stochastic processes of genetic drift and population subdivision are the most important factors shaping the global phylogeography of canid RABV. PMID:18931062

  10. Relationships between body weight of overwintering larvae and supercooling capacity; diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential in Chilo suppressalis Walker.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Wang, Ming-Liang; Ding, Nan; Ma, Wei-Hua; Li, Yan-Ning; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2011-05-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, overwinters in China as a larva in facultative diapause. The instars and body weights of overwintering larvae vary widely. In this paper, the relationships between body weight and supercooling capacity, diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential of overwintering larvae collected in late-stage rice field were examined. There was a significant positive correlation between body weight, instar, and head capsule width, thus the overwintering larvae were divided into five groups based on body weight (I, up to 35.0mg; II, 35.1-57.0mg; III, 57.1-79.0mg; IV, 79.1-101.0mg; and V, over 101.1mg) for further analysis. The body water content of the lighter group (I) was significantly higher than that of the heavier groups (IV-V). However, the mean supercooling point decreased with an increase of the mean larval body weight in five groups; mean supercooling point of group I was significantly lower than that of group V, except in January 2009. After transfer of overwintering larvae to 15, 20 and 25°C on different dates, smaller individuals pupated slightly faster than larger ones at the same temperature, suggesting that diapause was less intense in smaller overwintering larvae. On 19 March 2009 there was a strong positive correlation between larval body weight and the weight of 3 day-old pupae, and the number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females at 15, 20 and 25°C. The average number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females differed significantly among different groups. The average number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females in group V was significantly greater than those of other groups, and that of group I was significantly lower than those of other groups, suggesting that post-diapause reproductive potential was determined, to a certain extent, by body weight of the overwintering larvae.

  11. Reconciling paleodistribution models and comparative phylogeography in the Wet Tropics rainforest land snail Gnarosophia bellendenkerensis (Brazier 1875)

    PubMed Central

    Hugall, Andrew; Moritz, Craig; Moussalli, Adnan; Stanisic, John

    2002-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography has proved useful for investigating biological responses to past climate change and is strongest when combined with extrinsic hypotheses derived from the fossil record or geology. However, the rarity of species with sufficient, spatially explicit fossil evidence restricts the application of this method. Here, we develop an alternative approach in which spatial models of predicted species distributions under serial paleoclimates are compared with a molecular phylogeography, in this case for a snail endemic to the rainforests of North Queensland, Australia. We also compare the phylogeography of the snail to those from several endemic vertebrates and use consilience across all of these approaches to enhance biogeographical inference for this rainforest fauna. The snail mtDNA phylogeography is consistent with predictions from paleoclimate modeling in relation to the location and size of climatic refugia through the late Pleistocene-Holocene and broad patterns of extinction and recolonization. There is general agreement between quantitative estimates of population expansion from sequence data (using likelihood and coalescent methods) vs. distributional modeling. The snail phylogeography represents a composite of both common and idiosyncratic patterns seen among vertebrates, reflecting the geographically finer scale of persistence and subdivision in the snail. In general, this multifaceted approach, combining spatially explicit paleoclimatological models and comparative phylogeography, provides a powerful approach to locating historical refugia and understanding species' responses to them. PMID:11972064

  12. Reconciling paleodistribution models and comparative phylogeography in the Wet Tropics rainforest land snail Gnarosophia bellendenkerensis (Brazier 1875).

    PubMed

    Hugall, Andrew; Moritz, Craig; Moussalli, Adnan; Stanisic, John

    2002-04-30

    Comparative phylogeography has proved useful for investigating biological responses to past climate change and is strongest when combined with extrinsic hypotheses derived from the fossil record or geology. However, the rarity of species with sufficient, spatially explicit fossil evidence restricts the application of this method. Here, we develop an alternative approach in which spatial models of predicted species distributions under serial paleoclimates are compared with a molecular phylogeography, in this case for a snail endemic to the rainforests of North Queensland, Australia. We also compare the phylogeography of the snail to those from several endemic vertebrates and use consilience across all of these approaches to enhance biogeographical inference for this rainforest fauna. The snail mtDNA phylogeography is consistent with predictions from paleoclimate modeling in relation to the location and size of climatic refugia through the late Pleistocene-Holocene and broad patterns of extinction and recolonization. There is general agreement between quantitative estimates of population expansion from sequence data (using likelihood and coalescent methods) vs. distributional modeling. The snail phylogeography represents a composite of both common and idiosyncratic patterns seen among vertebrates, reflecting the geographically finer scale of persistence and subdivision in the snail. In general, this multifaceted approach, combining spatially explicit paleoclimatological models and comparative phylogeography, provides a powerful approach to locating historical refugia and understanding species' responses to them.

  13. Phylogeography of Pogonomyrmex barbatus and P. rugosus harvester ants with genetic and environmental caste determination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we present a phylogeographic study of at least six reproductively isolated lineages of new world harvester ants within the Pogonomyrmex barbatus and P. rugosus species group. The genetic and geographic relationships within this clade are complex: four of the identified lineages are divided into...

  14. The impact of reproduction on gambian women: does controlling for phenotypic quality reveal costs of reproduction?

    PubMed

    Sear, Rebecca

    2007-04-01

    Life history theory predicts that where resources are limited, investment in reproduction will cause a decline in body condition and ultimately may lower survival rates. We investigate the relationship between reproduction and mortality in women in rural Gambia. We use a number of different measures of reproductive investment: the timing of reproduction, intensity of reproduction, and cumulative reproductive investment (parity). Though giving birth is clearly a risk factor for increased mortality, we find limited evidence that the timing, intensity, or cumulative effects of reproduction have a survival cost. Instead, there is some evidence that women who have invested heavily in reproduction have higher survival than women with lower reproductive investment: both high parity and late age at last reproduction are associated with high survival. The only evidence for any cost of reproduction is that women who have given birth to twins (considered a marker of heavy investment in reproduction) have higher mortality rates than other women, after the age of 50 years. A potential confounding factor may be differences in health between women: particularly healthy women may be able to invest substantially in both reproduction and their own survival, leading to the positive correlations between survival and both parity and age at last birth we observe. To control for differences in health between women, we reanalyze the relationship between reproduction and mortality but include variables correlating with health in our models (height, BMI, and hemoglobin). Even when controlling for health, the positive correlation between investment in reproduction and survival remains unchanged.

  15. Cytokine profiles in pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. Cytokine responses have been exhaustively studied in nursery pigs and show contradictory results. Since no detailed reports on cytokine respons...

  16. Connectivity in the deep: Phylogeography of the velvet belly lanternshark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubili, Chrysoula; Macleod, Kirsty; Perry, William; Hanel, Pia; Batzakas, Ioannis; Farrell, Edward D.; Lynghammar, Arve; Mancusi, Cecilia; Mariani, Stefano; Menezes, Gui M.; Neat, Francis; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Griffiths, Andrew M.

    2016-09-01

    The velvet belly lanternshark, Etmopterus spinax, is a deep-sea bioluminescent squaloid shark, found predominantly in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. It has been exposed to relatively high levels of mortality associated with by-catch in some regions. Its late maturity and low fecundity potentially renders it vulnerable to over-exploitation, although little remains known about processes of connectivity between key habitats/regions. This study utilised DNA sequencing of partial regions of the mitochondrial control region and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 to investigate population structure and phylogeography of this species across the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Basin. Despite the inclusion of samples from the range edges or remote locations, no evidence of significant population structure was detected. An important exception was identified using the control region sequence, with much greater (and statistically significant) levels of genetic differentiation between the Mediterranean and Atlantic. This suggests that the Strait of Gibraltar may represent an important bathymetric barrier, separating regions with very low levels of female dispersal. Bayesian estimation of divergence time also places the separation between the Mediterranean and Atlantic lineages within the last 100,000 years, presumably connected with perturbations during the last Glacial Period. These results demonstrate population subdivision at a much smaller geographic distance than has generally been identified in previous work on deep-sea sharks. This highlights a very significant role for shallow bathymetry in promoting genetic differentiation in deepwater taxa. It acts as an important exception to a general paradigm of marine species being connected by high levels of gene-flow, representing single stocks over large scales. It may also have significant implications for the fisheries management of this species.

  17. Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Jardón-Barbolla, Lev; Delgado-Valerio, Patricia; Geada-López, Gretel; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Four species of Pinus subsection Australes occur in the Caribbean Basin: P. caribaea, P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis. This study analyses the phylogeography of these species to assess possible colonization events from Central America to the islands and subsequent population expansions during glacial periods driven by both drier climate and larger emerged land areas. Methods Allele size data were obtained for plastid microsatellites for 314 individuals from 24 populations, covering the distribution range of subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Key Results In total, 113 plastid haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations of P. caribaea. Overall, Caribbean Basin populations fit the isolation by distance model. Significant phylogeographical structure was found (RST = 0·671 > permuted RST = 0·101; P < 0·0001). The haplotype network and a Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) indicated different Central American origins for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea plastids, with Central America populations in northern and south-eastern groups. Sudden expansion times for BAPS clusters were close to three glacial maxima. Conclusions Central America contains ancestral plastid haplotypes. Population expansion has played a major role in the distribution of genetic diversity in P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Two colonization events gave rise to the P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea lineages. Plastid variation in the eastern species (P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis) evolved independently from that in P. caribaea var. caribaea. Incomplete lineage sorting between P. cubensis and P. maestrensis is apparent. Inferred expansion times for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and for the eastern lineages correspond to glacial maxima, whereas those for P. caribaea var. hondurensis correspond to the beginning of the temperature decrease that

  18. Phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Amy J; Chan, Fabien; Wagner, David M; Roumagnac, Philippe; Lee, Judy; Nera, Roxanne; Eppinger, Mark; Ravel, Jacques; Rahalison, Lila; Rasoamanana, Bruno W; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Achtman, Mark; Chanteau, Suzanne; Keim, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Plague was introduced to Madagascar in 1898 and continues to be a significant human health problem. It exists mainly in the central highlands, but in the 1990s was reintroduced to the port city of Mahajanga, where it caused extensive human outbreaks. Despite its prevalence, the phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of Y. pestis in Madagascar has been difficult to study due to the great genetic similarity among isolates. We examine island-wide geographic-genetic patterns based upon whole-genome discovery of SNPs, SNP genotyping and hypervariable variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci to gain insight into the maintenance and spread of Y. pestis in Madagascar. We analyzed a set of 262 Malagasy isolates using a set of 56 SNPs and a 43-locus multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) system. We then analyzed the geographic distribution of the subclades and identified patterns related to the maintenance and spread of plague in Madagascar. We find relatively high levels of VNTR diversity in addition to several SNP differences. We identify two major groups, Groups I and II, which are subsequently divided into 11 and 4 subclades, respectively. Y. pestis appears to be maintained in several geographically separate subpopulations. There is also evidence for multiple long distance transfers of Y. pestis, likely human mediated. Such transfers have resulted in the reintroduction and establishment of plague in the port city of Mahajanga, where there is evidence for multiple transfers both from and to the central highlands. The maintenance and spread of Y. pestis in Madagascar is a dynamic and highly active process that relies on the natural cycle between the primary host, the black rat, and its flea vectors as well as human activity.

  19. Comparative Phylogeography in a Specific and Obligate Pollination Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Espíndola, Anahí; Alvarez, Nadir

    2011-01-01

    In specific and obligate interactions the nature and abundance of a given species can have important effects on the survival and population dynamics of associated organisms. In a phylogeographic framework, we therefore expect that the fates of organisms interacting specifically are also tightly interrelated. Here we investigate such a scenario by analyzing the genetic structures of species interacting in an obligate plant-insect pollination lure-and-trap antagonism, involving Arum maculatum (Araceae) and its specific psychodid (Diptera) visitors Psychoda phalaenoides and Psycha grisescens. Because the interaction is asymmetric (i.e., only the plant depends on the insect), we expect the genetic structure of the plant to be related with the historical pollinator availability, yielding incongruent phylogeographic patterns between the interacting organisms. Using insect mtDNA sequences and plant AFLP genome fingerprinting, we inferred the large-scale phylogeographies of each species and the distribution of genetic diversities throughout the sampled range, and evaluated the congruence in their respective genetic structures using hierarchical analyses of molecular variances (AMOVA). Because the composition of pollinator species varies in Europe, we also examined its association with the spatial genetic structure of the plant. Our findings indicate that while the plant presents a spatially well-defined genetic structure, this is not the case in the insects. Patterns of genetic diversities also show dissimilar distributions among the three interacting species. Phylogeographic histories of the plant and its pollinating insects are thus not congruent, a result that would indicate that plant and insect lineages do not share the same glacial and postglacial histories. However, the genetic structure of the plant can, at least partially, be explained by the type of pollinators available at a regional scale. Differences in life-history traits of available pollinators might

  20. Phylogeography, Salinity Adaptations and Metabolic Potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria Based on a Partial Single Cell Genome

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Lisa M.; Hyde, Andrew S.; MacGregor, Barbara J.; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis – previously developed based on 14C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines – that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source. PMID:27597842

  1. Personality and reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Eaves, L J; Martin, N G; Heath, A C; Hewitt, J K; Neale, M C

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between reproductive success (number of biological children) and personality was explored in 1101 postmenopausal females from the Australian twin registry. The quadratic response surface relating fitness to extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N) showed a saddle point at intermediate levels of E and N. Selection was shown to be stabilizing, i.e., having an intermediate optimum, along the axis low E, low N-high E, high N and more mildly disruptive, having greater fitness in the extremes, along the axis low N, high E-high N, low E. Neither dimension of personality considered by itself showed a significant linear or quadratic relationship to reproductive success. Sections through the fitness surface, however, show selection tends to favor high neuroticism levels in introverts and low neuroticism levels in extroverts.

  2. Humane reproduction.

    PubMed

    1974-03-01

    Discusses social, economic, and humane considerations in population control. Mental health aspects of controlled fertility are considered in relation to the family's psychosocial and material resources, the effects of reproduction on the individual the family, and community, and the advantages and disadvantages of controlled reproduction. A distinction between family planning and population control is outlined. It is suggested that there is hardly a single more effective tool for preventing psychological disorders than the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. Analyses of educational and medical services and methods of birth control are presented. A comprehensive neighborhood health station, which would consolidate these services, is suggested. It is concluded that humane programs of reproduction would lead to a reconciliation of biological drives with a responsible concern for the quality of life.

  3. On the importance of geographic and taxonomic sampling in phylogeography: A reevaluation of diversification and species limits in a Neotropical thrush (Aves, Turdidae).

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Phylogeographic studies seeking to describe biogeographic patterns, infer evolutionary processes, and revise species-level classification should properly characterize the distribution ranges of study species, and thoroughly sample genetic variation across taxa and geography. This is particularly necessary for widely distributed organisms occurring in complex landscapes, such as the Neotropical region. Here, we clarify the geographic range and revisit the phylogeography of the Black-billed Thrush (Turdus ignobilis), a common passerine bird from lowland tropical South America, whose evolutionary relationships and species limits were recently evaluated employing phylogeographic analyses based on partial knowledge of its distribution and incomplete sampling of populations. Our work employing mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences sampled all named subspecies and multiple populations across northern South America, and uncovered patterns not apparent in earlier work, including a biogeographic interplay between the Amazon and Orinoco basins and the occurrence of distinct lineages with seemingly different habitat affinities in regional sympatry in the Colombian Amazon. In addition, we found that previous inferences about the affinities and taxonomic status of Andean populations assumed to be allied to populations from the Pantepui region were incorrect, implying that inferred biogeographic and taxonomic scenarios need re-evaluation. We propose a new taxonomic treatment, which recognizes two distinct biological species in the group. Our findings illustrate the importance of sufficient taxon and geographic sampling to reconstruct evolutionary history and to evaluate species limits among Neotropical organisms. Considering the scope of the questions asked, advances in Neotropical phylogeography will often require substantial cross-country scientific collaboration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The phylogeography of an alpine leaf beetle: divergence within Oreina elongata spans several ice ages.

    PubMed

    Borer, Matthias; Alvarez, Nadir; Buerki, Sven; Margraf, Nicolas; Rahier, Martine; Naisbit, Russell E

    2010-11-01

    The genetic landscape of the European flora and fauna was shaped by the ebb and flow of populations with the shifting ice during Quaternary climate cycles. While this has been well demonstrated for lowland species, less is known about high altitude taxa. Here we analyze the phylogeography of the leaf beetle Oreina elongata from 20 populations across the Alps and Apennines. Three mitochondrial and one nuclear region were sequenced in 64 individuals. Within an mtDNA phylogeny, three of seven subspecies are monophyletic. The species is chemically defended and aposematic, with green and blue forms showing geographic variation and unexpected within-population polymorphism. These warning colors show pronounced east-west geographical structure in distribution, but the phylogeography suggests repeated origin and loss. Basal clades come from the central Alps. Ancestors of other clades probably survived across northern Italy and the northern Adriatic, before separation of eastern, southern and western populations and rapid spread through the western Alps. After reviewing calibrated gene-specific substitution rates in the literature, we use partitioned Bayesian coalescent analysis to date our phylogeography. The major clades diverged long before the last glacial maximum, suggesting that O. elongata persisted many glacial cycles within or at the edges of the Alps and Apennines. When analyzing additional barcoding pairwise distances, we find strong evidence to consider O. elongata as a species complex rather than a single species.

  5. Phylogeography of the inshore fish, Bostrychus sinensis, along the Pacific coastline of China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fan; Li, Hai; Lin, Hungdu; Ding, Shaoxiong; Miyamoto, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    This study assesses the phylogeography of the Chinese four-eyed sleeper (Bostrychus sinensis) with one mitochondrial and one nuclear genes and two morphological characters. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of the sequences reveals two phylogeographic lineages from the East and South China Seas, which are corroborated by the morphological data. The vicariance of the two lineages is attributed to the Pleistocene Ice Age exposure of the Taiwan Strait and consequent connection of Taiwan to the mainland, which thereby introduced an ecological barrier to gene flow between populations in the East and South China Seas. The distributions of the two lineages now overlap in the East China Sea and this secondary contact is attributed to biased northward migration along the two main currents of the Taiwan Strait following its interglacial re-flooding. In conclusion, this study reinforces the importance of "vicariance, then secondary contact" due to Late Pliocene and Pleistocene sea-level changes to the phylogeography of marine species. Specifically, it corroborates the importance of Pleistocene sea-level changes in the Taiwan Strait to the phylogeography of Chinese inshore species.

  6. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of endangered and endemic shrub Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae) in Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae), an endangered endemic species in western Inner Mongolia, China. For endemic species with a limited geographical range and declining populations, historical patterns of demography and hierarchical genetic structure are important for determining population structure, and also provide information for developing effective and sustainable management plans. In this study, we assess genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of T. mongolica from eight populations. Furthermore, we evaluate the conservation and management units to provide the information for conservation. Results Sequence variation and spatial apportionment of the atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer region of the chloroplast DNA were used to reconstruct the phylogeography of T. mongolica. A total of 880 bp was sequenced from eight extant populations throughout the whole range of its distribution. At the cpDNA locus, high levels of genetic differentiation among populations and low levels of genetic variation within populations were detected, indicating that most seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Conclusions Demographic fluctuations, which led to random losses of genetic polymorphisms from populations, due to frequent flooding of the Yellow River and human disturbance were indicated by the analysis of BEAST skyline plot. Nested clade analysis revealed that restricted gene flow with isolation by distance plus occasional long distance dispersal is the main evolutionary factor affecting the phylogeography and population structure of T. mongolica. For setting a conservation management plan, each population of T. mongolica should be recognized as a conservation unit. PMID:21205287

  7. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of endangered and endemic shrub Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae) in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xue-Jun; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Liu, Zin-Huang; Huang, Chi-Chun; Huang, Wei-Hsiang; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Wang, Wei-Kuang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2011-01-04

    Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae), an endangered endemic species in western Inner Mongolia, China. For endemic species with a limited geographical range and declining populations, historical patterns of demography and hierarchical genetic structure are important for determining population structure, and also provide information for developing effective and sustainable management plans. In this study, we assess genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of T. mongolica from eight populations. Furthermore, we evaluate the conservation and management units to provide the information for conservation. Sequence variation and spatial apportionment of the atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer region of the chloroplast DNA were used to reconstruct the phylogeography of T. mongolica. A total of 880 bp was sequenced from eight extant populations throughout the whole range of its distribution. At the cpDNA locus, high levels of genetic differentiation among populations and low levels of genetic variation within populations were detected, indicating that most seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Demographic fluctuations, which led to random losses of genetic polymorphisms from populations, due to frequent flooding of the Yellow River and human disturbance were indicated by the analysis of BEAST skyline plot. Nested clade analysis revealed that restricted gene flow with isolation by distance plus occasional long distance dispersal is the main evolutionary factor affecting the phylogeography and population structure of T. mongolica. For setting a conservation management plan, each population of T. mongolica should be recognized as a conservation unit.

  8. The phylogeography of Fagus hayatae (Fagaceae): genetic isolation among populations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ling-Xiao; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Chiu, Ching-An; Chen, Tze-Ying; Luo, Shu-Jin; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Shen, Ze-Hao

    2016-05-01

    The beech species Fagus hayatae is an important relict tree species in subtropical China, whose biogeographical patterns may reflect floral responses to climate change in this region during the Quaternary. Previous studies have revealed phylogeography for three of the four Fagus species in China, but study on F. hayatae, the most sparsely distributed of these species, is still lacking. Here, molecular methods based on eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of nuclear DNA (nDNA) and three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences were applied for analyses of genetic diversity and structure in 375 samples from 14 F. hayatae populations across its whole range. Both nDNA and cpDNA indicated a high level of genetic diversity in this species. Significant fixation indexes and departures from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with a genetic differentiation parameter of R st of 0.233, were detected in nDNA SSR loci among populations, especially those on Taiwan Island, indicating strong geographic partitioning. The populations were classified into two clusters, without a prominent signal of isolation-by-distance. For the 15 haplotypes detected in the cpDNA sequence fragments, there was a high genetic differentiation parameter (G st = 0.712) among populations. A high G st of 0.829 was also detected outside but not within the Sichuan Basin. Consistent with other Fagus species in China, no recent population expansion was detected from tests of neutrality and mismatch distribution analysis. Overall, genetic isolation with limited gene flow was prominent for this species and significant phylogeographic structures existed across its range except for those inside the Sichuan Basin. Our study suggested long-term geographic isolation in F. hayatae with limited population admixture and the existence of multiple refugia in the mountainous regions of the Sichuan Basin and southeast China during the Quaternary. These results may provide useful information critical for the conservation of F

  9. Worldwide Phylogeography of the Citrus Brown Spot Pathogen, Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Peever, T L; Ibañez, A; Akimitsu, K; Timmer, L W

    2002-07-01

    ABSTRACT Sixty-five isolates of Alternaria alternata were sampled from brown spot lesions on tangerines and mandarins (Citrus reticulata) and tangerine x grapefruit (C. reticulata x C. paradisi) hybrids in the United States, Colombia, Australia, Turkey, South Africa, and Israel to investigate the worldwide phylogeography of the fungus. Genetic variation was scored at 15 putative random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) loci and 465 bp of an endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) gene was sequenced for each isolate. Cluster analysis of RAPD genotypes revealed significant differentiation between United State and Colombia isolates and Turkey, South Africa, Israel, and Australia isolates. Sequencing of endo-PG revealed 21 variable sites when the outgroup A. gaisen (AK-toxin-producing pathogen of Japanese pear) was included and 13 variable sites among the sampled isolates. Nucleotide substitutions at 10 of 13 variable sites represented silent mutations when endo-PG was translated in frame. Eight distinct endo-PG haplotypes were found among the sampled isolates and estimation of a phylogeny with endo-PG sequence data revealed three clades, each with strong bootstrap support. The most basal clade (clade 1) was inferred based on its similarity to the outgroup A. gaisen and consisted exclusively of pathogenic isolates from the United States and Colombia. Clade 2 consisted of pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates from the United States, Australia, South Africa, and Israel and clade 3 contained pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates from Australia, South Africa, Israel, and Turkey. Quantitative estimates of virulence (disease incidence) were obtained for isolates from the United States, Colombia, South Africa, Israel, and Turkey by spray inoculating detached citrus leaves and counting the number of lesions 24 h after inoculation. Large differences in virulence were detected among isolates within each location and isolates from the United States were significantly more virulent than

  10. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  11. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System A A ... your son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  12. Quantitative variation in water-use efficiency across water regimes and its relationship with circadian, vegetative, reproductive, and leaf gas-exchange traits.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2012-05-01

    Drought limits light harvesting, resulting in lower plant growth and reproduction. One trait important for plant drought response is water-use efficiency (WUE). We investigated (1) how the joint genetic architecture of WUE, reproductive characters, and vegetative traits changed across drought and well-watered conditions, (2) whether traits with distinct developmental bases (e.g. leaf gas exchange versus reproduction) differed in the environmental sensitivity of their genetic architecture, and (3) whether quantitative variation in circadian period was related to drought response in Brassica rapa. Overall, WUE increased in drought, primarily because stomatal conductance, and thus water loss, declined more than carbon fixation. Genotypes with the highest WUE in drought expressed the lowest WUE in well-watered conditions, and had the largest vegetative and floral organs in both treatments. Thus, large changes in WUE enabled some genotypes to approach vegetative and reproductive trait optima across environments. The genetic architecture differed for gas-exchange and vegetative traits across drought and well-watered conditions, but not for floral traits. Correlations between circadian and leaf gas-exchange traits were significant but did not vary across treatments, indicating that circadian period affects physiological function regardless of water availability. These results suggest that WUE is important for drought tolerance in Brassica rapa and that artificial selection for increased WUE in drought will not result in maladaptive expression of other traits that are correlated with WUE.

  13. Measurements of body composition during late gestation and lactation in first and second parity sows and its relationship to piglet production and post-weaning reproductive performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to characterize variation of multiple body condition traits in a white crossbred composite population of first- and second-parity sows and determine if these traits relate to litter production and reproductive parameters. As expected, parity 2 dams were heavier (P < 0...

  14. Relationships Between Habitat and Snag Characteristics and the Reproductive Success of the Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) in Eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    L. Lynnette Dornak; D. Brent Burt; Dean W. Coble; Richard N. Conner

    2004-01-01

    Habitat use and reproductive success of the Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla Latham) were studied in East Texas during the 2001­2002 breed- ing seasons. We compared nest cavity selection at used and randomly selected non-used areas. Height of nest trees, midstory density, and percent leaf litter were negatively correlated with nest site selection...

  15. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, co...

  16. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams

    PubMed Central

    Mayden, Richard L.; Allen, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay. PMID:26114110

  17. Pinpointing cryptic borders: Fine-scale phylogeography and genetic landscape analysis of the Hormogaster elisae complex (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae).

    PubMed

    Marchán, Daniel F; Fernández, Rosa; de Sosa, Irene; Díaz Cosín, Darío J; Novo, Marta

    2017-07-01

    Spatial and temporal aspects of the evolution of cryptic species complexes have received less attention than species delimitation within them. The phylogeography of the cryptic complex Hormogaster elisae (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae) lacks knowledge on several aspects, including the small-scale distribution of its lineages or the palaeogeographic context of their diversification. To shed light on these topics, a dense specimen collection was performed in the center of the Iberian Peninsula - resulting in 28 new H. elisae collecting points, some of them as close as 760m from each other- for a higher resolution of the distribution of the cryptic lineages and the relationships between the populations. Seven molecular regions were amplified: mitochondrial subunit 1 of cytochrome c oxidase (COI), 16S rRNA and tRNA Leu, Ala, and Ser (16S t-RNAs), one nuclear ribosomal gene (a fragment of 28S rRNA) and one nuclear protein-encoding gene (histone H3) in order to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Different representation methods of the pairwise divergence in the cytochrome oxidase I sequence (heatmap and genetic landscape graphs) were used to visualize the genetic structure of H. elisae. A nested approach sensu Mairal et al. (2015) (connecting the evolutionary rates of two datasets of different taxonomic coverage) was used to obtain one approximation to a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree based on external Clitellata fossils and a wide molecular dataset. Our results indicate that limited active dispersal ability and ecological or biotic barriers could explain the isolation of the different cryptic lineages, which never co-occur. Rare events of long distance dispersal through hydrochory appear as one of the possible causes of range expansion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  19. Changes in interleukin-6 concentration in peripheral blood of pre- and post-partum dairy cattle and its relationship to postpartum reproductive diseases.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yukikazu; Nakada, Ken; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Kirisawa, Rikio; Iwai, Hiroshi; Moriyoshi, Masaharu; Sawamukai, Yutaka

    2004-11-01

    Reproductive diseases after parturition are a serious problem in dairy cattle. It is important to predict postpartum reproductive diseases early and to develop prophylaxis. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate changes in the peripheral blood concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) before parturition, which was mainly produced by T helper 2 type (Th2) cells, and to investigate a correlation between the IL-6 concentration and the occurrence of the postpartum retained placenta, endometritis and/or follicular cyst in dairy cattle. Twenty-seven Holstein-Friesian cows were used for this study. Thirteen had no clinical disease, 8 had retained placenta, 4 were diagnosed with endometritis by vaginal inspection, and 2 were diagnosed with follicular cyst by rectal palpation at 1 and 2 months after parturition. Blood samples were collected 60 days pre- and post-partum. They used for IL-6, progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) concentration determination. This study showed that the IL-6 concentration prepartum was higher than postpartum. Low levels of IL-6 and P(4) in peripheral blood prepartum tended to affect retained placenta and a high level of IL-6 prepartum tended to affect endometritis. These results indicate that measurement of change in the IL-6 concentration during pregnancy is one useful tool for predicting crisis in postpartum reproductive diseases in dairy cattle.

  20. [Endocrine disruptors and reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Colacurci, N; De Franciscis, P

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are dangerous chemicals widely used daily and spread in the environment and able to impair male and female fertility by interfering with the endocrine regulation of reproductive system. Many epidemiological studies showed the role of the EDs in the pathogenesis of reproductive pathologies such as infertility, recurrent abortions, malformations and endometriosis. Personal data show a significant correlation between phthalates and bisphenols and endometriosis. Further studies are needed to assess a clear relationship between environmental exposure to ED and reproductive pathologies and to find exposure's markers for environmental pollutants in biological fluids with the aim to have useful instruments for monitoring and preserving the reproductive health of women at risk of occupational/environmental exposure to ED.

  1. Relationship between implementing interpersonal communication and mass education campaigns in emergency settings and use of reproductive healthcare services: evidence from Darfur, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Adam, Izzeldin Fadl; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Al Rifai, Rami; Vanching, Urnaa

    2015-09-15

    (1) To examine changes in women's awareness and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services in emergency settings following provision of interpersonal communication (IPC) and mass education campaigns, and (2) to describe factors associated with reproductive healthcare service use in internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Three camps containing 88 984 IDPs in Darfur, Sudan. 640 women aged 15-49 who had experienced pregnancy in the camp during the previous 2 years were enrolled in each of two independent cross-sectional surveys 26 months apart. IPC and mass education campaigns where community health workers disseminated information by home/shelter visits, clinic sessions, public meetings and other means to raise awareness and promote reproductive healthcare service use. Awareness of the existence of antenatal care (ANC) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination services, reception of ANC and TT vaccination, place of delivery and use of postnatal care (PNC). The percentage of women who received home visits, and attended in-clinic sessions and public meetings increased from 61.6% to 86.7%, from 43.0% to 68.8%, and from 3.8% to 39.8%, respectively, between the initial and follow-up surveys. More women were aware of ANC (OR 18.6, 95% CI 13.1 to 26.5) and TT vaccination (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4 to 4.4) in the follow-up than the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. More women received ≥3 ANC visits (OR 8.8, 95% CI 6.4 to 12.0) and ≥3 doses of TT (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.3), delivered at a healthcare facility (OR 5.4, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.4) and received a PNC visit (OR 5.5, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.7) in the follow-up than in the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. Awareness about and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services were higher in the follow-up survey. An integrated IPC and mass education campaign is effective for improving women's reproductive health in emergency settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  2. The reproductive ecology of iron in women.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive ecology focuses on the sensitivity of human reproduction to environmental variation. While reproductive ecology has historically focused on the relationship between energy status and reproductive outcomes, iron status is equally critical to women's reproductive health, given the wide-ranging detrimental effects of iron-deficiency anemia on maternal and infant well-being. This review interprets the vast literature on iron status and women's reproduction through an evolutionary framework. First, it will critique the evidence for iron deficiency caused by blood loss during menstruation, reinterpreting the available data as ecological variation in menses within and between populations of women. Second, it will highlight the scant but growing evidence that iron status is implicated in fertility, a relationship that has deep evolutionary roots. Third, this review proposes a new hypothesis for the transfer of iron from mother to infant via pregnancy and breastfeeding: reproductive iron withholding. In this hypothesis, mothers transfer iron to infants in a manner that helps infants avoid iron-mediated infection and oxidative stress, but trades off with potential risk of maternal and infant iron deficiency. Finally, this review explores two main factors that can modify the relationship between iron status and the gestation-lactation cycle: (1) the relationship between long-term reproductive effort (parity) and iron status and (2) supplementation schemes before and during pregnancy. The review concludes by suggesting continued research into iron homeostasis in women using evolutionary, ecological, and biocultural frameworks.

