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Sample records for relativistic dissipative fluid

  1. Heat dissipation in relativistic single charged fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Perciante, A. L.; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A.; Brun-Battistini, D.

    2015-11-01

    When the temperature of a fluid is increased its out of equilibrium behavior is significantly modified. In particular kinetic theory predicts that the heat flux is not solely driven by a temperature gradient but can also be coupled to other thermodynamic vector forces. We explore the nature of heat conduction in a single component charged fluid in special relativity, where the electromagnetic field is introduced as an external force. We obtain an electrothermal effect, similar to the mixture's cross-effect, which is not present in the non-relativistic simple fluid. The general lines of the corresponding calculation will be shown, emphasizing the importance of reference frame invariance and the origin of the extra heat sources, in particular the role of the modified inertia and the difference in fluid's and molecules' proper times. The constitutive equation for the heat flux obtained using Chapman-Enskog's expansion in Marle's approximation will be analyzed together with the corresponding transport coefficients.The impact of this effect in the overall dynamics of the system here considered will be briefly discussed. The authors acknowledge support from CONACyT through grant CB2011/167563.

  2. Thermodynamics and flow-frames for dissipative relativistic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Ván, P.; Biró, T. S.

    2014-01-14

    A general thermodynamic treatment of dissipative relativistic fluids is introduced, where the temperature four vector is not parallel to the velocity field of the fluid. Generic stability and kinetic equilibrium points out a particular thermodynamics, where the temperature vector is parallel to the enthalpy flow vector and the choice of the flow fixes the constitutive functions for viscous stress and heat. The linear stability of the homogeneous equilibrium is proved in a mixed particle-energy flow-frame.

  3. Dissipative Relativistic Fluid Dynamics: A New Way to Derive the Equations of Motion from Kinetic Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Denicol, G. S.; Koide, T.; Rischke, D. H.

    2010-10-15

    We rederive the equations of motion of dissipative relativistic fluid dynamics from kinetic theory. In contrast with the derivation of Israel and Stewart, which considered the second moment of the Boltzmann equation to obtain equations of motion for the dissipative currents, we directly use the latter's definition. Although the equations of motion obtained via the two approaches are formally identical, the coefficients are different. We show that, for the one-dimensional scaling expansion, our method is in better agreement with the solution obtained from the Boltzmann equation.

  4. Causal dissipation and shock profiles in the relativistic fluid dynamics of pure radiation

    PubMed Central

    Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake

    2014-01-01

    Current theories of dissipation in the relativistic regime suffer from one of two deficits: either their dissipation is not causal or no profiles for strong shock waves exist. This paper proposes a relativistic Navier–Stokes–Fourier-type viscosity and heat conduction tensor such that the resulting second-order system of partial differential equations for the fluid dynamics of pure radiation is symmetric hyperbolic. This system has causal dissipation as well as the property that all shock waves of arbitrary strength have smooth profiles. Entropy production is positive both on gradients near those of solutions to the dissipation-free equations and on gradients of shock profiles. This shows that the new dissipation stress tensor complies to leading order with the principles of thermodynamics. Whether higher order modifications of the ansatz are required to obtain full compatibility with the second law far from the zero-dissipation equilibrium is left to further investigations. The system has exactly three a priori free parameters χ,η,ζ, corresponding physically to heat conductivity, shear viscosity and bulk viscosity. If the bulk viscosity is zero (as is stated in the literature) and the total stress–energy tensor is trace free, the entire viscosity and heat conduction tensor is determined to within a constant factor. PMID:24910526

  5. Experimental Confirmation of a Causal, Covariant, Relativistic Theory of Dissipative Fluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scofield, Dillon; Huq, Pablo

    2015-11-01

    Using newtonian viscous dissipation stress in covariant, relativistic fluid flow theories leads to a violation of the second law of thermodynamics and to acausality of their predictions. E.g., the Landau & Lifshitz theory, a Lorentz covariant formulation, suffers from these defects. These problems effectively limit such theories to time-independent flow régimes. Thus, these theories are of little fundamental interest to astrophysical, geophysical, or thermonuclear flow modeling. We discuss experimental confirmation of the new geometrodynamical theory of fluids solving these problems. This theory is derived from recent results of geometrodynamics showing current conservation implies gauge field creation; the vortex field lemma.

  6. Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.

    2017-08-01

    Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.

