Science.gov

Sample records for relative element levels

  1. Entropy coding of syntax elements related to block structures and transform coefficient levels in HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tung; Helle, Philipp; Winken, Martin; Marpe, Detlev; Schwarz, Heiko; Wiegand, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The most recent video compression technology is High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). This soon to be completed standard is a joint development by Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) of ITU-T and Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) of ISO/IEC. As one of its major technical novelties, HEVC supports variable prediction and transform block sizes using the quadtree approach for block partitioning. In terms of entropy coding, the Draft International Standard (DIS) of HEVC specifies context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) as the single mode of operation. In this paper, a description of the specific CABAC-based entropy coding part in HEVC is given that is related to block structures and transform coefficient levels. In addition, experimental results are presented that indicate the benefit of the transform-coefficient level coding design in HEVC in terms of improved coding performance and reduced complexity.

  2. Relation between trace element levels in plasma and myocardium during coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Funseth, E; Lindh, U; Friman, G; Ilbäck, N G

    2000-12-01

    During most infections the plasma levels of trace elements change, but it is not clear if this reflects changes in the infected tissues. Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection may result in viral replication, subsequent inflammation and changed trace element levels in the myocardium. In the present study, the trace element levels in the plasma and heart of adult male A/J mice were determined during the pre-inflammatory stage (day 4) of CB3 myocarditis for the following trace elements: aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn). The severity of the infection was assessed through clinical signs of disease and trace element levels were measured through inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the heart, the levels decreased for V (59%; p < 0.01), Co (38%; p < 0.01), Al (81%; p < 0.01), As (66%; p < 0.01) and Se (16%; p < 0.01). Increased levels were detected for Mn (13%; p < 0.05), Fe (48%; p < 0.01), Cu (34%; p < 0.01) and Ag (46%; p < 0.01). In the plasma, decreases were detected in the level of Zn (32%; p < 0.05), whereas increases were seen in Mn (362%; p < 0.05), Fe (272%; p < 0.01), Co (71%; p < 0.05), Cu (25%; n.s.) and Mg (43%; p < 0.01) levels. A correlation was found between the levels in plasma and myocardium for Co (r(s) = -0.636; p < 0.05), Fe (r(s) = 0.764; p < 0.05), Mn (r(s) = 0.682; p < 0.05) and Mg (r(s) = -0.791; p < 0.05). Thus, determination of some of these trace elements in the plasma may be useful to indicate target tissue involvement in the early pre- inflammatory stage of an infectious disease. Some of these elements are important nutrients for the immune system, while others may be associated with the development of disease complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias.

  3. Evaluation of trace element and mineral status and related to levels of amino acid in children with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Gok, Fazilet; Ekin, Suat; Dogan, Murat

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine trace elements (Zn, Cu, Mn, Se, Fe, Co, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb), minerals (Ca, Mg, K), amino acids status in children with phenylketonuria and also whether they were correlated with each other in phenylketonuric patients. It has been found out that the HPA group was significantly lower than the control group with regards to Zn, Se, K, Ca, Mg and Zn/Cr levels (p<0.001, p<0.01, p<0.001, p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively). In the patients with HPA, significantly strong positive correlations were observed between magnesium and calcium (r=0.791; p=0.001), also, indicates negative significant correlation between the concentrations of magnesium and phenylalanine (r=-0.591; p=0.026). The results of this study showed that, in the HPA group, phenylalanine-Mg relationship found, the presence of disease will in the evaluation of phenylalanine and other amino acids, together with the value of magnesium is required to consider. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Levels of Aqueous Humor Trace Elements in Patients with Non-Exsudative Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jünemann, Anselm G. M.; Stopa, Piotr; Michalke, Bernhard; Chaudhri, Anwar; Reulbach, Udo; Huchzermeyer, Cord; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Kruse, Friedrich E.; Zrenner, Eberhart; Rejdak, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements might play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to measure alterations of trace elements levels in aqueous humor of patients with non-exsudative (dry) AMD. For this pilot study, aqueous humor samples were collected from patients undergoing cataract surgery. 12 patients with dry AMD (age 77.9±6.62, female 8, male 4) and 11 patients without AMD (age 66.6±16.7, female 7, male 4) were included. Aqueous levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc were measured by use of Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS), quality controlled with certified standards. Patients with AMD had significantly higher aqueous humor levels of cadmium (median: 0.70 µmol/L, IQR: 0.40–0.84 vs. 0.06 µmol/L; IQR: 0.01–.018; p = 0.002), cobalt (median: 3.1 µmol/L, IQR: 2.62–3.15 vs. 1.17 µmol/L; IQR: 0.95–1.27; p<0.001), iron (median: 311 µmol/L, IQR: 289–329 vs. 129 µmol/L; IQR: 111–145; p<0.001) and zinc (median: 23.1 µmol/L, IQR: 12.9–32.6 vs. 5.1 µmol/L; IQR: 4.4–9.4; p = 0.020) when compared with patients without AMD. Copper levels were significantly reduced in patients with AMD (median: 16.2 µmol/L, IQR: 11.4–31.3 vs. 49.9 µmol/L; IQR: 32.0–.142.0; p = 0.022) when compared to those without. No significant differences were observed in aqueous humor levels of manganese and selenium between patients with and without AMD. After an adjustment for multiple testing, cadmium, cobalt, copper and iron remained a significant factor in GLM models (adjusted for age and gender of the patients) for AMD. Alterations of trace element levels support the hypothesis that cadmium, cobalt, iron, and copper are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:23457607

  5. Trace elements levels in centenarian 'dodgers'.

    PubMed

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-05-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or 'dodgers' (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant lower Cu (783.7 (76.7, 1608.9) vs 962.5 (676.3, 2064.4)μg/mL, P<0.001), but higher Fe (1.3 (0.4, 4.7) vs 1.1 (0.5, 8.4)μg/mL, P=0.003) and Se (85.7 (43.0, 256.7) vs 77.8 (24.3, 143.8)ng/mL, P=0.002) values compared with elderly controls. The logistic regression analysis identified the combination of Cu and Se as significant predictor variables associated with successful aging (P=0.001), while receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis confirmed that Cu and Se (either alone or in combination) were independent variables associated with healthy aging. An 'improved' trace element profile (reduced Cu and elevated Se, which are involved in key physiological processes) could play a role in the resistance to disease showed by centenarian 'dodgers', and, therefore, at least partly, be involved in the healthy aging phenotype shown by these subjects. These results should be confirmed in larger cohorts of other geographic/ethnic origin and the potential cause-effect association tested in mechanistic experimental settings.

  6. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Peng, Zicheng; Wei, Gangjian; Chen, Tegu; Sun, Weidong; He, Jianfeng; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2011-02-01

    Here we present interannual rare earth element (REE) records spanning the last two decades of the 20th century in two living Porites corals, collected from Longwan Bay, close to the estuarine zones off Wanquan River of Hainan Island and Hong Kong off the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in the northern South China Sea. The results show that both coral REE contents (0.5-40 ng g⁻¹ in Longwan Bay and 2-250 ng g⁻¹ in Hong Kong for La-Lu) are characterized with a declining trend, which are significantly negative correlated with regional sea-level rise (9.4 mm a⁻¹) from 1981 to 1996 in Longwan Bay, 13.7 mm a⁻¹ from 1991 to 2001 in Hong Kong). The REE features are proposed to be resulted from seawater intrusion into the estuaries in response to contemporary sea-level rise. However, the tendency for the coral Er/Nd time series at Hong Kong site is absent and there is no significant relation between Er/Nd and total REEs as found for the coral at Longwan Bay site. The observations are likely attributed to changes of the water discharge and sediment load of Pearl River, which have been significantly affected by intense human activities, such as the construction of dams/reservoirs and riverbed sediment mining, in past decades. The riverine sediment load/discharge ratio of the Pearl River decreased sharply with a rate of 0.02 kg m⁻³ a⁻¹, which could make significant contribution to the declining trend of coral REE. We propose that coastal corals in Longwan Bay and similar unexplored sites with little influences of river discharge and anthropogenic disruption are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of sea-level change on seawater/coral REE. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Wei, G.; Chen, T.; Sun, W.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Shen, C.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present interannual rare earth element (REE) records spanning the last two decades of the 20th century in two living Porites corals, collected from Longwan Bay, close to the estuarine zones off Wanquan River of Hainan Island and Hong Kong off the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in the northern South China Sea. The results show that both coral REE contents (0.5-40 ng g-1 in Longwan Bay and 2-250 ng g-1 in Hong Kong for La-Lu) are characterized with a declining trend, which are significantly negative correlated with regional sea-level rise (9.4 mm a-1 from 1981 to 1996 in Longwan Bay, 13.7 mm a-1 from 1991 to 2001 in Hong Kong). The REE features are proposed to be resulted from seawater intrusion into the estuaries in response to contemporary sea-level rise. However, the tendency for the coral Er/Nd time series at Hong Kong site is absent and there is no significant relation between Er/Nd and total REEs as found for the coral at Longwan Bay site. The observations are likely attributed to changes of the water discharge and sediment load of Pearl River, which have been significantly affected by intense human activities, such as the construction of dams/reservoirs and riverbed sediment mining, in past decades. The riverine sediment load/discharge ratio of the Pearl River decreased sharply with a rate of 0.02 kg m-3 a-1, which could make significant contribution to the declining trend of coral REE. We propose that coastal corals in Longwan Bay and similar unexplored sites with little influences of river discharge and anthropogenic disruption are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of sea-level change on seawater/coral REE. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Vanishing of dipole matrix elements at level crossings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocher, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Demonstration that the vanishing of certain coupling matrix elements at level crossings follow from angular momentum commutation relations. A magnetic dipole transition having delta M = plus or minus 1, induced near a crossing of the levels in a nonzero magnetic field, is found to have a dipole matrix element comparable to or smaller than the quotient of the level separation and the field. This result also applies in the analogous electric field electric dipole case.

  9. ICP-DRC-MS analysis of serum essential and toxic element levels in postmenopausal prediabetic women in relation to glycemic control markers.

    PubMed

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Yurasov, Vasily V; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-09-14

    Assessment of the influence of prediabetes on serum trace element and electrolyte levels in postmenopausal women. A total of 80 prediabetic and 80 healthy postmenopausal women took part in the present study. Serum was analyzed for glucose, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were also assessed. Serum levels of 28 elements were estimated using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry with dynamic reaction cell technology (ICP-DRC-MS). Prediabetic women were characterized by significantly higher HbA1c, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, ALT, and GGT values. Of trace elements, only serum zinc (Zn) levels were significantly lower in prediabetics by 10% (p=0.001) when compared to the controls. Serum Zn levels were characterized by a significant inverse correlation with HbA1c (r=- 0.205; p=0.009), insulin (r=- 0.246; p=0.002), and HOMA-IR (r=- 0.227; p=0.004). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse association between serum Zn (β=-0.169; p=0.031) and Sr (β=-0.192; p=0.012) and HOMA-IR values after adjustment for anthropometric and biochemical parameters (p for a model <0.001). Although serum Zn was significantly associated with HbA1c both in crude and adjusted models, no significant relationship was detected after adjustment for age and anthropometric parameters. Prediabetic postmenopausal women are characterized by significantly lower levels of serum Zn concentration, whereas serum Zn and Sr levels were inversely associated with insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  11. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  12. Toll signal transduction pathway in bivalves: complete cds of intermediate elements and related gene transcription levels in hemocytes of immune stimulated Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Toubiana, Mylène; Rosani, Umberto; Giambelluca, Sonia; Cammarata, Matteo; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Venier, Paola; Roch, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Based on protein domain structure and organization deduced from mRNA contigs, 15 transcripts of the Toll signaling pathway have been identified in the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Identical searches performed on publicly available Mytilus edulis ESTs revealed 11 transcripts, whereas searches performed in genomic and new transcriptome sequences of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, identified 21 Toll-related transcripts. The remarkable molecular diversity of TRAF and IKK coding sequences of C. gigas, suggests that the sequence data inferred from Mytilus cDNAs may not be exhaustive. Most of the Toll pathway genes were constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in M. galloprovincialis, although at different levels, and clearly induced after in vivo injection with bacteria. Such over-transcription was more rapid and intense with Gram-negative than with Gram-positive bacteria. Injection of a fungus modulated the transcription of few Toll pathway genes, with the induction levels of TLR/MyD88 complex being always less intense. Purified LPS and β-glucans had marginal effect whereas peptidoglycans were ineffective. At the moment, we found no evidence of an IMD transcript in bivalves. In conclusion, mussels possess a complete Toll pathway which can be triggered either by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria.

  13. Trace Element Levels and Cognitive Function in Rural Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Sujuan; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ma, Feng; Hall, Kathleen S.; Murrell, Jill R.; Cheng, Yibin; Shen, Jianzhao; Ying, Bo; Ji, Rongdi; Matesan, Janetta; Liang, Chaoke; Hendrie, Hugh C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Trace elements are involved in metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction reactions in the central nervous system and could have a possible effect on cognitive function. The relationship between trace elements measured in individual biological samples and cognitive function in an elderly population had not been investigated extensively. Methods The participant population is part of a large cohort study of 2000 rural elderly Chinese persons. Six cognitive assessment tests were used to evaluate cognitive function in this population, and a composite score was created to represent global cognitive function. Trace element levels of aluminum, calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc were analyzed in plasma samples of 188 individuals who were randomly selected and consented to donating fasting blood. Analysis of covariance models were used to assess the association between each trace element and the composite cognitive score adjusting for demographics, medical history of chronic diseases, and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Results Three trace elements—calcium, cadmium, and copper—were found to be significantly related to the composite cognitive score. Increasing plasma calcium level was associated with higher cognitive score (p < .0001). Increasing cadmium and copper, in contrast, were significantly associated with lower composite score (p = .0044 and p = .0121, respectively). Other trace elements did not show significant association with the composite cognitive score. Conclusions Our results suggest that calcium, cadmium, and copper may be associated with cognitive function in the elderly population. PMID:18559640

  14. Toxic trace elements at gastrointestinal level.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Calatayud, M; Jadán Piedra, C; Chiocchetti, G M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2015-12-01

    Many trace elements are considered essential [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu)], whereas others may be harmful [lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As)], depending on their concentration and chemical form. In most cases, the diet is the main pathway by which they enter our organism. The presence of toxic trace elements in food has been known for a long time, and many of the food matrices that carry them have been identified. This has led to the appearance of legislation and recommendations concerning consumption. Given that the main route of exposure is oral, passage through the gastrointestinal tract plays a fundamental role in their entry into the organism, where they exert their toxic effect. Although the digestive system can be considered to be of crucial importance in their toxicity, in most cases we do not know the events that occur during the passage of these elements through the gastrointestinal tract and of ascertaining whether they may have some kind of toxic effect on it. The aim of this review is to summarize available information on this subject, concentrating on the toxic trace elements that are of greatest interest for organizations concerned with food safety and health: Pb, Cd, Hg and As.

  15. Trace element levels in the experimental peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Konukoglu, D; Ercan, M; Ziylan, E

    2001-01-01

    Electron transfer from iron or copper ions to oxygen is an important example of cellular free radical initiation. Oxygen derived free radicals have been implicated as mediators of cellular injury in several model systems. To evaluate the importance of iron, copper and zinc levels on lipid peroxidation in peritonitis, we measured peritoneum malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation, zinc, copper, and iron levels during an animal model of intraperitoneal sepsis. Additionally the effects of the free radical scavenger alpha-tocopherol administration was studied. The peritoneum MDA, iron, copper and zinc levels were increased after induction of peritonitis with Escherichia Coli. The treatment with alpha-tocopherol was decreased the peritoneum MDA, iron and copper levels significantly, except the zinc level (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Additionally the alpha-tocopherol treatment for three days prior to injection of E.Coli more decreased MDA, copper and iron levels than that of the treatment with alpha-tocopherol at the time of injection of E. Coli (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p<0.001, respectively). Our results indicated that copper, iron and zinc had important effects on peroxidation events in E. Coli induced peritonitis, and alpha-tocopherol treatment can improve the oxidant status.

  16. Crystal level simulations using Eulerian finite element methods

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R; Barton, N R; Benson, D J

    2004-02-06

    Over the last several years, significant progress has been made in the use of crystal level material models in simulations of forming operations. However, in Lagrangian finite element approaches simulation capabilities are limited in many cases by mesh distortion associated with deformation heterogeneity. Contexts in which such large distortions arise include: bulk deformation to strains approaching or exceeding unity, especially in highly anisotropic or multiphase materials; shear band formation and intersection of shear bands; and indentation with sharp indenters. Investigators have in the past used Eulerian finite element methods with material response determined from crystal aggregates to study steady state forming processes. However, Eulerian and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element methods have not been widely utilized for simulation of transient deformation processes at the crystal level. The advection schemes used in Eulerian and ALE codes control mesh distortion and allow for simulation of much larger total deformations. We will discuss material state representation issues related to advection and will present results from ALE simulations.

  17. Interior detail of third level structural elements at south end; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of third level structural elements at south end; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. REM (relative element magnitude): program explanation and computer program listing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanTrump, George; Alminas, Henry V.

    1978-01-01

    The REM (relative element magnitude) program is designed as an aid in the characterization of geochemical anomalies. The program ranks the magnitudes of anomalies of individual elements within a multielement geochemical anomaly.

  19. Environmental influence on trace element levels in human hair

    SciTech Connect

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1986-12-01

    Trace element content of human hair depends on many factors. It has been shown by a large number of investigators that environmental factors play an important role. Elements from air particulates, water, shampoo or other media get incorporated into the hair structure. Here a model is proposed in which different contributions to trace element levels in human hair are factorized and the environmental contribution to the radial and longitudinal concentration profiles can be calculated. With the proper understanding of environmental contamination, hair analysis has better chances of being used as a diagnostic tool.

  20. Carbon stable isotope (δ13C) and elemental (TOC, TN, C/N) geochemistry in salt marsh surface sediments (Western Brittany, France): Adequate proxies for relative sea-level reconstruction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goslin, Jerome; Sans-jofre, Pierre; Van Vliet Lanoë, Brigitte; Delacourt, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing a dense network of precise and reliable records of Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) changes is still a major challenge for the paleo climate scientific community. In some regions, the use of traditional foraminifera-based transfer function is prevented by micro-fauna scarcity (e.g. Stéphan et al., 2014, Goslin et al., 2015), thus fostering the need for alternative proxies to be developed and used. Rather recently, isotopic and elemental geochemistry tools have been shown to form promising alternative proxies for RSL reconstruction (e.g. Wilson et al., 2005, Engelhart et al., 2013, Khan et al., 2015). Questions remain nonetheless open regarding the possibility for such markers to allow (i) distinguishing between freshwater and brackish to marine domains (this condition being needed if RSL index-points are to be derived from sedimentary markers) and (ii) to adequately identify the source of the organic matter preserved in the sediment. Concerns about the preservation of carbon and nitrogen compounds during diagenesis have also arose questioning the reliability of such markers for paleo-environmental reconstruction purposes (Wilson et al., 2005; Lamb et al., 2006). We analyzed stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and Total Nitrogen (TN) values within 94 surface sediments sampled across two C-3 plants dominated saltmarshes (Brittany, France). The distributions of δ13C, TOC, TN and C/N values is observed to follow clear and strong elevation-dependent trends. Some slight local variability appears between the studied sites that can be easily explained by the different morphological configuration and functioning of these latter. An indicator is found that allows sediments from below and above the high-tide level to be discriminated. This finding forms an interesting advance in the field as it permits to ensure that samples formed under saline conditions and thus suggests that these can be used as stand-alone proxies for RSL

  1. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-05-15

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The

  2. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on serum element levels in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangchu; Ma, Shirong; Ren, Dongqing; Li, Yurong; Ding, Guirong; Liu, Junye; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guozhen

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) was a potentially harmful factor to the human body, and a biological dosimetry to evaluate effects of EMP is necessary. Little is known about effects of EMP on concentration of macro and trace elements in serum so far. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 50-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 100-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 200-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 40), and the sham-exposed group (n = 20). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after EMP exposure at different electric field intensities. Compared with the sham-exposed groups, the concentration of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in rat serum was not changed significantly within 48 h after 200 pulses of EMP exposure at electric field intensity of 50, 100, and 200 kV/m although the K level was decreased and the Ca level was increased with the electric field intensity of EMP increasing. In addition, there was a tendency that the Zn level was decreased with the time going on within 48 h after EMP exposure. Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect the concentration of macro and trace elements in rat serum. There was no time-effect or dose-effect relationship between EMP exposure and serum element levels. The macro and trace elements in serum are not suitable endpoints of biological dosimetry of EMP.

  3. Trace element levels in hair of eight-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Herber, R F; Wibowo, A A; Das, H A; Egger, R J; van Deyck, W; Zielhuis, R L

    1983-01-01

    A study of trace element levels in hair was performed on 183 eight-year-old schoolchildren living in Bijlmermeer, a suburb of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Microlevel-elements, such as Au, Co, Ag, Se and Cd, and macrolevel-elements, such as Pb, Cu, Fe and Zn, were analyzed using the NAA and AAS methods. The total group of children was divided into subgroups, according to ethnic origins: Caucasian boys and girls, Hindustani children and a Surinamese rest group. The relation between element levels in hair and nutritional status, anthropometric and haematological variables were studied. Most levels corresponded reasonably with literature data. The iron in hair may be positively related to daily dietary intake of iron.

  4. Disk level S-matrix elements at eikonal Regge limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garousi, Mohammad R.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the calculation of the color-ordered disk level S-matrix element of massless scalar vertex operators for the special case that some of the Mandelstam variables for which there are no open string channel in the amplitude, are set to zero. By explicit calculation we show that the string form factors in the 2n-point functions reduce to one at the eikonal Regge limit.

  5. [Element levels of blood in workers of the Matrosov mine].

    PubMed

    Petropavlovskiĭ, V G; Starovoĭtova, I P

    1996-01-01

    The article deals with results obtained during the study of serum microelements among workers of the mine and gold-extracting factory in Central Kolyma. Atomic emission spectroscopy evaluated over 20 elements, the maximal information was obtained on Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Se, Mn, Pb, Hg. The examinees were diagnosed as having lower levels of Ca, Mg, Se, Zn and increased ones of Cu, Pb, Hg, Cd, so iron and zinc deficit could occur. The studies bring to a conclusion that the workers suffer from complex polymicroelementosis, the more intensive the longer life in the North. Additional examination is required for the individuals having increased serum Hg, Cd and Pb levels.

  6. Mineral element levels in wild edible mushrooms from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honggao; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Shi, Yundong; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2012-06-01

    Ten species of wild edible mushrooms (Boletus griseus, Boletus speciosus, Lactarius hygrophoroides, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Macrocybe gigantea, Melanoleuca arcuata, Morchella deliciosa, Mycena haematopus, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, and Tricholoma matsutake) collected from Yunnan province of China, were analyzed for ten mineral elements (calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc) contents using ICP-AES. The minimum and maximum element contents of mushrooms were determined as milligrams per kilograms dry weight for Ca (38-470), Cr (0.45-6.3), Co (0.29-2.3), Cu (13-58), Fe (22-510), Mg (84-550), Mn (1.4-70), K (1,300-4,600), Na (190-670), and Zn (16-160). The mushrooms species with the highest levels of mineral elements were B. griseus for K and Na, P. ravenelii for Cu, M. deliciosa for Mn, L. giganteus for Cr and Fe, M. gigantea for Ca, Mg and Zn, T. matsutake for Co. These results demonstrate that the mineral element contents in mushrooms are considerably species dependent and affected by environmental factors.

  7. Age-related changes of elements in the anterior commissures and the relationships among their elements.

    PubMed

    Ongkana, Nutcharin; Tohno, Setsuko; Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Suwannahoy, Patipath; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Azuma, Cho; Minami, Takeshi

    2010-06-01

    To elucidate compositional changes of the anterior commissure with aging, the authors investigated age-related changes of elements in the anterior commissures and the relationships among their elements. After ordinary dissection at Nara Medical University was finished, the anterior commissures were resected from 45 subjects, ranging in age from 70 to 101 years. The subjects consisted of 22 men and 23 women. After ashing with nitric acid and perchloric acid, the element content of the anterior commissures was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The seven element contents of Ca, P, S, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Na did not change significantly in the anterior commissures with aging. Regarding the relationships among their element contents, significant correlations were found among the contents of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Na in the anterior commissures. The gender difference that the Zn content was significantly higher in men than in women was found in the anterior commissure.

  8. Toward the complete relational graph of fundamental circuit elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Da-Shan; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Cao, Ze-Xian; Lu, Jun; Sun, Young

    2015-06-01

    A complete and harmonized fundamental circuit relational graph with four linear and four memory elements is constructed based on some newly defined elements, which provides a guide to developing novel circuit functionalities in the future. In addition to resistors, capacitors, and inductors, which are defined in terms of a linear relationship between charge q, current i, voltage v, and magnetic flux φ, Chua proposed in 1971 a fourth linear circuit element to directly relate φ and q. A nonlinear resistive device defined in memory i-v relation and dubbed memristor, was later attributed to such an element and has been realized in various material structures. Here we clarify that the memristor is not the true fourth fundamental circuit element but the memory extension to the concept of resistor, in analogy to the extension of memcapacitor to capacitor and meminductor to inductor. Instead, a two-terminal device employing the linear ME effects, termed transtor, directly relates φ and q and should be recognized as the fourth linear element. Moreover, its memory extension, termed memtranstor, is proposed and analyzed here. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11227405, 11374347, 11274363, and 11474335) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07030200).

  9. Altered Methylation in Tandem Repeat Element and Elemental Component Levels in Inhalable Air Particles

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Yinan; Wang, Sheng; Dou, Chang; Guo, Liqiong; Byun, Hyang-Min; Motta, Valeria; McCracken, John; Díaz, Anaité; Kang, Choong-Min; Koutrakis, Petros; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Li, Jingyun; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with lung cancer risk in epidemiology investigations. Elemental components of PM have been suggested to have critical roles in PM toxicity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their association with cancer risks remain poorly understood. DNA methylation has emerged as a promising biomarker for environmental-related diseases, including lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PM elemental components on methylation of three tandem repeats in a highly-exposed population in Beijing, China. The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study was conducted shortly before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games (June 15-July 27, 2008) and included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers. On two days separated by 1-2 weeks, we measured blood DNA methylation of SATα, NBL2, D4Z4, and personal exposure to eight elemental components in PM2.5, including aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), sulfur (S), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). We estimated the associations of individual elemental component with each tandem repeat methylation in generalized estimating equations (GEE) models adjusted for PM2.5 mass and other covariates. Out of the eight examined elements, NBL2 methylation was positively associated with concentrations of Si (0.121, 95%CI: 0.030; 0.212, FDR=0.047) and Ca (0.065, 95%CI: 0.014; 0.115, FDR=0.047) in truck drivers. In office workers, SATα methylation was positively associated with concentrations of S (0.115, 95%CI: 0.034; 0.196, FDR=0.042). PM-associated differences in blood tandem-repeat methylation may help detect biological effects of the exposure and identify individuals who may eventually experience higher lung cancer risk. PMID:24273195

  10. Progress of pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mei-Zi; Tang, Jie; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacogenomics explores the variations in both the benefits and the adverse effects of a drug among patients in a target population by analyzing genomic profiles of individual patients. Minerals and trace elements, which can be found in human tissues and maintain normal physiological functions, are also in the focus of pharmacogenomic research. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the metabolism, disposition and efficacy of minerals and trace elements in humans, resulting in changes of body function. This review describes some of the recent progress in pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

  11. Pancreatic cancer risk and levels of trace elements

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, André F. S.; Porta, Miquel; Silverman, Debra T.; Milne, Roger L.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Rothman, Nathaniel; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Brian P.; Pumarega, José A.; López, Tomàs; Carrato, Alfredo; Guarner, Luisa; Real, Francisco X.; Malats, Núria

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Knowledge on the etiology of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC) is scant. The best established risk factor for EPC is tobacco smoking. Among other carcinogens, tobacco contains cadmium, a metal previously associated with an increased risk of EPC. We evaluated the association between concentrations of trace elements in toenails and EPC risk. Methods The study included 118 EPC cases and 399 hospital controls from Eastern Spain. Levels of twelve trace elements were determined in toenail samples by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders, were calculated using logistic regression. Results Significantly increased risks of EPC were observed among subjects whose concentrations of cadmium (OR=3.58, 95%CI 1.86–6·88; Ptrend=5×10−6), arsenic (OR=2.02, 95%CI 1.08–3.78; Ptrend=0.009), and lead (OR=6.26, 95%CI 2.71–14.47; Ptrend=3×10−5) were in the highest quartile. High concentrations of selenium (OR=0.05, 95%CI 0.02–0.15; Ptrend=8×10−11) and nickel (OR=0.27, 95%CI 0.12–0.59; Ptrend=2×10−4) were inversely associated with risk of EPC. Conclusion We report novel associations of lead, nickel, and selenium toenail concentrations with pancreas cancer risk. Furthermore, results confirm previous associations with cadmium and arsenic. These novel findings, if replicated in independent studies, would point to an important role of trace elements in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:22184070

  12. Multi-level adaptive finite element methods. 1: Variation problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, A.

    1979-01-01

    A general numerical strategy for solving partial differential equations and other functional problems by cycling between coarser and finer levels of discretization is described. Optimal discretization schemes are provided together with very fast general solvers. It is described in terms of finite element discretizations of general nonlinear minimization problems. The basic processes (relaxation sweeps, fine-grid-to-coarse-grid transfers of residuals, coarse-to-fine interpolations of corrections) are directly and naturally determined by the objective functional and the sequence of approximation spaces. The natural processes, however, are not always optimal. Concrete examples are given and some new techniques are reviewed. Including the local truncation extrapolation and a multilevel procedure for inexpensively solving chains of many boundary value problems, such as those arising in the solution of time-dependent problems.

  13. Relative trace-element concern indexes for eastern Kentucky coals

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Coal trace elements that could affect environmental quality were studied in 372 samples (collected and analyzed by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the United States Geological Survey) from 36 coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Relative trace-element concern indexes are defined as the weighted sum of standarized (substract mean; divide by standard deviation) concentrations. Index R is calculated from uranium and thorium, index 1 from elements of minor concern (antimony, barium, bromine, chloride, cobalt, lithium, manganese, sodium, and strontium), index 2 from elements of moderate concern (chromium, copper, fluorine, nickel, vanadium, and zinc), and index 4 from elements of greatest concern (arsenic, boron, cadmium, lead, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium). Numericals indicate weights, except that index R is weighted by 1, and index 124 is the unweighted sum of indexes 1, 2, and 4. Contour mapping indexes is valid because all indexes have nonnugget effect variograms. Index 124 is low west of Lee and Bell counties, and in Pike County. Index 124 is high in the area bounded by Boyd, Menifee, Knott, and Martin counties and in Owsley, Clay, and Leslie counties. Coal from some areas of eastern Kentucky is less likely to cause environmental problems than that from other areas. Positive correlations of all indexes with the centered log ratios of ash, and negative correlations with centered log ratios of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur indicate that trace elements of concern are predominantly associated with ash. Beneficiation probably would reduce indexes significantly.

  14. Alkali element constraints on Earth-Moon relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Drake, M. J.; Jones, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Given their range of volatilities, alkali elements are potential tracers of temperature-dependent processes during planetary accretion and formation of the Earth-Moon system. Under the giant impact hypothesis, no direct connection between the composition of the Moon and the Earth is required, and proto-lunar material does not necessarily experience high temperatures. Models calling for multiple collisions with smaller planetesimals derive proto-lunar materials mainly from the Earth's mantle and explicitly invoke vaporization, shock melting and volatility-related fractionation. Na/K, K/Rb, and Rb/Cs should all increase in response to thermal volatization, so theories which derive the Moon substantially from Earth's mantle predict these ratios will be higher in the Moon than in the primitive mantle of the Earth. Despite the overall depletion of volatile elements in the Moon, its Na/K and K/Rb are equal to or less than those of Earth. A new model presented here for the composition of Earth's continental crust, a major repository of the alkali elements, suggests the Rb/Cs of the Moon is also less than that of Earth. Fractionation of the alkali elements between Earth and Moon are in the opposite sense to predictions based on the relative volatilities of these elements, if the Moon formed by high-T processing of Earth's mantle. Earth, rather than the Moon, appears to carry a signature of volatility-related fractionation in the alkali elements. This may reflect an early episode of intense heating on Earth with the Moon's alkali budget accreting from cooler material.

  15. Assessment of trace elements levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes using multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Badran, M; Morsy, R; Soliman, H; Elnimr, T

    2016-01-01

    The trace elements metabolism has been reported to possess specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of diabetes mellitus. Due to the continuous increase in the population of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), this study aims to assess the levels and inter-relationships of fast blood glucose (FBG) and serum trace elements in Type 2 diabetic patients. This study was conducted on 40 Egyptian Type 2 diabetic patients and 36 healthy volunteers (Hospital of Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt). The blood serum was digested and then used to determine the levels of 24 trace elements using an inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis depended on correlation coefficient, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to analysis the data. The results exhibited significant changes in FBG and eight of trace elements, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, Mn, Cr, Mg, and As, levels in the blood serum of Type 2 diabetic patients relative to those of healthy controls. The statistical analyses using multivariate statistical techniques were obvious in the reduction of the experimental variables, and grouping the trace elements in patients into three clusters. The application of PCA revealed a distinct difference in associations of trace elements and their clustering patterns in control and patients group in particular for Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn that appeared to be the most crucial factors which related with Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, on the basis of this study, the contributors of trace elements content in Type 2 diabetic patients can be determine and specify with correlation relationship and multivariate statistical analysis, which confirm that the alteration of some essential trace metals may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Biogeochemical interactions affecting hepatic trace element levels in aquatic birds

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, G.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of elemental interactions is important to the toxicological assessment of wildlife in the geochemical environment. This study determines the concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Ag, V, and Zn in aquatic bird liver, fish liver, whole bivalves, insects, and waters in several aquatic ecosystems in northern California. There is evidence of strong in vivo and environmental interactions, including the observation of manganese as a possible cofactor or indicator in selenium bioaccumulation. The nearest neighbor selenium correlation in aquatic bird liver tissue that results from this work is Cd-Mn-Se-Hg-As. The correlation of liver selenium to manganese in vivo and the result that the majority of the variance in liver selenium concentration is contained in the manganese term of the regression model relating Se to Cd, Mn, and Hg is new knowledge in the study of aquatic birds. A linear relationship between liver selenium and environmental manganese (water and sediment) is found in the data, suggesting a water chemistry compartmentalization or activation of toxicants. Alternatively, the hepatic concentrations of selenium, manganese, and iron suggest induction of enzymes in response to oxidative stress.

  17. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the compositional and phase relationships among minerals in which rare earth elements (REE) occur as essential constituents (e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite). Particular consideration is given to the vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals and to the REE partitioning between minerals as related to the acid-base tendencies and mineral stabilities. It is shown that the treatment of coupled substitutions as vector quantities facilitates graphical representation of mineral composition spaces.

  18. Diffraction efficiency analysis for multi-level diffractive optical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Erteza, I.A.

    1995-11-01

    Passive optical components can be broken down into two main groups: Refractive elements and diffractive elements. With recent advances in manufacturing technologies, diffractive optical elements are becoming increasingly more prevalent in optical systems. It is therefore important to be able to understand and model the behavior of these elements. In this report, we present a thorough analysis of a completely general diffractive optical element (DOE). The main goal of the analysis is to understand the diffraction efficiency and power distribution of the various modes affected by the DOE. This is critical to understanding cross talk and power issues when these elements are used in actual systems. As mentioned, the model is based on a completely general scenario for a DOE. This allows the user to specify the details to model a wide variety of diffractive elements. The analysis is implemented straightforwardly in Mathematica. This report includes the development of the analysis, the Mathematica implementation of the model and several examples using the Mathematical analysis tool. It is intended that this tool be a building block for more specialized analyses.

  19. Design of an Orbital Element Estimator Using Relative Motion Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    the semi-major axis and used to definethe total energy of the orbit. G is related to the eccentricity and is the total angular momentum of the orbit...errors 67 Compute 66 (changes to the relative element state vector) using least squares estimation Store ( TQ-I1K) as P 1 (-) for subsequent Bayes...A6i < Vii 68 68t convergence GO TO B NO Criteria Met? YES Estimation o elative lement - sta.e vector is E Store 3 as Z(-) for Bayes filter Sequential

  20. Brassinosteroid Levels Increase Drastically Prior to Morphogenesis of Tracheary Elements

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Fujioka, Shozo; Demura, Taku; Takatsuto, Suguru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2001-01-01

    As the first step toward understanding the involvement of endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in cytodifferentiation, we analyzed biosynthetic activities of BRs in zinnia (Zinnia elegans L. cv Canary Bird) cells differentiating into tracheary elements. The results of feeding experiments suggested that both the early and late C6-oxidation pathways occur during tracheary element differentiation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that five BRs, castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone, 6-deoxotyphasterol, and 6-deoxoteasterone, actually existed in cultured zinnia cells and culture medium. Quantification of endogenous BRs in each stage of tracheary element differentiation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry exhibited that they increased dramatically prior to the morphogenesis, which was consistent with the idea that BRs are necessary for the initiation of the final stage of tracheary element differentiation. Moreover, the proportion of each BR in culture medium was quite different from that in cells, suggesting that specific BRs are selectively secreted into medium and may function outside the cells. PMID:11161013

  1. Brassinosteroid levels increase drastically prior to morphogenesis of tracheary elements.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, R; Fujioka, S; Demura, T; Takatsuto, S; Yoshida, S; Fukuda, H

    2001-02-01

    As the first step toward understanding the involvement of endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in cytodifferentiation, we analyzed biosynthetic activities of BRs in zinnia (Zinnia elegans L. cv Canary Bird) cells differentiating into tracheary elements. The results of feeding experiments suggested that both the early and late C6-oxidation pathways occur during tracheary element differentiation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that five BRs, castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone, 6-deoxotyphasterol, and 6-deoxoteasterone, actually existed in cultured zinnia cells and culture medium. Quantification of endogenous BRs in each stage of tracheary element differentiation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry exhibited that they increased dramatically prior to the morphogenesis, which was consistent with the idea that BRs are necessary for the initiation of the final stage of tracheary element differentiation. Moreover, the proportion of each BR in culture medium was quite different from that in cells, suggesting that specific BRs are selectively secreted into medium and may function outside the cells.

  2. [Relation between cholesterol levels and neuropsychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Carpio, P A; Barba, J; Bedoya-Del Campillo, A

    A recent survey raised doubts about most of the associations between hypocholesterolemia and neuropsychiatric diseases. Nevertheless, there is scientific evidence (some very recent) that demonstrates a link between possible brain disorders and reduced levels of cholesterol. To conduct a systematic study of the literature that addresses the relation between low cholesterol levels in serum and neuropsychiatric disorders. Relevant papers were identified by means of a systematic search and selection of the literature on Medline (August 2008). The selected papers were reviewed using statistical analysis and critical-deductive reasoning. It is shown that low cholesterol levels in serum are associated and related to different neuropsychiatric disorders. Lowered cholesterol levels seem likely to be linked to higher rates of early death, suicide, aggressive and violent behaviour, personality disorders, and possibly depression, dementia and penal confinement among young males. Further studies are needed to confirm the evidence currently available and to relate more accurate diagnoses with hypocholesterolemia.

  3. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuharik, J. C.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Ross, J. P.

    2003-08-01

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  4. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    SciTech Connect

    Kuharik, J.C.; Kravchenko, I.I.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rinsvelt, H.A. van; Ross, J.P.

    2003-08-26

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  5. Detection of urine C2C and trace element level in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    He, Gang; Chen, Xuanhuang; Zhang, Guodong; Lin, Haibin; Li, Rongyi; Wu, Xianwei

    2014-09-01

    The objective is to determine the relation between severity of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and levels of Collagen type II metabolite (C2C) and trace elements in the urine. The urine sample and knee joint films (anteroposterior and lateral) from the KOA patients and control subjects were collected. The KOA patients were divided into five groups (controls and grades I-IV) according to the Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grading standards. Urine levels of C2C and trace elements were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, respectively. Urine C2C levels in the KOA subjects (261.235 ± 39.944 pg/ml) were higher than those of the control group (218.341 ± 22.270 pg/ml). The Fe content in KOA groups was significantly lower than that of control group (group IV > group III > group II > group I or controls). The contents of Cu and Zn were also significantly higher in the KOA patients than in the control group (p < 0.05). However, Cr, Al, Cd, Ni, and Se levels of KOA patients were not significantly different from those of the controls (p > 0.05). Determination of the urine levels of C2C and trace elements may prove to be informative for an early diagnosis of KOA. It can also assist in the prognosis judgment of the disease and selecting an appropriate therapeutic regimen.

  6. Integrative Conjugative Elements and Related Elements Are Major Contributors to the Genome Diversity of Streptococcus agalactiae▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Brochet, Mathieu; Couvé, Elisabeth; Glaser, Philippe; Guédon, Gérard; Payot, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-five putative integrative conjugative elements and related elements were identified at 15 locations in the eight sequenced genomes of Streptococcus agalactiae. Twelve are composite, likely resulting from site-specific accretions. Circular forms were detected for five elements. Macroarray analysis confirmed their high plasticity and wide distribution in S. agalactiae. PMID:18708498

  7. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare-earth elements are essential constituents, e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals (zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet) are also derived. Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented. As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together.

  8. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare-earth elements are essential constituents, e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals (zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet) are also derived. Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented. As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together.

  9. VIEW OF PDP TANK TOP, LEVEL 0’, WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PDP TANK TOP, LEVEL 0’, WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS IN BACKGROUND, LTR TANK TOP ON LEFT, AND SHEAVE RACK ELEMENTS AT TOP, LOOKING NORTH - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  10. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  11. Antioxidant status in blood of obese children: the relation between trace elements, paraoxonase, and arylesterase values.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Yasemin; Cayir, Atilla; Turan, Mehmet Ibrahim; Kurt, Nezahat; Kara, Mustafa; Laloglu, Esra; Ciftel, Murat; Yildirim, Abdulkadir

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is known to lead to complications involving several systems. The basic mechanism in obesity-related complications is chronic inflammation and increased oxidative stress. Trace element levels in obese children may vary due to poor nutritional habits. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between serum paraoxonase (PON1) and arylesterase (ARE) levels, markers of the oxidant-antioxidant balance in the body, and serum zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and selenium (Se) concentrations in obese children. Fifty-seven overweight patients aged 6-17 and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy children were included in the study. Serum PON1 and ARE activity levels were measured, together with Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, glucose, aspartate amino transferase, and alanine amino transferase levels. PON1 and ARE activity levels were significantly lower in obese patients compared to those in healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Various changes were determined in Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se levels between the study and control groups (P < 0.05). In terms of the relation between trace elements and PON1 and ARE levels, a significant positive correlation was determined between serum Se and PON1 levels in the study group (P < 0.05, r = 0.31). No significant correlation was determined between other trace element levels and PON1 and ARE levels (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the detection in our study of a positive correlation between Se and PON1 levels in obese children may be significant in terms of showing a relation between Se and antioxidant systems in obese children.

  12. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    PubMed

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  13. New trends in Brunner's relation: dielectric levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouiller, Yorick; Didiergeorges, Anne; Fanget, Gilles L.; Laviron, Cyrille; Comboure, Corinne; Quere, Yves

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand the optical phenomena at dielectric levels. The purpose is also to quantify the impact of dielectric and resist thickness variations on the CD range with and without Bottom Anti Reflective COating (BARC). First we will show how all dielectric levels can be reduced to the stack metal/oxide/BARC/resist, and what are the contributions to resists and dielectric thickness range for each levels. Then a simple model will be developed to understand CD variation in this tack: by extending the Perot/Fabry model to the dielectric levels, developed by Brunner for the gate level, we can obtain a simple relation between the CD variation and all parameters. Experimentally CD variation for Damascene line level on 0.18micrometers technology has been measured depending on oxide thickness and resist thickness and can confirm this model. UV5 resist, AR2 BARC from Shipley and Top ARC from JSR have been used for these experiments. The main conclusions are: (1) Depending on your dielectric deposition and CMP processes, if resist thickness is controlled, a standard BARC process used for the gate is adapted to remove oxide thickness variation influence providing the optimized resist thickness is used. (2) If both resist thickness and dielectric thickness are uncontrolled, a more absorbent BARC is required.

  14. Mobile DNA elements in T4 and related phages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements are common inhabitants of virtually every genome where they can exert profound influences on genome structure and function in addition to promoting their own spread within and between genomes. Phage T4 and related phage have long served as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a certain class of mobile DNA, homing endonucleases, promote their spread. Homing endonucleases are site-specific DNA endonucleases that initiate mobility by introducing double-strand breaks at defined positions in genomes lacking the endonuclease gene, stimulating repair and recombination pathways that mobilize the endonuclease coding region. In phage T4, homing endonucleases were first discovered as encoded within the self-splicing td, nrdB and nrdD introns of T4. Genomic data has revealed that homing endonucleases are extremely widespread in T-even-like phage, as evidenced by the astounding fact that ~11% of the T4 genome encodes homing endonuclease genes, with most of them located outside of self-splicing introns. Detailed studies of the mobile td intron and its encoded endonuclease, I-TevI, have laid the foundation for genetic, biochemical and structural aspects that regulate the mobility process, and more recently have provided insights into regulation of homing endonuclease function. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding T4-encoded homing endonucleases, with particular emphasis on the td/I-TevI model system. We also discuss recent progress in the biology of free-standing endonucleases, and present areas of future research for this fascinating class of mobile genetic elements. PMID:21029434

  15. Element levels in birch and spruce wood ashes: green energy?

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Andersson, Malin; Arnoldussen, Arnold; Koller, Friedrich; Englmaier, Peter

    2008-04-15

    Production of wood ash has increased strongly in the last ten years due to the increasing popularity of renewable and CO(2)-neutral heat and energy production via wood burning. Wood ashes are rich in many essential plant nutrients. In addition they are alkaline. The idea of using the waste ash as fertiliser in forests is appealing. However, wood is also known for its ability to strongly enrich certain heavy metals from the underlying soils, e.g. Cd, without any anthropogenic input. Concentrations of 26 chemical elements (Ag, As, Au, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sr, Ti, and Zn) in 40 samples each of birch and spruce wood ashes collected along a 120 km long transect in southern Norway are reported. The observed maximum concentrations are 1.3 wt.% Pb, 4.4 wt.% Zn and 203 mg/kg Cd in birch wood ashes. Wood ashes can thus contain very high heavy metal concentrations. Spreading wood ashes in a forest is a major anthropogenic interference with the natural biogeochemical cycles. As with the use of sewage sludge in agriculture the use of wood ashes in forests clearly needs regulation.

  16. Elemental contamination in urban parks of Rawalpindi/Islamabad--a source identification and pollution level assessment study.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Sajid; Wasim, Mohammad; Tufail, Muhammad; Arif, Mohammad; Chaudhry, Muhammad M

    2012-09-01

    The soil quality of urban parks is of vital importance as the children playing in the parks get themselves easily contaminated. A study was conducted to assess the level of elemental pollution caused by constant urbanization and industrialization, in various parks of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The soil samples, collected from 14 urban parks of Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas, were analysed for their elemental concentrations. In each sample, 32 elements were quantified using semi-absolute k (0)-instrumental neutron activation analysis and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The quality of analysis was assured by analysing the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reference material IAEA-S7 (soil). The pollution level was assessed by enrichment factor, pollution load index and our suggested indicator called "average toxic element concentration". The elemental concentrations measured in the parks of two cities were compared by t test. Four sources of different elements in the soils were identified by employing principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The results of multivariate techniques grouped all parks into four classes. The use of enrichment factor indicated the presence of Ni at slightly higher level in all parks while the pollution load index revealed that the parks of Rawalpindi were relatively more polluted as compared to that of Islamabad. The hot spot areas of elemental concentration were closely related to high traffic conditions.

  17. Coastal subsidence and relative sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface fluid-pressure declines caused by pumping of groundwater or hydrocarbons can lead to aquifer-system compaction and consequent land subsidence. This subsidence can be rapid, as much as 30 cm per year in some instances, and large, totaling more than 13 m in extreme examples. Thus anthropogenic subsidence may be the dominant contributor to relative sea-level rise in coastal environments where subsurface fluids are heavily exploited. Maximum observed rates of human-induced subsidence greatly exceed the rates of natural subsidence of unconsolidated sediments (~0.1–1 cm yr−1) and the estimated rates of ongoing global sea-level rise (~0.3 cm yr−1).

  18. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial site in Romania: relative accumulation of 36 elements in moss-bags.

    PubMed

    Culicov, O A; Mocanu, R; Frontasyeva, M V; Yurukova, L; Steinnes, E

    2005-09-01

    Active moss biomonitoring using the species Sphagnum girgensohnii was tested at a strongly polluted site in Romania (Baia Mare) according to a novel sampling design. Nine moss transplants from each of the two background areas (Dubna, Russia and Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) were deployed in parallel on balconies about 24 m above street level for 4 months. The samples were analyzed for 36 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on the results obtained the sampling variability is discussed in relation to the analytical variability, and the relative uptake of the different elements is assessed. The moss-bags using Sphagnum girgensohnii demonstrate a high or a very high relative uptake for a majority of the 36 investigated elements, but the values depend on the initial element concentration in the moss. Moss leaves analyzed separately showed somewhat higher levels than stems for many elements. Practical considerations however still speak in favor of using the whole moss for transplants.

  19. Ideals and primitive elements of some relatively free Lie algebras.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Naime; Esmerligil, Zerrin; Ersalan, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Let F be a free Lie algebra of finite rank over a field K. We prove that if an ideal [Formula: see text] of the algebra [Formula: see text] contains a primitive element [Formula: see text] then the element [Formula: see text] is primitive. We also show that, in the Lie algebra [Formula: see text] there exists an element [Formula: see text] such that the ideal [Formula: see text] contains a primitive element [Formula: see text] but, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are not conjugate by means of an inner automorphism.

  20. Core-level binding-energy shifts for the metallic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Börje; Mårtensson, Nils

    1980-05-01

    A general treatment of core-level binding-energy shifts in metals relative to the free atom is introduced and applied to all elemental metals in the Periodic Table. The crucial ingredients of the theoretical description are (a) the assumption of a fully screened final state in the metallic case and (b) the (Z+1) approximation for the screening valence charge distribution around the core-ionized site. This core-ionized site is, furthermore, treated as an impurity in an otherwise perfect metal. The combination of the complete screening picture and the (Z+1) approximation makes it possible to introduce a Born-Haber cycle which connects the initial state with the final state of the core-ionization process. From this cycle it becomes evident that the main contributions to the core-level shift are the cohesive energy difference between the (Z+1) and Z metal and an appropriate ionization energy of the (Z+1) atom (usually the first ionization potential). The appearance of the ionization potential in the shift originates from the assumption of a charge-neutral final state, while the contribution from the cohesive energies essentially describes the change of bonding properties between the initial and final state of the site. The calculated shifts show very good agreement with available experimental values (at present, for 19 elements). For the other elements we have made an effort to combine experimental ionization potentials with theoretical calculations in order to obtain accurate estimates of some of the atomic-core-level binding energies. Such energies together with measured metallic binding energies give "pseudoexperimental" shifts for many elements. Our calculated core-level shifts agree exceedingly well also with these data. For some of the transition elements the core-level shift shows a deviating behavior in comparison with that of neighboring elements. This is shown to be due to a difference in the atomic ground-state configuration, such as, for example, d5s in

  1. Implementation of a mesh adaptive scheme based on an element-level error indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, Scott; Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmelo

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the formulation and application of element-level error indicators based on parametrized variational principles. The qualifier 'element-level' means that no information from adjacent elements is used for error estimation. This property is ideally suited to drive adaptive mesh refinement on parallel computers where access to neighboring elements resident on different processors may incur significant computational overhead. Furthermore, such indicators are not affected by physical jumps at junctures or interfaces. An element-level indicator has been derived from the higher-order element energy and applied to r and h mesh adaptation of meshes in plates and shell structures. We report on our initial experiments with a cylindrical shell that intersects with fist plates forming a simplified 'wing-body intersection' benchmark problem.

  2. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  3. Elements of Employment Related Disclosure of Disability after Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnhill, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the elements of disclosing a disability in the workplace. Those few studies had a primary focus on reasonable accommodations (RA) where the disclosure process was either secondary or tertiary to the study. Further, there have been no studies to date which have examined elements of disclosure for individuals with brain…

  4. The Relation of Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, M.

    1976-01-01

    Finite element and finite difference methods are examined in order to bring out their relationship. It is shown that both methods use two types of discrete representations of continuous functions. They differ in that finite difference methods emphasize the discretization of independent variable, while finite element methods emphasize the discretization of dependent variable (referred to as functional approximations). An important point is that finite element methods use global piecewise functional approximations, while finite difference methods normally use local functional approximations. A general conclusion is that finite element methods are best designed to handle complex boundaries, while finite difference methods are superior for complex equations. It is also shown that finite volume difference methods possess many of the advantages attributed to finite element methods.

  5. Work related stress and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p <0.05) between the mean values of all critical areas and the concentrations of glucose values have been highlighted with the correlation index of Pearson. Multiple linear regression confirmed these findings, showing that the critical dimensions resulting from the questionnaire were the significant variables that can increase the levels of blood glucose. The preliminary results indicate that perceived work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.

  6. Comprehensive Wavelengths, Energy Levels, and Hyperfine Structure Parameters of Singly-Ionized Iron-Group Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Gillian

    We propose to measure wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters of Ni II, Mn II, Sc II and other singly-ionized iron-group elements, covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm. We shall use archival data from spectrometers at NIST and Kitt Peak National Observatory for spectra above 140 nm. Additional experimental observations will be taken if needed using Fourier transform spectrometers at NIST. Spectra will be taken using our normal incidence grating spectrograph to provide better sensitivity than the FT spectra and to extend the wavelength range down to 80 nm. We aim to produce a comprehensive description of the spectra of all singly-ionized iron- group elements. The wavelength uncertainty of the strong lines will be better than 1 part in 10^7. For most singly-ionized iron-group elements available laboratory data have uncertainties an order of magnitude larger than astronomical observations over wide spectra ranges. Some of these laboratory measurements date back to the 1960's. Since then, Fourier transform spectroscopy has made significant progress in improving the accuracy and quantity of data in the UV-vis-IR region, but high quality Fourier transform spectra are still needed for Mn II, Ni II and Sc II. Fourier transform spectroscopy has low sensitivity in the VUV region and is limited to wavelengths above 140 nm. Spectra measured with high-resolution grating spectrographs are needed in this region in order to obtain laboratory data of comparable quality to the STIS and COS spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, such data exist only for Fe II and Cr II. Lines of Sc II, V II, and Mn II show hyperfine structure, but hyperfine structure parameters have been measured for relatively few lines of these elements. Significant errors can occur if hyperfine structure is neglected when abundances are determined from stellar spectra. Measurements of hyperfine structure parameters will be made using Fourier transform spectroscopy

  7. Age-related differences in hair trace elements: a cross-sectional study in Orenburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Demidov, Vasily A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2016-09-01

    Age-related differences in the trace element content of hair have been reported. However, some discrepancies in the data exist. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the change in hair trace elements content in relation to age. Six hundred and eighteen women and 438 men aged from 10-59 years took part in the current cross-sectional study. Hair Cr, Mn, Ni, Si, Al, As, Be, Cd and Pb tended to decrease with age in the female sample, whereas hair Cu, Fe, I, Se, Li and Sn were characterised by an age-associated increase. Hair levels of Cr, Cu, I, Mn, Ni, Si and Al in men decreased with age, whereas hair Co, Fe, Se, Cd, Li and Pb content tended to increase. Hair mercury increased in association with age in men and in women, whereas hair vanadium was characterised by a significant decrease in both sexes. The difference in hair trace element content between men and women decreased with age. These data suggest that age-related differences in trace element status may have a direct implication in the ageing process.

  8. Network- and network-element-level parameters for configuration, fault, and performance management of optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drion, Christophe; Berthelon, Luc; Chambon, Olivier; Eilenberger, Gert; Peden, Francoise R.; Jourdan, Amaury

    1998-10-01

    With the high interest of network operators and manufacturers for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networking technology, the need for management systems adapted to this new technology keeps increasing. We investigated this topic and produced outputs through the specification of the functional architecture, network layered model, and through the development of new, TMN- based, information models for the management of optical networks and network elements. Based on these first outputs, defects in each layer together with parameters for performance management/monitoring have been identified for each type of optical network element, and each atomic function describing the element, including functions for both the transport of payload signals and of overhead information. The list of probable causes has been established for the identified defects. A second aspect consists in the definition of network-level parameters, if such photonic technology-related parameters are to be considered at this level. It is our conviction that some parameters can be taken into account at the network level for performance management, based on physical measurements within the network. Some parameters could possibly be used as criteria for configuration management, in the route calculation processes, including protection. The outputs of these specification activities are taken into account in the development of a manageable WDM network prototype which will be used as a test platform to demonstrate configuration, fault, protection and performance management in a real network, in the scope of the ACTS-MEPHISTO project. This network prototype will also be used in a larger size experiment in the context of the ACTS-PELICAN field trial (Pan-European Lightwave Core and Access Network).

  9. [Carboxyhemoglobin levels in relation with home heating].

    PubMed

    González Ruiz, J M; Barrueco, M; Cordovilla, R; Gómez, F; Hernández, M A; Rodríguez, M C

    1997-09-01

    To study carboxyhemoglobin levels (HbCO) associated with use of different types of home heating and to evaluate the usefulness of measuring hemoglobin oxygen saturation. Nonsmoking patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency who were initially prescribed home oxygen therapy were enrolled in the study. One hundred four patients were studied in winter and summer (when heating was not used). The control group consisted of 92 hospitalized patients not exposed to carbon monoxide. Of the 104 patients 74.1% were men. Mean age was 72.33 (range 17 to 97 years) and 57.9% lived in rural areas. Mean HbCO in the control group was 1.53 +/- 0.96% (p = 0.01). Among the 39% who burned slack coal for heat, the mean HbCO was 4.63 +/- 2.87%. The 23.7% with central heating had HbCO levels of 2.15 +/- 0.87% (p < 0.0001). Pulse oximetry (SpO2) estimated higher hemoglobin oxygen than direct measurement (SaO2): 87.12 +/- 6% and 83.3 +/- 8%, respectively (p < 0.001). High HbCO concentrations are related to chronic exposure to slack coal fumes. Pulse oximetry, as opposed to SaO2, overestimates hemoglobin oxygen saturation in such cases.

  10. Fish retroposons related to the Penelope element of Drosophila virilis define a new group of retrotransposable elements.

    PubMed

    Volff, J N; Hornung, U; Schartl, M

    2001-06-01

    Poseidon and Neptune are two ancient lineages of retroposons related to the Penelope element from Drosophila virilis. They have been identified in various teleost fish species, including the medakafish (Oryzias latipes), and the pufferfishes Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis, whose genomes are currently being sequenced. Some of these elements are highly reiterated in fish genomes. Penelope-related elements were also identified in blood fluke, shrimp, sea urchin, cichlid fish and frog, showing that they are widespread in animals. Penelope-related retroposons were not detected among sequences from the Drosophila melanogaster and human genome projects, suggesting that they have been lost from certain animal lineages. A sequence encoding a putative Uri (also called GIY-YIG) endonuclease domain was detected downstream from the gene for reverse transcriptase. To the best of our knowledge, this type of endonuclease sequence has previously been identified in group I introns and in genes for prokaryotic excinucleases but not in retrotransposable elements. Penelope-related elements are frequently truncated at their 5' ends and can also be flanked by long terminal repeat-like structures. Phylogenetic analysis of the reverse transcriptase domain failed to assign Penelope-related retroposons to one of the major groups of retroelements. Overall, therefore, the evidence strongly suggests that these sequences represent a new group of retrotransposable elements.