  3. Phylogeography, colonization and population history of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) in the Nicaraguan crater lakes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elucidation of the mechanisms driving speciation requires detailed knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of the incipient species within their entire ranges as well as their colonization history. The Midas cichlid species complex Amphilophus spp. has been proven to be a powerful model system for the study of ecological specialization, sexual selection and the mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Here we present a comprehensive and integrative phylogeographic analysis of the complete Midas Cichlid species complex in Nicaragua (> 2000 individuals) covering the entire distributional range, using two types of molecular markers (the mitochondrial DNA control region and 15 microsatellites). We investigated the majority of known lake populations of this species complex and reconstructed their colonization history in order to distinguish between alternative speciation scenarios. Results We found that the large lakes contain older and more diverse Midas Cichlid populations, while all crater lakes hold younger and genetically less variable species assemblages. The large lakes appear to have repeatedly acted as source populations for all crater lakes, and our data indicate that faunal exchange among crater lakes is extremely unlikely. Despite their very recent (often only a few thousand years old) and common origin from the two large Nicaraguan lakes, all crater lake Midas Cichlid radiations underwent independent, but parallel, evolution, and comprise distinct genetic units. Indeed several of these crater lakes contain multiple genetically distinct incipient species that most likely arose through sympatric speciation. Several crater lake radiations can be traced back to a single ancestral line, but some appear to have more than one founding lineage. The timing of the colonization(s) of each crater lake differs, although most of them occurred more (probably much more) recently than 20,000 years ago. Conclusion The genetic differentiation

  4. New neotropical sebacinales species from a Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea forest in the Guayana Region, Southern Venezuela: structural diversity and phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Moyersoen, Bernard; Weiβ, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, a member of the Dipterocarpaceae endemic in the Guayana region, is associated with a diverse community of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Amongst the 41 ECM fungal species detected in a 400 m2 P. dipterocarpacea ssp. nitida plot in Southern Venezuela, three species belonged to the Sebacinales. We tested whether ECM anatomotype characterization can be used as a feasible element in an integrative taxonomy in this diverse fungal group, where the relevance of fruitbody morphology for species delimitation seems limited. Using a combination of ECM morpho-anatomical characterizations and phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequences, we report three new species. The main distinguishing features of Sebacina guayanensis are the yellowish cell walls together with conspicuous undifferentiated, uniform compact (type B) rhizomorphs. Staghorn-like hyphae are characteristic of S. tomentosa. The combination of clusters of thick-walled emanating hyphae, including hyphae similar to awl-shaped cystidia with basal dichotomous or trichotomous ramifications, and the presence of type B rhizomorphs were characteristic of a third, yet unnamed species. The three species belong to three different, possibly specifically tropical clades in Sebacinales Group A. The geographic distribution of phylogenetically related strains was wide, including a Dicymbe forest in Guyana and an Ecuadorian rainforest with Coccoloba species. We show that ECM morpho-anatomy can be used, in combination with other analyses, to delineate species within Sebacinales Group A. In addition to phylogenetic information, type B rhizomorphs observed in different Sebacinales clades have important ecological implications for this fungal group. The phylogeography of Sebacinales suggests that dispersion and host jump are important radiation mechanisms that shaped P. dipterocarpacea ECM fungal community. This study emphasizes the need for more sequence data to evaluate the hypothesis that

  5. New Neotropical Sebacinales Species from a Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea Forest in the Guayana Region, Southern Venezuela: Structural Diversity and Phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Moyersoen, Bernard; Weiß, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, a member of the Dipterocarpaceae endemic in the Guayana region, is associated with a diverse community of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Amongst the 41 ECM fungal species detected in a 400 m2 P. dipterocarpacea ssp. nitida plot in Southern Venezuela, three species belonged to the Sebacinales. We tested whether ECM anatomotype characterization can be used as a feasible element in an integrative taxonomy in this diverse fungal group, where the relevance of fruitbody morphology for species delimitation seems limited. Using a combination of ECM morpho-anatomical characterizations and phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequences, we report three new species. The main distinguishing features of Sebacina guayanensis are the yellowish cell walls together with conspicuous undifferentiated, uniform compact (type B) rhizomorphs. Staghorn-like hyphae are characteristic of S. tomentosa. The combination of clusters of thick-walled emanating hyphae, including hyphae similar to awl-shaped cystidia with basal dichotomous or trichotomous ramifications, and the presence of type B rhizomorphs were characteristic of a third, yet unnamed species. The three species belong to three different, possibly specifically tropical clades in Sebacinales Group A. The geographic distribution of phylogenetically related strains was wide, including a Dicymbe forest in Guyana and an Ecuadorian rainforest with Coccoloba species. We show that ECM morpho-anatomy can be used, in combination with other analyses, to delineate species within Sebacinales Group A. In addition to phylogenetic information, type B rhizomorphs observed in different Sebacinales clades have important ecological implications for this fungal group. The phylogeography of Sebacinales suggests that dispersion and host jump are important radiation mechanisms that shaped P. dipterocarpacea ECM fungal community. This study emphasizes the need for more sequence data to evaluate the hypothesis that

  6. Phylogeography of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. pfeifferi, important intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in the New and Old World tropics.

    PubMed

    Dejong, R J; Morgan, J A T; Wilson, W D; Al-Jaser, M H; Appleton, C C; Coulibaly, G; D'Andrea, P S; Doenhoff, M J; Haas, W; Idris, M A; Magalhães, L A; Moné, H; Mouahid, G; Mubila, L; Pointier, J-P; Webster, J P; Zanotti-Magalhães, E M; Paraense, W L; Mkoji, G M; Loker, E S

    2003-11-01

    The historical phylogeography of the two most important intermediate host species of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, B. glabrata in the New World, and B. pfeifferi in the Old World, was investigated using partial 16S and ND1 sequences from the mitochondrial genome. Nuclear sequences of an actin intron and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 were also obtained, but they were uninformative for the relationships among populations. Phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA revealed six well-differentiated clades within B. glabrata: the Greater Antilles, Venezuela and the Lesser Antilles, and four geographically overlapping Brazilian clades. Application of a Biomphalaria-specific mutation rate gives an estimate of the early Pleistocene for their divergence. The Brazilian clades were inferred to be the result of fragmentation, due possibly to climate oscillations, with subsequent range expansion producing the overlapping ranges. Within the Venezuela and Lesser Antilles clade, lineages from each of these areas were estimated to have separated approximately 740 000 years ago. Compared to B. glabrata, mitochondrial sequences of B. pfeifferi are about 4x lower in diversity, reflecting a much younger age for the species, with the most recent common ancestor of all haplotypes estimated to have existed 880 000 years ago. The oldest B. pfeifferi haplotypes occurred in southern Africa, suggesting it may have been a refugium during dry periods. A recent range expansion was inferred for eastern Africa less than 100 000 years ago. Several putative species and subspecies, B. arabica, B. gaudi, B. rhodesiensis and B. stanleyi, are shown to be undifferentiated from other B. pfeifferi populations.

  7. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  8. Toward a paradigm shift in comparative phylogeography driven by trait-based hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Knowles, L. Lacey

    2016-01-01

    For three decades, comparative phylogeography has conceptually and methodologically relied on the concordance criterion for providing insights into the historical/biogeographic processes driving population genetic structure and divergence. Here we discuss how this emphasis, and the corresponding lack of methods for extracting information about biotic/intrinsic contributions to patterns of genetic variation, may bias our general understanding of the factors driving genetic structure. Specifically, this emphasis has promoted a tendency to attribute discordant phylogeographic patterns to the idiosyncracies of history, as well as an adherence to generic null expectations of concordance with reduced predictive power. We advocate that it is time for a paradigm shift in comparative phylogeography, especially given the limited utility of the concordance criterion as genomic data provide ever-increasing levels of resolution. Instead of adhering to the concordance-discordance dichotomy, comparative phylogeography needs to emphasize the contribution of taxon-specific traits that will determine whether concordance is a meaningful criterion for evaluating hypotheses or may predict discordant phylogeographic structure. Through reference to some case studies we illustrate how refined hypotheses based on taxon-specific traits can provide improved predictive frameworks to forecast species responses to climatic change or biogeographic barriers while gaining unique insights about the taxa themselves and their interactions with their environment. We outline a potential avenue toward a synthetic comparative phylogeographic paradigm that includes addressing some important conceptual and methodological challenges related to study design and application of model-based approaches for evaluating support of trait-based hypotheses under the proposed paradigm. PMID:27432974

  9. Phylogeography of Cylindrospermopsin and Paralytic Shellfish Toxin-Producing Nostocales Cyanobacteria from Mediterranean Europe (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Cirés, Samuel; Wörmer, Lars; Ballot, Andreas; Agha, Ramsy; Wiedner, Claudia; Velázquez, David; Casero, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Planktonic Nostocales cyanobacteria represent a challenge for microbiological research because of the wide range of cyanotoxins that they synthesize and their invasive behavior, which is presumably enhanced by global warming. To gain insight into the phylogeography of potentially toxic Nostocales from Mediterranean Europe, 31 strains of Anabaena (Anabaena crassa, A. lemmermannii, A. mendotae, and A. planctonica), Aphanizomenon (Aphanizomenon gracile, A. ovalisporum), and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were isolated from 14 freshwater bodies in Spain and polyphasically analyzed for their phylogeography, cyanotoxin production, and the presence of cyanotoxin biosynthesis genes. The potent cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was produced by all 6 Aphanizomenon ovalisporum strains at high levels (5.7 to 9.1 μg CYN mg−1 [dry weight]) with low variation between strains (1.5 to 3.9-fold) and a marked extracellular release (19 to 41% dissolved CYN) during exponential growth. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) neurotoxins (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and decarbamoylsaxitoxin) were detected in 2 Aphanizomenon gracile strains, both containing the sxtA gene. This gene was also amplified in non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon gracile and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. Phylogenetic analyses supported the species identification and confirmed the high similarity of Spanish Anabaena and Aphanizomenon strains with other European strains. In contrast, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Spain grouped together with American strains and was clearly separate from the rest of the European strains, raising questions about the current assumptions of the phylogeography and spreading routes of C. raciborskii. The present study confirms that the nostocalean genus Aphanizomenon is a major source of CYN and PSP toxins in Europe and demonstrates the presence of the sxtA gene in CYN-producing Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. PMID:24334673

  10. Phylogeography of cylindrospermopsin and paralytic shellfish toxin-producing nostocales cyanobacteria from mediterranean europe (Spain).

    PubMed

    Cirés, Samuel; Wörmer, Lars; Ballot, Andreas; Agha, Ramsy; Wiedner, Claudia; Velázquez, David; Casero, María Cristina; Quesada, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Planktonic Nostocales cyanobacteria represent a challenge for microbiological research because of the wide range of cyanotoxins that they synthesize and their invasive behavior, which is presumably enhanced by global warming. To gain insight into the phylogeography of potentially toxic Nostocales from Mediterranean Europe, 31 strains of Anabaena (Anabaena crassa, A. lemmermannii, A. mendotae, and A. planctonica), Aphanizomenon (Aphanizomenon gracile, A. ovalisporum), and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were isolated from 14 freshwater bodies in Spain and polyphasically analyzed for their phylogeography, cyanotoxin production, and the presence of cyanotoxin biosynthesis genes. The potent cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was produced by all 6 Aphanizomenon ovalisporum strains at high levels (5.7 to 9.1 μg CYN mg(-1) [dry weight]) with low variation between strains (1.5 to 3.9-fold) and a marked extracellular release (19 to 41% dissolved CYN) during exponential growth. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) neurotoxins (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and decarbamoylsaxitoxin) were detected in 2 Aphanizomenon gracile strains, both containing the sxtA gene. This gene was also amplified in non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon gracile and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. Phylogenetic analyses supported the species identification and confirmed the high similarity of Spanish Anabaena and Aphanizomenon strains with other European strains. In contrast, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Spain grouped together with American strains and was clearly separate from the rest of the European strains, raising questions about the current assumptions of the phylogeography and spreading routes of C. raciborskii. The present study confirms that the nostocalean genus Aphanizomenon is a major source of CYN and PSP toxins in Europe and demonstrates the presence of the sxtA gene in CYN-producing Aphanizomenon ovalisporum.

  11. High-throughput identification of informative nuclear loci for shallow-scale phylogenetics and phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Lemmon, Alan R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty

    2012-10-01

    One of the major challenges for researchers studying phylogeography and shallow-scale phylogenetics is the identification of highly variable and informative nuclear loci for the question of interest. Previous approaches to locus identification have generally required extensive testing of anonymous nuclear loci developed from genomic libraries of the target taxon, testing of loci of unknown utility from other systems, or identification of loci from the nearest model organism with genomic resources. Here, we present a fast and economical approach to generating thousands of variable, single-copy nuclear loci for any system using next-generation sequencing. We performed Illumina paired-end sequencing of three reduced-representation libraries (RRLs) in chorus frogs (Pseudacris) to identify orthologous, single-copy loci across libraries and to estimate sequence divergence at multiple taxonomic levels. We also conducted PCR testing of these loci across the genus Pseudacris and outgroups to determine whether loci developed for phylogeography can be extended to deeper phylogenetic levels. Prior to sequencing, we conducted in silico digestion of the most closely related reference genome (Xenopus tropicalis) to generate expectations for the number of loci and degree of coverage for a particular experimental design. Using the RRL approach, we: (i) identified more than 100,000 single-copy nuclear loci, 6339 of which were obtained for divergent conspecifics and 904 of which were obtained for heterospecifics; (ii) estimated average nuclear sequence divergence at 0.1% between alleles within an individual, 1.1% between conspecific individuals that represent two different clades, and 1.8% between species; and (iii) determined from PCR testing that 53% of the loci successfully amplify within-species and also many amplify to the genus-level and deeper in the phylogeny (16%). Our study effectively identified nuclear loci present in the genome that have levels of sequence divergence on

  12. Phylogeography of influenza A H5N1 clade 2.2.1.1 in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza A H5N1 has killed millions of birds and raises serious public health concern because of its potential to spread to humans and cause a global pandemic. While the early focus was in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is a new epicenter for the disease. This includes characterization of a variant clade 2.2.1.1, which has been found almost exclusively in Egypt. We analyzed 226 HA and 92 NA sequences with an emphasis on the H5N1 2.2.1.1 strains in Egypt using a Bayesian discrete phylogeography approach. This allowed modeling of virus dispersion between Egyptian governorates including the most likely origin. Results Phylogeography models of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) suggest Ash Sharqiyah as the origin of virus spread, however the support is weak based on Kullback–Leibler values of 0.09 for HA and 0.01 for NA. Association Index (AI) values and Parsimony Scores (PS) were significant (p-value < 0.05), indicating that dispersion of H5N1 in Egypt was geographically structured. In addition, the Ash Sharqiyah to Al Gharbiyah and Al Fayyum to Al Qalyubiyah routes had the strongest statistical support. Conclusion We found that the majority of routes with strong statistical support were in the heavily populated Delta region. In particular, the Al Qalyubiyah governorate appears to represent a popular location for virus transition as it represented a large portion of branches in both trees. However, there remains uncertainty about virus dispersion to and from this location and thus more research needs to be conducted in order to examine this. Phylogeography can highlight the drivers of H5N1 emergence and spread. This knowledge can be used to target public health efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality. For Egypt, future work should focus on using data about vaccination and live bird markets in phylogeography models to study their impact on H5N1 diffusion within the country. PMID:24325606

  13. Rare deep-rooting Y chromosome lineages in humans: lessons for phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Weale, Michael E; Shah, Tina; Jones, Abigail L; Greenhalgh, John; Wilson, James F; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Zeitlin, David; Connell, Bruce A; Bradman, Neil; Thomas, Mark G

    2003-09-01

    There has been considerable debate on the geographic origin of the human Y chromosome Alu polymorphism (YAP). Here we report a new, very rare deep-rooting haplogroup within the YAP clade, together with data on other deep-rooting YAP clades. The new haplogroup, found so far in only five Nigerians, is the least-derived YAP haplogroup according to currently known binary markers. However, because the interior branching order of the Y chromosome genealogical tree remains unknown, it is impossible to impute the origin of the YAP clade with certainty. We discuss the problems presented by rare deep-rooting lineages for Y chromosome phylogeography.

  14. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  15. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  16. Reproductive Information and Reproductive Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of reproductive choice are attempting to limit reproductive decisions based on certain underlying reasons. This commentary explores the rationales for these limitations and the objections to them. It concludes that reasoned-based limitations are unsupportable and unenforceable.

  17. Expression of regulatory neuropeptides in the hypothalamus of red deer (Cervus elaphus) reveals anomalous relationships in the seasonal control of appetite and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Barrell, G K; Ridgway, M J; Wellby, M; Pereira, A; Henry, B A; Clarke, I J

    2016-04-01

    Red deer are seasonal with respect to reproduction and food intake, so we tested the hypothesis that their brains would show seasonal changes in numbers of cells containing hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate these functions. We examined the brains of male and female deer in non-breeding and breeding seasons to quantify the production of kisspeptin, gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH - an index of pro-opiomelanocortin production), using immunohistochemistry. These neuropeptides are likely to be involved in the regulation of reproductive function and appetite. During the annual breeding season there were more cells producing kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus than during the non-breeding season in males and females whereas there was no seasonal difference in the expression of GnIH. There were more cells producing the appetite stimulating peptide, NPY, in the arcuate/median eminence regions of the hypothalamus of females during the non-breeding season whereas the levels of an appetite suppressing peptide, γ-MSH, were highest in the breeding season. Male deer brains exhibited the converse, with NPY cell numbers highest in the breeding season and γ-MSH levels highest in the non-breeding season. These results support a role for kisspeptin as an important stimulatory regulator of seasonal breeding in deer, as in other species, but suggest a lack of involvement of GnIH in the seasonality of reproduction in deer. In the case of appetite regulation, the pattern exhibited by females for NPY and γ-MSH was as expected for the breeding and non-breeding seasons, based on previous studies of these peptides in sheep and the seasonal cycle of appetite reported for various species of deer. An inverse result in male deer most probably reflects the response of appetite regulating cells to negative energy balance during the mating season. Differences between the sexes in the seasonal

  18. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF SPOTTED OWL (STRIX OCCIDENTALIS) POPULATIONS BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCES: GENE FLOW, GENETIC STRUCTURE, AND A NOVEL BIOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERN.

    PubMed

    Barrowclough, George F; Gutiérrez, R J; Groth, Jeffrey G

    1999-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) allowed us to investigate gene flow, genetic structure, and biogeographic relationships among these forest-dwelling birds of western North America Estimates of gene flow based on genetic partitioning and the phylogeography of haplotypes indicate substantial dispersal within three long-recognized subspecies. However, patterns of individual phyletic relationships indicate a historical absence of gene flow among the subspecies, which are essentially monophyletic. The pattern of haplotype coalescence enabled us to identify the approximate timing and direction of a recent episode of gene flow from the Sierra Nevada to the northern coastal ranges. The three subspecies comprise phylogenetic species, and the northern spotted owl (S. o. caurina) is sister to a clade of California (S. o. occidentalis) plus Mexican spotted owls (S o lucida); this represents a novel biogeographic pattern within birds. The California spotted owl had substantially lower nucleotide diversity than the other two subspecies; this result is inconsistent with present patterns of population density A causal explanation requires postulating a severe bottleneck or a selective sweep, either of which was confined to only one geographic region. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Morphometric relationships and reproductive maturation of the mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus from subsistence catches in the mangrove swamps of IMO estuary, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Udo, Mfon T

    2002-04-01

    From April 1992 and March 1993, morphometric characteristics and reproductive maturation were studied in Periophthalmus barbarus from subsistence catches in the mangrove swamps of Imo estuary. Morphometric equations for males and females at different stages of ovarian maturation are presented. Generally males were significantly heavier in weight than females, but the latter were heavier than the former of the same body length. Females with developing and mature ovaries were generally heavier than immature females of the same length. Analyses of the gonadosomatic index and percentage of mature males and females indicate all year-round breeding such that: February-May was spawning, June-October postspawning and November to January recovery period. Fecundity varied between 900 and 23,933 eggs per spawn and increased with fish size.

  20. Relationships between anthropogenic chemical contaminant exposure and associated changes in reproductive parameters in male English sole (Parophrys vetulus) collected from Hylebos Waterway, Puget Sound, Washington.

    PubMed

    Sol, Sean Y; Johnson, Lyndal L; Boyd, Daryle; Olson, O Paul; Lomax, Dan P; Collier, Tracy K

    2008-11-01

    Effects of chemical contaminant exposure on gonadal development in adult male English sole (Parophrys vetulus) from Hylebos Waterway and Colvos Passage, Puget Sound, Washington were investigated. Hylebos Waterway sediment is contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines (OCs), and Colvos Passage, a nearby nonurban area, is minimally contaminated. Fish from Hylebos Waterway had higher concentrations of both PAHs and OCs in tissues than fish from Colvos Passage. Overall, little correlation was observed between PAH exposure and biological parameters, but strong correlations were observed between OCs and the biological parameters. Migration of fish from less contaminated areas into the Hylebos Waterway during the reproductive season might have influenced these results, based on temporal changes in fish age and contaminant concentrations.

  1. [The bipolarity of the genetic structure of communities of the crucian carp (Carassius linnaeus, 1758) as a reflection of paradoxal reproductive relationships].

    PubMed

    Mezhzherin, S V; Kokodiy, S V; Kulish, A V; Pukhtaevitch, P P

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of 133 populations of Carasiius spp. from water bodies in Ukraine showed their polyspecific structure: 62% of individuals of the studied 3453 specimens. turned out to be bisexual goldfishes C. auratus, 25%. were unisexual Prissian carps C. gibelio, 6% accounted for the aboriginal species crucian carp C. carassius, and 6% were hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius. In this case a clear trend has been revealed towards the formation of homogeneous alternative populations, specifically: either C. auratus, or C. gibelio. Individuals of C. carassius and the hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius typically comprise an admixture in various populations. The cause of the bipolar distribution of individuals of C. auratus and C. gibelio between various water bodies is the instability of mixed populations as far as individuals of C. auratus very quickly replace females of C. gibelio due to their low reproductive potential.

  2. Relationship between pre-embryo pronuclear morphology (zygote score) and standard day 2 or 3 embryo morphology with regard to assisted reproductive technique outcomes.

    PubMed

    Payne, John F; Raburn, Douglas J; Couchman, Grace M; Price, Thomas M; Jamison, Margaret G; Walmer, David K

    2005-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that pregnancy rates are low if grade Z1 pre-embryos are not available for transfer and to determine if pronuclear morphology is a better predictor of pregnancy than traditional embryo morphology. Prospective clinical study. Academic human reproduction laboratory. One hundred couples undergoing IVF with conventional insemination or ICSI. Embryo quality was assessed using both pre-embryo pronuclear morphology (zygote scoring or Z-scoring) at the time of fertilization evaluation and standard day 2 and day 3 embryo morphology (number of blastomeres and grading based on degree of fragmentation and blastomere size). We tested two decision models, one based on Z-scores and another on morphology, to determine which grading system better predicted pregnancy outcomes in assisted reproductive technique. Zygote score and embryo morphology were measured for all embryos and the transferred embryo pool. Implantation and pregnancy rates resulting from the embryo transfers of all cycles were calculated. The Z-score distribution of 552 embryos was 27% Z1, 8% Z2, 50% Z3, and 15% Z4. Z1 and Z3 embryos had significantly (P approximately .03) higher quality over Z2 and Z4 embryos. Using the Z-score decision model with Z1 embryos having highest priority for transfer, pregnancy rates were similar between Z1 and Z3 embryos. Using embryo morphology as a decision model, pregnancy rates were highest in transfers containing one or two "best"-quality embryos. Z1 and Z3 embryos had similar morphology and pregnancy rates. The decision model based on the Z-score model was not better than standard embryo morphology in predicting pregnancy outcome.

  3. The relationship of seminal transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukin-18 with reproductive success in women exposed to seminal plasma during IVF/ICSI treatment.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Marina A; Babayan, Alina A; Stepanova, Elena O; Smolnikova, Veronika Y; Kalinina, Elena A; Fernández, Nelson; Krechetova, Lubov V; Vanko, Ludmila V; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 present in seminal plasma (SP) triggers a female immune response favorable for implantation. We hypothesize that seminal interleukin (IL)-18, a cytokine that can potentially cause implantation failure, interferes with the beneficial effect of TGF-β1. This study aims to determine whether the levels of seminal TGF-β1 and IL-18 are associated with reproductive outcomes in patients exposed to SP during in vitro fertilization (IVF) or IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study, which included 71 couples undergoing IVF/ICSI was carried out. Female patients were exposed to their partners' SP via timed intercourse before the day of ovum pick-up (OPU) and also subjected to intravaginal SP application just after OPU. Quantitative measurements of total TGF-β1 (active plus latent) as well as IL-18 were determined by FlowCytomix™ technology in the SP to be used for intravaginal applications. Comparison of SP cytokine profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant groups revealed that pregnancy was correlated with a lower concentration of IL-18 (P=0.018) and lower content per ejaculate for both of IL-18 (P=0.0003) and TGF-β1 (P=0.047). The ratio of TGF-β1-to-IL-18 concentration was significantly higher in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant group (P=0.026). This study supports the notion that two key cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-18, both present in SP are associated with reproductive outcomes in female patients exposed to SP during IVF/ICSI treatment.

  4. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine corona virus (BCV) affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001) bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01) of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great importance and that herds can

  5. Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Osteocalcin Gene Relationship in Energy Regulation, Bone Homeostasis and Reproductive Organs Analyzed by mRNA Quantitative Evaluation and Linear Correlation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Claudia; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Caloiero, Roberta; Fonzino, Adriano; Tricarico, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)/Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and osteocalcin share common effects regulating energy, bone mass, reproduction and neuronal functions. To investigate on the gene-relationship between NGF, BDNF, and Osteocalcin we compared by RT-PCR the transcript levels of Ngf, Bdnf and Osteocalcin as well as of their receptors p75NTR/NTRK1, NTRK2, and Gprc6a in brain, bone, white/brown adipose tissue (WAT/BAT) and reproductive organs of 3 months old female and male mice. Brain and bone were used as positive controls for NGF/BDNF and Osteocalcin respectively. The role of oxitocin(Oxt) and its receptor(Oxtr) was also investigated. Ngf expression shows an opposite trend compared to Bdnf. Ngf /p75NTR expression is 50% higher in BAT than brain, in both genders, but lower in bone. In contrast, Bdnf expression in bone is higher than in brain, but low in BAT/WAT. We found Osteocalcin gene expressed in brain in both genders, but Gprc6a expression is low in brain and BAT/WAT. As expected, Gprc6a gene is expressed in bone. Oxt gene was markedly expressed in brain, Oxtr in the ovaries and in fat and bone in both genders. Ngf is highly expressed in reproductive tissues and p75NTR mRNA levels are respectively 300, 100, and 50% higher in testis/ovaries/uterus than in brain. In contrast, BDNF genes are not expressed in reproductive tissues. As expected, Gprc6a is expressed in testis but not in the ovaries/uterus. A significant correlation was found between the expression levels of the gene ligands and their receptors in brain, BAT and testis suggesting a common pathway of different genes in these tissues in either male and female. Changes in the expression levels of osteocalcin, Ngf, or Bdnf genes may mutually affect the expression levels of the others. Moreover, it may be possible that different ligands may operate through different receptor subtypes. Oxt and Oxtr failed to show significant correlation. The up-regulation of Ngf /p75NTR in BAT is consistent

  6. Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Osteocalcin Gene Relationship in Energy Regulation, Bone Homeostasis and Reproductive Organs Analyzed by mRNA Quantitative Evaluation and Linear Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camerino, Claudia; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Caloiero, Roberta; Fonzino, Adriano; Tricarico, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)/Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and osteocalcin share common effects regulating energy, bone mass, reproduction and neuronal functions. To investigate on the gene-relationship between NGF, BDNF, and Osteocalcin we compared by RT-PCR the transcript levels of Ngf, Bdnf and Osteocalcin as well as of their receptors p75NTR/NTRK1, NTRK2, and Gprc6a in brain, bone, white/brown adipose tissue (WAT/BAT) and reproductive organs of 3 months old female and male mice. Brain and bone were used as positive controls for NGF/BDNF and Osteocalcin respectively. The role of oxitocin(Oxt) and its receptor(Oxtr) was also investigated. Ngf expression shows an opposite trend compared to Bdnf. Ngf /p75NTR expression is 50% higher in BAT than brain, in both genders, but lower in bone. In contrast, Bdnf expression in bone is higher than in brain, but low in BAT/WAT. We found Osteocalcin gene expressed in brain in both genders, but Gprc6a expression is low in brain and BAT/WAT. As expected, Gprc6a gene is expressed in bone. Oxt gene was markedly expressed in brain, Oxtr in the ovaries and in fat and bone in both genders. Ngf is highly expressed in reproductive tissues and p75NTR mRNA levels are respectively 300, 100, and 50% higher in testis/ovaries/uterus than in brain. In contrast, BDNF genes are not expressed in reproductive tissues. As expected, Gprc6a is expressed in testis but not in the ovaries/uterus. A significant correlation was found between the expression levels of the gene ligands and their receptors in brain, BAT and testis suggesting a common pathway of different genes in these tissues in either male and female. Changes in the expression levels of osteocalcin, Ngf, or Bdnf genes may mutually affect the expression levels of the others. Moreover, it may be possible that different ligands may operate through different receptor subtypes. Oxt and Oxtr failed to show significant correlation. The up-regulation of Ngf /p75NTR in BAT is consistent

  7. Origin and primary dispersal of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype: clues from human phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Mokrousov, Igor; Ly, Ho Minh; Otten, Tatiana; Lan, Nguyen Ngoc; Vyshnevskyi, Boris; Hoffner, Sven; Narvskaya, Olga

    2005-10-01

    We suggest that the evolution of the population structure of microbial pathogens is influenced by that of modern humans. Consequently, the timing of hallmark changes in bacterial genomes within the last 100,000 yr may be attempted by comparison with relevant human migrations. Here, we used a lineage within Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a Beijing genotype, as a model and compared its phylogeography with human demography and Y chromosome-based phylogeography. We hypothesize that two key events shaped the early history of the Beijing genotype: (1) its Upper Palaeolithic origin in the Homo sapiens sapiens K-M9 cluster in Central Asia, and (2) primary Neolithic dispersal of the secondary Beijing NTF::IS6110 lineage by Proto-Sino-Tibetan farmers within east Asia (human O-M214/M122 haplogroup). The independent introductions of the Beijing strains from east Asia to northern Eurasia and South Africa were likely historically recent, whereas their differential dissemination within these areas has been influenced by demographic and climatic factors.

  8. Phylogeography, Genetic Diversity, and Management Units of Hawksbill Turtles in the Indo-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Michael P.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Mobaraki, Asghar; Broderick, Damien; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Whiting, Scott D.; Miller, Jeff; Prince, Robert I. T.; Bell, Ian P.; Hoenner, Xavier; Limpus, Colin J.; Santos, Fabrício R.; FitzSimmons, Nancy N.

    2016-01-01

    Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) populations have experienced global decline because of a history of intense commercial exploitation for shell and stuffed taxidermied whole animals, and harvest for eggs and meat. Improved understanding of genetic diversity and phylogeography is needed to aid conservation. In this study, we analyzed the most geographically comprehensive sample of hawksbill turtles from the Indo-Pacific Ocean, sequencing 766bp of the mitochondrial control region from 13 locations (plus Aldabra, n = 4) spanning over 13500 km. Our analysis of 492 samples revealed 52 haplotypes distributed in 5 divergent clades. Diversification times differed between the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic lineages and appear to be related to the sea-level changes that occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum. We found signals of demographic expansion only for turtles from the Persian Gulf region, which can be tied to a more recent colonization event. Our analyses revealed evidence of transoceanic migration, including connections between feeding grounds from the Atlantic Ocean and Indo-Pacific rookeries. Hawksbill turtles appear to have a complex pattern of phylogeography, showing a weak isolation by distance and evidence of multiple colonization events. Our novel dataset will allow mixed-stock analyses of hawksbill turtle feeding grounds in the Indo-Pacific by providing baseline data needed for conservation efforts in the region. Eight management units are proposed in our study for the Indo-Pacific region that can be incorporated in conservation plans of this critically endangered species. PMID:26615184

  9. Phylogeography, Genetic Diversity, and Management Units of Hawksbill Turtles in the Indo-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Sarah M; Jensen, Michael P; Ho, Simon Y W; Mobaraki, Asghar; Broderick, Damien; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Whiting, Scott D; Miller, Jeff; Prince, Robert I T; Bell, Ian P; Hoenner, Xavier; Limpus, Colin J; Santos, Fabrício R; FitzSimmons, Nancy N

    2016-05-01

    Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) populations have experienced global decline because of a history of intense commercial exploitation for shell and stuffed taxidermied whole animals, and harvest for eggs and meat. Improved understanding of genetic diversity and phylogeography is needed to aid conservation. In this study, we analyzed the most geographically comprehensive sample of hawksbill turtles from the Indo-Pacific Ocean, sequencing 766 bp of the mitochondrial control region from 13 locations (plus Aldabra, n = 4) spanning over 13500 km. Our analysis of 492 samples revealed 52 haplotypes distributed in 5 divergent clades. Diversification times differed between the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic lineages and appear to be related to the sea-level changes that occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum. We found signals of demographic expansion only for turtles from the Persian Gulf region, which can be tied to a more recent colonization event. Our analyses revealed evidence of transoceanic migration, including connections between feeding grounds from the Atlantic Ocean and Indo-Pacific rookeries. Hawksbill turtles appear to have a complex pattern of phylogeography, showing a weak isolation by distance and evidence of multiple colonization events. Our novel dataset will allow mixed-stock analyses of hawksbill turtle feeding grounds in the Indo-Pacific by providing baseline data needed for conservation efforts in the region. Eight management units are proposed in our study for the Indo-Pacific region that can be incorporated in conservation plans of this critically endangered species.