  7. Bulk viscosity and relaxation time of causal dissipative relativistic fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xuguang; Rischke, Dirk H.; Kodama, Takeshi; Koide, Tomoi

    2011-02-15

    The microscopic formulas of the bulk viscosity {zeta} and the corresponding relaxation time {tau}{sub {Pi}} in causal dissipative relativistic fluid dynamics are derived by using the projection operator method. In applying these formulas to the pionic fluid, we find that the renormalizable energy-momentum tensor should be employed to obtain consistent results. In the leading-order approximation in the chiral perturbation theory, the relaxation time is enhanced near the QCD phase transition, and {tau}{sub {Pi}} and {zeta} are related as {tau}{sub {Pi}={zeta}}/[{beta}{l_brace}(1/3-c{sub s}{sup 2})({epsilon}+P)-2({epsilon}-3P)/9{r_brace}], where {epsilon}, P, and c{sub s} are the energy density, pressure, and velocity of sound, respectively. The predicted {zeta} and {tau}{sub {Pi}} should satisfy the so-called causality condition. We compare our result with the results of the kinetic calculation by Israel and Stewart and the string theory, and confirm that all three approaches are consistent with the causality condition.

  8. Relativistic second-order dissipative fluid dynamics at finite chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Amaresh; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    We employ a Chapman-Enskog like expansion for the distribution function close to equilibrium to solve the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation and subsequently derive second-order evolution equations for dissipative charge currentand shear stress tensor for a system of massless quarks and gluons. We use quantum statistics for the phase space distribution functions to calculate the transport coefficients. We show that, the second-order evolution equations for the dissipative charge current and the shear stress tensor can be decoupled. We find that, for large chemical potential, the charge conductivity is small compared to the shear viscosity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the limiting behaviour of the ratio of heat conductivity to shear viscosity is identicalto that obtained for a strongly coupled conformal plasma.

  9. Dissipation in relativistic pair-plasma reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji

    2007-11-15

    An investigation into the relativistic dissipation in magnetic reconnection is presented. The investigated system consists of an electron-positron plasma. A relativistic generalization of Ohm's law is derived. A set of numerical simulations is analyzed, composed of runs with and without guide magnetic field, and of runs with different species temperatures. The calculations indicate that the thermal inertia-based dissipation process survives in relativistic plasmas. For antiparallel reconnection, it is found that the pressure tensor divergence remains the sole contributor to the reconnection electric field, whereas relativistic guide field reconnection exhibits a similarly important role of the bulk inertia terms.

  10. Dissipation in Relativistic Pair-Plasma Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    We present an investigation of the relativistic dissipation in magnetic reconnection. The investigated system consists of an electron-positron plasma. A relativistic generalization of Ohm's law is derived. We analyze a set of numerical simulations, composed of runs with and without guide magnetic field, and of runs with different species temperatures. The calculations indicate that the thermal inertia-based dissipation process survives in relativistic plasmas. For anti-parallel reconnection, it is found that the pressure tensor divergence remains the sole contributor to the reconnection electric field, whereas relativistic guide field reconnection exhibits a similarly important role of the bulk inertia terms.

  11. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  12. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-15

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  13. Causal dissipation for the relativistic dynamics of ideal gases.

    PubMed

    Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake

    2017-05-01

    We derive a general class of relativistic dissipation tensors by requiring that, combined with the relativistic Euler equations, they form a second-order system of partial differential equations which is symmetric hyperbolic in a second-order sense when written in the natural Godunov variables that make the Euler equations symmetric hyperbolic in the first-order sense. We show that this class contains a unique element representing a causal formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics which (i) is equivalent to the classical descriptions by Eckart and Landau to first order in the coefficients of viscosity and heat conduction and (ii) has its signal speeds bounded sharply by the speed of light. Based on these properties, we propose this system as a natural candidate for the relativistic counterpart of the classical Navier-Stokes equations.

  14. Causal dissipation for the relativistic dynamics of ideal gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake

    2017-05-01

    We derive a general class of relativistic dissipation tensors by requiring that, combined with the relativistic Euler equations, they form a second-order system of partial differential equations which is symmetric hyperbolic in a second-order sense when written in the natural Godunov variables that make the Euler equations symmetric hyperbolic in the first-order sense. We show that this class contains a unique element representing a causal formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics which (i) is equivalent to the classical descriptions by Eckart and Landau to first order in the coefficients of viscosity and heat conduction and (ii) has its signal speeds bounded sharply by the speed of light. Based on these properties, we propose this system as a natural candidate for the relativistic counterpart of the classical Navier-Stokes equations.

  15. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ván, P.