  11. Trace-element and phase relations in fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D.; Weinberger, A.J.; Ferguson, N.M.; Northcutt, K.J.; Lyon, W.S.

    1981-05-01

    Chemical forms of elements have been studied in fly ash specimens collected from four Tennessee Valley Authority steam plants. Matrix components have been isolated and individually analyzed to determine trace element distributions. After particle sizing and extraction of magnetic components, the aluminosilicate phases were etched in 1% HF to remove glasses comingled with mullite and quartz. Neutron activation and atomic absorption analyses showed that most of the +1- and +2-valent elements, rare earths, and certain transition metals were concentrated in the glass phases. Cr, V, Ti, Fe, Ga, and Zr, which are trivalent and tetravalent, were concentrated in the crystal phases. X-ray diffraction and elemental analyses show that the main components of the magnetic phase are ferrite compounds with compositions of approximately Fe/sub 2/ /sub 3/Al/sub 0/ /sub 7/O/sub 4/. First-row transition elements, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn are concentrated by factors as high as 50 in the magnetic phases. This infers that they occur as isomorphic substitutions in the magnetic spinel lattice since such compounds are well known. Because the spinel is magnetic, a magnetic separation could be used to remove spinel, along with its associated transition metals. Scanning electron microscopy studies of mullite phases remaining after 1% etching suggest that they have resource value. As mullite and quartz crystallize during the solidification of fly ash particles, they purify themselves of trace elements by freezing them out into interstitial glass phases. An analytic scheme for routine chemical specification and pollution hazard assessment of fly ash is suggested. Studies of fly ash exposed to sluice pond waters show tht iron in the magnetic spinel phases is oxidized and subsequently adsorbed on alumino-silicate and other particles. Arsenic and molybdenum are translocated and concentrated into these iron-rich surface phases.

  12. The CEBAF Element Database and Related Operational Software

    SciTech Connect

    Larrieu, Theodore; Slominski, Christopher; Keesee, Marie; Turner, Dennison; Joyce, Michele

    2015-09-01

    The newly commissioned 12GeV CEBAF accelerator relies on a flexible, scalable and comprehensive database to define the accelerator. This database delivers the configuration for CEBAF operational tools, including hardware checkout, the downloadable optics model, control screens, and much more. The presentation will describe the flexible design of the CEBAF Element Database (CED), its features and assorted use case examples.

  13. Background values for essential and toxic elements in children's nails and correlation with hair levels.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Grotto, Denise; Batista, Bruno Lemos; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos; Barbosa, Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Human nails are an attractive matrix for assessing environmental exposures to toxic elements as well as the deficiency of essential elements since it is noninvasively collected and can be stored at room temperature. However, reference or baseline levels in nonexposed and healthy populations are not yet established. Then, the aims of this study were (a) to estimate background values for essential and toxic elements in nails from a healthy young population in southern Brazil and (b) to evaluate possible correlations between essential and toxic elements in nails. Furthermore, this report took part of a recent study of background values in the hair of a young population. Thus, correlations between chemical elements in nails and hair were also evaluated. Nails were collected from healthy children (n = 126), and element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study provides new and reliable reference concentrations for toxic and essential elements in children's nails. The results can be used as reference values for epidemiological or clinical investigations based on trace elements in nails. Additionally, we also showed weak to strong correlations between Cu, Mg, Mn, Se, and Zn levels in nails and hair.

  14. The relation of stream sediment surface area, grain size and composition to trace element chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Intensive studies of 17 geographically and hydrologically diverse stream bed sediments provide information on the relation between grain size, surface area, and operationally defined geochemical phases (e.g. Mn oxides, amorphous Fe oxides) to trace element concentrations. Of the size fractions investigated ( 125 ??m), each of the various phases contribute to overall sample surface area. For material having mean grain sizes in the very fine sand range and finer (<125 ??m), the same phases act as surface-area inhibitors by cementing fine grains together to form aggregates. This increases the mean grain size of the sample and reduces the surface area. The presence of these aggregates may explain why the <63 ??m or <125 ??m size fractions are more important to sediment-trace element levels and surface area than other finer fractions. ?? 1987.

  15. Relative sensitivity of rare earth elements in spark-source mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roaldset, E

    1970-07-01

    A method for calculating the relative sensitivity factors for the rare earth elements in geological material is outlined. A close correlation is found between the relative sensitivity factors calculated and isotopic mass and the first ionization potential for the elements. The points are grouped in the vicinity of a regression line, which may be used to determine the relative sensitivity factors for all the rare earth elements.

  16. Level set discrete element method for three-dimensional computations with triaxial case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Reid; Andò, Edward; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Andrade, José E.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we outline the level set discrete element method (LS-DEM) which is a discrete element method variant able to simulate systems of particles with arbitrary shape using level set functions as a geometric basis. This unique formulation allows seamless interfacing with level set-based characterization methods as well as computational ease in contact calculations. We then apply LS-DEM to simulate two virtual triaxial specimens generated from XRCT images of experiments and demonstrate LS-DEM's ability to quantitatively capture and predict stress-strain and volume-strain behavior observed in the experiments.

  17. Engaging Elements of Cancer-Related Digital Stories in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Revels, Laura; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Lanier, Anne; Dignan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The tradition of storytelling is an integral part of Alaska Native cultures that continues to be a way of passing on knowledge. Using a story-based approach to share cancer education is grounded in Alaska Native traditions and people’s experiences and has the potential to positively impact cancer knowledge, understandings, and wellness choices. Community health workers (CHWs) in Alaska created a personal digital story as part of a 5-day, in-person cancer education course. To identify engaging elements of digital stories among Alaska Native people, one focus group was held in each of three different Alaska communities with a total of 29 adult participants. After viewing CHWs’ digital stories created during CHW cancer education courses, focus group participants commented verbally and in writing about cultural relevance, engaging elements, information learned, and intent to change health behavior. Digital stories were described by Alaska focus group participants as being culturally respectful, informational, inspiring, and motivational. Viewers shared that they liked digital stories because they were short (only 2–3 min); nondirective and not preachy; emotional, told as a personal story and not just facts and figures; and relevant, using photos that showed Alaskan places and people. PMID:25865400

  18. Engaging Elements of Cancer-Related Digital Stories in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Revels, Laura; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Lanier, Anne; Dignan, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The tradition of storytelling is an integral part of Alaska Native cultures that continues to be a way of passing on knowledge. Using a story-based approach to share cancer education is grounded in Alaska Native traditions and people's experiences and has the potential to positively impact cancer knowledge, understandings, and wellness choices. Community health workers (CHWs) in Alaska created a personal digital story as part of a 5-day, in-person cancer education course. To identify engaging elements of digital stories among Alaska Native people, one focus group was held in each of three different Alaska communities with a total of 29 adult participants. After viewing CHWs' digital stories created during CHW cancer education courses, focus group participants commented verbally and in writing about cultural relevance, engaging elements, information learned, and intent to change health behavior. Digital stories were described by Alaska focus group participants as being culturally respectful, informational, inspiring, and motivational. Viewers shared that they liked digital stories because they were short (only 2-3 min); nondirective and not preachy; emotional, told as a personal story and not just facts and figures; and relevant, using photos that showed Alaskan places and people.

  19. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annegarn, H. J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Madiba, C. C. P.; Bibby, D.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas susceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surfaces), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the curious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and the capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples required for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  20. Evolution of Two Short Interspersed Elements in Callorhinchus milii (Chondrichthyes, Holocephali) and Related Elements in Sharks and the Coelacanth

    PubMed Central

    Plazzi, Federico; Mantovani, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons. Although they usually show fast evolutionary rates, in some instances highly conserved domains (HCDs) have been observed in elements with otherwise divergent sequences and from distantly related species. Here, we document the life history of two HCD-SINE families in the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii, one specific to the holocephalan lineage (CmiSINEs) and another one (SacSINE1-CM) with homologous elements in sharks and the coelacanth (SacSINE1s, LmeSINE1s). The analyses of their relationships indicated that these elements share the same 3′-tail, which would have allowed both elements to rise to high copy number by exploiting the C. milii L2-2_CM long interspersed element (LINE) enzymes. Molecular clock analysis on SINE activity in C. milii genome evidenced two replication bursts occurring right after two major events in the holocephalan evolution: the end-Permian mass extinction and the radiation of modern Holocephali. Accordingly, the same analysis on the coelacanth homologous elements, LmeSINE1, identified a replication wave close to the split age of the two extant Latimeria species. The genomic distribution of the studied SINEs pointed out contrasting results: some elements were preferentially sorted out from gene regions, but accumulated in flanking regions, while others appear more conserved within genes. Moreover, data from the C. milii transcriptome suggest that these SINEs could be involved in miRNA biogenesis and may be targets for miRNA-based regulation. PMID:28505260

  1. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  2. Annotated Bibliography of Relative Sea Level Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Quaternary sea-level changes. Former studies of Tasmanian Quaternary shorelines assumed that stable or quasi-stable tectonic conditions prevailed (Lewis...that moved through Devils Hole-- an open fault zone at Ash Meadows, Nevada--between 50 and 310 ka (thousand years ago). The configuration of the versus

  3. Vital parameters related low level laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Beniamino; Capone, Stefania

    2011-08-01

    The first work hypotesis is that biosensors on the patient detecting heart, breath rate and skin parameters, modulate laser radiation to enhance the therapeutic outcome; in the second work hypotesis: biofeedback could be effective, when integrated in the low level laser energy release.

  4. Association between Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 Methylation and Relative Telomere Length in Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-Bo; Zou, Ji-Zhen; He, Cai; Zeng, Rui; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Fei-Fei; Liu, Zhuo; Ye, Hui; Wu, Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: DNA hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINEs-1) occurs during carcinogenesis, whereas information addressing LINE-1 methylation in Wilms tumor (WT) is limited. The main purpose of our study was to quantify LINE-1 methylation levels and evaluate their relationship with relative telomere length (TL) in WT. Methods: We investigated LINE-1 methylation and relative TL using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR, respectively, in 20 WT tissues, 10 normal kidney tissues and a WT cell line. Significant changes were analyzed by t-tests. Results: LINE-1 methylation levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and relative TLs were significantly shorter (P < 0.05) in WT compared with normal kidney. There was a significant positive relationship between LINE-1 methylation and relative TL in WT (r = 0.671, P = 0.001). LINE-1 Methylation levels were significantly associated with global DNA methylation (r = 0.332, P < 0.01). In addition, relative TL was shortened and LINE-1 methylation was decreased in a WT cell line treated with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine compared with untreated WT cell line. Conclusion: These results suggest that LINE-1 hypomethylation is common and may be linked to telomere shortening in WT. PMID:26608986

  5. Association between Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 Methylation and Relative Telomere Length in Wilms Tumor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Bo; Zou, Ji-Zhen; He, Cai; Zeng, Rui; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Fei-Fei; Liu, Zhuo; Ye, Hui; Wu, Jian-Xin

    2015-11-20

    DNA hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINEs-1) occurs during carcinogenesis, whereas information addressing LINE-1 methylation in Wilms tumor (WT) is limited. The main purpose of our study was to quantify LINE-1 methylation levels and evaluate their relationship with relative telomere length (TL) in WT. We investigated LINE-1 methylation and relative TL using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR, respectively, in 20 WT tissues, 10 normal kidney tissues and a WT cell line. Significant changes were analyzed by t-tests. LINE-1 methylation levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and relative TLs were significantly shorter (P < 0.05) in WT compared with normal kidney. There was a significant positive relationship between LINE-1 methylation and relative TL in WT (r = 0.671, P = 0.001). LINE-1 Methylation levels were significantly associated with global DNA methylation (r = 0.332, P < 0.01). In addition, relative TL was shortened and LINE-1 methylation was decreased in a WT cell line treated with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine compared with untreated WT cell line. These results suggest that LINE-1 hypomethylation is common and may be linked to telomere shortening in WT.

  6. Analysis of serum levels of 15 trace elements in breast cancer patients in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao; Jiang, Meng; Jing, Haiyan; Sheng, Wei; Wang, Xingwen; Han, Junqing; Wang, Luhua

    2015-05-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that serum levels of trace elements may be associated with breast cancer risk. We compared serum levels of 15 trace elements between breast cancer patients and normal controls from Shandong, China, for the first time to assess whether serum levels of trace elements were associated with breast cancer risk. Eighty-eight breast cancer patients and 84 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. A Spectraspan V direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometer was used to determine the serum levels of 15 trace elements including Zn, Mn, Al, Cd, Fe, Mg, Ca, Pb, Cu, Se, Ni, Ti, Co, Li, and Cr. Breast cancer patients had significantly higher serum levels of Cd (p = 0.000), Mg (p = 0.001), Cu (p = 0.000), Co (p = 0.006), and Li (p = 0.003) and borderline higher Cr (p = 0.052), while significantly lower Mn (p = 0.000), Al (p = 0.000), Fe (p = 0.000), and Ti (p = 0.000) compared to their matched controls. However, there were no significant differences in serum levels of Zn (p = 0.824), Ca (p = 0.711), Pb (p = 0.274), Se (p = 0.236), and Ni (p = 0.185) between the two groups. Our study showed a possible association between serum levels of trace elements and breast cancer risk in eastern China, though it warrants further investigations to confirm the association. If confirmed, modulation of trace elements may help reduce breast cancer risk.

  7. Trace element levels in pine snake hatchlings: tissue and temporal differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, J

    1992-02-01

    Trace element levels have seldom been examined in reptiles, although some large snakes are high on the trophic level pyramid. Lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, chromium and manganese levels were examined in skin and whole body tissue of pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens between 1985-1990. Depending on the element, variations in levels were primarily explained by year and tissue, and not by sex or location. There were significantly higher levels of lead, mercury, and chromium in the skin compared to the whole body tissue, suggesting that the frequent shedding of skin can act as a method of toxic metal excretion by snakes. Manganese and selenium levels were significantly higher in the body compared to the skin.

  8. The use of trace elements to determine provenance relations among different types of Georgia kaolins

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluates the proposition that different types of commercial kaolin district were derived from different source rocks. This analysis was made by comparing the cobalt, lanthanum, scandium and thorium concentrations of commercial kaolins to in situ kaolins derived from igneous and metamorphic rocks of the southeastern Piedmont provence. These elements are effective provenance indicators of fine grained sedimentary rocks because acidic (i.e., felsic) source rocks contain high levels of thorium and lanthanum; whereas, basic (i.e., basic) source rocks contain high levels of scandium and cobalt. Also, these elements are relatively immobile under surface weathering conditions. The -2 micrometer fraction of in situ kaolins derived from granite and gneiss adjacent to the kaolin belt contains relatively high concentrations of thorium (25.5-86.6 ppm) and lanthanum (46.0-256 ppm) and low concentrations of cobalt (7.5-25.2 ppm) and scandium (13.8-28.3 ppm). In contrast, in situ kaolins derived from intermediate metavolcanic rocks contain relatively low abundances of thorium (5.6-20.7 ppm) and lanthanum (17.5-122 ppm) and high concentrations of cobalt (18.6-55.5 ppm) and scandium (13.8-48.9 ppm). After consideration of factors that cause chemical fractionation of trace elements in low temperature environments the following provenance relationships are indicated: (1) the Cretaceous (soft) kaolins of Middle Georgia and South Carolina are derived from granite and gneiss, (2) the east Georgia and South Carolina Tertiary (hard) kaolins are derived from a mixture of approximately 70% metavolcanic rocks and 30% granite/gneiss source rocks, and (3) the Middle Georgia tertiary (hard) kaolins are derived from predominantly metavolcanic source rocks with distinct zones dominated by detritus from granite/gneiss sources. The differences in source material are controlled by the availability of source material exposed to alteration and erosion during the different time periods.

  9. 2002 Leonid storm fluxes and related orbital elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Llorca, Jordi; Lyytinen, Esko; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Caso, Albert Sánchez; Pineda, Carles; Torrell, Sebastià

    2004-09-01

    We report here the observation of the first peak belonging to the 2002 Leonid meteor storm made during the night of November 18-19, 2002. This feature, produced by a 7-revolution dust trail, was observed from several photographic stations of the Spanish Photographic Meteor Network (SPMN) and one video station operated from the Instituto de Astrofı´sica de Andalucı´a (IAA) in an intensive campaign from the ground working in collaboration with the 2002 Leonid MAC mission. We used photography, slow-scan Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) and video CCD-imaging techniques to deduce the meteoroid flux density profiles in different ranges of masses. Additionally, we present multi-station work, developed during the storm, that allows us to deduce the orbital elements of ten meteoroids associated with this dust trail. We have found a clear similarity between their orbits and the one belonging to a theoretical orbit for particles ejected from 55P/Tempel-Tuttle in 1767.

  10. Effect of spatial resolution of soil data on predictions of eggshell trace element levels in the Rook Corvus frugilegus.

    PubMed

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

    2016-12-01

    Although a considerable research effort has gone into studying the dietary pathways of metals to the bodies of laying female birds and their eggs in recent years, no detailed investigations have yet been carried out relating the properties of the biogeochemical environment at large spatial scales to eggshell trace element levels in typical soil-invertebrate feeding birds under natural conditions. We used data from a large-scale nationwide monitoring survey of soil quality in Poland (3724 sampling points from the 43 792 available) to predict levels of five trace elements (copper [Cu], cadmium [Cd], nickel [Ni], zinc [Zn] and lead [Pb]) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 42 breeding colonies. Our major aim was to test whether differences exist in the explanatory power of soil data (acidity, content of elements and organic matter, and particle size) used as a correlate of concentrations of eggshell trace elements among four different distances (5, 10, 15 and 20 km) around rookeries. Over all four distances around the rookeries only the concentrations of Cu and Cd in eggshells were positively correlated with those in soil, while eggshell Pb was correlated with the soil Pb level at the two longest distances (15 and 20 km) around the rookeries. The physical properties of soil (primarily the increase in pH) adversely affected eggshell Cd and Pb concentrations. The patterns and factors governing metal bioaccumulation in soil invertebrates and eggshells appear to be coincident, which strongly suggests a general similarity in the biochemical pathways of elements at different levels of the food web. The increasing acidification of arable soil as a result of excessive fertilisation and over-nitrification can enhance the bioavailability of toxic elements to laying females and their eggs.

  11. Geometrically constrained isogeometric parameterized level-set based topology optimization via trimmed elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingjun; Benson, David J.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an approach based on the fast point-in-polygon (PIP) algorithm and trimmed elements is proposed for isogeometric topology optimization (TO) with arbitrary geometric constraints. The isogeometric parameterized level-set-based TO method, which directly uses the non-uniform rational basis splines (NURBS) for both level set function (LSF) parameterization and objective function calculation, provides higher accuracy and efficiency than previous methods. The integration of trimmed elements is completed by the efficient quadrature rule that can design the quadrature points and weights for arbitrary geometric shape. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and flexibility of the method.

  12. COMGEN: A computer program for generating finite element models of composite materials at the micro level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    1990-01-01

    COMGEN (Composite Model Generator) is an interactive FORTRAN program which can be used to create a wide variety of finite element models of continuous fiber composite materials at the micro level. It quickly generates batch or session files to be submitted to the finite element pre- and postprocessor PATRAN based on a few simple user inputs such as fiber diameter and percent fiber volume fraction of the composite to be analyzed. In addition, various mesh densities, boundary conditions, and loads can be assigned easily to the models within COMGEN. PATRAN uses a session file to generate finite element models and their associated loads which can then be translated to virtually any finite element analysis code such as NASTRAN or MARC.

  13. Braving the Elements: Protecting Schools against Weather-Related Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breighner, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Discusses common weather-related hazards (floods, windstorms, and winter storms) and provides some steps administrators can take to protect their schools. Suggests administrators periodically assess their school's commitment to loss control, housekeeping, suitable building construction and reinforcement, sprinkler systems, water supply,…

  14. Braving the Elements: Protecting Schools against Weather-Related Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breighner, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Discusses common weather-related hazards (floods, windstorms, and winter storms) and provides some steps administrators can take to protect their schools. Suggests administrators periodically assess their school's commitment to loss control, housekeeping, suitable building construction and reinforcement, sprinkler systems, water supply,…

  15. Bird activity levels related to weather

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey data bank serves as a primary source for studying effects of sky cover, wind speed, and temperature on bird census results. Other standardized methods, such as spot-mapping (Breeding Bird Census), point counts, banding, and the Winter Bird Survey, provide additional, but limited, means of assessing effects of weather. Numbers of songbirds detected are generally inversely correlated with wind speed, but hawks often are seen in larger numbers on windy days. Rain greatly reduces the numbers of birds detected. Cloud cover has relatively little influence on early morning bird counts during the peak of the breeding season. Fog selectively favors auditory detections of some species. Counts of many species are correlated with temperature, but effects are minor unless temperatures are extreme. Under marginal weather conditions, total species observed may be nearly normal, whereas number of individuals observed is reduced, as is the opportunity to record simultaneous registrations

  16. Relative Orbit Elements for Satellites in Elliptical Orbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    follows:  I. Calculate the intermediate parameters A , B , C , and D . Then print a boundedness check: if motion is bounded, then the index 6 3A C...should equal zero. Next, calculate and print the virtual chief parameters 1A , 1 , 2A , 2 , maxz , and 0 .  II. Compute the solution, the...discrete time array. The result will be the deputy’s relative state vectors in c-frame coordinates for each time step.  III. Calculate and print the

  17. The Effects of Social Capital Elements on Job Satisfaction and Motivation Levels of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydak Özan, Mukadder; Yavuz Özdemir, Tuncay; Yaras, Zübeyde

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of social capital elements' on job satisfaction and motivation levels of teachers. The mixed method was used in the study. The quantitative data were analyzed through Correlation and Multiple Regression analyses. An interview form developed by the researchers was used for analyzing the…

  18. Dietary composition affect levels of trace elements in the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insects require small amounts of dietary minerals because of the roles minerals serve as antioxidants, enzyme co-factors and as constituents of metalloproteins. We measured the levels of ten trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) in the predatory insect, Podisus maculiventris rea...

  19. Assessment of Level of Implementation of the Essential Elements of the IST Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovaleski, Joseph F.

    This instrument is designed to help school administrators assess the level of implementation of the essential elements of the Instructional Support Teams (IST) process in Pennsylvania. The instrument is a rating sheet, or checklist, on which the presence and absence of components of the IST process are noted. The number of features in place is…

  20. Association between Longevity and Element Levels in Food and Drinking Water of Typical Chinese Longevity Area.

    PubMed

    Hao, Z; Liu, Y; Li, Y; Song, W; Yu, J; Li, H; Wang, W

    2016-01-01

    To carrying out an integrated analysis on regional environment and human health in China and to detect the association between longevity and daily element intake from food and drinking water. Cross-sectional study. All the 18 cities and counties in Hainan Province. The distribution of elderly population and longevity indexes at a county level in Hainan Province were investigated. Quality of food and drinking water in Hainan was evaluated by comparing the chemical elements with National Standards. In addition, the association between element concentrations in food and water and longevity was examined using spearman's rank correlation. The proportion of elderly people is higher in the northern part of the province compared with southern counties. Food contributes a greater proportion of daily element intake than drinking water. Compared with the National Standards, reaching rates for elements were over 85% for both food and drinking water. There was a positive correlation between daily intake of Cu, Se, and Zn from food and water and aging and longevity indexes, and a negative correlation between Pb intake and these indexes. The quality of food and water in Hainan Province are good and that, compared with water, food is a more important source of trace elements. An appropriate supply of Cu, Se, and Zn is important, whereas excessive intake of Pb should be avoided. The findings also provide basic data to support further studies on regional variations in longevity and their relationship to diet and drinking water.

  1. Modes of occurrence of potentially hazardous elements in coal: levels of confidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The modes of occurrence of the potentially hazardous elements in coal will be of significance in any attempt to reduce their mobilization due to coal combustion. Antimony and selenium may be present in solid solution in pyrite, as minute accessory sulfides dispersed throughout the organic matrix, or in organic association. Because of these modes of occurrence it is anticipated that less than 50% of these elements will be routinely removed by conventional coal cleaning procedures. Arsenic and mercury occur primarily in late-stage coarse-grained pyrite therefore physical coal cleaning procedures should be successful in removing substantial proportions of these elements. Cadmium occurs in sphalerite and lead in galena. Both of these minerals exhibit a wide range of particle sizes and textural relations. Depending on the particle size and textural relations, physical coal cleaning may remove as little as 25% of these elements or as much as 75%. Manganese in bituminous coal occurs in carbonates, especially siderite. Physical coal cleaning should remove a substantial proportion of this element. More information is needed to elucidate the modes of occurrence of beryllium, chromium, cobalt, and nickel. ?? 1994.

  2. Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge.

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, D A; Handakas, E J; Kermenidou, M; Zarkadas, I; Gotti, A; Charisiadis, P; Makris, K; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Karakitsios, S P

    2017-12-31

    Charilaos Trikoupis bridge is the longest cable bridge in Europe that connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study, six air pollution monitoring campaigns (including major regulated air pollutants) were carried out from 2013 to 2015 at both sides of the bridge, located in the urban areas of Rio and Antirrio respectively. Pollution data were statistically analyzed and air quality was characterized using US and European air quality indices. From the overall campaign, it was found that air pollution levels were below the respective regulatory thresholds, but once at the site of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and ΡΜ10, respectively) during the 2nd winter period. Daily average PM10 and PM2.5 levels from two monitoring sites were well correlated to gaseous pollutant (CO, NO, NO2, NOx and SO2) levels, meteorological parameters and factor scores from Positive Matrix Factorization during the 3-year period. Moreover, the elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was used for source apportionment. That analysis revealed that major emission sources were sulfates, mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, traffic and shipping emissions for PM10 and PM2.5, for both Rio and Antirrio. Seasonal variation indicates that sulfates, mineral dust and traffic emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while biomass burning become the dominant during the cold season. Overall, the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the vicinity air pollution is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily traffic volume (~10,000 vehicles per day), the respective traffic fleet composition (~81% of the traffic fleet are private vehicles) and the speed limit (80km/h) which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Effect of aluminium on the levels of some essential elements in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Fateheya M; Mazhar, Manal S

    2007-09-01

    The mechanism of aluminium-induced cytotoxicity has not yet been defined. This study investigated possible changes in essential elements in workers occupationally exposed to Al fumes. It included 60 exposed workers and a matching control group of 60 employees not occupationally exposed to Al. Mean serum copper, calcium, zinc and iron were significantly lower in the exposed group than in controls. In addition, mean plasma and urine levels of Al were significantly higher in the exposed employees than in the controls. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between plasma and urinary Al and the studied essential elements. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that Al exposure has an adverse effect on essential elements in humans, with subsequent impact on the cellular enzymatic and metabolic processes.

  4. Trace elements levels in the serum, urine, and semen of patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Altundağ, Hüseyin; Atik, Yavuz Tarık; Dündar, Mustafa Şahin; Adsan, Öztug

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that trace elements may have an adverse impact on male reproduction, even at low levels. We tried to investigate the relationships between these metals and semen quality in various body fluids among men with infertility. A total of 255 samples of blood, semen, and urine were collected from 85 men suffering from infertility. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used for the determination of 22 trace elements. We compared the results of the semen parameters with the results of the element determinations. Because of the high proportion of samples with values lower than the limit of detection for a number of the elements, only 8 of a total 22 trace elements were determined in the samples. When the concentrations of sperm were classified according to the World Health Organization's guidelines for normospermia, oligospermia, and azoospermia, statistically significant differences were found among Zn, Ca, Al, Cu, Mg, Se, and Sr concentrations in various serum, sperm, and urine samples (P < 0.05). In the present study, we found significant correlations between concentrations of Zn, Ca, Al, Cu, Mg, Se, and Sr and semen parameters in various body fluids.

  5. Distribution of elements in individual blood cells in metabolic disorders at the cellular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Erland; Lindh, Ulf

    1985-08-01

    In comparison with controls neutrophil granulocytes from Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (INCL), Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia (L) and Aplastic Anemia (AA) displayed significant alterations in essential and non-essential elements which might be interpreted as fingerprints of these deseases. The neutrophils from RA patients displayed alterations in the concentrations of iron, calcium, strontium, manganese, zinc and copper. INCL displayed alterations in the concentrations of iron and copper but in the INCL disease the iron concentration was about 2 times higher than in RA. In leukemia, aluminium was observed but not in the controls (< 0.5 μg/ g). The zinc concentration was lowered in leukemia. Aplastic anemia displayed alterations in zirconium, arsenic, molybdenum, iron and zinc. The platelets from RA, INCL, L and AA patients also displayed alterations in the elemental profiles. The platelets from AA patients displayed a unique elemental distribution of arsenic, zirconium and molybdenum. The elemental profiles of the thrombocytes and neutrophils might be used as a complement in the diagnosis of the examined diseases and in therapy the elemental profile might be used to monitor drugs at the cellular level.

  6. The Influences Of Grain Sizes And Chemical Weathering Level On Extractability Of Elements From Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Yamasaki, S.; Tsuchiya, N.

    2008-02-01

    The extractability of elements (Cu, Rb, Sr, La and Pb) from sedimentary rock (black slate) was investigated for establishing reliable extraction method. At first, the influence of the grain sizes on the extractability was examined by using non-weathered sample. Cu, Sr, La and Pb were abundantly extracted from roughly crushed black slate, whereas Rb extraction from powdered one was more effective. Especially, the dissolutions of heavy metals from well-ground slate were drastically lowered maybe due to re-adsorption artifacts. The extraction experiments using the black slate with different weathering levels were also performed for the purpose of investigations of chemical weathering on the dissolution behavior of above elements. The extracted solutions were successively filtered through 0.45 μm, 0.20 μm and 100 kDa. The almost of all elements were extracted from non-weathered as truly dissolved species. On the other hand, the elements extracted from weathered slates were almost completely removed by the ultrafiltration except some of alkali and alkali earth elements, indicating no existence of truly dissolved species. They were adsorbates on Al and Fe-bearing colloidal particles or their components.

  7. Traffic-related trace elements in soils along six highway segments on the Tibetan Plateau: Influence factors and spatial variation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanxing; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yili; Scott, Christopher A; Yan, Xuedong

    2017-03-01

    The accumulation of traffic-related trace elements in soil as the result of anthropogenic activities raises serious concerns about environmental pollution and public health. Traffic is the main source of trace elements in roadside soil on the Tibetan Plateau, an area otherwise devoid of industrial emissions. Indeed, the rapid development of tourism and transportation in this region means it is becoming increasingly important to identify the accumulation levels, influence distance, spatial distribution, and other relevant factors influencing trace elements. In this study, 229 soil samples along six segments of the major transportation routes on the Tibetan Plateau (highways G214, S308, and G109), were collected for analysis of eight trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb). The results of statistical analyses showed that of the eight trace elements in soils, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were primarily derived from traffic. The relationship between the trace element accumulation levels and the distance from the roadside followed an exponential decline, with the exception of Segment 3, the only unpaved gravel road studied. In addition, the distance of influence from the roadside varied by trace element and segment, ranging from 16m to 144m. Background values for each segment were different because of soil heterogeneity, while a number of other potential influencing factors (including traffic volume, road surface material, roadside distance, land cover, terrain, and altitude) all had significant effects on trace-element concentrations. Overall, however, concentrations along most of the road segments investigated were at, or below, levels defined as low on the Nemero Synthesis index.

  8. Effects of europium ions (Eu3+) on the distribution and related biological activities of elements in Lathyrus sativus L roots.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong Er; Gao, Yong Sheng; Li, Feng Min; Zeng, Fuli

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses were used to study the distributions of different types of elements in the epidermis, exodermis, endodermis, and vascular cylinder of the fracture face in the Lathyrus sativus L. roots in the presence or absence of Eu3+. Some index of the biological activity related to the elements binding with protein were determined also. The results showed that the tissular distributions of elements in the fracture face are different in the presence and absence of Eu3+. The atomic percentages of P, S, Ca, and Mn were influenced more than those of other elements. Eu3+ promoted the biological activities of various kinds of element. The one possible mechanism changing the biological activities was that the reaction of Eu3+ +e--> Eu2+ would influence the electron capture or transport in elements of binding protein. Another mechanism was that CaM-Ca2+ becoming CaM-Eu3+ through Eu3+ instead of Ca2+ would affect the biological activity of elements by regulating the Ca2+ level in the plant cell.

  9. Links between geodiversity and cultural elements on three scale levels, a neglected part of geoconservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The best-known landscape map of The Netherlands is a simplified version of the first geological map of The Netherlands and was made between 1856 and 1867 by Winand Staring. It still is the basis of our vegetation districts. The main landscape units of this map are the sand landscape, the peat landscape, the river landscape, the marine landscape, the coastal dunes and the hills. On this scale level there is general awareness of the relationships between the geo aspects (geomorphology, geology, geohydrology and soil science) of the landscape and historical land use, e.g. in field patterns and other cultural elements (archaeology and historical geography). From three of these units, examples of interactions between geo-aspects and cultural elements are given for two different scale levels: first on a more regional scale level, then on site level. Especially the last level requires field study. The relationships between the geo and cultural aspects appear to be most intact and are most variable at the site level. Earth scientists as yet hardly involve themselves in geoconservation studies re these relationships, for which reason the geo-aspects of the cultural elements, especially those at the site level, often are not noticed and disappear during land development projects or gardening efforts. It also is a missed opportunity as these sites offer a chance to raise interest of a broader public for geomorphology and soils, which are in general more difficult to communicate. The development and management of cultural landscapes and sites, by Dutch law is the domain of land owners and landscape architects, who in the course of a project consult other experts. Our plea for future planning projects is to work with a team of experts including archaeologists, historical geographers, flora and fauna experts, geologists, geomorphologists and soil specialists. Although the costs of preparing a plan will be slightly higher, our experience is that it will improve the quality of

  10. Selenite modulates the level of phenolics and nutrient element to alleviate the toxicity of arsenite in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Reshu; Awasthi, Surabhi; Tripathi, Preeti; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Niranjan, Abhishek; Mallick, Shekhar; Tripathi, Pratibha; Pande, Veena; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of paddy rice is a serious threat all over the world particularly in South East Asia. Selenium (Se) plays important role in protection of plants against various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. Moreover, arsenite (AsIII) and selenite (SeIV) can be biologically antagonistic due to similar electronic configuration and sharing the common transporter for their uptake in plant. In the present study, the response of oxidative stress, phenolic compounds and nutrient elements was analyzed to investigate Se mediated As tolerance in rice seedlings during AsIII and SeIV exposure in hydroponics. Selenite (25µM) significantly decreased As accumulation in plant than As (25µM) alone treated plants. Level of oxidative stress related parameters viz., reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, electrical conductivity, nitric oxide and pro-oxidant enzyme (NADPH oxidase), were in the order of As>As+Se>control>Se. Selenium ameliorated As phytotoxicity by increased level of phenolic compounds particularly gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and rutin and thiol metabolism related enzymes viz., serine acetyl transferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS). Selenium supplementation enhanced the uptake of nutrient elements viz., Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, and improved plant growth. The results concluded that Se addition in As contaminated environment might be an important strategy to reduce As uptake and associated phytotoxicity in rice plant by modulation of phenolic compounds and increased uptake of nutrient elements.

  11. [Effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen application level on absorption and transportation of nutrient elements in oilseed rape].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-ming; Zhang, Zhen-hua; Song, Hai-xing; Liu, Qiang; Rong, Xiang-min; Guan, Chun-yun; Zeng, Jing; Yuan, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Effect of elevated atmospheric-CO2 (780 µmol . mol-1) on the absorption and transportation of secondary nutrient elements (calcium, magnesium, sulphur) and micronutrient elements (iron, manganese, zinc, molybdenum and boron) in oilseed rape at the stem elongation stage were studied by greenhouse simulated method. Compared with the ambient CO2 condition, the content of Zn in stem was increased and the contents of other nutrient elements were decreased under the elevated atmospheric-CO2 with no nitrogen (N) application; the contents of Ca, S, B and Zn were increased, and the contents of Mg, Mn, Mo and Fe were decreased under the elevated atmospheric CO2 with N application (0.2 g N . kg-1 soil); except the content of Mo in leaf was increased, the contents of other nutrient elements were decreased under the elevated atmospheric-CO2 with two levels of N application. Compared with the ambient CO2 condition, the amounts of Ca and S relative to the total amount of secondary nutrient elements in stem and the amounts of B and Zn relative to the total amount of micronutrient elements in stem were increased under the elevated-CO2 treatment with both levels of N application, and the corresponding values of Mg, Fe, Mn and Mo were decreased; no-N application treatment increased the proportion of Ca distributed into the leaves, and the proportion of Mg distributed into leaves was increased by the normal-N application level; the proportions of Mn, Zn and Mo distributed into the leaves were increased at both N application levels. Without N application, the elevation of atmospheric CO2 increased the transport coefficients of SFe, Mo and SS,B, but decreased the transport coefficients of SMg,Fe, SMg, Mn and SS,Fe, indicating the proportions of Mo, S transported into the upper part of plant tissues was higher than that of Fe, and the corresponding value of B was higher than that observed for S, the corresponding value of Mg was higher than that of Fe and Mn. Under normal-N application

  12. A bibliography on finite element and related methods analysis in reactor physics computations (1971--1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    This bibliography provides a list of references on finite element and related methods analysis in reactor physics computations. These references have been published in scientific journals, conference proceedings, technical reports, thesis/dissertations and as chapters in reference books from 1971 to the present. Both English and non-English references are included. All references contained in the bibliography are sorted alphabetically by the first author`s name and a subsort by date of publication. The majority of the references relate to reactor physics analysis using the finite element method. Related topics include the boundary element method, the boundary integral method, and the global element method. All aspects of reactor physics computations relating to these methods are included: diffusion theory, deterministic radiation and neutron transport theory, kinetics, fusion research, particle tracking in finite element grids, and applications. For user convenience, many of the listed references have been categorized. The list of references is not all inclusive. In general, nodal methods were purposely excluded, although a few references do demonstrate characteristics of finite element methodology using nodal methods (usually as a non-conforming element basis). This area could be expanded. The author is aware of several other references (conferences, thesis/dissertations, etc.) that were not able to be independently tracked using available resources and thus were not included in this listing.

  13. Radical Surgery of Only the Anterior Elements of the Spine at the Posterior Element Fusion Level due to Metastatic Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Ryuto; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Inage, Kazuhide; Orita, Sumihisa; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Sato, Jun; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Norimoto, Masaki; Umimura, Tomotaka; Koda, Masao; Furuya, Takeo; Nakamura, Junichi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Spinal metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer can have a favorable prognosis if radical surgery is performed. We encountered a case of spinal metastasis involving three anterior vertebral bodies at the posterior element fusion level and successfully achieved adequate stability by radical surgery involving only the anterior elements. A 67-year-old woman who had numbness and muscle weakness in the lower limbs caused by metastatic spinal tumor at the posterior element fusion level of L1-L3 vertebrae was treated with radical surgery of only the anterior element to gain stability. Similar situations may occur in cases involving other malignant tumor metastases or spinal primary tumors. If such a case occurs, this method could be useful in preventing metastasis to the posterior element.

  14. Physiological levels of HBB transgene expression from S/MAR element-based replicating episomal vectors.

    PubMed

    Sgourou, Argyro; Routledge, Samantha; Spathas, Dionysios; Athanassiadou, Aglaia; Antoniou, Michael N

    2009-08-20

    Replicating episomal vectors (REV) are in principle able to provide long-term transgene expression in the absence of integration into the target cell genome. The scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) located 5' of the human beta-interferon gene (IFNB1) has been shown to confer a stable episomal replication and retention function within plasmid vectors when stably transfected and selected in mammalian cells. The minimal requirement for the IFNB1 S/MAR to function in DNA replication and episomal retention is transcription through this element. We used the erythroid beta-globin locus control region-beta-globin gene (betaLCR-HBB) microlocus cassette as a model to assess tissue-specific expression from within an IFNB1 S/MAR-based plasmid REV. The betaLCR-HBB plus S/MAR combination constructs provided either high or low levels of transcription through the S/MAR element. Our results show that the betaLCR-HBB microlocus is able to reproducibly and stably express at full physiological levels on an episome copy number basis. In addition, our data show that even low levels of transcription from betaLCR-HBB through the S/MAR element are sufficient to allow efficient episomal replication and retention. These data provide the principles upon which generic and flexible expression cassette-S/MAR-based REVs can be designed for a wide range of applications.

  15. Interactions between the Isolated-Interactive Elements Effect and Levels of Learner Expertise: Experimental Evidence from an Accountancy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between the isolated-interactive elements effect and levels of learner expertise with first year undergraduate university accounting students. The isolated-interactive elements effect occurs when learning is facilitated by initially presenting elements of information sequentially in an isolated form rather than…

  16. Interactions between the Isolated-Interactive Elements Effect and Levels of Learner Expertise: Experimental Evidence from an Accountancy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between the isolated-interactive elements effect and levels of learner expertise with first year undergraduate university accounting students. The isolated-interactive elements effect occurs when learning is facilitated by initially presenting elements of information sequentially in an isolated form rather than…

  17. Relation between hypomethylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements and risk of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Fang; Guan, Jing; Le, Jing; Wu, Lihua; Zou, Jizhen; Zhao, Huizhi; Pei, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaoying; Zhang, Ting

    2010-05-01

    Impaired one-carbon metabolism is thought to be associated with the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs); however, the role of methylation in NTDs remains unclear. Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) constitutes 17-25% of the human genome. LINE-1 hypomethylation correlates with global DNA methylation levels in cancerous cells, but limited information is available on LINE-1 methylation in NTDs. We determined whether LINE-1 methylation patterns were associated with neural tube development and the possible relations between DNA methylation and key maternal metabolites involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism. Global methylation, maternal plasma folic acid, vitamin B-12, and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were assessed in 48 NTD and 49 control samples by immunoassay, and LINE-1 methylation levels were evaluated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Methylation levels of genomic DNA and LINE-1 decreased significantly in the neural tissue of NTD samples. The risk of NTDs increased with decreasing levels of LINE-1 methylation, with an odds ratio of 5.246 (95% CI: 1.519, 18.124; P = 0.009) for the lowest quartile (methylation level < or = 57.94%) compared with the highest quartile (methylation level > or = 60.94%). Compared with control subjects, case subjects had lower maternal plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12. Hypomethylation of LINE-1 and genomic DNA was associated with an increased risk of NTDs. Functional insufficiency of maternal plasma vitamin B-12 was associated with NTDs, although no significant correlation could be established between maternal folic acid, vitamin B, tHcy, and LINE-1 methylation.

  18. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  19. Changes of serum trace elements level in patients with alopecia areata: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Waishu; Zheng, Haibo; Shan, Baihui; Wu, Yi

    2017-02-02

    Abnormalities of serum trace elements are involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of alopecia areata (AA); however, the results of published studies are controversial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the alterations of serum level of trace elements and AA using a meta-analysis approach. We searched all articles indexed in PubMed, Embase and Science Citation Index published up to 30 April 2016 concerning the association between serum level of zinc, copper, iron/ferritin, selenium or magnesium and AA. Ten eligible articles involving 764 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that patients with AA had a lower serum level of zinc (P < 10(-4) ) and selenium (P < 10(-4) ) than the healthy controls. However, there was no significant difference between the AA patients and controls in the levels of serum copper (P = 0.81), serum iron (P = 0.36), serum ferritin (P = 0.37) and serum magnesium (P = 0.07). This meta-analysis suggests that low serum levels of zinc and selenium seem to be important risk factors for AA.

  20. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2012-02-06

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined.

  1. Selected trace elements and esterase activity of carbonic anhydrase levels in lambs with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Suat; Berber, Ismet; Kozat, Suleyman; Gunduz, Handan

    2006-09-01

    The levels of, zinc, copper, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mg, K, Na, and Cl and the activity of carbonic anhydrase were determined in lambs with pneumonia. A significant decrease of p < 0.01 level in Zn concentration, in Cu level (p < 0.001) and significant increases in K and Na levels (p < 0.05) and of the Cu/Zn ratio (p < 0.001) were observed in the study group. The carbonic anhydrase activity was decreased in the study group, but the decrease was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Also, nonsignificant decreases of Fe, Mg, and Cl and increase of the Mn concentration were also observed in the lambs with pneumonia (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that the significant element changes reported here and the Cu/Zn ratio, but not the activity of carbonic anhydrase, can be used as indicators of pneumococcal infection.

  2. School Management Related Knowledge Levels of Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge levels of the teachers affect the qualifications of operations and transactions in schools. School management related knowledge of the teachers is an essential tool to reach the targets of the school. The objective of this study was to determine the school management related knowledge levels of the teachers. Qualitative and…

  3. Technical elements for the performance assessment of a high-level waste geologic repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, William Bradley

    Techniques for predicting various performance elements of a high level radioactive waste repository are developed and demonstrated. In the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository site gaseous radionuclides traveling through open fractures will be retarded by absorption into pore-bound liquid. For small values of the modified Peclet number the fractured porous medium can be modeled as an equivalent continuum as demonstrated by discrete fracture analysis. The travel time for C-14(O2) from failed containers to the accessible environment is predicted to be hundreds to thousands of years and doses from above ground concentrations to be much lower than background radiation at sea level. A spent fuel source term is developed for episodic flooding of a partially-failed container. Solubility-limited, congruent, preferential and alteration-rate based release modes are considered. Transport is by advection with the mostly-intact container being credited with effectively blocking diffusive pathways. The possible benefits of limited oxygen entry into the container is also discussed. Calculated releases in response to assumed major flooding episodes are comparable to those of wet-drip models. A weapons-plutonium glass waste form might be driven to supercriticality by a flooding episode in the distant future if neutron poisons are first washed away as shown by a preliminary hydrodynamics-coupled reactor model. Criticality is approached from the undermoderated side as water enters the degraded waste form. Point neutronics equations track the event through self-shutdown by water expulsion. Calculated event magnitudes are comparable to those of documented criticality accidents. The fundamental problem of diffusion from a circular disc source at constant concentration located in the boundary of a semi-infinite media is solved numerically using coordinate transformation, grid scaling, and intelligent finite difference algorithms. The resulting time-dependent mass-transfer rate is

  4. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of ‘biological relativity’ and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined. PMID:23386960

  5. Levels of major and trace elements in fennel (Foeniculum vulgari Mill.) fruits cultivated in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Endalamaw, Feleke Demissie; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is one of the precious spices. Almost all parts of fennel plant are edible. The herb is used as carminative, digestive, diuretic, cosmetic and medicine. A 0.5 g of the oven dried fennel fruit and soil samples were digested by wet-digestion method. The levels of selected elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) were determined in sweet fennel fruit (Foeniculum vulgari Mill.) and soil from Addis Ababa (Central Ethiopia) and Gojjam (Northern West Ethiopia) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The elemental concentrations (μg/g) in fennel fruit were: Ca (20,500-23,000), Mg (1,310-3,460), Fe (1,140-1,900), Mn (31-51), Cu (24-103), Cr (91-98), Co (26-71), Zn (37-45), Ni (19-24), and Cd (1.6-1.9) while in the soil were: Ca (1,440-1,780), Mg (1,260-3,310), Fe (26,900-28,000), Mn (1,460-1,980), Cu (51-101), Cr (127-141), Co (54-143), Zn (99-104), Ni (98-161), and Cd (1.7-2.9). Pb was below the method detection limit in both the fennel fruit and soil. The Ethiopian fennel fruits are rich in Ca and Mg and other essential elements (Fe, Cu, Co and Zn) and can be used as good supplement for human being in particularly for children and pregnant women. The toxic element Cd is at trace level and Pb is not detected in the fennel fruit. Thus, Ethiopian fennel fruits are safe for human consumption.

  6. Trace elements in daily collected aerosol: Level characterization and source identification in a four-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragosta, Maria; Caggiano, Rosa; Macchiato, Maria; Sabia, Serena; Trippetta, Serena

    2008-07-01

    Atmospheric particulate concentrations were measured at an industrial site in southern Italy from September 2001 to December 2004. In this period, we collected 741 daily samples of PM 2.5 by means of a low-volume gravimetric automatic sequential sampler. The 24-h PM 2.5 samples were analysed for heavy metal content (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). We also measured temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Data analysis was performed with univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied in order to point out the correlation structure among particulate concentrations and heavy metal content and to highlight source profile characterization. In order to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic origin of the trace elements, we also applied the enrichment factor method. In the investigated period, PM 2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.04 μg m - 3 to 117 μg m - 3 , with a mean value of 13 μg m - 3 and a median value of 10 μg m - 3 . A mix of different source emissions and different meteorological conditions may determine this large variation in PM 2.5 values. Regarding heavy metal levels, we observed that they decreased during the four years assuming the lowest values in 2004. All the measured elements, except Mn, showed high values of the enrichment factor, suggesting a prevailing anthropogenic origin. The analysis of the relationships among pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters showed that they were influenced by wind speed and relative humidity. The multivariate analysis allowed us to identify two source profiles for heavy metals. The first profile was characterized both by elements typical of soil dust and crustal material (Fe, Mn) and by elements typical of industrial processes (Ni, Cr and Cu). The second profile was characterized by Pb, Zn and Cd and it may be mainly related to exhaust emissions from both gasoline and diesel fuelled road vehicles.

  7. Asynchronous Communication: Investigating the Influences of Relational Elements and Background on the Framing Structure of Emails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlAfnan, Mohammad Awad

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the influences of relational elements and the background of communicators on the framing structure of email messages that were exchanged in an educational Institute in Malaysia. The investigation revealed that social distance played a more significant role than power relations as Malaysian respondents are, generally, more…

  8. Long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-1 methylation level as a molecular marker of early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Chung, Woo Chul; Kim, Dae Bum; Kim, Yeon-Ji; Lee, Ji Min; Jung, Ji Han; Lee, Yun Kyung

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to examine the state of long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-1 methylation level in gastric epithelial dysplasias (GEDs) and evaluate as a molecular marker for gastric carcinogenesis when it was compared with RUNX3 expression. We examined 89 patients with GEDs subcategorized by the Vienna classification - 41 category 3 (low grade) and 48 category 4 (high grade/intramucosal carcinoma) lesion. All tissue samples were evaluated for RUNX3 immunohistochemical staining and the level of LINE-1 methylation. The rate of negative expression of RUNX3 in category 4 lesion was significant higher than category 3 (P<0.01). LINE-1 methylation level was statistically different between category 3 and category 4 lesion (P<0.01). Between positive and negative expression of RUNX3 in GEDs, there was a significant difference of LINE-1 methylation level (P<0.01). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of LINE-1 methylation level for diagnosis of category 4 lesion was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-1.00). LINE-1 methylation level was well correlated with the Vienna classification of GED and it had a close relationship with the negative expression of RUNX3 in category 4 lesion. LINE-1 methylation level could be a good candidate for a molecular marker of early gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of static magnetic field exposure on plasma element levels in rat.

    PubMed

    Aida, Lahbib; Soumaya, Ghodbane; Myriam, Elferchichi; Mohsen, Sakly; Hafedh, Abdelmelek

    2014-07-01

    The interaction of static magnetic fields (SMFs) with living organisms is a rapidly growing field of investigation. The magnetic fields (MFs) effect observed with radical pair recombination is one of the well-known mechanisms by which MFs interact with biological systems. SMF influenced cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms by affecting antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). However, there were insufficient reports about the effects of SMF on macro and trace elements in serum, and the results were contradictory until now. In the current study, 12 rats were divided into two groups, namely as control and exposure group (128 mT and 1 h/day during five consecutive days). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined. No significant difference was observed in the sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and selenium (Se) levels in rat compared to control. By contrast, exposure to SMF showed an increase in the zinc (Zn) level and a decrease in iron (Fe) concentration. Under our experimental conditions, SMF exposure cannot affect the plasma levels of macroelements, while it can disrupt Zn and Fe concentrations in rat.

  10. Development of tissue level brain injury criteria by finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, K; Melvin, J W; Li, L; Lighthall, J W

    1995-08-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model of the direct cortical impact experiment was built and a preliminary validation against mechanical response was completed. The motion of the impactor was enforced in the model by applying the same acceleration history as that of the experimental impactor. A nonlinear contact surface algorithm was used for impactor-brain interface with the ABAQUS general purpose finite element program. The resulting motion of the impactor and the contacting node in the brain model confirmed that the impactor moved realistically and contacted the brain surface. The pressure generated in the model compared favorably with that measured by a pressure transducer in the experiment. The pattern of high shear deformation generated at the impact site in the model was similar to the pattern of contusion hemorrhage seen in the experiment. The pressure generated at the impact site propagated to the skull-brain boundary, especially, at the posterior margin of the cerebellum. Analysis of experimental data using a biomechanically validated finite element model will enable determination of tissue-level injury criteria for application in human brain models to predict head injury potential in contact, noncontact, or side impact situations.

  11. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in trophic levels of wetland plants and waterfowl birds.

    PubMed

    Alhashemi, Azam Sadat Hosseini; Karbassi, Abdolreza R; Kiabi, Bahram Hassanzadeh; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Sekhavatjou, Mohammad Sadegh

    2011-09-01

    Present study investigates relationships between total and bioaccessibility of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, NI, Pb, V, and Zn) concentrations in sediment and their bioaccumulation in species in Shadegan wetland in southwest of Iran. Bioavailability factor (BAF) and translocation factor (TF) were calculated in plants and trophic transfer factor (TTF) was determined in bird species. For this purpose, sampling of sediments, aquatic plants including Phragmites australis, Typha australis, Scripus maritimus and two bird species encircling Porphyrio porphyrio and globally threatened Marmaronetta angustirostris were carried out during winter 2009. Result of chemical analysis show that bioaccessibility concentrations of Mn (8.31 mg/kg), V (1.33 mg/kg), and Pb (1.03 mg/kg) are higher than other metals. The uptake trend of trace elements in plant decreases as root > stem > leaf. Accumulation levels of trace elements in different tissues of P. porphyrio and M. angustirostris are almost identical and considerable. Accumulation and toxicity of Cd in birds is more than plants. In addition, BAF of V, Pb, and Cr indicates high accumulation by plants and great pollution rate in the area of study. In S. maritimus TF for Mn, Cu, Pb, and V are high whereas in T. australis, Cu and Pb posses the highest TF. Also Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn have higher TF from stem to leaf than root to stem in P. australis. Finally, TTFs were compared in various bird species.

  12. DNA methylation of stress-related genes and LINE-1 repetitive elements across the healthy human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Non, Amy L.; Binder, Alexandra M.; Barault, Ludovic; Rancourt, Rebecca C.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Michels, Karin B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives DNA methylation is known to play a critical role in regulating development of placental morphology and physiology. The methylation of genes mediated by glucocorticoid hormones may be particularly vulnerable to intrauterine stress in the placenta. However little is known about DNA methylation of stress-related genes within a healthy placenta, and particularly whether methylation occurs uniformly across different regions of the placenta, which is a critical question for researchers seeking to analyze methylation patterns. We examined DNA methylation across four regions of the placenta to evaluate methylation levels of stress-related genes within a healthy placenta, and to evaluate whether methylation patterns vary by sampling location. Study Design We evaluated levels of DNA methylation of three stress-related genes: NR3C1, BDNF, and 11B-HSD2 and of the repetitive element, LINE-1, in four different sample locations of 20 healthy placentas. Main Outcome Measures Pyrosequencing was used to quantify levels of methylation at CpG sites within the promoter regions of each of the three stress-related genes, and global methylation of LINE-1. Results Very low levels of methylation were found across all three stress-related genes; no gene showed a median methylation level greater than 4.20% across placental regions. Variation in methylation between placental regions for stress-related genes and for LINE-1 was minimal. Conclusions Our data suggest that these frequently studied stress-related genes have low levels of methylation in healthy placenta tissue. Minimal variation between sites suggests that sampling location does not affect DNA methylation analyses of these genes or of LINE-1 repetitive elements. PMID:22222044

  13. DNA methylation of stress-related genes and LINE-1 repetitive elements across the healthy human placenta.

    PubMed

    Non, A L; Binder, A M; Barault, L; Rancourt, R C; Kubzansky, L D; Michels, K B

    2012-03-01

    DNA methylation is known to play a critical role in regulating development of placental morphology and physiology. The methylation of genes mediated by glucocorticoid hormones may be particularly vulnerable to intrauterine stress in the placenta. However little is known about DNA methylation of stress-related genes within a healthy placenta, and particularly whether methylation occurs uniformly across different regions of the placenta, which is a critical question for researchers seeking to analyze methylation patterns. We examined DNA methylation across four regions of the placenta to evaluate methylation levels of stress-related genes within a healthy placenta, and to evaluate whether methylation patterns vary by sampling location. We evaluated levels of DNA methylation of three stress-related genes: NR3C1, BDNF, and 11B-HSD2 and of the repetitive element, LINE-1, in four different sample locations of 20 healthy placentas. Pyrosequencing was used to quantify levels of methylation at CpG sites within the promoter regions of each of the three stress-related genes, and global methylation of LINE-1. Very low levels of methylation were found across all three stress-related genes; no gene showed a median methylation level greater than 4.20% across placental regions. Variation in methylation between placental regions for stress-related genes and for LINE-1 was minimal. Our data suggest that these frequently studied stress-related genes have low levels of methylation in healthy placenta tissue. Minimal variation between sites suggests that sampling location does not affect DNA methylation analyses of these genes or of LINE-1 repetitive elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relation between finite element methods and nodal methods in transport theory

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between nodal methods and finite-element methods for solving the discrete-ordinates form of the transport equation in x-y geometry. Specifically, we will examine the relation of three finite-element schemes to the linear-linear (LL) and linear-nodal (LN) nodal schemes. The three finite-element schemes are the linear-continuous-diamond-difference (DD) scheme, the linear-discontinuous (LD) scheme, and the quadratic-discontinuous (QD) scheme. A brief derivation of the (LL) and (LN) nodal schemes is given in the third section of this paper. The approximations that cause the LL scheme to reduce to the DD, LD, and QD schemes are then indicated. An extremely simple method of deriving the finite-element schemes is then introduced.

  15. Combining content and elements of communication into an upper-level biochemistry course.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Carli P; Pellock, Samuel J; Cunningham, Rebecca L; Cox, James R

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established techniques and incorporated them into various presentations throughout the course. Three students describe their use of specific resources and how the skills learned relate to their future career. The importance and relevance of science communication are receiving unprecedented national attention. The academic scientific community must respond by incorporating more communication-centered instruction and opportunities in the classroom and laboratory.