  10. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii: review of the distribution, phylogeography, and ecophysiology of a global invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Jorge T.; Leão, Pedro N.; Vasconcelos, Vítor M.

    2015-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterial species extensively studied for its toxicity, bloom formation and invasiveness potential, which have consequences to public and environmental health. Its current geographical distribution, spanning different climates, suggests that C. raciborskii has acquired the status of a cosmopolitan species. From phylogeography studies, a tropical origin for this species seems convincing, with different conjectural routes of expansion toward temperate climates. This expansion may be a result of the species physiological plasticity, or of the existence of different ecotypes with distinct environmental requirements. In particular, C. raciborskii is known to tolerate wide temperature and light regimes and presents diverse nutritional strategies. This cyanobacterium is also thought to have benefited from climate change conditions, regarding its invasiveness into temperate climates. Other factors, recently put forward, such as allelopathy, may also be important to its expansion. The effect of C. raciborskii in the invaded communities is still mostly unknown but may strongly disturb species diversity at different trophic levels. In this review we present an up-to-date account of the distribution, phylogeography, ecophysiology, as well some preliminary reports of the impact of C. raciborskii in different organisms. PMID:26042108

  11. Extracting geographic locations from the literature for virus phylogeography using supervised and distant supervision methods

    PubMed Central

    Weissenbacher, Davy; Sarker, Abeed; Tahsin, Tasnia; Scotch, Matthew; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    The field of phylogeography allows researchers to model the spread and evolution of viral genetic sequences. Phylogeography plays a major role in infectious disease surveillance, viral epidemiology and vaccine design. When conducting viral phylogeographic studies, researchers require the location of the infected host of the virus, which is often present in public databases such as GenBank. However, the geographic metadata in most GenBank records is not precise enough for many phylogeographic studies; therefore, researchers often need to search the articles linked to the records for more information, which can be a tedious process. Here, we describe two approaches for automatically detecting geographic location mentions in articles pertaining to virus-related GenBank records: a supervised sequence labeling approach with innovative features and a distant-supervision approach with novel noise- reduction methods. Evaluated on a manually annotated gold standard, our supervised sequence labeling and distant supervision approaches attained F-scores of 0.81 and 0.66, respectively. PMID:28815119

  12. Multilocus phylogeography of the European ground squirrel: cryptic interglacial refugia of continental climate in Europe.

    PubMed

    Říčanová, Štěpánka; Koshev, Yordan; Říčan, Oldřich; Ćosić, Nada; Ćirović, Duško; Sedláček, František; Bryja, Josef

    2013-08-01

    The theory of classical and cryptic Pleistocene refugia is based mainly on historical changes in temperature, and the refugia are usually defined within a latitudinal gradient. However, the gradient of oceanic-continental climate (i.e. longitudinal) was also significantly variable during glacial cycles with important biotic consequences. Range-wide phylogeography of the European ground squirrel (EGS) was used to interpret the evolutionary and palaeogeographical history of the species in Europe and to shed light on its glacial-interglacial dynamic. The EGS is a steppe-inhabiting species and the westernmost member of the genus in the Palaearctic region. We have analysed 915 specimens throughout the present natural range by employing mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b gene) and 12 nuclear microsatellite markers. The reconstructed phylogeography divides the species into two main geographical groups, with deep substructuring within both groups. Bulgaria is the centre of the ancestral area, and it also has the highest genetic diversity within the species. The northernmost group of the EGS survived in the southern part of Pannonia throughout several glacial-interglacial cycles. Animals from this population probably repeatedly colonized areas further to the north and west during the glacial periods, while in the interglacial periods, the EGS distribution contracted back to this Pannonian refugium. The EGS thus represents a species with a glacial expansion/interglacial contraction palaeogeographical dynamics, and the Pannonian and southeastern Balkanian steppes are supported as cryptic refugia of continental climate during Pleistocene interglacials. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii: review of the distribution, phylogeography, and ecophysiology of a global invasive species.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Jorge T; Leão, Pedro N; Vasconcelos, Vítor M

    2015-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterial species extensively studied for its toxicity, bloom formation and invasiveness potential, which have consequences to public and environmental health. Its current geographical distribution, spanning different climates, suggests that C. raciborskii has acquired the status of a cosmopolitan species. From phylogeography studies, a tropical origin for this species seems convincing, with different conjectural routes of expansion toward temperate climates. This expansion may be a result of the species physiological plasticity, or of the existence of different ecotypes with distinct environmental requirements. In particular, C. raciborskii is known to tolerate wide temperature and light regimes and presents diverse nutritional strategies. This cyanobacterium is also thought to have benefited from climate change conditions, regarding its invasiveness into temperate climates. Other factors, recently put forward, such as allelopathy, may also be important to its expansion. The effect of C. raciborskii in the invaded communities is still mostly unknown but may strongly disturb species diversity at different trophic levels. In this review we present an up-to-date account of the distribution, phylogeography, ecophysiology, as well some preliminary reports of the impact of C. raciborskii in different organisms.

  14. Global phylogeography of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    PubMed

    Duncan, K M; Martin, A P; Bowen, B W; DE Couet, H G

    2006-07-01

    Large marine fishes typically have little population genetic structure. The exceptions are associated with sedentary behaviour, disjunct distributions, or reproductive philopatry. Scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) incorporate the contrasting traits of oceanic habitat (usually associated with high dispersal) and possible fidelity to nursery grounds (for reproductive females). To evaluate the expectations of these contrasting behaviours, we examined the global genetic structure of S. lewini based on collections (n = 271 individuals) from 20 nursery areas. A 548-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region revealed 22 polymorphic sites, 24 haplotypes, and three lineages distinguished by 2.56-3.77% sequence divergence. Coalescence analyses based on a provisional molecular clock indicate an origin in the Indo-West Pacific with late Pleistocene radiations into the central Pacific (Hawaii) and eastern Pacific (Central America), as well as recent interchange between oceans via southern Africa. Population subdivisions are strong (overall Phi(ST) = 0.749, P < 0.0001 and among oceans Phi(ST) = 0.598, P < 0.0098). Genetic discontinuity within oceans (Phi(ST) = 0.519, P < 0.0001) is primarily associated with oceanic barriers (migration across oceans M approximately 0), with much less structure along continental margins (M > 10). We conclude that nursery populations linked by continuous coastline have high connectivity, but that oceanic dispersal by females is rare. Although we cannot rule out philopatry to natal nurseries, oceanic barriers appear to have a much stronger influence on the genetic architecture of this species and may indicate a mechanism for recent evolutionary radiations in the genus Sphyrna.

  15. Creatine for women: a review of the relationship between creatine and the reproductive cycle and female-specific benefits of creatine therapy.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Stacey J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine/creatine kinase circuit is instrumental in regulating high-energy phosphate metabolism, and the maintenance of cellular energy turnover. The mechanisms by which creatine is able to buffer and regulate cellular energy balance, maintain acid-base balance, and reduce the effects of oxidative stress have led to a large number of studies into the use of creatine supplementation in exercise performance and to treat diseases associated with cellular energy depletion. Some of these studies have identified sex-specific responses to creatine supplementation, as such; there is the perception, that females might be less receptive to the benefits of creatine supplementation and therapy, compared to males. This review will describe the differences in male and female physique and physiology that may account for such differences, and discuss the apparent endocrine modulation of creatine metabolism in females. Hormone-driven changes to endogenous creatine synthesis, creatine transport and creatine kinase expression suggest that significant changes in this cellular energy circuit occur during specific stages of a female's reproductive life, including pregnancy and menopause. Recent studies suggest that creatine supplementation may be highly beneficial for women under certain conditions, such as depression. A greater understanding of these pathways, and the consequences of alterations to creatine bioavailability in females are needed to ensure that creatine is used to full advantage as a dietary supplement to optimize and enhance health outcomes for women.

  16. Relationship between reproductive history, anthropometrics, lifestyle factors, and the likelihood of persistent chemotherapy-related amenorrhea in women with premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abusief, Mary E; Missmer, Stacey A; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Weeks, Jane C; Partridge, Ann H

    2012-01-01

    To determine the association between patient characteristics at diagnosis of premenopausal breast cancer, including gravidity, parity, age at menarche, age at first birth, alcohol use, smoking history, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), with the development of persistent chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) in follow-up. Retrospective cohort study. Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital. Premenopausal women with breast cancer. We identified all premenopausal women who received standard adjuvant chemotherapy during 1997-2005 for whom menstrual data were available. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluating persistent amenorrhea at ≥6 month after completion of chemotherapy were conducted. Persistent chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) at ≥6 months from completion of chemotherapy. A total of 431 women met eligibility criteria and had ≥6-months' follow-up. Women with older (>13 years) vs. younger (12-13 years) age at menarche were more than twice as likely to remain amenorrheic. Current smokers had 2.4 greater odds of CRA vs. never smokers, although this association was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval, 0.86-6.75). Few identifiable factors contribute to the variability in CRA among premenopausal women after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Further research to improve the prediction of CRA, premature menopause, and infertility in young breast cancer survivors is warranted. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproductive Medicine in Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of amphibians includes ovulation, spermiation, fertilization, oviposition, larval stage and development, and metamorphosis. A problem at any stage could lead to reproductive failure. To stimulate reproduction, environmental conditions must be arranged to simulate changes in natural habits. Reproductive life history is well documented in amphibians; a thorough knowledge of this subject will aid the practitioner in diagnosis and treatment. Technologies for artificial reproduction are developing rapidly, and some protocols may be transferable to privately kept or endangered species. Reproductive tract disorders are rarely described; no bacterial or viral diseases are known that specifically target the amphibian reproductive system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analyzing Whispers: College Students' Representation and Reproduction of Sociocultural Discourses about Bodies, Relationships, and (Hetero)sexuality Using a Mobile Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Erich N.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research about college students' social media usage emphasizes social media "practices," often ignoring the "content" that students' post. Increasing knowledge about the language that college students use to describe their intimate relationships can inform student affairs practice. Using a digital ethnographic data…

  19. Analyzing Whispers: College Students' Representation and Reproduction of Sociocultural Discourses about Bodies, Relationships, and (Hetero)sexuality Using a Mobile Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Erich N.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research about college students' social media usage emphasizes social media "practices," often ignoring the "content" that students' post. Increasing knowledge about the language that college students use to describe their intimate relationships can inform student affairs practice. Using a digital ethnographic data…

  20. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Molecular phylogeography of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations in Xinjiang of China: comparison with other Asian, European, and North American populations.

    PubMed

    Mahmut, Halik; Masuda, Ryuichi; Onuma, Manabu; Takahashi, Manami; Nagata, Junko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2002-04-01

    To illustrate phylogeography of red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations of Xinjiang, we determined their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, and then investigated geographic variations and phylogenetic relationships between Xinjiang populations and other populations from Asia, Europe, and North America. The C. elaphus mtDNA control region shared different copy numbers of tandem repeats of 38 to 43-bp motifs which clearly distinguished the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage of this species in Eurasia. The western lineage comprised the Tarim populations from southern Xinjiang and the European populations, all of which had four copies of the motifs. By contrast, the Eastern lineage consisted of populations from northern Xinjiang (Tianshan and Altai Mountains), other Asian areas (Alashan, Gansu, Tibet, Mongolia, and northeastern China), and North America, all of which shared six copies of the motifs. MtDNA phylogenetic trees showed that there are two major clusters of haplotypes which referred to the Western and Eastern lineages, and that subgroupings of haplotypes in each cluster were congruent with their geographic distributions. The present study revealed that a boundary separating the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage occurs between Tarim Basin and Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang. Meanwhile, North American populations were genetically closer to those of northern Xinjiang, northeastern China, and Mongolia, supporting that C. elaphus immigrated from northeastern Eurasia to North America through the glacier-induced land-bridge (Beringia) which had formed between the two continents after Late Pleistocene.

  3. Inferences on the phylogeography of the fungal pathogen Heterobasidion annosum, including evidence of interspecific horizontal genetic transfer and of human-mediated, long-range dispersal.

    PubMed

    Linzer, R E; Otrosina, W J; Gonthier, P; Bruhn, J; Laflamme, G; Bussières, G; Garbelotto, M

    2008-03-01

    Fungi in the basidiomycete species complex Heterobasidion annosum are significant root-rot pathogens of conifers throughout the northern hemisphere. We utilize a multilocus phylogenetic approach to examine hypotheses regarding the evolution and divergence of two Heterobasidion taxa associated with pines: the Eurasian H. annosum sensu stricto and the North American H. annosum P intersterility group (ISG). Using DNA sequence information from portions of two nuclear and two mitochondrial loci, we infer phylogenetic relationships via parsimony, Bayesian and median-joining network analysis. Analysis of isolates representative of the entire known geographic range of the two taxa results in monophyletic sister Eurasian and North American lineages, with North America further subdivided into eastern and western clades. Genetically anomalous isolates from the Italian presidential estate of Castelporziano are always part of a North American clade and group with eastern North America, upholding the hypothesis of recent, anthropogenically mediated dispersal. P ISG isolates from Mexico have phylogenetic affinity with both eastern and western North America. Results for an insertion in the mitochondrial rDNA suggest this molecule was obtained from the Heterobasidion S ISG, a taxon sympatric with the P ISG in western North America. These data are compatible with an eastern Eurasian origin of the species, followed by dispersal of two sister taxa into western Eurasia and into eastern North America over a Beringean land bridge, a pattern echoed in the phylogeography of other conifer-associated basidiomycetes.

  4. Comparative phylogeography between the ermine Mustela erminea and the least weasel M. nivalis of Palaearctic and Nearctic regions, based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences.

    PubMed

    Kurose, Naoko; Abramov, Alexei V; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2005-10-01

    Phylogeography of the ermine Mustela erminea and the least weasel M. nivalis from Palaearctic and Nearctic regions were investigated based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Mustela erminea exhibited a very low level of genetic variation, and geographic structures among populations were unclear. This may indicate that M. erminea recently reoccupied a wide territory in Eurasia following the last glacial retreat. In comparison with M. erminea, genetic variations within and among populations of M. nivalis were much greater. Molecular phylogenetic relationships showed that two lineages of M. nivalis occurred in the Holarctic region: one spread from the Eurasian region to North America, and the other occurred in south-eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia. The results suggest either mitochondrial DNA introgression among populations of south-eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, or ancestral polymorphisms remaining in those populations. Contrastive phylogeographic patterns between the two mustelid species could reflect differences of their migration histories in Eurasia after the last glacial age.

  5. Factors Related to the Validity of Reproduction Tonal Memory Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Charles E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the validity of reproduction tonal memory tests by examining the relationships among performances on an existing reproduction tonal memory test and several recognition tonal memory tests. Tested 210 fifth through twelfth grade students. Concludes that there is a moderate relationship among performances on the tests. Includes references.…

  6. Phylogeography, phylodynamics and transmission chains of bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 1f in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Francesco; Luzzago, Camilla; Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Caruso, Claudio; Masoero, Loretta; Moreno, Ana; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Peletto, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 in Italy is characterized by high genetic diversity, with at least 20 subtypes. Subtype 1f is endemic in a restricted geographic area, meaning that it has local distribution. We investigated the population dynamics of BVDV-1f in Northern Italy and characterized the transmission chains of a subset of samples from Piedmont and Aosta Valley regions. A total of 51 samples from 1966 to 2013 were considered and 5' UTR sequences were used for phylogeography. A subset of 12 samples was selected for Npro gene sequencing and further characterization of the transmission chains using both molecular and epidemiological data. Phylogeography estimated the root of BVDV-1f tree in Veneto in 1965. Four significant subclades included sequences clustering by region: Lombardy (n=3), Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna (n=7), Piedmont (n=17), Piedmont and Aosta Valley (n=21). The Piedmont-only subclade has a ladder-like branching structure, while the Piedmont and Aosta Valley subclade has a nearly complete binary structure. In the subset, the outbreak reconstruction identified one sample from Piedmont as the most probable source of infection for the Aosta Valley cases. An ad hoc questionnaire submitted to public veterinarians revealed connections between sampled and non-sampled farms by means of trades, exhibitions and markets. According to the phylogeography, BVDV-1f moved westward, entering from Veneto, and spreading to Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna in the early 1990s, and finally to Piedmont and Aosta Valley in the first decade of 2000s. Both phylogeographic analyses on the whole dataset and on the selection of Npro dataset pointed out that subtype 1f entered Aosta Valley from Piedmont. The integration of molecular and epidemiological data revealed connections between farms, and such approach should be considered in any control plan. In Aosta Valley, the study showed that BVDV1f can be controlled only monitoring the introduction of cattle from Piedmont

  7. The relationships between body fatness, leptin, testosterone, and reproductive performance in ram lambs as affected by level and frequency of feeding.

    PubMed

    Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Ayadi, Moez; Alhidary, Ibrahim; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Abouheif, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    .04) with fat measurements, leptin, and ejaculation latency time. In conclusion, moderate intake restriction can optimize body fatness and testosterone concentrations in rams, which helped to improve some reproductive traits.

  8. Reproductive technologies and the quality of offspring in Asia: reproductive pioneering and moral pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues relevant to this special issue of Culture, Health & Sexuality on the quality of offspring, including gender selection, ecofeminism, eugenics, reproductive agency, moral pioneering and reproductive pragmatism in China, India and Japan. First, it discusses various approaches to choice in sex selection, focusing on an instrumentalist and an ecofeminist approach. Second, it discusses issues of reproductive choice in the light of various concepts of eugenics and power, which have been used to characterise the relationship between the state, the individual and prenatal genetic testing. Third, it queries Foucault's notion of biopower in relation to reproductive agency. In reviewing the evidence, the chapter raises questions about how women and parents in Asian societies can be understood in terms of 'reproductive pragmatism', 'empowerment' and/or 'moral pioneering' when faced with the use of new reproductive technologies in modern societies.

  9. Reproductive Health and Bodily Integrity in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Westeneng, Judith; D'Exelle, Ben

    2017-08-10

    Several policy initiatives support the empowerment of women to improve their reproductive health. Little is known, however, about the inverse effect that reproductive health might have on women's empowerment. Women are pressured to conform to their reproductive role, and an inability to do so might affect their empowerment, including control over their own body. Using a panel dataset of 504 married women in Northern Tanzania, we find that women who experienced a pregnancy loss show more tolerant views of partner violence and that child mortality lowers their perceived control over the sexual relationship with their spouse. The number of living children did not affect bodily integrity. These results confirm that women's bodily integrity is partly dependent on the ability to fulfill their reproductive role. They strengthen the case for policies and programs that improve women's reproductive health and underline the importance of counselling after pregnancy or child loss. © 2017 The Population Council, Inc.

  10. Disorders of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Anne; del Junco, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biomarkers of reproductive health and disease that have been developed in the past 15 years. Due to the gender- and age-dependency of most of the advances in measuring reproductive health status and outcomes, these biomarkers have been categorized with respect to the unique member of the reproductive triad of interest (i.e. mother, father, conceptus). Biomarkers of female and male puberty, female reproductive function, fetal and infant development, and male reproductive function are discussed. The strengths and limitations of developing and implementing biomarkers in reproductive health studies over the past decade are explored.

  11. Glacial oceanographic contrasts explain phylogeography of Australian bull kelp.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Spencer, Hamish G; Waters, Jonathan M

    2009-05-01

    The evolutionary effects of Southern Hemisphere Pleistocene oceanographic conditions - marked by fluctuations in sea levels and water temperatures, and redirected currents - are poorly understood. The southeastern tip of Australia presents an intriguing model system for studying the biological impacts of palaeoceanography. In particular, contrasting oceanographic conditions that existed on eastern vs. western sides of the Bassian Isthmus during Pleistocene glacial periods allow for natural comparisons between putative refugial vs. re-invading populations. Whereas many western Tasmanian marine taxa were likely eliminated by cold subantarctic water during the last glacial period, eastern Tasmanian populations would have persisted in relatively warm temperatures mediated by the ongoing influence of the East Australian Current (EAC). Here we test for the effects of contrasting palaeoceanographic conditions on endemic bull kelp, Durvillaea potatorum, using DNA sequence analysis (COI; rbcL) of more than 100 individuals from 14 localities in southeastern Australia. Phylogenetic reconstructions reveal a deep (maximum divergence 4.7%) genetic split within D. potatorum, corresponding to the 'eastern' and 'western' geographical regions delimited by the Bassian Isthmus, a vicariant barrier during low Pleistocene sea levels. Concordant with the western region's cold glacial conditions, samples from western Tasmania and western Victoria are genetically monomorphic, suggesting postglacial expansion from a mainland refugium. Eastern samples, in contrast, comprise distinct regional haplogroups, suggesting the species persisted in eastern Tasmania throughout recent glacial periods. The deep east-west divergence seems consistent with earlier reports of morphological differences between 'western' and 'eastern' D. potatorum, and it seems likely that these forms represent reproductively isolated species.

  12. Hybridization, mitochondrial DNA phylogeography, and prediction of the early stages of reproductive isolation: lessons from New Zealand cicadas (genus Kikihia).

    PubMed

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris

    2011-07-01

    One of the major tenets of the modern synthesis is that genetic differentiation among subpopulations is translated over time into genetic differentiation among species. Phylogeographic exploration is therefore essential to the study of speciation because it can reveal the presence of subpopulations that may go on to become species or that may already represent cryptic species. Acoustic species-specific mating signals provide a significant advantage for the recognition of cryptic or incipient species. Because the majority of species do not have such easily recognized premating signals, data from acoustically signaling species can serve as a valuable heuristic tool. Acoustic signals are also convenient tools for recognizing hybridization events. Here, we demonstrate that evidence of hybridization in the form of intermediate song phenotypes is present in many contact zones between species of the New Zealand grass cicadas of the Kikihia muta species complex and that recurring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression has created misleading patterns that make it difficult to identify certain taxa using song or mtDNA alone. In one case, introgression appears to have occurred between allopatric taxa by dispersal of introgressed populations of an intermediary species ("hybridization by proxy"). We also present a comparison of mtDNA-tree- and song-based taxonomies obtained for the K. muta complex. We find that 12 mtDNA candidate species are identified using shifts in phylogenetic branching rate found by a single-threshold mixed Yule-coalescent lineage model, while only 7 candidate species are identified using songs. Results from the Yule-coalescent model are dependent on factors such as the number of modeled thresholds and the inclusion of duplicate haplotypes. Genetic distances within song species reach a maximum at about 0.028 substitutions/site when likely cases of hybridization and introgression are excluded. Large genetic breaks or "gaps" are not observed between some northern (warmer climate) song clades, possibly because climate-induced bottlenecks have been less severe. These results support ongoing calls for multimarker genetic studies as well as "integrative taxonomy" that combines information from multiple character sources, including behavior, ecology, geography, and morphology.

  13. Phylogeography of the rare Gymnocarpos przewalskii (Caryophyllaceae): indications of multiple glacial refugia in north-western China

    Treesearch

    S. M. Ma; M. L. Zhang; S. C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the phylogeography of Gymnocarpos przewalskii Maxim. (Caryophyllaceae), a rare relictual shrub restricted to north-western China, in the context of Quaternary climate oscillations. ThreecpDNAregions (psbA­trnH, ycf6­psbM and rpl32-trnL (UAG)) were sequenced for 160 individuals from 16 populations. High genetic diversity (hT = 0.930, hS = 0.425) and a...

  14. [Phylogeography of southern Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma krascheninnikovi: genealogical analysis of mitochondrial DNA].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Chukova, E I

    2010-02-01

    Phylogeography of southern Asian Dolly Varden char was studied using the data on mtDNA variation (regions ND1/ND2, ND5/ND6, and Cytb/D loop) obtained using PCR-RFLP analysis. Analysis of contemporary population genetic structure showed that S. m. krascheninnikovi throughout the whole species range was characterized by high population differentiation in combination with rather small differences between the populations from remote regions. The genealogy of mtDNA haplotypes was reconstructed and nested clade analysis of geographical distances was performed. Geographical distribution of mtDNA haplotypes of S. m. krascheninnikovi was explained by population genetic processes (restricted gene flow), as well as by historical demographic events (range expansion and fragmentation). It was demonstrated that the main demographic events were associated with cyclic processes of the geological formation of the Sea of Japan and adjacent territories. Furthermore, genealogical tree of S. m. krascheninnikovi contained the traces of secondary contact between isolated phylogeographical lineages.

  15. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Lenk, P; Fritz, U; Joger, U; Wink, M

    1999-11-01

    The phylogeny and phylogeography of Emys orbicularis was inferred from mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene analysed by DNA sequencing and RNA heteroduplex analysis. Within the family Emydidae the monotypic genus Emys is affiliated with the nearctic taxa Emydoidea blandingii and Clemmys marmorata. The analysis of 423 individuals of E. orbicularis, originating throughout its distribution range, revealed a remarkable intraspecific differentiation in 20 different haplotypes with distinct geographical ranges. Maximum parsimony analysis produced a star-like phylogeny with seven main lineages which may reflect separations in the late Pliocene. The haplotype distribution examined by partial Mantel tests and analysis of molecular variance revealed a substantial effect of glacial periods. This historical perspective suggests the existence of multiple glacial refugia and considerable Holocene range expansion which was modulated by climatic traits. Further support is gained for the occurrence of long-term parapatry in glacial refugia.

  16. Phylogeography of Rickettsia rickettsii Genotypes Associated with Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Christopher D.; Denison, Amy M.; Lash, R. Ryan; Liu, Lindy; Bollweg, Brigid C.; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Kanamura, Cristina T.; Angerami, Rodrigo N.; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana C.; Brasil Martines, Roosecelis; Karpathy, Sandor E.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the deadliest of all infectious diseases. To identify the distribution of various genotypes of R. rickettsii associated with fatal RMSF, we applied molecular typing methods to samples of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at autopsy from 103 case-patients from seven countries who died of RMSF. Complete sequences of one or more intergenic regions were amplified from tissues of 30 (29%) case-patients and revealed a distribution of genotypes consisting of four distinct clades, including the Hlp clade, regarded previously as a non-pathogenic strain of R. rickettsii. Distinct phylogeographic patterns were identified when composite case-patient and reference strain data were mapped to the state and country of origin. The phylogeography of R. rickettsii is likely determined by ecological and environmental factors that exist independently of the distribution of a particular tick vector. PMID:24957541

  17. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Near East as a cradle of biodiversity: A phylogeography of banded newts (genus Ommatotriton) reveals extensive inter- and intraspecific genetic differentiation.

    PubMed

    van Riemsdijk, Isolde; Arntzen, Jan W; Bogaerts, Sergé; Franzen, Michael; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Olgun, Kurtuluş; Wielstra, Ben

    2017-09-01

    The banded newt (genus Ommatotriton) is widely distributed in the Near East (Anatolia, Caucasus and the Levant) - an understudied region from the perspective of phylogeography. The genus is polytypic, but the number of species included and the phylogenetic relationships between them are not settled. We sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear DNA markers throughout the range of Ommatotriton. For mtDNA we constructed phylogenetic trees, estimated divergence times using fossil calibration, and investigated changes in effective population size with Bayesian skyline plots and mismatch analyses. For nuDNA we constructed phylogenetic trees and haplotype networks. Species trees were constructed for all markers and nuDNA only. Species distribution models were projected on current and Last Glacial Maximum climate layers. We confirm the presence of three Ommatotriton species: O. nesterovi, O. ophryticus and O. vittatus. These species are genetically distinct and their most recent common ancestor was dated at ∼25Ma (Oligocene). No evidence of recent gene flow between species was found. The species show deep intraspecific genetic divergence, represented by geographically structured clades, with crown nodes of species dated ∼8-13Ma (Miocene to Early Quaternary); evidence of long-term in situ evolution and survival in multiple glacial refugia. While a species tree based on nuDNA suggested a sister species relationship between O. vittatus and O. ophryticus, when mtDNA was included, phylogenetic relationships were unresolved, and we refrain from accepting a particular phylogenetic hypothesis at this stage. While species distribution models suggest reduced and fragmented ranges during the Last Glacial Maximum, we found no evidence for strong population bottlenecks. We discuss our results in the light of other phylogeographic studies from the Near East. Our study underlines the important role of the Near East in generating and sustaining biodiversity. Copyright © 2017

  19. Genome sequencing of an Indian peste des petits ruminants virus isolate, Izatnagar/94, and its implications for virus diversity, divergence and phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Amit Ranjan; Wani, Sajad Ahmad; Saminathan, M; Rajak, Kaushal Kishor; Sahoo, Aditya Prasad; Pandey, Aruna; Saxena, Shikha; Kanchan, Sonam; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Mishra, Bina; Muthuchelvan, D; Singh, R P; Singh, Yaspal; Baig, Mumtaz; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Singh, Raj Kumar; Gandham, Ravi Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Peste des petits ruminants is an important transboundary disease infecting small ruminants. Genome or gene sequence analysis enriches our knowledge about the evolution and transboundary nature of the causative agent of this disease, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Although analysis using whole genome sequences of pathogens leads to more precise phylogenetic relationships, when compared to individual genes or partial sequences, there is still a need to identify specific genes/genomic regions that can provide evolutionary assessments consistent with those predicted with full-length genome sequences. Here the virulent Izatnagar/94 PPRV isolate was assembled and compared to all available complete genome sequences (currently in the NCBI database) to estimate nucleotide diversity and to deduce evolutionary relationships between genes/genomic regions and the full length genomes. Our aim was to identify the preferred candidate gene for use as a phylogenetic marker, as well as to predict divergence time and explore PPRV phylogeography. Among all the PPRV genes, the H gene was identified to be the most diverse with the highest evolutionary relationship with the full genome sequences. Hence it is considered as the most preferred candidate gene for phylogenetic study with 93% identity set as a nucleotide cutoff. A whole genome nucleotide sequence cutoff value of 94% permitted specific differentiation of PPRV lineages. All the isolates examined in the study were found to have a most recent common ancestor in the late 19th or in the early 20th century with high posterior probability values. The Bayesian skyline plot revealed a decrease in genetic diversity among lineage IV isolates since the start of the vaccination program and the network analysis localized the ancestry of PPRV to Africa.