    2017-03-01

    Single-component nonrelativistic dissipative fluids are treated independently of reference frames and flow-frames. First the basic fields and their balances are derived, then the related thermodynamic relations and the entropy production are calculated and the linear constitutive relations are given. The usual basic fields of mass, momentum, energy and their current densities, the heat flux, pressure tensor and diffusion flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third-order mass-momentum-energy density-flux four-tensor. The corresponding Galilean transformation rules of the physical quantities are derived. It is proved that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic frame theory, including the thermostatic Gibbs relation and extensivity condition and also the entropy production, is independent of the reference frame and also the flow-frame of the fluid. The continuity-Fourier-Navier-Stokes equations are obtained almost in the traditional form if the flow of the fluid is fixed to the temperature. This choice of the flow-frame is the thermo-flow. A simple consequence of the theory is that the relation between the total, kinetic and internal energies is a Galilean transformation rule.

  16. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ván, P.

    2017-01-01

    Single-component nonrelativistic dissipative fluids are treated independently of reference frames and flow-frames. First the basic fields and their balances are derived, then the related thermodynamic relations and the entropy production are calculated and the linear constitutive relations are given. The usual basic fields of mass, momentum, energy and their current densities, the heat flux, pressure tensor and diffusion flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third-order mass-momentum-energy density-flux four-tensor. The corresponding Galilean transformation rules of the physical quantities are derived. It is proved that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic frame theory, including the thermostatic Gibbs relation and extensivity condition and also the entropy production, is independent of the reference frame and also the flow-frame of the fluid. The continuity-Fourier-Navier-Stokes equations are obtained almost in the traditional form if the flow of the fluid is fixed to the temperature. This choice of the flow-frame is the thermo-flow. A simple consequence of the theory is that the relation between the total, kinetic and internal energies is a Galilean transformation rule.

  17. Dissipation in relativistic superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakov, M. E.; Kantor, E. M.; Chugunov, A. I.; Gualtieri, L.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse damping of oscillations of general relativistic superfluid neutron stars. To this aim we extend the method of decoupling of superfluid and normal oscillation modes first suggested in Gusakov & Kantor. All calculations are made self-consistently within the finite temperature superfluid hydrodynamics. The general analytic formulas are derived for damping times due to the shear and bulk viscosities. These formulas describe both normal and superfluid neutron stars and are valid for oscillation modes of arbitrary multipolarity. We show that (i) use of the ordinary one-fluid hydrodynamics is a good approximation, for most of the stellar temperatures, if one is interested in calculation of the damping times of normal f modes, (ii) for radial and p modes such an approximation is poor and (iii) the temperature dependence of damping times undergoes a set of rapid changes associated with resonance coupling of neighbouring oscillation modes. The latter effect can substantially accelerate viscous damping of normal modes in certain stages of neutron-star thermal evolution.

  18. Simple waves in relativistic fluids.

    PubMed

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2010-11-01

    We consider the Riemann problem for relativistic flows of polytropic fluids and find relations for the flow characteristics. Evolution of physical quantities takes especially simple form for the case of cold magnetized plasmas. We find exact explicit analytical solutions for one-dimensional expansion of magnetized plasma into vacuum, valid for arbitrary magnetization. We also consider expansion into cold unmagnetized external medium both for stationary initial conditions and for initially moving plasma, as well as reflection of rarefaction wave from a wall. We also find self-similar structure of three-dimensional magnetized outflows into vacuum, valid close to the plasma-vacuum interface.

  19. Relabeling symmetry in relativistic fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazura, Yohei; Yoshida, Zensho; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2014-10-01

    The conservation of the recently formulated relativistic canonical helicity is derived from Noether's theorem with the fluid elements' relabeling symmetry. Upon Eulerianizing the Noether current, the purely spatial volume integral on the Lagrangian coordinates is mapped to a space-time mixed three-dimensional integral on the four-dimensional Eulerian coordinates. The relativistic conservation law in the Eulerian coordinates is no longer represented by any divergence-free current. We have also formulated a relativistic action principle of MHD on the Lagrangian coordinates, and have derived the relativistic MHD cross helicity. Work supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows 241010.

  20. Dissipation process of binary gas mixtures in thermally relativistic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, dissipation process of binary gas mixtures in thermally relativistic flows is discussed with focus on characteristics of diffusion flux. As an analytical object, we consider the relativistic rarefied-shock layer around a triangular prism. Numerical results for the diffusion flux are compared with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) order approximation of the diffusion flux, which is calculated using the diffusion and thermal-diffusion coefficients by Kox et al (1976 Physica A 84 165-74). In the case of uniform flow with small Lorentz contraction, the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is roughly approximated by the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, whereas the diffusion flux in the vicinity of a wall is markedly different from the NSF order approximation. The magnitude of the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is similar to that of the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, unlike the pressure deviator, dynamic pressure and heat flux, even when the Lorentz contraction in the uniform flow becomes large, because the diffusion flux does not depend on the generic Knudsen number from its definition in Eckart’s frame. Finally, the author concludes that for accuracy diffusion flux must be calculated using the particle four-flow and averaged four velocity, which are formulated using the four velocity defined by each species of hard spherical particles.