  16. Elements levels in dogs from "triangle of death" and different areas of Campania region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Silvi, Marina; Di Vaia, Roberto; Formigaro, Costanza; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    In the last twenty years, many concerns have raised in Campania region (Southern Italy) about illegal waste dumping and toxic waste and their possible adverse effects on health. Many human activities are considered to be important sources of environmental pollutants, elements among them. In this study, pet dogs were enrolled as environmental sentinels from three different areas of Campania, with a different degree of pollution, evaluating elements in blood and hair. The obtained data indicated that dogs from less polluted area were exposed to a hot spot of pollution, as only animals from one city (Sessa Aurunca) presented elements concentrations very close to toxic levels. When excluding these animals, the area proved to be the less contaminated. The present report confirm the higher degree of pollution of the most industrialized areas, and a certain concern originates from Cr, Ni and As, which are present as levels well above toxic thresholds. These data are indicative of a reduced pollution of the areas considered by Cd and Pb, but arise concern for Hg, As, Cr and Ni, which reach concentrations high enough to impact dogs and humans health, in term of acute (in the city of Sessa Aurunca) and chronic toxicity (i.e. reproduction impairment, endocrine disruption, immunosuppression). Additional studies are necessary to better define not only the precise distribution of hot spots of pollution, but also the real impact of such an exposure on the health of dogs, in term of endocrine balance and/or immune system activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The diagnostics of diabetes mellitus based on ensemble modeling and hair/urine element level analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Lin, Zan; Wu, Tong

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present work focuses on exploring the feasibility of analyzing the relationship between diabetes mellitus and several element levels in hair/urine specimens by chemometrics. A dataset involving 211 specimens and eight element concentrations was used. The control group was divided into three age subsets in order to analyze the influence of age. It was found that the most obvious difference was the effect of age on the level of zinc and iron. The decline of iron concentration with age in hair was exactly consistent with the opposite trend in urine. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Both ensemble and single support vector machine (SVM) algorithms were used as the classification tools. On average, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of ensemble SVM models were 99%, 100%, 99% and 97%, 89%, 99% for hair and urine samples, respectively. The findings indicate that hair samples are superior to urine samples. Even so, it can provide more valuable information for prevention, diagnostics, treatment and research of diabetes by simultaneously analyzing the hair and urine samples.

  18. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs can selectively increase protein levels.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Shen, Wen; Wang, Shiyu; Yao, Joyee; Migawa, Michael T; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Damle, Sagar S; Riney, Stan; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-19

    A variety of diseases are caused by deficiencies in amounts or activity of key proteins. An approach that increases the amount of a specific protein might be of therapeutic benefit. We reasoned that translation could be specifically enhanced using trans-acting agents that counter the function of negative regulatory elements present in the 5' UTRs of some mRNAs. We recently showed that translation can be enhanced by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target upstream open reading frames. Here we report the amount of a protein can also be selectively increased using ASOs designed to hybridize to other translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs. Levels of human RNASEH1, LDLR, and ACP1 and of mouse ACP1 and ARF1 were increased up to 2.7-fold in different cell types and species upon treatment with chemically modified ASOs targeting 5' UTR inhibitory regions in the mRNAs encoding these proteins. The activities of ASOs in enhancing translation were sequence and position dependent and required helicase activity. The ASOs appear to improve the recruitment of translation initiation factors to the target mRNA. Importantly, ASOs targeting ACP1 mRNA significantly increased the level of ACP1 protein in mice, suggesting that this approach has therapeutic and research potentials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  20. Effects of brief hypoxia and hyperoxia on tissue element levels in the development chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, M.P.; Stock, M.K.; Metcalfe, J. Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland )

    1991-03-15

    Brief hypoxia or hyperoxia has been shown to affect growth and metabolism of chick embryos during the later stages of development. The objective of this experiment was to alter the availability of oxygen to chick embryos developing in ovo and to determine the effects on tissue levels of Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn. Hypoxia reduced embryo, heart, brain and liver wts (wet wt), whereas, hyperoxia increased embryo, heart, lung and liver wts compared to normoxic controls. Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) wt was increased by hypoxia and reduced by hyperoxia. Livers from hyperoxic embryos contained more Zn, Fe and Mn and less Cu than livers from hypoxic or normoxic embryos. Tissue levels of Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn were reduced in brains from hypoxic compared to hyperoxic or normoxic embryos. Hyperoxia increased the concentrations of Zn and Cu in CAM; whereas, hypoxia reduced the levels of Zn and Fe. The amounts of Zn and Cu were increased in hyperoxic compared to normoxic lungs. Hearts from hyperoxic embryos had more Zn, Cu and Mn than hypoxic or normoxic hearts. Hypoxic yolk sac contained more Zn, Cu and Mn than hyperoxic or normoxic yolk sac. Except for yolk sac, the amounts of Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in tissues from normoxic embryos increased from day 15 to day 18 of incubation in concert with tissue growth. The authors conclude that the availability of O{sub 2} to the developing chick embryo affects tissue trace element levels either through its effects on tissue growth or via effects on the regulation of trace element uptake and assimilation by the tissues.

  1. High level implementation of geometric multigrid solvers for finite element problems: Applications in atmospheric modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Lawrence; Müller, Eike Hermann

    2016-12-01

    The implementation of efficient multigrid preconditioners for elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) is a challenge due to the complexity of the resulting algorithms and corresponding computer code. For sophisticated (mixed) finite element discretisations on unstructured grids an efficient implementation can be very time consuming and requires the programmer to have in-depth knowledge of the mathematical theory, parallel computing and optimisation techniques on manycore CPUs. In this paper we show how the development of bespoke multigrid preconditioners can be simplified significantly by using a framework which allows the expression of the each component of the algorithm at the correct abstraction level. Our approach (1) allows the expression of the finite element problem in a language which is close to the mathematical formulation of the problem, (2) guarantees the automatic generation and efficient execution of parallel optimised low-level computer code and (3) is flexible enough to support different abstraction levels and give the programmer control over details of the preconditioner. We use the composable abstractions of the Firedrake/PyOP2 package to demonstrate the efficiency of this approach for the solution of strongly anisotropic PDEs in atmospheric modelling. The weak formulation of the PDE is expressed in Unified Form Language (UFL) and the lower PyOP2 abstraction layer allows the manual design of computational kernels for a bespoke geometric multigrid preconditioner. We compare the performance of this preconditioner to a single-level method and hypre's BoomerAMG algorithm. The Firedrake/PyOP2 code is inherently parallel and we present a detailed performance analysis for a single node (24 cores) on the ARCHER supercomputer. Our implementation utilises a significant fraction of the available memory bandwidth and shows very good weak scaling on up to 6,144 compute cores.

  2. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools.

    PubMed

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-09-15

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p < 0.01), while it was significant related to level of education (p < 0.05). Significantly greater number of lower-grade teachers perceives the workplace as extremely stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working

  3. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Agai–Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. AIM: To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. RESULTS: We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p < 0.01), while it was significant related to level of education (p < 0.05). Significantly greater number of lower-grade teachers perceives the workplace as extremely stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high

  4. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of elemental content in air-borne particulate matter in low-level atmosphere of Bratislava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merešová, J.; Florek, M.; Holý, K.; Ješkovský, M.; Sýkora, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Bujdoš, M.

    A one-year study on total air-borne particulate matter has been undertaken in the framework of air pollution project in Bratislava. The 16 filter samples were collected in 2004 in order to evaluate the level of pollution and assess the potential environmental hazards in Bratislava. As a result of two irradiations with neutrons and four gamma-spectrometric measurements the concentrations of 30 chemical elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Additionally the concentrations of other six elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The comparison with other European cities was carried out. Crustal enrichment factors were calculated in order to distinguish the possible sources of air-borne particulate matter. For some elements elevated concentrations were observed for the summer months. The other concentrations were relatively stable over the year.

  6. Blood levels of toxic metals and rare earth elements commonly found in e-waste may exert subtle effects on hemoglobin concentration in sub-Saharan immigrants.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; González-Antuña, Ana; Camacho, María; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2017-09-15

    Pollution by heavy metals and more recently by rare earth elements (REE) and other minor elements (ME) has increased due in part to their high use in technological and electronic devices. This contamination can become very relevant in those sites where e-waste is improperly processed, as it is the case in many countries of the African continent. Exposure to some toxic elements has been associated to certain hematological disorders, specifically anemia. In this study, the concentrations of 48 elements (including REE and other ME) were determined by ICP-MS in whole blood samples of sub-Saharan immigrants with anemia (n=63) and without anemia (n=78). We found that the levels of Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Se were significantly higher in the control group than in the anemia group, suggesting that anemia was mainly due to nutritional deficiencies. However, since other authors have suggested that in addition to nutritional deficiency, exposure to some elements may influence hemoglobin levels, we wanted to explore the role of a broad panel of toxic and "emerging" elements in hemoglobin deficiency. We found that the levels of Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Ce, Eu, Er, Ga, La, Nb, Nd, Pb, Pr, Sm, Sn, Ta, Th, Tl, U and V were higher in anemic participants than in controls. For most of these elements an inverse correlation with hemoglobin concentration was found. Some of them also correlated inversely with blood iron levels, pointing to the possibility that a higher rate of intestinal uptake of these could exist in relation to a nutritional deficiency of iron. However, the higher levels of Pb, and the group of REE and other ME in anemic participants were independent of iron levels, pointing to the possibility that these elements could play a role in the development of anemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes via phage-related mobile elements.

    PubMed

    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Calero-Cáceres, William; Muniesa, Maite

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major concern for society because it threatens the effective prevention of infectious diseases. While some bacterial strains display intrinsic resistance, others achieve antibiotic resistance by mutation, by the recombination of foreign DNA into the chromosome or by horizontal gene acquisition. In many cases, these three mechanisms operate together. Several mobile genetic elements (MGEs) have been reported to mobilize different types of resistance genes and despite sharing common features, they are often considered and studied separately. Bacteriophages and phage-related particles have recently been highlighted as MGEs that transfer antibiotic resistance. This review focuses on phages, phage-related elements and on composite MGEs (phages-MGEs) involved in antibiotic resistance mobility. We review common features of these elements, rather than differences, and provide a broad overview of the antibiotic resistance transfer mechanisms observed in nature, which is a necessary first step to controlling them.

  8. Paleoshoreline record of relative Holocene sea levels on Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2001-11-01

    Understanding the history of relative Holocene sea levels on Pacific islands is important for constraining fundamental geodynamic theories, interpreting the environments of early human occupation sites, and forecasting future environmental conditions on the islands. An observational paleoshoreline record is provided by emergent paleoshoreline indicators formed at higher relative sea levels, hence standing at higher elevations than modern counterparts. Emergent paleoshoreline notches in limestone seacliffs record paleo-high-tide levels and emergent paleoreef flats record paleo-low-tide levels, whereas emergent paleobeachrock locally records paleo-intertidal levels. Both paleonotches and paleoreefs occur along the coasts of high-standing islands exposing volcanic bedrock and uplifted reef complexes, but low-lying coralline atolls lack sufficient relief to preserve paleonotches. Controls on relative Holocene sea level include global eustatic and regional hydro-isostatic changes in ambient sea level relative to island landmasses, and shifts in the elevations of islands relative to sea level caused by thermal subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere or thermally rejuvenated loci of hotspot volcanism, by flexure of the lithosphere under the load of growing volcanic edifices (Hawaii, Samoa, Society Islands), by arching of the lithosphere over trench forebulges (Loyalty Islands, Niue, Bellona-Rennell), and by tectonism within forearc belts between active volcanic chains and trenches (Mariana Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu). The dominant pattern of relative sea-level change, where not overprinted by local tectonism or lithospheric flexure, was a uniform early Holocene rise in eustatic sea level followed by a regionally variable late Holocene hydro-isostatic drawdown in sea level. The resultant was a mid-Holocene highstand in relative sea level that affected the development of shoreline morphology throughout the tropical Pacific Ocean. The earliest human migrations into intra

  9. Teaching Mathematical Relations at the Grade Six Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravel, Hector

    This study was designed to answer two questions: (1) Is it possible for children at the sixth grade level to learn certain types of mathematical relations? If so, how well can they apply their learning to new situations, and (2) is there a possibility of predicting success in learning mathematical relations by analyzing the pupils' achievement on…

  10. First observation of atomic levels for the element fermium (Z=100).

    PubMed

    Sewtz, M; Backe, H; Dretzke, A; Kube, G; Lauth, W; Schwamb, P; Eberhardt, K; Grüning, C; Thörle, P; Trautmann, N; Kunz, P; Lassen, J; Passler, G; Dong, C Z; Fritzsche, S; Haire, R G

    2003-04-25

    The atomic level structure of the element fermium was investigated for the first time using a sample of 2.7x10(10) atoms of the isotope 255Fm with a half-life of 20.1 h. The atoms were evaporated from a filament and stored in the argon buffer gas of an optical cell. Atomic levels were sought by the method of resonance ionization spectroscopy using an excimer-dye-laser combination. Two atomic levels were found at wave numbers (25 099.8+/-0.2) and (25 111.8+/-0.2) cm(-1). Partial transition rates to the 5f(12)7s(2) (3)H(e)(6) ground state have been determined from their saturation characteristics. Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations suggest that the leading orders of these levels could be the 5f(12)7s7p (5)I(o)(6) and 5f(12)7s7p (5)G(o)(5) terms.

  11. 78 FR 47180 - Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1960 Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters; Subpart I for Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  12. One research from turkey on groundwater- level changes related earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirmizitas, H.; Göktepe, G.

    2003-04-01

    Groundwater levels are recorded by limnigraphs in drilling wells in order to determine groundwater potential accurately and reliable under hydrogeological studies in Turkey State Haydraulic Works (DSI) set the limnigraphs to estimate mainly groundwater potential. Any well is drilled to determine and to obtain data on water level changes related earthquake up today. The main purpose of these studies are based on groundwater potential and to expose the hydrodynamic structure of an aquifer. In this study, abnormal oscillations, water rising and water drops were observed on graphs which is related with water level changes in groundwater. These observations showed that, some earthquakes has been effective on water level changes. There is a distance ranging to 2000 km between this epicentral and water wells. Water level changes occur in groundwater bearing layers that could be consisting of grained materials such as, alluvium or consolidated rocks such as, limestones. The biggest water level change is ranging to 1,48 m on diagrams and it is recorded as oscillation movement. Water level changes related earthquake are observed in different types of movements below in this research. 1-Rise-drop oscillation changes on same point. 2-Water level drop in certain periods or permanent periods after earthquakes. 3-Water level rise in certain periods or permanent periods after earthquakes. (For example, during Gölcük Earthquake with magnitude of 7.8 on August, 17, 1999 one artesian occured in DSI well ( 49160 numbered ) in Adapazari, Dernekkiri Village. Groundwater level changes might easily be changed because of atmosferic pressure that comes in first range, precipitation, irrigation or water pumping. Owing to relate groundwater level changes with earthquake on any time, such changes should be observed accurately, carefully and at right time. Thus, first of all, the real reason of this water level changes must be determined From 1970 to 2001 many earthquakes occured in Turkey

  13. The level of toxic and essential trace elements in hair of petrochemical workers involved in different technological processes.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Kaminskaya, Galina A; Krekesheva, Tatyana I; Abikenova, Sholpan K; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Berezkina, Elena S; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the investigation is comparative analysis of hair trace element content in workers of different departments of petrochemical plant. A total of 75 men working in office (engineers), and departments 1 (D1), 3 (D3), and 4 (D4) of the petrochemical plant, as well as occupationally non-exposed persons, were examined. Hair trace element levels were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The office workers were characterized by the highest hair As, Hg, Sn, I, and Si content as compared to the workers of other departments, whereas the level of those elements did not differ significantly from the control values. It is notable that hair Be levels in all employees of petrochemical plant were significantly lower, whereas Se content was significantly higher than that in unexposed controls. Hair toxic trace element content in workers directly involved in industrial processes did not differ significantly or was lower than that in the control group. At the same time, the highest levels of essential trace elements (Cr, Fe, and I) were observed in employees working in primary oil refining (D1). Hair levels of Co, I, and Li were maximal in persons of sulfur and bitumen-producing division (D4). The lowest levels of both essential and toxic trace elements in hair were detected in employees involved in production of liquefied gas, kerosene, and diesel fuel (D3). The obtained data demonstrate that involvement in different technological processes in petrochemical complex differentially affect hair trace element content in workers.

  14. Level of trace elements (copper, zinc, magnesium and selenium) and toxic elements (lead and mercury) in the hair and nail of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi Priya, Malarveni Damodaran; Geetha, Arumugam

    2011-08-01

    Autism is a multi-factorial pathology observed in children with altered levels of essential and elevated levels of toxic elements. There are also studies reporting a decrease in nutritional trace elements in the hair and nail of autistic children with healthy controls; moreover, bioelements have been shown to play an important role in the central nervous system. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the levels of trace elements like copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), and selenium (Se) and toxic elements like mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) in the hair and nail samples of autistic children and to evaluate whether the level of these elements could be correlated with the severity of autism. The subjects of the study were 45 autistic children with different grades of severity (low (LFA), medium (MFA), and high (HFA) functioning autism) according to Childhood Autism Rating Scale, n = 15 children in each group and 50 healthy children (age and sex matched). The boys and girls ratio involved in this study was 4:1, and they were 4-12 years of age. The study observed a valid indication of Cu body burden in the autistic children. The children with different grades of autism showed high significance (p < 0.001) in the level of copper in their hair and nail samples when compared to healthy controls. The level of Cu in the autistic children could be correlated with their degree of severity (more the Cu burden severe is autism). The study showed a significant elevation (p < 0.001) in the levels of toxic metals Pb and Hg in both hair and nail samples of autistic children when compared to healthy control group. The elevation was much pronounced in LFA group subjects when compared among autistic groups MFA and HFA. The levels of trace elements Mg and Se were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in autistic children when compared to control. The trace element Zn showed significant variation in both hair and nails of LFA group children when compared to control

  15. Effects of chemical elements in the trophic levels of natural salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Piotr; Barczak, Tadeusz; Bennewicz, Janina; Jerzak, Leszek; Bogdzińska, Maria; Aleksandrowicz, Oleg; Koim-Puchowska, Beata; Szady-Grad, Małgorzata; Klawe, Jacek J; Woźniak, Alina

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between the bioaccumulation of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, and Pb, acidity (pH), salinity (Ec), and organic matter content within trophic levels (water-soil-plants-invertebrates) were studied in saline environments in Poland. Environments included sodium manufactures, wastes utilization areas, dumping grounds, and agriculture cultivation, where disturbed Ca, Mg, and Fe exist and the impact of Cd and Pb is high. We found Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, and Cd accumulation in the leaves of plants and in invertebrates. Our aim was to determine the selectivity exhibited by soil for nutrients and heavy metals and to estimate whether it is important in elucidating how these metals are available for plant/animal uptake in addition to their mobility and stability within soils. We examined four ecological plant groups: trees, shrubs, minor green plants, and water macrophytes. Among invertebrates, we sampled breastplates Malacostraca, small arachnids Arachnida, diplopods Diplopoda, small insects Insecta, and snails Gastropoda. A higher level of chemical elements was found in saline polluted areas (sodium manufactures and anthropogenic sites). Soil acidity and salinity determined the bioaccumulation of free radicals in the trophic levels measured. A pH decrease caused Zn and Cd to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Ca, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the anthropogenic sites. pH increase also caused Na, Mg, and Fe to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Na, Fe, Mn, and Co in the anthropogenic sites. There was a significant correlation between these chemical elements and Ec in soils. We found significant relationships between pH and Ec, which were positive in saline areas of sodium manufactures and negative in the anthropogenic and control sites. These dependencies testify that the measurement of the selectivity of cations and their fluctuation in soils provide essential information on the affinity and binding strength in these environments. The

  16. The statistical relation of sea-level and temperature revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Stefano; Hillebrand, Eric; Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    We propose a semi-empirical model for the relation between global mean surface temperature and global sea-levels. In contradistinction to earlier approaches to this problem, the model allows for valid statistical inference and joint estimation of trend components and interaction term of temperature and sea-level. Estimation of the model on the data set used in Rahmstorf (2007) yields a proportionality coefficient of 4.6 mm/year per °C at a one-sided significance level of 7.6 percent or higher. Long-term simulations of the model result in a two-sided 90-percent confidence interval for the sea-level rise in the year 2100 of [15 cm, 150 cm] above the 1990 level. This is a wider margin of error than was reported in the previous literature, and it reflects the substantial uncertainty in relating two trending time series.

  17. Levels of platinum group elements and rare-earth elements in wild mushroom species growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to limited data-describing abilities of mushrooms to accumulate platinum group elements (PGEs) and rare-earth elements (REEs), the aim of this study was to determine, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry followed by microwave-assisted sample digestion by nitric acid, the content of these elements in 20 mushroom species (10 above ground and 10 growing on wood), mostly edible, collected near a busy trunk road. The highest content of PGEs in above-ground mushroom species was observed in Lepista gilva and Suillus bovinus fruit bodies (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while in mushrooms growing on wood, the highest content was observed in Pleurotus ostreatus (0.35 ± 0.04 mg kg(-1) DW). The mean content of PGEs for both these groups was 0.23 ± 0.08 and 0.26 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. The highest content of REEs in Suillus luteus and Tricholoma equestra was 5.03 ± 0.50 and 2.18 ± 0.56 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, but within mushrooms growing on wood in Ganoderma applanatum fruiting bodies it was 4.19 ± 0.78 mg kg(-1) DW. Mean contents of REEs were 1.39 ± 1.21 and 1.61 ± 0.97 mg kg(-1) DW in above-ground species and species growing on wood, respectively. Generally, the group of mushroom species growing on wood was capable of slightly higher accumulation of both REEs and PGEs. No limits have been established for both the groups until now.

  18. Combining Laser Microsurgery and Finite Element Modeling to Assess Cell-Level Epithelial Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, M. Shane; Veldhuis, J.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Lynch, Holley E.; Cranston, P. Graham; Brodland, G. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Laser microsurgery and finite element modeling are used to determine the cell-level mechanics of the amnioserosa—a morphogenetically crucial epithelium on the dorsal surface of fruit fly embryos (Drosophila melanogaster). In the experiments, a tightly focused laser ablates a subcellular hole (1 μm in diameter) that passes clean through the epithelium. The surrounding cells recoil from the wound site with a large range of initial recoil velocities. These depend on the embryo's developmental stage and the subcellular wound site. The initial recoil (up to 0.1 s) is well reproduced by a base finite element model, which assumes a uniform effective viscosity inside the cells, a constant tension along each cell-cell boundary, and a large, potentially anisotropic, far-field stress—one that far exceeds the stress equivalent of the cell-edge tensions. After 0.1 s, the experimental recoils slow dramatically. This observation can be reproduced by adding viscoelastic rods along cell edges or as a fine prestressed mesh parallel to the apical and basal membranes of the cell. The mesh also reproduces a number of double-wounding experiments in which successive holes are drilled in a single cell. PMID:20006944

  19. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G. L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G. Y.

    2008-08-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 Å and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ɛ bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases.

  20. A positive cis-acting DNA element is required for high-level transcription in Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, C S; Tan, M

    2000-09-01

    The spacer A/T region is a positive cis-acting DNA element that was identified in the Chlamydia trachomatis rRNA promoter region. We have now demonstrated that similar sequences in other chlamydial promoters are important for transcription. Substitution of candidate spacer A/T regions in four chlamydial promoters decreased transcription by partially purified C. trachomatis RNA polymerase in an in vitro transcription assay. Addition of a spacer A/T region to the dnaK promoter, which does not contain an identifiable spacer A/T region, increased transcription 16-fold. Transcription of Escherichia coli promoters by C. trachomatis RNA polymerase also appeared to be dependent on the spacer A/T region. However, the effect of the spacer A/T region on transcription by E. coli RNA polymerase was small. In summary, the spacer A/T region is a novel DNA element that is required for high-level transcription of many promoters by chlamydial RNA polymerase.

  1. A Positive cis-Acting DNA Element Is Required for High-Level Transcription in Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Schaumburg, Chris S.; Tan, Ming

    2000-01-01

    The spacer A/T region is a positive cis-acting DNA element that was identified in the Chlamydia trachomatis rRNA promoter region. We have now demonstrated that similar sequences in other chlamydial promoters are important for transcription. Substitution of candidate spacer A/T regions in four chlamydial promoters decreased transcription by partially purified C. trachomatis RNA polymerase in an in vitro transcription assay. Addition of a spacer A/T region to the dnaK promoter, which does not contain an identifiable spacer A/T region, increased transcription 16-fold. Transcription of Escherichia coli promoters by C. trachomatis RNA polymerase also appeared to be dependent on the spacer A/T region. However, the effect of the spacer A/T region on transcription by E. coli RNA polymerase was small. In summary, the spacer A/T region is a novel DNA element that is required for high-level transcription of many promoters by chlamydial RNA polymerase. PMID:10960101

  2. Elemental levels in mast cell granules differ in sections from normal and diabetic rats: an X-ray microanalysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, M.D.

    1988-03-01

    Mast cells around the thymus of rats stain red with alcian blue and safranin indicating that the mast cells are probably of the peritoneal (connective tissue) type. After the onset of streptozotocin induced diabetes some cells contain both red and blue granules and blue staining cells may appear. X-ray microanalysis of frozen freeze-dried sections from diabetic male CSE Wistar rats showed electron dense granules to have similar amounts of S to normal rat mast cell granules but reduced levels of Na, Mg, P, Cl and K. Two cells also had electron lucent granules with very high levels of Na, Cl, K and Ca and reduced concentrations of S. The differences in elemental composition suggest that the mast cells from diabetic rats are not immature, but are related to the condition of induced diabetes, and that granules of very different composition can occur within a single cell. X-ray microanalysis has given an insight into mast cell granule elemental content which was not possible by conventional biochemical methods.

  3. Bacterial complexes of a high moor related to different elements of microrelief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Yakushev, A. V.; Yurchenko, E. N.; Manucharov, N. A.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of bacterial complexes, including the number, taxonomic composition, physiological state, and proportion of ecological trophic groups was performed in a high moorland related to different elements of the microrelief. The abundance of bacteria, their ability for hydrolysis of polymers and the share of r-strategists were found to be higher in the sphagnum hillocks than on the flat surfaces. The total prokaryote biomass was 4 times greater in the sphagnum samples from microhighs (hillocks). On these elements of the microrelief, the density of actinomycetal mycelium was higher. Bacteria of the hydrolytic complex ( Cytophaga and Chitinophaga genera) were found only in microhigh samples.

  4. Epigenomic Elements Analyses for Promoters Identify ESRRG as a New Susceptibility Gene for Obesity-related Traits

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shan-Shan; Guo, Yan; Zhu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Shen, Hui; Chen, Xiang-Ding; Tan, Li-Jun; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen; Yang, Tie-Lin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES With ENCODE epigenomic data and results from published genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we aimed to find regulatory signatures of obesity genes and discover novel susceptibility genes. METHODS Obesity genes were obtained from public GWASs databases and their promoters were annotated based on the regulatory elements information. Significantly enriched or depleted epigenomic elements in the promoters of obesity genes were evaluated and all human genes were then prioritized according to the existence of the selected elements to predict new candidate genes. Top ranked genes were subsequently applied to validate their associations with obesity-related traits in three independent in-house GWASs samples. RESULTS We identified RAD21 and EZH2 as over-represented, STAT2 and IRF3 as depleted transcription factors. Histone modification of H3K9me3 and chromatin state segmentation of “poised promoter” and “repressed” were overrepresented. All genes were prioritized and we selected the top five genes for validation at population level. Combined results from the three GWASs samples, rs7522101 in ESRRG remained significantly associated with BMI after multiple testing corrections (P = 7.25 × 10−5). It was also associated with β-cell function (P = 1.99 × 10−3) and fasting glucose level (P < 0.05) in the meta-analyses of glucose and insulin-related traits consortium (MAGIC) dataset. CONCLUSIONS In summary, we identified epigenomic characteristics for obesity genes and suggested ESRRG as a novel obesity susceptibility gene. PMID:27113491

  5. Trace element levels in whole blood samples from residents of the city Badajoz, Spain.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M A; Marin, C; Vinagre, F; Ostapczuk, P

    1999-05-19

    Copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc were determined by anodic stripping voltammetry after sample digestion and potentiometric stripping analysis was used for Pb and Cd determination in original samples. Selenium was determined by cathodic stripping voltammetry or hydride generation AAS. Element levels found in the whole blood sample in a group of 82 people are for Cd: 0.98 +/- 0.94 ng/ml; for Pb: 46.7 +/- 28.6 ng/ml; for Cu: 1.07 +/- 0.12 micrograms/ml; for Zn: 6.95 +/- 1.08 micrograms/ml, and for Se: 116 +/- 25 ng/ml. Analytical data have been correlated to age, sex, smokers or non-smokers, drinking and food habits.

  6. Level of minerals and trace elements in the urine of the participants of mountain ultra-marathon race.

    PubMed

    Jablan, Jasna; Inić, Suzana; Stosnach, Hagen; Hadžiabdić, Maja Ortner; Vujić, Lovorka; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore impact of endurance exercise on urinary level of minerals and trace elements as well as on some oxidative stress and biochemical parameters. Urine samples were collected from participants (n=21) of mountain ultra-marathon race (53km; Medvednica, Zagreb, Croatia), before (baseline value), immediately after, 12h and 24h after the race. In urine samples level of minerals (Ca, P, K and Na) and trace elements (Se, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe and Co) were assessed using the bench top Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer. Oxidative stress was determined as level of malondialdehyde (MDA). Immediately after the race level of minerals, trace elements, MDA, creatinine, ketones, erythrocytes and specific gravity increased compared to their baseline value. In 24h follow-up trace elements involved in antioxidant defence, MDA and biochemical parameters returned to their baseline values, Cu and Co remained increased as after the race, Fe and K tended to return to baseline values while Ca, P and Na continued to increase. Mountain ultra-marathon resulted in alteration of physiologically important minerals and trace elements that for some minerals and trace elements persist, indicating their involvement in recovery processes. However, due to their loss in urine, level of minerals and trace elements in athletes participating in endurance exercise should be monitored.

  7. Nonlinear transient survival level seismic finite element analysis of Magellan ground based telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebel, Matt; Buleri, Christine; Baylor, Andrew; Gunnels, Steve; Hull, Charlie; Palunas, Povilas; Phillips, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The Magellan Telescopes are a set of twin 6.5 meter ground based optical/near-IR telescopes operated by the Carnegie Institution for Science at the Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) in Chile. The primary mirrors are f/1.25 paraboloids made of borosilicate glass and a honeycomb structure. The secondary mirror provides both f/11 and f/5 focal lengths with two Nasmyth, three auxiliary, and a Cassegrain port on the optical support structure (OSS). The telescopes have been in operation since 2000 and have experienced several small earthquakes with no damage. Measurement of in situ response of the telescopes to seismic events showed significant dynamic amplification, however, the response of the telescopes to a survival level earthquake, including component level forces, displacements, accelerations, and stresses were unknown. The telescopes are supported with hydrostatic bearings that can lift up under high seismic loading, thus causing a nonlinear response. For this reason, the typical response spectrum analysis performed to analyze a survival level seismic earthquake is not sufficient in determining the true response of the structure. Therefore, a nonlinear transient finite element analysis (FEA) of the telescope structure was performed to assess high risk areas and develop acceleration responses for future instrument design. Several configurations were considered combining different installed components and altitude pointing directions. A description of the models, methodology, and results are presented.

  8. Comparing the Levels of Trace Elements in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Makhlough, Atieh; Makhlough, Marjan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Sedighi, Omid; Faghihan, Mansooreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in developed countries. Several trace elements were reported to be changed in diabetic nephropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in serum levels of zinc, copper and chromium and their association with the incidence of ESRD in patients with diabetes. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 70 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (macro and micro-albuminuria) and 70 healthy individuals. Samples were collected to survey metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential analysis methods. Results: Mean ± SD levels of Zn, Cu and Cr were significantly decreased in blood samples of patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Also the mean concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cr in drinking water of Sari were lower than the accepted limit. Only in one case, Cu was higher than the accepted limit, which was the possibility of contamination by water supply pipes. Conclusions: Cu, Zn and Cr play a specific role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Meanwhile in these patients, low serum levels of Cu, Zn and Cr were not associated with factors such as drinking water. Possible causes should be sought in other factors like urine, intervention factors in absorption and utilization and individual conditions. PMID:26539418

  9. Estimation of vertical sea level muon energy spectra from the latest primary cosmic ray elemental spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, M.; Molla, N. H.; Bhattacharyya, D. P.

    The directly measured elemental spectra of primary cosmic rays obtained from Webber et al., Seo et al., Menn et al., Ryan et al. and experiments like JACEE, CRN, SOKOL, RICH on P, He, CNO, Ne-S and Fe have been considered to estimate the vertical sea level muon energy spectra. The primary elemental energy spectra of P, He, CNO, Ne-S and Fe available from the different experimental data duly fitted by power law are given by Np(E)dE = 1.2216E-2.68 dE [cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 NHe(E)dE = 0.0424E-2.59 dE [cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 NCNO(E)dE = 0.0026E-2.57 dE[cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 NNe-S(E)dE = 0.00066E-2.57 dE [cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 NF e(E)dE = 0.0056E-2.55 dE [cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 Using the conventional superposition model the all nucleon primary cosmic ray spectrum has been derived which is of the form N(E)dE = 1.42E-2.66 dE [cm2 .s.sr.GeV/n]-1 We have considered all these spectra separately as parents of the secondary mesons and finallty the sea level muon fluxes at 00 from each species have been derived. To evaluate the meson spectra which are the initial air shower interaction products initiated by the primary nucleon air collisions, the hadronic energy moments have been calculated from the CERN LEBCEHS data for pp collisions and FNAL data for πp collisions. Pion production by secondary pions have been taken into account and the final total muon spectrum has been derived from pp rightarrowπ± x, pp → K± x, πp → π± x channels. The Z-factors have been corrected for p-air collisions. We have adopted the constant values of σp-air and σπ-air crosssections which are 273 mb and 213 mb, respectively. The adopted inelastic cross-sections for pp and πp interactions are 35 mb and 22 mb, respectively. The Q-G plasma correction of Z-factors have also been incorporated in the final form. The solution to the standard differential equation for mesons is considered for muon flux estimation from Ngenerations of the parent mesons. By this formulation vertical muon spectra from each element

  10. Alteration of local adipose tissue trace element homeostasis as a possible mechanism of obesity-related insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Sinitskii, Anton I; Popova, Elizaveta V; Nemereshina, Olga N; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms of association between obesity and the related metabolic disturbances in general and insulin resistance in particular are extensively studied. Taking into account a key role of adipose tissue insulin resistance in the development of systemic obesity-related insulin resistance, the estimation of mechanisms linking increased adiposity and impaired insulin signaling in adipocytes will allow to develop novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to treatment of these states. A number of trace elements like chromium, zinc, and vanadium have been shown to take part in insulin signaling via various mechanisms. Taking into account a key role of adipocyte in systemic carbohydrate homeostasis it can be asked if trace element homeostasis in adipose tissue may influence regulatory mechanisms of glucose metabolism. We hypothesize that caloric excess through currently unknown mechanisms results in decreased chromium, vanadium, and zinc content in adipocytes. Decreased content of trace elements in the adipose tissue causes impairment of intra-adipocyte insulin signaling subsequently leading to adipose tissue insulin resistance. The latter significantly contributes to systemic insulin resistance and further metabolic disruption in obesity. It is also possible that decreased adipose tissue trace element content is associated with dysregulation of insulin-sensitizing and proinflammatory adipokines also leading to insulin resistance. We hypothesize that insulin resistance and adipokine dysbalance increase the severity of obesity subsequently aggravating alteration of adipose tissue trace element balance. Single indications of high relative adipose tissue trace element content, decreased Cr, V, and Zn content in obese adipose tissue, and tight association between fat tissue chromium, vanadium, and zinc levels and metabolic parameters in obesity may be useful for hypothesis validation. If our hypothesis will be confirmed by later studies, adipose tissue chromium

  11. Topical index and bibliography of U.S. Geological Survey Trace Elements and related reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Diane; Houser, Shirley S.

    1952-01-01

    Part 1, the topical index, lists the titles of reports prepared from 1941 to December 1952, in conjunction with the Geological Survey's program of uranium and other elements of related interest. It includes not only completed Trace Elements reports and those now in preparation, but also Survey publications, publications by Survey personnel in scientific journals, and open-fie releases. The titles are grouped topically under the headings listed in the table of contents. Entries in each category are listed alphabetically, by author, and numbered consecutively. Many of the reports have been cross-indexed, where appropriate. The classification of the Trace Elements reports, insofar as it is known, has been indicated after the title of the report. The classification of some of the earlier Trace Elements reports is uncertain. The Geological Survey does not have additional copies of most of the reports listed, but copies of some of the completed reports can be loaned on request to organizations officially cooperating with the Atomic Energy Commission. Many Trace Elements reports have been made available to the public, either by open-file release, reproduction by Technical Information Service, Oak Ridge (referred to as TIS), by publication as a Geological Survey circular or bulletin or by a publication in a scientific journal. This information is given, following the title of the report. If the abstract of a Trace Element report has been published in Nuclear Science Abstracts, it is noted by the initials NSA following the title of the report. Part 2 is a reference guide to information on the Trace Elements program that is available to the public. This information is categorized according to the type of publication or release.

  12. Human brain mercury levels related to exposure to amalgam fillings.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, E; Aksoy, A; Turla, A; Karaarslan, E S; Karaarslan, B; Aydın, A; Eken, A

    2014-08-01

    The safety of dental amalgam as the primary material in dental restoration treatments has been debated since its introduction. It is widely accepted that amalgam restorations continuously release elemental mercury (Hg) vapor, which is inhaled and absorbed by the body and distributed to tissues, including the brain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the presence of amalgam fillings is correlated with brain Hg level. The Hg levels in the parietal lobes of the brains of 32 cadavers were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrometer with the mercury hydride system. A total of 32 brain samples were tested; of these, 10 were from cadavers with amalgam fillings, while 22 of them were amalgam free. Hg was detected in 60.0% (6 of 10) of the samples in the amalgam group and in 36.3% (8 of 22) in the amalgam-free group. The average Hg level of the amalgam group was 0.97 ± 0.83 µg/g (minimum: 0.3 µg/g and maximum: 2.34 µg/g), and in the amalgam-free group, it was 1.06 ± 0.57 µg/g (minimum: 0.17 µg/g and maximum: 1.76 µg/g). The results of the present study showed no correlation between the presence of amalgam fillings and brain Hg level.

  13. Serum and liver tissue bio-element levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: protective effects of royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Cemek, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Fatma; Büyükokuroğlu, Mehmet Emin; Büyükben, Ahmet; Aymelek, Fatih; Ayaz, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    The liver is a vital organ, and its function is generally impaired by chemicals. Some natural compounds have a protective role against liver diseases such as royal jelly (RJ). To our knowledge, there are no data available on the effect of RJ therapy on the levels of bio-element metabolisms and antioxidant enzyme activities in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the role of RJ therapy in the trace and major elements and antioxidant enzymes in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in the CCl(4)-treated group more than they did in the sham and RJ-administered groups. Many bio-element levels were also reduced in only the CCl(4)-treated group. This showed that the depletion of trace elements was related to erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities. RJ administration clearly increased the trace and major element levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in RJ groups. RJ may be used as functional foods because of their naturally high antioxidant potential and rich element content.

  14. Trace element levels in mollusks from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean, Red and North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herut, Barak; Kress, Nurit; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava

    1999-12-01

    The trace element contamination levels in mollusks were evaluated for different marine coastal sites in the Mediterranean (Israeli coast), Red (Israeli coast) and North (German coast) Seas. Three bivalve species (Mactra corallina, Donax sp, and Mytilus edulis) and two gastropod species (Patella sp.and Cellana rota) were sampled at polluted and relatively clean sites, and their soft tissue analyzed for Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe concentrations. Representative samples were screened for organic contaminants [(DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)] which exhibited very low concentrations at all sites. In the Red Sea, the gastropod C. rota showed low levels of Hg (below detection limit) and similar Cd concentrations at all the examined sites, while other trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe) were slightly enriched at the northern beach stations. Along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, Hg and Zn were enriched in two bivalves (M. corallina and Donax sp.) from Haifa Bay, both species undergoing a long-term decrease in Hg based on previous studies. Significant Cd and Zn enrichment was detected in Patella sp. from the Kishon River estuary at the southern part of Haifa Bay. In general, Patella sp. and Donax sp. specimens from Haifa Bay exhibited higher levels of Cd compared to other sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, attributed to the enrichment of Cd in suspended particulate matter. Along the German coast (North Sea) M. edulis exhibited higher concentrations of Hg and Cd at the Elbe and Eider estuaries, but with levels below those found in polluted sites elsewhere.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Trace Elements and related reports through 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Jane H.; Blatcher, Virginia K.; Smith, Harriet B.

    1954-01-01

    This report combines and brings up-to-date the information previously given in Trace Elements Investigations Report 325, "Numerical list of U.S. Geological Survey Trace Elements Reports to April 30, 1953," and Trace Elements Investigations Report 301, "Topical index and bibliography of U.S. Geological Survey Trace Elements and related reports." Part I is a numerical list of U.S. Geological Survey Trace Elements Investigations and Memorandum reports. It supersedes TEI-325. This part lists not only reports (followed by a date) that have been transmitted to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, but also reports in preparation (followed by an asterisk) for which tentative titles were available on December 31, 1953. Reports that have been published are indicated by the abbreviation of the medium of publication. (See also part II.) Part II is a reference guide to Trace Elements and related reports that are available to the public; this part supersedes Part 2 of the TEI-301 (published as Geological survey Circular 281). These reports are grouped according to the type of publication or release. Abstracts published in Nuclear Science Abstracts are not included in Part II, although certain TEI and TEM reports, the abstracts of which have been published in NSA, are so indicated in Part I. Publications in process on December 31, 1953, are designated by an asterisk. Part III is a finding list of states, areas, and subjects. It is based on information derived mostly from the titles of reports and, where titles are of a general nature, from a cursory review of the reports. This list is not a complete index of the information given in Trace Elements and related reports, but is designed to find subjects of major interest. Because of the numerous entries for Colorado and Utah, information has been listed by counties and, where possible, by subject under these states. Other states have county listings only if a county is included in the title of a report; otherwise, areas may be listed

  16. Concentration of trace elements in human semen and relation to spermatozoa quality.

    PubMed

    Slivkova, Jana; Popelkova, Miroslava; Massanyi, Peter; Toporcerova, Silvia; Stawarz, Robert; Formicki, Grzegorz; Lukac, Norbert; Putała, Aldona; Guzik, Marek

    2009-03-01

    In this study the concentrations of trace elements such as lead, cadmium, iron, nickel, copper and zinc in the human semen (n = 47), occurrence of pathological spermatozoa, and correlations of these elements to pathological forms were investigated. For each sample of human spermatozoa at least 500 spermatozoa were evaluated. Metal contents were determined by the voltametric method and flame absorption spectrophotometry method. The concentrations of trace elements in human semen were: lead 1.49 +/- 0.40 mg x kg(- 1), cadmium 0.13 +/- 0.15 mg x kg(- 1), iron 2.59 +/- 0.21 mg x kg(- 1), nickel 0.40 +/- 0.07 mg x kg(- 1), copper 0.28 +/- 0.06 mg x kg(- 1), and zinc 153.93 +/- 67.08 mg x kg(- 1), respectively. The total percentage of pathological spermatozoa was 41.61 +/- 9.80% with predominancy of broken flagellum, flagellum torso and separated flagellum. In relation to trace elements the analysis showed correlation between copper and lead (r = -0.47), nickel and iron (r = 0.36), lead and flagellum ball (r = -0.39), cadmium and large heads (r = 0.37) and between iron and other forms of pathological spermatozoa (r = -0.32). Results of this study describe possible effects of trace elements on the spermatozoa quality in normal human sperm.

  17. E11, Romans theory and higher level duality relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanov, Alexander G.; West, Peter

    2017-02-01

    From the underlying nonlinear realisation, we compute the complete E11 invariant equations of motion in eleven dimensions, at the linearised level, up to and including level four in the fields. Thus, we include the metric, the three and six forms, the dual graviton and three fields at level four. The fields are linked by a set of duality equations, which are first-order in derivatives and transform into each other under the E11 symmetries. From these duality relations, we deduce second-order equations of motion, including those for the usual supergravity fields. As a result the on-shell degrees of freedom are those of the eleven-dimensional supergravity. We also show that the level four fields provide an eleven-dimensional origin of Romans theory and lead to a novel duality relation.

  18. The influence of electrical stimulation of vagus nerve on elemental composition of dopamine related brain structures in rats.

    PubMed

    Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Wrobel, Pawel; Bukowczan, Mateusz; Zizak, Ivo

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies of Parkinson's disease indicate that dorsal motor nucleus of nerve vagus is one of the earliest brain areas affected by alpha-synuclein and Lewy bodies pathology. The influence of electrical stimulation of vagus nerve on elemental composition of dopamine related brain structures in rats is investigated. Synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence was applied to the elemental micro-imaging and quantification in thin tissue sections. It was found that elements such as P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Rb are present in motor cortex, corpus striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, ventral tectal area, and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus. The topographic analysis shows that macro-elements like P, S, Cl and K are highly concentrated within the fiber bundles of corpus striatum. In contrast the levels of trace elements like Fe and Zn are the lowest in these structures. It was found that statistically significant differences between the animals with electrical stimulation of vagus nerve and the control are observed in the left side of corpus striatum for P (p = 0.04), S (p = 0.02), Cl (p = 0.05), K (p = 0.02), Fe (p = 0.04) and Zn (p = 0.02). The mass fractions of these elements are increased in the group for which the electrical stimulation of vagus nerve was performed. Moreover, the contents of Ca (p = 0.02), Zn (p = 0.07) and Rb (p = 0.04) in substantia nigra of right hemisphere are found to be significantly lower in the group with stimulation of vagus nerve than in the control rats.

  19. Subsidence and Relative Sea-level Rise in Threatened Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Higgins, S.

    2014-12-01

    In determining the risk lowland deltaic topography, as threatened by sea level rise and land subsidence, a number of important processes must be evaluated. Sea level rise is a global process but with local manifestations. Asian deltas have been experiencing higher rates of sea level rise due to the steric impact on dynamic (ocean) topography. Other large scale geophysical impacts on relative sea level at the local scale include the isostatic and flexural response to Holocene sea level history, Holocene sediment loads, and in former ice sheet zones --- glacial rebound. Tectonism does play a role on relative sea level rise, particularly in South America where the Eastern coastline, particularly Argentina, is rising relative to regional sea levels. Subsidence is impacted by both natural ground compaction, and accelerated compaction due to, for example, peat oxidation that often has a human driver (e.g. swamp reclammation). Subsidence is also impacted by the extraction of deeper deposits of petroleum and water. Rates of delta subsidence vary widely, depending on the magnitude of the anthropogenic driver, from a few mm/y to 100's of mm/y. Ground water withdrawal is the dominant reason behind much of the world's coastal subsidence, with important exceptions. On average subsidence rates (all causes) now contribute to local sea level innundations at rates four times faster then sea level is rising. New technologies, particularly InSAR and GPS methods, can often pin point the local cause (e.g. water withdrawl for agriculture versus for aquaculture). Subsurface soil or rock heterogeneity, and other very local geological patterns such as historical river pathways, also influence the temporal and spatial patterns associated with delta subsidence.

  20. Relation between blood lead levels and childhood anemia in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nitin B; Laden, Francine; Guller, Ulrich; Shankar, Anoop; Kazani, Shamsah; Garshick, Eric

    2005-05-15

    Lead pollution is a substantial problem in developing countries such as India. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has defined an elevated blood lead level in children as > or = 10 microg/dl, on the basis of neurologic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency suggests a threshold lead level of 20-40 microg/dl for risk of childhood anemia, but there is little information relating lead levels <40 microg/dl to anemia. Therefore, the authors examined the association between lead levels as low as 10 mug/dl and anemia in Indian children under 3 years of age. Anemia was divided into categories of mild (hemoglobin level 10-10.9 g/dl), moderate (hemoglobin level 8-9.9 g/dl), and severe (hemoglobin level <8 g/dl). Lead levels <10 mug/dl were detected in 568 children (53%), whereas 413 (38%) had lead levels > or = 10-19.9 microg/dl and 97 (9%) had levels > or = 20 microg/dl. After adjustment for child's age, duration of breastfeeding, standard of living, parent's education, father's occupation, maternal anemia, and number of children in the immediate family, children with lead levels > or = 10 microg/dl were 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.7) times as likely to have moderate anemia as children with lead levels <10 microg/dl. Similarly, the odds ratio for severe anemia was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.6). Health agencies in India should note the association of elevated blood lead levels with anemia and make further efforts to curb lead pollution and childhood anemia.

  1. Nuclear matrix element of neutrinoless double-β decay: Relativity and short-range correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, L. S.; Yao, J. M.; Ring, P.; Meng, J.

    2017-02-01

    Background:The discovery of neutrinoless double-β (0 ν β β ) decay would demonstrate the nature of neutrinos, have profound implications for our understanding of matter-antimatter mystery, and solve the mass hierarchy problem of neutrinos. The calculations for the nuclear matrix elements M0 ν of 0 ν β β decay are crucial for the interpretation of this process. Purpose: We study the effects of relativity and nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations on the nuclear matrix elements M0 ν by assuming the mechanism of exchanging light or heavy neutrinos for the 0 ν β β decay. Methods:The nuclear matrix elements M0 ν are calculated within the framework of covariant density functional theory, where the beyond-mean-field correlations are included in the nuclear wave functions by configuration mixing of both angular-momentum and particle-number projected quadrupole deformed mean-field states. Results: The nuclear matrix elements M0 ν are obtained for ten 0 ν β β -decay candidate nuclei. The impact of relativity is illustrated by adopting relativistic or nonrelativistic decay operators. The effects of short-range correlations are evaluated. Conclusions: The effects of relativity and short-range correlations play an important role in the mechanism of exchanging heavy neutrinos though the influences are marginal for light neutrinos. Combining the nuclear matrix elements M0 ν with the observed lower limits on the 0 ν β β -decay half-lives, the predicted strongest limits on the effective masses are ||<0.06 eV for light neutrinos and | |-1>3.065 ×108GeV for heavy neutrinos.

  2. Relation of oral dose of oxtriphylline to serum theophylline level.

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, G. H.; Desai, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    Serum theophylline levels were studied in relation to oral doses of oxtriphylline in 30 patients with reversible airway obstruction. A wide scattering of levels was observed and was attributed to widely differing rates of metabolism of the drug. From the data obtained it was concluded that the most commonly prescribed daily dose of oxtriphylline, 800 mg, will produce a therapeutic level of theophylline in only about one quarter of patients. A daily starting dose of 15 to 20 mg/kg, however, will produce therapeutic levels in approximately one third of patients without significant toxic effects. Once the patient's conditions is stable the serum theophylline concentration should be measured; if it is subtherapeutic the dose of oxtriphylline should be increased slowly and the serum theophylline concentration remeasured until a level of 10 to 20 microgram/ml is achieved. PMID:7034918

  3. Trace element accumulation in relation to trophic niches of shorebirds using intertidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Chambosse, Mélanie; Delaporte, Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the link between trace element concentrations and respective diets of two shorebird species present in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France: the Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Redshank (Tringa totanus). Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidney, muscle and feathers of 28 dunlins and 15 redshanks accidentally dead during catches by mist net. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers to determine whether differences in diet explained the variations in elemental levels. These results were compared to previous data obtained on two other shorebird species present on the same sites: the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) and the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). This study demonstrated that shorebirds of the Pertuis Charentais were characterized by differential trace element bioaccumulation. Arsenic and Se concentrations in internal tissues were elevated in red knots and dunlins, whereas redshanks displayed higher Cd concentrations. These trace element bioaccumulation discrepancies could mainly come from divergences of trophic habits between shorebirds. Species with the highest trophic position displayed the highest Hg concentrations in the liver, muscle and feathers demonstrating therefore the biomagnification potential of this metal, as opposed to Cd and Pb. The same trend was observed in muscle and feathers for Se and only in feathers for As. These data highlighted the need to study several tissues to obtain a full comprehension of trace element exposure and pathways especially for long-distance migrating species using various habitats and sites.

  4. Effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in Citrus grandis juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-02-15

    We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of seminal trace element and glutathione levels on semen quality of Tunisian infertile men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress can be a primary cause of male infertility. Non-enzymatic antioxidants play an important protective role against oxidative damages and lipid peroxidation. Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine glutathione (GSH) concentrations, trace element levels (zinc and selenium) and the lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde (MDA), in the seminal plasma of men with different fertility potentials. Methods Semen samples from 60 fertile men (normozoospermics) and 190 infertile patients (74 asthenozoospermics, 56 oligozoospermics, and 60 teratozoospermics) were analyzed for physical and biochemical parameters. Zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) levels were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total GSH (GSHt), oxidized GSH (GSSG), reduced GSH (GSHr) and MDA concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Zn and Se concentrations in seminal plasma of normozoospermics were more elevated than the three abnormal groups. Nevertheless, only the Zn showed significant differences. On the other hand, Zn showed positive and significant correlations with sperm motility (P = 0.03, r = 0.29) and count (P < 0.01, r = 0.49); however Se was significantly correlated only with sperm motility (P < 0.01, r = 0.36). GSHt, GSSG and GSHr were significantly higher in normozoospermics than in abnormal groups. We noted a significant association between seminal GSHt and sperm motility (P = 0.03). GSSG was highly correlated to sperm motility (P < 0.001) and negatively associated to abnormal morphology (P < 0.001). GSHr was significantly associated to total sperm motility (P < 0.001) and sperm count (P = 0.01). MDA levels were significantly higher in the three abnormal groups than in normozoospermics. Rates of seminal MDA were negatively associated to sperm motility (P < 0.01; r = -0.24) and sperm concentration (P = 0.003; r = -0.35) Meanwhile, there is a

  6. Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Søndergaard, Annette Bøge; Bøknæs, Niels; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2017-02-09

    Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p < 0.05), however interaction between seasons and processing was observed. Non-toxic organic arsenic in raw Greenland halibut (N = 10) and salmon (N = 4) did not transform to carcinogenic inorganic arsenic during industrial cold smoking. Hence inorganic arsenic was low (<0.003 mg/kg wet weight) in both raw and smoked fillets rich in organic arsenic (up to 9.0 mg/kg for farmed salmon and 0.7 mg/kg for wild caught Greenland halibut per wet weight). Processing salmon did not significantly change any levels (calculated both per wet weight, dry weight or lipid content). Cold smoking decreased total arsenic (17%) and increased PCB congeners (10-22%) in Greenland halibut (wet weight). However PFOS, PCB and PBDE congeners were not different in processed Greenland halibut when corrected for water loss or lipid content.

  7. Characterizing a High-Level Waste Cold Cap via Elemental and Structural Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-06-02

    The process of converting high-level waste feed to an immobilized glass form takes place within a cold cap which covers a high-temperature (1150°C) glass melt in a Joule or induction heated melter. Liquid slurry feed is continuously charged through the top of a melter. Within the cold cap, many glass forming reactions occur and the glass-forming melt becomes connected. Gases trapped in the glass-forming melt arrange into bubbles which create a layer of foam below the reacting feed that collapses into cavities. This foam layer thermally insulates the reacting feed limiting heat transfer from the molten glass below, thus affecting the rate of glass formation. Information about the glass formation is desired for incorporation in a mathematical model designed to simulate the melting in a cold cap. To explore this, a set of high-level waste feed simulant samples were heat-treated at 5 K min-1 to temperatures ranging from 400°C to 1200°C for comparison with cold cap sections generated in a laboratory-scale melter. To estimate the temperature distribution in laboratory-produced cold caps, structural (bubble size and shape) and optical (color) properties of heat-treated samples and cold-cap sections were compared along with elemental maps, the shapes and sizes of the silica particles, and the connectivity of the glass matrix. These results will be used to verify the recently developed mathematical model of the cold-cap.

  8. [Levels of mineral elements composition and heavy metal pollution in human breast milk in Shenzhen City].

    PubMed

    Deng, Bo; Zhang, Huimin; Yan, Chunrong; Zhang, Lishi

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the levels of some mineral elements composition and heavy metal in human breast milk in Shenzhen, and estimate the status of infant with breast feeding. ICP-MS and ICP-AES instruments were used to detect the levels of four macroelements of Ca, K, Na, Mg and four microelements of Zn, Fe, Se, Cu, totally eight minerals as well as three heavy metal of Pb, As and Cd in human breast milk. 60 breast milk samples were collected from the women aged 20-35, lived in Shenzhen over 5 years, postdelivery 3 weeks to 2 months from Jul. to Nov. 2007. Average concentration for four kinds of macroelement of Ca, K, Na, Mg was 280.22, 498.61, 188.65 and 28.31 mg/L respectively, that for four kinds of microelements of Zn, Fe, Se, Cu was 2.29 mg/L, 358.88 microg/L, 8.28 microg/L and 339.16 microg/L respectively in 60 human breast milk samples. Average concentration of Pb was 2.13 microg/L in 60 human breest milk samples, and heavy metal As and Cd were non-detected. The nutrition status of four kinds of macroelement of Ca, K, Na, Mg and three kinds of microelements of Zn, Fe, Cu in 60 human breast milk samples were reasonable, but the lack of microelement Se and the pollution of the heavy metal should been taken into account.

  9. Quantum biology at the cellular level--elements of the research program.

    PubMed

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-04-01

    Quantum biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (quantum biology at cellular level) - a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. We propose a new general way to address the issue of environmentally induced decoherence and macroscopic superpositions in biological systems, emphasizing the 'basis-dependent' nature of these concepts. We introduce the notion of 'formal superposition' and distinguish it from that of Schroedinger's cat (i.e., a superposition of macroscopically distinct states). Whereas the latter notion presents a genuine foundational problem, the former one contradicts neither common sense nor observation, and may be used to describe cellular 'decision-making' and adaptation. We stress that the interpretation of the notion of 'formal superposition' should involve non-classical correlations between molecular events in a cell. Further, we describe how better understanding of the physics of Life can shed new light on the mechanism driving evolutionary adaptation (viz., 'Basis-Dependent Selection', BDS). Experimental tests of BDS and the potential role of synthetic biology in closing the 'evolvability mechanism' loophole are also discussed.

  10. Probing the density of states of two-level tunneling systems in silicon oxide films using superconducting lumped element resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Skacel, S. T.; Kaiser, Ch.; Wuensch, S.; Siegel, M.; Rotzinger, H.; Lukashenko, A.; Jerger, M.; Weiss, G.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2015-01-12

    We have investigated dielectric losses in amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO) thin films under operating conditions of superconducting qubits (mK temperatures and low microwave powers). For this purpose, we have developed a broadband measurement setup employing multiplexed lumped element resonators using a broadband power combiner and a low-noise amplifier. The measured temperature and power dependences of the dielectric losses are in good agreement with those predicted for atomic two-level tunneling systems (TLS). By measuring the losses at different frequencies, we found that the TLS density of states is energy dependent. This had not been seen previously in loss measurements. These results contribute to a better understanding of decoherence effects in superconducting qubits and suggest a possibility to minimize TLS-related decoherence by reducing the qubit operation frequency.

  11. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    PubMed

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of gender and age effects on serum and hair trace element levels in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Simashkova, Natalia V; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Klyushnik, Tatiana P; Bjørklund, Geir; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-06-29

    The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the levels of essential trace elements in hair and serum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and investigate the age and gender effects. Children with ASD were characterized by significantly higher levels of copper (Cu) (+8%), iron (Fe) (+5%), and selenium (Se) (+13%) levels in hair and only 8% higher serum Cu levels. After stratification for gender, ASD boys were characterized by significantly increased hair Cu (+ 25%), Fe (+ 25%), and Se (+ 9%) levels, whereas in girls only Se content was elevated (+ 15%). Boys and girls suffering from ASD were characterized by significantly higher serum manganese (Mn) (+20%) and Cu (+18%) as compared to the control values, respectively. In the group of younger children (2-5 years), no significant group difference in hair trace element levels was detected, whereas serum Cu levels were significantly higher (+7%). In turn, the serum concentration of Se in ASD children was 11% lower than that in neurotypical children. In the group of older children with ASD (6-10 years), hair Fe and Se levels were 21% and 16% higher, whereas in serum only Cu levels were increased (+12%) as compared to the controls. Correlation analysis also revealed a different relationship between serum and hair trace element levels with respect to gender and age. Therefore, it is highly recommended to assess several bioindicative matrices for critical evaluation of trace element status in patients with ASD in order to develop adequate personalized nutritional correction.