  20. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  1. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  2. Deciphering the Costs of Reproduction in Mango - Vegetative Growth Matters.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Mathilde; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Irregular fruit production across successive years is a major issue that limits the profitability of most temperate and tropical fruit crops. It is particularly affected by the reciprocal relationships between vegetative and reproductive growth. The concept of the costs of reproduction is defined in terms of losses in the potential future reproductive success caused by current investment in reproduction. This concept, developed in ecology and evolutionary biology, could provide a methodological framework to analyze irregular bearing in fruit crops, especially in relation to the spatial scale at which studies are done. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effects of reproduction during a growing cycle on reproduction during the following growing cycle and the indirect effects through vegetative growth between these two reproductive events, for four mango cultivars and during two growing cycles. Two spatial scales were considered: the growth unit (GU) and the scaffold branch. Costs of reproduction were detected between two successive reproductive events and between reproduction and vegetative growth. These costs were scale-dependent, generally detected at the GU scale and infrequently at the scaffold branch scale, suggesting partial branch autonomy with respect to processes underlying the effects of reproduction on vegetative growth. In contrast, the relationships between vegetative growth and reproduction were positive at the GU scale and at the scaffold branch scale in most cases, suggesting branch autonomy for the processes, mainly local, underlying flowering and fruiting. The negative effect of reproduction on vegetative growth prevailed over the positive effect of vegetative growth on the subsequent reproduction. The costs of reproduction were also cultivar-dependent. Those revealed at the GU scale were related to the bearing behavior of each cultivar. Our results put forward the crucial role of vegetative growth occurring between two

  3. Out of the Black Sea: Phylogeography of the Invasive Killer Shrimp Dikerogammarus villosus across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rewicz, Tomasz; Wattier, Remi; Grabowski, Michał; Rigaud, Thierry; Bącela-Spychalska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    The amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus has colonized most of the European main inland water bodies in less than 20 years, having deteriorating effect on the local benthic communities. Our aim was to reveal the species phylogeography in the native Black Sea area, to define the source populations for the colonization routes in continental Europe and for the newly established UK populations. We tested for the loss of genetic diversity between source and invasive populations as well as along invasion route. We tested also for isolation by distance. Thirty three native and invasive populations were genotyped for mtDNA (COI, 16S) and seven polymorphic nuclear microsatellites to assess cryptic diversity (presence of deeply divergent lineages), historical demography, level of diversity within lineage (e.g., number of alleles), and population structure. A wide range of methods was used, including minimum spanning network, molecular clock, Bayesian clustering and Mantel test. Our results identified that sea level and salinity changes during Pleistocene impacted the species phylogeography in the Black Sea native region with four differentiated populations inhabiting, respectively, the Dnieper, Dniester, Danube deltas and Durungol liman. The invasion of continental Europe is associated with two sources, i.e., the Danube and Dnieper deltas, which gave origin to two independent invasion routes (Western and Eastern) for which no loss of diversity and no isolation by distance were observed. The UK population has originated in the Western Route and, despite very recent colonization, no drastic loss of diversity was observed. The results show that the invasion of the killer shrimp is not associated with the costs of loosing genetic diversity, which may contribute to the success of this invader in the newly colonized areas. Additionally, while it has not yet occurred, it might be expected that future interbreeding between the genetically diversified populations from two independent

  4. Caves as microrefugia: Pleistocene phylogeography of the troglophilic North American scorpion Pseudouroctonus reddelli.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Robert W; Prendini, Lorenzo; Savary, Warren E; Pearman, Peter B

    2014-01-16

    Survival in microrefugia represents an important paradigm in phylogeography for explaining rapid postglacial re-colonization by species in temperate regions. Microrefugia may allow populations to persist in areas where the climatic conditions on the surface have become unfavourable. Caves generally contain stable microclimates and may represent microrefugia for species capable of exploiting both cave and surface habitats (troglophiles). We examine the phylogeography of the troglophilic North American vaejovid scorpion Pseudouroctonus reddelli using 1,993 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data generated from 12 populations. We use (i) descriptive measures of genetic diversity and population genetics statistics, (ii) reconstructions of phylogeographical structure, spatial diffusion during diversification, and population sizes through time, and (iii) species distribution modelling to test predictions of the hypothesis that caves serve as microrefugia. We compare phylogeographical patterns in P. reddelli with other troglophilic species across the Edwards Plateau karst region of Texas. Results revealed high haplotype and nucleotide diversity and substantial phylogeographical structure, probably generated during the Pleistocene. Spatial diffusion occurred along the southern edge of the Edwards Plateau from multiple refugia along the Balcones Escarpment. There was little evidence for population and geographical expansion. Species distribution models predicted substantial reductions in suitable epigean habitat for P. reddelli at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). High genetic diversity, strong phylogeographical structure, diffusion from multiple refugia, and unfavourable climatic conditions at the LGM collectively support the hypothesis that caves served as microrefugia for P. reddelli. Similar patterns of genetic structure in P. reddelli and other troglophilic species across the Edwards Plateau karst region of Texas suggest that caves serving as

  5. Caves as microrefugia: Pleistocene phylogeography of the troglophilic North American scorpion Pseudouroctonus reddelli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival in microrefugia represents an important paradigm in phylogeography for explaining rapid postglacial re-colonization by species in temperate regions. Microrefugia may allow populations to persist in areas where the climatic conditions on the surface have become unfavourable. Caves generally contain stable microclimates and may represent microrefugia for species capable of exploiting both cave and surface habitats (troglophiles). We examine the phylogeography of the troglophilic North American vaejovid scorpion Pseudouroctonus reddelli using 1,993 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data generated from 12 populations. We use (i) descriptive measures of genetic diversity and population genetics statistics, (ii) reconstructions of phylogeographical structure, spatial diffusion during diversification, and population sizes through time, and (iii) species distribution modelling to test predictions of the hypothesis that caves serve as microrefugia. We compare phylogeographical patterns in P. reddelli with other troglophilic species across the Edwards Plateau karst region of Texas. Results Results revealed high haplotype and nucleotide diversity and substantial phylogeographical structure, probably generated during the Pleistocene. Spatial diffusion occurred along the southern edge of the Edwards Plateau from multiple refugia along the Balcones Escarpment. There was little evidence for population and geographical expansion. Species distribution models predicted substantial reductions in suitable epigean habitat for P. reddelli at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Conclusions High genetic diversity, strong phylogeographical structure, diffusion from multiple refugia, and unfavourable climatic conditions at the LGM collectively support the hypothesis that caves served as microrefugia for P. reddelli. Similar patterns of genetic structure in P. reddelli and other troglophilic species across the Edwards Plateau karst region of Texas suggest

  6. Phylogeography of the prehensile-tailed skink Corucia zebrata on the Solomon Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Ingerid J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Bull, C Michael

    2012-01-01

    The biogeography of islands is often strongly influenced by prior geological events. Corucia zebrata (Squamata: Scincidae) is endemic to the geologically complex Solomon Archipelago in Northern Melanesia. We examined the level of divergence for different island populations of C. zebrata and discussed these patterns in light of Pleistocene land bridges, island isolation, and island age. Corucia zebrata was sampled from 14 locations across the Solomon Archipelago and sequenced at two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4; 1697 bp in total) and four nuclear loci (rhodopsin, an unknown intron, AKAP9, and PTPN12). Measures of genetic divergence, analyses of genetic variation, and Bayesian phylogenetic inference were used and the data assessed in light of geological information. Populations of C. zebrata on separate islands were found to be genetically different from each other, with reciprocal monophyly on mitochondrial DNA. Populations on islands previously connected by Pleistocene land bridges were marginally less divergent from each other than from populations on other nearby but isolated islands. There are indications that C. zebrata has radiated across the eastern islands of the archipelago within the last 1–4 million years. Nuclear loci were not sufficiently informative to yield further information about the phylogeography of C. zebrata on the Solomon Archipelago. Analyses of the mitochondrial data suggest that dispersal between islands has been very limited and that there are barriers to gene flow within the major islands. Islands that have been isolated during the Pleistocene glacial cycles are somewhat divergent in their mitochondrial genotypes, however, isolation by distance (IBD) and recent colonization of isolated but geologically younger islands appear to have had stronger effects on the phylogeography of C. zebrata than the Pleistocene glacial cycles. This contrasts with patterns reported for avian taxa, and highlights the fact that biogeographic regions for

  7. Out of the Black Sea: phylogeography of the invasive killer shrimp Dikerogammarus villosus across Europe.

    PubMed

    Rewicz, Tomasz; Wattier, Remi; Grabowski, Michał; Rigaud, Thierry; Bącela-Spychalska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    The amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus has colonized most of the European main inland water bodies in less than 20 years, having deteriorating effect on the local benthic communities. Our aim was to reveal the species phylogeography in the native Black Sea area, to define the source populations for the colonization routes in continental Europe and for the newly established UK populations. We tested for the loss of genetic diversity between source and invasive populations as well as along invasion route. We tested also for isolation by distance. Thirty three native and invasive populations were genotyped for mtDNA (COI, 16S) and seven polymorphic nuclear microsatellites to assess cryptic diversity (presence of deeply divergent lineages), historical demography, level of diversity within lineage (e.g., number of alleles), and population structure. A wide range of methods was used, including minimum spanning network, molecular clock, Bayesian clustering and Mantel test. Our results identified that sea level and salinity changes during Pleistocene impacted the species phylogeography in the Black Sea native region with four differentiated populations inhabiting, respectively, the Dnieper, Dniester, Danube deltas and Durungol liman. The invasion of continental Europe is associated with two sources, i.e., the Danube and Dnieper deltas, which gave origin to two independent invasion routes (Western and Eastern) for which no loss of diversity and no isolation by distance were observed. The UK population has originated in the Western Route and, despite very recent colonization, no drastic loss of diversity was observed. The results show that the invasion of the killer shrimp is not associated with the costs of loosing genetic diversity, which may contribute to the success of this invader in the newly colonized areas. Additionally, while it has not yet occurred, it might be expected that future interbreeding between the genetically diversified populations from two independent

  8. One Species, Three Pleistocene Evolutionary Histories: Phylogeography of the Italian Crested Newt, Triturus carnifex

    PubMed Central

    Canestrelli, Daniele; Salvi, Daniele; Maura, Michela; Bologna, Marco A.; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographic patterns of temperate species from the Mediterranean peninsulas have been investigated intensively. Nevertheless, as more phylogeographies become available, either unique patterns or new lines of concordance continue to emerge, providing new insights on the evolution of regional biotas. Here, we investigated the phylogeography and evolutionary history of the Italian crested newt, Triturus carnifex, through phylogenetic, molecular dating and population structure analyses of two mitochondrial gene fragments (ND2 and ND4; overall 1273 bp). We found three main mtDNA lineages having parapatric distribution and estimated divergence times between Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. One lineage (S) was widespread south of the northern Apennine chain and was further geographically structured into five sublineages, likely of Middle Pleistocene origin. The second lineage (C) was widespread throughout the Padano–Venetian plain and did not show a clear phylogeographic structure. The third lineage (N) was observed in only two populations located on western Croatia/Slovenia. Results of analysis of molecular variance suggested that partitioning populations according to the geographic distribution of these lineages and sublineages explains 76% of the observed genetic variation. The phylogeographic structure observed within T. carnifex and divergence time estimates among its lineages, suggest that responses to Pleistocene environmental changes in this single species have been as diverse as those found previously among several codistributed temperate species combined. Consistent with the landscape heterogeneity, physiographic features, and palaeogeographical evolution of its distribution range, these responses encompass multiple refugia along the Apennine chain, lowland refugia in large peri-coastal plains, and a ‘cryptic’ northern refugium. PMID:22848590

  9. Tracing glacial refugia of Triturus newts based on mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and species distribution modeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The major climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Age heavily influenced the distribution of species and left their mark on intraspecific genetic diversity. Past range shifts can be reconstructed with the aid of species distribution modeling and phylogeographical analyses. We test the responses of the different members of the genus Triturus (i.e. the marbled and crested newts) as the climate shifted from the previous glacial period (the Last Glacial Maximum, ~21 Ka) to the current interglacial. Results We present the results of a dense mitochondrial DNA phylogeography (visualizing genetic diversity within and divergence among populations) and species distribution modeling (using two different climate simulations) for the nine Triturus species on composite maps. Conclusions The combined use of species distribution modeling and mitochondrial phylogeography provides insight in the glacial contraction and postglacial expansion of Triturus. The combined use of the two independent techniques yields a more complete understanding of the historical biogeography of Triturus than both approaches would on their own. Triturus newts generally conform to the ‘southern richness and northern purity’ paradigm, but we also find more intricate patterns, such as the absence of genetic variation and suitable area at the Last Glacial Maximum (T. dobrogicus), an ‘extra-Mediterranean’ refugium in the Carpathian Basin (T. cristatus), and areas where species displaced one another postglacially (e.g. T. macedonicus and western T. karelinii). We provide a biogeographical scenario for Triturus, showing the positions of glacial refugia, the regions that were postglacially colonized and the areas where species displaced one another as they shifted their ranges. PMID:23514662

  10. Connecting Police Violence With Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Ashish; Nseyo, Onouwem; Jackson, Andrea V

    2017-01-01

    Since the police-involved deaths of Michael Brown and Freddie Gray, activists have argued for connecting police violence with reproductive justice. We argue that systematic violence, including police violence, should be evaluated in relation to reproductive health outcomes of individual patients and communities. Beyond emphasizing the relationship between violence and health outcomes, both qualitative and epidemiologic data can be used by activists and caregivers to effectively care for individuals from socially marginalized communities.

  11. Male Reproductive Proteins and Reproductive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Roberta B.; Grainger, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Male reproductive proteins (MRPs), associated with sperm and semen, are the moieties responsible for carrying male genes into the next generation. Evolutionary biologists have focused on their capacity to control conception. Immunologists have shown that MRPs cause female genital tract inflammation as preparatory for embryo implantation and placentation. These observations argue that MRPs are critically important to reproductive success. Yet, the impact of male reproductive proteins on obstetrical outcomes in women is largely unstudied. Epidemiologic and clinical observations suggest that shorter-duration exposure to MRPs prior to conception may elevate the risk for preeclampsia. A limited literature has also linked sexual behavior to bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth. We offer a clinical opinion that MRPs may have broad implications for successful reproduction, potentially involved in the composition of vaginal microflora, risks of preterm birth and preeclampsia, and success of assisted reproduction. PMID:18191798

  12. Male reproductive proteins and reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Grainger, David A

    2008-06-01

    Male reproductive proteins (MRPs), associated with sperm and semen, are the moieties responsible for carrying male genes into the next generation. Evolutionary biologists have focused on their capacity to control conception. Immunologists have shown that MRPs cause female genital tract inflammation as preparatory for embryo implantation and placentation. These observations argue that MRPs are critically important to reproductive success. Yet the impact of male reproductive proteins on obstetrical outcomes in women is largely unstudied. Epidemiologic and clinical observations suggest that shorter-duration exposure to MRPs prior to conception may elevate the risk for preeclampsia. A limited literature has also linked sexual behavior to bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth. We offer a clinical opinion that MRPs may have broad implications for successful reproduction, potentially involved in the composition of vaginal microflora, risks of preterm birth and preeclampsia, and success of assisted reproduction.

  13. Marx, Irigaray, and the politics of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Weinbaum, A E

    1994-01-01

    Both the concept and practice of reproduction have been newly configured, with reproductive labor assuming an abstract value as social labor and women around the globe work to produce baby commodities which enter the market along with other domestic and imported products. This situation dictates that surrogacy not be treated as an aberration. One must instead reconceptualize the maternal body as a reproductive resource and rethink the relationship between mother and fetus. This paper attempts to develop a materialist analysis of reproductive labor by offering a strategy for renarrativizing the mother. It briefly explains what feminists involved in the pro-abortion movement could gain by incorporating a Marxist understanding of reproductive labor as productive in the strictest sense, and then suggests, through an analysis of the work of Luce Irigaray, the simultaneous need for a self-reflexive renarrativization of the maternal body which may account for women's role as reproductive laborers. Sections are on reproduction, maternal as mimetic matrix, and reproductive ethics and sexual rights.

  14. Mastitis effects on reproductive performance in dairy cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narender; Manimaran, A; Kumaresan, A; Jeyakumar, S; Sreela, L; Mooventhan, P; Sivaram, M

    2017-04-01

    The reproductive performance of dairy animals is influenced by several factors, and accumulating lines of evidence indicate that mastitis is one of the determinants. Most of the published information relating mastitis with reproduction has evolved based on retrospective approach rather than controlled clinical studies. The complex nature of both mastitis and reproduction could be a limiting factor for understanding their relationship in detail. In this review, we analyzed the available retrospective studies on the effects of clinical mastitis on reproductive function and explained the possible mechanisms by which mastitis affects reproduction in dairy animals.

  15. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... SRS is a professional group of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies and groups. Reproductive Facts Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  16. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  17. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System A A ... the egg or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  18. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1500x1575 View Download Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive ...

  19. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System A A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  20. Genetic and pharmacological factors that influence reproductive aging in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stacie E; Evason, Kimberley; Xiong, Chengjie; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2007-02-16

    Age-related degenerative changes in the reproductive system are an important aspect of aging, because reproductive success is the major determinant of evolutionary fitness. Caenorhabditis elegans is a prominent organism for studies of somatic aging, since many factors that extend adult lifespan have been identified. However, mechanisms that control reproductive aging in nematodes or other animals are not well characterized. To use C. elegans to measure reproductive aging, we analyzed mated hermaphrodites that do not become sperm depleted and monitored the duration and level of progeny production. Mated hermaphrodites display a decline of progeny production that culminates in reproductive cessation before the end of the lifespan, demonstrating that hermaphrodites undergo reproductive aging. To identify factors that influence reproductive aging, we analyzed genetic, environmental, and pharmacological factors that extend lifespan. Dietary restriction and reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling delayed reproductive aging, indicating that nutritional status and a signaling pathway that responds to environmental stress influence reproductive aging. Cold temperature delayed reproductive aging. The anticonvulsant medicine ethosuximide, which affects neural activity, delayed reproductive aging, indicating that neural activity can influence reproductive aging. Some of these factors decrease early progeny production, but there is no consistent relationship between early progeny production and reproductive aging in strains with an extended lifespan. To directly examine the effects of early progeny production on reproductive aging, we used sperm availability to modulate the level of early reproduction. Early progeny production neither accelerated nor delayed reproductive aging, indicating that reproductive aging is not controlled by use-dependent mechanisms. The implications of these findings for evolutionary theories of aging are discussed.

  1. Molecular systematics and global phylogeography of angel sharks (genus Squatina).

    PubMed

    Stelbrink, Björn; von Rintelen, Thomas; Cliff, Geremy; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    Angel sharks of the genus Squatina represent a group comprising 22 extant benthic species inhabiting continental shelves and upper slopes. In the present study, a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of 17 Squatina species based on two mitochondrial markers (COI and 16S rRNA) is provided. The phylogenetic reconstructions are used to test biogeographic patterns. In addition, a molecular clock analysis is conducted to estimate divergence times of the emerged clades. All analyses show Squatina to be monophyletic. Four geographic clades are recognized, of which the Europe-North Africa-Asia clade is probably a result of the Tethys Sea closure. A second sister group relationship emerged in the analyses, including S. californica (eastern North Pacific) and S. dumeril (western North Atlantic), probably related to the rise of the Panamanian isthmus. The molecular clock analysis show that both lineage divergences coincide with the estimated time of these two geological events.

  2. The phylogeography of Amazonia revisited: new evidence from riodinid butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jason P W; Harvey, Donald J

    2002-07-01

    A fully resolved cladogram for 19 species in the Charis cleonus group of riodinid butterflies, which have closely parapatric ranges throughout the Amazon basin, is used to derive an area cladogram for the region. This represents the first comprehensive species-level analysis using insects and results in a hypothesis of Amazonian area relationships that is the most detailed to date. The Charis area cladogram is interpreted as supporting an historical vicariant split between the Guianas and the remainder of the Amazon and then between the upper and lower Amazon. The latter two clades can be further divided into the six most widely recognized areas of endemism and even smaller endemic centers within these, some of which, especially along the Madeira and lower Amazon Rivers, have never been previously hypothesized for butterflies. The overall pattern of historical interrelationships indicated is Guiana + ((Rondĵnia + (Pará + Belém)) + (Imeri + (Napo + Inambari))). The area relationships for riodinid butterflies show substantial congruence with those presented from the literature for amphibians, reptiles, birds, primates, rodents, and marsupials, suggesting a common vicariant history for these organisms. A summary area cladogram generated by combining area cladograms for all the aforementioned groups of organisms indicated the pattern of historical interrelationships to be (Guiana + (Rondĵnia + (Pará + Belém))) + (Imeri + (Napo + Inambari)). Charis cleonus group species distributions are noticeably larger around the upland periphery of Amazonia and smaller in the central and lower regions. A significant positive correlation between the proportion of range area above 100 m and total range size for each species is used to suggest that past sea-level rises may explain smaller range sizes in low-lying regions and that riverine barriers have been important in shaping the current distribution of C. cleonus group species.

  3. Mitochondrial phylogeography of baboons (Papio spp.): indication for introgressive hybridization?

    PubMed

    Zinner, Dietmar; Groeneveld, Linn F; Keller, Christina; Roos, Christian

    2009-04-23

    Baboons of the genus Papio are distributed over wide ranges of Africa and even colonized parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Traditionally, five phenotypically distinct species are recognized, but recent molecular studies were not able to resolve their phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, these studies revealed para- and polyphyletic (hereafter paraphyletic) mitochondrial clades for baboons from eastern Africa, and it was hypothesized that introgressive hybridization might have contributed substantially to their evolutionary history. To further elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among baboons, we extended earlier studies by analysing the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the 'Brown region' from 67 specimens collected at 53 sites, which represent all species and which cover most of the baboons' range. Based on phylogenetic tree reconstructions seven well supported major haplogroups were detected, which reflect geographic populations and discordance between mitochondrial phylogeny and baboon morphology. Our divergence age estimates indicate an initial separation into southern and northern baboon clades 2.09 (1.54-2.71) million years ago (mya). We found deep divergences between haplogroups within several species (~2 mya, northern and southern yellow baboons, western and eastern olive baboons and northern and southern chacma baboons), but also recent divergence ages among species (< 0.7 mya, yellow, olive and hamadryas baboons in eastern Africa). Our study confirms earlier findings for eastern Africa, but shows that baboon species from other parts of the continent are also mitochondrially paraphyletic. The phylogenetic patterns suggest a complex evolutionary history with multiple phases of isolation and reconnection of populations. Most likely all these biogeographic events were triggered by multiple cycles of expansion and retreat of savannah biomes during Pleistocene glacial and inter-glacial periods. During contact phases of populations reticulate

  4. Reproductive Medicine in Ferrets.

    PubMed

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, desexing is performed routinely in ferrets at the age of 6 weeks, therefore reproductive tract diseases are not so common. However, in Europe most ferrets are desexed when they are several months old, or they are kept as intact animals. For this reason, diseases of the reproductive organs and a prolonged estrus are far more frequent in Europe than in the United States. This article summarizes and reviews the anatomy, reproductive physiology, management of reproduction (including surgical and hormonal contraception) and reproductive tract diseases in male and female ferrets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of individual body size on reproductive traits in Melanopline grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Body size is a fundamental trait of an organism, affecting most aspects of its performance, including reproduction. Numerous biotic and environmental factors can influence individual body size and reproduction in grasshoppers. Using data from four experiments, I examined intraspecific relationships ...

  6. The relationship of maternal characteristics and circulating progesterone concentrations with reproductive outcome in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) after artificial insemination, with and without ovulation induction, and natural breeding.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Robeck, T R

    2012-08-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) undergoing natural breeding and artificial insemination (AI) were examined to characterize serum progesterone concentrations and determine relationships among age, parity, and reproductive outcome. Progesterone profiles of five cycle types (n = 119 total cycles from 54 animals) were characterized as follows: (i) conception and production of a live term calf (conceptive-term, n = 73); (ii) conception and abortion after Day 60 (conceptive-abortion, n = 12); (iii) unknown conception status with prolonged, elevated progesterone and absence of a fetus (conceptive-unknown, n = 14); (iv) conception failure with normal luteal phase progesterone concentrations (non-conceptive, n = 14, AI cycles only); and (v) conception failure with progesterone insufficiency occuring after spontaneous ovulation or owing to premature ovulation induction using GnRH (non-conceptive-PI, n = 6, AI cycles only). By Day 21 post-insemination (PI), progesterone concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) among conceptive-term, conceptive-abortion and conceptive-unknown, and higher (P < 0.05) for conceptive-term than non-conceptive and non-conceptive-PI cycles. Progesterone concentrations of known conceptive cycles peaked by Week 7 PI (P < 0.05) and remained elevated for the remainder of pregnancy (Weeks 8 up to 54, ≥ 5 days pre-partum). During midpregnancy (Days 121-240), conceptive-term cycles had higher (P > 0.05) progesterone concentrations than conceptive-abortion and unknown conception status cycles. Parity was not associated with reproductive outcome based on cycle type (P > 0.05). Age of females in conceptive-unknown (26.5 ± 10.1 yrs) and conceptive-abortion (22.1 ± 9.4 yrs) groups was higher (P < 0.05) than in conceptive-term (15.7 ± 7.2 yrs). The conceptive-unknown cycle type possibly represents undetected early embryonic loss occurring before Day 60 PI. Length of gestation using known conception dates was 376.1 ± 11.0 days and the range of this

  7. Phylogeography of chamois (Rupicapra spp.) inferred from microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Trinidad; Albornoz, Jesús; Domínguez, Ana

    2002-12-01

    Evolutionary relationships among populations of chamois (Rupicapra spp.) across their current range from the Caucasus to the Cantabrian Mountains were investigated. The allelic variation in 23 microsatellite loci was assessed in eight geographical populations, recognised as subspecies of the two closely related species R. pyrenaica and R. rupicapra. Analysis of variance in allele frequencies (Fst, statistics) and in repeat numbers (Rst, statistics) showed these data to be highly structured. Two genetic distances between pairs of populations, Ds and (deltamu)(2), were computed and phylogenetic trees were constructed. Similar patterns were produced by the different statistics. All trees indicate a deep divergence between the two recognised species, which is compatible with archaeological data that place their split in the Riss-Würm interglacial period. Genetic distances between pairs of populations are highly correlated with geographical distance. This suggests that the history of the genus during Pleistocene glacial-interglacial periods was dominated by expansions and contractions within limited geographic regions, leading to alternate contact and isolation of contiguous populations. In addition, the alpine barrier has played a substantial role in West-East differentiation.

  8. Molecular systematics, historical ecology, and phylogeography of Halimeda (Bryopsidales).

    PubMed

    Kooistra, Wiebe H C F; Coppejans, Eric G G; Payri, Claude

    2002-07-01

    Halimeda (Bryopsidales), a genus of calcified, segmented green seaweeds, abounds in reefs and lagoons throughout the tropics. To investigate phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and historic ecological relationships of the genus, the nuclear rDNA including the SSU and both ITS regions were sequenced. A maximum likelihood tree revealed the following: (1) there were anatomical and morphological synapomorphies for five well-supported lineages; (2) the last common ancestor of one lineage invaded sandy substrata; those of two other lineages established in wave-affected habitats, whereas the cenancestor of the remaining two lineages occupied sheltered rocky slopes. Yet, several species adapted to new habitats subsequently, resulting in several cases of convergence; (3) all lineages separated into Atlantic and Indo-Pacific daughters, likely resulting from the rise of the Panamanian Isthmus. Each daughter pair gave rise to additional convergent species in similar habitats in different oceans; (4) Halimeda opuntia, the only monophyletic pantropical species detected so far, dispersed from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic well after the closure event; (5) minor SSU-sequence differences across species and phylogeographic patterns of vicariance indicated a relatively recent diversification of the extant diversity. Cretaceous and Early Tertiary fossil look-alikes of modern species must then have resulted from iterative convergence.

  9. Phylogeography of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Talbot, S.L.; Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, Barbara J.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Using molecular genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution, we examined levels and partitioning of genetic variation for seven nominal subspecies (11 breeding populations) of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America. Gene trees constructed from mtDNA control region sequence data show that subspecies of Canada Geese do not have distinct mtDNA. Large- and small-bodied forms of Canada Geese were highly diverged (0. 077 average sequence divergence) and represent monophyletic groups. A majority (65%) of 20 haplotypes resolved were observed in single breeding locales. However, within both large- and small-bodied forms certain haplotypes occurred across multiple subspecies. Population trees for both nuclear (microsatellites) and mitochondrial markers were generally concordant and provide resolution of population and subspecific relationships indicating incomplete lineage sorting. All populations and subspecies were genetically diverged, but to varying degrees. Analyses of molecular variance, nested-clade and coalescence-based analyses of mtDNA suggest that both historical (past fragmentation) and contemporary forces have been important in shaping current spatial genetic distributions. Gene flow appears to be ongoing though at different rates, even among currently recognized subspecies. The efficacy of current subspecific taxonomy is discussed in light of hypothesized historical vicariance and current demographic trends of management and conservation concern.

  10. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  11. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  12. From reproductive choice to reproductive justice.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2009-08-01

    Since the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development, the human rights movement has embraced the concept of reproductive rights. These are often pursued, however, by means to which objection is taken. Some conservative political and religious forces continue to resist implementation of several means of protecting and advancing reproductive rights. Individuals' rights to grant and to deny consent to medical procedures affecting their reproductive health and confidentiality have been progressively advanced. However, access to contraceptive services, while not necessarily opposed, is unjustifiably obstructed in some settings. Rights to lawful abortion have been considerably liberalized by legislative and judicial decisions, although resistance remains. Courts are increasingly requiring that lawful services be accommodated under transparent conditions of access and of legal protection. The conflict between rights of resort to lawful reproductive health services and to conscientious objection to participation is resolved by legal duties to refer patients to non-objecting providers.

  13. Young women's reproductive health survey.

    PubMed

    Lewis, H

    1987-08-12

    A survey of reproductive health issues was conducted on 15 year old Hutt Valley secondary school girls by means of a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in the sample was 29%. Sixteen percent of the sexually active respondents used no method of contraception. Knowledge of reproductive health facts and contraception was poor both amongst sexually experienced and inexperienced respondents. Twenty-six percent relied on peers for this information, with mothers, teachers and books being other important sources cited. Respondents requested more information on sexually transmitted diseases, contraception and sexual relationships. Most would like this information more readily accessible. Preferred sources of information mentioned were: parents, books, films/videos, family planning clinics and friends.

  14. Microreact: visualizing and sharing data for genomic epidemiology and phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Argimón, Silvia; Abudahab, Khalil; Goater, Richard J. E.; Fedosejev, Artemij; Bhai, Jyothish; Glasner, Corinna; Feil, Edward J.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Yeats, Corin A.; Grundmann, Hajo; Spratt, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Visualization is frequently used to aid our interpretation of complex datasets. Within microbial genomics, visualizing the relationships between multiple genomes as a tree provides a framework onto which associated data (geographical, temporal, phenotypic and epidemiological) are added to generate hypotheses and to explore the dynamics of the system under investigation. Selected static images are then used within publications to highlight the key findings to a wider audience. However, these images are a very inadequate way of exploring and interpreting the richness of the data. There is, therefore, a need for flexible, interactive software that presents the population genomic outputs and associated data in a user-friendly manner for a wide range of end users, from trained bioinformaticians to front-line epidemiologists and health workers. Here, we present Microreact, a web application for the easy visualization of datasets consisting of any combination of trees, geographical, temporal and associated metadata. Data files can be uploaded to Microreact directly via the web browser or by linking to their location (e.g. from Google Drive/Dropbox or via API), and an integrated visualization via trees, maps, timelines and tables provides interactive querying of the data. The visualization can be shared as a permanent web link among collaborators, or embedded within publications to enable readers to explore and download the data. Microreact can act as an end point for any tool or bioinformatic pipeline that ultimately generates a tree, and provides a simple, yet powerful, visualization method that will aid research and discovery and the open sharing of datasets. PMID:28348833

  15. [The neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms of mammalian seasonal reproduction].

    PubMed

    Lai, Ping; Wang, Ping-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Chu, Ming-Xing; Liu, Chong-Xu; Tan, Ying; Fan, Qi

    2012-03-01

    The seasonal reproduction of mammal means the reproduction experiences an annual period from quiescence to renaissance. Studies have shown that kisspeptin and RFRP play an important role in the reproductive seasonality. The non-breeding season is characterized by an increase in the negative feedback effect of estrogen on GnRH, and this effect is transmitted by kisspeptin neurons, which may be an important factor affecting the reproduction activities. The expression of RFRP depends on melatonin secretion, and shows an apparent inhibition on reproduction in non-breeding season. In addition, thyroid hormones influence termination of the breeding season. Dopaminergic neuron A14/A15 also contributes to the seasonal changes in estrogen negative feedback. These neural systems may synergistically modulate the seasonal changes of reproductive function with the photoperiod. This review makes a systematic expatiation on the relationship between seasonal reproduction and these neural systems.