  1. Applicability of causal dissipative hydrodynamics to relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huovinen, Pasi; Molnar, Denes

    2009-01-01

    We utilize nonequilibrium covariant transport theory to determine the region of validity of causal Israel-Stewart (IS) dissipative hydrodynamics and Navier-Stokes (NS) theory for relativistic heavy ion physics applications. A massless ideal gas with 2→2 interactions is considered in a Bjorken scenario in 0 + 1 dimension (D) appropriate for the early longitudinal expansion stage of the collision. In the scale-invariant case of a constant shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s≈const, we find that IS theory is accurate within 10% in calculating dissipative effects if initially the expansion time scale exceeds half the transport mean free path τ0/λtr,0≳2. The same accuracy with NS requires three times larger τ0/λtr,0≳6. For dynamics driven by a constant cross section, on the other hand, about 50% larger τ0/λtr,0≳3 (IS) and 9 (NS) are needed. For typical applications at energies currently available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), i.e., sNN~100-200 GeV, these limits imply that even the IS approach becomes marginal when η/s≳0.15. In addition, we find that the “naive” approximation to IS theory, which neglects products of gradients and dissipative quantities, has an even smaller range of applicability than Navier-Stokes. We also obtain analytic IS and NS solutions in 0 + 1D, and present further tests for numerical dissipative hydrodynamics codes in 1 + 1, 2 + 1, and 3 + 1D based on generalized conservation laws.

  2. Extrema Principles Of Dissipation In Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses application of principle of least action and other variational or extrema principles to dissipation of energy and production of entropy in fluids. Principle of least action applied successfully to dynamics of particles and to quantum mechanics, but not universally accepted that variational principles applicable to thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. Report argues for applicability of some extrema principles to some simple flows.

  3. Linking the hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a dissipative relativistic conformal theory

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, E.; Peralta-Ramos, J.

    2010-11-15

    We use the entropy production variational method to associate a one-particle distribution function to the assumed known energy-momentum and entropy currents describing a relativistic conformal fluid. Assuming a simple form for the collision operator we find this one-particle distribution function explicitly, and show that this method of linking the hydro and kinetic descriptions is a nontrivial generalization of Grad's ansatz. The resulting constitutive relations are the same as in the conformal dissipative type theories discussed by J. Peralta-Ramos and E. Calzetta [Phys. Rev. D 80, 126002 (2009)]. Our results may prove useful in the description of freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  4. Molecular dynamics approach to dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics: Propagation of fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahsavar, Leila; Ghodrat, Malihe; Montakhab, Afshin

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic generalization of hydrodynamic theory has attracted much attention from a theoretical point of view. However, it has many important practical applications in high energy as well as astrophysical contexts. Despite various attempts to formulate relativistic hydrodynamics, no definitive consensus has been achieved. In this work, we propose to test the predictions of four types of first-order hydrodynamic theories for nonperfect fluids in the light of numerically exact molecular dynamics simulations of a fully relativistic particle system in the low density regime. In this regard, we study the propagation of density, velocity, and heat fluctuations in a wide range of temperatures using extensive simulations and compare them to the corresponding analytic expressions we obtain for each of the proposed theories. As expected, in the low temperature classical regime all theories give the same results, consistent with the numerics. In the high temperature extremely relativistic regime, not all considered theories are distinguishable from one another. However, in the intermediate regime, a meaningful distinction exists in the predictions of various theories considered here. We find that the predictions of the recent formulation due to Tsumura, Kunihiro, and Ohnishi are more consistent with our numerical results than the traditional theories: the Meixner, modified Eckart, and modified Marle-Stewart theories.

  5. Fields and fluids on curved non-relativistic spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M.

    2015-08-01

    We consider non-relativistic curved geometries and argue that the background structure should be generalized from that considered in previous works. In this approach the derivative operator is defined by a Galilean spin connection valued in the Lie algebra of the Galilean group. This includes the usual spin connection plus an additional "boost connection" which parameterizes the freedom in the derivative operator not fixed by torsion or metric compatibility. As an example we write down the most general theory of dissipative fluids consistent with the second law in curved non-relativistic geometries and find significant differences in the allowed transport coefficients from those found previously. Kubo formulas for all response coefficients are presented. Our approach also immediately generalizes to systems with independent mass and charge currents as would arise in multicomponent fluids. Along the way we also discuss how to write general locally Galilean invariant non-relativistic actions for multiple particle species at any order in derivatives. A detailed review of the geometry and its relation to non-relativistic limits may be found in a companion paper.