  13. Vitamin D levels and menopause-related symptoms

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Erin S.; Desai, Manisha; Perrin, Nancy; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Manson, JoAnn E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Michael, Yvonne L.; Tang, Jean; Womack, Catherine; Song, Yiqing; Johnson, Karen C.; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Woods, Nancy; Stefanick, Marcia L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether vitamin D levels are associated with menopause-related symptoms in older women. Methods A randomly selected subset of 1,407 women, among 26,104 potentially eligible participants of the Women’s Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D (CaD) trial of postmenopausal women aged 51-80 years, had 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels measured at the CaD trial baseline visit. Information about menopause-related symptoms at baseline was obtained by questionnaire and included overall number of symptoms and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, and energy/fatigue, as well as individual symptoms. After exclusions for missing data, 530 women [mean age 66.2 years (SD 6.8)] were included in these analyses. Results There were borderline significant associations between 25(OH)D levels and total number of menopausal symptoms (p values ranging from 0.05 to 0.06 for fully adjusted models); however, the effect was clinically insignificant and disappeared with correction for multiple testing. There were no associations between 25(OH)D levels and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, or energy/fatigue (p’s > 0.10 for fully adjusted models). Conclusions There was no evidence of a clinically important association between serum 25(OH)D levels and menopause-related symptoms in postmenopausal women. PMID:24736200

  14. Vitamin D levels and menopause-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Erin S; Desai, Manisha; Perrin, Nancy; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Manson, JoAnn E; Cauley, Jane A; Michael, Yvonne L; Tang, Jean; Womack, Catherine; Song, Yiqing; Johnson, Karen C; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Woods, Nancy; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to determine whether vitamin D levels are associated with menopause-related symptoms in older women. A randomly selected subset of 1,407 women, among 26,104 potentially eligible participants of the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial of postmenopausal women aged 51 to 80 years, had 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels measured at the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial baseline visit. Information about menopause-related symptoms at baseline was obtained by questionnaire and included overall number of symptoms and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, and energy/fatigue, as well as individual symptoms. After exclusions for missing data, 530 women (mean [SD] age, 66.2 [6.8] y) were included in these analyses. Borderline significant associations between 25(OH)D levels and total number of menopausal symptoms were observed (with P values ranging from 0.05 to 0.06 for fully adjusted models); however, the effect was clinically insignificant and disappeared with correction for multiple testing. No associations between 25(OH)D levels and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, or energy/fatigue were observed (P's > 0.10 for fully adjusted models). There is no evidence for a clinically important association between serum 25(OH)D levels and menopause-related symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  15. Assessment of road users' elemental carbon personal exposure levels, London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, H. S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Colvile, R. N.; Older, M. J.; Kendall, M.

    Little is known about particulate elemental carbon (EC) personal exposure levels, a key component of diesel exhaust, specifically in transport microenvironments. A method utilizing the optical properties of EC particles has been applied to personal exposure measurement filter samples. In a series of field studies carried out in London, UK, during 1999-2000 over 400 fine particle (PM 2.5) personal exposure level measurements were taken for journeys in bicycle, bus, car and underground rail transport microenvironments, along three main fixed routes. The particulate EC contribution to the PM 2.5 personal exposure was assessed indirectly by means of an optical technique and with the development and use of a size fraction specific and site-specific calibration curve. In this first EC personal exposure study of transport users geometric mean exposure levels in the summer field campaign were 11.2 μg m -3 (GSD=2.7) for cyclists, 13.6 μg m -3 (GSD=1.9) for bus passengers and 21.6 μg m -3 (GSD=2.1) for car drivers; corresponding exposure levels in the winter were 16.4 μg m -3 (GSD=1.8), 18.6 μg m -3 (GSD=2.3) and 27.3 μg m -3 (GSD=2.0), respectively. EC/PM 2.5 ratios were approximately 0.5-0.6 for bicycle and bus modes and 0.7-0.8 for the car mode. EC/PM 2.5 ratios for different routes ranged from approximately 0.7 for Route 1 to 0.4 for Route 3. Cyclists had the lowest exposure to EC, and car occupants the highest exposure. A large difference in exposure levels between a central high traffic density route and the other less central routes was observed. Particulate EC was a very significant proportion of the total PM 2.5 personal exposure and EC personal exposure levels were considerably higher than reported fixed site monitor EC concentrations.

  16. Paths to Upper Level Positions in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation for a career in the field of public relations (PR) is based on a set of unique core competencies typically found in liberal arts. Though PR professionals rarely gain business degrees, they acquire knowledge, skills, perspectives, and strategies well-suited to executive-level positions in business. Additionally, managerial positions in…

  17. Paths to Upper Level Positions in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation for a career in the field of public relations (PR) is based on a set of unique core competencies typically found in liberal arts. Though PR professionals rarely gain business degrees, they acquire knowledge, skills, perspectives, and strategies well-suited to executive-level positions in business. Additionally, managerial positions in…

  18. Abundances of TC and related elements in stars of type M, MS, and S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanture, Andrew D.; Wallerstein, George; Brown, Jeffrey A.; Bazan, Grant

    1991-11-01

    Abundances of Co, Zr, Nb, and Tc relative to V have been derived for a sample of ten M and MS stars from 0.10 A/pixel and 0.04 A/pixel Reticon spectra. On a scale with log N(H) = 12.0 and log N(V) = 4.0, it is found that log N(Tc) is about 1.4 for M stars 1.0 MS stars with Tc. It has been suggested by Dominy and Wallerstein that the presence of Tc in M stars which show no enhancements of other s-process elements can be explained by a 'mini s-process'. Detailed calculations and the observed abundances and Tc and related elements presented in this study put this interpretation in doubt. The observations also fail to support the alternative hypothesis suggested by Malaney and Lattanzio that Tc is produced by the photofission of Th and U.

  19. Level of selected toxic elements in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow of young semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) from Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Rylander, Charlotta; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-04-04

    To gain knowledge on toxic elements in semi-domesticated reindeer and their distribution in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow. The correlations between concentrations in meat and liver, as well as the use of the latter as an indicator for toxic elements in meat, were also investigated. Cross-sectional study on population of semi-domesticated reindeer from 2 northern Norwegian counties (Finnmark and Nordland). Semi-domesticated reindeer carcasses (n = 31) were randomly selected, from which meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow samples were collected. Selected toxic elements (cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel and vanadium) were studied. Liver was the organ with the highest level of all elements except for nickel, which was highest in bone marrow. Meat had the lowest levels, whereas levels in tallow and bone marrow were between those of meat and liver. Concentrations of cadmium, lead and arsenic were significantly different (p < 0.05) between meat and liver, while only arsenic and cadmium were significantly correlated in meat (rs=0.71, p < 0.01) and liver (rs=0.72, p < 0.01). The cadmium level exceeded the European Commission's (EC) maximum level set for bovine meat and live in 52% of the liver samples (n = 29). Nevertheless, the estimated monthly cadmium intake from liver of 2.29 µg/kg body weight was well below the provisional tolerable monthly intake of 25 µg/kg body weight set by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Based on the measured levels and their relation to the maximum level and to the provisional tolerable weekly/monthly intake limits, it could be inferred that consumption of reindeer meat is not associated with any health risk related to the studied toxic elements for consumers.

  20. Level of selected toxic elements in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow of young semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) from Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Rylander, Charlotta; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To gain knowledge on toxic elements in semi-domesticated reindeer and their distribution in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow. The correlations between concentrations in meat and liver, as well as the use of the latter as an indicator for toxic elements in meat, were also investigated. Study design Cross-sectional study on population of semi-domesticated reindeer from 2 northern Norwegian counties (Finnmark and Nordland). Methods Semi-domesticated reindeer carcasses (n=31) were randomly selected, from which meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow samples were collected. Selected toxic elements (cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel and vanadium) were studied. Results Liver was the organ with the highest level of all elements except for nickel, which was highest in bone marrow. Meat had the lowest levels, whereas levels in tallow and bone marrow were between those of meat and liver. Concentrations of cadmium, lead and arsenic were significantly different (p<0.05) between meat and liver, while only arsenic and cadmium were significantly correlated in meat (rs=0.71, p<0.01) and liver (rs=0.72, p<0.01). The cadmium level exceeded the European Commission's (EC) maximum level set for bovine meat and live in 52% of the liver samples (n=29). Nevertheless, the estimated monthly cadmium intake from liver of 2.29 µg/kg body weight was well below the provisional tolerable monthly intake of 25 µg/kg body weight set by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Conclusions Based on the measured levels and their relation to the maximum level and to the provisional tolerable weekly/monthly intake limits, it could be inferred that consumption of reindeer meat is not associated with any health risk related to the studied toxic elements for consumers. PMID:22564461

  1. Relation of serum molindone levels to serum prolactin levels and antipsychotic response.

    PubMed

    Pandurangi, A K; Narasimhachari, N; Blackard, W G; Landa, B S

    1989-10-01

    The antipsychotic drug molindone is considered to be atypical in its mode of action and to have mild side effects. Currently no data are available on the range of serum levels of this drug during treatment. By means of a high performance liquid chromatographic technique, serum molindone levels were measured in 14 psychotic patients receiving a wide range of doses of this drug. Molindone levels as high as 350 ng/mL were obtained and were not associated with any toxic effects. Significant relations were noted between the serum level of the drug and both serum prolactin level and treatment response. The authors suggest that molindone may have a range of serum levels consistent with therapeutic benefit. Serum molindone and prolactin levels might help assess resistance to molindone treatment.

  2. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  3. Environmental concentration of selected elements and relation to physicochemical parameters in honey.

    PubMed

    Kacaniova, Miroslava; Knazovicka, Vladimira; Melich, Martin; Fikselova, Martina; Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Hascik, Peter; Pechociak, Tomas; Kuczkowska, Anna; Putała, Aldona

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the content of selected elements and physicochemical indicators of the honey of Apis mellifera. Samples of blossom, blend and honeydew honeys were randomly obtained from the Eastern, Western and Central of Slovakia. Contents of elements were measured with the use of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) method and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) method with CGMDE as working electrode. The content of heavy metals (mg/kg dry weight) ranged as follows: Zn 0.25-3.82; Cu 0.12-1.37; Ni 0.06-0.60; Mg 0.10-50.43; Ca 10.32-87.21; Pb and Cd were under detectable limit (0.001 mg/kg). The physical and chemical indicators ranged as follows: moisture (%) 16.00-19.80; HMF (mg/kg) 10.00-40.00; pH 3.58-5.12; conductivity (mS/m) 13.45-99.12 and a(w) 0.456-0.659. Significant difference (P < 0.05) for elements and physicochemical indicators was analyzed. Significant correlations between Cu - Zn, Cu - Ni, Cu - Mg, Ca - Zn and Ca - Mg were detected. With reference to Codex Alimentarius of Slovakia, maximal levels of heavy metals content and selected physicochemical properties were not exceeded. On average, the content of trace elements decreased in the order: Ca > Mg > Zn > Cu > Ni and physicochemical indicators decreased: conductivity > HMF > moisture > pH > a(w).

  4. Empirical Monod-Beuneu relation of spin relaxation revisited for elemental metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, L.; Kiss, A.; Forró, L.; Simon, F.

    2014-03-01

    Monod and Beuneu [P. Monod and F. Beuneu, Phys. Rev. B 19, 911 (1979), 10.1103/PhysRevB.19.911] established the validity of the Elliott-Yafet theory for elemental metals through correlating the experimental electron spin resonance linewidth with the so-called spin-orbit admixture coefficients and the momentum-relaxation theory. The spin-orbit admixture coefficients data were based on atomic spin-orbit splitting. We highlight two shortcomings of the previous description: (i) the momentum-relaxation involves the Debye temperature and the electron-phonon coupling whose variation among the elemental metals was neglected, (ii) the Elliott-Yafet theory involves matrix elements of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which are however not identical to the SOC induced energy splitting of the atomic levels, even though the two have similar magnitudes. We obtain the empirical spin-orbit admixture parameters for the alkali metals by considering the proper description of the momentum relaxation theory. In addition we present a model calculation, which highlights the difference between the SOC matrix element and energy splitting.

  5. Efficient assembly of finite-element subsystems with large relative rotations. [for rotorcraft dynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuh, Jon-Shen; Panda, Brahmananda; Peters, David A.

    1988-01-01

    A finite element approach is presented for the modeling of rotorcraft undergoing elastic deformation in addition to large rigid body motion with respect to inertial space, with particular attention given to the coupling of the rotor and fuselage subsystems subject to large relative rotations. The component synthesis technique used here allows the coupling of rotors to the fuselage for different rotorcraft configurations. The formulation is general and applicable to any rotorcraft vibration, aeroelasticity, and dynamics problem.

  6. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area.

  7. Prediction of sound level at high-frequency bands by means of a simplified boundary element method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Kwon; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2002-12-01

    A simplified boundary element method (BEM) for dealing with high-frequency sound is proposed. The boundary integral equation is modified into a quadratic form to enable the prediction of sound levels in the one-third octave band analysis. Monopole and dipole source terms in the conventional BEM are transformed into the auto- and cross-spectra of two vibrating sources, in which the cross-spectra are eventually neglected by assuming that the correlation coefficients involved are negligible. The present method is compared with the Rayleigh integral for calculating the sound pressure radiated from a baffled panel, in terms of the application limit. The characteristic length of the boundary element and the applicable frequency range can be determined by the lower limit value of the correlation coefficient. As a test example, the field pressure radiated from a partially vibrating sphere is predicted and the resultant trend is in good agreement with the analytic solution as far as the related correlation coefficient satisfies the assumption. The overdetermination process for overcoming nonuniqueness in exterior radiation problems is unnecessary in the present method because phase information can be ignored. The results of the calculation show that the proposed method is acceptable for solving the exterior radiation problem at a high-frequency range in a timely manner.

  8. The relationship between serum level of thyroid hormones, trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nazifi, S; Mansourian, M; Nikahval, B; Razavi, S M

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormones might be able to regulate the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The role of thyroid hormones in metabolic pathways and antioxidant enzyme activities are well known in many species. Nevertheless, there is no report describing probable relationship between thyroid hormones status, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and serum profiles of trace elements. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between these parameters in Iranian dromedary camels. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 30 clinically healthy Iranian dromedary camels under aseptic conditions during 6 consecutive days of summer. The serum was analyzed for serum profile of thyroid hormones, trace elements, SOD and GPX activity. There were no significant differences in serum thyroid hormones, serum level of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), selenium and antioxidant enzymes in different days (P > 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between SOD and Fe (P < 0.01, r = -493). There was no significant correlation between other parameters. In case of copper deficiency likewise the present study, the copper was used to produce more SOD, so there was a decrease in Fe transportation, and it might be a cause of decrease in Fe amount. On the other hand, a relatively small quantity of Fe is present in tissue myoglobin, catalase, peroxidases, and cytochromes. So it might be another cause of decrease in Fe amount. The explanation for these finding is not possible at this moment and further investigations are needed to interpret these changes.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Trace Elements and related reports through 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Harriet G. Brown; Blatcher, Virginia K.

    1955-01-01

    This report supersedes TEI-400, "U.S. Geological Survey Trace Elements and related reports through 1953." Part I is a numerical list of U.S. Geological Survey Trace Elements Investigations and Memorandum reports. This part lists not only reports (followed by a date) that have been transmitted to the U.S> Atomic Energy Commission, but also reports in preparation (followed by an asterisk) for which tentative titles were available on December 31, 1954. If a report, or portion of a report, has been published, the fact is indicated by the abbreviation of the medium of publication. (See also Part II.) Part II is a reference guide to Trace Elements and related reports that are available to the public (this part supersedes Part I of Bulletin 1019-B). These reports are grouped according to the type of publication or release. If a report, or portion of the report, has been published in more than one form, appropriate cross-references are given to indicate the other forms of publication. Abstracts published in Nuclear Science Abstracts are not included in Part II; however, if the abstract of a Trace Elements report has been published in NSA, the fact is indicated in Part I. Publications in process on December 31, 1954, are designated by an asterisk. Part III is a finding list of states, areas, and subjects and supersedes Part II of Bulletin 1019-B. It is based on information derived mostly from the titles of reports and, where titles are of general nature, from a cursory review of the reports. This list is not a complete index of the information given in Trace Elements and related reports, but is designed to find subjects of major interest, Because of the numerous entries for Colorado and Utah, information has been listed by counties and, where possible, by subject under these states. Other states have county listings only if a county is included in the title of a report; otherwise, area may be listed separately under the state. Major subjects are listed separately in the

  10. Distribution of platinum group elements and other traffic related elements among different plants along some highways in Germany.

    PubMed

    Djingova, Rumiana; Kovacheva, Petya; Wagner, Gerhard; Markert, Bernd

    2003-06-01

    Using ICP-MS and ICP-AES platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru and Ir) and Ce, La, Nd, Pb and Zr have been determined in street dust, Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), Plantago lanceolata (plantain), Lolium multiflorum (annual ryegrass), Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (moss) and Vascellum pratense (mushrooms) collected along highways and streets in Germany during 1999. Among the plants Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) reflects most adequately the pollution with the investigated elements matching the results from street dust. A strong positive correlation between all elements determined in the plants is established. Transfer factor for Pt between soil and plants has been determined in an agricultural experiment ranging between 0.004 and 0.008 for two types of soils.

  11. Boron nutrition and mobility, and its relation to the elemental composition of greenhouse grown root crops I. rutabaga

    SciTech Connect

    Shelp, B.J.; Shattuck, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The nutrition and mobility of B, and its relation to the elemental composition of two cultivars of rutabaga (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera cv. Laurentian and Wilhelmsberger) plants were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Laurentian exhibited a greater response than Wilhelmsberger to continuing B deficiency as indicated by the severity in the roots of brown heart, of external roughness and elongation and of the decrease in B concentration. Signs of B deficiency were not found when the B contents of the root and young leaves were 27 and 56 ..mu..g and g/sup -1/ DM respectively. Root B levels of 14 and 17-20 ..mu..g f/sup -1/ gave moderate and slight internal signs of brown discoloration. Foliar applications of B partially restored the B concentrations of the roots; however, the mechanisms of movement was unclear. The Mg, Mn and Zn contents of roots were the only elements that consistently increased and accumulated under B deficiency. The relative element composition of the root compared to the mature leaves is consistent with the root being supplied predominantly with nutrients by the phloem.

  12. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes.

  13. Effects of oral administration of toxic levels of lead and selenium upon concentration of different elements in the liver of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Z; Szarek, J; Markiewicz, K

    1993-01-01

    Broiler chicks fed lead or selenium for varying periods were later intoxicated with two levels of either of these elements. In this way different groups of chicks were exposed to lead or selenium alone or a combination of these two. Lead caused increased liver concentrations of lead and iron. Selenium administration increased liver selenium and iron levels while liver copper decreased. Concurrent administration of lead and selenium greatly enhanced the accumulation of both elements in the liver and increased the liver iron. Lead partially counteracted the depression of liver copper caused by selenium. Mortality due to concurrent exposure to lead and selenium was lower when vitamin E was added to the feed. Body weights were markedly suppressed by selenium. The concurrent administration of lead partially alleviated the growth depression caused by selenium. Selenium fed birds had increased relative weights of liver and heart but this increase was of lesser degree in birds given both elements.

  14. Hypouricemia in severely disabled children II: influence of elemental enteral nutrition on the serum uric acid levels.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Yamazaki, Sawako; Abe, Tokinari

    2004-01-01

    The previous study showed that both valproic acid (VPA) and a bedridden state decreased the serum uric acid level, and VPA-induced renal tubular dysfunction was suspected to be one cause of hypouricemia in severely disabled children. However, it was uncertain what factor of bedridden state influences the uric acid level in severely disabled children. Among many factors of a bedridden state that might influence the uric acid level, we examined the influence of elemental nutrition on the serum uric acid level in severely disabled children because many severely disabled children with marked hypouricemia receive elemental nutrition. Thirty-one severely disabled children were included in this study, who were divided into two groups-group A: 11 patients with elemental nutrition; group B: 20 patients with non-elemental nutrition. The laboratory data in both groups were analyzed statistically, using the t-test. The uric acid level was significantly decreased in group A compared with group B (p < 0.01) without elevation of urinary excretion of uric acid. Other laboratory data, except phosphate and potassium, did not differ between the two groups significantly. An elemental diet may be one factor that decreases the uric acid level in severely disabled children.

  15. Levels of 25 trace elements in high-volume air filter samples from Seville (2001-2002): Sources, enrichment factors and temporal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enamorado-Báez, S. M.; Gómez-Guzmán, J. M.; Chamizo, E.; Abril, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The measurement of trace element concentration in aerosols is of interest for environmental studies and for human health assessment. The temporal variability of total suspended particles (TSP) and its elemental composition in Seville, in SW Spain, is of particular complexity since Atlantic air masses and Saharan Dust Intrusions (SDI) overlap to local natural and anthropogenic sources. This paper is aimed to study the temporal evolution (in a monthly basis) of the concentrations of 25 trace elements, determined by ICP-MS, in high-volume air filter samples from Seville, covering a two-year period: 2001-2002. The mean TSP value for this period was 79.7 μg m- 3 and showed peak values in August 2001 and June 2002, likely related to SDI. Enrichment factors (EF) for Se, Sb and Zn and Pb were above 100, which revealed their anthropogenic sources. The comparison among EF from Seville and Huelva, a highly industrialized city nearby Seville, showed higher levels of anthropogenic elements there than in Seville. Simulations of the transport/dispersion of pollutants starting in Huelva confirm that air pollutants can reach Seville in the course of around 6 hours although they do not contribute significantly to the levels found in this city. A significant temporal correlation was found between elements which have a common source, being crustal (Al, Ti, Be, Co, Cs, Fe, Cr, Mn, U, Sr and Th) or anthropogenic sources (Zn, Pb, Cd). The temporal variations of those crustal elements are similar and related with the TSP levels for both years, with the clearly visible peaks probably related with the Saharan dust intrusion.

  16. Invertrons, a class of structurally and functionally related genetic elements that includes linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and genomes of adeno-type viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, K

    1990-01-01

    Invertrons are genetic elements composed of DNA with inverted terminal repeats at both ends, covalently bonded to terminal proteins involved in the initiation of DNA replication at both their 5' termini when they exist in the cytoplasm of their host in free form. They function as viruses, linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and sometimes combinations of two of these properties. They differ from retroviruses and related retro-type transposons which have direct repeats on both their genomic ends and exploit RNA intermediates for replication of their DNA. A model for replication and integration of invertrons is presented, as well as a model for transposition of transposable elements. PMID:2157134

  17. Relation of pediatric blood lead levels to lead in gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Billick, I H; Curran, A S; Shier, D R

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of a large data set of pediatric blood lead levels collected in New York City (1970-1976) shows a highly significant association between geometric mean blood lead levels and the amount of lead present in gasoline sold during the same period. This association was observed for all age and ethnic groups studied, and it suggests that possible exposure pathways other than ambient air should be considered. Even without detailed knowledge of the exact exposure pathways, sufficient information now exists for policy analysis and decisions relevant to controls and standards related to lead in gasoline and its effect on subsets of the population. PMID:7389685

  18. Fluctuations in species-level protein expression occur during element and nutrient cycling in the subsurface.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Michael J; Wrighton, Kelly C; Nicora, Carrie D; Williams, Kenneth H; McCue, Lee Ann; Handley, Kim M; Miller, Chris S; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Montgomery, Alison P; Lovley, Derek R; Banfield, Jillian F; Long, Philip E; Lipton, Mary S

    2013-01-01

    While microbial activities in environmental systems play a key role in the utilization and cycling of essential elements and compounds, microbial activity and growth frequently fluctuates in response to environmental stimuli and perturbations. To investigate these fluctuations within a saturated aquifer system, we monitored a carbon-stimulated in situ Geobacter population while iron reduction was occurring, using 16S rRNA abundances and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry proteome measurements. Following carbon amendment, 16S rRNA analysis of temporally separated samples revealed the rapid enrichment of Geobacter-like environmental strains with strong similarity to G. bemidjiensis. Tandem mass spectrometry proteomics measurements suggest high carbon flux through Geobacter respiratory pathways, and the synthesis of anapleurotic four carbon compounds from acetyl-CoA via pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity. Across a 40-day period where Fe(III) reduction was occurring, fluctuations in protein expression reflected changes in anabolic versus catabolic reactions, with increased levels of biosynthesis occurring soon after acetate arrival in the aquifer. In addition, localized shifts in nutrient limitation were inferred based on expression of nitrogenase enzymes and phosphate uptake proteins. These temporal data offer the first example of differing microbial protein expression associated with changing geochemical conditions in a subsurface environment.

  19. Fluctuations in Species-Level Protein Expression Occur during Element and Nutrient Cycling in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Williams, Kenneth H.; McCue, Lee Ann; Handley, Kim M.; Miller, C. S.; Giloteaux, L.; Montgomery, A. P.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Long, Philip E.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2013-03-05

    While microbial activities in environmental systems play a key role in the utilization and cycling of essential elements and compounds, microbial activity and growth frequently fluctuates in response to environmental stimuli and perturbations. To investigate these fluctuations within a saturated aquifer system, we monitored a carbon-stimulated in situ Geobacter population while iron reduction was occurring, using 16S rRNA abundances and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry proteome measurements. Following carbon amendment, 16S rRNA analysis of temporally separated samples revealed the rapid enrichment of Geobacter-like environmental strains with strong similarity to G. bemidjiensis. Tandem mass spectrometry proteomics measurements suggest high carbon flux through Geobacter respiratory pathways, and the synthesis of anapleurotic four carbon compounds from acetyl-CoA via pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity. Across a 40-day period where Fe(III) reduction was occurring, fluctuations in protein expression reflected changes in anabolic versus catabolic reactions, with increased levels of biosynthesis occurring soon after acetate arrival in the aquifer. In addition, localized shifts in nutrient limitation were inferred based on expression of nitrogenase enzymes and phosphate uptake proteins. These temporal data offer the first example of differing microbial protein expression associated with changing geochemical conditions in a subsurface environment.

  20. Fluctuations in Species-Level Protein Expression Occur during Element and Nutrient Cycling in the Subsurface

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Williams, Kenneth H.; McCue, Lee Ann; Handley, Kim M.; Miller, Chris S.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Montgomery, Alison P.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Long, Philip E.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2013-01-01

    While microbial activities in environmental systems play a key role in the utilization and cycling of essential elements and compounds, microbial activity and growth frequently fluctuates in response to environmental stimuli and perturbations. To investigate these fluctuations within a saturated aquifer system, we monitored a carbon-stimulated in situ Geobacter population while iron reduction was occurring, using 16S rRNA abundances and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry proteome measurements. Following carbon amendment, 16S rRNA analysis of temporally separated samples revealed the rapid enrichment of Geobacter-like environmental strains with strong similarity to G. bemidjiensis. Tandem mass spectrometry proteomics measurements suggest high carbon flux through Geobacter respiratory pathways, and the synthesis of anapleurotic four carbon compounds from acetyl-CoA via pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity. Across a 40-day period where Fe(III) reduction was occurring, fluctuations in protein expression reflected changes in anabolic versus catabolic reactions, with increased levels of biosynthesis occurring soon after acetate arrival in the aquifer. In addition, localized shifts in nutrient limitation were inferred based on expression of nitrogenase enzymes and phosphate uptake proteins. These temporal data offer the first example of differing microbial protein expression associated with changing geochemical conditions in a subsurface environment. PMID:23472107

  1. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Methylation levels of the "long interspersed nucleotide element-1" repetitive sequences predict survival of melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Sigalotti, Luca; Fratta, Elisabetta; Bidoli, Ettore; Covre, Alessia; Parisi, Giulia; Colizzi, Francesca; Coral, Sandra; Massarut, Samuele; Kirkwood, John M; Maio, Michele

    2011-05-26

    The prognosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM) differs for patients with identical clinico-pathological stage, and no molecular markers discriminating the prognosis of stage III individuals have been established. Genome-wide alterations in DNA methylation are a common event in cancer. This study aimed to define the prognostic value of genomic DNA methylation levels in stage III CM patients. Overall level of genomic DNA methylation was measured using bisulfite pyrosequencing at three CpG sites (CpG1, CpG2, CpG3) of the Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 (LINE-1) sequences in short-term CM cultures from 42 stage IIIC patients. The impact of LINE-1 methylation on overall survival (OS) was assessed using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Hypomethylation (i.e., methylation below median) at CpG2 and CpG3 sites significantly associated with improved prognosis of CM, CpG3 showing the strongest association. Patients with hypomethylated CpG3 had increased OS (P = 0.01, log-rank = 6.39) by Kaplan-Meyer analysis. Median OS of patients with hypomethylated or hypermethylated CpG3 were 31.9 and 11.5 months, respectively. The 5 year OS for patients with hypomethylated CpG3 was 48% compared to 7% for patients with hypermethylated sequences. Among the variables examined by Cox regression analysis, LINE-1 methylation at CpG2 and CpG3 was the only predictor of OS (Hazard Ratio = 2.63, for hypermethylated CpG3; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.21-5.69; P = 0.01). LINE-1 methylation is identified as a molecular marker of prognosis for CM patients in stage IIIC. Evaluation of LINE-1 promises to represent a key tool for driving the most appropriate clinical management of stage III CM patients.

  3. Methylation levels of the "long interspersed nucleotide element-1" repetitive sequences predict survival of melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM) differs for patients with identical clinico-pathological stage, and no molecular markers discriminating the prognosis of stage III individuals have been established. Genome-wide alterations in DNA methylation are a common event in cancer. This study aimed to define the prognostic value of genomic DNA methylation levels in stage III CM patients. Methods Overall level of genomic DNA methylation was measured using bisulfite pyrosequencing at three CpG sites (CpG1, CpG2, CpG3) of the Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 (LINE-1) sequences in short-term CM cultures from 42 stage IIIC patients. The impact of LINE-1 methylation on overall survival (OS) was assessed using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Hypomethylation (i.e., methylation below median) at CpG2 and CpG3 sites significantly associated with improved prognosis of CM, CpG3 showing the strongest association. Patients with hypomethylated CpG3 had increased OS (P = 0.01, log-rank = 6.39) by Kaplan-Meyer analysis. Median OS of patients with hypomethylated or hypermethylated CpG3 were 31.9 and 11.5 months, respectively. The 5 year OS for patients with hypomethylated CpG3 was 48% compared to 7% for patients with hypermethylated sequences. Among the variables examined by Cox regression analysis, LINE-1 methylation at CpG2 and CpG3 was the only predictor of OS (Hazard Ratio = 2.63, for hypermethylated CpG3; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.21-5.69; P = 0.01). Conclusion LINE-1 methylation is identified as a molecular marker of prognosis for CM patients in stage IIIC. Evaluation of LINE-1 promises to represent a key tool for driving the most appropriate clinical management of stage III CM patients. PMID:21615918

  4. Cohesive finite element modeling of age-related toughness loss in human cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ani; Vashishth, Deepak

    2006-01-01

    Although the age-related loss of bone quality has been implicated in bone fragility, a mechanistic understanding of the relationship is necessary for developing diagnostic and treatment modalities in the elderly population at risk of fracture. In this study, a finite element based cohesive zone model is developed and applied to human cortical bone in order to capture the experimentally shown rising crack growth behavior and age-related loss of bone toughness. The cohesive model developed here is based on a traction-crack opening displacement relationship representing the fracture processes in the vicinity of a propagating crack. The traction-displacement curve, defining the cohesive model, is composed of ascending and descending branches that incorporate material softening and nonlinearity. The results obtained indicate that, in contrast to initiation toughness, the finite element simulations of crack growth in compact tension (CT) specimens successfully capture the rising R-curve (propagation toughness) behavior and the age-related loss of bone toughness. In close correspondence with the experimentally observed decrease of 14-15% per decade, the finite element simulation results show a decrease of 13% in the R-curve slope per decade. The success of the simulations is a result of the ability of cohesive models to capture and predict the parameters related to bone fracture by representing the physical processes occurring in the vicinity of a propagating crack. These results illustrate that fracture mechanisms in the process zone control bone toughness and any modification to these would cause age-related toughness loss.

  5. Trace elements are associated with urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level: a case study of college students in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoyou; Ren, Lu; Fang, Jianzhang; Ji, Jiajia; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Jianqing; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Ruorong; Lin, Kai; Fan, Ruifang

    2016-05-01

    Many trace heavy elements are carcinogenic and increase the incidence of cancer. However, a comprehensive study of the correlation between multiple trace elements and DNA oxidative damage is still lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between the body burden of multiple trace elements and DNA oxidative stress in college students in Guangzhou, China. Seventeen trace elements in urine samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative stress, was also measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The concentrations of six essential elements including manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), and molybdenum (Mo), and five non-essential elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), stibium (Sb), and thallium (Tl), were found to be significantly correlated with urinary 8-OHdG levels. Moreover, urinary levels of Ni, Se, Mo, As, Sr, and Tl were strongly significantly correlated with 8-OHdG (P < 0.01) concentration. Environmental exposure and dietary intake of these trace elements may play important roles in DNA oxidative damage in the population of Guangzhou, China.

  6. Sources and Distribution of Trace Elements in Soils Near Coal-Related Industries.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Yuxian; Wei, Yuan; Wang, Linquan; Hou, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The degree of contamination of soil and the potential ecological risks associated with five different coal-burning industries were assessed in Shanxi Province, China. Results showed that the trace element concentrations in soil close to the coal industries were higher than those in the background soils, and the enrichment factors were >1. The potential ecological risk indexes ranged from 99 to 328 for the five coal-related industries. Results also illustrated that the trace elements were transported through the atmosphere. Concentrations of B, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, and Mn were high in the area around the steel plant. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that the sources of Se, Mo, Hg, Cd, As, Cr, B, Ni, and Cu were mainly anthropogenic, whereas Pb, V, Cu, Zn, and Mn were from natural sources. The soil Hg and Se contents were simulated by an artificial neural network model, which showed that Hg and Se in soils were from atmospheric deposits and their spatial distributions were related to the dominant wind direction. The potential ecological risk from Hg was much higher (one order of magnitude) than that from the other trace elements, which highlights the fact that it deserves urgent attention. Control of emissions from the burning of coal and other raw materials (such as iron and phosphate ores) should also be prioritized.

  7. Evolution of endogenous retrovirus-like elements of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, A D; Lee, F; Capelli, C; DeSalle, R; Tikhonov, A; Marx, P A; MacPhee, R D

    2001-05-01

    Endogenous retrovirus-like elements characterizable by a leucine tRNA primer (ERV-Ls) are reiterated genomic sequences known to be widespread in mammals, including humans. They may have arisen from an ancestral foamy virus-like element by successful germ line infection followed by copy number expansion. However, among mammals, only primates and rodents have thus far exhibited high copy number amplification and sequence diversification. Conventionally, empirical studies of proviral amplification and diversification have been limited to extant species, but taxa having good Quaternary fossil records could potentially be investigated using the techniques of "ancient" DNA research. To examine evolutionary parameters of ERV-Ls across both time and taxa, we characterized this proviral class in the extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and living elephants, as well as extant members of the larger clade to which they belong (Uranotheria, a group containing proboscideans, sirenians, hyraxes, and their extinct relatives). Ungulates and carnivores previously analyzed demonstrated low copy numbers of ERV-L sequences, and thus it was expected that uranotheres should as well. Here, we show that all uranothere taxa exhibit unexpectedly numerous and diverse ERV-L sequence complements, indicating active expansion within this group of lineages. Selection is the most parsimonious explanation for observed differences in ERV-L distribution and frequency, with relative success being reflected in the persistence of certain elements over a variety of sampled time depths (as can be observed by comparing sequences from fossil and extant elephantid samples).

  8. Lung cancer in relation to airborne radiation levels

    SciTech Connect

    Helsing, K.J.; Natta, P.V.; Comstock, G.W. ); Kalin, Heidi ) Chee, E. )

    1992-01-01

    A 1986 aeroradiometric survey of the eastern two-thirds of Washington County, Maryland provided and opportunity to study lung cancers in relation to gamma radiation levels. In the first approach, lung cancer deaths between 1963 and 1975 in four areas of the county categorized as low, moderately low, moderately high, and high showed relative risks of 1.00, 0.93, 1.01, and 1.43, respectively, after adjustment of sex, age, and smoking. A second approach used lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1975 and 1989, controls matched to cases by race, sex, and age, and aerometric radiation readings above the individual residences. In four levels of increasing gamma radiation, odds ratios adjusted for smoking were 1.00, 0.84, 0.90, and 0.92, respectively. No differences were statistically significant.

  9. (Relative mobilities and transport mechanisms of trace elements during contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks). Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the relative mobilities and transport mechanisms of major, minor, and trace elements during the contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks. The large contrasts in chemical potentials of SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and CaO across a granitic pluton-limestone contact may induce metasomatism. In addition, rare earth and transition metal elements may act as tracers, and their redistribution during metamorphism may record convective cooling processes. The results of this study may have an application toward the problem of radioactive waste disposal and the degree to which radioactive nuclides may be expected to migrate during geologically significant periods of time.

  10. Evidence of scaling in the high pressure phonon dispersion relations of some elemental solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Divya; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sarkar, Subir K.

    2014-07-01

    First principles searches are carried out for the existence of an asymptotic scaling law for the zero temperature phonon dispersion relation of several elemental crystalline solids in the high pressure regime. The solids studied are Cu, Ni, Pd, Au, Al, and Ir in the face-centered-cubic (fcc) geometry and Fe, Re, and Os in the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) geometry. At higher pressures, the dependence of the scale of frequency on pressure can be fitted well by a power law. Elements with a given crystalline geometry have values of the scaling exponent very close to each other (0.32 for fcc and 0.27 for hcp - with a scatter below five percent of the average).

  11. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  12. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Rogers, K.; McKee, K. L.; Lovelock, C. E.; Mendelssohn, I. A.; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics. *

  13. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  14. Preterm birth in relation to maternal organochlorine serum levels.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arreola, Laura; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Cebrián, Mariano E; Uribe, Marisela; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the associations of serum levels of p,pacute;-DDE and two other persistent organochlorine pesticides, beta-HCH and HCB, in relation to preterm birth. During 1995 we performed a case-cohort study and 233 mothers were recruited at three large maternity hospitals in Mexico City. Serum levels were obtained shortly after delivery. A non-significant increased risk of preterm birth in relation to serum p,p'-DDE levels was observed. There was also a suggestion of an increased risk of preterm birth among women in the highest tertile of beta-HCH (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, 95% CI = 0.94-3.66, p value for test of trend p = 0.08) compared with the lowest tertile. No association was found between HCB serum levels and preterm births. These findings suggest that p,pacute;-DDE and other organochlorine pesticides may pose a risk to preterm birth in countries that continue to use such insecticides for malaria control.

  15. Levels of Conscience and Related Factors among Iranian Oncology Nurses.

    PubMed

    Gorbanzadeh, Behrang; Rahmani, Azad; Mogadassian, Sima; Behshid, Mojhgan; Azadi, Arman; Taghavy, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Having a conscience is one of the main pre-requisite of providing nursing care. The knowledge regarding levels of conscience among nurses in eastern countries is limited. So, the purpose of this study was to examine the level of conscience and its related factors among Iranian oncology nurses. This descriptive-correlational study was conducted in 3 hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Overall, 68 nurses were selected using a non-probability sampling method. The perceptions of conscience questionnaire was used to identify the levels of conscience among nurses. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. The mean nurses' level of conscience scores was 72.7. In the authority and asset sub-scales nurses acquired higher scores. The mean of nurses' scores in burden and depending on culture sub-scales were the least. Also, there were no statistical relationship between some demographic characteristics of participants and their total score on the perceptions of conscience questionnaire. According to study findings Iranian nurses had high levels of conscience. However, understanding all the factors that affect nurses' perception of conscience requires further studies.

  16. Determination of element levels in human serum: Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, U.; Łyżwa, P.; Łyżwa, K.; Banaś, D.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Stabrawa, I.; Braziewicz, J.; Pajek, M.; Antczak, G.; Borkowska, B.; Góźdź, S.

    2016-08-01

    Deficiency or excess of elements could disrupt proper functioning of the human body and could lead to several disorders. Determination of their concentrations in different biological human fluids and tissues should become a routine practice in medical treatment. Therefore the knowledge about appropriate element concentrations in human organism is required. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Pb) in human serum and to define the reference values of element concentration. Samples of serum were obtained from 105 normal presumably healthy volunteers (66 women aged between 15 and 78 years old; 39 men aged between 15 and 77 years old). Analysis has been done for the whole studied population and for subgroups by sex and age. It is probably first so a wide study of elemental composition of serum performed in the case of Świętokrzyskie region. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) method was used to perform the elemental analysis. Spectrometer S2 Picofox (Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH) was used to identify and measure elemental composition of serum samples. Finally, 1st and 3rd quartiles were accepted as minimum and maximum values of concentration reference range.

  17. Experiences with FETI-DP in a Production Level Finite Element Application

    SciTech Connect

    PIERSON, KENDALL H.; REESE, GARTH M.; BHARDWAJ, MANOJ K.; WALSH, TIMOTHY F.; DAY, DAVID M.

    2002-05-01

    We discuss application of the FETI-DP linear solver within the Salinas finite element application. An overview of Salinas and of the FETI-DP solver is presented. We discuss scalability of the software on ASCI-red, Cplant and ASCI-white. Options for solution of the coarse grid problem that results from the FETI problem are evaluated. The finite element software and solver are seen to be numerically and cpu scalable on each of these platforms. In addition, the software is very robust and can be used on a large variety of finite element models.

  18. Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to elemental Hg among dentists.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, D; Heyer, N J; Martin, M D; Naleway, C A; Woods, J S; Bittner, A C

    1995-01-01

    Exposure thresholds for health effects associated with elemental mercury (Hg degree) exposure were examined by comparing behavioral test scores of 19 exposed (mean urinary Hg = 36 micrograms/l) with those of 20 unexposed dentists. Thirty-six micrograms Hg/l is 7 times greater than the 5 micrograms Hg/l mean level measured in a national sample of dentists. To improve the distinction between recent and cumulative effects, the study also evaluated porphyrin concentrations in urine, which are correlated with renal Hg content (a measure of cumulative body burden). Subjects provided an on-site spot urine sample, were administered a 1-h assessment consisting of a consent form, the Profile of Mood Scales, a symptom and medical questionnaire, and 6 behavioral tests: digit-span, symbol-digit substitution, simple reaction time, the ability to switch between tasks, vocabulary, and the One Hole Test. Multivariate regression techniques were used to evaluate dose-effects controlling for the effects of age, race, gender and alcohol consumption. A dose-effect was considered statistically significant below a p value of 0.05. Significant urinary Hg dose-effects were found for poor mental concentration, emotional lability, somatosensory irritation, and mood scores. Individual tests evaluating cognitive and motor function changed in the expected directions but were not significantly associated with urinary Hg. However, the pooled sum of rank scores for combinations of tests within domains were significantly associated with urinary Hg, providing evidence of subtle preclinical changes in behavior associated with Hg exposure. Coproporphyrin, one of three urinary porphyrins altered by mercury exposure, was significantly associated with deficits in digit span and simple reaction time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Topology Optimization using the Level Set and eXtended Finite Element Methods: Theory and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva Perez, Carlos Hernan

    Computational design optimization provides designers with automated techniques to develop novel and non-intuitive optimal designs. Topology optimization is a design optimization technique that allows for the evolution of a broad variety of geometries in the optimization process. Traditional density-based topology optimization methods often lack a sufficient resolution of the geometry and physical response, which prevents direct use of the optimized design in manufacturing and the accurate modeling of the physical response of boundary conditions. The goal of this thesis is to introduce a unified topology optimization framework that uses the Level Set Method (LSM) to describe the design geometry and the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) to solve the governing equations and measure the performance of the design. The methodology is presented as an alternative to density-based optimization approaches, and is able to accommodate a broad range of engineering design problems. The framework presents state-of-the-art methods for immersed boundary techniques to stabilize the systems of equations and enforce the boundary conditions, and is studied with applications in 2D and 3D linear elastic structures, incompressible flow, and energy and species transport problems to test the robustness and the characteristics of the method. A comparison of the framework against density-based topology optimization approaches is studied with regards to convergence, performance, and the capability to manufacture the designs. Furthermore, the ability to control the shape of the design to operate within manufacturing constraints is developed and studied. The analysis capability of the framework is validated quantitatively through comparison against previous benchmark studies, and qualitatively through its application to topology optimization problems. The design optimization problems converge to intuitive designs and resembled well the results from previous 2D or density-based studies.

  20. Multifocal electroretinogram: age-related changes for different luminance levels

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, Christina; Garcia, Susan M.; Ma, Lei; Keltner, John L.; Werner, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Age-related changes in the first-order multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) responses were measured for two different luminance levels (200 and 700 cd·m−2). The relative contribution of optical and neural factors to senescent change in response was evaluated. Methods Data were obtained from one eye of each of 71 normal phakic subjects, age 9−80 years. The mfERG responses were recorded with the 7” stimulus-refractor unit (EDI) and VERIS 4.3 using the following protocol: bipolar contact lens, 103 hexagons, consecutive stimulation with 200 and 700 cd·m−2, pupils ≥6 mm, amplification of 105, filter cut-offs at 10 and 300 Hz. Results Age-correlated decreases in amplitude and response density and increases in P1 implicit time were found for both luminance levels. The mean response density (nV·deg−2) was higher for the 700 cd·m−2 stimulus, but the rate of change with age was not significantly different from that obtained with the 200 cd·m−2 stimulus. Implicit time was not significantly different for the two light levels, nor was the rate of change with age. The decrease in response density and the increase in implicit time with age were significant across all retinal regions, dividing the 50 deg stimulus into six concentric rings. Age-related change in response density was greatest for the central retina and decreased with increasing retinal eccentricity. Conclusion Log mfERG response changes linearly as a function of age. Analyses of the effects of reduced ocular media transmission and increased stray light, along with ancillary data obtained from pseudophakes, imply that age-related changes in the mfERG are due to both optical and neural factors. PMID:11935277

  1. Programmed optoelectronic time-pulse coded relational processor as base element for sorting neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Bardachenko, Vitaliy F.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.

    2007-04-01

    In the paper we show that the biologically motivated conception of the use of time-pulse encoding gives the row of advantages (single methodological basis, universality, simplicity of tuning, training and programming et al) at creation and designing of sensor systems with parallel input-output and processing, 2D-structures of hybrid and neuro-fuzzy neurocomputers of next generations. We show principles of construction of programmable relational optoelectronic time-pulse coded processors, continuous logic, order logic and temporal waves processes, that lie in basis of the creation. We consider structure that executes extraction of analog signal of the set grade (order), sorting of analog and time-pulse coded variables. We offer optoelectronic realization of such base relational elements of order logic, which consists of time-pulse coded phototransformers (pulse-width and pulse-phase modulators) with direct and complementary outputs, sorting network on logical elements and programmable commutations blocks. We make estimations of basic technical parameters of such base devices and processors on their basis by simulation and experimental research: power of optical input signals - 0.200-20 μW, processing time - microseconds, supply voltage - 1.5-10 V, consumption power - hundreds of microwatts per element, extended functional possibilities, training possibilities. We discuss some aspects of possible rules and principles of training and programmable tuning on the required function, relational operation and realization of hardware blocks for modifications of such processors. We show as on the basis of such quasiuniversal hardware simple block and flexible programmable tuning it is possible to create sorting machines, neural networks and hybrid data-processing systems with the untraditional numerical systems and pictures operands.

  2. Programs for transferring data between a relational data base and a finite element structural analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An interface system for passing data between a relational information management (RIM) data base complex and engineering analysis language (EAL), a finite element structural analysis program is documented. The interface system, implemented on a CDC Cyber computer, is composed of two FORTRAN programs called RIM2EAL and EAL2RIM. The RIM2EAL reads model definition data from RIM and creates a file of EAL commands to define the model. The EAL2RIM reads model definition and EAL generated analysis data from EAL's data library and stores these data dirctly in a RIM data base. These two interface programs and the format for the RIM data complex are described.

  3. Human predisposition to cognitive impairment and its relation with environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Cabral Pinto, Marina M S; Marinho-Reis, A Paula; Almeida, Agostinho; Ordens, Carlos M; Silva, Maria M V G; Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Moreira, Paula I; Dinis, Pedro A; Diniz, M Luísa; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo A; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa

    2017-03-09

    New lines of evidence suggest that less than 10% of neurodegenerative diseases have a strict genetic aetiology and other factors may be prevalent. Environmental exposures to potentially toxic elements appear to be a risk factor for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and sclerosis diseases. This study proposes a multidisciplinary approach combining neurosciences, psychology and environmental sciences while integrating socio-economic, neuropsychological, environmental and health data. We present the preliminary results of a neuropsychological assessment carried out in elderly residents of the industrial city of Estarreja. A battery of cognitive tests and a personal questionnaire were administered to the participants. Multivariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to identify potential relationships between the cognitive status of the participants and environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements. The results suggest a relationship between urinary PTEs levels and the incidence of cognitive disorders. They also point towards water consumption habits and profession as relevant factors of exposure. Linear regression models show that aluminium (R (2) = 38%), cadmium (R (2) = 11%) and zinc (R (2) = 6%) are good predictors of the scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination cognitive test. Median contents (µg/l) in groundwater are above admissible levels for drinking water for aluminium (371), iron (860), manganese (250), and zinc (305). While the World Health Organization does not provide health-based reference values for aluminium, results obtained from this study suggest that it may have an important role in the cognitive status of the elderly. Urine proved to be a suitable biomarker of exposure both to elements with low and high excretion rates.

  4. Trace elements and diabetes: Assessment of levels in tears and serum.

    PubMed

    Cancarini, A; Fostinelli, J; Napoli, L; Gilberti, M E; Apostoli, P; Semeraro, F

    2017-01-01

    Tear film is critical for the well-being and homeostasis of the ocular surface. Although the composition of the tear film is well known, the composition of metallic elements have yet to be analysed. Despite trace elements metabolism has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease that affects several aspects of homeostasis, little is known in the literature regarding concentration and possible variation of metallic elements in tear film. We studied the concentrations of several essential and non-essential metallic elements in the tear fluid and serum of patients with type II diabetes mellitus and a group of non-diabetic controls. Serum and tear fluid were collected from 97 patients: 47 type II diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic controls. Regarding tear film, there were statistically significant differences in Zinc, Chrome, Cobalt, Manganese, Barium, and Lead between groups; the values of all metallic elements were found to be statistically significant higher in patients with mellitus type II diabetes. Regarding serum values there was a statistically significant difference in Chrome, Cobalt, and Selenium values; the concentrations of Chrome and Cobalt were higher in the control group, while Selenium concentration was higher in diabetic patients. In patients with type II diabetes, metal elements with higher concentrations in tears compared to serum were: Lead, Barium, Manganese, Cobalt, and Chrome. In the control group, the metal elements with the highest concentration in tear film compared to serum were Chrome, Manganese, Barium, and Lead. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the possible effect of a disease, such as diabetes, on the metabolism of metallic elements. Although our evidence was very interesting, it is probably limited in its accuracy due to the fact that individuals in the control group harboured ocular pathologies. This work lays the foundation for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Cognitive impairment related changes in the elemental concentration in the brain of old rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, R. F. B.; de Jesus, E. F. O.; Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.; do Carmo, M. G. T.; Rocha, M. S.; Rodrigues, L. C.; Moreira, S.; Martinez, A. M. B.

    2006-11-01

    In order to evaluate the elemental concentration as a function of learning and memory deficiency, six different structures of the brain were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF). To evaluate the cognitive processes, the animals were tested in an adaptation of the Morris water maze. After the test, the animals were divided into two groups: cognitively healthy (control group) and cognitively impaired. The measurements were carried out at XRF beam line at Light Synchrotron Brazilian laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. The following elements were identified: Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. K concentration was higher in all regions of the brain studied for control group than the cognitively impaired group. Moreover, the control group presented higher levels for P and Fe in the entorhinal cortex, in the temporal cortex (only P), in the hypothalamus and in the thalamus, than the cognitively impaired group. Br concentration in the animals which presented cognitive impairment was three times larger in the hypothalamus and thalamus, twice larger in temporal cortex and higher in visual cortex than the cognitively healthy group. Cu was more remarkable in the hippocampus and hypothalamus from the animals with cognitive impairment than the control group. We observed that the cognitively impaired group presented highest concentrations of Br and Cu in certain areas than the control group, on the other hand, this group presented highest levels of K for all brain areas studied.

  6. Using Peat Archives to Quantify Relative Sea-Level Change and Coastal Subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornqvist, T. E.

    2008-12-01

    Building on a long tradition, peat records continue to play a critical role in reconstructions of Holocene relative sea-level change along the Earth's low-energy shorelines. In many cases, rates of coastal subsidence can be extracted from such relative sea-level data. Recent years have seen considerable attention being focused on refining the paleoenvironmental significance of coastal peat beds by means of a variety of biological and geochemical proxies. The principal goal is to reduce the vertical indicative range of peat samples with respect to tide levels. Geochronolology constitutes the other key element in studies of peat records. The advent of accelerator mass spectrometry in radiocarbon dating has significantly improved age models. The use of plant macrofossils, combined with dating uncertainties now as little as 2 to 3 per mil, makes it possible to develop chronologies with 100-year resolution and sometimes better (calibration uncertainties are typically the limiting factor). Examples are provided of sea-level studies from the US Gulf Coast where the indicative range of brackish to saline marsh peat is on the order of a few decimeters only. This effectively sets the limit of the vertical resolution that can currently be attained. However, this level of resolution does allow differential crustal movements over millennial timescales to be reconstructed with a precision of fractions of millimeters per year. In addition, peat-based relative sea-level records play a crucial role in quantifying compaction rates, as illustrated by a case study from the Mississippi Delta.

  7. Relating tooth and blood lead levels in children

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B. |

    1995-12-01

    Lead concentrations in shed teeth have found increasing utility in research studies of lead exposure and child development. Teeth are useful because they record lead levels and are easily collected. However, in considering internal doses of lead, most of what has been learned about human lead toxicity and kinetics has been expressed in terms of blood lead concentrations. For example, a computerized literature search found {open_quotes}blood lead{close_quotes} as a key word in 1,035 articles cited between January and October 1994. Only 9 articles were found for {open_quotes}tooth lead{close_quotes}. Because of the advantages of using teeth to assess lead exposure, the relation between teeth and blood lead levels deserves more attention. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Relative sea levels from tide-gauge records

    PubMed Central

    Emery, K. O.

    1980-01-01

    Mean annual sea levels at 247 tide-gauge stations of the world exhibit a general rise of relative sea level of about 3 mm/year during the past 40 years. In contrast, general uplift of the land is typical of high northern latitudes, where unloading of the crust by melt of Pleistocene ice sheets is significant. Erratic movements are typical of belts having crustal overthrusting and active volcanism. Short-term (5- and 10-year) records reveal recent changes in rates, but such short time spans may be so influenced by climatic cycles that identification of new trends is difficult, especially with the existing poor distribution and reporting of tide-gauge data. Images PMID:16592929

  9. Degree of myopia in relation to intelligence and educational level.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, T W; Fuchs, J; Goldschmidt, E

    1988-12-10

    Intelligence test scores and educational levels were compared for 5943 myopic and 9891 non-myopic 18-year-old men being drafted for military service in Denmark. The former were grouped by degree of myopia, in the range -0.25 diopters (D) to -7.75 D, according to the power of correcting lenses required. Myopes of all degrees had significantly higher test scores and educational levels than non-myopes. However, the relation of these two variables to degree of myopia was not linear; for both variables there were no significant differences among myopia groups in the range -2.0 to -7.75 D. Whereas factors associated with intelligence and education seem to be important in triggering the onset of myopia, they seem to be much less important in determining the degree to which myopia progresses.

  10. Relative sea levels from tide-gauge records

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.O.

    1980-12-01

    Mean annual sea levels at 247 tide-gauge stations of the world exhibit a general rise of relative sea level of about 3 mm/year during the past 40 years. In contrast, general uplift of the land is typical of high northern latitudes, where unloading of the crust by melt of Pleistocene ice sheets is significant. Erratic movements are typical of belts having crustal overthrusting and active volcanism. Short-term (5- and 10-year) records reveal recent changes in rates, but such short time spans may be so influenced by climatic cycles that identification of new trends is difficult, especially with the existing poor distribution and reporting of tide-gauge data.

  11. Oxidation state of multivalent elements in high-level nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear waste contains many different elements that have more than one oxidation state. When the nuclear waste is treated by vitrification, the behavior of the element in the melter and resulting glass product depends on the stable oxidation state. The stable oxidation state in any medium can be calculated from the standard potential in that medium. Consequently, the standard potential of multi-valent elements has been measured in many silicate-melts, including ones relevant to nuclear waste treatment. In this study, the relationship between the standard potential in molten nuclear waste glass and the standard potential in water will be quantified so that the standard potential of elements that have not been measured in glass can be estimated. The regression equation was found to have an R{sup 2} statistic of 0.96 or 0.83 depending on the number of electrons transferred in the reaction. The Nernst equation was then used to calculate the oxidation state of other relevant multi-valent elements in nuclear waste glass from these standard potentials and the measured ferrous to ferric iron ratio. The calculated oxidation states were consistent with all oxidation state measurements available. The calculated oxidation states were used to rationalize the behavior of many of the multi-valent elements. For instance, chromium increases glass crystallization because it is in the trivalent-state, iodine volatilises from the melter because it is in the volatile zero-valent state, and the leaching behavior of arsenic is driven by its oxidation state. Thus, these thermodynamic calculations explain the behavior of many trace elements during the vitrification process. (authors)

  12. Development of an Anatomically Accurate Finite Element Human Ocular Globe Model for Blast-Related Fluid-Structure Interaction Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    ARL-TR-7945 ● FEB 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Development of an Anatomically Accurate Finite Element Human Ocular Globe...ARL-TR-7945 ● FEB 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Development of an Anatomically Accurate Finite Element Human Ocular Globe Model...Finite Element Human Ocular Globe Model for Blast-Related Fluid-Structure Interaction Studies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  13. A Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis Approach Based on Multifractal Theory and Gray Relation Theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingchao; Cao, Yunpeng; Ying, Yulong; Li, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Bearing failure is one of the dominant causes of failure and breakdowns in rotating machinery, leading to huge economic loss. Aiming at the nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of bearing vibration signals as well as the complexity of condition-indicating information distribution in the signals, a novel rolling element bearing fault diagnosis method based on multifractal theory and gray relation theory was proposed in the paper. Firstly, a generalized multifractal dimension algorithm was developed to extract the characteristic vectors of fault features from the bearing vibration signals, which can offer more meaningful and distinguishing information reflecting different bearing health status in comparison with conventional single fractal dimension. After feature extraction by multifractal dimensions, an adaptive gray relation algorithm was applied to implement an automated bearing fault pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can identify various bearing fault types as well as severities effectively and accurately.