  16. Reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality: A sibling comparison analysis using Swedish register data.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron; Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kolk, Martin; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reproductive history influences post-reproductive mortality. A potential explanation for this association is confounding by socioeconomic status in the family of origin, as socioeconomic status is related to both fertility behaviours and to long-term health. We examine the relationship between age at first birth, completed parity, and post-reproductive mortality and address the potential confounding role of family of origin. We use Swedish population register data for men and women born 1932-1960, and examine both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The contributions of our study are the use of a sibling comparison design that minimizes residual confounding from shared family background characteristics and assessment of cause-specific mortality that can shed light on the mechanisms linking reproductive history to mortality. Our results were entirely consistent with previous research on this topic, with teenage first time parents having higher mortality, and the relationship between parity and mortality following a U-shaped pattern where childless men and women and those with five or more children had the highest mortality. These results indicate that selection into specific fertility behaviours based upon socioeconomic status and experiences within the family of origin does not explain the relationship between reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality. Additional analyses where we adjust for other lifecourse factors such as educational attainment, attained socioeconomic status, and post-reproductive marital history do not change the results. Our results add an important new level of robustness to the findings on reproductive history and mortality by showing that the association is robust to confounding by factors shared by siblings. However it is still uncertain whether reproductive history causally influences health, or whether other confounding factors such as childhood health or risk-taking propensity could

  17. Phylogeography sheds light on the central–marginal hypothesis in a Mediterranean narrow endemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Marine; Youssef, Sami; Migliore, Jérémy; Juin, Marianick; Médail, Frédéric; Baumel, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding the factors that shape variation in genetic diversity across the geographic ranges of species is an important challenge in the effort to conserve evolutionary processes sustaining biodiversity. The historical influences leading to a central–marginal organization of genetic diversity have been explored for species whose range is known to have expanded from refugia after glacial events. However, this question has rarely been addressed for Mediterranean endemic plants of azonal habitats such as rocky slopes or screes. In this context, this comprehensive study examined molecular and field data from Arenaria provincialis (Caryophyllaceae), a narrow endemic plant of south-eastern France. Methods Across the whole geographic range, an investigation was made of whether high levels of abundance and genetic diversity (estimated from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers) are centrally distributed, to evaluate the relevance of the central–marginal hypothesis. Phylogeographic patterns inferred from chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) were used, applying Bayesian methods to test the influence of past biogeographic events. Multivariate analysis combining phylogeographic and ecological data was used to reveal the historical and ecological distinctiveness of populations. Key Results Despite the narrow distribution of A. provincialis, a high level of nucleotide variation is found within cpDNA loci, supporting its persistence throughout the Pleistocene period. The area characterized by the highest genetic diversity is centrally located. Structured phylogeography and Bayesian factor analysis supported the hypothesis that the central area of the distribution was the source of both westward and eastward migrations, probably during arid periods of the Pleistocene, and more recently was a crossroads of backward migrations. By contrast, the two areas located today at the range limits are younger, have reduced genetic diversity and are marginal in the

  18. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  19. Going where traditional markers have not gone before: utility of and promise for RAD sequencing in marine invertebrate phylogeography and population genomics.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, A M; Herrera, S; Layden, M J; Martindale, M Q; Shank, T M

    2013-06-01

    Characterization of large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout a genome has the power to refine the understanding of population demographic history and to identify genomic regions under selection in natural populations. To this end, population genomic approaches that harness the power of next-generation sequencing to understand the ecology and evolution of marine invertebrates represent a boon to test long-standing questions in marine biology and conservation. We employed restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify SNPs in natural populations of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, an emerging cnidarian model with a broad geographic range in estuarine habitats in North and South America, and portions of England. We identified hundreds of SNP-containing tags in thousands of RAD loci from 30 barcoded individuals inhabiting four locations from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Population genomic analyses using high-confidence SNPs resulted in a highly-resolved phylogeography, a result not achieved in previous studies using traditional markers. Plots of locus-specific FST against heterozygosity suggest that a majority of polymorphic sites are neutral, with a smaller proportion suggesting evidence for balancing selection. Loci inferred to be under balancing selection were mapped to the genome, where 90% were located in gene bodies, indicating potential targets of selection. The results from analyses with and without a reference genome supported similar conclusions, further highlighting RAD-seq as a method that can be efficiently applied to species lacking existing genomic resources. We discuss the utility of RAD-seq approaches in burgeoning Nematostella research as well as in other cnidarian species, particularly corals and jellyfishes, to determine phylogeographic relationships of populations and identify regions of the genome undergoing selection.

  20. Evolution and Conservation on Top of the World: Phylogeography of the Marbled Water Frog (Telmatobius marmoratus Species Complex; Anura, Telmatobiidae) in Protected Areas of Chile.

    PubMed

    Victoriano, Pedro F; Muñoz-Mendoza, Carla; Sáez, Paola A; Salinas, Hugo F; Muñoz-Ramírez, Carlos; Sallaberry, Michel; Fibla, Pablo; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    The Andean Altiplano has served as a complex setting throughout its history, driving dynamic processes of diversification in several taxa. We investigated phylogeographic processes in the Telmatobius marmoratus species complex occurring in this region by studying the geographic patterns of genetic variability, genealogies, and historical migration, using the cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene as a marker. DNA sequences from Telmatobius gigas and Telmatobius culeus, Bolivian species with an uncertain taxonomic status, were also included. Additionally, we evaluated the phylogenetic diversity (PD) represented within Chilean protected areas and the complementary contribution from unprotected populations. Phylogenetic reconstructions from 148 cyt-b sequences revealed 4 main clades, one of which corresponded to T. culeus. T. gigas was part of T. marmoratus clade indicating paraphyletic relationships. Haplotypes from Chilean and Bolivian sites were not reciprocally monophyletic. Geographic distribution of lineages, spatial Bayesian analysis, and migration patterns indicated that T. marmoratus displays a weaker geographic structure than expected based on habitat distribution and physiological requirements. Demographic and statistical phylogeography analyses pointed out to a scenario of recent population expansion and high connectivity events of a more recent age than the post Last Glacial Maximum, probably associated to more humid events in Altiplano. PD of T. marmoratus populations within protected areas represents 55.6% of the total estimated PD. The unprotected populations that would contribute the most to PD are Caquena and Quebe (21%). Recent evolutionary processes and paleoclimatic changes, potentially driving shifts in habitat connectivity levels and population sizes, could explain the phylogeographic patterns recovered herein. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Reproductive rights and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Oliviera, R D

    1994-01-01

    Rosiska Darcy Oliviera, Executive Secretary of the Coalition of Brazilian Women from Non-governmental Organizations for Population and Environment, stresses the need to view population control as a political problem rather than just a technical problem of demographic organization. At present, science, technology, and capital separate the work in much the same way that the master slave relationship of colonialist times did. The vast majority of the excluded are from developing countries in the South and, from a market perspective, these outcasts serve no purpose to global processes. Relegated to the margins of society, outcasts are often forced to turn to illegal activities such as drug trafficking and prostitution to survive, and these behaviors are used to bolster racist ideology. Improving the quality of life for all men and women requires a global alliance to overcome this social apartheid. If women are to exercise their reproductive rights, women's health programs must extend their focus beyond contraception to include education that empowers women to make real choices and a material base that permits access to a spectrum of safe methods.

  2. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Amat, Francisco; Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Since Darwin’s time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs), and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data) in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA) to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (ΦST of 0.92), indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern). RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result in substantial

  3. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF A HOLARCTIC NEMATODE: SOBOLIPHYME BATURINI AMONG MUSTELIDS: CLIMATE CHANGE, EPISODIC COLONIZATION AND DIVERSIFICATION IN A COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    : Phylogeography of Soboliphyme baturini, a nematode parasite in mustelids, is explored across Beringia. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were evaluated from 38 individuals representing 19 lo...

  4. Introduction: Microbiome in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has been termed the "second human genome" and data that has come about of late certainly makes it appear every bit as complex. The human body contains 10-fold more microbial cells than the human cells and accounts for 1%-3% of our total body mass. As we learn more about this symbiotic relationship, it appears this complex interaction occurs in nearly every part of the body, even those areas at one time considered to be sterile. Indeed, the microbiome in human reproduction has been investigated in terms of both the lower and upper reproductive tract and includes interactions even at the point of gametogenesis. What is all the more fascinating is that we have known about the importance of microbes for over 150 years, even before they existed in name. And now, with the assistance of an exciting technologic revolution which has pushed forward our understanding of the microbiome, we appear to stand on the precipice of a higher level of understanding of microbes, the biofilms they create, and their impact of health and disease in human reproduction.

  5. Next-Generation Phylogeography: A Targeted Approach for Multilocus Sequencing of Non-Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Puritz, Jonathan B.; Addison, Jason A.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The field of phylogeography has long since realized the need and utility of incorporating nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences into analyses. However, the use of nDNA sequence data, at the population level, has been hindered by technical laboratory difficulty, sequencing costs, and problematic analytical methods dealing with genotypic sequence data, especially in non-model organisms. Here, we present a method utilizing the 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing platform with the capacity to simultaneously sequence two species of sea star (Meridiastra calcar and Parvulastra exigua) at five different nDNA loci across 16 different populations of 20 individuals each per species. We compare results from 3 populations with traditional Sanger sequencing based methods, and demonstrate that this next-generation sequencing platform is more time and cost effective and more sensitive to rare variants than Sanger based sequencing. A crucial advantage is that the high coverage of clonally amplified sequences simplifies haplotype determination, even in highly polymorphic species. This targeted next-generation approach can greatly increase the use of nDNA sequence loci in phylogeographic and population genetic studies by mitigating many of the time, cost, and analytical issues associated with highly polymorphic, diploid sequence markers. PMID:22470543

  6. Human-aided dispersal has altered but not erased the phylogeography of the tench

    PubMed Central

    Lajbner, Zdeněk; Linhart, Otomar; Kotlík, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Human-aided dispersal can result in phylogeographic patterns that do not reflect natural historical processes, particularly in species prone to intentional translocations by humans. Here, we use a multiple-gene sequencing approach to assess the effects of human-aided dispersal on phylogeography of the tench Tinca tinca, a widespread Eurasian freshwater fish with a long history in aquaculture. Spatial genetic analysis applied to sequence data from four unlinked loci and 67 geographic localities (38–382 gene copies per locus) defined two groups of populations that were little structured geographically but were significantly differentiated from each other, and it identified locations of major genetic breaks, which were concordant across genes and were driven by distributions of two phylogroups. This pattern most reasonably reflects isolation in two major glacial refugia and subsequent range expansions, with the Eastern and Western phylogroups remaining largely allopatric throughout the tench range. However, this phylogeographic variation was also present in all 17 cultured breeds studied, and some populations at the western edge of the native range contained the Eastern phylogroup. Thus, natural processes have played an important role in structuring tench populations, but human-aided dispersal has also contributed significantly, with the admixed genetic composition of cultured breeds most likely contributing to the introgression. PMID:25568004

  7. Pangaea and the Out-of-Africa Model of Varicella-Zoster Virus Evolution and Phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this minireview is to provide an overview of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) phylogenetics and phylogeography when placed in the broad context of geologic time. Planet Earth was formed over 4 billion years ago, and the supercontinent Pangaea coalesced around 400 million years ago (mya). Based on detailed tree-building models, the base of the phylogenetic tree of the Herpesviridae family has been estimated at 400 mya. Subsequently, Pangaea split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland; in turn, Africa rifted from Gondwanaland. Based on available data, the hypothesis of this minireview is that the ancestral alphaherpesvirus VZV coevolved in simians, apes, and hominins in Africa. When anatomically modern humans first crossed over the Red Sea 60,000 years ago, VZV was carried along in their dorsal root ganglia. Currently, there are five VZV clades, distinguishable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. These clades likely represent continued VZV coevolution, as humans with latent VZV infection left Arabia and dispersed into Asia (clades 2 and 5) and Europe (clades 1, 3, and 4). The prototype VZV sequence contains nearly 125,000 bp, divided into 70 open reading frames. Generally, isolates within a clade display >99.9% identity to one another, while members of one clade compared to a second clade show 99.8% identity to one another. Recently, four different VZV genotypes that do not segregate into the previously defined five clades have been identified, a result indicating a wider than anticipated diversity among newly collected VZV strains around the world. PMID:22761371

  8. Chloroplast DNA Phylogeography of Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil “Tulsi”, is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5 × 10−4. However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km2 encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting. PMID:24523650

  9. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Bast, Felix; Rani, Pooja; Meena, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil "Tulsi", is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5 × 10(-4). However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km(2) encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting.

  10. Phylogeography of Rickettsia rickettsii genotypes associated with fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Denison, Amy M; Lash, R Ryan; Liu, Lindy; Bollweg, Brigid C; Dahlgren, F Scott; Kanamura, Cristina T; Angerami, Rodrigo N; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana C; Brasil Martines, Roosecelis; Karpathy, Sandor E

    2014-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the deadliest of all infectious diseases. To identify the distribution of various genotypes of R. rickettsii associated with fatal RMSF, we applied molecular typing methods to samples of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at autopsy from 103 case-patients from seven countries who died of RMSF. Complete sequences of one or more intergenic regions were amplified from tissues of 30 (29%) case-patients and revealed a distribution of genotypes consisting of four distinct clades, including the Hlp clade, regarded previously as a non-pathogenic strain of R. rickettsii. Distinct phylogeographic patterns were identified when composite case-patient and reference strain data were mapped to the state and country of origin. The phylogeography of R. rickettsii is likely determined by ecological and environmental factors that exist independently of the distribution of a particular tick vector. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Iteration expansion and regional evolution: phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four related taxa in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Beiwei; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Yusi; Niu, Zhitao; Xue, Qingyun; Ding, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    The genus Dendrobium was used as a case study to elucidate the evolutionary history of Orchidaceae in the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) and Southeast Asia region. These evolutionary histories remain largely unknown, including the temporal and spatial distribution of the evolutionary events. The present study used nuclear and plastid DNA to determine the phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four closely related taxa. Plastid DNA haplotype and nuclear data were shown to be discordant, suggesting reticulate evolution drove the species’ diversification. Rapid radiation and genetic drift appeared to drive the evolution of D. tosaense and D. flexicaule, whereas introgression or hybridization might have been involved in the evolution of D. scoriarum and D. shixingense. The phylogeographical structure of D. officinale revealed that core natural distribution regions might have served as its glacial refuges. In recent years, human disturbances caused its artificial migration and population extinction. The five taxa may have originated from the Nanling Mountains and the Yungui Plateau and then migrated northward or eastward. After the initial iteration expansion, D. officinale populations appeared to experience the regional evolutionary patterns in different regions and follow the sequential or rapid decline in gene exchange. PMID:28262789

  12. A primer on the phylogeography of Lagothrix lagotricha (sensu Fooden) in northern South America.

    PubMed

    Botero, Sergio; Stevenson, Pablo R; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic history of the genus Lagothrix is complex, with molecular and morphological assessments giving conflicting results for the separation between its taxa. Phylogeographic studies of the most widely distributed species, Lagothrix lagotricha, have only been attempted recently and are limited to few individuals per collection site, many of which were captive making their geographical origin dubious. There is debate regarding the possibility of raising subspecies of Lagothrix lagotricha to the species level, therefore the geographical origin of samples is particularly relevant. In the present work we revisit the intraspecific phylogeography of L. lagotricha from northwestern South America, including the subspecies L. l. poeppiggi, L. l. lagotricha and L. l. lugens (sensu Fooden, 1963), using DNA sequence data from hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial control region (D-loop HVI). Our results suggest a complex picture in which there are well delimited evolutionary units that, nonetheless, do not correlate well with the morphological variation used to support the current delimitation of taxa. Additionally, we corroborate previous results showing a lack of reciprocal monophyly between the putative subspecies of Lagothrix lagotricha, and we propose that this may be due to ancestral polymorphism that has been maintained following the recent spread of woolly monkeys throughout the western Amazonian lowlands and into the inter-Andean region of Colombia.

  13. Chloroplast sequence of treegourd (Crescentia cujete, Bignoniaceae) to study phylogeography and domestication1

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Priscila Ambrósio; Mariac, Cédric; Scarcelli, Nora; Couderc, Marie; Rodrigues, Doriane Picanço; Clement, Charles R.; Vigouroux, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae) fruit rinds are traditionally used for storage vessels and handicrafts. We assembled its chloroplast genome and identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods and Results: Using a genome skimming approach, the whole chloroplast of C. cujete was assembled using 3,106,928 sequence reads of 150 bp. The chloroplast is 154,662 bp in length, structurally divided into a large single copy region (84,788 bp), a small single copy region (18,299 bp), and two inverted repeat regions (51,575 bp) with 88 genes annotated. By resequencing the whole chloroplast, we identified 66 SNPs in C. cujete (N = 30) and 68 SNPs in C. amazonica (N = 6). Nucleotide diversity was estimated at 1.1 × 10−3 and 3.5 × 10−3 for C. cujete and C. amazonica, respectively. Conclusions: This broadened C. cujete genetic toolkit will be important to study the origin, domestication, diversity, and phylogeography of treegourds in the Neotropics. PMID:27785381

  14. Comparative phylogeography of the wild-rice genus Zizania (Poaceae) in eastern Asia and North America.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Wei; Wu, Jin-Wei; Qi, Mei-Xia; Lu, Qi-Xiang; Lee, Peter F; Lutz, Sue; Ge, Song; Wen, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Comparative phylogeography of intercontinental disjunct taxa allowed us not only to elucidate their diversification and evolution following geographic isolation, but also to understand the effect of climatic and geological histories on the evolutionary processes of closely related species. A phylogeographic analysis was conducted on the eastern Asian-North American disjunct genus Zizania to compare intracontinental phylogeographic patterns between different continents. Surveys were conducted of 514 individuals using three chloroplast DNA fragments and three nuclear microsatellite loci. These individuals included 246 from 45 populations of Zizania latifolia in eastern Asia, and the following from North America: 154 individuals from 26 populations of Z. aquatica, 84 individuals from 14 populations of Z. palustris, and 30 individuals from one population of Z. texana. The genetic diversity of North American Zizania was significantly higher than that of eastern Asian Zizania. High levels of genetic differentiation among populations and no signal of population expansion were detected in three widespread species. No phylogeographic structure was observed in Z. latifolia, and discordant patterns of cpDNA and microsatellite markers were observed in North American Zizania. Reduced variation in Zizania latifolia likely reflects its perennial life history, the North American origin of Zizania, and the relative homogeneity of aquatic environments. High levels of genetic differentiation suggest limited dispersal among populations in all Zizania species. The more complex patterns of diversification and evolution in North American Zizania may be driven by the greater impact of glaciation in North America relative to eastern Asia. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  15. Multilocus phylogeography reveals nested endemism in a gecko across the monsoonal tropics of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, C; Fujita, M K; Rosauer, D; Agudo, R; Bourke, G; Doughty, P; Palmer, R; Pepper, M; Potter, S; Pratt, R; Scott, M; Tonione, M; Donnellan, S

    2016-03-01

    Multilocus phylogeography can uncover taxonomically unrecognized lineage diversity across complex biomes. The Australian monsoonal tropics include vast, ecologically intact savanna-woodland plains interspersed with ancient sandstone uplands. Although recognized in general for its high species richness and endemism, the biodiversity of the region remains underexplored due to its remoteness. This is despite a high rate of ongoing species discovery, especially in wetter regions and for rock-restricted taxa. To provide a baseline for ongoing comparative analyses, we tested for phylogeographic structure in an ecologically generalized and widespread taxon, the gecko Heteronotia binoei. We apply coalescent analyses to multilocus sequence data (mitochondrial DNA and eight nuclear DNA introns) from individuals sampled extensively and at fine scale across the region. The results demonstrate surprisingly deep and geographically nested lineage diversity. Several intra-specific clades previously shown to be endemic to the region were themselves found to contain multiple, short-range lineages. To infer landscapes with concentrations of unique phylogeographic diversity, we probabilistically estimate the ranges of lineages from point data and then, combining these estimates with the nDNA species tree, estimate phyloendemism across the region. Highest levels of phyloendemism occur in northern Top End, especially on islands, across the topographically complex Arnhem escarpment, and across the sandstone ranges of the western Gulf region. These results drive home that deep phylogeographic structure is prevalent in tropical low-dispersal taxa, even ones that are ubiquitous across geography and habitats. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Phylogeography of declining relict and lowland leopard frogs in the desert Southwest of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olah-Hemmings, V.; Jaeger, J.R.; Sredl, M.J.; Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Jennings, R.D.; Drost, C.A.; Bradford, D.F.; Riddle, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog Rana onca (=Lithobates onca) and lowland leopard frog Rana yavapaiensis (=Lithobates yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of south-western North America. We used sequence data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to assess 276 individuals representing 30 sites from across current distributions. Our analysis supports a previously determined phylogenetic break between these taxa, and we found no admixing of R. onca and R. yavapaiensis haplotypes within our extensive sampling of sites. Our phylogeographic assessment, however, further divided R. yavapaiensis into two distinct mtDNA lineages, one representing populations across Arizona and northern Mexico and the other a newly discovered population within the western Grand Canyon, Arizona. Estimates of sequence evolution indicate a possible Early Pleistocene divergence of R. onca and R. yavapaiensis, followed by a Middle Pleistocene separation of the western Grand Canyon population of R. yavapaiensis from the main R. yavapaiensis clade. Phylogeographic and demographic analyses indicate population or range expansion for R. yavapaiensis within its core distribution that appears to predate the latest glacial maximum. Species distribution models under current and latest glacial climatic conditions suggest that R. onca and R. yavapaiensis may not have greatly shifted ranges.

  17. Phylogeography of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) in the Japanese Archipelago based on chloroplast DNA haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuko; Ito, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Sakio, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Wajiro; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata: Hippocastanaceae) is one of the typical woody plants that grow in temperate riparian forests in the Japanese Archipelago. To analyze the phylogeography of this plant in the Japanese Archipelago, we determined cpDNA haplotypes for 337 samples from 55 populations covering the entire distribution range. Based on 1,313 bp of two spacers, we determined ten haplotypes that are distinguished from adjacent haplotypes by one or two steps. Most of the populations had a single haplotype, suggesting low diversity. Spatial analysis of molecular variance suggested three obvious phylogeographic structures in western Japan, where Japanese horse chestnut is scattered and isolated in mountainous areas. Conversely, no clear phylogeographic structure was observed from the northern to the southern limit of this species, including eastern Japan, where this plant is more common. Rare and private haplotypes were also found in southwestern Japan, where Japanese horse chestnuts are distributed sparsely. These findings imply that western Japan might have maintained a relatively large habitat for A. turbinata during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, while northerly regions could not.

  18. Phylogeography Study of Ammodytes personatus in Northwestern Pacific: Pleistocene Isolation, Temperature and Current Conducted Secondary Contact

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhiqiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Zhang, Yaping; Gao, Tianxiang

    2012-01-01

    To assess the role of historical process and contemporary factors in shaping population structures in Northwestern Pacific, mitochondrial control region sequences were analyzed to characterize the phylogeography and population structure of the Japanese sand lance Ammodytes personatus. A total of 429 individuals sampled from 17 populations through the species' range are sequenced. Two distinct lineages are detected, which might have been divergent in the Sea of Japan and Pacific costal waters of Japanese Island, during the low sea level. Significant genetic structure is revealed between the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. However, significant genetic structure is also detected in the Sea of Japan, contracting expected homogenization hypothesis in Tsushima Current. The haplotype frequency of lineages in both sides of Japanese Island and significant genetic structure between north and south groups revealed that the distribution of lineage B and north group were highly limited by the annual sea temperature. The lack of lineage B in Qingdao population with low sea temperature reflects the sea temperature barrier. Lack of genetic structure in the south group and north group populations indicated that ocean currents within groups facilitated the dispersal of A. personatus. PMID:22685527

  19. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mynhardt, Samantha; Maree, Sarita; Pelser, Illona; Bennett, Nigel C.; Bronner, Gary N.; Wilson, John W.; Bloomer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus) endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5–3 million years ago (Ma), habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity. PMID:26683828

  20. Phylogeography and Demographic History of Babina pleuraden (Anura, Ranidae) in Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

    2012-01-01

    Factors that determine genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and cyt b) were determined to investigate the phylogeography and demography of Babina pleuraden, a pond frog endemic to southwestern China. A total of 262 individuals from 22 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. Our results indicate that B. pleuraden comprises five well-supported mitochondrial lineages roughly corresponding to five geographical areas. The phylogeographic structure of B. pleuraden has been shaped primarily by the unique regional responses of the Yunnan Plateau to the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau occurred c. 2.5 Mya (B phrase of Qingzang Movement) and climatic oscillation during middle Pleistocene (c. 0.64–0.36 Mya), rather than by the paleo-drainage systems. The present wide distribution of the species has resulted from recent population expansion (c. 0.053–0.025 Mya) from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, corresponding to the scenario of “refugia within refugia”. PMID:22448286

  1. Phylogeography and demographic history of Babina pleuraden (Anura, Ranidae) in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zejun; Yu, Guohua; Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

    2012-01-01

    Factors that determine genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and cyt b) were determined to investigate the phylogeography and demography of Babina pleuraden, a pond frog endemic to southwestern China. A total of 262 individuals from 22 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. Our results indicate that B. pleuraden comprises five well-supported mitochondrial lineages roughly corresponding to five geographical areas. The phylogeographic structure of B. pleuraden has been shaped primarily by the unique regional responses of the Yunnan Plateau to the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau occurred c. 2.5 Mya (B phrase of Qingzang Movement) and climatic oscillation during middle Pleistocene (c. 0.64-0.36 Mya), rather than by the paleo-drainage systems. The present wide distribution of the species has resulted from recent population expansion (c. 0.053-0.025 Mya) from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, corresponding to the scenario of "refugia within refugia".

  2. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography reveals colonization history of a Neotropical tree, Cedrela odorata L., in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Cavers, S; Navarro, C; Lowe, A J

    2003-06-01

    Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) is a globally important timber species which has been severely exploited in Mesoamerica for over 200 years. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms, its chloroplast (cp) DNA phylogeography was studied in Mesoamerica with samples from 29 populations in six countries. Five haplotypes were characterized, phylogenetically grouped into three lineages (Northern, Central and Southern). Spatial analysis of ordered genetic distance confirmed deviation from a pattern of isolation by distance. The geographically proximate Northern and Central cpDNA lineages were genetically the most differentiated, with the Southern lineage appearing between them on a minimum spanning tree. However, populations possessing Southern lineage haplotypes occupy distinct moist habitats, in contrast to populations possessing Northern and Central lineage haplotypes which occupy drier and more seasonal habitats. Given the known colonization of the proto-Mesoamerican peninsula by South American flora and fauna prior to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, it seems most likely that the observed population structure in C. odorata results from repeated colonization of Mesoamerica from South American source populations. Such a model would imply an ancient, pre-Isthmian colonization of a dry-adapted type (possessing the Northern lineage or a prototype thereof), with a secondary colonization via the land bridge. Following this, a more recent (possibly post-Pleistocene) expansion of moist-adapted types possessing the Southern lineage from the south fits the known vegetation history of the region.

  3. Phylogeography and population genetics of the endangered Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia, Sirenia).

    PubMed

    Cantanhede, Andréa Martins; Da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves-Gomes, José

    2005-02-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to examine phylogeography and population differentiation of the endangered Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis. We observe lack of molecular differentiation among localities and we find weak association between geographical and genetic distances. However, nested clade analysis supports restricted gene flow and/or dispersal with some long-distance dispersal. Although this species has a history of extensive hunting, genetic diversity and effective population sizes are relatively high when compared to the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus. Patterns of mtDNA haplotype diversity in T. inunguis suggest a genetic disequilibrium most likely explained by demographic expansion resulting from secession of hunting and enforcement of conservation and protective measures. Phylogenetic analysis of T. manatus and T. inunguis haplotypes suggests that T. inunguis is nested within T. manatus, effectively making T. manatus a paraphyletic entity. Paraphyly of T. manatus and recent divergence times of T. inunguis and the three main T. manatus lineages suggest a possible need for a taxonomic re-evaluation of the western Atlantic Trichechus.

  4. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shields, Gerald F.; Adams, Deborah; Garner, Gerald W.; Labelle, Martine; Pietsch, Jacy; Ramsay, Malcolm; Schwartz, Charles; Titus, Kimberly; Williamson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples.

  5. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Shan; Liu, Hsiao-Lei; Moncada, Ximena; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2015-11-03

    The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17-carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the "out of Taiwan" hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China "into North Taiwan," the "out of South China-Indochina" expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania.

  6. Diversity despite dispersal: colonization history and phylogeography of Hawaiian crab spiders inferred from multilocus genetic data.

    PubMed

    Garb, Jessica E; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2009-04-01

    The Hawaiian archipelago is often cited as the premier setting to study biological diversification, yet the evolution and phylogeography of much of its biota remain poorly understood. We investigated crab spiders (Thomisidae, Mecaphesa) that demonstrate contradictory tendencies: (i) dramatic ecological diversity within the Hawaiian Islands, and (ii) accompanying widespread distribution of many species across the archipelago. We used mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data sampled across six islands to generate phylogenetic hypotheses for Mecaphesa species and populations, and included penalized likelihood molecular clock analyses to estimate arrival times on the different islands. We found that 17 of 18 Hawaiian Mecaphesa species were monophyletic and most closely related to thomisids from the Marquesas and Society Islands. Our results indicate that the Hawaiian species evolved from either one or two colonization events to the archipelago. Estimated divergence dates suggested that thomisids may have colonized the Hawaiian Islands as early as ~10 million years ago, but biogeographic analyses implied that the initial diversification of this group was restricted to the younger island of Oahu, followed by back-colonizations to older islands. Within the Hawaiian radiation, our data revealed several well-supported genetically distinct terminal clades corresponding to species previously delimited by morphological taxonomy. Many of these species are codistributed across multiple Hawaiian Islands and some exhibit genetic structure consistent with stepwise colonization of islands following their formation. These results indicate that dispersal has been sufficiently limited to allow extensive ecological diversification, yet frequent enough that interisland migration is more common than speciation.

  7. Global phylogeography of the band-rumped storm-petrel (Oceanodroma castro; Procellariiformes: Hydrobatidae).

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrea L; Monteiro, Luis; Hasegawa, Osamu; Friesen, Vicki L

    2007-06-01

    Factors shaping population differentiation in low latitude seabirds are not well-understood. In this study, we examined global patterns of DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region of the band-rumped storm-petrel (Oceanodroma castro), a highly pelagic seabird distributed across the sub-tropical and tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Despite previous classification as a single, monotypic species, fixed haplotype differences occurred between Atlantic and Pacific populations, and among all Pacific populations. In addition, Cape Verde and Galapagos birds formed distinct clades, estimated to have diverged from all other populations at least 150,000years ago. Azores hot season populations were also genetically distinct, lending support to previous phenotypic evidence that they be recognized as a separate species. Seasonal populations in Madeira probably represent separate genetic management units. The phylogeography of the band-rumped storm-petrel appears to have been shaped by both nonphysical barriers to gene flow and Pleistocene oceanographic conditions. Ancestral populations likely expanded through contiguous range expansion and infrequent long-distance colonization into their current breeding range. These findings suggest several possible revisions to the taxonomy of the band-rumped storm-petrel.

  8. Comparative Phylogeography in Fijian Coral Reef Fishes: A Multi-Taxa Approach towards Marine Reserve Design

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Joshua A.; Barber, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, Φst = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis Φst = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity. PMID:23118892

  9. Phylogeography of the montane caddisfly Drusus discolor: evidence for multiple refugia and periglacial survival.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Steffen U; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Haase, Peter

    2006-07-01

    We studied the genetic population structure and phylogeography of the montane caddisfly Drusus discolor across its entire range in central and southern Europe. The species is restricted to mountain regions and exhibits an insular distribution across the major mountain ranges. Mitochondrial sequence data (COI) of 254 individuals from the entire species range is analysed to reveal population genetic structure. The data show little molecular variation within populations and regions, but distinct genetic differentiation between mountain ranges. Most populations are significantly differentiated based on F(ST) and exact tests of population differentiation and most haplotypes are unique to a single mountain range. Phylogenetic analyses reveal deep divergence between geographically isolated lineages. Combined, these results suggest that past fragmentation is the prominent process structuring the populations across Europe. We use tests of selective neutrality and mismatch distributions, to study the demographic population history of regions with haplotype overlap. The high level of genetic differentiation between mountain ranges and estimates of demographic history provide evidence for the existence of multiple glacial refugia, including several in central Europe. The study shows that these aquatic organisms reacted differently to Pleistocene cooling than many terrestrial species. They persisted in numerous refugia over multiple glacial cycles, allowing many local endemic clades to form.

  10. Determination of biogeographical range: an application of molecular phylogeography to the European pool frog Rana lessonae.

    PubMed Central

    Zeisset, I.; Beebee, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    Understanding how species are constrained within their biogeographical ranges is a central problem in evolutionary ecology. Essential prerequisites for addressing this question include accurate determinations of range borders and of the genetic structures of component populations. Human translocation of organisms to sites outside their natural range is one factor that increasingly complicates this issue. In areas not far beyond presumed natural range margins it can be particularly difficult to determine whether a species is native or has been introduced. The pool frog (Rana lessonae) in Britain is a specific example of this dilemma . We used variation at six polymorphic microsatellite loci for investigating the phylogeography of R. lessonae and establishing the affinities of specimens from British populations. The existence and distribution of a distinct northern clade of this species in Norway, Sweden and England infer that it is probably a long-standing native of Britain, which should therefore be included within its natural range. This conclusion was further supported by posterior probability estimates using Bayesian clustering. The phylogeographical analysis revealed unexpected patterns of genetic differentiation across the range of R. lessonae that highlighted the importance of historical colonization events in range structuring. PMID:11370966

  11. Phylogeography and support vector machine classification of colour variation in panther chameleons.

    PubMed

    Grbic, Djordje; Saenko, Suzanne V; Randriamoria, Toky M; Debry, Adrien; Raselimanana, Achille P; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2015-07-01

    Lizards and snakes exhibit colour variation of adaptive value for thermoregulation, camouflage, predator avoidance, sexual selection and speciation. Furcifer pardalis, the panther chameleon, is one of the most spectacular reptilian endemic species in Madagascar, with pronounced sexual dimorphism and exceptionally large intraspecific variation in male coloration. We perform here an integrative analysis of molecular phylogeography and colour variation after collecting high-resolution colour photographs and blood samples from 324 F. pardalis individuals in locations spanning the whole species distribution. First, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence analyses uncover strong genetic structure among geographically restricted haplogroups, revealing limited gene flow among populations. Bayesian coalescent modelling suggests that most of the mitochondrial haplogroups could be considered as separate species. Second, using a supervised multiclass support vector machine approach on five anatomical components, we identify patterns in 3D colour space that efficiently predict assignment of male individuals to mitochondrial haplogroups. We converted the results of this analysis into a simple visual classification key that can assist trade managers to avoid local population overharvesting.