  14. Elements of patient-health-care provider communication related to cardiovascular rehabilitation referral.

    PubMed

    Pourhabib, Sanam; Chessex, Caroline; Murray, Judy; Grace, Sherry L

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular rehabilitation has been designed to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease. This study described (1) patient-health-care provider interactions regarding cardiovascular rehabilitation and (2) which discussion elements were related to patient referral. This was a prospective study of cardiovascular patients and their health-care providers. Discussion utterances were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Discussion between 26 health-care providers and 50 patients were recorded. Cardiovascular rehabilitation referral was related to greater health-care provider interactivity (odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-7.86) and less patient concern and worry (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = 0.45-0.89). Taking time for reciprocal discussion and allaying patient anxiety may promote greater referral. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. A Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis Approach Based on Multifractal Theory and Gray Relation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingchao; Cao, Yunpeng; Ying, Yulong; Li, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Bearing failure is one of the dominant causes of failure and breakdowns in rotating machinery, leading to huge economic loss. Aiming at the nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of bearing vibration signals as well as the complexity of condition-indicating information distribution in the signals, a novel rolling element bearing fault diagnosis method based on multifractal theory and gray relation theory was proposed in the paper. Firstly, a generalized multifractal dimension algorithm was developed to extract the characteristic vectors of fault features from the bearing vibration signals, which can offer more meaningful and distinguishing information reflecting different bearing health status in comparison with conventional single fractal dimension. After feature extraction by multifractal dimensions, an adaptive gray relation algorithm was applied to implement an automated bearing fault pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can identify various bearing fault types as well as severities effectively and accurately. PMID:28036329

  16. Research related to improved computer aided design software package. [comparative efficiency of finite, boundary, and hybrid element methods in elastostatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walston, W. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The comparative computational efficiencies of the finite element (FEM), boundary element (BEM), and hybrid boundary element-finite element (HVFEM) analysis techniques are evaluated for representative bounded domain interior and unbounded domain exterior problems in elastostatics. Computational efficiency is carefully defined in this study as the computer time required to attain a specified level of solution accuracy. The study found the FEM superior to the BEM for the interior problem, while the reverse was true for the exterior problem. The hybrid analysis technique was found to be comparable or superior to both the FEM and BEM for both the interior and exterior problems.

  17. Relationship between soil cobalt and vitamin B12 levels in the liver of livestock in Saudi Arabia: role of competing elements in soils.

    PubMed

    Huwait, Etimad A; Kumosani, Taha A; Moselhy, Said S; Mosaoa, Rami M; Yaghmoor, Soonham S

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the agricultural soils from different regions in Saudi Arabia for cobalt and related metals as Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Cr(3+), Zn(2+) and Pb(2+). Liver and muscle tissues of livestock grazing on the selected areas were analyzed for the content of Co and vitamin B12. Our results indicated that the levels of Co in surface soil (0-15 cm) were higher than in sub-surface soil (>15 cm-45 cm). In contrast, Pb and Zn were higher in sub-surface soil than in surface soil. A significant positive correlation existed between the levels of Co and vitamin B12 in the liver of livestock. However, Co was not detected in muscle tissues while vitamin B12 was present at very low levels in comparison with the levels found in the liver. The results indicated that Zn(2+), Pb(2+) compete with Co in soil, which eventually affected the levels of vitamin B12 in liver. It was recommended that survey of heavy metals in grazing fields of cattle should consider inclusion of multiple elements that compete with the bioavailability of essential elements in plants and animals for the prevention of deficiency of essential elements such as Co.

  18. Free-end saddle length influence on stress level in unilateral complex partial denture abutment teeth and retention elements.

    PubMed

    Patrnogić, Vesna; Todorović, Aleksandar; Sćepanović, Miodrag; Radović, Katarina; Vesnić, Jelena; Grbović, Aleksandar

    2013-11-01

    Different types of dental restorations are used for the therapy of unilateral free-end saddle edentulism. Unilateral complex partial denture is one of the indications for the Kennedy class II partial edentulism. The abscence of major connector and denture plate is an advantage compared to the conventional restorations, because of better comfort and shorter period of adaptation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of free-end saddle length change on the behaviour of unilateral complex partial denture supporting structures. Stress levels of the canine and the first premolar as retentional teeth and the attachments were tested under the influence of physiological forces with the loading point shifting distally in relation to the saddle length change. A virtual real size 3D model of the fixed part of the restoration (the canine and the first premolar with milled crowns) was created using the CATIA computer program. It was connected to the mobile part of partial denture with the SD snap in latch attachment. Mobile part of the restoration was designed in the region of 2, 3 and 4 lateral teeth (second premolar, first, second and third molar). By using the finite element method (FEM) stress levels analysis was performed under the load of physiological forces of 150 N in the free-end saddle teeth zone. The results of analysis show that physiological forces cause a different stress distribution on the abutment teeth and the attachment, depending on the saddle length. The stress level values obtained for the abutment teeth as well as the attachment are far lower than the marginal ones. The behaviour of the system changes under this defined stress, but no plastic deformation occurs.

  19. Adaptive user interfaces for relating high-level concepts to low-level photographic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Edward; Madhawa Silva, Pubudu; Pardo, Bryan; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.

    2011-03-01

    Common controls for photographic editing can be difficult to use and have a significant learning curve. Often, a user does not know a direct mapping from a high-level concept (such as "soft") to the available parameters or controls. In addition, many concepts are subjective in nature, and the appropriate mapping may vary from user to user. To overcome these problems, we propose a system that can quickly learn a mapping from a high-level subjective concept onto low- level image controls using machine learning techniques. To learn such a concept, the system shows the user a series of training images that are generated by modifying a seed image along different dimensions (e.g., color, sharpness), and collects the user ratings of how well each training image matches the concept. Since it is known precisely how each modified example is different from the original, the system can determine the correlation between the user ratings and the image parameters to generate a controller tailored to the concept for the given user. The end result - a personalized image controller - is applicable to a variety of concepts. We have demonstrated the utility of this approach to relate low-level parameters, such as color balance and sharpness, to simple concepts, such as "lightness" and "crispness," as well as more complex and subjective concepts, such as "pleasantness." We have also applied the proposed approach to relate subband statistics (variance) to perceived roughness of visual textures (from the CUReT database).

  20. Combining Content and Elements of Communication into an Upper-Level Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Carli P.; Pellock, Samuel J.; Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Cox, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established…

  1. Combining Content and Elements of Communication into an Upper-Level Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Carli P.; Pellock, Samuel J.; Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Cox, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established…

  2. The effect of mining and related activities on the sediment trace element geochemistry of the Spokane River Basin, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosbois, C.A.; Horowitz, A.J.; Smith, J.J.; Elrick, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Surface sediments in the Spokane River Basin are enriched in Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Hg relative to local background levels. Maximum enrichment occurs in the Upper Spokane River in close proximity to Lake Coeur d'Alene. On average, enrichment decreases downstream. Subsurface sediments also are enriched in Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Hg relative to background levels. Enrichment began between 1900 and 1920 in the middle of the basin; this is contemporaneous with similar findings in Lake Coeur d'Alene (the upstream source of the Spokane River), as well as the completion of Long Lake Dam (1913). In the most downstream part of the basin, enrichment began between 1930 and 1940. This temporal shift may reflect the latter's greater distance from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, the presumptive source of the enriched trace elements, but is more likely the result of the completion of Grand Coulee Dam (1934-1941) which backed up the Spokane River, and elevated water levels by about 30 m in the most downstream part of the basin.

  3. Element levels in snakes in South Carolina: differences between a control site and exposed site on the Savannah River site.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Murray, S; Gaines, K F; Novak, J M; Punshon, T; Dixon, C; Gochfeld, M

    2006-01-01

    Levels of 18 elements, including lead, mercury, selenium, and uranium, were examined in three species of snakes from an exposed and reference site on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We tested the hypotheses that there were no differences as a function of species, and there were no difference between the exposed and control site for blood and muscle (tail) samples for banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata), brown water snake (N. taxispilota) and cotton mouth (Akistrodon piscivorous). The banded water snakes collected were significantly smaller than the other two species. For blood, there were significant species differences only for barium, copper, selenium, uranium and zinc, while for muscle tissue there were significant interspecific differences in aluminum, arsenic, barium, cobalt, cesium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, manganese, strontium, vanadium and zinc, suggesting that muscle tissue in the tail is a better indicator of potential interspecific differences. It is also easier logistically to collect tail tissue than blood. Where one species had significantly higher levels than the other species in muscle tissue levels, cottonmouth had higher levels of five elements (aluminum, cobalt, lead, mercury, vanadium), brown water snake had two (lead, strontium), and banded water snake had only barium. There were few significant differences between the control and reference site for levels of blood, but several for muscle tissue. All three species had significantly higher levels of arsenic and manganese at Tim's Branch than the reference site, and nickel and uranium were significantly higher for banded water snake and cotton mouth, the larger species. Individuals with high exposure of one element were exposed to high levels of other elements.

  4. Levels of total suspended particulate matter and major trace elements in Kosovo: a source identification and apportionment study.

    PubMed

    Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    2005-04-01

    Concentration levels of total suspended particles (TSP) and 27 major, minor and trace elemental components were determined at four sites in Kosovo through a 1-year survey (January-December 2002). Ambient concentrations were evaluated in comparison to limit values. The origin of elemental TSP constituents was investigated by calculating enrichment factors and diagnostic ratios. Multivariate statistics, such as hierarchical cluster analysis and factor analysis, were also employed to identify emission sources. A multivariate statistical receptor model (Absolute Principal Component Analysis, APCA) was applied to quantify source contributions. Soil dust, cement production, vehicular emissions, brake wear, and fuel combustion were identified as major sources with variable contributions at the four sampling sites.

  5. Cord blood levels of toxic and essential trace elements and their determinants in the Terai region of Nepal: a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Fujiwara, Takeo; Umezaki, Masahiro; Furusawa, Hana; Ser, Ping Han; Watanabe, Chiho

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cord blood level of toxic and trace elements and to identify their determinants in Terai, Nepal. One hundred pregnant women were recruited from one hospital in Chitwan, Nepal in 2008. The cord blood levels of toxic [lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd)], essential trace elements [zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and copper (Cu)], demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables were measured. The mean values of Pb, As, Cd, Zn, Se, and Cu in cord blood level were found as 31.7, 1.46, 0.39, 2,286, 175, and 667 μg/L, respectively. In the multivariate regression model, cord blood As levels from less educated mothers were higher than those from educated mothers (coefficient = -0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.02-0.00). The maternal age was positively associated with the cord blood Cd level (coefficient = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01-0.03), while it was negatively associated with the cord blood As level (coefficient = -0.01, 95% CI = -0.03--0.01). Cord blood levels of Pb, Zn, Se, and Cu were not associated with maternal age, socioeconomic status, living environment, and smoking status. As and Cd levels were relatively lower than those reported in previous studies in Asia, while the levels of Pb and the trace elements were similar. Less educated mothers are more likely to become a higher in utero As source to their fetus, and fetuses of older mothers were more likely to have higher in utero Cd exposure in Terai, Nepal.

  6. Identification of misexpressed genetic elements in hybrids between Drosophila-related species

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Maestre, Hélène; Carnelossi, Elias A. G.; Lacroix, Vincent; Burlet, Nelly; Mugat, Bruno; Chambeyron, Séverine; Carareto, Claudia M. A.; Vieira, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Crosses between close species can lead to genomic disorders, often considered to be the cause of hybrid incompatibility, one of the initial steps in the speciation process. How these incompatibilities are established and what are their causes remain unclear. To understand the initiation of hybrid incompatibility, we performed reciprocal crosses between two species of Drosophila (D. mojavensis and D. arizonae) that diverged less than 1 Mya. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis on ovaries from parental lines and on hybrids from reciprocal crosses. Using an innovative procedure of co-assembling transcriptomes, we show that parental lines differ in the expression of their genes and transposable elements. Reciprocal hybrids presented specific gene categories and few transposable element families misexpressed relative to the parental lines. Because TEs are mainly silenced by piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), we hypothesize that in hybrids the deregulation of specific TE families is due to the absence of such small RNAs. Small RNA sequencing confirmed our hypothesis and we therefore propose that TEs can indeed be major players of genome differentiation and be implicated in the first steps of genomic incompatibilities through small RNA regulation. PMID:28091568

  7. Preservice Teachers' Use of Spatio-Visual Elements and their Level of Justification Dealing with a Geometrical Construction Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapan, Menekse Seden; Arslan, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to determine to what extent preservice teachers use visual elements and mathematical properties when they are dealing with a geometrical construction activity. The axiomatic structure of the Euclidian geometry forms a coherent field of objects and relations of a theoretical nature; and thus it constitutes a…

  8. Correlation Analysis of Exercise-Induced Changes in Plasma Trace Element and Hormone Levels During Incremental Exercise in Well-Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; Anson, Miguel; Escanero, Jesús F

    2016-03-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between hormonal changes induced by exercise and variations in trace elements associated with oxidative stress during incremental exercise. Nineteen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), workload increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. The analysis was controlled for prior diet and activity patterns, levels of exercise training, and time of day (circadian rhythms). Whole blood lactate concentration and plasma concentrations of ions (Zn, Se, Mn, and Co), insulin, glucagon, aldosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured at rest; at the end of each stage; and 3, 5, and 7 min post-exercise. The statistical analysis involved paired non-parametric tests and correlation coefficients. No significant differences were found in Mn or Co levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn and Se levels at the end of the exercise protocol and over the recovery time were significantly different to baseline. Further, Zn levels were significantly correlated with aldosterone, calcitonin, and PTH levels, while Se levels were associated with aldosterone, calcitonin, and TSH levels. Our results indicate several different patterns of association between acute changes in hormone concentrations and variations in trace element concentrations related to oxidative stress during submaximal exercise.

  9. Mendeleev's principle against Einstein's relativity: news from the chemistry of superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gäggeler, Heinz W.

    2009-12-01

    The review briefly considers the problems of synthesis and chemical identification of superheavy elements. The specific features of their properties are determined by the relativistic effects. The synthesis and chemical investigations into bohrium and element 112 are discussed as examples.

  10. The relative abundances of the elements silicon through nickel in the low energy galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Mason, G. M.; Simpson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the relative abundances of the elements Si through Ni in galactic cosmic rays in the energy interval 72 to 450 MeV/nucleon are reported based on data collected by a cosmic-ray telescope on the IMP 8 satellite. The measured abundances are compared with propagation calculations using various distributions of path lengths. It is found that the measurements favor an exponential distribution of path lengths truncated at short path lengths. The source abundances of Si, Ca, Fe, and Ni derived by extrapolating the measured abundances back to the source are shown to be comparable to the solar-system abundances. The relevance of the measurements of Sc through Mn to the Mn-54 radioactive decay is examined.

  11. Abundances relative to carbon of the elements silicon to nickel in the galactic cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, B.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Simpson, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of the abundances relative to carbon of the elements from silicon to nickel in the galactic cosmic radiation as measured by cosmic ray telescopes on the IMP-5 and IMP-7 satellites, in energy ranges between 40 and 450 MeV/nucleon depending on the species. The IMP-7 measurements are still to be considered only preliminary and do not yet fully exploit the resolution capabilities of that instrument. Calculations of the abundances to be expected in this charge range if the cosmic radiation traverses 6 g/sq cm of material after acceleration are presented, and the consequences which follow both for propagation models and for the chemical composition of the sources of the cosmic radiation are discussed.

  12. Ambient air particles: effects on cellular oxidant radical generation in relation to particulate elemental chemistry.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, A K; Soukup, J M; Inmon, J; Willis, R; Ghio, A J; Becker, S; Gallagher, J E

    1999-07-15

    Epidemiologic studies have reported causal relationships between exposures to high concentrations of ambient air particles (AAP) and increased morbidity in individuals with underlying respiratory problems. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are frequently present in the airways of individuals exposed to particles. Upon particulate stimulation the PMN may release reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can result in tissue damage and injury. In this study a wide range of AAP samples from divergent sources (1, natural dust; 2, oil fly ash; 2, coal fly ash; 5, ambient air; and 1, carbon black) were analyzed for elemental content and solubility in relation to their ability to generate ROS. Elemental analyses were carried out in AAP and dH(2)O-washed AAP using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Percent of sample mass accounted for by XRF-detectable elements was 1.2% (carbon black); 22-29% (natural dust and ambient air particles); 13-22% (oil fly ash particles); 28-49% (coal fly ash particles). The major proportion of elements in most of these particles were aluminosilicates and insoluble iron, except oil-derived fly ash particles in which soluble vanadium and nickel were in highest concentrations, consistent with particle acidity as measured in the supernatants. Human blood-derived monocytes and PMN were exposed to AAP and dH(2)O-washed particles, and generation of ROS was determined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL) assay. All the particles induced chemiluminescence response in the cells, except carbon black. The oxidant response of monocytes induced by AAP (with the exception of oil fly ash particles) was less than the response elicited by PMN. The LCL response of PMN in general increased with all washed particles, with oil fly ash (OFA) and one urban air particle showing statistically significant (p < 0. 05) differences between dH(2)O-washed and unwashed particles. The LCL activity in PMN induced by both particles and dH(2)O-washed particles was

  13. Boundary element method calculation of individual head-related transfer function. I. Rigid model calculation.

    PubMed

    Katz, B F

    2001-11-01

    Human spatial perception of sound is a complex phenomenon. The Head-Related Transfer Function (HRTF) is a vital component to spatial sound perception. In order improve the understanding of the correlation between the HRTF and specific geometry of the head and pinna, a Boundary Element Method (BEM) has been used to calculate a portion of the HRTF of an individual based on precise geometrical data. Advantages of this approach include the ability to alter the geometry of the individual through the model in ways which are not possible with real subjects. Several models are used in the study, including a head with no pinna and several sized spheres. Calculations are performed for various source locations around the head. Results are presented for rigid model cases. Effects of variations on impedance and comparisons to measured data will be presented in the subsequent paper.

  14. Trace-elements, methylmercury and metallothionein levels in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) found stranded on the Southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tércia G; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-07-15

    Magellanic penguins have been reported as good biomonitors for several types of pollutants, including trace-elements. In this context, selenium (Se), total mercury, methylmercury, inorganic mercury (Hg(inorg)), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), as well as metallothionein (MT) levels, were evaluated in the feathers, liver and kidney of juvenile Magellanic penguins found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil. The highest concentrations of all trace-elements and methylmercury were found in internal organs. Concentrations of Cd and Se in feathers were extremely low in comparison with their concentrations in soft tissues. The results showed that both Se and MT are involved in the detoxification of trace-elements (Cd, Pb and Hg(inorg)) since statistically significant relationships were found in liver. Conversely, hepatic Se was shown to be the only detoxifying agent for methylmercury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Levels of eight trace elements in edible mushrooms from a rural area.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Lubomír; Chrastný, Vladislav

    2008-01-01

    Eight trace elements were determined using ICP-MS in 78 fruiting body samples of 22 edible mushroom species. The mushrooms were collected from four sites in a rural area, unpolluted by human activity. Median values (dry matter) were as follows: Arsenic (As) 1.45 mg kg(-1), barium (Ba) 1.41 mg kg(-1), cobalt (Co) 0.28 mg kg(-1), copper (Cu) 47.0 mg kg(-1), rubidium (Rb) 130 mg kg(-1), silver (Ag) 2.95 mg kg(-1), thallium (Tl) 0.02 mg kg(-1) and vanadium (V) 0.25 mg kg(-1). Higher trace element accumulation was observed in samples of Macrolepiota procera, Macrolepiota rhacodes, Lycoperdon perlatum, Lycoperdon gigantea and Xerocomus chrysenteron for As and Cu, and in samples of Cantharellus cibarius and of genera Boletus and Suillus for Rb.

  16. Finite-element analysis of NiTi wire deflection during orthodontic levelling treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, M. F.; Mahmud, A. S.; Mokhtar, N.; Abdullah, J.

    2016-02-01

    Finite-element analysis is an important product development tool in medical devices industry for design and failure analysis of devices. This tool helps device designers to quickly explore various design options, optimizing specific designs and providing a deeper insight how a device is actually performing. In this study, three-dimensional finite-element models of superelastic nickel-titanium arch wire engaged in a three brackets system were developed. The aim was to measure the effect of binding friction developed on wire-bracket interaction towards the remaining recovery force available for tooth movement. Uniaxial and three brackets bending test were modelled and validated against experimental works. The prediction made by the three brackets bending models shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Elemental and Molecular Relative Abundances in the Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kober, G. V.; Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K.; Bruhweiler, F.; Verner, K.; Stahl, O.; Weis, K.; Bomans, D.

    2006-01-01

    We are measuring relative elemental abundances for the ejecta in the line of sight from Eta Carinae using high dispersion spectroscopy with the HST/STIS and the VLT/UVES. While multiple velocity components have been identified, we focus on the -513 and -146 km/s components originating from the Homunculus and the Little Homunculus. Complicating factors are the complex nebular structures in the immediate vicinity of the bright, massive star: the very bright emission structures, Weigelt blobs B, C and D, the broad, clumpy structures of the extended wind apparently not photoionized by Eta Car B, and general scattered starlight from the extended wind and the dusty core of the circumstellar material. We have used the 3050 to 3160A region of overlap between STIS and UVES to intercompare equivalent widths of absorption lines to estimate the 'contributing factor', namely the amount of light originating from the star compared to nebular structures. While the extracted STIS spectra are from 0.1" wide aperture, the UVES spectra are limited by the 1" seeing conditions. Curiously we find that the scattering contribution in the UVES spectra changes with time, apparently with orbital phase of the 5.54-year period. This indicates that the dust may be modified by changes in the central source with phase. The noticeable drop in scattered light appears to occur about 1.7 years (phase 0.35) after the spectroscopic minimum. Relative abundances of iron peak elements and some molecules will be estimated. Observations in this study were accomplished with HST through STSci and with VLT through ESO and funded under STIS GTO resources.

  18. Elemental and Molecular Relative Abundances in the Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kober, G. V.; Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K.; Bruhweiler, F.; Verner, K.; Stahl, O.; Weis, K.; Bomans, D.

    2006-01-01

    We are measuring relative elemental abundances for the ejecta in the line of sight from Eta Carinae using high dispersion spectroscopy with the HST/STIS and the VLT/UVES. While multiple velocity components have been identified, we focus on the -513 and -146 km/s components originating from the Homunculus and the Little Homunculus. Complicating factors are the complex nebular structures in the immediate vicinity of the bright, massive star: the very bright emission structures, Weigelt blobs B, C and D, the broad, clumpy structures of the extended wind apparently not photoionized by Eta Car B, and general scattered starlight from the extended wind and the dusty core of the circumstellar material. We have used the 3050 to 3160A region of overlap between STIS and UVES to intercompare equivalent widths of absorption lines to estimate the 'contributing factor', namely the amount of light originating from the star compared to nebular structures. While the extracted STIS spectra are from 0.1" wide aperture, the UVES spectra are limited by the 1" seeing conditions. Curiously we find that the scattering contribution in the UVES spectra changes with time, apparently with orbital phase of the 5.54-year period. This indicates that the dust may be modified by changes in the central source with phase. The noticeable drop in scattered light appears to occur about 1.7 years (phase 0.35) after the spectroscopic minimum. Relative abundances of iron peak elements and some molecules will be estimated. Observations in this study were accomplished with HST through STSci and with VLT through ESO and funded under STIS GTO resources.

  19. Occurrence of Tn4371-related mobile elements and sequences in (chloro)biphenyl-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Springael, D; Ryngaert, A; Merlin, C; Toussaint, A; Mergeay, M

    2001-01-01

    Tn4371, a 55-kb transposable element involved in the degradation and biphenyl or 4-chlorobiphenyl identified in Ralstonia eutropha A5, displays a modular structure including a phage-like integrase gene (int), a Pseudomonas-like (chloro)biphenyl catabolic gene cluster (bph), and RP4- and Ti-plasmid-like transfer genes (trb) (C. Merlin, D. Springael, and A. Toussaint, Plasmid 41:40-54, 1999). Southern blot hybridization was used to examine the presence of different regions of Tn4371 in a collection of (chloro)biphenyl-degrading bacteria originating from different habitats and belonging to different bacterial genera. Tn4371-related sequences were never detected on endogenous plasmids. Although the gene probes containing only bph sequences hybridized to genomic DNA from most strains tested, a limited selection of strains, all beta-proteobacteria, displayed hybridization patterns similar to the Tn4371 bph cluster. Homology between Tn4371 and DNA of two of those strains, originating from the same area as strain A5, extended outside the catabolic genes and covered the putative transfer region of Tn4371. On the other hand, none of the (chloro)biphenyl degraders hybridized with the outer left part of Tn4371 containing the int gene. The bph catabolic determinant of the two strains displaying homology to the Tn4371 transfer genes and a third strain isolated from the A5 area could be mobilized to a R. eutropha recipient, after insertion into an endogenous or introduced IncP1 plasmid. The mobilized DNA of those strains included all Tn4371 homologous sequences previously identified in their genome. Our observations show that the bph genes present on Tn4371 are highly conserved between different (chloro)biphenyl-degrading hosts, isolated globally but belonging mainly to the beta-proteobacteria. On the other hand, Tn4371-related mobile elements carrying bph genes are apparently only found in isolates from the environment that provided the Tn4371-bearing isolate A5.

  20. Rapid Solution of Finite Element Equations on Locally Refined Grids by Multi-Level Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    oscillatory eigenfunctions. For practical purposes many possible smoothing iterations would be acceptable. Jacobi, Gauss -Seidel, and symmetric SOR are...considerable work with rectangular tensor product elements on locally refined grids, Cannon (1980). 55 Figure 10. Support of a Basis Function Figure 11...uses a symmetric Gauss -Seidel -4 - im 66 smoothing iteration rather than the simultaneous displacement iteration used here. While comparisons for quasi

  1. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  2. [Correlation of mercury, selenium and other elements in the tissues of fishes from the regions at different mercury exposure level].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei-qun; Chen, Chun-ying; Zhao, Jiu-jiang; Li, Bai; Qu, Li-ya; Chai, Zhi-fang

    2004-07-01

    The contents of selenium and other elements in fish liver and muscle tissues collected from mercury polluted area of Wanshan, Guizhou province of China and non-known mercury polluted one of Beijing were determined with instrumental neutron activation analysis, and that of mercury was determined with atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The correlation among the determined elements, especially between mercury and selenium, in the fish tissues were studied. For most of the elements significant difference of elemental content was found between tissues of liver and muscle, and mostly the content in liver was higher than that in muscle. It was interesting to note that the average content of mercury in Guizhou fish liver was 25-fold higher than that in Beijing one, and 5-fold higher in Guizhou fish muscle than that in Beijing one. For most of the elements no significant difference on the average content was found between the same tissues of the two areas. The molar ratio of Hg/Se increased with the increasing of Hg content at the low Hg level, but the alteration trend became gently and reached to a higher constant value (about 0.2) at the higher Hg level. Only the element of bromine and rubidium was found to have strong linear correlation between the two different tissues of liver and muscle. Though certain correlation existed among the different elements of fish tissues from the two areas, the most significant and the closest one existed between the mercury and selenium of muscle tissue of Guizhou fishes. A closer correlation was also found between them of liver tissue of Guizhou fishes. As for Beijing fish tissues, the correlation of mercury and selenium only existed in liver but no correlation of them was found in muscle. Our results confirm the fact that a certain interaction exists between mercury and selenium in organisms including fish, and it is more evident as the mercury-exposed level is higher. Some significant correlation was also observed between other elements

  3. KEY ELEMENTS OF CHARACTERIZING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE INSOLUBLES THROUGH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S; Barbara Hamm, B

    2007-05-24

    Characterization of HLW is a prerequisite for effective planning of HLW disposition and site closure performance assessment activities. Adequate characterization typically requires application of a combination of data sources, including process knowledge, theoretical relationships, and real-waste analytical data. Consistently obtaining high quality real-waste analytical data is a challenge, particularly for HLW sludge insolubles, due to the inherent complexities associated with matrix heterogeneities, sampling access limitations, radiological constraints, analyte loss mechanisms, and analyte measurement interferences. Understanding how each of these complexities affects the analytical results is the first step to developing a sampling and analysis program that provides characterization data that are both meaningful and adequate. A summary of the key elements impacting SRS HLW sludge analytical data uncertainties is presented in this paper, along with guidelines for managing each of the impacts. The particular elements addressed include: (a) sample representativeness; (b) solid/liquid phase quantification effectiveness; (c) solids dissolution effectiveness; (d) analyte cross contamination, loss, and tracking; (e) dilution requirements; (f) interference removal; (g) analyte measurement technique; and (h) analytical detection limit constraints. A primary goal of understanding these elements is to provide a basis for quantifying total propagated data uncertainty.

  4. Circulating levels of metals are related to carotid atherosclerosis in elderly.

    PubMed

    Lind, P Monica; Olsén, Lena; Lind, Lars

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if blood levels of trace and/or heavy metals are related to atherosclerosis in a cross-sectional study in elderly. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects, all aged 70), the prevalence of carotid artery plaques was recorded by ultrasound. The numbers of carotid arteries with plaques (0, 1 or 2) were recorded. Also the thickness (IMT) and gray scale (IM-GSM) of the intima-media complex were measured together with plaque echogenicity. Eleven heavy metals and trace elements were analyzed in whole blood, using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. Nickel levels were related to the number of carotid arteries with plaques in an inverted U-shaped manner after multiple adjustment for gender, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, smoking, antihypertensive treatment and statin use (p=0.026). IM-GSM and plaque echogenicity were both inversely related to chromium in a linear fashion, and to aluminum in an inverted U-shaped manner (both p<0.0001 for IM-GSM). The relationships between metals and IMT were modest. Circulating levels of some metals, like nickel, aluminum and chromium, were related to atherosclerotic plaques or the echogenicity of the IM-GSM and overt plaques independently of cardiovascular risk factors, including lipids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Serum Trace Element Levels and Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Translating Basic Research into Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Erfan; Qujeq, Durdi; Taheri, Hassan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-11-18

    The relationship of minerals and trace elements with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex. Alterations in their metabolism can be induced by the diseases and their complications. To study the role of trace elements in IBD patients' serum zinc and copper and their related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), activity were measured in patients with IBD patients as well as in healthy subjects. In addition, the correlation between serum trace element levels, albumin, total protein, urea level, copper/zinc ratio, and disease activity (DA) was determined in these subjects. Serum samples were obtained from 35 patients (19 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 16 Crohn's disease (CD)) in the active phase of the disease and 30 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of zinc, copper, SOD activity, albumin, total protein, and urea were measured. The results were compared between the two groups using independent Student's t test in statistical analysis. Serum levels of zinc, SOD activity, albumin, and total protein were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in patients than controls, while serum urea level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Copper concentrations did not differ between patients with IBD (mean ± SD, 58.8 ± 20.7 μg/d) and controls (55.57 ± 12.6 μg/d). Decreased levels of zinc and SOD activity are associated with increased inflammatory processes indicating inappropriate antioxidant system in patients with IBD. Additionally, lower levels of albumin and total protein with higher level of urea reflect metabolic problems in liver system.

  6. Energy levels and transition probability matrix elements of ruby for maser applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berwin, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Program computes fine structure energy levels of ruby as a function of magnetic field. Included in program is matrix formulation, each row of which contains a magnetic field and four corresponding energy levels.

  7. Trace element bias in the use of CO2 vents as analogues for low pH environments: Implications for contamination levels in acidified oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizzini, S.; Di Leonardo, R.; Costa, V.; Tramati, C. D.; Luzzu, F.; Mazzola, A.

    2013-12-01

    Research into the effects of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems has increasingly focused on natural CO2 vents, although their intrinsic environmental complexity means observations from these areas may not relate exclusively to pH gradients. In order to assess trace element levels and distribution in the Levante Bay (Vulcano Island, NE Sicily, Italy) and its suitability for studying biological effects of pH decline, Ba, Fe and trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in sediment were analysed from 7 transects. Where present, Cymodocea nodosa leaves and epiphytes were also analysed. At the spatial scale of the bay, trace element concentrations in sediments and biota showed wide variability, possibly related to both input from fluid emissions and seawater physico-chemical variables (i.e. pH and Eh), which may considerably affect the solubility and bioavailability of potentially harmful trace elements. According to two pollution indices (MSPI: Marine Sediment Pollution Index and SQG-Q: Sediment Quality Guideline Quotient), the bay can be considered to be affected by low contamination with moderate potential for adverse biological effects, especially in the area between about 150 and 350 m from the primary vent, where localized detrimental effects on biota may occur. Generally, biological samples showed concentrations that were comparable with the lower values of seagrass ranges. The overall results of this study support the complex spatial dynamics of trace elements in the CO2 vent studied, which are constrained by both direct input from the vent and/or biogeochemical processes affecting element precipitation at the sediment-seawater interface. Consequently, great caution should be used when relating biological changes along pH gradients to the unifactorial effect of pH only, as interactions with concurrent, multiple stressors, including trace element enrichments, may occur. This finding has implications for the use of CO2 vents as

  8. Investigation of Elemental Mass Spectrometry in Pharmacology for Peptide Quantitation at Femtomolar Levels.

    PubMed

    Cordeau, Emmanuelle; Arnaudguilhem, Carine; Bouyssiere, Brice; Hagège, Agnès; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles; Cantel, Sonia; Enjalbal, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In the search of new robust and environmental-friendly analytical methods able to answer quantitative issues in pharmacology, we explore liquid chromatography (LC) associated with elemental mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to monitor peptides in such complex biological matrices. The novelty is to use mass spectrometry to replace radiolabelling and radioactivity measurements, which represent up-to now the gold standard to measure organic compound concentrations in life science. As a proof of concept, we choose the vasopressin (AVP)/V1A receptor system for model pharmacological assays. The capacity of ICP-MS to provide highly sensitive quantitation of metallic and hetero elements, whatever the sample medium, prompted us to investigate this technique in combination with appropriate labelling of the peptide of interest. Selenium, that is scarcely present in biological media, was selected as a good compromise between ICP-MS response, covalent tagging ability using conventional sulfur chemistry and peptide detection specificity. Applying selenium monitoring by elemental mass spectrometry in pharmacology is challenging due to the very high salt content and organic material complexity of the samples that produces polyatomic aggregates and thus potentially mass interferences with selenium detection. Hyphenation with a chromatographic separation was found compulsory. Noteworthy, we aimed to develop a straightforward quantitative protocol that can be performed in any laboratory equipped with a standard macrobore LC-ICP-MS system, in order to avoid time-consuming sample treatment or special implementation of instrumental set-up, while allowing efficient suppression of all mass interferences to reach the targeted sensitivity. Significantly, a quantification limit of 57 ng Se L-1 (72 femtomoles of injected Se) was achieved, the samples issued from the pharmacological assays being directly introduced into the LC-ICP-MS system. The established method was successfully validated and

  9. Investigation of Elemental Mass Spectrometry in Pharmacology for Peptide Quantitation at Femtomolar Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cordeau, Emmanuelle; Arnaudguilhem, Carine; Bouyssiere, Brice; Hagège, Agnès; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles; Cantel, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    In the search of new robust and environmental-friendly analytical methods able to answer quantitative issues in pharmacology, we explore liquid chromatography (LC) associated with elemental mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to monitor peptides in such complex biological matrices. The novelty is to use mass spectrometry to replace radiolabelling and radioactivity measurements, which represent up-to now the gold standard to measure organic compound concentrations in life science. As a proof of concept, we choose the vasopressin (AVP)/V1A receptor system for model pharmacological assays. The capacity of ICP-MS to provide highly sensitive quantitation of metallic and hetero elements, whatever the sample medium, prompted us to investigate this technique in combination with appropriate labelling of the peptide of interest. Selenium, that is scarcely present in biological media, was selected as a good compromise between ICP-MS response, covalent tagging ability using conventional sulfur chemistry and peptide detection specificity. Applying selenium monitoring by elemental mass spectrometry in pharmacology is challenging due to the very high salt content and organic material complexity of the samples that produces polyatomic aggregates and thus potentially mass interferences with selenium detection. Hyphenation with a chromatographic separation was found compulsory. Noteworthy, we aimed to develop a straightforward quantitative protocol that can be performed in any laboratory equipped with a standard macrobore LC-ICP-MS system, in order to avoid time-consuming sample treatment or special implementation of instrumental set-up, while allowing efficient suppression of all mass interferences to reach the targeted sensitivity. Significantly, a quantification limit of 57 ng Se L-1 (72 femtomoles of injected Se) was achieved, the samples issued from the pharmacological assays being directly introduced into the LC-ICP-MS system. The established method was successfully validated and

  10. A dynamic finite element analysis of human foot complex in the sagittal plane during level walking.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhihui; Ren, Lei; Ding, Yun; Hutchinson, John R; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a computational framework for investigating the dynamic behavior and the internal loading conditions of the human foot complex during locomotion. A subject-specific dynamic finite element model in the sagittal plane was constructed based on anatomical structures segmented from medical CT scan images. Three-dimensional gait measurements were conducted to support and validate the model. Ankle joint forces and moment derived from gait measurements were used to drive the model. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted, covering the entire stance phase from heel-strike impact to toe-off. The predicted ground reaction forces, center of pressure, foot bone motions and plantar surface pressure showed reasonably good agreement with the gait measurement data over most of the stance phase. The prediction discrepancies can be explained by the assumptions and limitations of the model. Our analysis showed that a dynamic FE simulation can improve the prediction accuracy in the peak plantar pressures at some parts of the foot complex by 10%-33% compared to a quasi-static FE simulation. However, to simplify the costly explicit FE simulation, the proposed model is confined only to the sagittal plane and has a simplified representation of foot structure. The dynamic finite element foot model proposed in this study would provide a useful tool for future extension to a fully muscle-driven dynamic three-dimensional model with detailed representation of all major anatomical structures, in order to investigate the structural dynamics of the human foot musculoskeletal system during normal or even pathological functioning.

  11. A Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Human Foot Complex in the Sagittal Plane during Level Walking

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Zhihui; Ren, Lei; Ding, Yun; Hutchinson, John R.; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a computational framework for investigating the dynamic behavior and the internal loading conditions of the human foot complex during locomotion. A subject-specific dynamic finite element model in the sagittal plane was constructed based on anatomical structures segmented from medical CT scan images. Three-dimensional gait measurements were conducted to support and validate the model. Ankle joint forces and moment derived from gait measurements were used to drive the model. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted, covering the entire stance phase from heel-strike impact to toe-off. The predicted ground reaction forces, center of pressure, foot bone motions and plantar surface pressure showed reasonably good agreement with the gait measurement data over most of the stance phase. The prediction discrepancies can be explained by the assumptions and limitations of the model. Our analysis showed that a dynamic FE simulation can improve the prediction accuracy in the peak plantar pressures at some parts of the foot complex by 10%–33% compared to a quasi-static FE simulation. However, to simplify the costly explicit FE simulation, the proposed model is confined only to the sagittal plane and has a simplified representation of foot structure. The dynamic finite element foot model proposed in this study would provide a useful tool for future extension to a fully muscle-driven dynamic three-dimensional model with detailed representation of all major anatomical structures, in order to investigate the structural dynamics of the human foot musculoskeletal system during normal or even pathological functioning. PMID:24244500

  12. Consumer understanding, interpretation and perceived levels of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims.

    PubMed

    Bilman, Els M; Kleef, Ellen van; Mela, David J; Hulshof, Toine; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether and how consumers may (over-) interpret satiety claims, and (b) whether and to what extent consumers recognize that personal efforts are required to realize possible satiety-related or weight loss benefits. Following means-end chain theory, we explored for a number of satiety claims the extent of inference-making to higher-level benefits than actually stated in the claim, using internet-based questions and tasks. Respondents (N=1504) in U.K., France, Italy and Germany participated in the study. The majority of these respondents correctly interpret satiety-related claims; i.e. they largely limit their interpretation to what was actually stated. They do not expect a "magic bullet" effect, but understand that personal efforts are required to translate product attributes into potential weight control benefits. Less-restrained eaters were at lower risk for over-interpreting satiety-related claims, whilst respondents with a stronger belief that their weight is something that they can control accept more personal responsibility, and better understand that personal efforts are required to be effective in weight control. Overall, these results indicate there is likely to be a relatively low level of consumer misinterpretation of satiety-related claims on food products.

  13. Numerical simulation of mechanical deformation of semi-solid material using a level-set based finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhidan; Bernacki, Marc; Logé, Roland; Gu, Guochao

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a level-set based finite element method was used to numerically evaluate the mechanical behavior in a small deformation range of semi-solid materials with different microstructure configurations. For this purpose, a finite element model of the semi-solid phase was built based on Voronoï diagram. Interfaces between the solid and the liquid phases were implicitly described by level-set functions coupled to an anisotropic meshing technique. The liquid phase was considered as a Newtonian fluid, whereas the behavior of the solid phase was described by a viscoplastic law. Simulations were performed to study the effect of different parameters such as solid phase fraction and solid bridging. Results show that the macroscopic mechanical behavior of semi-solid material strongly depends on the solid fraction and the local microstructure which play important roles in the formation of hot tearing. These results could provide valuable information for the processing of semi-solid materials.

  14. Activation of the Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2/Antioxidant Response Element Pathway Is Neuroprotective after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoliang; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Wang, Handong; Diaz, Paulo; German, Ramon; Marcillo, Alex E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The activation of oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in secondary pathomechanisms following spinal cord injury (SCI). These pathophysiological processes lead to cell death and are tightly regulated by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling. Here, we investigated whether activation of Nrf2/ARE is neuroprotective following SCI. Female Fischer rats were subjected to mild thoracic SCI (T8) using the New York University injury device. As early as 30 min after SCI, levels of Nrf2 transcription factor were increased in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of neurons and astrocytes at the lesion site and remained elevated for 3 days. Treatment of injured rats with sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2/ARE signaling, significantly increased levels of Nrf2 and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), a rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of glutathione, and decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) thus leading to a reduction in contusion volume and improvement in coordination. These results show that activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway following SCI is neuroprotective and that sulforaphane is a viable compound for neurotherapeutic intervention in blocking pathomechanisms following SCI. PMID:21806470

  15. Activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element pathway is neuroprotective after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoliang; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Wang, Handong; Diaz, Paulo; German, Ramon; Marcillo, Alex E; Keane, Robert W

    2012-03-20

    The activation of oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in secondary pathomechanisms following spinal cord injury (SCI). These pathophysiological processes lead to cell death and are tightly regulated by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling. Here, we investigated whether activation of Nrf2/ARE is neuroprotective following SCI. Female Fischer rats were subjected to mild thoracic SCI (T8) using the New York University injury device. As early as 30 min after SCI, levels of Nrf2 transcription factor were increased in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of neurons and astrocytes at the lesion site and remained elevated for 3 days. Treatment of injured rats with sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2/ARE signaling, significantly increased levels of Nrf2 and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), a rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of glutathione, and decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) thus leading to a reduction in contusion volume and improvement in coordination. These results show that activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway following SCI is neuroprotective and that sulforaphane is a viable compound for neurotherapeutic intervention in blocking pathomechanisms following SCI.

  16. Relative elemental abundance and heating constraints determined for the solar corona from SERTS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Intensities of EUV spectral lines were measured as a function of radius off the solar limb by two flights of Goddard's Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) for three quiet sun regions. The density scale height, line-ratio densities, line-ratio temperatures, and emission measures were determined. The line-ratio temperature determined from the ionization balances of Arnaud and Rothenflug (1985) were more self-consistent than the line-ratio temperatures obtained from the values of Arnaud and Raymond (1992). Limits on the filling factor were determined from the emission measure and the line-ratio densities for all three regions. The relative abundances of silicon, aluminum, and chromium to iron were determined. Results did agree with standard coronal relative elemental abundances for one observation, but did not agree for another. Aluminum was overabundant while silicon was underabundant. Heating was required above 1.15 solar radii for all three regions studied. For two regions, local nonconductive heating is needed for any filling factor, and in all three regions for filling factor of 0.1.

  17. Relating urban airborne particle concentrations to shipping using carbon based elemental emission ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Graham R.; Juwono, Alamsyah M.; Friend, Adrian J.; Cheung, Hing-Cho; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia

    2014-10-01

    This study demonstrates a novel method for testing the hypothesis that variations in primary and secondary particle number concentration (PNC) in urban air are related to residual fuel oil combustion at a coastal port lying 30 km upwind, by examining the correlation between PNC and airborne particle composition signatures chosen for their sensitivity to the elemental contaminants present in residual fuel oil. Residual fuel oil combustion indicators were chosen by comparing the sensitivity of a range of concentration ratios to airborne emissions originating from the port. The most responsive were combinations of vanadium and sulphur concentration ([S], [V]) expressed as ratios with respect to black carbon concentration ([BC]). These correlated significantly with ship activity at the port and with the fraction of time during which the wind blew from the port. The average [V] when the wind was predominantly from the port was 0.52 ng m-3 (87%) higher than the average for all wind directions and 0.83 ng m-3 (280%) higher than that for the lowest vanadium yielding wind direction considered to approximate the natural background. Shipping was found to be the main source of V impacting urban air quality in Brisbane. However, contrary to the stated hypothesis, increases in PNC related measures did not correlate with ship emission indicators or ship traffic. Hence at this site ship emissions were not found to be a major contributor to PNC compared to other fossil fuel combustion sources such as road traffic, airport and refinery emissions.

  18. Conservation defines functional motifs in the squint/nodal-related 1 RNA dorsal localization element

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Patrick C.; Kumari, Pooja; Lim, Shimin; Cheong, Albert; Chang, Alex; Sampath, Karuna

    2011-01-01

    RNA localization is emerging as a general principle of sub-cellular protein localization and cellular organization. However, the sequence and structural requirements in many RNA localization elements remain poorly understood. Whereas transcription factor-binding sites in DNA can be recognized as short degenerate motifs, and consensus binding sites readily inferred, protein-binding sites in RNA often contain structural features, and can be difficult to infer. We previously showed that zebrafish squint/nodal-related 1 (sqt/ndr1) RNA localizes to the future dorsal side of the embryo. Interestingly, mammalian nodal RNA can also localize to dorsal when injected into zebrafish embryos, suggesting that the sequence motif(s) may be conserved, even though the fish and mammal UTRs cannot be aligned. To define potential sequence and structural features, we obtained ndr1 3′-UTR sequences from approximately 50 fishes that are closely, or distantly, related to zebrafish, for high-resolution phylogenetic footprinting. We identify conserved sequence and structural motifs within the zebrafish/carp family and catfish. We find that two novel motifs, a single-stranded AGCAC motif and a small stem-loop, are required for efficient sqt RNA localization. These findings show that comparative sequencing in the zebrafish/carp family is an efficient approach for identifying weak consensus binding sites for RNA regulatory proteins. PMID:21149265

  19. Discrete element modeling of indentation tests to investigate mechanisms of CO2-related chemomechanical rock alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhuang; Espinoza, D. Nicolas; Balhoff, Matthew T.

    2016-11-01

    During CO2 injection into geological formations, petrophysical and geomechanical properties of host formations can be altered due to mineral dissolution and precipitation. Field and laboratory results have shown that sandstone and siltstone can be altered by CO2-water mixtures, but few quantitative studies have been performed to fully investigate underlying mechanisms. Based on the hypothesis that CO2-water mixtures alter the integrity of rock structure by attacking cements rather than grains, we attempt to explain the degradation of cementation due to long-term contact with CO2 and water and mechanisms for changes in rock mechanical properties. Many sandstones, including calcite-cemented quartzitic sandstone, chlorite-cemented quartzitic sandstone, and hematite-cemented quartzitic sandstone, contain interparticle cements that are more readily affected by CO2-water mixtures than grains. A model that couples the discrete element method and the bonded-particle model is used to perform simulations of indentation tests on synthetic rocks with crystal and random packings. The model is verified against the analytical cavity expansion model and validated against laboratory indentation tests on Entrada sandstone with and without CO2 alteration. Sensitivity analysis is performed for cementation microscopic parameters including stiffness, size, axial, and shear strength. The simulation results indicate that the CO2-related degradation of mechanical properties in bleached Entrada sandstone can be attributed to the reduction of cement size rather than cement strength. Our study indicates that it is possible to describe the CO2-related rock alteration through particle-scale mechanisms.

  20. Annual budget of Gd and related Rare Earth Elements in a river basin heavily disturbed by anthropogenic activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Guignard, Cédric; François Iffly, Jean; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The real environmental impact of micropollutants in river systems can be difficult to assess, essentially due to uncertainties in the estimation of the relative significance of both anthropogenic and natural sources. The natural geochemical background is characterized by important variations at global, regional or local scales. Moreover, elements currently considered to be undisturbed by human activities and used as tracers of continental crust derived material have become more and more involved in industrial or agricultural processes. The global production of lanthanides (REE), used in industry, medicine and agriculture, for instance, has increased exponentially from a few tons in 1950 to projected 185 kt in 2015. Consequently, these new anthropogenic contributions impact the natural cycle of the REE. Gd and related REE are now worldwide recognized as emergent micropollutants in river systems. Nevertheless, there is still a gap concerning their temporal dynamics in rivers and especially the quantification of both the anthropogenic and natural contributions in surface water. The acquisition of such quantitative information is of primordial interest because elements from both origins may present different bioavailability and toxicity levels. Working at the river basin scale allows for quantifying micropollutant fluxes. For this reason, we monitored water quality and discharge of the Alzette River (Luxembourg, Europe) over two complete hydrological cycles (2010-2013). The substantial contamination, is principally due to the steel industry in the basin, which has been active from 1875 until now, and to the related increase of urban areas. The particulate and dissolved fractions of river water were monitored using a multitracer approach (standard parameters for water quality including REE concentrations, Pb, Sr, Nd radiogenic isotopes) with two sampling setups (bi-weekly and flood event based sampling). This extensive sampling design allowed quantifying the annual

  1. Development and applications of a multi-level strain energy method for detecting finite element modeling errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashemi-Kia, Mostafa; Kilroy, Kevin L.; Parker, G.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure is described which can be used efficiently in identifying modeling errors which may arise from development of a structural finite element model. The procedure, which is referred to as the multi-level strain energy check, is set up in the form of a set of NASTRAN DMAP alters which provide sufficient information about the modeling errors at G-Set, N-Set, and F-Set levels. This technique was applied to two NASTRAN models, namely, the AH-64A and AH-1G models. Two modeling errors were identified for the AH-1G, which were then corrected.

  2. Relative charge density model on chitosan-fucoidan electrostatic interaction: qualitative approach with element analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Lim, Kwang-Hee

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a relative charge density model of prepared chitosan-fucoidan nanoparticles (CFNs) to provide insight into an analysis of the ionic interactions in terms of polyelectrolyte complexes. Using the relative charge density model, the extent of the ionic interactions is predicted in terms of the pH (2 through 6) and used fucoidan to chitosan mass ratio (FCMR) (1:0.05 through 1:1), through which the formation of CFNs can be controlled to be ranked qualitatively according to size and stability. It was confirmed by the measurements of their zeta potentials and sizes and by the analysis of their decay with time. Moreover, the relative charge density model was validated to predict the isoelectric condition of a polyelectrolyte complexed suspension of CFNs. Elemental analysis with a proper mass-conversion showed that the ratio of the stoichiometric coefficients of sulfate groups to amino groups in CFNs formed were almost consistent to that of the sulfate groups to amino groups in a chitosan solution mixed with a fucoidan solution prior to the occurrence of polyelectrolyte complexation. In a pH 2-environment, there were locally intensive electrostatic interactions with a low yield to form sulfate group-rich CFNs. In contrast, in a pH 6-environment, extensive electrostatic interactions occurred to form sulfate group-poor CFNs with a high yield. In addition to the chitosan-amide groups, the separate yield-distribution of loaded chitosan indicated the possible involvement of positively charged amino groups in the electrostatic interactions among chitosan molecules. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of shock waves on oxidative stress and some trace element levels of rat liver and diaphragm muscles.

    PubMed

    Gecit, İlhan; Kavak, Servet; Meral, Ismail; Güneş, Mustafa; Pirinççi, Necip; Sayir, Fuat; Demir, Halit; Ceylan, Kadir

    2012-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the short-term extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) exposure to kidney produces an oxidative stress and a change in some trace element levels in liver and diaphragm muscles of rats. Twelve male Wistar albino rats were divided randomly into two groups, each consisting of six rats. The animals in the first group did not receive any treatment and served as control group. The right-side kidneys of animals in group 2 were treated with two-thousand 18 kV shock waves while anesthetized with 50 mg kg(-1) ketamine. The localization of the right kidney was achieved after contrast medium injection through a tail vein under fluoroscopy control. The animals were killed 72 h after the ESWL treatment, and liver and diaphragm muscles were harvested for the determination of tissue oxidative stress and trace element levels. Although the malondialdehyde level increased, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities decreased in the livers and diaphragm muscles of ESWL-treated rats. Although glutathione level increased in liver, it decreased in diaphragm muscles of ESWL-treated animals. Fe, Mg and Mn levels decreased, and Cu and Pb levels increased in the livers of ESWL-treated animals. Fe and Cu levels increased, and Mg, Pb, Mn and Zn levels decreased in the diaphragm muscles of ESWL-treated animals. It also causes a decrease or increase in many mineral levels in liver and diaphragm muscles, which is an undesirable condition for the normal physiological function of tissues. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Nutritional quality and safety related to trace element content in fish from Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Visciano, Pierina; Perugini, Monia; Manera, Maurizio; Salese, Carmine; Martino, Giuseppe; Amorena, Michele

    2014-05-01

    This study analyzed for the detection of the following trace elements: As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn, in muscle of four widely traded and consumed marine fish species (Mullus surmuletus L., Merluccius merluccius L., Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827), Scomber scombrus L.) selected for their wide trade and consumption. Mean concentrations found in fish muscle, irrespective of species, ranged from 3.61 to 105.49 (As); 0.01-0.08 (Cd); 0.74-4.71 (Cu); 0.09-1.10 (Hg); 0.02-0.58 (Pb); 0.30-2.88 (Se); 11.56-73.37 (Zn) mg/kg wet weight. As, Hg, Cu and Se concentrations showed a significant difference (p < 0.01) among the analyzed species in winter and in summer. Cd exhibited a significant difference (p < 0.01) only in summer. The maximum levels set for Hg, Cd and Pb by European Regulation No 1881/2006 were exceeded by 5 (8.9%), 1 (1.8%) and 4 (7.1%) samples, respectively. In particular the species exceeding the legal limits were red mullet for Cd and Pb, Atlantic mackerel and blue whiting for Hg and Pb.

  5. Trace elements in Zn Pb Ag deposits and related stream sediments, Brooks Range Alaska, with implications for Tl as a pathfinder element

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, G.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Slack, J.F.; Koenig, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Zn-Pb-Ag metallogenic province of the western and central Brooks Range, Alaska, contains two distinct but mineralogically similar deposit types: shale-hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) and smaller vein-breccia occurrences. Recent investigations of the Red Dog and Anarraaq SHMS deposits demonstrated that these deposits are characterized by high trace-element concentrations of As, Ge, Sb and Tl. This paper examines geochemistry of additional SHMS deposits (Drenchwater and Su-Lik) to determine which trace elements are ubiquitously elevated in all SHMS deposits. Data from several vein-breccia occurrences are also presented to see if trace-element concentrations can distinguish SHMS deposits from vein-breccia occurrences. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that Tl is the most consistently and highly concentrated characteristic trace element in SHMS deposits relative to regional unmineralized rock samples. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of pyrite and sphalerite indicate that Tl is concentrated in pyrite in SHMS. Stream sediment data from the Drenchwater and Su-Lik SHMS show that high Tl concentrations are more broadly distributed proximal to known or suspected mineralization than As, Sb, Zn and Pb anomalies. This broader distribution of Tl in whole-rock and particularly stream sediment samples increases the footprint of exposed and shallowly buried SHMS mineralization. High Tl concentrations also distinguish SHMS mineralization from the vein-breccia deposits, as the latter lack high concentrations of Tl but can otherwise have similar trace-element signatures to SHMS deposits. ?? 2009 AAG/Geological Society of London.

  6. Critical State Finite Element Models of Contractional Fault-Related Folding: Structural and Mechanical Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertz, M.; Lingrey, S.; Sanz, P. F.

    2011-12-01

    Geometric/kinematic models of the common fault-related fold types (fault-bend, fault-propagation, detachment folding) typically assume a simplified flexural-slip based bed-parallel simple shear mechanism. The magnitude of local strain is a function of layer dip change irrespective of material properties. Line-lengths parallel to and layer thicknesses orthogonal to the flexural-slip surface remain constant. This study reports on a range of more complicated kinematic and mechanical responses observed in fourteen idealized forward numerical models of contractional fault-related folding. The models test the effects of material properties, initial fault dip, and the presence of weak inter-layer detachment horizons. We employ a Lagrangian finite element method with adaptive remeshing and a constitutive model that is based on critical state mechanics. This approach allows for large, volumetric deformation and realistic evolution of the failure envelope during progressive deformation. We demonstrate that material properties affect the way faults propagate and thus exert a significant control on resultant fold layer geometry. In most cases, these geometries differ from the flexural-slip based kinematic idealizations. For instance, models of uniform sandstone properties exhibit efficient strain localization and clear patterns of fault tip propagation. Uniform shale properties tends to inhibit fault propagation due to distributed plastic deformation. Models with mixed inter-layered sandstone and shale deform in a disharmonic manner, resembling lobate-cuspate arrangements that are common to many outcrop-scale folds. Inter-layer detachments accommodate shortening by bed-parallel slip, resulting in fault-bend fold kinematics, imbrication of sand layers, and a general absence of fault propagation across layers. Constant area based plane strain restoration of the deformed models recovers the first-order contractional deformation (80-90% of true contractional strain). Constant line

  7. Polyhedral boranes and elemental boron: direct structural relations and diverse electronic requirements.

    PubMed

    Jemmis, E D; Balakrishnarajan, M M

    2001-05-09

    Details of the electronic and structural connections between macropolyhedral boranes and elemental boron are reported. The nature of electron deficiency in the beta-rhombohedral polymorph of boron is analyzed by using a molecular fragments approach with boranes as model systems. The B57H36 molecule constructed from such an approach has three more electrons than mandated by the electron-counting rules (Balakrishnarajan, M. M.; Jemmis, E. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 456. Jemmis, E. D.; Balakrishnarajan, M. M.; Pancharatna, P. D. J. Am Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 4313-4323.) devised for macropolyhedral boranes. This is also confirmed by electronic structure calculations at the extended Hückel and B3LYP/6-31G levels. The aromaticity of this B57H36(3+) molecule is on par with the most stable B12H12(2-) itself, as revealed by nuclear independent chemical shift calculations. The B57 skeleton can be made electron precise by adopting a nido arrangement by eliminating an atom from the closo skeleton, so that three valence electrons will be removed. The exact site of elimination, governed by thermodynamic factors, necessitates the removal of a boron atom from any of the six symmetrically equivalent B[13] sites in the unit cell. This leads to partial occupancies, which causes disorder in packing, as revealed by X-ray structure studies. The rest of the boron atoms are distributed in icosahedral B12 fragments, whose two-electron deficiency is satisfied by the capping of extra atoms, distributed statistically in the interstitial sites. These results show that the three-dimensional network of the idealized beta-rhombohedral unit cell is not stable, unlike the electron-precise carbon polymorphs such as diamond and graphite. Thus, disorder in the form of partial occupancies, interstitial atoms, alien atoms, etc., is necessary for electron sufficiency and hence for the stability of this polymorphic form. Through these ingenious steps, all components of the unit cell attain electron

  8. Status- und Steuerelemente fur sprachbezoegene Ubungsprogramme (Status and Control Elements for Language Related Training Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitschian, Haymo

    To use computers as a medium to learn a language, there is need for some GUI-elements indicating and regulating the actual status of training. These elements have to be separated into obligatory ones, useful in almost all CALL-software, and facultative ones, necessary for most "teachware." Due to a general need of reducing the difficulties to get…

  9. Advancements in the behavioral modeling of fuel elements and related structures

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Montgomery, R.O.; Rashid, Y.R.; Head, J.L.; ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA; Royal Naval Coll., Greenwich )

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect of the design and analysis of nuclear reactors is the ability to predict the behavior of fuel elements in the adverse environment of a reactor system. By understanding the thermomechanical behavior of the different materials which constitute a nuclear fuel element, analysis and predictions can be made regarding the integrity and reliability of fuel element designs. The SMiRT conference series, through the division on fuel elements and the post-conference seminars on fuel element modeling, provided technical forums for the international participation in the exchange of knowledge concerning the thermomechanical modeling of fuel elements. This paper discusses the technical advances in the behavioral modeling of fuel elements presented at the SMiRT conference series since its inception in 1971. Progress in the areas of material properties and constitutive relationships, modeling methodologies, and integral modeling approaches was reviewed and is summarized in light of their impact on the thermomechanical modeling of nuclear fuel elements. 34 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Fast calculation system specialized for head-related transfer function based on boundary element method.

    PubMed

    Otani, Makoto; Ise, Shiro

    2006-05-01

    Recently, development of a numerical calculation of the head-related transfer function (HRTF) has been conducted using a computer model of a human head and the boundary element method. The reciprocity theorem is incorporated into the computational process in order to shorten the computational time, which is otherwise very long. On the other hand, another fast HRTF calculation method for any source position, which is realized by calculating factors independent of the source position in advance, has been suggested by the authors. Using this algorithm, the HRTF for any source position can be obtained in a few seconds with a common PC. The resulting HRTFs are more precise and are calculated faster than those by using the reciprocity theorem. However, speeding the process up even further is required in order to respond to a head movement and rotation or to moving sources during binaural sound reproduction. In this paper, a faster calculation method by incorporating a time domain operation into the authors' previous algorithm is proposed. Additionally, the new formulation, which eliminates the extra computational time in the preprocess, is proposed. This method is shown to be faster than the previous ones, but there are some discrepancies at higher frequencies.

  11. [Relation between location of elements in periodic table and affinity for the malignant tumor (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Hisada, K; Ando, I

    1977-10-01

    Affinity of many inorganic compounds for the malignant tumor was examined, using the rats which were subcutaneously transplanted with Yoshida sarcoma. And the relations between the uptake rate into the malignant tumor and in vitro binding power to the protein were investigated in these compounds. In these experiments, the bipositive ions and anions had not affinity for the tumor tissue with a few exceptions. On the other hand, Hg, Au and Bi, which have strong binding power to the protein, showed high uptake rate into the malignant tumor. As Hg++, Au+ and Bi+++ are soft acids according to classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these elements would bind strongly to soft base (R-SH, R-S-) present in the tumor tissue. In many hard acids (according to classification of Lewis acids), the uptake rate into the tumor was shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. It is presumed that the chemical bond of these hard acids in the tumor tissue is ionic bond to hard base (R-COO-, R-PO3(2-), R-SO3-, R-NH2).

  12. Phloem ultrastructure and pressure flow: Sieve-Element-Occlusion-Related agglomerations do not affect translocation.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Daniel R; Mullendore, Daniel L; Jensen, Kåre H; Ross-Elliott, Tim J; Anstead, James A; Thompson, Gary A; Pélissier, Hélène C; Knoblauch, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Since the first ultrastructural investigations of sieve tubes in the early 1960s, their structure has been a matter of debate. Because sieve tube structure defines frictional interactions in the tube system, the presence of P protein obstructions shown in many transmission electron micrographs led to a discussion about the mode of phloem transport. At present, it is generally agreed that P protein agglomerations are preparation artifacts due to injury, the lumen of sieve tubes is free of obstructions, and phloem flow is driven by an osmotically generated pressure differential according to Münch's classical hypothesis. Here, we show that the phloem contains a distinctive network of protein filaments. Stable transgenic lines expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Sieve-Element-Occlusion-Related1 (SEOR1)-yellow fluorescent protein fusions show that At SEOR1 meshworks at the margins and clots in the lumen are a general feature of living sieve tubes. Live imaging of phloem flow and flow velocity measurements in individual tubes indicate that At SEOR1 agglomerations do not markedly affect or alter flow. A transmission electron microscopy preparation protocol has been generated showing sieve tube ultrastructure of unprecedented quality. A reconstruction of sieve tube ultrastructure served as basis for tube resistance calculations. The impact of agglomerations on phloem flow is discussed.

  13. Analysis of blood trace elements and biochemical indexes levels in severe craniocerebral trauma adults with Glasgow Coma Scale and injury severity score.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangtao; Hu, Bo; Chen, Guiqian; Yu, Xiaojun; Luo, Jianming; Lv, Junyao; Gu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the correlation between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the injury severity score (ISS) and serum levels of trace elements (TE) in severe trauma patients to analyze alteration of the levels of trace elements and serum biochemical indexes in the period of admission from 126 adult cases of severe brain trauma with traffic accidents. Multi-trace elements for patients in the trauma-TE groups were used. The results indicated that all patients presented an acute trace elements deficiency syndrome (ATEDs) after severe trauma, and the correlation between ISS and serum levels of Fe, Zn, and Mg was significant. Compared to the normal control group, levels of the trace elements in serum were significantly decreased after trauma, suggesting that enhancement of immunity to infection and multiple organ failure (MOF) via the monitoring and supplement of trace elements will be a good strategy to severe traumatic patients in clinics.

  14. Serum Irisin Level is Higher and Related with Insulin in Acanthosis Nigricans-related Obesity.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Q; Fang, L J; Song, K X; Wang, X C; Huang, Y Y; Chai, S Y; Bu, L; Qu, S

    2016-03-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is proved to be a skin phenotype of hyperinsulinemia especially in obese patients. Irisin is a new myokine which plays an important role in metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The role of irisin in the development of AN-related obesity is not yet understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between irisin and AN-related obesity. Patients & Measurements: 30 obese patients without AN (OB group), 30 obese patients with AN (AN group), and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers (control group, CON) were included in this study. Weight, BMI, lipid profile, FFA, UA, and CRP were measured in all participants. Oral Glucose Tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum glucose and plasma insulin were measured at 0, 30, 60,120 and 180 min. The AUC (area under curve) of glucose and insulin was calculated. Serum irisin was measured by ELISA. Hyperinsulinemia is found in both AN and OB groups. The AN group had higher levels of insulin but better blood glucose tolerance and insulin response. The difference in irisin levels between the 3 groups was statistically significant, with the AN group showing the highest serum level of irisin. Serum irisin levels were positively correlated with BMI, and fasting insulin. AN is a state of hyperinsulinmia and has better insulin response and glucose tolerance compared to obese patients without AN. Serum irisin may be a protective factor against impaired beta cell function in obesity with AN. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Bioaccumulation of macro- and trace elements by European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in relation to environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the level of trace metals and macroelements in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae collected from regions differing in the degree and type of pollution. Concentrations of 17 macro- and microelements were determined in roots and shoots of European frogbit as well as in water and bottom sediments from 30 study sites. Plants differed in concentrations of elements and bioaccumulation capacity depending on the characteristics of dominant anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the sampling site. Shoots of H. morsus-ranae growing in the vicinity of organic chemistry plants and automotive industry contained particularly high levels of Cd, Co, and S. Plants from area close to heat and power plant, former ferrochrome industry and new highway, were distinguished by the highest concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb. European frogbit from both these regions contained more Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn than plants from agricultural and recreational areas. The concentrations of alkali metals and Co, Fe, and N in H. morsus-ranae were elevated in relation to the natural content in macrophytes irrespectively to their content in the environment. Based on the values of Bioaccumulation and Translocation Factors, European frogbit is an accumulator for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and a good candidate for phytoremediation of water polluted with Co, Cu, Hg, K, Mn, and Ni. The amount of Co and Mn removed from water and accumulated in the plant biomass during the vegetation season was considerably high.

  16. Ascertaining serum levels of trace elements in melanoma patients using PIXE and HR-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, S.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Santos, I. D. A. O.; Oliveira, A. F.; Shie, J. N.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Oliveira, T.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a serious and deadly form of skin cancer. However, patients' chances of survival and recovery are considerably increased when it is diagnosed and treated in its early stages. In this study, trace element concentrations in serum samples from patients with melanoma were measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and HR-ICPMS (High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), with the purpose of correlating these concentrations with the disease. Blood samples from 30 melanoma patients and 116 healthy donors were collected at São Paulo Hospital (protocol CEP 1036/08 UNIFESP). Relevant clinical information on the patients has also been included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of the control group showed different P and Mg concentrations in individuals above and below 40 years of age. P, S, Ca, Cu and Zn concentrations in healthy individuals differed according to gender, highlighting the necessity to include age and gender variables in the case-control analysis. There were also differences in K, S, Ca and Se concentrations between the control and melanoma groups.

  17. BOX DNA: a novel regulatory element related to embryonal carcinoma cell differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Kihara-Negishi, F; Tsujita, R; Negishi, Y; Ariga, H

    1993-01-01

    revealed that the transcription of BOXF1 gene is regulated by BOX DNA, preferentially in undifferentiated EC cells versus differentiated cells. Hence, BOX DNA is probably a novel transcriptional element related to EC cell differentiation. Images PMID:7902532

  18. Effect of protein deficiency on macroelement and trace element levels of weanling rats' small intestine and liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Kilicalp, D; Dede, S; Belge, F; Tatar, M

    2005-12-01

    Protein energy malnutrition has become a major health issue in developing countries. In the present study, the effect of protein deficiency on the small intestine and liver tissue content of macroelements and trace elements was investigated in weanling rats. Forty-five male weanling Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. The control group (C) was fed a standard diet containing 25% casein, whereas the two experimental groups E1 and E2 consumed 12% and 3% casein, respectively, over a period of 45 d. The tissue samples were analyzed for zinc, copper, iron, manganese, calcium, and magnesium by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The protein-deficient groups showed increased levels of iron in both tissues and decreased manganese in small intestine tissue from the E1 group. No other differences were found for the other elements. These results suggest that protein deficiency might cause iron accumulation in the liver and intestine and decreases of manganese in the small intestine.

  19. I element distribution in mitotic heterochromatin of Drosophila melanogaster reactive strains: identification of a specific site which is correlated with the reactivity levels.

    PubMed

    Dimitri, P; Bucheton, A

    2005-01-01

    The I factor is a Drosophila melanogaster LINE-like element that efficiently transposes in the genetic system of I-R hybrid dysgenesis. It has been suggested that some of the I-related sequences located in the heterochromatin of D. melanogaster are involved in the regulation of I factor activity. In this work we have performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping of I element sequences in mitotic heterochromatin of nine differentially reactive D. melanogaster strains. The results of our analysis showed that a single hybridization site mapping to region h28 of the distal heterochromatin of the X chromosome is present in three strains with low or intermediate levels of reactivity, while it is undetectable in six highly reactive strains. Together, these observations suggest a negative correlation between I sequences located at h28 and the level of reactivity. To this regard, it is intriguing that flamenco and COM, two loci that regulate the activity of D. melanogaster endogenous retroviruses also map to the distal heterochromatin of the X chromosome. Our data represent the first experimental evidence in favour of a silencing effect exerted by naturally occurring I element sequences located in pericentromeric heterochromatin.

  20. Macromolecular and elemental composition analysis and extracellular metabolite balances of Pichia pastoris growing at different oxygen levels

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Analysis of the cell operation at the metabolic level requires collecting data of different types and to determine their confidence level. In addition, the acquired information has to be combined in order to obtain a consistent operational view. In the case of Pichia pastoris, information of its biomass composition at macromolecular and elemental level is scarce particularly when different environmental conditions, such as oxygen availability or, genetic backgrounds (e.g. recombinant protein production vs. non production conditions) are compared. Results P. pastoris cells growing in carbon-limited chemostat cultures under different oxygenation conditions (% O2 in the bioreactor inlet gas: 21%, 11% and 8%, corresponding to normoxic, oxygen-limiting and hypoxic conditions, respectively), as well as under recombinant protein (antibody fragment, Fab) producing and non-producing conditions, were analyzed from different points of view. On the one hand, the macromolecular and elemental composition of the biomass was measured using different techniques at the different experimental conditions and proper reconciliation techniques were applied for gross error detection of the measured substrates and products conversion rates. On the other hand, fermentation data was analyzed applying elemental mass balances. This allowed detecting a previously missed by-product secreted under hypoxic conditions, identified as arabinitol (aka. arabitol). After identification of this C5 sugar alcohol as a fermentation by-product, the mass balances of the fermentation experiments were validated. Conclusions After application of a range of analytical and statistical techniques, a consistent view of growth parameters and compositional data of P. pastoris cells growing under different oxygenation conditions was obtained. The obtained data provides a first view of the effects of oxygen limitation on the physiology of this microorganism, while recombinant Fab production seems to have

  1. Two-level Schwartz methods for nonconforming finite elements and discontinuous coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkis, Marcus

    1993-01-01

    Two-level domain decomposition methods are developed for a simple nonconforming approximation of second order elliptic problems. A bound is established for the condition number of these iterative methods, which grows only logarithmically with the number of degrees of freedom in each subregion. This bound holds for two and three dimensions and is independent of jumps in the value of the coefficients.

  2. The Co-Induced Effects of Molybdenum and Cadmium on the Trace Elements and the mRNA Expression Levels of CP and MT in Duck Testicles.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bing; Chen, Hua; Hu, Guoliang; Wang, Liqi; Cao, Huabin; Zhang, Caiying

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the chronic toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) and cadmium (Cd) on the trace elements and the mRNA expression levels of ceruloplasmin (CP) and metallothionein (MT) in duck testicles, 120 healthy 11-day-old male ducks were randomly divided into six groups with 20 ducks in each group. Ducks were treated with the diet containing different dosages of Mo or Cd. The source of Mo and Cd was hexaammonium molybdate ([(NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O]) and cadmium sulfate (3CdSO4·8H2O), respectively, in this study. After being treated for 60 and 120 days, ten male birds in each group were randomly selected and euthanized and then testicles were aseptically collected for determining the mRNA expression levels of MT and CP, antioxidant indexes, and contents of trace elements in the testicle. In addition, testicle tissues at 120 days were subjected to histopathological analysis with the optical microscope. The results showed that co-exposure to Mo and Cd resulted in an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level while decrease in xanthine oxidase (XOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The mRNA expression level of MT gene was upregulated while CP was decreased in combination groups. Contents of Mo, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) decreased in combined groups while Cd increased in Cd and combined groups at 120 days. Furthermore, severe congestion, low sperm count, and malformation were observed in low dietary of Mo combined with Cd group and high dietary of Mo combined with Cd group. Our results suggested that Mo and Cd might aggravate testicular degeneration synergistically through altering the mRNA expression levels of MT and CP, increasing lipid peroxidation through inhibiting related enzyme activities and disturbing homeostasis of trace elements in testicles. Interaction of Mo and Cd may have a synergistic effect on the testicular toxicity.

  3. Evidence for contrasting accumulation pattern of cadmium in relation to other elements in Senilia senilis and Tagelus adansoni from the Bijagós archipelago, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Catry, Teresa; Figueira, Paula; Carvalho, Lina; Monteiro, Rui; Coelho, Pedro; Lourenço, Pedro Miguel; Catry, Paulo; Tchantchalam, Quintino; Catry, Inês; Botelho, Maria J; Pereira, Eduarda; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Vale, Carlos

    2017-09-16

    Shellfish harvesting in intertidal areas is a widespread and economically important activity in many countries across West Africa. However, in some areas, there is virtually no information concerning the levels of contaminants (and other elements related to nutritional aspects) in the harvested species. We collected sediments and several individuals of the West African bloody cockle Senilia senilis and of the razor clam Tagelus adansoni during the dry season of 2015 nearby three islands in the Bijagós archipelago, Guinea-Bissau. Aluminium, Ca, Fe, Mg, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in sediments and whole soft tissues of the two bivalves. Sediments showed uniformly low trace element concentrations, pointing to an ecosystem with low levels of trace element contamination. T. adansoni presented higher concentrations of most elements than S. senilis, with the exception of Cd that showed up to 40 times higher values in S. senilis than in T. adansoni from the same sites. Furthermore, Cd concentrations (25±8.7 mg kg(-1), dw) in S. senilis are clearly above the maximum level established for human consumption. Future studies should clarify whether biological factors are the major responsible for this unusual situation.

  4. Atmospheric particulate matter intercepted by moss-bags: Relations to moss trace element uptake and land use.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Anna; Capozzi, Fiore; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Giordano, Simonetta; Adamo, Paola

    2017-06-01

    Particulate matter has to be constantly monitored because it is an important atmospheric transport form of potentially harmful contaminants. The cost-effective method of the moss-bags can be employed to evaluate both loads and chemical composition of PM. PM entrapped by the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum exposed in bags in 9 European sites was characterized for number, size and chemical composition by SEM/EDX. Moreover, moss elemental uptake of 53 elements including rare earth elements was estimated by ICP-MS analysis. All above was aimed to find possible relations between PM profile and moss uptake and to find out eventual element markers of the different land use (i.e. agricultural, urban, industrial) of the selected sites. After exposure, about 12,000 particles, mostly within the inhalable fraction, were counted on P. purum leaves; their number generally increased from the agricultural sites to the urban and industrial ones. ICP analysis indicated that twenty-three elements were significantly accumulated by mosses with different element profile according to the various land uses. The PM from agricultural sites were mainly made of natural/crustal elements or derived from rural activities. Industrial-related PM covered a wider range of sources, from those linked to specific industrial activities, to those related to manufacturing processes or use of heavy-duty vehicles. This study indicates a close association between PM amount and moss element-uptake, which increases in parallel with PM amount. Precious metals and REEs may constitute novel markers of air pollution in urban and agricultural sites, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Housing Electrons: Relating Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Electron Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that combines the concepts of quantum numbers and probability locations, energy levels, and electron configurations in a concrete, hands-on way. Uses model houses constructed out of foam board and colored beads to represent electrons. (JRH)

  6. Occupation-Related Differences in Levels of Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattanner, Betsy; Hayslip, Bert

    1985-01-01

    Examined the validity of the sentence completion method in the measurement of death anxiety by administering ten items from five measurers to 80 employees in death-related and non-death-related occupations. Results suggested a conscious concern with the deaths of others and a covert expression of death anxiety characterized death-related…

  7. COMBINED CIS-REGULATOR ELEMENTS AS IMPORTANT MECHANISM AFFECTING FXII PLASMA LEVELS

    PubMed Central

    Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chillón, Miguel; Mordillo, Carolina; Martínez, Ángel; Gil, Estel; Mateo, José; Blangero, John; Almasy, Laura; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Soria, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Factor XII (FXII) deficiency is a recessive Mendelian trait due to mutations in the F12 gene. There is no bleeding associated with FXII deficiency, but FXII deficiency has been reported to be associated with risk of thrombosis in some studies. Material and Methods We examined the functional effect of two naturally-occurring mutations in two Spanish FXII deficient families: a C/G substitution at position –8, and a C/T substitution at position –13. Both mutations were located on a putative HNF4 binding site of F12 gene promoter. We also analyzed the F12 C46T polymorphism (rs1801020), associated with a decrease in the FXII levels, which also segregated in both families. A fragment containing each one of both –8 and -13 mutations, was cloned 5′ of a reporter gene. We compared the in vitro expression of these constructs to the wild type expression. Results Our analyses confirm that the –8C/G and the –13C/T mutations decreased expression levels, demonstrating that both mutations are involved in the observed FXII deficiency. In addition, electrophoretic shift analyses suggest that they alter the union of nuclear proteins to the promoter. Coinheritance of these mutations with the C46T polymorphism, result in a significant genotype-phenotype correlation. Conclusions We have identified two naturally-occurring mutations in the F12 promoter that drastically reduce FXII levels. Knowing rare genetic alterations in the F12 gene, together with the C46T common variant, may yield further understanding about the genetic architecture of FXII levels, which may have a role in the risk of thrombosis. PMID:19786295

  8. Determination of trace element level in different tissues of the leaping mullet (Liza saliens, Mugilidae) collected from Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Eslami, Shahram; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn were determined in the brain, heart, liver, gill, gonad, spleen, kidney, and red and white muscles of Liza saliens (leaping mullet). Trace element levels in fish samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Among the non-essential metals, the levels of Ni and Pb in the tissues were higher than limits for fish proposed by FAO/WHO, EU, and TFC. Generally, the levels of the non-essential metals were much higher than those of manganese in the red and white muscles. Fe distribution pattern in tissues was in order of spleen > liver > heart > gill > brain > kidney > gonad > red muscle > white muscle. Red muscle was not within the safe limits for human consumption because non-essential metal (Ni, Pb) contents were higher than standard limits.

  9. Intraluminal thrombus thickness is not related to lower concentrations of trace elements in the wall of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ziaja, Damian; Kita, Andrzej; Janowska, Joanna; Pawlicki, Krzysztof; Mikuła, Barbara; Sznapka, Mariola; Chudek, Jerzy; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Intraluminal thrombus (ILT) formation plays a significant role in the progression of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Potentially, as ILT thickness increases the availability of trace elements in the aneurysm wall could decrease thereby leading to oxidative stress and intensifying pro-inflammatory cytokine generation. To determine if thrombus thickness is related to the concentration of trace elements in the wall of infrarenal AAA. The concentrations of trace elements in the wall of the aneurysm sack and ILT obtained from 19 consecutive patients during surgery for infrarenal AAA were determined using emission spectrometry. The concentrations of magnesium, zinc, manganese, and lead in the wall of AAA were significantly greater than in the ILT. Only the concentration of copper was lower in the AAA wall compared with the thrombus. The concentration of calcium, phosphorus, zinc, lead, copper, and magnesium increased with ILT thickness. The concentrations of no other trace elements in the wall of AAA were found to be related to the ILT thickness. Intraluminal thrombus thickness is not associated with a lower concentration of trace elements in the wall of the infrarenal AAA. Thus, the intraluminal thrombus participates in the progression of AAA by mechanisms independent of trace element supply to the wall of the aneurysm sack. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Far Upstream Element Binding Protein Plays a Crucial Role in Embryonic Development, Hematopoiesis, and Stabilizing Myc Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weixin; Chung, Yang Jo; Parrilla Castellar, Edgardo R.; Zheng, Ying; Chung, Hye-Jung; Bandle, Russell; Liu, Juhong; Tessarollo, Lino; Batchelor, Eric; Aplan, Peter D.; Levens, David

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor far upstream element binding protein (FBP) binds and activates the MYC promoter when far upstream element is via TFIIH helicase activity early in the transcription cycle. The fundamental biology and pathology of FBP are complex. In some tumors FBP seems pro-oncogenic, whereas in others it is a tumor suppressor. We generated an FBP knockout (Fubp1−/−) mouse to study FBP deficiency. FBP is embryo lethal from embryonic day 10.5 to birth. A spectrum of pathology is associated with FBP loss; besides cerebral hyperplasia and pulmonary hypoplasia, pale livers, hypoplastic spleen, thymus, and bone marrow, cardiac hypertrophy, placental distress, and small size were all indicative of anemia. Immunophenotyping of hematopoietic cells in wild-type versus knockout livers revealed irregular trilineage anemia, with deficits in colony formation. Despite normal numbers of hematopoietic stem cells, transplantation of Fubp1−/− hematopoietic stem cells into irradiated mice entirely failed to reconstitute hematopoiesis. In competitive transplantation assays against wild-type donor bone marrow, Fubp1−/− hematopoietic stem cells functioned only sporadically at a low level. Although cultures of wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts set Myc levels precisely, Myc levels of mouse varied wildly between fibroblasts harvested from different Fubp1−/− embryos, suggesting that FBP contributes to Myc set point fixation. FBP helps to hold multiple physiologic processes to close tolerances, at least in part by constraining Myc expression. PMID:26774856

  11. Relatively Long-Lived Dubnium Isotopes and Chemical Identification of Superheavy Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tereshatov, E. E.; Voronyuk, M. G.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Petrushkin, O. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Bruchertseifer, H.

    2010-04-30

    The present study has been performed within the framework of experiments aimed at the investigation of chemical properties of long-lived Db isotopes in aqueous solutions. The isocratic anion exchange separations of group V elements in the solutions containing HF have been considered. Parameters of separation of dubnium homologues (Pa, Nb and Ta) in HF/HNO{sub 3} mixed solutions have been optimized. The procedure of separation of group V elements from multicomponent system has been suggested.

  12. Relatively Long-Lived Dubnium Isotopes and Chemical Identification of Superheavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereshatov, E. E.; Bruchertseifer, H.; Voronyuk, M. G.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Petrushkin, O. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2010-04-01

    The present study has been performed within the framework of experiments aimed at the investigation of chemical properties of long-lived Db isotopes in aqueous solutions. The isocratic anion exchange separations of group V elements in the solutions containing HF have been considered. Parameters of separation of dubnium homologues (Pa, Nb and Ta) in HF/HNO3 mixed solutions have been optimized. The procedure of separation of group V elements from multicomponent system has been suggested.

  13. Survey of trace elements in coals and coal-related materials by neutron activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruch, R.R.; Cahill, R.A.; Frost, J.K.; Camp, L.R.; Gluskoter, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing primarily instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and other analytical methods as many as 61 elements were quantitatively surveyed in 170 U.S. whole coals, 70 washed coals, and 40 bench samples. Data on areal and vertical distributions in various regions were obtained along with extensive information on the mode of occurrence of various elements in the coal matrix itself. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  14. The relation between bullying, victimization, and adolescents' level of hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-08-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g. teasing) bullying more than girls. While the level of hopelessness among victims of physical and verbal bullying was higher than non-victims, no difference was found between the victims of indirect bullying and non-victims. Students who never talked to their teachers and parents about bullying reported higher levels of hopelessness than others. The implications of the study for intervention and prevention programs are discussed.

  15. Elemental Topological Insulator with Tunable Fermi Level: Strained α-Sn on InSb(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfuss, A.; Dudy, L.; Scholz, M. R.; Roth, H.; Höpfner, P.; Blumenstein, C.; Landolt, G.; Dil, J. H.; Plumb, N. C.; Radovic, M.; Bostwick, A.; Rotenberg, E.; Fleszar, A.; Bihlmayer, G.; Wortmann, D.; Li, G.; Hanke, W.; Claessen, R.; Schäfer, J.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the epitaxial fabrication and electronic properties of a topological phase in strained α-Sn on InSb. The topological surface state forms in the presence of an unusual band order not based on direct spin-orbit coupling, as shown in density functional and GW slab-layer calculations. Angle-resolved photoemission including spin detection probes experimentally how the topological spin-polarized state emerges from the second bulk valence band. Moreover, we demonstrate the precise control of the Fermi level by dopants.

  16. Development and validation of a statistical shape modeling-based finite element model of the cervical spine under low-level multiple direction loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Bredbenner, Todd L; Eliason, Travis D; Francis, W Loren; McFarland, John M; Merkle, Andrew C; Nicolella, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spinal injuries are a significant concern in all trauma injuries. Recent military conflicts have demonstrated the substantial risk of spinal injury for the modern warfighter. Finite element models used to investigate injury mechanisms often fail to examine the effects of variation in geometry or material properties on mechanical behavior. The goals of this study were to model geometric variation for a set of cervical spines, to extend this model to a parametric finite element model, and, as a first step, to validate the parametric model against experimental data for low-loading conditions. Individual finite element models were created using cervical spine (C3-T1) computed tomography data for five male cadavers. Statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to generate a parametric finite element model incorporating variability of spine geometry, and soft-tissue material property variation was also included. The probabilistic loading response of the parametric model was determined under flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending and validated by comparison to experimental data. Based on qualitative and quantitative comparison of the experimental loading response and model simulations, we suggest that the model performs adequately under relatively low-level loading conditions in multiple loading directions. In conclusion, SSM methods coupled with finite element analyses within a probabilistic framework, along with the ability to statistically validate the overall model performance, provide innovative and important steps toward describing the differences in vertebral morphology, spinal curvature, and variation in material properties. We suggest that these methods, with additional investigation and validation under injurious loading conditions, will lead to understanding and mitigating the risks of injury in the spine and other musculoskeletal structures.

  17. Development and Validation of a Statistical Shape Modeling-Based Finite Element Model of the Cervical Spine Under Low-Level Multiple Direction Loading Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bredbenner, Todd L.; Eliason, Travis D.; Francis, W. Loren; McFarland, John M.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spinal injuries are a significant concern in all trauma injuries. Recent military conflicts have demonstrated the substantial risk of spinal injury for the modern warfighter. Finite element models used to investigate injury mechanisms often fail to examine the effects of variation in geometry or material properties on mechanical behavior. The goals of this study were to model geometric variation for a set of cervical spines, to extend this model to a parametric finite element model, and, as a first step, to validate the parametric model against experimental data for low-loading conditions. Individual finite element models were created using cervical spine (C3–T1) computed tomography data for five male cadavers. Statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to generate a parametric finite element model incorporating variability of spine geometry, and soft-tissue material property variation was also included. The probabilistic loading response of the parametric model was determined under flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending and validated by comparison to experimental data. Based on qualitative and quantitative comparison of the experimental loading response and model simulations, we suggest that the model performs adequately under relatively low-level loading conditions in multiple loading directions. In conclusion, SSM methods coupled with finite element analyses within a probabilistic framework, along with the ability to statistically validate the overall model performance, provide innovative and important steps toward describing the differences in vertebral morphology, spinal curvature, and variation in material properties. We suggest that these methods, with additional investigation and validation under injurious loading conditions, will lead to understanding and mitigating the risks of injury in the spine and other musculoskeletal structures. PMID:25506051

  18. Are serum zinc and copper levels related to semen quality?

    PubMed

    Yuyan, Li; Junqing, Wu; Wei, Yuan; Weijin, Zhou; Ersheng, Gao

    2008-04-01

    Low serum zinc levels are harmful to semen quality in Chinese men. In this study, eligible men aged 20-59 years old-excluding those who had ever had urinary or genital disease, tuberculosis, or occupational heavy metal contact-were examined for semen quality and serum zinc and copper concentrations. Progressive motility showed differences among the five copper groups, but multiple logistic analyses did not show that higher or lower serum copper levels had a significant effect on sperm quality. When serum zinc concentration was low, the risk of asthenozoospermia was higher. The ratio of Cu/Zn was higher in the progressive motility abnormal group than in the normal group.

  19. Analysis of endocannabinoid signaling elements and related proteins in lymphocytes of patients with Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Marta; Valdeolivas, Sara; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Verde, Roberta; Satta, Valentina; Barroso, Eva; Montolio, Marisol; Aras, Luis Miguel; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Sagredo, Onintza; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizures in childhood epilepsy syndromes including Dravet syndrome (DS). A formulation of CBD has obtained orphan drug designation for these syndromes and clinical trials are currently underway. The mechanism responsible for CBD effects is not known, although it could involve targets sensitive to CBD in other neurological disorders. We believe of interest to investigate whether these potential targets are altered in DS, in particular whether the endocannabinoid system is dysregulated. To this end, lymphocytes from patients and controls were used for analysis of gene expression of transmitter receptors and transporters, ion channels, and enzymes associated with CBD effects, as well as endocannabinoid genes. Plasma endocannabinoid levels were also analyzed. There were no differences between DS patients and controls in most of the CBD targets analyzed, except an increase in the voltage-dependent calcium channel α-1h subunit. We also found that cannabinoid type-2 (CB 2) receptor gene expression was elevated in DS patients, with no changes in other endocannabinoid-related receptors and enzymes, as well as in plasma levels of endocannabinoids. Such elevation was paralleled by an increase in CD70, a marker of lymphocyte activation, and certain trends in inflammation-related proteins (e.g., peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ receptors, cytokines). In conclusion, together with changes in the voltage-dependent calcium channel α-1h subunit, we found an upregulation of CB 2 receptors, associated with an activation of lymphocytes and changes in inflammation-related genes, in DS patients. Such changes were also reported in inflammatory disorders and may indirectly support the occurrence of a potential dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the brain.

  20. Using laser micro mass spectrometry with the LAMMA-1000 instrument for monitoring relative elemental concentrations in vitrinite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lyons, P.C.; Palmer, C.A.; Fletcher, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The variation in relative elemental concentrations among a series of coal macerals belonging to the vitrinite maceral group was determined using laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Variations in Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V concentrations among the coals were determined using the LAMM A-1000 instrument. LAMMS analysis is not limited to these elements; their selection illustrates the application of the technique. Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V have minimal site-to-site variance in the vitrinite macerals of the studied coals as measured by LAMMS. The LAMMS data were compared with bulk elemental data obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and D. C. arc optical emission spectroscopy (DCAS) in order to determine the reliability of the LAMMS data. The complex nature of the ionization phenomena in LAMMS and the lack of standards characterized on a microscale makes obtaining quantitative elemental data within the ionization microvolume difficult; however, we demonstrate that the relative variation of an element among vitrinites from different coal beds in the eastern United States can be observed using LAMMS in a "bulk" mode by accumulating signal intensities over several microareas of each vitrinite. Our studies indicate gross changes (greater than a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the element) can be monitored when the elemental concentration is significantly above the detection limit. "Bulk" mode analysis was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of future elemental LAMMS microanalyses. The primary advantage of LAMMS is the inherent spatial resolution, ~ 20 ??m for coal. Two different vitrite bands in the Lower Bakerstown coal bed (CLB-1) were analyzed. The analysis did not establish any certain concentration differences in Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V between the two bands. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  1. An active DNA transposon nDart causing leaf variegation and mutable dwarfism and its related elements in rice.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Kazuo; Maekawa, Masahiko; Takagi, Kyoko; Takahara, Hiroyuki; Qian, Qian; Eun, Chang-Ho; Iida, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    While characterized mutable alleles caused by DNA transposons have been abundant in maize since the discovery of Dissociation conferring variegation by Barbara McClintock, only a few mutable alleles have been described in rice even though the rice genome contains various transposons. Here, we show that a spontaneous mutable virescent allele, pyl-v, is caused by the disruption of the nuclear-coded essential chloroplast protease gene, OsClpP5, due to insertion of a 607-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, non-autonomous DNA-based active rice transposon one (nDart1), belonging to the hAT superfamily. The transposition of nDart1 can be induced by crossing with a line containing an autonomous element, aDart, and stabilized by segregating out of aDart. We also identified a novel mutable dwarf allele thl-m caused by an insertion of nDart1. The japonica cultivar Nipponbare carries no aDart, although it contains epigenetically silenced Dart element(s), which can be activated by 5-azacytidine. Nipponbare bears four subgroups of about 3.6-kb Dart-like sequences, three of which contain potential transposase genes, and around 3.6-kb elements without an apparent transposase gene, as well as three subgroups of about 0.6-kb nDart1-related elements that are all internal deletions of the Dart-like sequences. Both nDart1 and 3.6-kb Dart-like elements were also present in indica varieties 93-11 and Kasalath. nDart1 appears to be the most active mutagen among nDart1-related elements contributing to generating natural variations. A candidate for an autonomous element, aDart, and a possible application of nDart1 for transposon tagging are discussed.

  2. Mitigating Voltage Fade in Cathode Materials by Improving the Atomic Level Uniformity of Elemental Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Genc, Arda; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Pinghong; Chen, Xilin; Zhu, Zihua; Zhao, Wenbo; Pullan, Lee; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-04-07

    Li-rich and Mn-rich (LMR) layered structured materials are very promising cathodes for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. However, their fundamental structure and voltage fading mechanisms are far from being well understood. Here we report the first evidence on the reduced voltage and energy fade of LMR cathode by improving the atomic level spatial distribution of the chemical species. LMR cathode (Li[Li0.2Ni0.2M0.6]O2) prepared by co-precipitation and sol-gel methods are dominated by R-3m phase and show significant Ni-segregation at the surface of the particles. They exhibit large voltage-fade and fast capacity degradation. In contrast, LMR cathode prepared by hydrothermal assisted method is dominated by C2/m phase and minimal Ni-segregation. It also demonstrates much smaller voltage-fade and excellent capacity retention. The fundamental correlation between the atomic level spatial distribution of the chemical species and the functional stability of the materials found in this work also guide the design of other functional materials with enhanced stabilities.

  3. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  4. Biomechanical analysis of lumbar decompression surgery in relation to degenerative changes in the lumbar spine - Validated finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan You; Kim, Ho-Joong; Son, Juhyun; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Seok, Hyun Sik; Yeom, Jin S

    2017-09-06

    There are no studies about the biomechanical analysis of lumbar decompression surgery in relation to degenerative changes of the lumbar spine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare, by using finite element (FE) analysis, the biomechanical changes of the lumbar spine in terms of annulus stress and nucleus pressure after two different kinds of lumbar decompression surgery in relation to disc degenerative changes. The validated intact and degenerated FE models (L2-5) were used in this study. In these two models, two different decompression surgical scenarios at L3-4, including conventional laminectomy (ConLa) and the spinous process osteotomy (SpinO), were simulated. Therefore, a total of six models were simulated. Under preloading, 7.5 Nm moments of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion were imposed. In each model, the maximal von Mises stress on the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pressure at the index segment (L3-4) and adjacent segments (L2-3 and L4-5) were analyzed. The ConLa model and disc degeneration model demonstrated a larger annulus stress at the decompression level (L3-4) under all four moments than were seen in the SpinO model and healthy disc model, respectively. Therefore, the ConLa model with moderate disc degeneration showed the highest annulus stress at the decompression level (L3-4). However, the percent change of annulus stress at L3-4 from the intact model to the matched decompression model was less in the moderate disc degeneration model than in the healthy disc model. Although the ConLa model with moderate disc degeneration showed the highest annulus stress, the degenerative models would be less influenced by the decompression technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. COMGEN - A PROGRAM FOR GENERATING FINITE ELEMENT MODELS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS AT THE MICRO LEVEL (SGI IRIS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    A significant percentage of time spent in a typical finite element analysis is taken up in the modeling and assignment of loads and constraints. This process not only requires the analyst to be well-versed in the art of finite element modeling, but also demands familiarity with some sort of preprocessing software in order to complete the task expediently. COMGEN (COmposite Model GENerator) is an interactive FORTRAN program which can be used to create a wide variety of finite element models of continuous fiber composite materials at the micro level. It quickly generates batch or "session files" to be submitted to the finite element pre- and post-processor program, PATRAN. (PDA Engineering, Costa Mesa, CA.) In modeling a composite material, COMGEN assumes that its constituents can be represented by a "unit cell" of a fiber surrounded by matrix material. Two basic cell types are available. The first is a square packing arrangement where the fiber is positioned in the center of a square matrix cell. The second type, hexagonal packing, has the fiber centered in a hexagonal matrix cell. Different models can be created using combinations of square and hexagonal packing schemes. Variations include two- and three- dimensional cases, models with a fiber-matrix interface, and different constructions of unit cells. User inputs include fiber diameter and percent fiber-volume of the composite to be analyzed. In addition, various mesh densities, boundary conditions, and loads can be assigned to the models within COMGEN. The PATRAN program then uses a COMGEN session file to generate finite element models and their associated loads which can then be translated to virtually any finite element analysis code such as NASTRAN or MARC. COMGEN is written in FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on DEC VAX series computers under VMS and SGI IRIS series workstations under IRIX. If the user has the PATRAN package available, the output can be graphically displayed. Without PATRAN, the output is

  6. COMGEN - A PROGRAM FOR GENERATING FINITE ELEMENT MODELS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS AT THE MICRO LEVEL (DEC VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    A significant percentage of time spent in a typical finite element analysis is taken up in the modeling and assignment of loads and constraints. This process not only requires the analyst to be well-versed in the art of finite element modeling, but also demands familiarity with some sort of preprocessing software in order to complete the task expediently. COMGEN (COmposite Model GENerator) is an interactive FORTRAN program which can be used to create a wide variety of finite element models of continuous fiber composite materials at the micro level. It quickly generates batch or "session files" to be submitted to the finite element pre- and post-processor program, PATRAN. (PDA Engineering, Costa Mesa, CA.) In modeling a composite material, COMGEN assumes that its constituents can be represented by a "unit cell" of a fiber surrounded by matrix material. Two basic cell types are available. The first is a square packing arrangement where the fiber is positioned in the center of a square matrix cell. The second type, hexagonal packing, has the fiber centered in a hexagonal matrix cell. Different models can be created using combinations of square and hexagonal packing schemes. Variations include two- and three- dimensional cases, models with a fiber-matrix interface, and different constructions of unit cells. User inputs include fiber diameter and percent fiber-volume of the composite to be analyzed. In addition, various mesh densities, boundary conditions, and loads can be assigned to the models within COMGEN. The PATRAN program then uses a COMGEN session file to generate finite element models and their associated loads which can then be translated to virtually any finite element analysis code such as NASTRAN or MARC. COMGEN is written in FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on DEC VAX series computers under VMS and SGI IRIS series workstations under IRIX. If the user has the PATRAN package available, the output can be graphically displayed. Without PATRAN, the output is

  7. The Relation between Bullying, Victimization, and Adolescents' Level of Hopelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O. Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g.…

  8. The Relation between Bullying, Victimization, and Adolescents' Level of Hopelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O. Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g.…

  9. Bacterial vaginal flora in relation to changing oestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J D; Lee, R A; Balen, A H; Rutherford, A J

    2007-05-01

    Hormonal changes may be important in the onset and clearance of bacterial vaginosis. We studied vaginal flora and serum oestradiol levels of 55 women at baseline and during hormonal treatment. None developed bacterial vaginosis (BV) from normal vaginal flora, 69% of women had normal flora at baseline increasing to 91% following hormonal treatment. The mean oestradiol level with BV was 39.07 ng/L compared with 176.41 ng/L with normal flora. Non-smokers had a mean oestradiol level of 173.95 ng/L compared with 118.67 ng/L in smokers. Recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone resulted in a mean oestradiol rise of 113.9 ng/L. The mean rise was 330.4 ng/L with improved vaginal flora but only 15.1 ng/L in persistently abnormal or worsening flora. A rise in oestradiol in this group of women was associated with a significant reduction of abnormal flora. Reversion from BV to normal flora was associated with a greater rise in oestradiol than where abnormal flora persisted or worsened. This study supports a possible hormonal influence in the natural history of BV. The lower oestradiol levels in smokers may help explain their increased risk of BV.

  10. Influence of rare earth elements on metabolism and related enzyme activity and isozyme expression in Tetrastigma hemsleyanum cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Xin, Peng; Shuang-Lin, Zhou; Jun-Yao, He; Li, Ding

    2013-04-01

    The effects of rare earth elements (REEs) not only on cell growth and flavonoid accumulation of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum suspension cells but also on the isoenzyme patterns and activities of related enzymes were studied in this paper. There were no significant differences in enhancement of flavonoid accumulation in T. hemsleyanum suspension cells among La(3+), Ce(3+), and Nd(3+). Whereas their inductive effects on cell proliferation varied greatly. The most significant effects were achieved with 100 μM Ce(3+)and Nd(3+). Under treatment over a 25-day culture period, the maximal biomass levels reached 1.92- and 1.74-fold and the total flavonoid contents are 1.45- and 1.49-fold, than that of control, respectively. Catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) activity was activated significantly when the REE concentration range from 0 to 300 μM, whereas no significant changes were found in superoxide dismutase activity. Differences of esterase isozymes under REE treatment only laid in expression level, and there were no specific bands. The expression level of some POD isozymes strengthened with increasing concentration of REEs within the range of 50-200 μM. When REE concentration was higher than 300 μM, the expression of some POD isozymes was inhibited; meanwhile, some other new POD isozymes were induced. Our results also showed REEs did not directly influence PAL activity. So, we speculated that 50-200 μM REEs could activate some of antioxidant enzymes, adjust some isozymes expression, trigger the defense responses of T. hemsleyanum suspension cells, and stimulate flavonoid accumulation by inducing PAL activity.

  11. Understanding triglyceride levels related to intravenous fat administration.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Lipid is an essential macronutrient in parenteral nutrition (PN) support. intravenous (IV) lipid provides essential fatty acids and a concentrated calorie source. Preterm infants are at risk for essential fatty deficiency early in life. Lipid administration is associated with some risks, and there are guidelines for administration to minimize complications. Lipid emulsions in the United States are derived from soybean oil. Outside of the United States, lipid emulsions made from fish oil or combinations of fish, soybean, olive, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are under investigation for improved tolerance, lower plasma lipid levels, and improved fatty acid profiles, all of which are considered beneficial. Triglyceride levels are an important measurement to assess patient tolerance.

  12. Relating indoor NO 2 levels to infant personal exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlos, David P.; Marbury, Marian; Samet, Jonathan; Spengler, John D.

    We report here the results of a field survey of personal nitrogen dioxide exposure (PNO 2) of infants and simultaneous indoor NO 2 levels from various points throughout the infants' homes. Personal nitrogen dioxide levels can be predicted by average room NO 2 concentrations when appropriately weighted by infant presence in the room. Bedroom NO 2 concentration alone presents an alternative predictor which is more suitable for use in large scale surveys. Because of the typical infant's peculiar time-location patterns, they receive most of their NO 2 exposures in bedrooms (65 %)and living rooms (32 %), while the kitchen (5 %) and outdoor environments (> 2%)contribute only a small fraction of daily exposure. Average NO 2 exposure during cooking periods can be predicted using passive samplers placed directly over stoves and hours of stove use time.

  13. Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

  14. Sex differences and hemoglobin levels in relation to stroke outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kimberly, W Taylor; Lima, Fabricio O; O'Connor, Sydney; Furie, Karen L

    2013-02-19

    Women have worse outcomes after stroke compared to men. Since women have lower hemoglobin values, we examined whether hemoglobin levels may associate with worse stroke outcomes in women. We retrospectively studied 274 patients enrolled in a prospective multicenter study. We explored the relationship of hemoglobin with clinical outcome at 6 months, as measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent effect of hemoglobin on clinical outcome, and to explore the influence of sex on that association. Women had a lower mean hemoglobin level (11.7 ± 1.8 g/dL) compared to men (13.3 ± 1.7 g/dL). Low hemoglobin was associated with worse 6-month mRS outcomes in univariate analysis (p < 0.001). Lower hemoglobin remained independently associated with poor outcome after adjustment for comorbid disease, stroke severity, age, and sex. The inclusion of hemoglobin in the model attenuated the independent effect of sex on outcome. Sex differences in stroke outcome are linked to lower hemoglobin level, which is more prevalent in women. Further examination of this potentially modifiable predictor is warranted.

  15. Concentrations and Distribution of Slag-Related Trace Elements and Mercury in Fine-Grained Beach and Bed Sediments of Lake Roosevelt, Washington, April-May 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Kahle, Sue C.; Ebbert, James C.; Josberger, Edward G.

    2003-01-01

    A series of studies have documented elevated concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc in the water, bed sediment, or fish of Lake Roosevelt and the upstream reach of the Columbia River. Elevated concentrations of some trace elements in this region are largely attributable to the transport of slag and metallurgical waste discharged into the Columbia River from a smelter in Canada. Although most recent studies have focused on contamination levels in water, bed sediment, and fish, there is growing concern in the region over the potential threat of airborne contaminants to human health. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of trace-element concentrations in the relatively shallow fine-grained sediment along the shore of Lake Roosevelt that is exposed annually during periods of reservoir drawdown. During each winter and spring, the water level of Lake Roosevelt is lowered as much as about 80 feet to provide space to capture high river flows from spring runoff, exposing vast expanses of lake-bottom sediment for a period of several months. Upon drying, these exposed areas provide an extremely large source for wind-blown dust. This study concluded that trace elements associated with slag and metallurgical waste are present in the fine-grained fraction (less than 63 micrometers) of bed sediments along the length of Lake Roosevelt, and as such, could be components of the airborne dust resulting from exposure, drying, and wind mobilization of the sediments exposed during the annual drawdowns of the reservoir. Trace-element concentrations in the surficial bed sediment varied, but the major components in slag?arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc?showed generally pronounced gradients of decreasing concentrations from near the International Border to the Grand Coulee Dam. The results of this study provide base-line information needed to plan and conduct air monitoring of trace

  16. Effects of selenium and tellurium on the activity of selenoenzymes glutathione peroxidase and type I iodothyronine deiodinase, trace element thyroid level, and thyroid hormone status in rats.

    PubMed

    Eybl, Vladislav; Kotyzová, Dana; Sýkora, Jindrich; Topolcan, Ondrej; Pikner, Richard; Mihaljevic, Martin; Brtko, Július; Glattre, Eystein

    2007-01-01

    Tellurium (Te) and selenium (Se) belong chemically to the VIa group of elements. Se represents an essential element closely related to thyroid function. Te has growing application in industrial processes. Little is known about the Te biological activity, particularly with respect to potential chemical interactions with Se-containing components in the organism. In this study, female Wistar rats (body weight: 115-120 g) received sodium selenite pentahydrate (10 mg/L) or sodium tellurite (9.4 mg/L) in drinking water for 6 wk. Additional groups of rats received their combination with zinc sulfate heptahydrate (515 mg/L). The stimulation of 5'-DI-I activity due to selenite (to 158%, p<0.01) or tellurite treatment (to 197%, p<0.01) was seen; however, no effect on glutathione peroxidase was demonstrated in this experiment. An elevation of T4, T3, and rT3 serum levels was measured in the Se+Te-treated group; T4 and rT3 levels were elevated in the Te+Zn-treated group. Te accumulates in the thyroid gland and influences the zinc thyroid level. Te treatment alone and in combination with Se or Zn decreased the iodine thyroid concentration to 65-70% of the control value. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature and effects of these events.

  17. Ameliorative Effects of Dietary Selenium Against Cadmium Toxicity Is Related to Changes in Trace Elements in Chicken Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runxiang; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Huo; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-04-01

    The ameliorative effects of selenium (Se) against cadmium (Cd)-induced toxicity have been reported extensively. However, few studies have assessed the effects of multiple ions simultaneously on the variations of elements. In this study, the changes in Se, Cd, and 26 other element concentrations were investigated in chicken kidneys. One hundred and twenty-eight 31-week-old laying hens were fed a diet supplemented with either Se, Cd, or both Se and Cd for 90 days. The ion content was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found that the Se, Cd, and combined Se and Cd treatments significantly affected the trace elements in the chicken kidneys. The Cd supplement caused ion profile disorders, including reduced concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Mo, As, Ba, Hg, Ti, and Pb and increased Si, Cu, Li, Cd, and Sb. The Se supplement reduced the contents of Co, Mo, and Pb and increased the contents of Cr, Fe, and Se. Moreover, Se also increased the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Zn, and Se and decreased those of Li and Pb, which in contrast were induced by Cd. Complex interactions between elements were analyzed, and both positive and negative correlations among these elements are presented. The present study indicated that Se can help against the negative effects of Cd and may be related to the homeostasis of the trace elements in chicken kidneys.

  18. Nano-level instrumentation for analyzing the dynamic accuracy of a rolling element bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.; Hong, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, M. Y.; Zhu, Y.

    2013-12-15

    The rotational performance of high-precision rolling bearings is fundamental to the overall accuracy of complex mechanical systems. A nano-level instrument to analyze rotational accuracy of high-precision bearings of machine tools under working conditions was developed. In this instrument, a high-precision (error motion < 0.15 μm) and high-stiffness (2600 N axial loading capacity) aerostatic spindle was applied to spin the test bearing. Operating conditions could be simulated effectively because of the large axial loading capacity. An air-cylinder, controlled by a proportional pressure regulator, was applied to drive an air-bearing subjected to non-contact and precise loaded axial forces. The measurement results on axial loading and rotation constraint with five remaining degrees of freedom were completely unconstrained and uninfluenced by the instrument's structure. Dual capacity displacement sensors with 10 nm resolution were applied to measure the error motion of the spindle using a double-probe error separation method. This enabled the separation of the spindle's error motion from the measurement results of the test bearing which were measured using two orthogonal laser displacement sensors with 5 nm resolution. Finally, a Lissajous figure was used to evaluate the non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the bearing at different axial forces and speeds. The measurement results at various axial loadings and speeds showed the standard deviations of the measurements’ repeatability and accuracy were less than 1% and 2%. Future studies will analyze the relationship between geometrical errors and NRRO, such as the ball diameter differences of and the geometrical errors in the grooves of rings.

  19. Nano-level instrumentation for analyzing the dynamic accuracy of a rolling element bearing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Hong, J; Zhang, J; Wang, M Y; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    The rotational performance of high-precision rolling bearings is fundamental to the overall accuracy of complex mechanical systems. A nano-level instrument to analyze rotational accuracy of high-precision bearings of machine tools under working conditions was developed. In this instrument, a high-precision (error motion < 0.15 μm) and high-stiffness (2600 N axial loading capacity) aerostatic spindle was applied to spin the test bearing. Operating conditions could be simulated effectively because of the large axial loading capacity. An air-cylinder, controlled by a proportional pressure regulator, was applied to drive an air-bearing subjected to non-contact and precise loaded axial forces. The measurement results on axial loading and rotation constraint with five remaining degrees of freedom were completely unconstrained and uninfluenced by the instrument's structure. Dual capacity displacement sensors with 10 nm resolution were applied to measure the error motion of the spindle using a double-probe error separation method. This enabled the separation of the spindle's error motion from the measurement results of the test bearing which were measured using two orthogonal laser displacement sensors with 5 nm resolution. Finally, a Lissajous figure was used to evaluate the non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the bearing at different axial forces and speeds. The measurement results at various axial loadings and speeds showed the standard deviations of the measurements' repeatability and accuracy were less than 1% and 2%. Future studies will analyze the relationship between geometrical errors and NRRO, such as the ball diameter differences of and the geometrical errors in the grooves of rings.

  20. Nano-level instrumentation for analyzing the dynamic accuracy of a rolling element bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Hong, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, M. Y.; Zhu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The rotational performance of high-precision rolling bearings is fundamental to the overall accuracy of complex mechanical systems. A nano-level instrument to analyze rotational accuracy of high-precision bearings of machine tools under working conditions was developed. In this instrument, a high-precision (error motion < 0.15 μm) and high-stiffness (2600 N axial loading capacity) aerostatic spindle was applied to spin the test bearing. Operating conditions could be simulated effectively because of the large axial loading capacity. An air-cylinder, controlled by a proportional pressure regulator, was applied to drive an air-bearing subjected to non-contact and precise loaded axial forces. The measurement results on axial loading and rotation constraint with five remaining degrees of freedom were completely unconstrained and uninfluenced by the instrument's structure. Dual capacity displacement sensors with 10 nm resolution were applied to measure the error motion of the spindle using a double-probe error separation method. This enabled the separation of the spindle's error motion from the measurement results of the test bearing which were measured using two orthogonal laser displacement sensors with 5 nm resolution. Finally, a Lissajous figure was used to evaluate the non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the bearing at different axial forces and speeds. The measurement results at various axial loadings and speeds showed the standard deviations of the measurements' repeatability and accuracy were less than 1% and 2%. Future studies will analyze the relationship between geometrical errors and NRRO, such as the ball diameter differences of and the geometrical errors in the grooves of rings.

  1. The effects of zinc treatment on the blood-brain barrier permeability and brain element levels during convulsions.

    PubMed

    Yorulmaz, Hatice; Seker, Fatma Burcu; Demir, Göksel; Yalçın, Ibrahim Ertuğrul; Oztaş, Baria

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of zinc treatment on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the levels of zinc (Zn), natrium (Na), magnesium (Mg), and copper (Cu) in the brain tissue during epileptic seizures. The Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups, each as follows: (1) control group, (2) pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) group: rats treated with PTZ to induce seizures, (3) Zn group: rats treated with ZnCl(2) added to drinking water for 2 months, and (4) Zn + PTZ group. The brains were divided into left, right hemispheres, and cerebellum + brain stem regions. Evans blue was used as BBB tracer. Element concentrations were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The BBB permeability has been found to be increased in all experimental groups (p < 0.05). Zn concentrations in all brain regions in Zn-supplemented groups (p < 0.05) showed an increase. BBB permeability and Zn level in cerebellum + brain stem region were significantly high compared to cerebral hemispheres (p < 0.05). In all experimental groups, Cu concentration decreased, whereas Na concentrations showed an increase (p < 0.05). Mg content in all the brain regions decreased in the Zn group and Zn + PTZ groups compared to other groups (p < 0.001). We also found that all elements' levels showed hemispheric differences in all groups. During convulsions, Zn treatment did not show any protective effect on BBB permeability. Chronic Zn treatment decreased Mg and Cu concentration and increased Na levels in the brain tissue. Our results indicated that Zn treatment showed proconvulsant activity and increased BBB permeability, possibly changing prooxidant/antioxidant balance and neuronal excitability during seizures.

  2. A multi-element profile of housedust in relation to exterior dust and soils in the city of Ottawa, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, P E; Subramanian, K S; Jessiman, B J

    2001-02-21

    This paper presents multi-element profiles of indoor dust versus exterior soils and dusts from 50 residences located in 10 neighborhoods across Ottawa, the capital city of Canada. Mercury concentrations were determined using nitric-sulphuric acid digestion and cold vapor AAS. Concentrations of 31 other elements were determined using nitric-hydrofluoric acid digestion and ICP-MS. Comparisons of household dust, garden soil and street dust at the individual residence scale and at the community scale were based on a consistent 100-250-microm particle size fraction. Results showed housedust samples to contain significantly higher concentrations of many key elements, including lead, cadmium, antimony and mercury, than either street dust or garden soil samples. Also, housedust profiles revealed a distinct multi-element signature in relation to exterior dust and soil samples. Interestingly, garden soil contained higher concentrations of aluminum, barium and thallium than either house or street dust. Geometric mean concentrations (mg/kg) of these elements in household dust/garden soil were: lead 233/42; cadmium 4.42/0.27; antimony 5.54/0.25; mercury 1.728/0.055; aluminum 24281/55677; barium 454/763; and thallium 0.14/0.29. Street dust contained lower geometric mean concentrations than garden soil for 23 out of a total of 32 elements. In general, indoor/outdoor concentration ratios varied widely from one element to another, and from one residence to another within the community. In the case of Ottawa, which is a city with a low concentration of heavy industries, it would be difficult-to-impossible to accurately predict indoor dust concentrations based on exterior soil data. It is concluded that dust generated from sources within the house itself can contribute significantly to exposures to certain elements, such as lead, cadmium, antimony and mercury.

  3. A study on nighttime-daytime PM10 concentration and elemental composition in relation to atmospheric dispersion in the urban area of Milan (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, R.; Marcazzan, G.; Valli, G.

    In this paper, results on a PM10 daytime-nighttime measurement campaign carried out in Milan to study the evolution of PM10 concentration and composition in relation to atmospheric dispersion conditions are shown. To account for the evolution of atmospheric dispersion conditions, Radon hourly concentration measurements were performed. The significant correlation between PM10 and 222Rn daytime concentrations evidences the dominant role of atmospheric dispersion in determining the temporal variation of PM10 levels. Whenever 222Rn concentrations accumulate during the night (indicating the formation of nocturnal atmospheric stability conditions), PM10 concentrations are higher than those registered during the daytime before, despite a decrease in emissions from active sources. On the contrary, when 222Rn concentrations do not accumulate during night hours, PM10 levels are lower than those measured during the daytime before. As concerns the average elemental concentrations (in ng m -3), the nighttime-daytime variations are in the range -17% to +37%; during the night, soil-related elements (Al, Si, Ca, Ti) decrease while anthropogenic elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb) increase. A case study concerning a 'green' Sunday (when traffic was forbidden from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) is also discussed. The difference of PM10 concentration and elemental composition registered during the 'green' Sunday daytime and the following nighttime, together with the information on atmospheric dilution power obtained by Radon measurements, allowed the characterisation of the traffic source elemental profile and increased the comprehension of the low effectiveness of some PM10 reduction strategies.