  12. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mynhardt, Samantha; Maree, Sarita; Pelser, Illona; Bennett, Nigel C; Bronner, Gary N; Wilson, John W; Bloomer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus) endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5-3 million years ago (Ma), habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity.

  13. Phylogeography of a morphologically diverse Neotropical montane species, the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus).

    PubMed

    Weir, Jason T; Bermingham, Eldredge; Miller, Matthew J; Klicka, John; González, Maribel A

    2008-05-01

    The Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus) is distributed in Neotropical cloud-forests from Mexico to Argentina and contains 25 subspecies divided into eight subspecies groups based on biogeography, eye coloration, presence of a postocular spot and chest band. All of Central America is occupied by a single subspecies group; whereas the Andes are believed to be occupied by seven additional subspecies groups. We used five mitochondrial genes to investigate the phylogeography and possible species limits of the ophthalmicus complex. A total of 14 monophyletic lineages were uncovered within the ophthalmicus complex, including three clades currently classified as separate species (C. semifuscus, inornatus and tacarcunae). Divergence estimates for these clades date between 0.8 and 5.2 million years ago (Ma). Contrary to expectations based on morphological diversity, phylogeographic structure was greatest in Mexico and Central America and weakest in the Andes. Morphological and genetic divergences were not significantly correlated and most morphologically defined subspecies groups were not supported. Our evidence suggests the ophthalmicus complex originated in Mexico ca. 6.0 Ma (million years ago) and spread south into the Andes ca. 4.7 Ma before the completion of the Isthmus of Panama. Three genetically divergent lineages of ophthalmicus that formed in the Andes possess a complex checkerboard distribution, with a single lineage represented by disjunct populations from Venezuela and the southern Andes, while intervening populations in Ecuador and Central Peru form two genetically and morphologically divergent lineages.

  14. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears.

    PubMed

    Shields, G F; Adams, D; Garner, G; Labelle, M; Pietsch, J; Ramsay, M; Schwartz, C; Titus, K; Williamson, S

    2000-05-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. The phylogeography of the darkling beetle, Hegeter politus, in the eastern Canary Islands.

    PubMed Central

    Juan, C; Ibrahim, K M; Oromí, P; Hewitt, G M

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the phylogeography of Hegeter politus, a saprophagous, flightless darkling beetle endemic to the eastern Canary Islands, using a fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene. Distance and parsimony based gene trees of the mitotypes identified revealed a striking association between mitotype clades and sampling locations. The branching order of the clades suggested that the colonization of the islands by Hegeter politus proceeded from the southern part of Fuerteventura in a north-northeast direction to Lanzarote and the smaller islands. Based on this, a colonization scenario compatible with the reported geological ages and volcanisms of the various parts of the islands has been proposed. The high divergence of the beetles collected from the extreme south of Fuerteventura (the Jandía peninsula) from all other samples has led us to propose that they may be from a new species that has not been described previously. The ecological isolation of Jandía from the rest of Fuerteventura by the sand dunes that cover its narrow isthmus in the north, and the existence of many plant and animal endemisms unique to Jandía, lend supportive evidence to our proposal. The similarities between the evolution of island endemics in the Hawaiian and Canary archipelagos have been discussed. We conclude that many endemics in the Canary archipelago, like the Hawaiian Islands, are most likely to have originated from post-colonization differentiation and divergence. PMID:9474797

  16. The phylogeography of the darkling beetle, Hegeter politus, in the eastern Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Juan, C; Ibrahim, K M; Oromí, P; Hewitt, G M

    1998-01-22

    We investigated the phylogeography of Hegeter politus, a saprophagous, flightless darkling beetle endemic to the eastern Canary Islands, using a fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene. Distance and parsimony based gene trees of the mitotypes identified revealed a striking association between mitotype clades and sampling locations. The branching order of the clades suggested that the colonization of the islands by Hegeter politus proceeded from the southern part of Fuerteventura in a north-northeast direction to Lanzarote and the smaller islands. Based on this, a colonization scenario compatible with the reported geological ages and volcanisms of the various parts of the islands has been proposed. The high divergence of the beetles collected from the extreme south of Fuerteventura (the Jandía peninsula) from all other samples has led us to propose that they may be from a new species that has not been described previously. The ecological isolation of Jandía from the rest of Fuerteventura by the sand dunes that cover its narrow isthmus in the north, and the existence of many plant and animal endemisms unique to Jandía, lend supportive evidence to our proposal. The similarities between the evolution of island endemics in the Hawaiian and Canary archipelagos have been discussed. We conclude that many endemics in the Canary archipelago, like the Hawaiian Islands, are most likely to have originated from post-colonization differentiation and divergence.

  17. Comparative phylogeography in Fijian coral reef fishes: a multi-taxa approach towards marine reserve design.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua A; Barber, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, Φ(st) = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis Φ(st) = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity.

  18. Dynamics of Molecular Evolution and Phylogeography of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhou, Guanghe; Wang, Xifeng; Elena, Santiago F.

    2011-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) species PAV occurs frequently in irrigated wheat fields worldwide and can be efficiently transmitted by aphids. Isolates of BYDV-PAV from different countries show great divergence both in genomic sequences and pathogenicity. Despite its economical importance, the genetic structure of natural BYDV-PAV populations, as well as of the mechanisms maintaining its high diversity, remain poorly explored. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of BYDV-PAV genome evolution utilizing time-structured data sets of complete genomic sequences from 58 isolates from different hosts obtained worldwide. First, we observed that BYDV-PAV exhibits a high frequency of homologous recombination. Second, our analysis revealed that BYDV-PAV genome evolves under purifying selection and at a substitution rate similar to other RNA viruses (3.158×10−4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year). Phylogeography analyses show that the diversification of BYDV-PAV can be explained by local geographic adaptation as well as by host-driven adaptation. These results increase our understanding of the diversity, molecular evolutionary characteristics and epidemiological properties of an economically important plant RNA virus. PMID:21326861

  19. Iteration expansion and regional evolution: phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four related taxa in southern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Beiwei; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Yusi; Niu, Zhitao; Xue, Qingyun; Ding, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-06

    The genus Dendrobium was used as a case study to elucidate the evolutionary history of Orchidaceae in the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) and Southeast Asia region. These evolutionary histories remain largely unknown, including the temporal and spatial distribution of the evolutionary events. The present study used nuclear and plastid DNA to determine the phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four closely related taxa. Plastid DNA haplotype and nuclear data were shown to be discordant, suggesting reticulate evolution drove the species' diversification. Rapid radiation and genetic drift appeared to drive the evolution of D. tosaense and D. flexicaule, whereas introgression or hybridization might have been involved in the evolution of D. scoriarum and D. shixingense. The phylogeographical structure of D. officinale revealed that core natural distribution regions might have served as its glacial refuges. In recent years, human disturbances caused its artificial migration and population extinction. The five taxa may have originated from the Nanling Mountains and the Yungui Plateau and then migrated northward or eastward. After the initial iteration expansion, D. officinale populations appeared to experience the regional evolutionary patterns in different regions and follow the sequential or rapid decline in gene exchange.

  20. Combining Phylogeography and Spatial Epidemiology to Uncover Predictors of H5N1 Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Daniel; Beard, Rachel; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe; Scotch, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin like highly pathogenic avian influenza pose a significant threat to human and animal health due to their elevated transmissibility. Identifying the drivers of such viruses is challenging and complicates the estimation of spatial diffusion because the variability of viral spread from locations could be caused by a complex array of unknown factors. Several techniques exist to help identify these drivers including bioinformatics, phylogeography, and spatial epidemiology but these methods are generally evaluated separately and do not consider the complementary nature of each other. Here we studied an approach that integrates these techniques and identifies the most important drivers of viral spread by focusing on H5N1 in Egypt because of its recent emergence as an epicenter for the disease. We used a Bayesian phylogeographic generalized linear model (GLM) to reconstruct spatiotemporal patterns of viral diffusion while simultaneously assessing the impact of factors contributing to transmission. We also calculated the cross-species transmission rates among hosts in order to identify the species driving transmission. Density of both human and avian species were supported contributors along with latitude, longitude, elevation, and several meteorological variables. Also supported was the presence of a genetic motif found near the hemagglutinin cleavage site. Various genetic, geographic, demographic, and environmental predictors each play a role in H1N1 diffusion. Further development and expansion of phylogeographic GLMs such as this will enable health agencies to identify variables that can curb virus diffusion and reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:25355432

  1. Global molecular phylogeography reveals persistent Arctic circumpolar isolation in a marine planktonic protist.

    PubMed

    Darling, Kate F; Kucera, Michal; Wade, Christopher M

    2007-03-20

    The high-latitude planktonic foraminifera have proved to be particularly useful model organisms for the study of global patterns of vicariance and gene flow in the oceans. Such studies demonstrate that gene flow can occur over enormous distances in the pelagic marine environment leading to cosmopolitanism but also that there are ecological and geographical barriers to gene flow producing biogeographic structure. Here, we have undertaken a comprehensive global study of genetic diversity within a marine protist species, the high-latitude planktonic foraminiferan Neogloboquadrina pachyderma. We present extensive new data sets from the North Pacific and Arctic Oceans that, in combination with our earlier data from the North Atlantic and Southern Oceans, allow us to determine the global phylogeography of this species. The new genetic data reveal a pattern of Arctic circumpolar isolation and bipolar asymmetry between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. We show that the ancestry of North Pacific N. pachyderma is relatively recent. It lies within the upwelling systems and subpolar waters of the Southern Hemisphere and remarkably not within the neighboring Arctic Ocean. Instead, the Arctic Ocean population forms a genetic continuum with the North Atlantic population, which became isolated from the southern populations much earlier, after the onset of Northern hemisphere glaciation. Data from the planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies Globigerina bulloides is also introduced to highlight the isolation and endemism found within the subpolar North Pacific gyre. These data provide perspective for interpretation and discussion of global gene flow and speciation patterns in the plankton.

  2. Phylogeography of the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Janique, Solene; Sriratanasak, Wantana; Ketsuwan, Kulchana; Jairin, Jirapong; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai

    2017-02-01

    The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise F st values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.

  3. Phylogeography of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in the Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kouichi; Yonekura, Ryuji; Katano, Osamu; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Saitoh, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi River Basin supports the richest fish fauna in eastern North America and has played a key role in the maintenance of fish biodiversity, especially as a refuge for freshwater fishes during glaciations. In this study, we investigated the phylogeography of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in eastern North America, using complete sequence of the mitochondrial ND1 gene from 369 samples collected at 15 sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major lineages (northern and southern clades) in a parsimony network. A sympatric distribution of the lineages was widely observed in the Mississippi Basin. Sequence diversity in the two lineages was significantly lower in glaciated regions around the Great Lakes than in unglaciated regions. The two lineages were estimated to have diverged in the Kansan glaciation, and refugia for both existed around the Ouachita Highlands. The southern clade dispersed during the Yasmouth Interglacial, prior to the dispersal of the northern clade during the Sangamon Interglacial. In the northern clade, low genetic diversity and population fragmentation inferred by nested clade analysis (NCA) were considered due to bottleneck events in the Wisconsin glaciation, while the southern clade showed isolation by distance in a Mantel test. A difference in demographic fluctuation suggests that sympatry of the two lineages has resulted from recent secondary admixture through the range expansion of the northern clade in the post-Pleistocene. Large-scale admixture of multiple mtDNA lineages in L. macrochirus, which has not been recorded in other fishes in the Mississippi River Basin, may result from their high vagility.

  4. Pangaea and the Out-of-Africa Model of Varicella-Zoster Virus Evolution and Phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Grose, Charles

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this minireview is to provide an overview of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) phylogenetics and phylogeography when placed in the broad context of geologic time. Planet Earth was formed over 4 billion years ago, and the supercontinent Pangaea coalesced around 400 million years ago (mya). Based on detailed tree-building models, the base of the phylogenetic tree of the Herpesviridae family has been estimated at 400 mya. Subsequently, Pangaea split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland; in turn, Africa rifted from Gondwanaland. Based on available data, the hypothesis of this minireview is that the ancestral alphaherpesvirus VZV coevolved in simians, apes, and hominins in Africa. When anatomically modern humans first crossed over the Red Sea 60,000 years ago, VZV was carried along in their dorsal root ganglia. Currently, there are five VZV clades, distinguishable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. These clades likely represent continued VZV coevolution, as humans with latent VZV infection left Arabia and dispersed into Asia (clades 2 and 5) and Europe (clades 1, 3, and 4). The prototype VZV sequence contains nearly 125,000 bp, divided into 70 open reading frames. Generally, isolates within a clade display >99.9% identity to one another, while members of one clade compared to a second clade show 99.8% identity to one another. Recently, four different VZV genotypes that do not segregate into the previously defined five clades have been identified, a result indicating a wider than anticipated diversity among newly collected VZV strains around the world.

  5. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Jeremy B.; Jones, Catherine S.; Gündüz, İslam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Rambau, R. Victor; Noble, Leslie R.; Berry, R.J.; Giménez, Mabel D.; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríða

    2008-01-01

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA lineage revealed by both RFLP and sequence analyses, which is restricted to the northern and western peripheries of the British Isles, and also occurs in Norway. This distribution of the ‘Orkney’ lineage fits well with the sphere of influence of the Norwegian Vikings and was probably generated through inadvertent transport by them. To form viable populations, house mice would have required large human settlements such as the Norwegian Vikings founded. The other parts of the British Isles (essentially most of mainland Britain) are characterized by house mice with different mtDNA sequences, some of which are also found in Germany, and which probably reflect both Iron Age movements of people and mice and earlier development of large human settlements. MtDNA studies on house mice have the potential to reveal novel aspects of human history. PMID:18826939

  6. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice.

    PubMed

    Searle, Jeremy B; Jones, Catherine S; Gündüz, Islam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P; Herman, Jeremy S; Rambau, R Victor; Noble, Leslie R; Berry, R J; Giménez, Mabel D; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríoa

    2009-01-22

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA lineage revealed by both RFLP and sequence analyses, which is restricted to the northern and western peripheries of the British Isles, and also occurs in Norway. This distribution of the 'Orkney' lineage fits well with the sphere of influence of the Norwegian Vikings and was probably generated through inadvertent transport by them. To form viable populations, house mice would have required large human settlements such as the Norwegian Vikings founded. The other parts of the British Isles (essentially most of mainland Britain) are characterized by house mice with different mtDNA sequences, some of which are also found in Germany, and which probably reflect both Iron Age movements of people and mice and earlier development of large human settlements. MtDNA studies on house mice have the potential to reveal novel aspects of human history.

  7. On Reproductive Work in Spain: Transnational Adoption, Egg Donation, Surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Marre, Diana; Román, Beatriz San; Guerra, Diana

    2017-08-02

    Spain's plummeting fertility since the late twentieth century may seem to reflect a waning desire for children. Nevertheless, reproductive disappointments resulting from gender inequalities cause many Spanish women to postpone motherhood and experience age-related fertility problems. For them, creating a family often becomes possible only through the reproductive labor of other women. Our analysis of transnational adoption, egg donation, and surrogacy in Spain shows how anonymity and altruism play out in these three strategies, with implications for the valuation of women's reproductive work and relationships among reproductive providers, intermediaries, recipients, and the resulting children.

  8. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  9. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  10. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  11. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  12. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  13. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  14. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A ... Read Article View All News ©1996 - 2016 SART, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology . All Rights Reserved. ASRM/ ...

  15. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of ...

  16. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  17. Reproduction in female reindeer.

    PubMed

    Ropstad, E

    2000-07-02

    Reindeer are either wild or kept under very extensive farming systems. They are seasonal breeders, with mating coinciding with the decreasing photoperiod in the autumn, and with calving in the spring. Little is known regarding the factors that influence reproduction in reindeer or of their reproductive physiology. Studies carried out to date have mainly focused on issues related to the population dynamics of wild populations and semi-domestic herds, and to a limited extent on the reproductive physiology of the female. Nor is much known about reproductive disorders and their medical treatment, or of the possibilities to manipulate or control reproduction by the use of hormones. Modern reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilisation, maturation and transfer of embryos have so far received scant attention.In the future, it is possible that reindeer under certain conditions might be kept in more intensive production systems. Limited access to high-quality winter pastures and increased demands for productivity have resulted in artificial feeding becoming a common practice in various reindeer herding areas in Scandinavia. In efforts to enhance the productivity of reindeer herds, attention has been focused on factors affecting reproduction in the female and survival of the offspring. Further knowledge on these issues seems necessary when developing strategies for optimalization of meat production in domestic herds and the harvesting of wild populations. This paper puts a broad focus on various aspects of reproduction, including factors influencing the fecundity of reproductively active females. In order to understand these effects it is important also to have a basic understanding of the reproductive physiology of these animals.

  18. The Relation Between Reproductive Value and Genetic Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Nicholas H.; Etheridge, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    What determines the genetic contribution that an individual makes to future generations? With biparental reproduction, each individual leaves a “pedigree” of descendants, determined by the biparental relationships in the population. The pedigree of an individual constrains the lines of descent of each of its genes. An individual’s reproductive value is the expected number of copies of each of its genes that is passed on to distant generations conditional on its pedigree. For the simplest model of biparental reproduction (analogous to the Wright–Fisher model), an individual’s reproductive value is determined within ∼10 generations, independent of population size. Partial selfing and subdivision do not greatly slow this convergence. Our central result is that the probability that a gene will survive is proportional to the reproductive value of the individual that carries it and that, conditional on survival, after a few tens of generations, the distribution of the number of surviving copies is the same for all individuals, whatever their reproductive value. These results can be generalized to the joint distribution of surviving blocks of the ancestral genome. Selection on unlinked loci in the genetic background may greatly increase the variance in reproductive value, but the above results nevertheless still hold. The almost linear relationship between survival probability and reproductive value also holds for weakly favored alleles. Thus, the influence of the complex pedigree of descendants on an individual’s genetic contribution to the population can be summarized through a single number: its reproductive value. PMID:21624999

  19. Differences in Reliability of Reproductive History Recall among Women in North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliman, Amr; Allen, Katharine; Lo, An-Chi; Banerjee, Mousumi; Hablas, Ahmed; Benider, Abdellatif; Benchekroun, Nadya; Samir, Salwa; Omar, Hoda G.; Merajver, Sofia; Mullan, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in North Africa. Women in this region have unique reproductive profiles. It is essential to obtain reliable information on reproductive histories to help better understand the relationship between reductive health and breast cancer. We tested the reliability of a reproductive history-based…

  20. Family planning and life planning reproductive intentions among individuals seeking reproductive health care.

    PubMed

    Foster, Diana G; Biggs, M Antonia; Ralph, Lauren J; Arons, Abigail; Brindis, Claire D

    2008-01-01

    Little research has focused on men and women's reproductive intentions before pregnancy and their perceived personal and social motivations to prevent an unintended pregnancy. To assess the reproductive intentions of low-income men and women in California, we asked individuals seeking reproductive health services about their plans for childbearing, including an ideal timeframe and perceived advantages of delay. We also asked about their health care visit to examine how contraceptive use and services relate to reproductive intentions. The majority (77%) of the 1,409 reproductive health clients surveyed wanted to have a/another child, but hoped to delay childbearing by an average of 5.4 years. The most common reasons for wanting to delay pregnancy were related to finances (24%) or education (19%), with differences by race/ethnicity and gender. We did not observe a clear relationship between the length of time the client wanted to delay pregnancy and the type of contraceptive method dispensed during the clinic visit. Individuals seeking reproductive health care perceive many personal benefits to planning and timing their pregnancies, and most will need many years of contraceptive protection to achieve their reproductive goals. Providers should work with their patients to ensure that they receive a contraceptive method that is consistent with the length of pregnancy prevention they desire.

  1. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies. PMID:12803888

  2. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    PubMed

    Shine, Richard

    2003-05-22

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

  3. The politics of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  4. Religion and reproductive health and rights.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Thoraya Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between religion and public policy issues concerning reproductive health and rights. It particularly focuses on how such issues affect women. Although not ignoring the sometimes oppositional stance of some religious spokepersons to birth control and attempts to mitigate the suffering caused by HIV/AIDS, early or frequent pregnancy, discrimination against female fetuses and babies, and so on, the essay seeks to identify positive responses by religiously committed people, particularly women, that parallel or reinforce UNFPA initiatives to address such problems. The essay also attempts to articulate ways in which religion should come to grips with issues of reproductive health and rights.

  5. Bioethics for clinicians: 26. Assisted reproductive technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shanner, Laura; Nisker, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES (ARTs) can be very helpful for certain patients, but ethical concerns have been raised about the inherent nature of specific techniques and the contexts in which many techniques are used. Physicians play important roles in supporting those who wish to become parents and in educating patients about impediments to fertilization and ways to promote conception. We discuss various ethical issues surrounding ARTs, including family relationships, informed choice, gender issues, embryo status and the commercialization of reproduction, as well as legal and policy issues. We examine the empirical evidence of the effectiveness of ARTs and suggest ways to approach ARTs in practice. PMID:11402801

  6. Catholic 'natural law' and reproductive ethics.

    PubMed

    Vacek, E C

    1992-06-01

    Catholic natural law has had a long and evolving interest in bioethics. Thomas Aquinas left natural law a legacy of great flexibility in evaluating goods within a whole life. He also bequeathed to the Church the basis for an abolutism on sexual issues. Modern reproductive medicine and a deeper understanding of human freedom have reopened these issues. The Vatican has developed new, holistic arguments to proscribe reproductive interventions, but critics remain unconvinced that marital relationships and goods have been adequately evaluated. The resolution of this debate will require further experience and reflection.

  7. Parasite epidemiology in a changing world: can molecular phylogeography help us tell the wood from the trees?

    PubMed

    Morgan, E R; Clare, E L; Jefferies, R; Stevens, J R

    2012-12-01

    SUMMARY Molecular phylogeography has revolutionised our ability to infer past biogeographic events from cross-sectional data on current parasite populations. In ecological parasitology, this approach has been used to address fundamental questions concerning host-parasite co-evolution and geographic patterns of spread, and has raised many technical issues and problems of interpretation. For applied parasitologists, the added complexity inherent in adding population genetic structure to perceived parasite distributions can sometimes seem to cloud rather than clarify approaches to control. In this paper, we use case studies firstly to illustrate the potential extent of cryptic diversity in parasite and parasitoid populations, secondly to consider how anthropogenic influences including movement of domestic animals affect the geographic distribution and host associations of parasite genotypes, and thirdly to explore the applied relevance of these processes to parasites of socio-economic importance. The contribution of phylogeographic approaches to deeper understanding of parasite biology in these cases is assessed. Thus, molecular data on the emerging parasites Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs and wild canids, and the myiasis-causing flies Lucilia spp. in sheep and Cochliomyia hominovorax in humans, lead to clear implications for control efforts to limit global spread. Broader applications of molecular phylogeography to understanding parasite distributions in an era of rapid global change are also discussed.

  8. Cost-effective enrichment hybridization capture of chloroplast genomes at deep multiplexing levels for population genetics and phylogeography studies.

    PubMed

    Mariac, Cédric; Scarcelli, Nora; Pouzadou, Juliette; Barnaud, Adeline; Billot, Claire; Faye, Adama; Kougbeadjo, Ayite; Maillol, Vincent; Martin, Guillaume; Sabot, François; Santoni, Sylvain; Vigouroux, Yves; Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-11-01

    Biodiversity, phylogeography and population genetic studies will be revolutionized by access to large data sets thanks to next-generation sequencing methods. In this study, we develop an easy and cost-effective protocol for in-solution enrichment hybridization capture of complete chloroplast genomes applicable at deep-multiplexed levels. The protocol uses cheap in-house species-specific probes developed via long-range PCR of the entire chloroplast. Barcoded libraries are constructed, and in-solution enrichment of the chloroplasts is carried out using the probes. This protocol was tested and validated on six economically important West African crop species, namely African rice, pearl millet, three African yam species and fonio. For pearl millet, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of this protocol to retrieve 95% of the sequence of the whole chloroplast on 95 multiplexed individuals in a single MiSeq run at a success rate of 95%. This new protocol allows whole chloroplast genomes to be retrieved at a modest cost and will allow unprecedented resolution for closely related species in phylogeography studies using plastomes.

  9. Human reproduction: Jewish perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2013-11-01

    Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. This paper presents the attitude of Jewish Law -- Halacha to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  10. Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affairs NGO Status with the WHO Contact Us Social Media Donate News & Publications Publications Overview News and Research Fertility and Sterility Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics Coding Ethics Committee Opinions and Webinars Practice Committee Documents Newsletters ...

  11. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  12. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  13. Thyroid and male reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana

    2014-01-01

    Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction. PMID:24701426

  14. Robotics in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Dharia, Sejal P; Falcone, Tommaso

    2005-07-01

    To review the history, development, current applications, and future of robotic technology. The MEDLINE database was reviewed for all publications on robotic technology in medicine, surgery, reproductive endocrinology, its role in surgical education, and telepresence surgery. University medical center. Robotic-assisted surgery is an emerging technology, which provides an alternative to traditional surgical techniques in reproductive medicine and may have a role in surgical education and telepresence surgery.

  15. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  16. Cloning in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Illmensee, K

    2001-08-01

    This review article summarizes the historical development of mammalian cloning, presents current advances and presumed risk factors in the field of reproductive cloning, discusses possible clinical applications of therapeutic and diagnostic cloning and outlines prospective commercial trends in pharmaceutical cloning. Predictable progress in biotechnology and stem cell engineering should prove to be advantageous for patients' health and for novel benefits in reproductive and regenerative medicine.

  17. Tracing an invasion: landbridges, refugia, and the phylogeography of the Neotropical rattlesnake (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalus durissus).

    PubMed

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Ferguson, Julia E; Quijada-Mascareñas, J Adrian; Pook, Catharine E; Salomão, Maria da Graça; Thorpe, Roger S

    2005-04-01

    Abstract Pleistocene fragmentation of the Amazonian rainforest has been hypothesized to be a major cause of Neotropical speciation and diversity. However, the role and even the reality of Pleistocene forest refugia have attracted much scepticism. In Amazonia, previous phylogeographical studies have focused mostly on organisms found in the forests themselves, and generally found speciation events to have predated the Pleistocene. However, molecular studies of open-formation taxa found both north and south of the Amazonian forests, probably because of vicariance resulting from expansion of the rainforests, may provide novel insights into the age of continuous forest cover across the Amazon basin. Here, we analyse three mitochondrial genes to infer the phylogeography of one such trans-Amazonian vicariant, the Neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), which occupies primarily seasonal formations from Mexico to Argentina, but avoids the rainforests of Central and tropical South America. The phylogeographical pattern is consistent with gradual dispersal along the Central American Isthmus, followed by more rapid dispersal into and across South America after the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama. Low sequence divergence between populations from north and south of the Amazon rainforest is consistent with mid-Pleistocene divergence, approximately 1.1 million years ago (Ma). This suggests that the Amazonian rainforests must have become fragmented or at least shrunk considerably during that period, lending support to the Pleistocene refugia theory as an important cause of distribution patterns, if not necessarily speciation, in Amazonian forest organisms. These results highlight the potential of nonforest species to contribute to an understanding of the history of the Amazonian rainforests themselves.

  18. Long-Distance Travellers: Phylogeography of a Generalist Parasite, Pholeter gastrophilus, from Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Kristina; Raga, Juan Antonio; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    We studied the phylogeography and historical demography of the most generalist digenean from cetaceans, Pholeter gastrophilus, exploring the effects of isolation by distance, ecological barriers and hosts’ dispersal ability on the population structure of this parasite. The ITS2 rDNA, and the mitochondrial COI and ND1 from 68 individual parasites were analysed. Worms were collected from seven oceanic and coastal cetacean species from the south western Atlantic (SWA), central eastern Atlantic, north eastern Atlantic (NEA), and Mediterranean Sea. Pholeter gastrophilus was considered a single lineage because reciprocal monophyly was not detected in the ML cladogram of all individuals, and sequence variability was <1% for mtDNA and 0% for ITS2. These results rule out a recent suggestion that P. gastrophilus would actually be a cryptic-species complex. The genetic cohesion of P. gastrophilus could rely on the extensive exploitation of wide-ranging and highly mobile cetaceans, with a putative secondary role, if any, of intermediate hosts. Unique haplotypes were detected in SWA and NEA, and an AMOVA revealed significant population structure associated to the genetic variation in these regions. The Equator possibly acts as a significant geographical barrier for cetacean movements, possibly limiting gene flow between northern and southern populations of P. gastrophilus. A partial Mantel tests revealed that the significant isolation of NEA populations resulted from geographic clustering. Apparently, the limited mobility of cetaceans used by P. gastrophilus as definitive hosts in this region, coupled with oceanographic barriers and a patchy distribution of potential intermediate hosts could contribute to significant ecological isolation of P. gastrophilus in NEA. Rather unexpectedly, no genetic differentiation was found in the Mediterranean samples of this parasite. Historical demographic analyses suggested a recent population expansion of P. gastrophilus in the Atlantic

  19. Phylogeography and Pleistocene refugia of the adder (Vipera berus) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Ursenbacher, S; Carlsson, M; Helfer, V; Tegelström, H; Fumagalli, L

    2006-10-01

    In order to contribute to the debate about southern glacial refugia used by temperate species and more northern refugia used by boreal or cold-temperate species, we examined the phylogeography of a widespread snake species (Vipera berus) inhabiting Europe up to the Arctic Circle. The analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation in 1043 bp of the cytochrome b gene and in 918 bp of the noncoding control region was performed with phylogenetic approaches. Our results suggest that both the duplicated control region and cytochrome b evolve at a similar rate in this species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that V. berus is divided into three major mitochondrial lineages, probably resulting from an Italian, a Balkan and a Northern (from France to Russia) refugial area in Eastern Europe, near the Carpathian Mountains. In addition, the Northern clade presents an important substructure, suggesting two sequential colonization events in Europe. First, the continent was colonized from the three main refugial areas mentioned above during the Lower-Mid Pleistocene. Second, recolonization of most of Europe most likely originated from several refugia located outside of the Mediterranean peninsulas (Carpathian region, east of the Carpathians, France and possibly Hungary) during the Mid-Late Pleistocene, while populations within the Italian and Balkan Peninsulas fluctuated only slightly in distribution range, with larger lowland populations during glacial times and with refugial mountain populations during interglacials, as in the present time. The phylogeographical structure revealed in our study suggests complex recolonization dynamics of the European continent by V. berus, characterized by latitudinal as well as altitudinal range shifts, driven by both climatic changes and competition with related species.