  4. Finite element analysis of masticatory stress on neoformed bone tissue after distraction osteogenesis and low-level laser therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Freddo, Angelo Luiz; Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; de Castro, Victor Velho; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; de Almeida, Alexandre Simões; de Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to understand the action of masticatory forces on an implant virtually introduced into the sheep mandible after distraction osteogenesis and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by using finite element analysis. Distraction osteogenesis as an alternative for bone reconstruction that may be used in the treatment of deformities. Four ewes underwent distraction osteogenis to elongate the left mandibular body by 15 m, and three of them underwent LLLT with the purpose of improving bone properties. After death, animals were scanned by computed tomography and their mandibles were tridimensionally reconstructed by computer programs. The physical properties related to hardness and modulus of elasticity of each animal were obtained from the dissected mandibles, and data were transferred to Femap software for finite element analysis. Animals exposed and not exposed to LLLT irradiation showed remarkably similar values for superficial hardness and modulus of elasticity, without statistically significant difference (p>0.05), between the values observed for the cortical bone and the cancellous bone among the groups. The neoformed mandible, after a brief period for bone healing, was able to promote stability for implant placement and proper distribution of masticatory forces. An implant introduced virtually into the site of bone neoformation did not suffer any micromotions relevant to osteointegration. Furthermore, finite element analysis showed that the neoformed portion of the mandible was able to absorb and distribute masticatory forces throughout its structure, even after a brief period for bone maturation.

  5. Neutral theory predicts the relative abundance and diversity of genetic elements in a broad array of eukaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Serra, François; Becher, Verónica; Dopazo, Hernán

    2013-01-01

    It is universally true in ecological communities, terrestrial or aquatic, temperate or tropical, that some species are very abundant, others are moderately common, and the majority are rare. Likewise, eukaryotic genomes also contain classes or "species" of genetic elements that vary greatly in abundance: DNA transposons, retrotransposons, satellite sequences, simple repeats and their less abundant functional sequences such as RNA or genes. Are the patterns of relative species abundance and diversity similar among ecological communities and genomes? Previous dynamical models of genomic diversity have focused on the selective forces shaping the abundance and diversity of transposable elements (TEs). However, ideally, models of genome dynamics should consider not only TEs, but also the diversity of all genetic classes or "species" populating eukaryotic genomes. Here, in an analysis of the diversity and abundance of genetic elements in >500 eukaryotic chromosomes, we show that the patterns are consistent with a neutral hypothesis of genome assembly in virtually all chromosomes tested. The distributions of relative abundance of genetic elements are quite precisely predicted by the dynamics of an ecological model for which the principle of functional equivalence is the main assumption. We hypothesize that at large temporal scales an overarching neutral or nearly neutral process governs the evolution of abundance and diversity of genetic elements in eukaryotic genomes.

  6. Neutral Theory Predicts the Relative Abundance and Diversity of Genetic Elements in a Broad Array of Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Serra, François; Becher, Verónica; Dopazo, Hernán

    2013-01-01

    It is universally true in ecological communities, terrestrial or aquatic, temperate or tropical, that some species are very abundant, others are moderately common, and the majority are rare. Likewise, eukaryotic genomes also contain classes or “species” of genetic elements that vary greatly in abundance: DNA transposons, retrotransposons, satellite sequences, simple repeats and their less abundant functional sequences such as RNA or genes. Are the patterns of relative species abundance and diversity similar among ecological communities and genomes? Previous dynamical models of genomic diversity have focused on the selective forces shaping the abundance and diversity of transposable elements (TEs). However, ideally, models of genome dynamics should consider not only TEs, but also the diversity of all genetic classes or “species” populating eukaryotic genomes. Here, in an analysis of the diversity and abundance of genetic elements in >500 eukaryotic chromosomes, we show that the patterns are consistent with a neutral hypothesis of genome assembly in virtually all chromosomes tested. The distributions of relative abundance of genetic elements are quite precisely predicted by the dynamics of an ecological model for which the principle of functional equivalence is the main assumption. We hypothesize that at large temporal scales an overarching neutral or nearly neutral process governs the evolution of abundance and diversity of genetic elements in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:23798991

  7. Midden sites in relation to sea level and paleoecology

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbridge, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Midden shell mounds consisting mainly of shallow marine, estuarine and lagoonal molluscan species are known from the coasts of every continent (except for Antarctica). While principally mid- to late Holocene in age, they date back to late Pleistocene in some glacioisostatic uplift areas (Scandinavia) and even the last interglacial at about 125,000 BP (Southern Africa). Inasmuch as the camp sites would normally be located immediately adjacent to the best shellfish collecting areas, they constitute useful shoreline indicators. Large, complex mounds disclose horizons showing temporary inundation and short-term abandonment. Occupation dates match independent chronologies of sea-level change. Analysis of shell species permits estimation of paleosalinity and paleotemperature, as well as assisting appraisal of general paleoecological setting. It is speculated that an abrupt change in trend of the Flandrian sea-level rise at about 6000 BP (C-14) stabilized the development of large lagoons and estuaries, particularly favorable sites for safe shellfish gathering. Prior to that the frequent and very rapid transgressions created repeatedly displaced (drowned) habitats. Since then man has been able to occupy semi-stable coastal sites, thus contributing to the world-wide post-Neolithic shift away from nomadic economy and towards village way of life.

  8. Trace Element Levels in Scalp Hair of School Children in Shigatse, Tibet, an Endemic Area for Kaschin-Beck Disease (KBD).

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya'nan; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wei, Binggan; Wang, Wuyi; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing

    2017-03-10

    Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic osteoarthritis, and the etiology is closely related with levels of trace elements in the human body. Currently, it is clear that the selenium (Se) status of children in KBD areas is lower than that in non-KBD areas in the Tibetan Plateau, whereas role of other elements are yet unknown. This study aimed to assess some essential trace elements (Se, Mo, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Co, and Sr) in children using scalp hair as a biomarker, and 157 samples from school children aged 8-14 years old were collected from both KBD and non-KBD areas in Shigatse, Tibet. Se and Mo were measured by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the other elements were determined by inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Compared with the non-KBD areas, Se, Mo, Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, and Sr levels of children in KBD areas were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05); while in linear discriminant analysis, only Se and Zn were found to contribute to the KBD prevalence in the study area. The hair Se level of children in KBD areas ranged from 0.115 to 0.299 mg/kg, while in non-KBD areas it ranged from 0.135 to 0.519 mg/kg. The Zn content of children's hair was between 83 and 207 mg/kg in KBD areas, while it was 37 and 219 mg/kg in non-KBD areas. Lower Se and higher Zn levels in children in KBD areas was found when compared with non-KBD groups. In addition, Mo levels were found to be different between KBD areas and non-KBD areas on the opposite side of the Yarlung Zangbo River, but no close relationship was shown because there was no difference compared with the non-KBD area on the same side of the river. Our observations suggest that Se deficiency is still an important factor for the occurrence and prevalence of KBD, while the relationship between Zn and KBD needs to be further explored in the Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  10. SXT-related integrating conjugative element and IncC plasmids in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains in Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, N; Maimone, F; Scrascia, M; Materu, S F; Pazzani, Carlo

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of resistance patterns and associated mobile genetic elements in epidemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated from Eastern Africa in the late 1990s. Self-transmissible genetic elements and associated clusters of genes encoding resistance were detected by conjugation experiments. Detection of SXT-related integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) and associated antibiotic resistance genes was performed by PCR to amplify the SXT element-integrase gene (int), right SXT element-chromosome junction (attP-prfC) and genes conferring resistance to chloramphenicol (floR), sulfamethoxazole (sulII), streptomycin (strA) and trimethoprim (dfrA1). Genomic relatedness was established by random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. Of 224 strains analysed, 200 isolates exhibited resistance to four or more antimicrobials. An IncC plasmid, encoding resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, conferred multidrug resistance to 113 strains isolated from Somalia and Ethiopia, whereas an SXT-related ICE, encoding resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, conferred multidrug resistance to 74 strains isolated from Sudan, Kenya and Tanzania. This study has shown the spread of SXT-related ICEs among V. cholerae O1 African isolates. It has also highlighted the role of two distinct genetic elements in conferring multiple resistance to the two distinct groups of V. cholerae O1 strains that, in the late 1990s, spread through Eastern Africa, a critical geographic region for the persistence and transmission of cholera to the entire continent.

  11. Generalized Finite Element Methods: Their Performance and Their Relation to Mixed Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    internal modes or a bubble space and is charac- terized in various ways, e.g., by function values at r - 1 in- terior points of each I. or by values of the... Szymczak , An Error Analysis for the Finite Element Method Applied to Convection-Diffusion Problems. To appear in Computer Methods in Appl. Math. Eng. [4

  12. Aristotelian Elements in Nietzsche's Work Related to the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantari, Sotiria A.

    2011-01-01

    In the author's opinion Nietzsche has adopted the three Aristotelian factors, i.e., logic, learning and experience, showing the nihilistic element in the educational system of his days. By means of the term "formal education", Nietzsche implies the education comprises the development of the intellectual faculties of the learner. According to…

  13. A new fate for old cells: brush cells and related elements

    PubMed Central

    Sbarbati, A; Osculati, F

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, hundreds of studies have described those cells that are characterized by a brush of rigid apical microvilli with long rootlets, and which are found in the digestive and respiratory apparatuses. These cells have been given names such as brush cells, tuft cells, fibrillovesicular cells, multivesicular cells and caveolated cells. More recently, it has been realized that all these elements may represent a single cell type, probably with a chemosensory role, even if other functions (e.g. secretory or absorptive) seem to be possible. Very recent developments have permitted a partial definition of the chemical code characterizing these elements, revealing the presence of molecules involved in chemoreceptorial cell signalling. A molecular cascade, similar to those characterizing the gustatory epithelium, seems to be present in these elements. These new data suggest that these elements can be considered solitary chemosensory cells with the presence of the apical ‘brush’ as an inconsistent feature. They seem to comprise a diffuse chemosensory system that covers large areas (probably the whole digestive and respiratory apparatuses) with analogies to chemosensory systems described in aquatic vertebrates. PMID:15817103

  14. The Importance of Interior Design Elements as They Relate to Student Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, C. Kenneth; Langford, Ann

    This study investigated the following questions: (1) "What are the perceptions that elementary school principals have concerning the influence of interior design elements such as floor and wall coverings, lighting, flexibility, acoustics, color, texture, patterns, cleanliness, and maintenance on student achievement, teacher retention, and student…

  15. A Numerical Investigation of the influence of Yarn-Level Finite-Element Model on Energy Absorption by a Flexible Fabric Armour During Ballistic Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    259 A numerical investigation of the influence of yarn-level finite-element model on energy absorption by a flexible-fabric armour during ballistic...two different yarn models : (a) a solid FEM model in which the warp and weft yarns are repre- sented using first-order three-dimensional solid elements...and (b) a membrane model in which the same yarns are represented using second-order membrane elements. The analyses are car- ried out under different

  16. Mass balance of trace elements in Walker branch watershed: relation to coal-fired steam plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, S E; Andren, A W; Raridon, R J; Fulkerson, W

    1975-01-01

    A mass balance study of trace element flows at the TVA Allen Steam Plant at Memphis showed that most of the released Hg, some Se, and probably most Cl and Br are discharged to the atmosphere as gases. The elements As, Cd, Cu, Ga, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn were concentrated in fly ash compared to slag and were more concentrated in the ash discharged through the stack than in that collected by the precipitator, while Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, and Ti showed little preferential partitioning between the slag and the collected or discharged fly ash. The elements Cr, Cs, Na, Ni, U, and V exhibited behavior intermediate between the latter two groups. This information about stack emissions of trace elements from the Allen Plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and input (dry and wet deposition) to the Walker Branch Watershed. The watershed, which is on the ERDA reservation at Oak Ridge, is within 20 km of three coal-fired steam plants, two in the TVA system and one belonging to ERDA. The estimated input values are compared to measurements of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in wet precipitation falling on the watershed during 1973 and 1974. Dry deposition of these elements could not be measured directly but estimates indicated that this could be of the same order of magnitude as the rainwater input. A six-month mass balance indicated that the watershed efficiently retains Pb (97-98% of the atmospheric input,) Cu (82-84%), while Cr (69%), Mn (57%), Zn (73%), and Hg (69%) are less well retained. Images FIGURE 3. PMID:1227866

  17. Sex-related levels of selenium, heavy metals, and organochlorine compounds in American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhyncos).

    PubMed

    Donaldson, G M; Braune, B M

    1999-07-01

    Liver tissue from male and female adult American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhyncos) were individually analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Levels of most organochlorines, specifically SigmaDDT, SigmaPCB, Sigmachlordane, Sigmamirex, dieldrin, and SigmaCBz, were significantly higher in male pelicans compared to females. Only concentrations of SigmaHCH were not significantly different between sexes. Male livers also contained higher concentrations of mercury, cadmium, and arsenic compared to females. Selenium concentrations were not different between sexes, and lead was not detected in any of the samples. Differences in residue levels between sexes were probably due to the female's ability to excrete organochlorines and some trace elements into the egg prior to laying. In addition, differences in contaminant concentrations in prey available to these birds on their breeding grounds and their wintering areas may be influencing sex-related differences.

  18. Abasy Atlas: a comprehensive inventory of systems, global network properties and systems-level elements across bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Arellano, Miguel A.; Campos-González, Adrián I.; Treviño-Quintanilla, Luis G.; Tauch, Andreas; Freyre-González, Julio A.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of databases electronically encoding curated regulatory networks and of high-throughput technologies and methods to discover regulatory interactions provides an invaluable source of data to understand the principles underpinning the organization and evolution of these networks responsible for cellular regulation. Nevertheless, data on these sources never goes beyond the regulon level despite the fact that regulatory networks are complex hierarchical-modular structures still challenging our understanding. This brings the necessity for an inventory of systems across a large range of organisms, a key step to rendering feasible comparative systems biology approaches. In this work, we take the first step towards a global understanding of the regulatory networks organization by making a cartography of the functional architectures of diverse bacteria. Abasy (Across-bacteria systems) Atlas provides a comprehensive inventory of annotated functional systems, global network properties and systems-level elements (global regulators, modular genes shaping functional systems, basal machinery genes and intermodular genes) predicted by the natural decomposition approach for reconstructed and meta-curated regulatory networks across a large range of bacteria, including pathogenically and biotechnologically relevant organisms. The meta-curation of regulatory datasets provides the most complete and reliable set of regulatory interactions currently available, which can even be projected into subsets by considering the force or weight of evidence supporting them or the systems that they belong to. Besides, Abasy Atlas provides data enabling large-scale comparative systems biology studies aimed at understanding the common principles and particular lifestyle adaptions of systems across bacteria. Abasy Atlas contains systems and system-level elements for 50 regulatory networks comprising 78 649 regulatory interactions covering 42 bacteria in nine taxa, containing 3708

  19. Level of contamination by metallic trace elements and organic molecules in the seagrass beds of Guadeloupe Island.

    PubMed

    Bouchon, Claude; Lemoine, Soazig; Dromard, Charlotte; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass bed ecosystems occupy the most important part of coastal shelf in the French West Indies. They also constitute nurseries for many invertebrates and fishes harvested by local fisheries. In Guadeloupe, coastal fish stocks are declining meanwhile several agroecosystems revealed to be heavily contaminated by pollutants (agricultural lands, rivers, mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs). Considering these facts, a study of the contamination of seagrass beds (8000 ha) of the Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin (GCSM) bay was conducted on their sediments and marine phanerogams. The analyses concerned six metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, V, Zn), tributyltin, 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 38 polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dithiocarbamates (CS2 residues), and 225 pesticide molecules.Overall, the level of contamination of the seagrass beds was low for both sediments and phanerogams. Metallic trace elements were the main pollutants but with higher concentrations recorded in coastal sites, and their distribution can be explained by the proximity of river mouths and current patterns. The level of contamination was lower in plants than in sediments. However, the level of contamination between these two compartments was significantly correlated. The conclusion of this study is that, unlike other coastal ecosystems of Guadeloupe such as mangroves, the seagrass beds in the GCSM present a low degree of pollution. The observed level of contaminants does not seem to threaten the role of nursery played by the seagrass beds and does not likely present a risk for the reintroduction of manatees.

  20. Mercury, arsenic and selenium exposure levels in relation to fish consumption in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Miklavčič, Ana; Casetta, Anica; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Mazej, Darja; Krsnik, Mladen; Mariuz, Marika; Sofianou, Katia; Spirić, Zdravko; Barbone, Fabio; Horvat, Milena

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) exposure in the Mediterranean area, total mercury (THg), monomethylmercury (MeHg), Se and As levels were measured in umbilical cord blood and breast milk from Italian (n=900), Slovenian (n=584), Croatian (n=234) and Greek (n=484) women. THg, MeHg, As, and Se levels were also determined in blood samples of the same mothers from Italy and Croatia. In addition, THg and MeHg were determined in the same women's hair from all the countries involved in this study and As and Se levels were determined in the mother's urine samples from Italy, Croatia and Greece. Besides recording the consumption of other food items, the frequencies of fish consumption were assessed by detailed food frequency questionnaires, since fish represents an important source of Hg, Se and As in humans. The highest levels of THg and As were found in cord blood (Med((THg))=5.8 ng/g; Med((As))=3.3 ng/g) and breast milk (Med((THg))=0.6 ng/g; Med((As))=0.8 ng/g) from Greek women, while the highest Se levels were found in cord blood (Med=113 ng/g) from Italy. Significant linear correlations were found between Hg, Se and As in blood, cord blood and breast milk. In addition, significant relations were found between the frequencies of total fish consumption and biomarkers of As, MeHg and Se exposure, with the strongest Spearman rank coefficients between frequencies of total fish consumption and THg levels in cord blood (r(s)=0.442, p<0.001) or THg levels in hair (r(s)=0.421, p<0.001), and between frequencies of total fish consumption and As levels in cord blood (r(s)=0.350, p<0.001). The differences in Hg and As exposure between countries were probably due to different amounts of fish consumption and the consumption of different species of fish of different origin, while the highest Se levels in women from Italy were probably the consequence of the more frequent consumption of different non specific food items. Moreover, fish consumption, the

  1. Expert decision making in relation to unanticipated blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Paterson, B; Thorne, S

    2000-04-01

    How people (N = 22) with long-standing Type I diabetes make everyday self-care decisions, specifically in regard to unanticipated blood glucose levels (UBGLs) was investigated using grounded theory. Participants differentiated between decisions made in familiar and typical situations and those made in novel situations. Decisions made in familiar situations were straightforward, arising from a confident appraisal of the cause of the UBGL. The primary focus of decision making in response to an UBGL in familiar situations was the decision about the course of action. The focus in unfamiliar situations was the appraisal of the cause of the UBGL. It was characterized by the participants' lack of confidence and by a non-linear progression in which the individual retraced previous phases of the decision-making process or proceeded to tangential steps. Participants matched the features of previously encountered situations to construct a story that explained the events in order to generate some plausible hypotheses. A number of contextual and mediating variables were identified as influencing the decision-making process and the decisions they made. The findings of this research demonstrate that the decision maker's familiarity with the situation influences the nature of the decision-making processes that are used.

  2. Heavy metal and trace element distributions in groundwater in natural slopes and highly urbanized spaces in Mid-Levels area, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chi-Man; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2006-02-01

    The lower slope of the Mid-Levels area, Hong Kong, is one the most heavily urbanized coastal areas in the world. A comprehensive groundwater heavy metal and trace element study was conducted in the Mid-Levels area aiming to investigate the impacts of urbanization on the aqueous distributions of these chemicals. Groundwater samples were collected in the upper natural slopes and the lower highly urbanized spaces in the area in different seasons, and analyzed for heavy metal and trace element contents. Compared to the results from natural slopes, groundwater samples in the developed spaces did not exhibit significant elevated levels in Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe, which are commonly found in stormwater. On the other hand, the samples were found to have elevated contents in Mn, V, Co and Mo, minor stormwater-related heavy metals, suggesting that stormwater drains may be leaking to some extent. However, the results suggested that the vadose zone could remove many of the heavy metals, protecting groundwater from being contaminated seriously. Statistical analysis suggested that a certain amount of Mn and Co was likely to be re-mobilized from natural soils due to the changes in local redox conditions, while Mn, V, Co and Mo may also be derived from steel corrosion as a result of prolonged submergence. Besides, the average B concentration in the developed spaces was about eight times higher than that in the natural slopes, indicating the presence of sewage. The mean Se concentration in the developed spaces was about 100 times higher than that in the natural slopes. About 40% of samples in the developed spaces contained Se level higher than the drinking water guideline value proposed by the World Health Organization. Se was found to be positively correlated with B and SO4(2-) (R = 0.534 and 0.631, respectively), suggesting that Se may also be related to leakage from sewage pipes. Part of the Sr may come from leakage of flushing water and/or sewage as Sr was strongly correlated

  3. Organic complexant-enhanced mobility of toxic elements in low-level wastes. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.L.

    1984-06-01

    The results obtained during the third quarter's activities of a project whose objective is to determine how and to what extent organic complexants affect the mobility of toxic elements in subsurface groundwaters at commercial low-level waste disposal sites are described. This project will study nonradioactive toxic elements as well as elements having radioactive isotopes of importance (e.g. /sup 63/Ni, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am). Organic complexants used in the nuclear industry are being emphasized, but others are being examined. Generic soil components (e.g. hydrous oxides, silica, clays) are being used so that the results will be broadly applicable. Substantiation of the previously indicated sorption of a Pu(IV)-EDTA complex by hydrous ferric oxide (Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/.xH/sub 2/O) was obtained by comparing the sorption of EDTA in the presence and absence of Pu. Additional data on the sorption of a Ni-EDTA complex by Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/.xH/sub 2/O were also obtained. Preliminary Ni sorption data were obtained with other complexants (picolinic acid and citric acid), and another generic soil component (TiO/sub 2/). Sorption of a Ni-EDTA complex by an anion exchange resin was observed. Complexed species are thus likely to be present in the resin wastes from certain reactor decontamination solution clean-up operations. An experimental problem that caused some erroneous results for uncomplexed Ni was discovered and corrected. The filters being used to assure good separation of solid and liquid phases were removing Ni from solution, which skewed some earlier results. 11 references, 13 figures, 2 tables.

  4. A comparative study of hepatic trace element levels in wild moose, roe deer, and reindeer from Norway.

    PubMed

    Vikoren, Turid; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Lierhagen, Syverin; Handeland, Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Liver samples from 422 wild moose (Alces alces), 280 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and 73 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) collected by hunters in various localities in Norway, 2002-2003, were analyzed for the essential trace elements cobalt, copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum, selenium (Se), and zinc. Significant differences in hepatic concentrations among species were found for all elements except for Mn, and considerable individual and geographic variations were seen. Roe deer had statistically significant lower Se levels (median: 0.51 μg Se/g dry weight) than did moose (0.77 μg Se/g) and reindeer (0.85 μg Se/g). Moose from two coastal municipalities with high precipitation had considerably higher Se concentrations than those from the other localities studied. Seventy-nine roe deer (28%) and 36 moose (9%) had Se concentrations below that regarded as deficient in domestic ruminants. The Se status in roe deer was lower than previously reported in Europe. Moose had a significantly higher Cu (222 μg Cu/g dw) than did roe deer (112 μg Cu/g) and reindeer (105 μg Cu/g). The Cu status of moose and roe deer in Norway are among the highest reported in Europe. However, a suboptimal Se and Cu status was found in moose from Tvedestrand, a population which has suffered from a reduced condition and productivity. The variability in trace element status among hunted cervids, with no apparent signs of deficiency or toxicity, probably reflects adaptations in these wild ruminant species to cope with this. However, subtle clinical signs and lesions are difficult to detect and further research is needed.

  5. Salivary trace elements in relation to dental caries in a group of multi-ethnic schoolchildren in Shah Alam, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hussein, A S; Ghasheer, H F; Ramli, N M; Schroth, R J; Abu-Hassan, M I

    2013-06-01

    To assess the salivary levels of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe) obtained from children of different ethnic backgrounds in Shah Alam, Malaysia and investigate the possible relationships with caries. One hundred and twenty primary school children were included. They were divided into caries and caries-free groups. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant using spitting method. The salivary elements were measured using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and Pearson's correlation analysis were performed. Salivary Cu and Zn levels were significantly higher in children with dental caries compared to those caries-free (p < 0.05). Moreover, these elements had a positive correlation with dental caries (Cu: r=0.698, p<0.001; Zn: r=0.181, p<0.05). No significant variations in Mn and Fe were observed between caries and caries-free group (p>0.05). Additionally, there were significant differences in salivary Zn and Fe among different age groups (p<0.05) and highly significant differences in salivary Cu, Mn and Fe among different ethnic groups (p<0.001). However, all elements exhibited no significant differences between males and females. The salivary Cu and Zn levels showed significant differences between caries and caries-free groups. The findings also revealed significant variations in the levels of salivary Cu, Mn and Fe among different ethnic groups and salivary Zn and Fe among different age groups.

  6. Age-related differences and relationships between elements in human amygdala and other limbic system or basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Tohno, Setsuko; Azuma, Cho; Ongkana, Nutcharin; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Minami, Takeshi; Suwannahoy, Patipath; Viwatpinyo, Kittikun; Ke, Lining

    2013-05-01

    To elucidate the compositional changes of the amygdala with aging, the authors investigated age-related differences of elements in human amygdalae. In addition, the relationships between the amygdala and other brain regions were investigated from a viewpoint of elements. After ordinary dissections at Nara Medical University were finished, the amygdalae were removed from the cerebra of the subjects who consisted of 22 men and 23 women, ranging in age from 70 to 101 years. In addition, the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, mammillary body of the limbic system and the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus of the basal ganglia were also removed from the identical cerebra. After the brain samples were incinerated with nitric acid and perchloric acid, the element contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. It was found that both the Ca and Mg contents increased significantly in the amygdalae with aging, but the other five element contents (P, S, Zn, Fe, and Na) did not change significantly in the amygdalae with aging. Regarding the relationships among elements, very significant or significant direct correlations were found among the Ca, P, and Mg contents in the amygdalae. To explore the relationships between the amygdala and either other limbic system or basal ganglia, the correlations between seven elements of the amygdala and hippocampus, dentate gyrus, or mammillary body, and between those of the amygdala and caudate nucleus, putamen, or globus pallidus which derived from the identical cerebra, were analyzed with Pearson's correlation. It was found that regarding the four elements of Ca, P, Mg, and Fe, a close relationship existed between the amygdala and hippocampus, globus pallidus, or mammillary body.

  7. Relations of biomotor structures and performance of technical elements of alpine skiing in Croatian ski instructors.

    PubMed

    Males, Boris; Franjko, Ivica; Kuna, Danijela

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of identifying the factors of alpine skiers' biomotor status in predicting their specific skills, three variable sets were used, comprised of the total of 24 measures (9 variables for assessing anthropometric characteristics, 8 variables for assessing motor abilities and 7 variables for assessing specific ski skills of alpine skiing), on a sample of 79 ski instructor candidates. After preliminary analysis procedures which included descriptive operations and factorization of each separate space, relations between the obtained latent dimensions were established by correlation analysis. The extracted varimax factors were defined as follows - three factors in the morphology space: V1 - Voluminosity and transverse dimensionality of the skeleton, V2 - Longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton, V3 - Subcutaneous fat tissue; 2 factors in the space of motor abilities: V1 - Agility and explosive power, V2 - Static strength and balance; while a general factor of Specific motor skills of alpine skiing was isolated in the space of motor skills. Statistically significant positive correlation was found between agility and explosive power and general factor of skiing skills, which means that agility and explosive power are the basis for quality performance of advanced and cbmpetitive techniques in alpine skiing. Namely, in realization of advanced and competitive techniques of alpine skiing, which imply a high level of skiing skills acquisition and full automatization of performance, all actions are performed by fast and explosive movement direction changes.

  8. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mendil, Durali; Uluözlü, Ozgür Dogan; Tüzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-06-15

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 microg/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 microg/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively.

  9. REDOX state analysis of platinoid elements in simulated high-level radioactive waste glass by synchrotron radiation based EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Nakada, Masami; Komamine, Satoshi; Ochi, Eiji; Akabori, Mitsuo

    2016-04-01

    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analyses were performed to evaluate REDOX (REDuction and OXidation) state of platinoid elements in simulated high-level nuclear waste glass samples prepared under different conditions of temperature and atmosphere. At first, EXAFS functions were compared with those of standard materials such as RuO2. Then structural parameters were obtained from a curve fitting analysis. In addition, a fitting analysis used a linear combination of the two standard EXAFS functions of a given elements metal and oxide was applied to determine ratio of metal/oxide in the simulated glass. The redox state of Ru was successfully evaluated from the linear combination fitting results of EXAFS functions. The ratio of metal increased at more reducing atmosphere and at higher temperatures. Chemical form of rhodium oxide in the simulated glass samples was RhO2 unlike expected Rh2O3. It can be estimated rhodium behaves according with ruthenium when the chemical form is oxide.

  10. Elemental bioimaging of tissue level trace metal distributions in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) from a mining area in China.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Priyanka; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Wu, Fengchang; Fu, Zhiyou; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Rice is a staple food and major source of nutrients, but it also bioaccumulates toxic elements. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine tissue-level trace metal spatial distribution in rice (Oryza sativa) seeds from the active Xikuangshan Sb mine area in China. Whole grain quantified elemental bioimages showed the highest concentration of Zn (1755 mg/kg) in the embryo andmicro zones of elevated Sb, As, Pb, Cd as high as 280, 57, 31 and 830 mg/kg, respectively on the husk/bran/endosperm tissues. Bioimages suggest that both Sb and Cd may be competing with Zn for binding sites. Both Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were detected in seeds from upstream and downstream fields indicating the presence of toxic Sb(III). Brown rice is a good source of Zn, but white rice is a safer option if rice is grown in a polluted area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for the Prediction of Trace Element (Fe and Zn) Levels in Rice Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Two sensitive wavelength (SW) selection methods combined with visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy were investigated to determine the levels of some trace elements (Fe, Zn) in rice leaf. A total of 90 samples were prepared for the calibration (n = 70) and validation (n = 20) sets. Calibration models using SWs selected by LVA and ICA were developed and nonlinear regression of a least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) was built. In the nonlinear models, six SWs selected by ICA can provide the optimal ICA-LS-SVM model when compared with LV-LS-SVM. The coefficients of determination (R2), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias by ICA-LS-SVM were 0.6189, 20.6510 ppm and −12.1549 ppm, respectively, for Fe, and 0.6731, 5.5919 ppm and 1.5232 ppm, respectively, for Zn. The overall results indicated that ICA was a powerful way for the selection of SWs, and Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with ICA-LS-SVM was very efficient in terms of accurate determination of trace elements in rice leaf. PMID:23377188

  12. Carbon allocation and element composition in four Chlamydomonas mutants defective in genes related to the CO2 concentrating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Memmola, Francesco; Mukherjee, Bratati; Moroney, James V; Giordano, Mario

    2014-09-01

    Four mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with defects in different components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) or in Rubisco activase were grown autotrophically at high pCO2 and then transferred to low pCO2, in order to study the role of different components of the CCM on carbon allocation and elemental composition. To study carbon allocation, we measured the relative size of the main organic pools by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to analyze the elemental composition of algal cells. Our data show that although the organic pools increased their size at high CO2 in all strains, their stoichiometry was highly homeostatic, i.e., the ratios between carbohydrates and proteins, lipid and proteins, and carbohydrates and lipids, did not change significantly. The only exception was the wild-type 137c, in which proteins decreased relative to carbohydrates and lipids, when the cells were transferred to low CO2. It is noticeable that the two wild types used in this study responded differently to the transition from high to low CO2. Malfunctions of the CCM influenced the concentration of several elements, somewhat altering cell elemental stoichiometry: especially the C/P and N/P ratios changed appreciably in almost all strains as a function of the growth CO2 concentration, except in 137c and the Rubisco activase mutant rca1. In strain cia3, defective in the lumenal carbonic anhydrase (CA), the cell quotas of P, S, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn were about 5-fold higher at low CO2 than at high CO2. A Principle Components Analysis showed that, mostly because of its elemental composition, cia3 behaved in a substantially different way from all other strains, at low CO2. The lumenal CA thus plays a crucial role, not only for the correct functioning of the CCM, but also for element utilization. Not surprisingly, growth at high CO2 attenuated differences among strains.

  13. Health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning on high-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The potential health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning for high-level waste disposal were evaluated. Actinide burning, also called waste partitioning-transmutation, is an advanced method for radioactive waste management based on the idea of destroying the most toxic components in the waste. It consists of two steps: (1) selective removal of the most toxic radionuclides from high-level/spent fuel waste and (2) conversion of those radionuclides into less toxic radioactive materials and/or stable elements. Risk, as used in this report, is defined as the probability of a failure times its consequence. Actinide burning has two potential health and environmental impacts on waste management. Risks and the magnitude of high-consequence repository failure scenarios are decreased by inventory reduction of the long-term radioactivity in the repository. (What does not exist cannot create risk or uncertainty.) Risk may also be reduced by the changes in the waste characteristics, resulting from selection of waste forms after processing, that are superior to spent fuel and which lower the potential of transport of radionuclides from waste form to accessible environment. There are no negative health or environmental impacts to the repository from actinide burning; however, there may be such impacts elsewhere in the fuel cycle.

  14. Multi-trace element levels and arsenic speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Agusa, Tetsuro; Biney, Charles Augustus; Agyekum, William Atuobi; Bello, Mohammed; Otsuka, Masanari; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-05-01

    To understand human contamination by multi-trace elements (TEs) in electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site at Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana, this study analyzed TEs and As speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers. Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste recycling workers were significantly higher than those of reference sites after consideration of interaction by age, indicating that the recycling workers are exposed to these TEs through the recycling activity. Urinary As concentration was relatively high, although the level in drinking water was quite low. Speciation analysis of As in human urine revealed that arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid were the predominant As species and concentrations of both species were positively correlated with total As concentration as well as between each other. These results suggest that such compounds may be derived from the same source, probably fish and shellfish and greatly influence As exposure levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination resulting from the primitive recycling of e-waste in Ghana. This study will contribute to the knowledge about human exposure to trace elements from an e-waste site in a less industrialized region so far scantly covered in the literature.

  15. A novel class of Helitron-related transposable elements in maize contain portions of multiple pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Smriti; Gallavotti, Andrea; Stryker, Gabrielle A; Schmidt, Robert J; Lal, Shailesh K

    2005-01-01

    We recently described a maize mutant caused by an insertion of a Helitron type transposable element (Lal, S.K., Giroux, M.J., Brendel, V., Vallejos, E. and Hannah, L.C., 2003, Plant Cell, 15: 381-391). Here we describe another Helitron insertion in the barren stalk1 gene of maize. The termini of a 6525 bp insertion in the proximal promoter region of the mutant reference allele of maize barren stalk1 gene (ba1-ref) shares striking similarity to the Helitron insertion we reported in the Shrunken-2 gene. This insertion is embedded with pseudogenes that differ from the pseudogenes discovered in the mutant Shrunken-2 insertion. Using the common terminal ends of the mutant insertions as a query, we discovered other Helitron insertions in maize BAC clones. Based on the comparison of the insertion site and PCR amplified genomic sequences, these elements inserted between AT dinucleotides. These putative non-autonomous Helitron insertions completely lacked sequences similar to RPA (replication protein A) and DNA Helicases reported in other species. A blastn analysis indicated that both the 5' and 3' termini of Helitrons are repeated in the maize genome. These data provide strong evidence that Helitron type transposable elements are active and may have played an essential role in the evolution and expansion of the maize genome.

  16. Estimation of Holocene Land Movement and Sea Level Changes in Southwest Scandinavia - Results From Interpretation of Relative Sea Level Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; Hede, M.; Clemmensen, L. B.; Morten Hansen, J.; Noe-Nygaard, N.; Sander, L.; Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.; Murray, A. S.; Pejrup, M.

    2013-12-01

    Relative sea level curves from different localities in Denmark, southwest Scandinavia, are used for estimation of Holocene vertical land movement and absolute sea level variations in the gateway between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Two previous independent studies conducted in the area show that ground penetrating radar reflection images of internal beach ridge and swale architecture form a strong basis for estimation of relative sea level variation. Sediments are dated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); this shows that the beach ridges and swales were last exposed to daylight between ~6500 and 0 years ago. Time periods with characteristic changes in the rate of relative sea level change are identified at different localities. The observed relative sea level change rates differ in the study area, mainly because the different localities have experienced different isostatic rebound since the latest glaciation. Variations in uplift rates and absolute sea level change for the region are estimated by inversion of the observed relative sea level changes. The values obtained for the different time periods put constraints on absolute sea level variation during the Holocene and have implications for our understanding of the lithosphere's temporal response to the unloading caused by melting of the thick ice sheet formed during the latest glaciation in Scandinavia.

  17. An advanced approach for the generation of complex cellular material representative volume elements using distance fields and level sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonon, B.; François, B.; Massart, T. J.

    2015-08-01

    A general and widely tunable method for the generation of representative volume elements for cellular materials based on distance and level set functions is presented. The approach is based on random tessellations constructed from random inclusion packings. A general methodology to obtain arbitrary-shaped tessellations to produce disordered foams is presented and illustrated. These tessellations can degenerate either in classical Voronoï tessellations potentially additively weighted depending on properties of the initial inclusion packing used, or in Laguerre tessellations through a simple modification of the formulation. A versatile approach to control the particular morphology of the obtained foam is introduced. Specific local features such as concave triangular Plateau borders and non-constant thickness heterogeneous coatings can be built from the tessellation in a straightforward way and are tuned by a small set of parameters with a clear morphological interpretation.

  18. Holocene relative sea levels and related prehistoric activity in the Forth lowland, Scotland, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. E.; Davies, M. H.; Brooks, C. L.; Mighall, T. M.; Dawson, S.; Rea, B. R.; Jordan, J. T.; Holloway, L. K.

    2010-08-01

    Changes in relative sea level (RSL) and their effect on the distribution of human activity in the Forth lowland, Scotland, UK between ca 11,700 and ca 2000 calibrated years before present (BP) are examined. Block uplift of shorelines occurred over a longer period than previously thought, continuing to at least around 4700 BP. New graphs of RSL change, based upon an analysis of previous work and evidence from new sites using standard morphological and stratigraphical analyses, support a fall in RSL in the early Holocene during which buried estuarine surfaces were formed, followed by a marked reversal on a centennial, perhaps even decadal, scale sometime around 9900-9500 BP from a falling sequence to a rising one. There may have been a short-lived fluctuation in the rising RSL ca 8300 BP, and the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami of ca 8100 BP was widespread in the lowland. The rising RSL culminated at the Main Postglacial Shoreline, reached ca 7800 BP, when Mean High Water Spring Tides (MHWS) lay within the range 14.6-16.5 m British Ordnance Datum (OD) in the western lowland. This is the highest published Holocene RSL in Britain and Ireland. The subsequent fall in RSL stabilised at a second shoreline, the Blairdrummond Shoreline, from which regression was occurring at ca 4700 BP. RSL later fell to a lower shoreline at ca 3900 BP before reaching present levels within the last three millennia. Comparison between the empirical evidence for RSL change in this area and glacial isostatic adjustment models indicates both similarities and differences. Records of archaeological sites and artefacts in the lowland and surrounding areas are discussed. Maps showing the evolution of the estuary are compared with the distribution of Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age activity. Evidence for Mesolithic people indicates the opportunistic use of available resources as RSL rose and the estuary expanded to its maximum extent. Neolithic people were also attracted to the estuary

  19. Climate-related relative sea-level changes from Chesapeake Bay, U.S. Atlantic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Timothy; Horton, Benjamin; Kemp, Andrew; Cahill, Niamh; Mann, Michael; Engelhart, Simon; Kopp, Robert; Brain, Matthew; Clear, Jennifer; Corbett, Reide; Nikitina, Daria; Garcia-Artola, Ane; Walker, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Proxy-based reconstructions of relative sea level (RSL) from the coastlines of the North Atlantic have revealed spatial and temporal variability in the rates of RSL rise during periods of known Late-Holocene climatic variability. Regional driving mechanisms for such variability include glacial isostatic adjustment, static-equilibrium of land-ice changes and/or ocean dynamic effects as well as more localized factors (e.g. sediment compaction and tidal range change). We present a 4000-year RSL reconstruction from salt-marsh sediments of the Chesapeake Bay using a foraminiferal-based transfer function and a composite chronology. A local contemporary training set of foraminifera was developed to calibrate fossil counterparts and provide estimates of paleo marsh elevation with vertical uncertainties of ±0.06m. A composite chronology combining 30 radiocarbon dates, pollen chronohorizons, regional pollution histories, and short-lived radionuclides was placed into a Bayesian age-depth framework yielding low temporal uncertainties averaging 40 years. A compression-only geotechnical model was applied to decompact the RSL record. We coupled the proxy reconstruction with direct observations from nearby tide gauge records before rates of RSL rise were quantified through application of an Errors-In-Variables Integrated Gaussian Process model. The RSL history for Chesapeake Bay shows 6 m of rise since 2000 BCE. Between 2000 BCE and 1300 BCE, rates of RSL increasing to 1.4 mm/yr precede a significant decrease to 0.8 mm/yr at 700 BCE. This minimum coincides with widespread climate cooling identified in multiple paleoclimate archives of the North Atlantic. An increase in the rate of RSL rise to 2.1 mm/yr at 200 CE similarly precedes a decrease in the rate of RSL rise at 1450 CE (1.3 mm/yr) that coincides with the Little Ice Age. Modern rates of RSL rise (3.6 mm/yr) are the fastest observed in the past 4000 years. The temporal length and decadal resolution of the RSL reconstruction

  20. Extrapolation of G0W0 energy levels from small basis sets for elements from H to Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tong; Blum, Volker

    G0W0 calculations based on orbitals from a density-functional theory reference are widely used to predict carrier levels in molecular and inorganic materials. Their computational feasibility, however, is limited by the need to evaluate slow-converging sums over unoccupied states, requiring large basis sets paired with unfavorable scaling exponents to evaluate the self-energy. In the quantum chemistry literature, complete basis set (CBS) extrapolation strategies have been used successfully to overcome this problem for total energies. We here apply the principle of basis set extrapolation to G0W0 energy levels. For a set of 49 small molecules and clusters containing the elements H, Li through F, and Na through Cl, we test established extrapolation strategies based on Dunning's correlation-consistent (cc) basis sets (aug)-cc-pVNZ (N=2-5), as well as numeric atom-centered NAO-VCC-nZ (n=2-5) basis sets in the FHI-aims all-electron code. For the occupied and lowest unoccupied levels, different extrapolation strategies agree within +/-50 meV based on large 4Z and 5Z basis sets. We show that extrapolation based on much smaller 2Z and 3Z basis sets with largest errors +/- 100 meV based on a refinement of the NAO-VCC-nZ basis sets.

  1. A new approach used to explore associations of current Ambrosia pollen levels with current and past meteorological elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Fülöp, Andrea; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    The paper examines the sensitivity of daily airborne Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen levels of a current pollen season not only on daily values of meteorological variables during this season but also on the past meteorological conditions. The results obtained from a 19-year data set including daily ragweed pollen counts and ten daily meteorological variables are evaluated with special focus on the interactions between the phyto-physiological processes and the meteorological elements. Instead of a Pearson correlation measuring the strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, a generalised correlation that measures every kind of relationship between random vectors was used. These latter correlations between arrays of daily values of the ten meteorological elements and the array of daily ragweed pollen concentrations during the current pollen season were calculated. For the current pollen season, the six most important variables are two temperature variables (mean and minimum temperatures), two humidity variables (dew point depression and rainfall) and two variables characterising the mixing of the air (wind speed and the height of the planetary boundary layer). The six most important meteorological variables before the current pollen season contain four temperature variables (mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and soil temperature) and two variables that characterise large-scale weather patterns (sea level pressure and the height of the planetary boundary layer). Key periods of the past meteorological variables before the current pollen season have been identified. The importance of this kind of analysis is that a knowledge of the past meteorological conditions may contribute to a better prediction of the upcoming pollen season.

  2. A new approach used to explore associations of current Ambrosia pollen levels with current and past meteorological elements.

    PubMed

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Fülöp, Andrea; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    The paper examines the sensitivity of daily airborne Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen levels of a current pollen season not only on daily values of meteorological variables during this season but also on the past meteorological conditions. The results obtained from a 19-year data set including daily ragweed pollen counts and ten daily meteorological variables are evaluated with special focus on the interactions between the phyto-physiological processes and the meteorological elements. Instead of a Pearson correlation measuring the strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, a generalised correlation that measures every kind of relationship between random vectors was used. These latter correlations between arrays of daily values of the ten meteorological elements and the array of daily ragweed pollen concentrations during the current pollen season were calculated. For the current pollen season, the six most important variables are two temperature variables (mean and minimum temperatures), two humidity variables (dew point depression and rainfall) and two variables characterising the mixing of the air (wind speed and the height of the planetary boundary layer). The six most important meteorological variables before the current pollen season contain four temperature variables (mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and soil temperature) and two variables that characterise large-scale weather patterns (sea level pressure and the height of the planetary boundary layer). Key periods of the past meteorological variables before the current pollen season have been identified. The importance of this kind of analysis is that a knowledge of the past meteorological conditions may contribute to a better prediction of the upcoming pollen season.

  3. The Relation between Self Esteem Levels and Life Quality Levels of Disabled and Non-Disabled Tennis Sportsmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civan, Adem

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the self-esteem and life quality levels of disabled and non-disabled tennis sportsmen; and also to set forth the relation between their self-esteem and life quality levels. The research group consists of total 44 sportsmen including 22 disabled tennis sportsmen (n[subscript (female)]=9, n[subscript…

  4. The Relation between Self Esteem Levels and Life Quality Levels of Disabled and Non-Disabled Tennis Sportsmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civan, Adem

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the self-esteem and life quality levels of disabled and non-disabled tennis sportsmen; and also to set forth the relation between their self-esteem and life quality levels. The research group consists of total 44 sportsmen including 22 disabled tennis sportsmen (n[subscript (female)]=9, n[subscript…

  5. Negative regulatory element associated with potentially functional promoter and enhancer elements in the long terminal repeats of endogenous murine leukemia virus-related proviral sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Ch'ang, L.Y.; Yang, W.K.; Myer, F.E.; Yang, D.M.

    1989-06-01

    Three series of recombinant DNA clones were constructed, with the bacterial chloramphenical acetyltransferase (CAT) gene as a quantitative indicator, to examine the activities of promoter and enhancer sequence elements in the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) of murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related proviral sequences isolated from the mouse genome. Transient CAT expression was determined in mouse NIH 3T3, human HT1080, and mink CCL64 cultured cells transfected with the LTR-CAT constructs. The 700-base pair (bp) LTRs of three polytropic MuLV-related proviral clones and the 750-bp LTRs of four modified polytropic proviral clones, in complete structures either with or without the adjacent downstream sequences, all showed very little or negligible activities for CAT expression, while ecotropic MuLV LTRs were highly active. The MuLV-related LTRs were divided into three portions and examined separately. The 3' portion of the MuLV-related LTRs that contains the CCAAC and TATAA boxes was found to be a functional promoter, being about one-half to one-third as active as the corresponding portion of the ecotropic MuLV LTRs. A MboI-Bg/II fragment, representing the distinct 190- to 200-pb inserted segment in the middle, was found to be a potential enhancer, especially when examined in combination with the simian virus 40 promoter in CCL64 cells. A PstI-MboI fragment of the 5' portion, which contains the protein-binding motifs on the enhancer segment as well as the upstream LTF sequences, showed moderate enhancer activities in CCL6 cells but was virtually inactive in NIH 3T3 cells and HT1080 cells; addition of this fragment to the ecotropic LTR-CAT constructs depressed CAT expression.

  6. Finite-element computer program for axisymmetric loading situations where components may have a relative interference fit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    A finite element computer program which enables the analysis of distortions and stresses occurring in compounds having a relative interference is presented. The program is limited to situations in which the loading is axisymmetric. Loads arising from the interference fit(s) and external, inertial, and thermal loadings are accommodated. The components comprise several different homogeneous isotropic materials whose properties may be a function of temperature. An example illustrating the data input and program output is given.

  7. Multiple complexation of CO and related ligands to a main-group element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunschweig, Holger; Dewhurst, Rian D.; Hupp, Florian; Nutz, Marco; Radacki, Krzysztof; Tate, Christopher W.; Vargas, Alfredo; Ye, Qing

    2015-06-01

    The ability of an atom or molecular fragment to bind multiple carbon monoxide (CO) molecules to form multicarbonyl adducts is a fundamental trait of transition metals. Transition-metal carbonyl complexes are vital to industry, appear naturally in the active sites of a number of enzymes (such as hydrogenases), are promising therapeutic agents, and have even been observed in interstellar dust clouds. Despite the wealth of established transition-metal multicarbonyl complexes, no elements outside groups 4 to 12 of the periodic table have yet been shown to react directly with two or more CO units to form stable multicarbonyl adducts. Here we present the synthesis of a borylene dicarbonyl complex, the first multicarbonyl complex of a main-group element prepared using CO. The compound is additionally stable towards ambient air and moisture. The synthetic strategy used--liberation of a borylene ligand from a transition metal using donor ligands--is broadly applicable, leading to a number of unprecedented monovalent boron species with different Lewis basic groups. The similarity of these compounds to conventional transition-metal carbonyl complexes is demonstrated by photolytic liberation of CO and subsequent intramolecular carbon-carbon bond activation.

  8. The computation of dispersion relations for axisymmetric waveguides using the Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method.

    PubMed

    Gravenkamp, Hauke; Birk, Carolin; Song, Chongmin

    2014-07-01

    This paper addresses the computation of dispersion curves and mode shapes of elastic guided waves in axisymmetric waveguides. The approach is based on a Scaled Boundary Finite Element formulation, that has previously been presented for plate structures and general three-dimensional waveguides with complex cross-section. The formulation leads to a Hamiltonian eigenvalue problem for the computation of wavenumbers and displacement amplitudes, that can be solved very efficiently. In the axisymmetric representation, only the radial direction in a cylindrical coordinate system has to be discretized, while the circumferential direction as well as the direction of propagation are described analytically. It is demonstrated, how the computational costs can drastically be reduced by employing spectral elements of extremely high order. Additionally, an alternative formulation is presented, that leads to real coefficient matrices. It is discussed, how these two approaches affect the computational efficiency, depending on the elasticity matrix. In the case of solid cylinders, the singularity of the governing equations that occurs in the center of the cross-section is avoided by changing the quadrature scheme. Numerical examples show the applicability of the approach to homogeneous as well as layered structures with isotropic or anisotropic material behavior.

  9. [Determination of relative elements of hard metal in workplace air and urine by inductive coupled plama].

    PubMed

    Li, X X; Jiao, Y N; Luo, Y N; Chen, Y X; Tian, D; Lou, F; Li, H D; Li, W; Chen, J D; Yan, Y J

    2016-11-20

    Objective: To establish a rapid detection method regarding the air conditions of workplace and the workers' urine included Tungsten, Cobalt, Nickel, Titanium, Cadmium, Manganese, Lead and its compounds based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) . Methods: The experiment adopts ICP-MS to deter-mine those metals in workshop air and workers urine, evaluate the detection's limitation, the precision and accuracy of the method. Using the membrane filter and urine freeze - dried metal standard material to verify this method. Results: Each element of correlation coefficient was greater than 0.999. The recovery rate of air samples was 91.6%~104.6%, within-batch RSD precision was 1.41%~3.50%, between-run precision was 1.28%~4.31%, urine samples recovery rate was 93.0%~102.6%, within - batch RSD precision was 1.25%~3.56%, between - run precision was 1.58%~4.67%, According to the method every element was within the scope of the standard reference, it was also showed that the established method is accurate and reliable. Conclusion: ICP-MS is an effective and feasible method to detect the workshop air and the workers' urine which included Tungsten, Cobalt, Nickel, Titanium, Cadmium, Manganese, Lead and its compounds.

  10. Comparative study on serum levels of macro and trace elements in schizophrenia based on supervised learning methods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tong; Liu, Tiebing; Lin, Yucheng; Yan, Lailai; Chen, Zhongxue; Wang, Jingyu

    2017-09-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) remain obscure. This study explored the associations between SCZ risk and serum levels of 39 macro and trace elements (MTE). A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted among 114 schizophrenia patients and 114 healthy controls matched by age, sex and region. Blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of 39 MTE by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Both supervised learning methods and classical statistical testing were used to uncover the difference of MTE levels between cases and controls. The best prediction accuracies were 99.21% achieved by support vector machines in the original feature space (without dimensionality reduction), and 98.82% achieved by Naive Bayes with dimensionality reduction. More than half of MTE were found to be significantly different between SCZ patients and the controls. The presented investigation showed that there existed remarkable differences in concentrations of MTE between SCZ patients and healthy controls. The results of this study might be useful to diagnosis and prognosis of SCZ; they also indicated other promising applications in pharmacy and nutrition. However, the results should be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size and the lack of potential confounding factors, such as alcohol, smoking, body mass index (BMI), use of antipsychotics and dietary intakes. In the future the application of the analyses will be useful in designs that have larger sample sizes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Ambient Vibration Tests of an Arch Dam with Different Reservoir Water Levels: Experimental Results and Comparison with Finite Element Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Ranieri, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the ambient vibration tests performed in an arch dam in two different working conditions in order to assess the effect produced by two different reservoir water levels on the structural vibration properties. The study consists of an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental tests were carried out in two different periods of the year, at the beginning of autumn (October 2012) and at the end of winter (March 2013), respectively. The measurements were performed using a fast technique based on asynchronous records of microtremor time-series. In-contact single-station measurements were done by means of one single high resolution triaxial tromometer and two low-frequency seismometers, placed in different points of the structure. The Standard Spectral Ratio method has been used to evaluate the natural frequencies of vibration of the structure. A 3D finite element model of the arch dam-reservoir-foundation system has been developed to verify analytically determined vibration properties, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes, and their changes linked to water level with the experimental results. PMID:25003146

  12. Ambient vibration tests of an arch dam with different reservoir water levels: experimental results and comparison with finite element modelling.

    PubMed

    Calcina, Sergio Vincenzo; Eltrudis, Laura; Piroddi, Luca; Ranieri, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the ambient vibration tests performed in an arch dam in two different working conditions in order to assess the effect produced by two different reservoir water levels on the structural vibration properties. The study consists of an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental tests were carried out in two different periods of the year, at the beginning of autumn (October 2012) and at the end of winter (March 2013), respectively. The measurements were performed using a fast technique based on asynchronous records of microtremor time-series. In-contact single-station measurements were done by means of one single high resolution triaxial tromometer and two low-frequency seismometers, placed in different points of the structure. The Standard Spectral Ratio method has been used to evaluate the natural frequencies of vibration of the structure. A 3D finite element model of the arch dam-reservoir-foundation system has been developed to verify analytically determined vibration properties, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes, and their changes linked to water level with the experimental results.

  13. The element level time domain (ELTD) method for the analysis of nano-optical systems: I. Nondispersive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahi, Arya; Oswald, Benedikt; Leidenberger, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    We study a 3-dimensional, dual-field, fully explicit method for the solution of Maxwell's equations in the time domain on unstructured, tetrahedral grids. The algorithm uses the element level time domain (ELTD) discretization of the electric and magnetic vector wave equations. In particular, the suitability of the method for the numerical analysis of nanometer structured systems in the optical region of the electromagnetic spectrum is investigated. The details of the theory and its implementation as a computer code are introduced and its convergence behavior as well as conditions for stable time domain integration is examined. Here, we restrict ourselves to non-dispersive dielectric material properties since dielectric dispersion will be treated in a subsequent paper. Analytically solvable problems are analyzed in order to benchmark the method. Eventually, a dielectric microlens is considered to demonstrate the potential of the method. A flexible method of 2nd order accuracy is obtained that is applicable to a wide range of nano-optical configurations and can be a serious competitor to more conventional finite difference time domain schemes which operate only on hexahedral grids. The ELTD scheme can resolve geometries with a wide span of characteristic length scales and with the appropriate level of detail, using small tetrahedra where delicate, physically relevant details must be modeled.

  14. Alkali metals levels in the human brain tissue: Anatomical region differences and age-related changes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Patrícia; Santos, Agostinho; Pinto, Edgar; Pinto, Nair Rosas; Mendes, Ricardo; Magalhães, Teresa; Almeida, Agostinho

    2016-12-01

    The link between trace elements imbalances (both "toxic" and "essential") in the human brain and neurodegenerative disease has been subject of extensive research. More recently, some studies have highlighted the potential role of the homeostasis deregulation of alkali metals in specific brain regions as key factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Using flame atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples, alkali metals (Na, K, Li, Rb and Cs) were determined in 14 different areas of the human brain (frontal cortex, superior and middle temporal gyri, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, cingulated gyrus, hippocampus, inferior parietal lobule, visual cortex of the occipital lobe, midbrain, pons, medulla and cerebellum) of adult individuals (n=42; 71±12, range: 50-101 years old) with no known history and evidence of neurodegenerative, neurological or psychiatric disorder. Potassium was found as the most abundant alkali metal, followed by Na, Rb, Cs and Li. Lithium, K and Cs distribution showed to be quite heterogeneous. On the contrary, Rb and Na appeared quite homogeneously distributed within the human brain tissue. The lowest levels of Na, K, Rb and Li were found in the brainstem (midbrain, medulla and pons) and cerebellum, while the lowest levels of Cs were found in the frontal cortex. The highest levels of K (mean±sd; range 15.5±2.5; 8.9-21.8mg/g) Rb (17.2±6.1; 3.9-32.4μg/g and Cs (83.4±48.6; 17.3-220.5ng/g) were found in putamen. The highest levels of Na and Li were found in the frontal cortex (11.6±2.4; 6.6-17.1mg/g) and caudate nucleus (7.6±4.6 2.2-21.3ng/g), respectively. Although K, Cs and Li levels appear to remain largely unchanged with age, some age-related changes were observed for Na and Rb levels in particular brain regions (namely in the hippocampus). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All

  15. Elemental concentrations in scalp hair, nutritional status and health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Akinobu; Ishimura, Eiji; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Kakiya, Ryusuke; Tabata, Tsutomu; Mori, Katsuhito; Tahara, Hideki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-04-01

    Elemental concentrations in hair from hemodialysis (HD) patients have not been well investigated. We examined the relationships between the elemental concentrations in scalp hair and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and nutritional status in HD patients. Twenty six elemental concentrations were measured in scalp hair samples from 60 male HD patients using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To evaluate HRQOL, the Short Form 36 item health survey (SF36) was used. As indices of nutritional status, body mass index, serum parameters, and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) were used. Phosphorus correlated positively with serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), GNRI and the physical domains of the SF36. Zinc correlated positively with serum creatinine, BUN and the physical domains of the SF36. Mercury and arsenic correlated positively with BUN. Cadmium correlated negatively with serum albumin, BUN and GNRI. Copper correlated positively with the physical domains of the SF36. Iodine correlated negatively with the physical domains of the SF36. Selenium correlated negatively with the mental domains of the SF36. In conclusion, phosphorus and zinc concentrations in scalp hair can be additional biomarkers of HRQOL and/or nutritional status in HD patients. Cadmium accumulation correlated with malnutrition. Iodine and selenium accumulation may adversely affect HRQOL. Further investigation is necessary to determine precisely how these elements affect these measures.

  16. Assessment the Exposure Level of Rare Earth Elements in Workers Producing Cerium, Lanthanum Oxide Ultrafine and Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yu, Hua; Li, Peng; Bian, Ying

    2017-02-01

    In order to assess occupational exposure level of 15 rare earth elements (REEs) and identify the associated influence, we used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) based on closed-vessel microwave-assisted wet digestion procedure to determinate the concentration of Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in urinary samples obtained from workers producing ultrafine and nanoparticles containing cerium and lanthanum oxide. The results suggest that La and Ce were the primary component, together accounting for 97 % of total REEs in workers. The urinary levels of La, and Ce among the workers (6.36, 15.32 μg.g(-1) creatinine, respectively) were significantly enriched compared to those levels measured in the control subjects (1.52, 4.04 μg.g(-1) creatinine, respectively) (p < 0.05). This study simultaneously identified the associated individual factors, the results indicate that the concentrations in over 5 years group (11.64 ± 10.93 for La, 27.83 ± 24.38 for Ce) were significantly elevated compared to 1-5 years group (2.58 ± 1.51 for La, 6.87 ± 3.90 for Ce) (p < 0.05). Compared the urinary levels of La and Ce at the separation and packaging locations (9.10 ± 9.51 for La, 22.29 ± 21.01 for Ce) with the other locations (2.85 ± 0.98 for La, 6.37 ± 2.12 for Ce), the results show urinary concentrations were significantly higher in workers at separation and packaging locations (p < 0.01). Inter-individual variation in levels of La and Ce in urine is the result of multi-factorial comprehensive action. Further researches should focus on the multiple factors contributing to the REEs levels of the occupationally exposed workers.

  17. Biomineral ultrastructure, elemental constitution and genomic analysis of biomineralization-related proteins in hemichordates.

    PubMed

    Cameron, C B; Bishop, C D

    2012-08-07

    Here, we report the discovery and characterization of biominerals in the acorn worms Saccoglossus bromophenolosus and Ptychodera flava galapagos (Phylum: Hemichordata). Using electron microscopy, X-ray microprobe analyses and confocal Raman spectroscopy, we show that hemichordate biominerals are small CaCO(3) aragonitic elements restricted to specialized epidermal structures, and in S. bromophenolosus, are apparently secreted by sclerocytes. Investigation of urchin biomineralizing proteins in the translated genome and expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of Saccoglossus kowalevskii indicates that three members of the urchin MSP-130 family, a carbonic anhydrase and a matrix metaloprotease are present and transcribed during the development of S. kowalevskii. The SM family of proteins is absent from the hemichordate genome. These results increase the number of phyla known to biomineralize and suggest that some of the gene-regulatory 'toolkit', if not mineralized tissue themselves, may have been present in the common ancestor to hemichordates and echinoderms.

  18. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and various organ-uptake rates.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1989-01-01

    Fifty four elements and 65 radioactive compounds were examined to determine the organ uptake rates for rats 3, 24 and 48 h after i.v. injection of these compounds. They were prepared as carrier free nuclides, or containing a small amount of stable nuclide. Generally speaking, behaviors of K, Rb, Cs and Tl in all the organs were very similar to one another, but they differed from that of Na. Bivalent hard acids were avidly taken up into bone; therefore, uptake rates in soft tissues were very small. Hard acids of tri-, quadri- and pentavalence which were taken up into the soft tissue organs decreased more slowly from these organs than other ions. Soft acids such as Hg2+ were bound very firmly to the component in the kidney. Anions (with few exceptions), GeCl4 and SbCl3 were rapidly excreted in urine, so that the uptake rates in organs were low.

  19. Using Holocene relative sea-level data to inform future sea-level predictions: An example from southwest England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, W. Roland; Dawson, David A.; Shaw, Jon; Marshall, William A.

    2011-08-01

    Holocene relative sea-level data contain information on vertical land movements along coasts and, hence, can provide vital input for predictions of future sea-level change. At Thurlestone, in southwest England, late Holocene coastal sediments were cored and sampled in coastal back-barrier marshes. The presence of a basal sedimentary unit containing salt-marsh microfossils made it possible to obtain precise estimates of late Holocene relative sea-level change from the sediments. This is important because previous studies have suggested that the southwest of England is experiencing the fastest rates of land subsidence in the British Isles. Ten new late Holocene basal sea-level index points fill an important gap in the palaeosea-level data set for southwest England. Another 15 early and middle Holocene sea-level index points are available from previous work. The data show that relative sea level rose by about 10 m between 9000 and 7000 cal. yr BP and a further 8 m in the last 7000 yr. In the last 2000 yr, relative sea level rose on average by 0.9 mm/yr. The coast is currently subsiding by 1.1 mm/yr due to ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The Bradley et al. (2009) GIA model, which is used in the United Kingdom to determine land-motion rates for input into future sea-level predictions, underestimates the rate of coastal subsidence by about 0.16 mm/yr, but performs better than other models. Our data validate the land-motion rates currently used in regional sea-level projections.

  20. Calculated fission properties of the heaviest elements: Vol. 2, Calculated single-particle levels in heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.

    1986-09-01

    The decay properties of nuclei in many cases depend strongly on the quantum numbers of the single-particle levels in the vicinity of the Fermi surface. A striking illustration is the prolonged fission half-lives of odd nuclei relative to their even neighbors. The hindrance factor depends on the spin of unpaired odd particle and increases with increasing spin of the odd particle. The effect has been studied theoretically. For /sup 257/Fm the hindrance factor is almost ten orders of magnitude. The computer code for calculating nuclear masses calculates single-particle levels at the deformations considered as one step in the calculations. This code has been run for all nuclei considered in the 1981 mass study and the calculated single-particle levels were stored on permanent mass storage. This is actually point (I.D.1) in the research plan ('UNIFIED MODEL ...'). A computer code has been constructed for extracting levels of nuclei that are specified to the program and plotting them. Four such plots are included in this report as figs. 1-4. The levels are plotted relative to the Fermi surface of each nucleus. It is clear from the pictures that for /sup 257/Fm the calculations predict the N = 157 neutron orbital to have spin 9/2+ as is also found experimentally. The high spin is the reason for the large hindrance factor for fission of /sup 257/Fm. Figures of the type included here may be used to quickly survey larger regions of nuclei for candidates for special properties, such as unusually large hindrance factors in fission. More detailed calculations are usually required to determine the magnitude of the effects. We also include tables of the plotted single-particle levels since it is not always possible to determine the spin from an inspection of the plots, when levels are overlapping. 4 figs.

  1. The relation between the instantaneous center of rotation and facet joint forces - A finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Heuer, Frank; Claes, Lutz; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2008-03-01

    The instantaneous center of rotation in a functional spinal unit is an indicator for mechanical disorders and is relevant for the development of motion preserving techniques. In addition to the intervertebral disc, the facet joints also play a major role for load transmission through the spine, providing stability to it. The relationship between the rotation center and facet joint forces is not fully understood, since previous studies have separated both; spinal motion and facet forces. A finite element model of a L4-5 lumbar spinal segment was exposed to an axial compression preload of 500 N. Pure unconstrained moments of 7.5 Nm were additionally applied in the three anatomical main planes. The instantaneous center of rotation and the facet joint forces were investigated. For small moments, the center of rotation was found to be almost in the center of the disc, no matter what motion direction. With an increasing flexion moment, the center of rotation moved anteriorly. The facet joints remained unloaded in flexion. With proceeding extension movement, the center of rotation moved posteriorly. The facet forces increased up to 50 N. In lateral bending, with increasing moment the center of rotation migrated posteriorly in the ipsilateral side of the disc. The forces in the facet joints rose to 36 N. In axial rotation, the center of rotation migrated towards the compressed facet joint with increasing moment. Axial rotation yielded the maximum facet forces with 105 N. The determination of the rotation center is highly sensible against measurement resolution obtained during in vivo and in vitro studies. This finite element method can be used to complement the knowledge of the rotation center location from former experimental findings.

  2. Cellular compartmentation of cadmium and zinc in relation to other elements in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Küpper, H; Lombi, E; Zhao, F J; McGrath, S P

    2000-12-01

    The cellular compartmentation of elements was analysed in the Zn hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (=Cardaminopsis halleri) using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated tissues. Quantitative data were obtained using oxygen as an internal standard in the analyses of vacuoles, whereas a peak/background ratio method was used for quantification of elements in pollen and dehydrated trichomes. Arabidopsis halleri was found to hyperaccumulate not only Zn but also Cd in the shoot biomass. While large concentrations of Zn and Cd were found in the leaves and roots, flowers contained very little. In roots grown hydroponically, Zn and Cd accumulated in the cell wall of the rhizodermis (root epidermis), mainly due to precipitation of Zn/Cd phosphates. In leaves, the trichomes had by far the largest concentrations of Zn and Cd. Inside the trichomes there was a striking sub-cellular compartmentation, with almost all the Zn and Cd being accumulated in a narrow ring in the trichome base. This distribution pattern was very different from that for Ca and P. The epidermal cells other than trichomes were very small and contained lower concentrations of Zn and Cd than mesophyll cells. In particular, the concentrations of Cd and Zn in the mesophyll cells increased markedly in response to increasing Zn and Cd concentrations in the nutrient solution. This indicates that the mesophyll cells in the leaves of A. halleri are the major storage site for Zn and Cd, and play an important role in their hyperaccumulation.

  3. Nucleosynthetic history of elements in the Galactic disk. [X/Fe]-age relations from high-precision spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, L.; Meléndez, J.; Karakas, A. I.; Ramírez, I.; Monroe, T. R.; Asplund, M.; Yong, D.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The chemical composition of stars is intimately linked to the formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Aims: We aim to trace the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk through the inspection of the [X/Fe]-age relations of 24 species from C to Eu. Methods: Using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise UVES spectra of nine solar twins, we obtained precise estimates of stellar ages and chemical abundances. These determinations have been integrated with additional accurate age and abundance determinations from recent spectroscopic studies of solar twins existing in the literature, comprising superb abundances with 0.01 dex precision. Based on this data set, we outlined the [X/Fe]-age relations over a time interval of 10 Gyr. Results: We present the [X/Fe] - age relations for 24 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu). Each different class of elements showed a distinct evolution with time that relies on the different characteristics, rates, and timescales of the nucleosynthesis sites from which they are produced. The α-elements are characterized by a [X/Fe] decrease with time. Strikingly, the opposite behavior is observed for Ca. The iron-peak elements show an early [X/Fe] increase followed by a decrease towards the youngest stars. The [X/Fe] for the n-capture elements decrease with age. We also found that both [Mg/Y] and [Al/Y] are precise stellar clocks, with [Al/Y] showing the steepest dependence on age. Conclusions: Knowledge of the [X/Fe]-age relations is a gold mine from which we can achieve a great understanding of the processes that governed the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. Through the reverse engineering of these relations we will be able to put strong constraints on the nature of the stellar formation history, the SNe rates, the stellar yields, and the variety of the SNe progenitors. Based on observations obtained at the ESO VLT at Paranal Observatory (Observing program 083

  4. A new coprecipitation method without carrier element for separation and preconcentration of some metal ions at trace levels in water and food samples.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Ayman A

    2016-01-01

    A new simple and sensitive preconcentration, separation and environmentally friendly method based on carrier element free coprecipitation (CEFC) was developed using 4-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-1,2-dihydro-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one (APSAL) as a new organic co-precipitant to precipitate Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) ions from water and food samples. The levels of the studied elements were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The impact of several analytical parameters, such as pH, sample volume and coprecipitant amount as well as centrifugation rate and time was investigated to recover the examined metal ions. The influence of matrix ions was also tested, and no interferences were observed. The recovery values of the analyte ions were calculated and found to be in the range of 95-101%. The detection limits, corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank (N=10), were found to be in the range of 0.2-1.2 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was calculated to evaluate the precision of the proposed method and was found to be ≤5.0%. The calculated preconcentration factor was 100. The proposed method was successfully applied to separate and preconcentrate trace amounts of ions in several water and food samples. To confirm the accuracy and validate the proposed method, certified reference materials were analyzed with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. LOWER SERUM LEVELS OF SELENIUM, COPPER, AND ZINC ARE RELATED TO NEUROMOTOR IMPAIRMENTS IN CHILDREN WITH KONZO

    PubMed Central

    Bumoko, GM-M; Sadiki, NH; Rwatambuga, A; Kayembe, K.P.; Okitundu, DL; Ngoyi, Mumba; Muyembe, J-JT; Banea, J-P; Boivin, MJ; Tshala-Katumbay, D

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between key trace elements and neurocognitive and motor impairments observed in konzo, a motor neuron disease associated with cassava cyanogenic exposure in nutritionally challenged African children. Serum concentrations of iron, copper, zinc, selenium, and neurotoxic lead, mercury, manganese, cadmium, and cobalt were measured in 123 konzo children (mean age 8.53 years) and 87 non-konzo children (mean age 9.07 years) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Concentrations of trace elements were compared and related to performance scores on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II) for cognition and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test, 2nd edition (BOT-2) for motor proficiency. Children with konzo had low levels of selenium, copper, and zinc relative to controls. Selenium concentration significantly correlated with serum 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI isoprostane (spearman r = 0.75, p < 0.01) and BOT-2 scores (r = 0.31, p = 0.00) in children with konzo. Elemental deficiency was not associated with poor cognition. Mean (SD) urinary levels of thiocyanate were 388.03 (221.75) μmol/l in non-konzo compared to 518.59 (354.19) μmol/l in konzo children (p < 0.01). Motor deficits associated with konzo may possibly be driven by the combined effects of cyanide toxicity and Se deficiency on prooxidant mechanisms. Strategies to prevent konzo may include dietary supplementation with trace elements, preferentially, those with antioxidant and cyanide-scavenging properties. PMID:25592410

  6. Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global temperature versus sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Tebaldi, Claudia; Arblaster, Julie M.; Washington, Warren M.; Teng, Haiyan; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Ault, Toby; Strand, Warren G.; White, James B.

    2012-08-01

    There is a common perception that, if human societies make the significant adjustments necessary to substantively cut emissions of greenhouse gases, global temperature increases could be stabilized, and the most dangerous consequences of climate change could be avoided. Here we show results from global coupled climate model simulations with the new representative concentration pathway mitigation scenarios to 2300 to illustrate that, with aggressive mitigation in two of the scenarios, globally averaged temperature increase indeed could be stabilized either below 2 °C or near 3 °C above pre-industrial values. However, even as temperatures stabilize, sea level would continue to rise. With little mitigation, future sea-level rise would be large and continue unabated for centuries. Though sea-level rise cannot be stopped for at least the next several hundred years, with aggressive mitigation it can be slowed down, and this would buy time for adaptation measures to be adopted.

  7. Electron correlation and relative energy characteristics in nonempirical calculations of complex beryllohydrides of light elements

    SciTech Connect

    Charkin, O.P.; Cimiraglia, R.; Persico, M.; Tomasi, J.

    1987-01-01

    Nonempirical ab initio calculations have been carried out for 15 molecules of simple and complex beryllohydrides and their salts in the SCF approximation and with consideration of the electron correlation in the CIPSI, MP3, and CISD approximations with various basis sets from 6-31G to 6-311G**. The importance of the correlation contributions to the relative energy characteristics (the dissociation energies, the relative energies of alternative geometric configurations, etc.) of these molecules has been analyzed. The effectiveness of the additive approach for the description of the correlation contributions has been analyzed in series of closely related compounds.

  8. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg2+, Au+ and Bi3+ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as 85Sr2+, 67Ga3+, 181Hf4+, and 95Nb5+, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases (calcium salts of acid mucopolysaccharides, etc.). Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl4 and SbCl3 behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  9. [Relations between location of elements in periodic table and affinity for the kidneys (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Hisada, K; Ando, I

    1977-10-01

    The distribution of many inorganic compounds in rats was investigated in order to evaluate kidney affinity of inorganic compounds. In these experiments, 30%, 10-20% and 4-10% of administered dose was localized in the kidneys in 203Hg-acetate and 203 Bi-acetate, in H198AuCl4, 103PdCl2, 201TlCl, 210Pd(NO3)2 and H2(127M)TeO3, and in Na2(51)CrO4, 54MnCl2, (114m)InCl3 and 7BeCl2, respectively. Some bipositive ions and anions was hardly taken up into the kidneys. And in many hard acids according to classification of Lewis acids, the uptake rate into the kidneys was usually small. On the other hand, Hg, Au and Bi, which have strong binding power to the protein, showed high uptake rate in the kidneys. As Hg++, Au+ and Bi+++ was soft acids according to classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these elements would bind strongly to soft base (RSH, RS-) present in the kidney.

  10. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-03-16

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults.

  11. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J.; Jacobs, David R.; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20–32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90–1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  12. Elements of Gender-Related Variability in the Selection of School Advisors in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Sophia; Papakonstantinou, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In many countries, including Greece, women are underrepresented in school management positions. Modern societies recognize sex inequalities in management as a significant social problem and implement human resource policies intended to reduce such problems. The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of gender inequality in the…

  13. Elements of Gender-Related Variability in the Selection of School Advisors in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Sophia; Papakonstantinou, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In many countries, including Greece, women are underrepresented in school management positions. Modern societies recognize sex inequalities in management as a significant social problem and implement human resource policies intended to reduce such problems. The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of gender inequality in the…

  14. Yeast cytochrome c integrated with electronic elements: a nanoscopic and spectroscopic study down to single-molecule level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfino, I.; Bonanni, B.; Andolfi, L.; Baldacchini, C.; Bizzarri, A. R.; Cannistraro, S.

    2007-06-01

    Various aspects of redox protein integration with nano-electronic elements are addressed by a multi-technique investigation of different yeast cytochrome c (YCC)-based hybrid systems. Three different immobilization strategies on gold via organic linkers are explored, involving either covalent bonding or electrostatic interaction. Specifically, Au surfaces are chemically modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) exposing thiol-reactive groups, or by acid-oxidized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Atomic force microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy are employed to characterize the morphology and the electronic properties of single YCC molecules adsorbed on the modified gold surfaces. In each hybrid system, the protein molecules are stably assembled, in a native configuration. A standing-up arrangement of YCC on SAMs is suggested, together with an enhancement of the molecular conduction, as compared to YCC directly assembled on gold. The electrostatic interaction with functionalized SWNTs allows several YCC adsorption geometries, with a preferential high-spin haem configuration, as outlined by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the conduction properties of YCC, explored in different YCC nanojunctions by conductive atomic force microscopy, indicate the effectiveness of electrical conduction through the molecule and its dependence on the electrode material. The joint employment of several techniques confirms the key role of a well-designed immobilization strategy, for optimizing biorecognition capabilities and electrical coupling with conductive substrates at the single-molecule level, as a starting point for advanced applications in nano-biotechnology.

  15. Levels of some toxic elements and frequency of bacterial heavy metal resistance in sediment and sea water.

    PubMed

    Altug, Gulsen; Balkis, Nuray

    2009-02-01

    The Golden Horn Estuary located in the Istanbul region of Turkey has been thought to be a heavily polluted area since the 1950s: the concentration of the elements, which include heavy metals such as Cu2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Fe2+, was therefore investigated in sediment and water samples of the area. The resistance of Enterobacteriaceae members to some heavy metal salts was investigated to determine levels of metal-resistant bacteria in the Golden Horn Estuary after the environmental restoration project in 1998. The sediment samples were collected with an Ekman-Grab in the period from November 2002 to February 2004 from depths of 4-15 m and analyzed by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Analyses of average heavy metals of sediment samples yielded the following results: 131.5 ppm Cu, 405.5 ppm Mn, 46.5 ppm Ni, 191.2 ppm Zn, 81.5 ppm Pb and 27668 ppm Fe. As with water, Ni concentrations in sediment were found lower than that in limit values. Frequency of heavy metals resistance to Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Cd was detected as an average of 65.0%, 64.4%, 62.5%, 38.4%, 37.3%, 36.2% and 28.4%, respectively in a total of 192 strains isolated from sediment samples. It was observed that there was no statistically significant difference among the results of analyses with respect to sampling dates. Despite the environmental restoration project in 1998, our study results showed that heavy metal levels were still high in the sediment and this situation induced the tolerance of bacteria to some heavy metals.

  16. Quantitative X-ray Elemental Imaging in Plant Materials at the Subcellular Level with a Transmission Electron Microscope: Applications and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaoliang; Diekmann, Heike; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) is a technique for determining the distribution of elements in various materials. Here, we report a protocol for high-spatial-resolution X-ray elemental imaging and quantification in plant tissues at subcellular levels with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Calibration standards were established by producing agar blocks loaded with increasing KCl or NaCl concentrations. TEM-EDX images showed that the salts were evenly distributed in the agar matrix, but tended to aggregate at high concentrations. The mean intensities of K+, Cl−, and Na+ derived from elemental images were linearly correlated to the concentrations of these elements in the agar, over the entire concentration range tested (R > 0.916). We applied this method to plant root tissues. X-ray images were acquired at an actual resolution of 50 nm × 50 nm to 100 nm × 100 nm. We found that cell walls exhibited higher elemental concentrations than vacuoles. Plants exposed to salt stress showed dramatic accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in the transport tissues, and reached levels similar to those applied in the external solution (300 mM). The advantage of TEM-EDX mapping was the high-spatial-resolution achieved for imaging elemental distributions in a particular area with simultaneous quantitative analyses of multiple target elements. PMID:28788612

  17. It's All Relative: Different Levels of Relational Similarity Used in Children's Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Jae H.; Mix, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Using a sticker search task, Gentner and Rattermann ("Perspectives on thought and language: Interrelations in development" (Gelman & Byrnes, Eds.), pp. 225-227, 1991) found that the ability to ignore surface features and match objects in terms of relative size emerged around 5 years of age. However, because spatial position covaried with relative…

  18. Laboratory calibration and field testing of the Chemcatcher-Metal for trace levels of rare earth elements in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jördis; Pröfrock, Daniel; Paschke, Albrecht; Broekaert, Jose A C; Prange, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Little knowledge is available about water concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in the marine environment. The direct measurement of REEs in coastal waters is a challenging task due to their ultra-low concentrations as well as the high salt content in the water samples. To quantify these elements at environmental concentrations (pg L(-1) to low ng L(-1)) in coastal waters, current analytical techniques are generally expensive and time consuming, and require complex chemical preconcentration procedures. Therefore, an integrative passive sampler was tested as a more economic alternative sampling approach for REE analysis. We used a Chemcatcher-Metal passive sampler consisting of a 3M Empore Chelating Disk as the receiving phase, as well as a cellulose acetate membrane as the diffusion-limiting layer. The effect of water turbulence and temperature on the uptake rates of REEs was analyzed during 14-day calibration experiments by a flow-through exposure tank system. The sampling rates were in the range of 0.42 mL h(-1) (13 °C; 0.25 m s(-1)) to 4.01 mL h(-1) (13 °C; 1 m s(-1)). Similar results were obtained for the different REEs under investigation. The water turbulence was the most important influence on uptake. The uptake rates were appropriate to ascertain time-weighted average concentrations of REEs during a field experiment in the Elbe Estuary near Cuxhaven Harbor (exposure time 4 weeks). REE concentrations were determined to be in the range 0.2 to 13.8 ng L(-1), where the highest concentrations were found for neodymium and samarium. In comparison, most of the spot samples measured along the Chemcatcher samples had REE concentrations below the limit of detection, in particular due to necessary dilution to minimize the analytical problems that arise with the high salt content in marine water samples. This study was among the first efforts to measure REE levels in the field using a passive sampling approach. Our results suggest that passive samplers could be

  19. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  20. Citizens, Businessmen, and Educators: The Elements to Better School-Community Relations. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Development of Educational Activities, Dayton, OH.

    Questions aimed at better school-community relations through identification of problems and courses of positive action were pursued at a seminar. Positive statements were presented by a citizen, a businessman, and an educator; and discussions were launched from the propositions, problems, and points raised in these papers. This report consists of…

  1. Influence of the relative composition of trace elements and vitamins in physicochemical stability of total parenteral nutrition formulations for neonatal use

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the relative composition of trace elements and vitamins in physicochemical stability of neonatal parenteral nutrition. Material and methods Three formulations for neonatal administration were selected; the main variable was the presence of trace elements and vitamins. The analyses where carried out immediately after preparation and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 days after preparation. Three methods were selected to determine globule size: light obscuration, dynamic light scattering and optical microscopy. Complementary evaluation including visual inspection, determination of pH and osmolarity, peroxide levels and measurements of zeta potential were also performed. Results There was an observable alteration in color and phase separation in the PN stored at 25°C and 40°C. Neither globule size pattern, nor any other physicochemical characteristic evaluated appeared to be considerably altered in any of the analyzed formulations even after 7 days of storage at 5°C. Globule size in all the PN studied was consistent with the established limit, below 500 nm by DLS measurement, and PFAT5 was below 0.05% under all storage temperatures. Conclusion Concomitant presence of trace elements and vitamins in the same neonatal formulation did not alter the evaluated aspects of stability. PMID:22510447

  2. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  3. An application of a relational database system for high-throughput prediction of elemental compositions from accurate mass values.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Nozomu; Ara, Takeshi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakamura, Yukiko; Iijima, Yoko; Enomoto, Mitsuo; Motegi, Takeshi; Aoki, Koh; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke

    2013-01-15

    High-accuracy mass values detected by high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis enable prediction of elemental compositions, and thus are used for metabolite annotations in metabolomic studies. Here, we report an application of a relational database to significantly improve the rate of elemental composition predictions. By searching a database of pre-calculated elemental compositions with fixed kinds and numbers of atoms, the approach eliminates redundant evaluations of the same formula that occur in repeated calculations with other tools. When our approach is compared with HR2, which is one of the fastest tools available, our database search times were at least 109 times shorter than those of HR2. When a solid-state drive (SSD) was applied, the search time was 488 times shorter at 5 ppm mass tolerance and 1833 times at 0.1 ppm. Even if the search by HR2 was performed with 8 threads in a high-spec Windows 7 PC, the database search times were at least 26 and 115 times shorter without and with the SSD. These improvements were enhanced in a low spec Windows XP PC. We constructed a web service 'MFSearcher' to query the database in a RESTful manner. Available for free at http://webs2.kazusa.or.jp/mfsearcher. The web service is implemented in Java, MySQL, Apache and Tomcat, with all major browsers supported. sakurai@kazusa.or.jp Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Multi-element compound specific stable isotope analysis of volatile organic compounds at trace levels in groundwater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Martín, Sara; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Richnow, Hans. H.; Gehre, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater pollution remains one of the major environmental and health concerns. A thorough understanding of sources, sinks and transformation processes of groundwater contaminants is needed to improve risk management evaluation, and to design efficient remediation and water treatment strategies. Isotopic tools provide unique information for an in-depth understanding of the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. During the last decades compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of complex mixtures, using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), has gained popularity for the characterization and risk assessment of hazardous waste sites and for isotope forensics of organic contaminants. Multi-element isotope fingerprinting of organic substances provides a more robust framework for interpretation than the isotope analysis of only one element. One major challenge for application of CSIA is the analysis of trace levels of organic compounds in environmental matrices. It is necessary to inject 1 nmol carbon or 8 nmol hydrogen on column, to obtain an accurate and precise measurement of the isotope ratios, which is between two and three orders of magnitude larger than the amount of compound needed for conventional analysis of compound concentrations. Therefore, efficient extraction and pre-concentration techniques have to be integrated with GC-IRMS. Further research is urgently needed in this field, to evaluate the potential of novel and environmental-friendly sample pre-treatment techniques for CSIA to lower the detection limits and extending environmental applications. In this study, the novel coupling of a headspace autosampler (HS) with a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV), allowing large volume injection of headspace samples, is proposed to improve the sensitivity of CSIA. This automatic, fast and solvent free strategy provides a significant increase on the sensitivity of GC-based methods maintaining the simple headspace instrumentation

  5. Design and simulation of programmable relational optoelectronic time-pulse coded processors as base elements for sorting neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Lazareva, Maria V.

    2010-05-01

    In the paper we show that the biologically motivated conception of time-pulse encoding usage gives a set of advantages (single methodological basis, universality, tuning simplicity, learning and programming et al) at creation and design of sensor systems with parallel input-output and processing for 2D structures hybrid and next generations neuro-fuzzy neurocomputers. We show design principles of programmable relational optoelectronic time-pulse encoded processors on the base of continuous logic, order logic and temporal waves processes. We consider a structure that execute analog signal extraction, analog and time-pulse coded variables sorting. We offer optoelectronic realization of such base relational order logic element, that consists of time-pulse coded photoconverters (pulse-width and pulse-phase modulators) with direct and complementary outputs, sorting network on logical elements and programmable commutation blocks. We make technical parameters estimations of devices and processors on such base elements by simulation and experimental research: optical input signals power 0.2 - 20 uW, processing time 1 - 10 us, supply voltage 1 - 3 V, consumption power 10 - 100 uW, extended functional possibilities, learning possibilities. We discuss some aspects of possible rules and principles of learning and programmable tuning on required function, relational operation and realization of hardware blocks for modifications of such processors. We show that it is possible to create sorting machines, neural networks and hybrid data-processing systems with untraditional numerical systems and pictures operands on the basis of such quasiuniversal hardware simple blocks with flexible programmable tuning.

  6. Assessment of elemental background values and their relation with lifespan indicators: A comparative study of Jining in Shandong Province and Guanzhong area in Shaanxi Province, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli; Ni, Runxiang; Tian, Yuan; Gao, Xing

    2017-10-01

    The remarkably high proportions of centenarians are found in the Jining Prefecture in southwestern Shandong province, demonstrating remarkable regional longevity differentiation. In this paper, census data at county-level, samples of drinking water and staple grains in Jining Prefecture were collected. Guanzhong area in Shaanxi Province, a non-longevity region in northern China was chosen as the contrast area. The major and trace elements in the samples were determined by using ICP-MS, ICP-OES and HG-AFS. The major results show that Jinxiang County in Jining Prefecture exhibit obviously higher longevity level than adjacent counties and Chinese average level based on temporal and spatial variation of lifespan indicators. Meanwhile, the contents of Na, Mg, Mo and Cu in wheat, corn and drinking water show a similar decline trend in the order of Jinxiang County, non-longevity counties of Jining Prefecture and Guanzhong area. In addition, Na/Ca and Mg/Ca show obvious difference both in staple grains and drinking ground water, and Ca(2+) is the most abundance of major cations in drinking water samples from non-longevity counties which was different with the Jinxiang County showing Na(+) as of major cations. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the difference of elemental concentrations in drinking water was more remarkable than in staple grains between Jining and Guanzhong areas. Na, Li, Ni, and Zn in staple grains and Mg, Co, Cu, Mn, and Sr in drinking ground water can explain most of the total variance as principal component between Jining and Guanzhong areas. These findings may help to provide further insight into the elemental background values and their relation with lifespan indicators especially in northern China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The use of thermoelectric modules (Peltier elements) in the relative humidity control of a hyperbaric environment].

    PubMed

    Stashkov, O A

    2002-01-01

    The author considers an option for automatic relative humidity control of a hyperbaric environment demonstrated in a pressure chamber for small animals. To achieve the purpose, a device has been developed to cool off gas mixture using the Peltier effect and then remove condensate. Experiments were performed with two different gas mixtures: O2-N2-He at 25.5 x 10(5) Pa and 30 degrees C and air at 6.9 x 10(5) Pa and 22 degrees C. The device enabled stabilization of relative humidity in the chamber at 30-40% without bio-objects and at 35-46% with bio-objects (Wistar rats).

  8. Testing of the line element of special relativity with rotating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with rotating systems are examined from the point of view of a test theory of the Lorentz transformations (LTs), permitting, in principle, the verification of the simultaneity relation. The significance of the experiments involved in the testing of the LTs can be determined using Robertson's test theory (RTT). A revised RTT is discussed, and attention is given to the Ehrenfest paradox in connection with the testing of the LTs.

  9. Testing of the line element of special relativity with rotating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with rotating systems are examined from the point of view of a test theory of the Lorentz transformations (LTs), permitting, in principle, the verification of the simultaneity relation. The significance of the experiments involved in the testing of the LTs can be determined using Robertson's test theory (RTT). A revised RTT is discussed, and attention is given to the Ehrenfest paradox in connection with the testing of the LTs.

  10. Finite element shell instability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Formulation procedures and the associated computer program for finite element thin shell instability analysis are discussed. Data cover: (1) formulation of basic element relationships, (2) construction of solution algorithms on both the conceptual and algorithmic levels, and (3) conduction of numerical analyses to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the theory and related programs therein are described.

  11. Comparison of two-level and three-level classifications of moisture-damaged dwellings in relation to health effects.

    PubMed

    Haverinen, U; Husman, T; Vahteristo, M; Koskinen, O; Moschandreas, D; Nevalainen, A; Pekkanen, J

    2001-09-01

    A total of 630 randomly selected dwellings were surveyed for visible signs of moisture damage by civil engineers, and questionnaire responses were collected from the occupants (a total of 1,017 adults) to analyse the association between moisture damage and occupant health. A three-level grading system was developed, which took into account the number of damage sites in buildings and estimated the severity of the damage. In the present study, this grading system was tested as an improved model of moisture damage-related exposure in comparison to a conventional two-category system: based on independent, technical criteria it also allowed dose-response to be estimated. The questionnaire probed 28 individual health symptoms, based on earlier reported associations with building moisture and mould-related exposure. Criteria in evaluating the goodness of the selected exposure model were (1) dose-responsiveness and (2) higher risk compared to a two-level classification. Dose-responsiveness was observed with the three-level classification in 7, higher risk in 10, and both criteria in 5 out of 28 health symptoms. Two-level classification had higher risk in 4 health symptoms. Dose-dependent risk increases for respiratory infections and lower respiratory symptoms, and recurrent irritative and skin symptoms were observed with the three-level classification using symptom score variables. Although the results did not unambiguously support the three-level model, they underline the importance of developing more accurate exposure models in assessing the severity of moisture damage.

  12. Acoustic streaming related to minor loss phenomenon in differentially heated elements of thermoacoustic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Mikhail; Gusev, Vitalyi; Auregan, Yves; Lotton, Pierrick; Bruneau, Michel; Piatakov, Pavel

    2002-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the differentially heated stack, the heart of all thermoacoustic devices, provides a source of streaming additional to those associated with Reynolds stresses in quasi-unidirectional gas flow. This source of streaming is related to temperature-induced asymmetry in the generation of vortices and turbulence near the stack ends. The asymmetry of the hydrodynamic effects in an otherwise geometrically symmetric stack is due to the temperature difference between stack ends. The proposed mechanism of streaming excitation in annular thermoacoustic devices operates even in the absence of thermo-viscous interaction of sound waves with resonator walls. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  13. Reevaluation of the stress-life relation in rolling-element bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Four groups of 12.7 millimeter diameter vacuum-degassed AISI 52100 balls were tested, each at a maximum Hertz stress in the range of 4.5 times 10 to 9th power to 6.0 times 10 to 9th power N/m2. Tests were run in the five-ball fatigue tester at a contact angle of 30 deg and a shaft speed of 10,000 rpm. The 10 percent fatigue lives at the four stress levels indicated that fatigue life is inversely proportional to maximum Hertz stress raised to the power of 12. This result agrees with a survey of the literature which suggests that a stress-life exponent of approximately 12 is typical of vacuum-processed bearing steels rather than the exponent of 9 which has been generally accepted by the bearing industry.

  14. A tiger mouse and relatives. Variants caused by an activated transposable element?

    PubMed

    Wallace, M E; Nash, H R

    1984-01-01

    In a laboratory-bred population of wild Peruvian house mice, one male had an excessive rate of non-pairing of the X and Y chromosomes. After crossing him with laboratory stock mice, a mouse of very unusual phenotype appeared from a yellow (AyA) mother. He was yellow with black dorsal stripes; hence Tiger. He was mated to many females, and inbred F2 and F3 generations were raised. There were no more tiger phenotypes, but his F1 contained an excess of black-and-tans over yellows, showing him to be a gonosomic mosaic Ayat/atat; the homozygous cell line probably arose from the heterozygous one. The mitotic karyotype was normal. Some of Tiger's mates were of known allozyme types and their progeny were scored. The allozyme segregations were normal, except at the Es-3 locus (esterase-3), for which Tiger was typed as homozygous. Several unusual events among Tiger's close relatives included a mutation to an unstable pattern mutant, three probable translocations, and several cases of somatic defect. All unusual mice derived from Tiger's yellow mother, whose genome was one-quarter Peruvian. Yellow is associated with an ecotropic murine leukemia virus. The Peru genome is characterized by a high occurrence of mutation and aberrant karyotypes. It is suggested that something from the Peru genome in Tiger's mother caused instability of the DNA sequence associated with yellow, with related disturbance at different locations thereafter. The nature of this instability, and of the Peru genome, is discussed.

  15. An exploratory study using an openEHR 2-level modeling approach to represent common data elements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Heng; Fann, Yang-Cheng; Liou, Der-Ming

    2016-09-01

    In order to facilitate clinical research across multiple institutions, data harmonization is a critical requirement. Common data elements (CDEs) collect data uniformly, allowing data interoperability between research studies. However, structural limitations have hindered the application of CDEs. An advanced modeling structure is needed to rectify such limitations. The openEHR 2-level modeling approach has been widely implemented in the medical informatics domain. The aim of our study is to explore the feasibility of applying an openEHR approach to model the CDE concept. Using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke General CDEs as material, we developed a semiautomatic mapping tool to assist domain experts mapping CDEs to existing openEHR archetypes in order to evaluate their coverage and to allow further analysis. In addition, we modeled a set of CDEs using the openEHR approach to evaluate the ability of archetypes to structurally represent any type of CDE content. Among 184 CDEs, 28% (51) of the archetypes could be directly used to represent CDEs, while 53% (98) of the archetypes required further development (extension or specialization). A comprehensive comparison between CDEs and openEHR archetypes was conducted based on the lessons learnt from the practical modeling. CDEs and archetypes have dissimilar modeling approaches, but the data structure of both models are essentially similar. This study proposes to develop a comprehensive structure to model CDE concepts instead of improving the structure of CED. The findings from this research show that the openEHR archetype has structural coverage for the CDEs, namely the openEHR archetype is able to represent the CDEs and meet the functional expectations of the CDEs. This work can be used as a reference when improving CDE structure using an advanced modeling approach. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights

  16. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  17. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  18. Mantle-crust interactions in a paleosubduction zone: Evidence from highly siderophile element systematics of eclogite and related rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penniston-Dorland, Sarah C.; Walker, Richard J.; Pitcher, Lynnette; Sorensen, Sorena S.

    2012-02-01

    Substantial differences in 187Os/188Os and absolute and relative abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) in mantle peridotites compared to oceanic crust indicate that this suite of elements may prove useful in assessing mechanisms and pathways of mantle and slab mass transfer within the subduction channel. Currently, however, information regarding the mobility of the HSE in subduction zone environments is limited. To better understand the systematics of highly siderophile elements in subduction settings, we measured Os isotopic compositions and HSE abundances of cores and rinds of meter-scale blocks of eclogite, blueschist and garnet amphibolite from subduction-related mélanges within 1) the Franciscan Complex, CA, and a related terrane in Oregon; 2) the Catalina Schist, CA; and 3) the Samana Metamorphic Complex, Samana Peninsula, Dominican Republic. Rinds composed of amphibole, chlorite, ± phengite, talc, titanite and rutile partly enclose blocks at each location. Mineralogic, petrologic and geochemical data suggest that these rinds are metasomatic features that formed by fluid-mediated interaction between mafic blocks and an ultramafic matrix. The cores of high-grade blocks are characterized by high (Pt + Pd)/(Os + Ir + Ru), and variably radiogenic Os; initial 187Os/188Os ranges from 0.197 to 4.30. These characteristics are consistent with the HSE compositions of subducted basalts. In contrast, (Pt + Pd)/(Os + Ir + Ru) of rinds are generally much lower than cores, approaching values typical of mantle peridotites. The initial 187Os/188Os of most rinds are also typical of upper mantle peridotites; values for most rinds fall between 0.125 and 0.14. The similarities of the 187Os/188Os and HSE abundances between rinds and mantle peridotites indicate that the HSE contained within rinds reflect a contribution by mantle peridotite, whether by fluid-mediated transfer or through mechanical processes. If the HSE signatures of the rinds were

  19. Bibliography and index of U.S. Geological Survey trace elements and related reports through June 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soister, Paul E.; Conklin, Dora R.; Bowman, Mary D.; ,

    1956-01-01

    This bibliography supersedes TEI-500, "U. S. Geological Survey Trace Elements and related reports through 1954." Part I is a numerical list of U. S. Geological Survey Trace Elements Investigations and Memorandum reports. This part lists reports that have been transmitted to the U. S. Atomic Energy Comission and also reports in preparation (followed by an asterisk) for which tentative titles were available on June 30, 1956. If a report or part of a report has been published, the fact is indicated by the abbreviation of the medium of publication. (See also Part II.) Part II is a reference guide to Trace Elements and related reports that are available to the public. (Part II supersedes Part I of Bulletin 1019-B.) These reports are grouped according to type of publication or release. If a report or part of a report has been published in more than one form, corss-references indicate the other forms of publication. Publications in preparation or in press on June 30, 1956, are designated by an asterisk. Part III is an author index. The words "with" and "and" are used to indicate seniority of authorship. For example, a listing of Black and White indicates that Black is the senior author. A listing of Black with White indicates that White is the senior author. Part IV is an index for finding reports on specific areas or subjects. Information for the index was taken from titles, tables of contents, and abstracts of unpublished reports and from titles of published reports. The index in TEI-500 was used as a guide.

  20. Contamination level, distribution and health risk assessment of heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in a cultivated mushroom Pleurotus florida (Mont.) singer.

    PubMed

    Khani, Rouhollah; Moudi, Maryam; Khojeh, Vahid

    2017-02-01

    There are great concentrations of toxic metallic and metalloid elements such as lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium or silver in many species of mushrooms comparative to other fruits and vegetables. In this study, contamination with heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in the cultivated mushroom of (Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer) is investigated. P. florida was cultivated on different substrates; wheat straw (as blank), wheat straw + pine cone, wheat straw + soybean straw and wheat straw + urea and the effects of these substrates on contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the target mushroom are at the typical levels. The estimated daily intakes of studied metallic and metalloid elements were below their oral reference dosage mentioned by the international regulatory bodies. Health risk index (HRI) was calculated to evaluate the consumer's health risk assessment from the metal intake that contaminated in the cultivated mushroom of P. florida on the different nutrient sources. In this study, the individual HRIs were less than 1, which indicates insignificant potential health risk associated with the consumption of target mushroom from the studied substrates. Based on the HRIs values among the toxic metallic and metalloid elements, As in the target mushroom in the substrate of the wheat straw + pine cone is the main sources of risk, and it may cause severe health problems. Thus, this study suggests that the concentrations of heavy and toxic elements should be periodically monitored in cultivated mushrooms.

  1. Necker cube: stimulus-related (low-level) and percept-related (high-level) EEG signatures early in occipital cortex.

    PubMed

    Kornmeier, Jürgen; Pfäffle, Miriam; Bach, Michael

    2011-08-24

    During observation of an ambiguous Necker cube, our percept changes spontaneously although the external stimulus does not. An EEG paradigm allowing time-resolved EEG measurement during endogenous perceptual reversals recently revealed a chain of ERP correlates beginning with an early occipital positivity at around 130 ms (Reversal Positivity, "RP"). In order to better understand the functional role of this RP, we investigated its relation to the P100, which is spatiotemporally close, typically occurring 100 ms after onset of a visual stimulus at occipital electrodes. We compared the relation of the ERP amplitudes to varying sizes of ambiguous Necker cubes. The main results are: (1) The P100 amplitude increases monotonically with stimulus size but is independent of the participants' percept. (2) The RP, in contrast, is percept-related and largely unaffected by stimulus size. (3) A similar pattern to RP was found for reaction times: They depend on the percept but not on stimulus size. We speculate that the P100 reflects processing of elementary visual features, while the RP is related to a processing conflict during 3D interpretation that precedes a reversal. The present results indicate that low-level visual processing (related to stimulus size) and (relative) high-level processing (related to perceptual reversal) occur in close spatial and temporal vicinity.

  2. Elemental carbon and PM(2.5 )levels in an urban community heavily impacted by truck traffic.

    PubMed Central

    Lena, T Suvendrini; Ochieng, Victor; Carter, Majora; Holguín-Veras, José; Kinney, Patrick L

    2002-01-01

    Hunts Point, a 690-acre peninsula in the South Bronx, New York City, is a hub in the tristate (New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut) freight transportation system. This study was carried out in response to community concerns about potential health effects of exposure to diesel exhaust particulate (DEP). We measured particulate matter < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and elemental carbon (EC) on sidewalks and tested whether spatial variations in concentrations were related to local truck traffic density. Ten-hour integrated air samples for EC and PM(2.5) were collected for 9 days over a 3-week period in the summer of 1999 at seven geographically distinct intersections. Simultaneous traffic counts were carried out for each sampling event. Traffic was classified into three classes: passenger cars, small trucks, and large trucks (diesel vehicles). Mean diesel vehicle volumes ranged from 9.3 to 276.5 vehicles/hr across sites. Mean EC concentrations by site ranged from 2.6 microg/m(3) at the control site to 7.3 microg/m(3) along a designated truck route. Linear regression of site-specific mean EC concentration on mean large truck counts predicted an increase of 1.69 microg/m(3) EC per 100 large trucks/hr (SE = 0.37; p = 0.01; R(2) = 0.84). Average PM(2.5) concentrations by site ranged 1.6-fold (19.0-29.9 microg/m(3)) and were more weakly associated with local traffic. Variations over time for PM(2.5 )were more pronounced, ranging almost 4-fold (8.9-34.4 microg/m(3)). These results show that airborne EC concentrations, an important component of DEP, are elevated in Hunts Point and that the impact varies across the community as a function of large truck traffic. PMID:12361926

  3. Elemental carbon and PM(2.5 )levels in an urban community heavily impacted by truck traffic.

    PubMed

    Lena, T Suvendrini; Ochieng, Victor; Carter, Majora; Holguín-Veras, José; Kinney, Patrick L

    2002-10-01

    Hunts Point, a 690-acre peninsula in the South Bronx, New York City, is a hub in the tristate (New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut) freight transportation system. This study was carried out in response to community concerns about potential health effects of exposure to diesel exhaust particulate (DEP). We measured particulate matter < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and elemental carbon (EC) on sidewalks and tested whether spatial variations in concentrations were related to local truck traffic density. Ten-hour integrated air samples for EC and PM(2.5) were collected for 9 days over a 3-week period in the summer of 1999 at seven geographically distinct intersections. Simultaneous traffic counts were carried out for each sampling event. Traffic was classified into three classes: passenger cars, small trucks, and large trucks (diesel vehicles). Mean diesel vehicle volumes ranged from 9.3 to 276.5 vehicles/hr across sites. Mean EC concentrations by site ranged from 2.6 microg/m(3) at the control site to 7.3 microg/m(3) along a designated truck route. Linear regression of site-specific mean EC concentration on mean large truck counts predicted an increase of 1.69 microg/m(3) EC per 100 large trucks/hr (SE = 0.37; p = 0.01; R(2) = 0.84). Average PM(2.5) concentrations by site ranged 1.6-fold (19.0-29.9 microg/m(3)) and were more weakly associated with local traffic. Variations over time for PM(2.5 )were more pronounced, ranging almost 4-fold (8.9-34.4 microg/m(3)). These results show that airborne EC concentrations, an important component of DEP, are elevated in Hunts Point and that the impact varies across the community as a function of large truck traffic.

  4. Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer elemental abundances and apparent relative surface age: Implications for Martian crustal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Brian C.; McLennan, Scott M.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Boynton, William V.; Dohm, James M.; Finch, Mike J.; Hamara, David K.; Janes, Daniel M.; Karunatillake, Suniti; Keller, John M.; Kerry, Kristopher E.; Metzger, Albert E.; Williams, Remo M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying secular variations in the chemical composition of the Martian crust provides unique insights into the processes that have guided the evolution of the Martian crust-mantle system. Using global abundances for a suite of elements determined by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on board the Mars Odyssey spacecraft and global mapping of apparent surface age adapted from existing geologic maps in the USGS Martian Geologic Investigation series, we report the average abundance of K, Th, Fe, Cl, H, and Si for the major Martian geologic epochs (Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian). Average GRS-determined K and Th abundances generally decrease by 9% and 7%, respectively, between the Hesperian and the Amazonian, possibly implying evolving magma chemistry throughout major resurfacing events (although the effects of surficial alteration processes cannot be entirely discounted). GRS-determined Fe and Cl averages increase by 12% and 19%, respectively, with younger apparent relative surface age, suggesting the possible mobilization and transport of these elements through aqueous processes (although an igneous origin for the variation in Fe also cannot be excluded). While H abundance does vary with surface age, the relationship is likely not governed by geologic processes. No statistically reliable apparent surface age relation was found for Si.

  5. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Butler Walker, Jody . E-mail: jody@butlerwalker.ca; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-03-15

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87{mu}g/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51{mu}g/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35{mu}g/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P<0.0001). Of Inuit women participants, 3% (n=4) were within Health Canada's level of concern range (20-99{mu}g/L) for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Of Inuit and Dene/Metis cord samples, 56% (n=95) and 5% (n=4), respectively, exceeded 5.8{mu}g/L MeHg, the revised US Environmental Protection Agency lower benchmark dose. GM maternal Pb was significantly higher in Dene/Metis (30.9{mu}g/L or 3.1{mu}g/dL; SD=29.1{mu}g/L) and Inuit (31.6{mu}g/L, SD=38.3) participants compared with the Caucasian group (20.6{mu}g/L, SD=17.9) (P<0.0001). Half of all participants were smokers. GM blood Cd in moderate smokers (1-8 cigarettes/day) and in heavy smokers (>8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for

  6. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Butler Walker, Jody; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, André; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-03-01

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Métis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87 microg/L (SD = 1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n = 134) to 3.51 microg/L (SD = 8.30) in the Inuit group (n = 146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Métis group (1.35 microg/L, SD = 1.60, n = 92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P<0.0001). Of Inuit women participants, 3% (n = 4) were within Health Canada's level of concern range (20-99 microg/L) for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Of Inuit and Dene/Métis cord samples, 56% (n = 95) and 5% (n = 4), respectively, exceeded 5.8 microg/L MeHg, the revised US Environmental Protection Agency lower benchmark dose. GM maternal Pb was significantly higher in Dene/Métis (30.9 microg/L or 3.1 microg/dL; SD = 29.1 microg/L) and Inuit (31.6 microg/L, SD = 38.3) participants compared with the Caucasian group (20.6 microg/L, SD = 17.9) (P < 0.0001). Half of all participants were smokers. GM blood Cd in moderate smokers (1-8 cigarettes/day) and in heavy smokers (> 8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and

  7. Integrity of Lichen Cell Membranes in Relation to Concentration of Airborne Elements

    PubMed

    Garty; Kloog; Cohen

    1998-02-01

    This study dealt with the impact of air pollution on the integrity of cell membranes in the lichen Ramalina duriaei. The lichen was transplanted from a relatively unpolluted site in Israel to more polluted sites, adjacent to a 40-year-old town, for a period of 10 months. The concentrations of K, B, Al, Cr, Fe, Si, Ti, Zn, P, Ba, Cu, Mg, Na, Pb, Ca, Mn, Sr, and S in lichen thalli were compared with injury caused to the cell membranes. The study indicates that electric conductivity reflects adequately cellular injury to lichen thalli transplanted to sites near a motorway, an oil-fueled power plant and a rural community (a kibbutz). The concentrations of S, B, Al, Cr, Fe, Si, Ti, and Zn correlated with injury in cell membranes of R. duriaei retrieved from the biomonitoring sites, whereas the concentration of K in the thalli correlated inversely with the electric conductivity parameter. Leakage of K from lichen thalli as a result of air pollutants is suggested. This K leakage correlates positively with concentrations of S and Cr in transplants of R. duriaei to the Ashdod region.

  8. Cross-sectional analysis of health-related quality of life and elements of yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Birdee, Gurjeet S; Ayala, Sujata G; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2017-01-31

    Mind-body practices such as yoga have been studied for their generally positive effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The association between how a person practices yoga and the person's HRQOL is not known. Yoga practitioners were sent invitations to participate in an online survey via email. Yoga characteristics, HRQOL, and other sociodemographics were collected. Analyses of data from 309 consenting responders evaluated associations between yoga practice characteristics (use of yoga tools, length of practice, location, method, etc.) and the 10-item PROMIS Global Health scale for both physical and mental health components. Multivariable regression models demonstrated higher mental health scores were associated with regular meditation practice, higher income, and the method of practicing in a community group class (versus one-on-one). Higher physical health scores were associated with length of lifetime practice, teacher status, Krishnamacharya yoga style, and practicing in a yoga school/studio (versus at home). Meditation practice in yoga is positively associated with mental health. Length of lifetime yoga practice was significantly associated with better physical health, suggesting yoga has a potential cumulative benefit over time. Different locations and methods of practice may be associated with varying effects on health outcomes. Comparative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the variations in yoga practice are needed to further characterize health benefits of yoga.

  9. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  10. Comparison of the levels of organic, elemental and inorganic carbon in particulate matter in six urban environments in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, M.; Frey, A.; Hillamo, R.; Pennanen, A. S.; Salonen, R. O.

    2005-05-01

    A series of 7-week sampling campaigns were conducted in urban background sites in the six European cities as follows: Duisburg 4 October-21 November 2002 (autumn), Prague 29 November 2002-16 January 2003 (winter), Amsterdam 24 January-13 March 2003 (winter), Helsinki 21 March-12 May 2003 (spring), Barcelona 28 March-19 May 2003 (spring) and Athens 2 June-21 July 2003 (summer). The campaigns were scheduled to include seasons of local public health concern due to high PM concentrations or findings in previously conducted epidemiological studies. Aerosol samples were collected in parallel with two identical virtual impactors (VI), which divide air PM into two size fractions, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10. The filter samples were analysed with a microbalance, an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF), an ion chromatograph (IC) and a thermo-optical carbon analyser (TOA). The PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 campaign means ranged 8.3-29.6 µg m-3 and 5.4-28.7 µg m-3, respectively. The ''wet and cool'' seasons favoured low coarse PM concentration and high fine PM concentration, whereas the spring and summer led to low fine and high coarse PM concentrations. The contribution of particulate organic matter (POM) to PM2.5-10 was highest (27%) in Prague and the lowest (10%) in Barcelona, while those to PM2.5 were generally higher, ranging from 21% in Barcelona to 54% in Prague. The contribution of elemental carbon (EC) to PM2.5-10 were relatively low (1-6%) in all the six European cities but it contributed somewhat higher (5-9%) to PM2.5. The differences are most likely due to variable contributions of local emission sources and seasonal factors such as domestic heating, vehicle exhausts and photochemical reactions. Carbonate, which interferes with carbon analysis by evolving stage at 900°C, was detected in the coarse particles of Athens and Barcelona and it could be separated reliably from OC by a simple integrating method. The calcium carbonate in Athens and Barcelona accounted for 56% and

  11. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: implications for non-invasive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Colleen E; Christopher, Steven J; Balmer, Brian C; Wells, Randall S

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n=51) and skin (n=40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p<0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r=0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  12. LRE2, an active human L1 element, has low level transcriptional activity and extremely low reverse transcriptase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.E.; Dombroski, B.A.; Sassaman, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we found a 2 kb insertion containing a rearranged L1 element plus a unique sequence component (USC) within exon 48 of the dystrophin gene of a patient with muscular dystrophy. We used the USC to clone the precursor of this insertion, the second known {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} human L1 element. The locus LRE2 (L1 Retrotransposable Element 2) has an allele derived from the patient which matches the insertion sequence exactly. LRE2 has a perfect 13-15 bp target site duplication, 2 open reading frames (ORFs), and an unusual 21 bp truncation of the 5{prime} end in a region known to be important for L1 transcription. The truncated LRE2 promoter has about 20% of the transcriptional activity of a previously studied L1 promoter after transfection into NTera2D1 cells of a construct in which the L1 promoter drives the expression of a lacZ gene. In addition, the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by LRE2 is active in an in vivo pseudogene assay in yeast and an in vitro assay. However, in both assays the RT of LRE2 is 1-5% as active as that of LRE1. These data demonstrate that multiple {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} L1 elements exist in the human genome, and that active elements can have highly variable rates of transcription and reverse transcriptase activity. That the RT of LRE2 has extremely low activity suggests the possibility that retrotransposition of an L1 element may in some cases involve an RT encoded by another L1 element.

  13. Levels of iodine and other elements in drinking water across rural counties adjoining a former uranium mining and milling works, through short-time activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Vieira, Bruno J.; Pacheco, Adriano M. G.

    2007-08-01

    In this study, drinking waters from the Urgeiriça region (Centre-North of Portugal) were collected for (potential) health concerns over their (actual) iodine contents. After freeze-drying 1 L of each water, neutron activation analysis (NAA) with both thermal and epithermal neutrons was applied, the latter to ease the determination of iodine. Levels of iodine were found to be low and not likely associated to a higher risk of thyroid cancers in the area. However, other chemical elements in the sampled waters could pose some threats from the point of view of human health: aluminium and bromine. Some samples contained arsenic and/or uranium, yet the levels of these two elements were below the regulated values. NAA demonstrated to be very adequate for analysis of iodine and other elements, via short-lived nuclides.

  14. Arsenic in Bangladeshi soils related to physiographic region, paddy management, and mirco- and macro-elemental status.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M Tanvir A; Deacon, Claire M; Jones, Gerrad D; Imamul Huq, S M; Williams, Paul N; Manzurul Hoque, A F M; Winkel, Lenny H E; Price, Adam H; Norton, Gareth J; Meharg, Andrew A

    2017-07-15

    While the impact of arsenic in irrigated agriculture has become a major environmental concern in Bangladesh, to date there is still a limited understanding of arsenic in Bangladeshi paddy soils at a landscape level. A soil survey was conducted across ten different physiographic regions of Bangladesh, which encompassed six types of geomorphology (Bil, Brahmaputra floodplain, Ganges floodplain, Meghna floodplain, Karatoya-Bangali floodplain and Pleistocene terrace). A total of 1209 paddy soils and 235 matched non-paddy soils were collected. The source of irrigation water (groundwater and surface water) was also recorded. The concentrations of arsenic and sixteen other elements were determined in the soil samples. The concentration of arsenic was higher in paddy soils compared to non-paddy soils, with soils irrigated with groundwater being higher in arsenic than those irrigated with surface water. There was a clear difference between the Holocene floodplains and the Pleistocene terraces, with Holocene floodplain soils being higher in arsenic and other elements. The results suggest that arsenic is most likely associated with less well weathered/leached soils, suggesting it is either due to the geological newness of Holocene sediments or differences between the sources of sediments, which gives rise to the arsenic problems in Bangladeshi soils.

  15. Aggression levels in treatment seeking inpatients with alcohol-