  20. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Shan; Liu, Hsiao-Lei; Moncada, Ximena; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17–carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the “out of Taiwan” hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China “into North Taiwan,” the “out of South China–Indochina” expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania. PMID:26438853

  1. Global phylogeography of Dengue type 1 and 2 viruses reveals the role of India.

    PubMed

    Walimbe, Atul M; Lotankar, Mrunalini; Cecilia, D; Cherian, Sarah S

    2014-03-01

    Patterns in virus dispersal and epidemiology of viral diseases can be revealed by phylogeographic studies. Currently knowledge about phylogeography of Dengue virus (DENV) Types 1 and 2 is limited. We carried out the phylogeographic analyses for DENV-1 and DENV-2, by the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, with emphasis on Indian isolates in relation to the global evolutionary dynamics of the viruses. More than 250 E-gene sequences of each virus, available in GenBank, were used for the analyses. The study was focused on understanding the most likely geographical origin for the major genotypes and sub-lineages of DENV-1/DENV-2 and also the possible pathways in the dispersal of the virus. The results showed that for DENV-1, Southeast Asia was the most likely geographical origin and India was determined to be the ancestral location of the Cosmopolitan genotype circulating in India, Sri Lanka, West and East Africa, Caribbean region, East and Southeast Asia. For DENV-2, the ancestral source could not be precisely inferred. Further, in spite of the earliest isolate from Trinidad-1953 of the American genotype, it was depicted that India may have been the probable ancestor of this genotype. India was also determined to be the ancestral location of a subgroup of the Cosmopolitan genotype. It was noted that DENV-1 and DENV-2 were introduced into India during 1940s and 1910s respectively. Subsequently, dispersal of both the viruses between India and different regions including West, East and Central Africa, Southeast and East Asia and Caribbean was inferred. Overall, the current study provides insight into the spatial as well as temporal dynamics of dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal phylogeography of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar: Insights into the long-term maintenance of plague.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Amy J; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Telfer, Sandra; Hall, Carina M; Sahl, Jason W; Hepp, Crystal M; Centner, Heather; Andersen, Genevieve; Birdsell, Dawn N; Rahalison, Lila; Nottingham, Roxanne; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2017-09-01

    Yersinia pestis appears to be maintained in multiple, geographically separate, and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations within the highlands of Madagascar. However, the dynamics of these locally differentiated subpopulations through time are mostly unknown. To address that gap and further inform our understanding of plague epidemiology, we investigated the phylogeography of Y. pestis in Madagascar over an 18 year period. We generated whole genome sequences for 31 strains and discovered new SNPs that we used in conjunction with previously identified SNPs and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) to genotype 773 Malagasy Y. pestis samples from 1995 to 2012. We mapped the locations where samples were obtained on a fine geographic scale to examine phylogeographic patterns through time. We identified 18 geographically separate and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations that display spatial and temporal stability, persisting in the same locations over a period of almost two decades. We found that geographic areas with higher levels of topographical relief are associated with greater levels of phylogenetic diversity and that sampling frequency can vary considerably among subpopulations and from year to year. We also found evidence of various Y. pestis dispersal events, including over long distances, but no evidence that any dispersal events resulted in successful establishment of a transferred genotype in a new location during the examined time period. Our analysis suggests that persistent endemic cycles of Y. pestis transmission within local areas are responsible for the long term maintenance of plague in Madagascar, rather than repeated episodes of wide scale epidemic spread. Landscape likely plays a role in maintaining Y. pestis subpopulations in Madagascar, with increased topographical relief associated with increased levels of localized differentiation. Local ecological factors likely affect the dynamics of individual subpopulations and the associated

  3. Phylogeography of Ostreopsis along West Pacific Coast, with Special Reference to a Novel Clade from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Uehara, Keita; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Tawong, Wittaya; Hariganeya, Naohito; Smith, Kirsty; Rhodes, Lesley; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yosuke; Suda, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis is known as a potential producer of Palytoxin derivatives. Palytoxin is the most potent non-proteinaceous compound reported so far. There has been a growing number of reports on palytoxin-like poisonings in southern areas of Japan; however, the distribution of Ostreopsis has not been investigated so far. Morphological plasticity of Ostreopsis makes reliable microscopic identification difficult so the employment of molecular tools was desirable. Methods/Principal Finding In total 223 clones were examined from samples mainly collected from southern areas of Japan. The D8–D10 region of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (D8–D10) was selected as a genetic marker and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Although most of the clones were unable to be identified, there potentially 8 putative species established during this study. Among them, Ostreopsis sp. 1–5 did not belong to any known clade, and each of them formed its own clade. The dominant species was Ostreopsis sp. 1, which accounted for more than half of the clones and which was highly toxic and only distributed along the Japanese coast. Comparisons between the D8–D10 and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA, which has widely been used for phylogenetic/phylogeographic studies in Ostreopsis, revealed that the D8–D10 was less variable than the ITS, making consistent and reliable phylogenetic reconstruction possible. Conclusions/Significance This study unveiled a surprisingly diverse and widespread distribution of Japanese Ostreopsis. Further study will be required to better understand the phylogeography of the genus. Our results posed the urgent need for the development of the early detection/warning systems for Ostreopsis, particularly for the widely distributed and strongly toxic Ostreopsis sp. 1. The D8–D10 marker will be suitable for these purposes. PMID:22164222

  4. Late Quaternary distribution dynamics and phylogeography of the red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, R. S.; Zachos, F. E.; Street, M.; Jöris, O.; Skog, A.; Benecke, N.

    2008-04-01

    Here we present spatial-temporal patterns for European late Quaternary red deer (Cervus elaphus), based on radiocarbon-supported evidence derived mainly from archaeological sites. This is followed by an overview of the recent phylogeography of this species using haplogroup studies of recent molecular data. The implications of the synthesis of palaeontological and genetic data are discussed and we propose that present day European red deer haplogroup distributions are best explained against the history of late Quaternary population contractions into and expansions from glacial refugia. Around 800 records of Cervus elaphus were assigned to the period covering the later part of the Last Glacial and the Early to Middle Holocene. Red deer becomes increasingly visible in faunal assemblages dated to late OIS-3 (<40.0 ka 14C BP). The species persisted throughout the LGM on the Iberian Peninsula, in adjacent regions of South-Western France (Gascony, Dordogne, Languedoc), on the Italian Peninsula, in the Balkans and Greece, and east of the Carpathians in Moldavia. We suggest that genetic exchange between the populations of the Balkans and the East of the Carpathians remained uninterrupted during the LGM. The expansion of red deer from its southern refugia into Central and Northern Europe begins rapidly at 12,500 14C BP. The expansion of red deer coincides with the sudden rise in temperature at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1e and the dispersion of open birch woodland into the northern half of Europe. Radiocarbon supported records show a more or less universal distribution of Cervus elaphus across Europe following the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic change at 10.0 ka 14C BP for the first time. Molecular data and fossil record combined provide a clearer temporal and spatial pattern for the Lateglacial recolonisation process of the northern part of Europe.

  5. Phylogeny, phylogeography, and evolution in the Mediterranean region: News from a freshwater mussel (Potomida, Unionida).

    PubMed

    Froufe, Elsa; Prié, Vincent; Faria, João; Ghamizi, Mohamed; Gonçalves, Duarte V; Gürlek, Mustafa Emre; Karaouzas, Ioannis; Kebapçi, Ümit; Şereflişan, Hülya; Sobral, Carina; Sousa, Ronaldo; Teixeira, Amílcar; Varandas, Simone; Zogaris, Stamatis; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    The Potomida genus (Bivalvia, Unionida) has a Circum-Mediterranean distribution and like other freshwater mussel species, its populations have suffered dramatic declines. Although this genus is currently considered as monotypic, it has a long history of taxonomic revisions and presently many aspects of its systematics and evolutionary history are unclear. We sampled a total of 323 individuals from 39 different sites across the Potomida genus distribution, and sequenced two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I) and one nuclear (28S rDNA) genes to clarify its phylogeny and phylogeographic history. Our results show that the genus includes two well-supported clades, one comprising solely the western Mediterranean species Potomida littoralis, and the other including two eastern Mediterranean species, the Greek endemic P. acarnanica and the Anatolian and Middle Eastern P. semirugata. We suggest that Potomida started radiating during the upper Miocene, and that both vicariance and dispersal events shaped the diversification and distribution of the genus along the Mediterranean region. P. littoralis is further divided in two mitochondrial lineages, one restricted to Europe and the other occurring mostly in North Africa. Moreover, some European basins present both lineages in sympatry. The conservation status of the three recognized species should be reevaluated, particularly P. acarnanica, since it is restricted to two Greek river basins presenting a high risk of extinction. Overall, our results clarify some important gaps in knowledge concerning the phylogeny, phylogeography and evolution of the Potomida genus in the Mediterranean region with important taxonomical, ecological and conservational implications.

  6. Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula

    PubMed Central

    Schorr, G; Holstein, N; Pearman, P B; Guisan, A; Kadereit, J W

    2012-01-01

    The major intention of the present study was to investigate whether an approach combining the use of niche-based palaeodistribution modeling and phylo-geography would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. Our study system comprised two closely related species of Alpine Primula. We used species distribution models based on the extant distribution of the species and last glacial maximum (LGM) climate models to predict the distribution of the two species during the LGM. Phylogeographic data were generated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In Primula hirsuta, models of past distribution and phylogeographic data are partly congruent and support the hypothesis of widespread nunatak survival in the Central Alps. Species distribution models (SDMs) allowed us to differentiate between alpine regions that harbor potential nunatak areas and regions that have been colonized from other areas. SDMs revealed that diversity is a good indicator for nunataks, while rarity is a good indicator for peripheral relict populations that were not source for the recolonization of the inner Alps. In P. daonensis, palaeo-distribution models and phylogeographic data are incongruent. Besides the uncertainty inherent to this type of modeling approach (e.g., relatively coarse 1-km grain size), disagreement of models and data may partly be caused by shifts of ecological niche in both species. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the combination of palaeo-distribution modeling with phylogeographical approaches provides a more differentiated picture of the distributional history of species and partly supports (P. hirsuta) and partly modifies (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data. PMID:22833799

  7. Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula.

    PubMed

    Schorr, G; Holstein, N; Pearman, P B; Guisan, A; Kadereit, J W

    2012-06-01

    The major intention of the present study was to investigate whether an approach combining the use of niche-based palaeodistribution modeling and phylo-geography would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. Our study system comprised two closely related species of Alpine Primula. We used species distribution models based on the extant distribution of the species and last glacial maximum (LGM) climate models to predict the distribution of the two species during the LGM. Phylogeographic data were generated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In Primula hirsuta, models of past distribution and phylogeographic data are partly congruent and support the hypothesis of widespread nunatak survival in the Central Alps. Species distribution models (SDMs) allowed us to differentiate between alpine regions that harbor potential nunatak areas and regions that have been colonized from other areas. SDMs revealed that diversity is a good indicator for nunataks, while rarity is a good indicator for peripheral relict populations that were not source for the recolonization of the inner Alps. In P. daonensis, palaeo-distribution models and phylogeographic data are incongruent. Besides the uncertainty inherent to this type of modeling approach (e.g., relatively coarse 1-km grain size), disagreement of models and data may partly be caused by shifts of ecological niche in both species. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the combination of palaeo-distribution modeling with phylogeographical approaches provides a more differentiated picture of the distributional history of species and partly supports (P. hirsuta) and partly modifies (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data.

  8. Sympatric Asian felid phylogeography reveals a major Indochinese-Sundaic divergence.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Zhang, Yue; Johnson, Warren E; Miao, Lin; Martelli, Paolo; Antunes, Agostinho; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The dynamic geological and climatological history of Southeast Asia has spawned a complex array of ecosystems and 12 of the 37 known cat species, making it the most felid-rich region in the world. To examine the evolutionary histories of these poorly studied fauna, we compared phylogeography of six species (leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis, fishing cat P. viverrinus, Asiatic golden cat Pardofelis temminckii, marbled cat P. marmorata, tiger Panthera tigris and leopard P. pardus) by sequencing over 5 kb of DNA each from 445 specimens at multiple loci of mtDNA, Y and X chromosomes. All species except the leopard displayed significant phylogenetic partitions between Indochina and Sundaland, with the central Thai-Malay Peninsula serving as the biogeographic boundary. Concordant mtDNA and nuclear DNA genealogies revealed deep Indochinese-Sundaic divergences around 2 MYA in both P. bengalensis and P. marmorata comparable to previously described interspecific distances within Felidae. The divergence coincided with serial sea level rises during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, and was probably reinforced by repeated isolation events associated with environmental changes throughout the Pleistocene. Indochinese-Sundaic differentiations within P. tigris and P. temminckii were more recent at 72-108 and 250-1570 kya, respectively. Overall, these results illuminate unexpected, deep vicariance events in Southeast Asian felids and provide compelling evidence of species-level distinction between the Indochinese and Sundaic populations in the leopard cat and marbled cat. Broader sampling and further molecular and morphometric analyses of these species will be instrumental in defining conservation units and effectively preserving Southeast Asian biodiversity.

  9. Inferring heterogeneous evolutionary processes through time: from sequence substitution to phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Bielejec, Filip; Lemey, Philippe; Baele, Guy; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A

    2014-07-01

    Molecular phylogenetic and phylogeographic reconstructions generally assume time-homogeneous substitution processes. Motivated by computational convenience, this assumption sacrifices biological realism and offers little opportunity to uncover the temporal dynamics in evolutionary histories. Here, we propose an evolutionary approach that explicitly relaxes the time-homogeneity assumption by allowing the specification of different infinitesimal substitution rate matrices across different time intervals, called epochs, along the evolutionary history. We focus on an epoch model implementation in a Bayesian inference framework that offers great modeling flexibility in drawing inference about any discrete data type characterized as a continuous-time Markov chain, including phylogeographic traits. To alleviate the computational burden that the additional temporal heterogeneity imposes, we adopt a massively parallel approach that achieves both fine- and coarse-grain parallelization of the computations across branches that accommodate epoch transitions, making extensive use of graphics processing units. Through synthetic examples, we assess model performance in recovering evolutionary parameters from data generated according to different evolutionary scenarios that comprise different numbers of epochs for both nucleotide and codon substitution processes. We illustrate the usefulness of our inference framework in two different applications to empirical data sets: the selection dynamics on within-host HIV populations throughout infection and the seasonality of global influenza circulation. In both cases, our epoch model captures key features of temporal heterogeneity that remained difficult to test using ad hoc procedures. [Bayesian inference; BEAGLE; BEAST; Epoch Model; phylogeography; Phylogenetics.]. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  10. Phylogeography of the red coral (Corallium rubrum): inferences on the evolutionary history of a temperate gorgonian.

    PubMed

    Aurelle, D; Ledoux, J-B; Rocher, C; Borsa, P; Chenuil, A; Féral, J-P

    2011-07-01

    The red coral Corallium rubrum (Cnidaria, Octocorallia) is an exploited, long-lived sessile species from the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent coastline in the Atlantic Ocean. Surveys of genetic variation using microsatellites have shown that populations of C. rubrum are characterized by strong differentiation at the local scale but a study of the phylogeography of this species was still lacking. Here, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci, together with sequence data from an intron of the elongation factor 1 (EF1) gene, to investigate the genetic structure of C. rubrum across its geographical range in the western Mediterranean Sea and in the Adriatic Sea. The EF1 sequences were also used to analyse the consequences of demographic fluctuations linked with past environmental change. Clustering analysis with microsatellite loci highlighted three to seven genetic groups with the distinction of North African and Adriatic populations; this distinction appeared significant with AMOVA and differentiation tests. Microsatellite and EF1 data extended the isolation by distance pattern previously observed for this species at the western Mediterranean scale. EF1 sequences confirmed the genetic differentiation observed between most samples with microsatellites. A statistical parsimony network of EF1 haplotypes provided no evidence of high sequence divergence among regions, suggesting no long-term isolation. Selective neutrality tests on microsatellites and EF1 were not significant but should be interpreted with caution in the case of EF1 because of the low sample sizes for this locus. Our results suggest that recent Quaternary environmental fluctuations had a limited impact on the genetic structure of C. rubrum.

  11. Postglacial Colonization of the Qinling Mountains: Phylogeography of the Swelled Vent Frog (Feirana quadranus)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Jianping; Xie, Feng; Li, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on intraspecific diversification in the Qinling–Daba Mountains of East Asia remains poorly investigated. We tested hypotheses concerning refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM) in this region by examining the phylogeography of the swelled vent frog (Feirana quadranus; Dicroglossidae, Anura, Amphibia). Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained complete mitochondrial ND2 gene sequences of 224 individuals from 34 populations of Feirana quadranus for phylogeographic analyses. Additionally, we obtained nuclear tyrosinase gene sequences of 68 F. quadranus, one F. kangxianensis and three F. taihangnica samples to test for mitochondrial introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on all genes revealed no introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on ND2 datasets revealed that F. quadranus was comprised of six lineages which were separated by deep valleys; the sole exception is that the Main Qinling and Micang–Western Qinling lineages overlap in distribution. Analyses of population structure indicated restricted gene flow among lineages. Coalescent simulations and divergence dating indicated that the basal diversification within F. quadranus may be associated with the dramatic uplifts of the Tibetan Plateau during the Pliocene. Coalescent simulations indicated that Wuling, Daba, and Western Qinling–Micang–Longmen Mountains were refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Demographic analyses indicated that the Daba lineage experienced population size increase prior to the LGM but the Main Qinling and the Micang–Western Qinling lineages expanded in population size and range after the LGM, and the other lineages almost have stable population size or slight slow population size decline. Conclusions/Significance The Qinling–Daba Mountains hosted three refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Populations that originated in the Daba Mountains colonized the Main Qinling Mountains

  12. The Whereabouts of an Ancient Wanderer: Global Phylogeography of the Solitary Ascidian Styela plicata

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Mari Carmen; López-Legentil, Susanna; Turon, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Genetic tools have greatly aided in tracing the sources and colonization history of introduced species. However, recurrent introductions and repeated shuffling of populations may have blurred some of the genetic signals left by ancient introductions. Styela plicata is a solitary ascidian distributed worldwide. Although its origin remains unclear, this species is believed to have spread worldwide by travelling on ship's hulls. The goals of this study were to infer the genetic structure and global phylogeography of S. plicata and to look for present-day and historical genetic patterns. Two genetic markers were used: a fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and a fragment of the nuclear gene Adenine Nucleotide Transporter/ADP-ATP Translocase (ANT). A total of 368 individuals for COI and 315 for ANT were sequenced from 17 locations worldwide. The levels of gene diversity were moderate for COI to high for ANT. The Mediterranean populations showed the least diversity and allelic richness for both markers, while the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans had the highest gene and nucleotide diversities. Network and phylogenetic analyses with COI and ANT revealed two groups of alleles separated by 15 and 4 mutational steps, respectively. The existence of different lineages suggested an ancient population split. However, the geographic distributions of these groups did not show any consistent pattern, indicating different phylogeographic histories for each gene. Genetic divergence was significant for many population-pairs irrespective of the geographic distance among them. Stochastic introduction events are reflected in the uneven distribution of COI and ANT allele frequencies and groups among many populations. Our results confirmed that S. plicata has been present in all studied oceans for a long time, and that recurrent colonization events and occasional shuffling among populations have determined the actual genetic structure of this species

  13. Phylogeography of the small Indian civet and origin of introductions to western Indian Ocean islands.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Patel, Riddhi; Veron, Géraldine; Goodman, Steven M; Willsch, Maraike; Vasconcelos, Raquel; Lourenço, André; Sigaud, Marie; Justy, Fabienne; Joshi, Bheem Dutt; Fickel, Jörns; Wilting, Andreas

    2016-12-11

    The biogeographic dynamics affecting the Indian subcontinent, East and Southeast Asia during the Plio-Pleistocene has generated complex biodiversity patterns. We assessed the molecular biogeography of the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) through mitogenome and cytochrome b + control region sequencing of 89 historical and modern samples to (i) establish a time-calibrated phylogeography across the species' native range and (ii) test introduction scenarios to western Indian Ocean islands. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified three geographic lineages (East Asia, sister-group to Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent + northern Indochina) diverging 3.2 - 2.3 Mya, with no clear signature of past demographic expansion. Within Southeast Asia, Balinese populations separated from the rest 2.6 - 1.3 Mya. Western Indian Ocean populations were assigned to the Indian subcontinent + northern Indochina lineage and had the lowest mitochondrial diversity. Approximate Bayesian computation did not distinguish between single vs multiple introduction scenarios. The early diversification of the small Indian civet was likely shaped by humid periods in the Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene that created evergreen rainforest barriers, generating areas of intra-specific endemism in the Indian subcontinent, East and Southeast Asia. Later Pleistocene dispersals through drier conditions in South and Southeast Asia were likely, giving rise to the species' current natural distribution. Our molecular data supported the delineation of only four subspecies in V. indica, including an endemic Balinese lineage. Our study also highlighted the influence of pre-first millennium AD introductions to western Indian Ocean islands, with Indian and/or Arab traders probably introducing the species for its civet oil.

  14. Phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): How many populations and how many taxa?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A. I.; Bowen, B.W.; Domning, D.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Marmontel, M.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Morales-Vela, B.; Rudin, M.; Bonde, R.K.; McGuire, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    To resolve the population genetic structure and phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences were compared among eight locations across the western Atlantic region. Fifteen haplotypes were identified among 86 individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. Despite the manatee's ability to move thousands of kilometres along continental margins, strong population separations between most locations were demonstrated with significant haplotype frequency shifts. These findings are consistent with tagging studies which indicate that stretches of open water and unsuitable coastal habitats constitute substantial barriers to gene flow and colonization. Low levels of genetic diversity within Florida and Brazilian samples might be explained by recent colonization into high latitudes or bottleneck effects. Three distinctive mtDNA lineages were observed in an intraspecific phylogeny of T. manatus, corresponding approximately to: (i) Florida and the West Indies; (ii) the Gulf of Mexico to the Caribbean rivers of South America; and (iii) the northeast Atlantic coast of South America. These lineages, which are not concordant with previous subspecies designations, are separated by sequence divergence estimates of d = 0.04-0.07, approximately the same level of divergence observed between T. manatus and the Amazonian manatee (T. inunguis, n = 16). Three individuals from Guyana, identified as T. manatus, had mtDNA haplotypes which are affiliated with the endemic Amazon form T. inunguis. The three primary T. manatus lineages and the T. inunguis lineage may represent relatively deep phylogeographic partitions which have been bridged recently due to changes in habitat availability (after the Wisconsin glacial period, 10 000 BP), natural colonization, and human-mediated transplantation.

  15. Phylogeography and population structure of the red stingray, Dasyatis akajei inferred by mitochondrial control region.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Chen, Xiao; Sun, Dianrong; Song, Na; Lin, Qin; Gao, Tianxiang

    2015-08-01

    The red stingray Dasyatis akajei is distributed in both marine and freshwater, but little is known about its phylogeography and population structure. We sampled 107 individuals from one freshwater region and 6 coastal localities within the distribution range of D. akajei. Analyses of the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA control region of 474 bp revealed only 17 polymorphism sites that defined 28 haplotypes, with no unique haplotype for the freshwater population. A high level of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity were observed in both marine (h = 0.9393 ± 0.0104, π = 0.0069 ± 0.0040) and freshwater populations (h = 0.8333 ± 0.2224, π = 0.0084 ± 0.0063). Significant level of genetic structure was detected between four marine populations (TZ, WZ, ND and ZZ) via both hierarchical molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) and pairwise FST (with two exceptions), which is unusual for elasmobranchs detected previously over such short geographical distance. However, limited sampling suggested that the freshwater population was not particularly distinct (p > 0.05), but additional samples would be needed to confirm it. Demersal and slow-moving characters likely have contributed to the genetically heterogeneous population structure. The demographic history of D. akajei examined by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline analyses suggested a sudden population expansion dating to upper Pleistocene. The information on genetic diversity and genetic structure will have implications for the management of fisheries and conservation efforts.

  16. Global phylogeography of the avian malaria pathogen Plasmodium relictum based on MSP1 allelic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hellgren, Olof; Atkinson, Carter T.; Bensch, Staffan; Albayrak, Tamer; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Ewen, John G.; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Lima, Marcos R.; Martin, Lynn; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Ricklefs, Robert; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.; Gediminas, Valkiunas; Tsuda, Yoshio; Marzal, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the genetic variation that occurs in pathogen populations and how it is distributed across geographical areas is essential to understand parasite epidemiology, local patterns of virulence, and evolution of host-resistance. In addition, it is important to identify populations of pathogens that are evolutionarily independent and thus ‘free’ to adapt to hosts and environments. Here, we investigated genetic variation in the globally distributed, highly invasive avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, which has several distinctive mitochondrial haplotyps (cyt b lineages, SGS1, GRW11 and GRW4). The phylogeography of P. relictum was accessed using the highly variable nuclear gene merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), a gene linked to the invasion biology of the parasite. We show that the lineage GRW4 is evolutionarily independent of GRW11 and SGS1 whereas GRW11 and SGS1 share MSP1 alleles and thus suggesting the presence of two distinct species (GRW4 versus SGS1 and GRW11). Further, there were significant differences in the global distribution of MSP1 alleles with differences between GRW4 alleles in the New and the Old World. For SGS1, a lineage formerly believed to have both tropical and temperate transmission, there were clear differences in MSP1 alleles transmitted in tropical Africa compared to the temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Further, we highlight the occurrence of multiple MSP1 alleles in GRW4 isolates from the Hawaiian Islands, where the parasite has contributed to declines and extinctions of endemic forest birds since it was introduced. This study stresses the importance of multiple independent loci for understanding patterns of transmission and evolutionary independence across avian malaria parasites.

  17. Bayesian Phylogeography of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ebranati, Erika; Shkjezi, Renata; Papa, Anna; Luzzago, Camilla; Gabanelli, Elena; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Lai, Alessia; Rezza, Giovanni; Galli, Massimo; Bino, Silvia; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonosis mainly transmitted by ticks that causes severe hemorrhagic fever and has a mortality rate of 5-60%. The first outbreak of CCHF occurred in the Crimean peninsula in 1944-45 and it has recently emerged in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean. In order to reconstruct the origin and pathway of the worldwide dispersion of the virus at global and regional (eastern European) level, we investigated the phylogeography of the infection by analysing 121 publicly available CCHFV S gene sequences including two recently characterised Albanian isolates. The spatial and temporal phylogeny was reconstructed using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach, which estimated a mean evolutionary rate of 2.96 x 10-4 (95%HPD=1.6 and 4.7 x 10-4) substitutions/site/year for the analysed fragment. All of the isolates segregated into seven highly significant clades that correspond to the known geographical clades: in particular the two new isolates from northern Albania clustered significantly within the Europe 1 clade. Our phylogeographical reconstruction suggests that the global CCHFV clades originated about one thousand years ago from a common ancestor probably located in Africa. The virus then spread to Asia in the XV century and entered Europe on at least two occasions: the first in the early 1800s, when a still circulating but less or non-pathogenic virus emerged in Greece and Turkey, and the second in the early 1900s, when a pathogenic CCHFV strain began to spread in eastern Europe. The most probable location for the origin of this European clade 1 was Russia, but Turkey played a central role in spreading the virus throughout Europe. Given the close proximity of the infected areas, our data suggest that the movement of wild and domestic ungulates from endemic areas was probably the main cause of the dissemination of the virus in eastern Europe. PMID:24223988

  18. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians

    PubMed Central

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed. PMID:25405228

  19. Asexual reproduction in holothurians.

    PubMed

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed.

  20. Ethical Issues Currently Being Discussed in Relation to Reproductive Medicine and the Laws Governing Reproductive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schleissing, S.; Kersten, J.; Thaler, C. J.; von Schönfeldt, V.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive medicine laws in Germany currently mean that the relationship status of prospective parents is taken into consideration in decisions on whether their application for assisted reproduction is approved or rejected. In the light of new forms of shared parenthood, we should ask ourselves whether the current regulations are still an appropriate way of guaranteeing the best for the child. Current medical practices and their legal basis will be illustrated using the examples of sperm, egg and embryo donation. From an ethical perspective, the question at stake is to what extent an “Ethics of Parenthood” can make it possible to act responsibly with regard to the changes occurring in forms of shared parenthood. Such an ethics is aimed at supporting parents in realising the reproductive autonomy guaranteed in the German Constitution through social and ethical aspects of the child–parent relationship. PMID:25089055

  1. Vitamin D - roles in women's reproductive health?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years a growing interest in vitamin D can be observed in the lay and biomedical literature due to findings demonstrating a low vitamin D status in the population. In addition to its importance for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. This secosteroid hormone also regulates the expression of a large number of genes in reproductive tissues implicating a role for vitamin D in female reproduction. In this report we summarize the recent evidence that vitamin D status influences female reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Human and animal data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence from observational studies shows higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and gestational diabetes in women with low vitamin D levels. However, confirmation of experimental observations establishing an association of vitamin D deficiency with adverse reproductive outcomes by high quality observational and large-scale randomized clinical trials is still lacking. The determination of optimal 25(OH)D3 levels in the reproductive period and the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve those levels for the numerous actions of vitamin D throughout a woman's life would have important public health implications. PMID:22047005

  2. Vitamin D - roles in women's reproductive health?

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Magdalena; von Versen-Höynck, Frauke

    2011-11-02

    In the past few years a growing interest in vitamin D can be observed in the lay and biomedical literature due to findings demonstrating a low vitamin D status in the population. In addition to its importance for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. This secosteroid hormone also regulates the expression of a large number of genes in reproductive tissues implicating a role for vitamin D in female reproduction. In this report we summarize the recent evidence that vitamin D status influences female reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Human and animal data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence from observational studies shows higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and gestational diabetes in women with low vitamin D levels. However, confirmation of experimental observations establishing an association of vitamin D deficiency with adverse reproductive outcomes by high quality observational and large-scale randomized clinical trials is still lacking. The determination of optimal 25(OH)D3 levels in the reproductive period and the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve those levels for the numerous actions of vitamin D throughout a woman's life would have important public health implications.

  3. Evolutionary Origin and Phylogeography of the Diploid Obligate Parthenogen Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi; Amat, Francisco; Rico, Ciro

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the evolutionary origin and the phylogeographic patterns of asexual taxa can shed light on the origin and maintenance of sexual reproduction. We assessed the geographic origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic history of obligate parthenogen diploid Artemia parthenogenetica populations, a widespread halophilic crustacean. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed a partial sequence of the Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I mitochondrial gene from an extensive set of localities (including Eurasia, Africa, and Australia), and examined their phylogeographic patterns and the phylogenetic relationships of diploid A. parthenogenetica and its closest sexual relatives. Populations displayed an extremely low level of mitochondrial genetic diversity, with one widespread haplotype shared by over 79% of individuals analysed. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses indicated a multiple and recent evolutionary origin of diploid A. parthenogenetica, and strongly suggested that the geographic origin of parthenogenesis in Artemia was in Central Asia. Our results indicate that the maternal sexual ancestors of diploid A. parthenogenetica were an undescribed species from Kazakhstan and A. urmiana. Conclusions/Significance We found evidence for multiple origin of parthenogenesis in Central Asia. Our results indicated that, shortly after its origin, diploid A. parthenogenetica populations underwent a rapid range expansion from Central Asia towards the Mediterranean region, and probably to the rest of its current geographic distribution. This contrasts with the restricted geographic distribution, strong genetic structure, and regional endemism of sexual Artemia lineages and other passively dispersed sexual continental aquatic invertebrates. We hypothesize that diploid parthenogens might have reached their current distribution in historical times, with a range expansion possibly facilitated by an increased availability of suitable habitat provided by

  4. Phylogeography of competing sexual and parthenogenetic forms of a freshwater flatworm: patterns and explanations

    PubMed Central

    Pongratz, Norbert; Storhas, Martin; Carranza, Salvador; Michiels, Nicolaas K

    2003-01-01

    Background Models of the maintenance of sex predict that one reproductive strategy, sexual or parthenogenetic, should outcompete the other. Distribution patterns may reflect the outcome of this competition as well as the effect of chance and historical events. We review the distribution data of sexual and parthenogenetic biotypes of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Results S. polychroa lives in allopatry or sympatry across Europe except for Central and North-Western Europe, where sexual individuals have never been reported. A phylogenetic relationship between 36 populations based on a 385 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that haplotypes were often similar over large geographic distances. In North Italian lakes, however, diversity was extreme, with sequence differences of up to 5% within the same lake in both sexuals and parthenogens. Mixed populations showed "endemic" parthenogenetic lineages that presumably originated from coexisting sexuals, and distantly related ones that probably result from colonization by parthenogens independent from sexuals. Conclusions Parthenogens originated repeatedly from sexuals, mainly in Italy, but the same may apply to other Mediterranean regions (Spain, Greece). The degree of divergence between populations suggests that S. polychroa survived the ice ages in separate ice-free areas in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe and re-colonised Europe after the retreat of the major glaciers. Combining these results with those based on nuclear markers, the data suggest that repeated hybridisation between sexuals and parthenogenetic lineages in mixed populations maintains high levels of genetic diversity in parthenogens. This can explain why parthenogens persist in populations that were originally sexual. Exclusive parthenogenesis in central and western populations suggests better colonisation capacity, possibly because of inbreeding costs as well as hybridisation of sexuals with parthenogens. PMID

  5. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Kaufer, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that stress, measured by increased glucocorticoid secretion, leads to profound reproductive dysfunction. In times of stress, glucocorticoids activate many parts of the fight or flight response, mobilizing energy and enhancing survival, while inhibiting metabolic processes that are not necessary for survival in the moment. This includes reproduction, an energetically costly procedure that is very finely regulated. In the short term, this is meant to be beneficial, so that the organism does not waste precious energy needed for survival. However, long-term inhibition can lead to persistent reproductive dysfunction, even if no longer stressed. This response is mediated by the increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which orchestrate complex inhibition of the entire reproductive axis. Stress and glucocorticoids exhibits both central and peripheral inhibition of the reproductive hormonal axis. While this has long been recognized as an issue, understanding the complex signaling mechanism behind this inhibition remains somewhat of a mystery. What makes this especially difficult is attempting to differentiate the many parts of both of these hormonal axes, and new neuropeptide discoveries in the last decade in the reproductive field have added even more complexity to an already complicated system. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and other hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as well as contributors in the sympathetic system) can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at all levels-GCs can inhibit release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release in the pituitary, and inhibit testosterone synthesis and release from the gonads, while also influencing gametogenesis and sexual behavior. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of all the known literature, however is aimed at giving a brief look at both the central and peripheral effects of glucocorticoids on the reproductive function.

  6. Women's autonomy and reproductive preferences in Eritrea.

    PubMed

    Woldemicael, Gebremariam

    2009-03-01

    Current research and policies on reproductive behaviours in many East African countries focus primarily on proxy indicators of women's autonomy, and very little emphasis is placed on direct indicators of women's autonomy. In this paper, data from the 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) are used to address some of the most frequently raised questions about the link between women's autonomy and reproductive behaviour. The results from the multivariate logistic models show that although the relationship between women's autonomy and reproductive preferences in Eritrea is complex, some clear, broad patterns exist that have implications for theory and policy. First, although the different dimensions of women's autonomy influence the outcome variables differently in terms of magnitude and statistical significance, most of them have a strong connection; in particular, women's final say in decisions regarding day-to-day household purchases and spousal communication are significant explanatory variables in fertility preferences and ever-use of modern contraception. Second, many background (proxy) variables, particularly household economic condition and employment, exert a strong and independent influence over fertility preferences and ever-use of contraception regardless of a woman's autonomy. In their relationship to reproductive behaviours, therefore, employment and economic status cannot be considered as proxies for women's autonomy in Eritrea. A complete explanation of the relationship between women's autonomy and reproductive preferences must recognize the effects of both the background and direct autonomy indicators. Interventions are needed to improve women's decision-making autonomy and strengthen their negotiating capacity on family planning if an increased desire to limit fertility is to be attained.

  7. Melatonin and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-06-15

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland whose concentrations in the body are regulated by both the dark-light and seasonal cycles. The reproductive function of seasonal breeding animals is clearly influenced by the circadian variation in melatonin levels. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates that melatonin has important effects in the reproduction of some non-seasonal breeding animals. In males, melatonin affects reproductive regulation in three main ways. First, it regulates the secretion of two key neurohormones, GnRH and LH. Second, it regulates testosterone synthesis and testicular maturation. Third, as a potent free radical scavenger that is both lipophilic and hydrophilic, it prevents testicular damage caused by environmental toxins or inflammation. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible biological roles of melatonin in male reproduction. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin affects the secretion of both gonadotropins and testosterone while also improving sperm quality. This implies that it has important effects on the regulation of testicular development and male reproduction.

  8. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  9. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  10. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Legal developments in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-05-01

    Courts have been quite consistent in allowing ex-partners in marriages or similar relationships, usually men, to veto the other partner's reproductive use of jointly-created IVF embryos. This supports the principle of voluntary parenthood. In contrast, child custody disputes following surrogate motherhood may favor the commissioning couple or the surrogate. Decisive are the best interests of the child, which a court may find favorable to the former or the latter, or custody shared between them. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may be restricted by governmental licensing regulations, and raises concerns about diagnosis showing noninheritance of a feared disorder, but not other conditions harming a subsequently born child. Travel abroad raises concerns of legality. Some countries explicitly allow nationals to go to other countries for services legally barred in their own, but others would bind nationals by their prohibitive laws if they were to receive, or counsel, services abroad that are lawful where delivered.

  12. Resource acquisition, allocation, and utilization in parasitoid reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Jervis, Mark A; Ellers, Jacintha; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Parasitoids display remarkable inter- and intraspecific variation in their reproductive and associated traits. Adaptive explanations have been proposed for many of the between-trait relationships. We present an overview of the current knowledge of parasitoid reproductive biology, focusing on egg production strategies in females, by placing parasitoid reproduction within physiological and ecological contexts. Thus, we relate parasitoid reproduction both to inter- and intraspecific patterns of nutrient allocation, utilization, and acquisition, and to key aspects of host ecology, specifically abundance and dispersion pattern. We review the evidence that resource trade-offs underlie several key intertrait correlations and that reproductive and feeding strategies are closely integrated at both the physiological and the behavioral levels. The idea that parasitoids can be divided into capital-breeders or income-breeders is no longer tenable; such terminology is best restricted to the females' utilization of particular nutrients.

  13. Biofluidmechanics of Reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Lisa J.; Dillon, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian fertilization requires the coordinated activity of motile spermatozoa, muscular contractions of the uterus and oviduct, as well as ciliary beating. These elastic structures generate forces that drive fluid motion, but their configurations are, in turn, determined by the fluid dynamics. We review the basic fluid mechanical aspects of reproduction, including flagellar/ciliary beating and peristalsis. We report on recent biological studies that have shed light on the relative importance of the mechanical ingredients of reproduction. In particular, we examine sperm motility in the reproductive tract, ovum pickup and transport in the oviduct, as well as sperm-egg interactions. We review recent advances in understanding the internal mechanics of cilia and flagella, flagellar surface interaction, sperm motility in complex fluids, and the role of fluid dynamics in embryo transfer. We outline promising computational fluid dynamics frameworks that may be used to investigate these complex, fluid-structure interactions.

  14. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  15. Biotechnology in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Illmensee, Karl

    2002-01-01

    In this review I am summarizing the past and current progress in the field of pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and reproductive cloning in mammals. Several human gene products can be pharmaceutically explored in transgenic farm animals and employed for medical applications. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is utilizing modern molecular cloning techniques to detect genetic and chromosomal aberrations in early embryos originating from patients with inborn errors at risk for hereditary diseases or age-related risk for abnormal karyotype. Stem cell engineering from early human embryos is creating new and promising but also controversial applications for therapeutic and regenerative medicine. Potential risk factors for reproductive cloning are presented and discussed in the context of possible developmental malformations, frequently observed after embryo culture and cloning in farm animals. Future extension of biotechnology to human reproductive cloning is currently under worldwide dispute.

  16. Methylxanthines and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alba; Bellezza, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction is the process by which organisms create descendants. In human reproduction, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes, are involved. Sperm, the male gamete, and egg egg , or ovum ovum Vedi egg , the female gamete, must meet in the female reproductive system to create a new individual and both the female and the male reproductive systems are essential to the occurrence of reproduction. Scientific reports dealing with the effects of methylxanthines on reproduction are mostly centred on the use of these compounds as phosphodiesterase inhibitors that, by maintaining high intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) cyclic AMP , will affect the gametes differently. High cAMP levels will sustain sperm sperm maturation while they hold the oocytes in mitotic arrest. Caffeine caffeine , being the methylxanthine most widely consumed by every segment of the population, has been the subject of greatest interest among health professionals and researchers. Conflicting results still seem to characterize the association between male/female caffeine caffeine consumption in adult life and semen quality/fertility fertility , although moderate daily caffeine consumption of levels up to 400-450 mg/day (5.7-6.4 mg/kg/day in a 70-kg adult) do not seem to be associated with adverse effects, i.e. general toxicity, effects on bone status and calcium balance, cardiovascular effects, behavioural changes, increased incidence of cancer, or effects on male fertility. A clear stimulation of egg-laying by the coffee leaf pest Leucoptera coffeella was recently reported, providing support for the hypothesis that caffeine, in a dose-dependent way, in insects stimulates egg-laying, thus leading to the death of coffee trees.

  17. Reproductive rights under attack.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, K

    1995-01-01

    Women's groups, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, funding groups, and donor countries must all be lobbied with the message that sexual and reproductive health issues are inextricably linked to women in development, education, and future economic strength of nations worldwide. In the Beijing Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum the draft Plan of Action had 35% of its language bracketed and subject to negotiation in Beijing. The previous International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo had only 15% of its language bracketed. Much of the language bracketed for Beijing had already been fully agreed upon before the Cairo conference. The bracketed language was in the health and human rights sections, and most of the language pertained to sexual and reproductive health. The increase in controversy is due to an opposition better organized in Beijing than it had been in Cairo, due to the opposition's failure to recognize the implications of the Cairo declarations on women, men, and children, and due to the opposition's general intolerance of sexual and reproductive issues. The major factor, however, was the linking of women's rights with sexual and reproductive health issues. Family planners joined with women's rights groups, which had always promoted women's control over their bodies as the cornerstone of equality. This connection was interpreted as a threat to the social order by conservative societies. NGO participants included 1400 people representing 170 countries. The NGO anti-abortion contingent was well-funded, well-organized, and large. Lobbying was conducted in an effort to convince people to oppose any language pertaining to gender, sexual and reproductive health, and adolescent rights. Anti-abortion lobbyists also rifled through documents of pro-choice participants. In Canada and the United States anti-abortion groups are lobbying hard to overturn the Cairo Plan of Action and to expand their efforts internationally among

  18. Social Reproduction and Sex in German Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel Scott; Wendt, Heike; Kasper, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    To understand the relationship between social background and sex in schooling, we use Bourdieu's theory of social reproduction and a feminist perspective of gender as practice. We pose two questions: (1) What is the relationship between economic and cultural capital and achievement for 4th-grade females versus males studying in Germany? (2) Is the…

  19. Robotics in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Julie; Patel, Sejal Dharia; Falcone, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, robotic technology has been increasingly incorporated into various industries, including surgery and medicine. This chapter will review the history, development, current applications, and future of robotic technology in reproductive medicine. A literature search was performed for all publications regarding robotic technology in medicine, surgery, reproductive endocrinology, and its role in both surgical education and telepresence surgery. As robotic assisted surgery has emerged, this technology provides a feasible option for minimally invasive surgery, impacts surgical education, and plays a role in telepresence surgery.

  20. Feminism and reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Joan C

    1994-01-01

    ... Rowland is a social scientist and a radical feminist, and she has undertaken the task of making readers think twice about reproductive technologies. If a reader isn't thinking twice, it will not do to blame it on Rowland and the shortcomings of her book. She has a good deal to say that is extremely important and that needs to be considered by anyone who is interested in the moral issues, in general, and the issues for women and children, in particular, that are raised by the new and emerging reproductive technologies. Her book should be widely read. And it should generate the worries it is written to generate.

  1. A hybrid computational method for the discovery of novel reproduction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Guohua; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction is of great importance to infertility treatment and to the generation of healthy offspring. In this study, we discovered novel reproduction-related genes with a hybrid computational method, integrating three different types of method, which offered new clues for further reproduction research. This method was first executed on a weighted graph, constructed based on known protein-protein interactions, to search the shortest paths connecting any two known reproduction-related genes. Genes occurring in these paths were deemed to have a special relationship with reproduction. These newly discovered genes were filtered with a randomization test. Then, the remaining genes were further selected according to their associations with known reproduction-related genes measured by protein-protein interaction score and alignment score obtained by BLAST. The in-depth analysis of the high confidence novel reproduction genes revealed hidden mechanisms of reproduction and provided guidelines for further experimental validations.

  2. A Hybrid Computational Method for the Discovery of Novel Reproduction-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Guohua; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction is of great importance to infertility treatment and to the generation of healthy offspring. In this study, we discovered novel reproduction-related genes with a hybrid computational method, integrating three different types of method, which offered new clues for further reproduction research. This method was first executed on a weighted graph, constructed based on known protein-protein interactions, to search the shortest paths connecting any two known reproduction-related genes. Genes occurring in these paths were deemed to have a special relationship with reproduction. These newly discovered genes were filtered with a randomization test. Then, the remaining genes were further selected according to their associations with known reproduction-related genes measured by protein-protein interaction score and alignment score obtained by BLAST. The in-depth analysis of the high confidence novel reproduction genes revealed hidden mechanisms of reproduction and provided guidelines for further experimental validations. PMID:25768094

  3. Interannual variability of growth and reproduction in Bursera simaruba: the role of allometry and resource variability.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Stegen, James C; Swenson, Nathan G; Enquist, Carolyn A F; Enquist, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    Plants are expected to differentially allocate resources to reproduction, growth, and survival in order to maximize overall fitness. Life history theory predicts that the allocation of resources to reproduction should occur at the expense of vegetative growth. Although it is known that both organism size and resource availability can influence life history traits, few studies have addressed how size dependencies of growth and reproduction and variation in resource supply jointly affect the coupling between growth and reproduction. In order to understand the relationship between growth and reproduction in the context of resource variability, we utilize a long-term observational data set consisting of 670 individual trees over a 10-year period within a local population of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. We (1) quantify the functional form and variability in the growth-reproduction relationship at the population and individual-tree level and (2) develop a theoretical framework to understand the allometric dependence of growth and reproduction. Our findings suggest that the differential responses of allometric growth and reproduction to resource availability, both between years and between microsites, underlie the apparent relationship between growth and reproduction. Finally, we offer an alternative approach for quantifying the relationship between growth and reproduction that accounts for variation in allometries.

  4. RE-EVALUATION OF THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SIGMODON HISPIDUS COMPLEX BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCES.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Robert D; Henson, Dallas D; Durish, Nevin D

    2008-09-01

    Geographic distribution among members of the Sigmodon hispidus complex (Sigmodon hirsutus, S. hispidus, and S. toltecus) were examined using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Geographic distribution of each taxon was defined based on DNA sequences obtained from 69 samples (19 newly obtained and 50 from previous studies) collected from North, Central, and South America. These data indicated that S. hispidus is restricted to the southern one-half of the United States and northeastern Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas), S. toltecus occupies the eastern one-third of Mexico (central Tamaulipas) to northern Honduras, and S. hirsutus is distributed from central Chiapas and southeastern Oaxaca to northern South America (Venezuela). The newly collected data extend distributions of S. hispidus from the southern United States southward into northeastern Mexico and that of S. toltecus from Chiapas, Mexico, southward to Honduras. Genetic divergence and patterns of phylogeography were examined within each taxon.

  5. RE-EVALUATION OF THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SIGMODON HISPIDUS COMPLEX BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Henson, Dallas D.; Durish, Nevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Geographic distribution among members of the Sigmodon hispidus complex (Sigmodon hirsutus, S. hispidus, and S. toltecus) were examined using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Geographic distribution of each taxon was defined based on DNA sequences obtained from 69 samples (19 newly obtained and 50 from previous studies) collected from North, Central, and South America. These data indicated that S. hispidus is restricted to the southern one-half of the United States and northeastern Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas), S. toltecus occupies the eastern one-third of Mexico (central Tamaulipas) to northern Honduras, and S. hirsutus is distributed from central Chiapas and southeastern Oaxaca to northern South America (Venezuela). The newly collected data extend distributions of S. hispidus from the southern United States southward into northeastern Mexico and that of S. toltecus from Chiapas, Mexico, southward to Honduras. Genetic divergence and patterns of phylogeography were examined within each taxon. PMID:20613884

  6. Multiple glacial refugia in the North American Arctic: inference from phylogeography of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus).

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Vadim B; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2002-10-22

    Cryptic northern refugia beyond the ice limit of the Pleistocene glaciations may have had significant influence on the current pattern of biodiversity in Arctic regions. In order to evaluate whether northern glacial refugia existed in the Canadian Arctic, we examined mitochondrial DNA phylogeography in the northernmost species of rodents, the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus) sampled across its range of distribution in the North American Arctic and Greenland. The division of the collared lemming into the Canadian Arctic and eastern Beringia phylogroups does not support postglacial colonization of the North American Arctic from a single eastern Beringia refugium. Rather, the phylogeographical structure and sparse fossil records indicate that, during the last glaciation, some biologically significant refugia and important sources of postglacial colonization were located to the northwest of the main ice sheet in the Canadian Arctic.

  7. Evolutionary history of the endangered fish Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Bean, 1898) (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae) using a sequential approach to phylogeography based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Tectonic, volcanic and climatic events that produce changes in hydrographic systems are the main causes of diversification and speciation of freshwater fishes. Elucidate the evolutionary history of freshwater fishes permits to infer theories on the biotic and geological evolution of a region, which can further be applied to understand processes of population divergence, speciation and for conservation purposes. The freshwater ecosystems in Central Mexico are characterized by their genesis dynamism, destruction, and compartmentalization induced by intense geologic activity and climatic changes since the early Miocene. The endangered goodeid Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis is widely distributed across Central México, thus making it a good model for phylogeographic analyses in this area. Results We addressed the phylogeography, evolutionary history and genetic structure of populations of Z. quitzeoensis through a sequential approach, based on both microsatellite and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Most haplotypes were private to particular locations. All the populations analysed showed a remarkable number of haplotypes. The level of gene diversity within populations was H¯d = 0.987 (0.714 – 1.00). However, in general the nucleotide diversity was low, π = 0.0173 (0.0015 – 0.0049). Significant genetic structure was found among populations at the mitochondrial and nuclear level (ΦST = 0.836 and FST = 0.262, respectively). We distinguished two well-defined mitochondrial lineages that were separated ca. 3.3 million years ago (Mya). The time since expansion was ca. 1.5 × 106 years ago for Lineage I and ca. 860,000 years ago for Lineage II. Also, genetic patterns of differentiation, between and within lineages, are described at different historical timescales. Conclusion Our mtDNA data indicates that the evolution of the different genetic groups is more related to ancient geological and climatic events (Middle Pliocene, ca. 3.3 Mya) than to the current

  8. A climate change context for the decline of a foundation tree species in south-western Australia: insights from phylogeography and species distribution modelling.

    PubMed

    Dalmaris, Eleftheria; Ramalho, Cristina E; Poot, Pieter; Veneklaas, Erik J; Byrne, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    A worldwide increase in tree decline and mortality has been linked to climate change and, where these represent foundation species, this can have important implications for ecosystem functions. This study tests a combined approach of phylogeographic analysis and species distribution modelling to provide a climate change context for an observed decline in crown health and an increase in mortality in Eucalyptus wandoo, an endemic tree of south-western Australia. Phylogeographic analyses were undertaken using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of chloroplast DNA in 26 populations across the species distribution. Parsimony analysis of haplotype relationships was conducted, a haplotype network was prepared, and haplotype and nucleotide diversity were calculated. Species distribution modelling was undertaken using Maxent models based on extant species occurrences and projected to climate models of the last glacial maximum (LGM). A structured pattern of diversity was identified, with the presence of two groups that followed a climatic gradient from mesic to semi-arid regions. Most populations were represented by a single haplotype, but many haplotypes were shared among populations, with some having widespread distributions. A putative refugial area with high haplotype diversity was identified at the centre of the species distribution. Species distribution modelling showed high climatic suitability at the LGM and high climatic stability in the central region where higher genetic diversity was found, and low suitability elsewhere, consistent with a pattern of range contraction. Combination of phylogeography and paleo-distribution modelling can provide an evolutionary context for climate-driven tree decline, as both can be used to cross-validate evidence for refugia and contraction under harsh climatic conditions. This approach identified a central refugial area in the test species E. wandoo, with more recent expansion into peripheral areas from where it had

  9. Phylogeography of amphi-boreal fish: tracing the history of the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in North-East European seas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations of C. pallasii are also present in the border waters of the North-East Atlantic in Europe. These populations show considerable regional and life history differentiation and have been recognized in subspecies classification. The chronology of the inter-oceanic invasions and genetic basis of the phenotypic structuring however remain unclear. Results The Atlantic and Pacific herrings both feature high mtDNA diversities (large long-term population sizes) in their native basins, but an ocean-wide homogeneity of C. harengus is contrasted by deep east-west Pacific subdivision within Pacific C. pallasii. The outpost populations of C. pallasii in NE Europe are identified as members of the western Pacific C. pallasii clade, with some retained inter-oceanic haplotype sharing. They have lost diversity in colonization bottlenecks, but have also thereafter accumulated abundant new variation. The data delineate three phylogeographic groups within the European C. pallasii: herring from the inner White Sea; herring from the Mezen and Chesha Bays; and a strongly bottlenecked peripheral population in Balsfjord of the Norwegian Sea. Conclusions The NE European outposts of C. pallasii are judged to be early post-glacial colonists from the NW Pacific. A strong regional substructure has evolved since that time, in contrast to the apparent broad-scale uniformity maintained by herrings in their native basins. The structure only partly matches the

  10. Phylogeography and Conservation Genetics of the Ibero-Balearic Three-Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Carlos; Perea, Silvia; Doadrio, Ignacio; Amaro, Rafaela; San Miguel, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Genetic isolation and drift may imperil peripheral populations of wide-ranging species more than central ones. Therefore, information about species genetic variability and population structure is invaluable for conservation managers. The Iberian populations of three-spined stickleback lie at the southwestern periphery of the European distribution of Gasterosteus aculeatus. This teleost is a protected species in Portugal and Spain and local extinctions have been reported in both countries during the last decades. Our objectives were (i) to determine whether the Iberian populations of G. aculeatus are unique or composed of any of the major evolutionary lineages previously identified and (ii) to assess the evolutionary potential of these peripheral populations. We genotyped 478 individuals from 17 sites at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic variability and differentiation of the Ibero-Balearic populations. We also sequenced 1,165 bp of the mitochondrial genome in 331 of those individuals in order to complement the estimates of genetic diversity in the Ibero-Balearic region. We predicted the evolutionary potential of the different sites analysed based on the contribution of each of them to total allelic/mitochondrial diversity. An intraspecific phylogeny at European level was reconstructed using our data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (755 bp) and published sequences. The so-called Transatlantic, European and Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages were found to be present in the Ibero-Balearic region. Their phylogeography suggests a history of multiple colonisations. The nuclear results show, however, a strong correlation between population structure and drainage system. The following basins should be prioritised by conservation policies in order to preserve those populations with the highest evolutionary potential: the Portuguese Vouga and Tagus as well as the Spanish Majorca and Limia. Maintenance of their connectivity, control of

  11. Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica from the country of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    the B.Br.013 group. This finding suggests that additional phylogenetic studies of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica populations in Eastern Europe and Asia have the potential to yield important new insights into the evolutionary history and phylogeography of this broadly dispersed F. tularensis subspecies. PMID:21682874

  12. Limited, episodic diversification and contrasting phylogeography in a New Zealand cicada radiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The New Zealand (NZ) cicada fauna contains two co-distributed lineages that independently colonized the isolated continental fragment in the Miocene. One extensively studied lineage includes 90% of the extant species (Kikihia + Maoricicada + Rhodopsalta; ca 51 spp.), while the other contains just four extant species (Amphipsalta – 3 spp. + Notopsalta – 1 sp.) and has been little studied. We examined mitochondrial and nuclear-gene phylogenies and phylogeography, Bayesian relaxed-clock divergence timing (incorporating literature-based uncertainty of molecular clock estimates) and ecological niche models of the species from the smaller radiation. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear-gene trees supported the monophyly of Amphipsalta. Most interspecific diversification within Amphipsalta-Notopsalta occurred from the mid-Miocene to the Pliocene. However, interspecific divergence time estimates had large confidence intervals and were highly dependent on the assumed tree prior, and comparisons of uncorrected and patristic distances suggested difficulty in estimation of branch lengths. In contrast, intraspecific divergence times varied little across analyses, and all appear to have occurred during the Pleistocene. Two large-bodied forest taxa (A. cingulata, A. zelandica) showed minimal phylogeographic structure, with intraspecific diversification dating to ca. 0.16 and 0.37 Ma, respectively. Mid-Pleistocene-age phylogeographic structure was found within two smaller-bodied species (A. strepitans – 1.16 Ma, N. sericea – 1.36 Ma] inhabiting dry open habitats. Branches separating independently evolving species were long compared to intraspecific branches. Ecological niche models hindcast to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) matched expectations from the genetic datasets for A. zelandica and A. strepitans, suggesting that the range of A. zelandica was greatly reduced while A. strepitans refugia were more extensive. However, no LGM habitat could be

  13. Comparative phylogeography of woodland reptiles in California: repeated patterns of cladogenesis and population expansion.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Chris R; Spicer, Greg S

    2006-07-01

    The ultimate goal of comparative phylogeographical analyses is to infer processes of diversification from contemporary geographical patterns of genetic diversity. When such studies are employed across diverse groups in an array of communities, it may be difficult to discover common evolutionary and ecological processes associated with diversification. In order to identify taxa that have responded in a similar fashion to historical events, we conducted comparative phylogeographical analyses on a phylogenetically and ecologically limited set of taxa. Here, we focus on a group of squamate reptiles (snakes and lizards) that share similar ecological requirements and generally occupy the same communities in the western USA. At a gross level, deep genetic division in Contia tenuis, Diadophis punctatus, Elgaria multicarinata, the Charina bottae complex, and Lampropeltis zonata are often concordant in the Transverse Ranges, the Monterey Bay and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region, and the southern Sierra Nevada in California. Molecular clock estimates suggest that major phyletic breaks within many of these taxa roughly coincide temporally, and may correspond to important geological events. Furthermore, significant congruence between the phylogeographies of E. multicarinata and L. zonata suggests that the succession of vicariance and dispersal events in these species progressed in concert. Such congruence suggests that E. multicarinata and L. zonata have occupied the same communities through time. However, across our entire multi-taxon data set, the sequence of branching events rarely match between sympatric taxa, indicating the importance of subtle differences in life history features as well as random processes in creating unique genetic patterns. Lastly, coalescent and noncoalescent estimates of population expansion suggest that populations in the more southerly distributed clades of C. tenuis, D. punctatus, E. multicarinata, and L. zonata have been stable, while

  14. Limited, episodic diversification and contrasting phylogeography in a New Zealand cicada radiation.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Marske, Katharine A; Chambers, Colleen; Buckley, Thomas R; Simon, Chris

    2012-09-11

    The New Zealand (NZ) cicada fauna contains two co-distributed lineages that independently colonized the isolated continental fragment in the Miocene. One extensively studied lineage includes 90% of the extant species (Kikihia + Maoricicada + Rhodopsalta; ca 51 spp.), while the other contains just four extant species (Amphipsalta - 3 spp. + Notopsalta - 1 sp.) and has been little studied. We examined mitochondrial and nuclear-gene phylogenies and phylogeography, Bayesian relaxed-clock divergence timing (incorporating literature-based uncertainty of molecular clock estimates) and ecological niche models of the species from the smaller radiation. Mitochondrial and nuclear-gene trees supported the monophyly of Amphipsalta. Most interspecific diversification within Amphipsalta-Notopsalta occurred from the mid-Miocene to the Pliocene. However, interspecific divergence time estimates had large confidence intervals and were highly dependent on the assumed tree prior, and comparisons of uncorrected and patristic distances suggested difficulty in estimation of branch lengths. In contrast, intraspecific divergence times varied little across analyses, and all appear to have occurred during the Pleistocene. Two large-bodied forest taxa (A. cingulata, A. zelandica) showed minimal phylogeographic structure, with intraspecific diversification dating to ca. 0.16 and 0.37 Ma, respectively. Mid-Pleistocene-age phylogeographic structure was found within two smaller-bodied species (A. strepitans - 1.16 Ma, N. sericea - 1.36 Ma] inhabiting dry open habitats. Branches separating independently evolving species were long compared to intraspecific branches. Ecological niche models hindcast to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) matched expectations from the genetic datasets for A. zelandica and A. strepitans, suggesting that the range of A. zelandica was greatly reduced while A. strepitans refugia were more extensive. However, no LGM habitat could be reconstructed for A. cingulata and N

  15. Phylogeography and Conservation Genetics of the Ibero-Balearic Three-Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Vila, Marta; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Carlos; Perea, Silvia; Doadrio, Ignacio; Amaro, Rafaela; San Miguel, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Genetic isolation and drift may imperil peripheral populations of wide-ranging species more than central ones. Therefore, information about species genetic variability and population structure is invaluable for conservation managers. The Iberian populations of three-spined stickleback lie at the southwestern periphery of the European distribution of Gasterosteus aculeatus. This teleost is a protected species in Portugal and Spain and local extinctions have been reported in both countries during the last decades. Our objectives were (i) to determine whether the Iberian populations of G. aculeatus are unique or composed of any of the major evolutionary lineages previously identified and (ii) to assess the evolutionary potential of these peripheral populations. We genotyped 478 individuals from 17 sites at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic variability and differentiation of the Ibero-Balearic populations. We also sequenced 1,165 bp of the mitochondrial genome in 331 of those individuals in order to complement the estimates of genetic diversity in the Ibero-Balearic region. We predicted the evolutionary potential of the different sites analysed based on the contribution of each of them to total allelic/mitochondrial diversity. An intraspecific phylogeny at European level was reconstructed using our data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (755 bp) and published sequences. The so-called Transatlantic, European and Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages were found to be present in the Ibero-Balearic region. Their phylogeography suggests a history of multiple colonisations. The nuclear results show, however, a strong correlation between population structure and drainage system. The following basins should be prioritised by conservation policies in order to preserve those populations with the highest evolutionary potential: the Portuguese Vouga and Tagus as well as the Spanish Majorca and Limia. Maintenance of their connectivity, control of

  16. High-resolution phylogenetics and phylogeography of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C epidemic in South America.

    PubMed

    Véras, Nazle Mendonca Collaço; Gray, Rebecca R; Brígido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Rodrigues, Rosângela; Salemi, Marco

    2011-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C (HIV-1C) represents 30-65% of HIV infections in southern Brazil, and isolated cases of HIV-1C infection have also been reported in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Venezuela. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that the Brazilian subtype C epidemic was initiated by the introduction of closely related strains. Nevertheless, because of sampling limitations, the point of entry and the timing of subtype C introduction into Brazil, as well as the origin of the founder lineage, remain controversial. The present study investigated the origin, spread and phylogeography of HIV-1C in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed a well-supported monophyletic clade including all available strains from Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Only one lineage from Venezuela was unrelated to the epidemic involving the other three countries. Molecular clock and likelihood mapping analysis showed that HIV-1C introduction in Brazil dated back to the period 1960-1970, much earlier than previously thought, and was followed by a nearly simultaneous star-like outburst of viral lineages, indicating a subsequent rapid spread. Phylogeographic patterns suggested Paraná or Rio Grande do Sul as the possible entrance points of subtype C and an asymmetrical gene flow from Paraná to Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, as well as from Rio Grande do Sul to Sao Paulo fostered by the strong inter-connectivity between population centres in southern Brazil. The study illustrates how coupling phylogeography inference with geographical information system data is critical to understand the origin and dissemination of viral pathogens and potentially predict their future spread.

  17. Phylogeography of endemic Xantus' hummingbird (Hylocharis xantusii) shows a different history of vicariance in the Baja California Peninsula.

    PubMed

    González-Rubio, Cristina; García-De León, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    Studies of phylogeographic patterns provide insight into the processes driving lineage divergence in a particular region. To identify the processes that caused phylogeographic breaks, it is necessary to use historical information and a set of appropriate molecular data to explain current patterns. To understand the influence of geological or ecological processes on the phylogeography of the only species of hummingbird endemic to the Baja California Peninsula, Hylocharis xantusii, mitochondrial DNA sequences of three concatenated genes (Cyt-b, COI and ND2; 2297bp in total) in 100 individuals were analyzed. The spatial analyses of genetic variation showed phylogeographic structure consisting of a north, central and south regions. According to estimated divergence times, two vicariant events are supported, permanent separation of the peninsula and formation of the Gulf of California at 5mya and temporary isolation of the southern region at the Isthmus of La Paz at 3mya. The temporal frame of genetic differentiation of intraspecific haplotypes indicates that 90% of haplotypes diverged within the last 500,000years, with a population expansion 80,000years ago. Only four haplotypes diverged ∼2.2 my and occurred in the south (Hxan_36, 38 and 45), and north (Hxan_45 and 56) regions; only haplotype 45 is shared between south and north populations. These regions also have the most recent haplotypes from 12,500 to 16,200years ago, and together with high levels of genetic diversity, we suggest two refuge areas, the Northern and Southern regions. Our results indicate that the phylogeographic pattern first results from vicariance processes, then is followed by historical and recent climate fluctuations that influenced conditions on the peninsula, and it is also related to oases distribution. This study presents the first investigation of phylogeography of the peninsular' endemic Xantus' hummingbird. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ficus insipida subsp. insipida (Moraceae) reveals the role of ecology in the phylogeography of widespread Neotropical rain forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N; Dexter, Kyle G; Poelchau, Monica F; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Phillips, Oliver L; Pennington, R Toby; Carine, Mark

    2014-09-01

    To examine the phylogeography of Ficus insipida subsp. insipida in order to investigate patterns of spatial genetic structure across the Neotropics and within Amazonia. Neotropics. Plastid DNA (trnH-psbA; 410 individuals from 54 populations) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS; 85 individuals from 27 populations) sequences were sampled from Mexico to Bolivia, representing the full extent of the taxon's distribution. Divergence of plastid lineages was dated using a Bayesian coalescent approach. Genetic diversity was assessed with indices of haplotype and nucleotide diversities, and genetic structure was examined using spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) and haplotype networks. Population expansion within Amazonia was tested using neutrality and mismatch distribution tests. trnH-psbA sequences yielded 19 haplotypes restricted to either Mesoamerica or Amazonia; six haplotypes were found among ITS sequences. Diversification of the plastid DNA haplotypes began c. 14.6 Ma. Haplotype diversity for trnH-psbA was higher in Amazonia. Seven genetically differentiated SAMOVA groups were described for trnH-psbA, of which two were also supported by the presence of unique ITS sequences. Population expansion was suggested for both markers for the SAMOVA group that contains most Amazonian populations. Our results show marked population genetic structure in F. insipida between Mesoamerica and Amazonia, implying that the Andes and seasonally dry areas of northern South America are eco-climatic barriers to its migration. This pattern is shared with other widespread pioneer species affiliated to wet habitats, indicating that the ecological characteristics of species may impact upon large-scale phylogeography. Ficus insipida also shows genetic structure in north-western Amazonia potentially related to pre-Pleistocene historical events. In contrast, evident population expansion elsewhere in Amazonia, in particular the presence of genetically uniform

  19. Phylogeography and Conservation Genetics of the Common Wall Lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Islands at Its Northern Range

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Sozos; Cornish, Nina; Griffiths, Richard; Groombridge, Jim; Zajac, Natalia; Walters, Graham J.; Aubret, Fabien; While, Geoffrey M.; Uller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France) populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR) of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction. PMID:25659074

  20. Phylogeography and genetic structure of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Lee, Ying-Chou

    2017-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is mainly distributed in East Asia. The phylogeography, population genetic structure and historical dem