  6. Spinodal phase decomposition with dissipative fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J.

    2012-06-15

    The spinodal amplification of density fluctuations is treated perturbatively within dissipative fluid dynamics including not only shear and bulk viscosity but also heat conduction, as well as a gradient term in the local pressure. The degree of spinodal amplification is calculated along specific dynamical phase trajectories and the results suggest that the effect can be greatly enhanced by tuning the collision energy so that maximum compression occurs inside the region of spinodal instability.

  7. Nuclear Dissipation via Peripheral Collisions with Relativistic Radioactive Actinides Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, C.; Heinz, A.; Jurado, B.; Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.-H.

    2007-05-22

    Peripheral collisions with radioactive actinide beams at relativistic energies are proposed as a relevant approach for the study of dissipation in nuclear matter. The characteristics of the systems resulting from the primary fragmentation of such beams are particularly well suited for probing the controversial existence of a sizeable delay in fission. Thanks to the radioactive beam facility at GSI an unusually large set of data involving about 60 secondary unstable projectiles between At and U has been collected under identical conditions. The properties of the set-up enabled the coincident measurement of the atomic number of both fission fragments, permitting a judicious classification of the data. The width of the fission-fragment charge distribution is shown to establish a thermometer at the saddle point which is directly related to the transient delay caused by the friction force. From a comparison with realistic model calculations, the dissipation strength at small deformation and the transient time are inferred. The present strategy is promoted as a complementary approach that avoids some complex problems inherent to conventional techniques. Combined to the paramount size of the data set, it sheds light on contradictory conclusions that have been published in the past. There is at this point no definite consensus on our understanding of the damping process in fission.

  8. Instabilities in a Relativistic Viscous Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona-Galindo, M. G.; Klapp, J.; Vazquez, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Las ecuaciones hidrodinamicas de un fluido imperfecto relativista son resueltas, y los modos hidrodinamicos son analizados con el prop6sito de estabiecer correlaciones con las estructuras cosmol6gicas. ABSTRACT The hydrodynamical equations of a relativistic imperfect fluid are solved, and the hydrodynamical modes are analysed with the aim to establish correlations with cosmological structures. Ke, words: COSMOLOGY - HYDRODYNAMICS - RELATIVITY

  9. Relabeling symmetry in relativistic fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazura, Yohei; Yoshida, Zensho; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2014-11-01

    The conservation of the recently formulated relativistic canonical helicity (Yoshida et al 2014 J. Math. Phys. 55 043101) is derived from Noether's theorem by constructing an action principle on the relativistic Lagrangian coordinates (we obtain general cross helicities that include the helicity of the canonical vorticity). The conservation law is, then, explained by the relabeling symmetry pertinent to the Lagrangian label of fluid elements. Upon Eulerianizing the Noether current, the purely spatial volume integral on the Lagrangian coordinates is mapped to a space-time mixed three-dimensional integral on the four-dimensional Eulerian coordinates. The relativistic conservation law in the Eulerian coordinates is no longer represented by any divergence-free current; hence, it is not adequate to regard the relativistic helicity (represented by the Eulerian variables) as a Noether charge, and this stands the reason why the ‘conventional helicity’ is no longer a constant of motion. We have also formulated a relativistic action principle of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on the Lagrangian coordinates, and have derived the relativistic MHD cross helicity.

  10. Fluid dynamical description of relativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, J. R.; Strottman, D.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of both a conventional relativistic nuclear fluid dynamic model and a two fluid generalization that takes into account the interpenetration of the target and projectile upon contact, collisions between heavy nuclei moving at relativistic speeds are calculated. This is done by solving the relevant equations of motion numerically in three spatial dimensions by use of particle in cell finite difference computing techniques. The effect of incorporating a density isomer, or quasistable state, in the nuclear equation of state at three times normal nuclear density, and the effect of doubling the nuclear compressibility coefficient are studied. For the reaction 20Ne + 238U at a laboratory bombarding energy per nucleon of 393 MeV, the calculated distributions in energy and angle of outgoing charged particles are compared with recent experimental data both integrated over all impact parameters and for nearly central collisions.

  11. grim: A Flexible, Conservative Scheme for Relativistic Fluid Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Mani; Foucart, Francois; Gammie, Charles F.

    2017-03-01

    Hot, diffuse, relativistic plasmas such as sub-Eddington black-hole accretion flows are expected to be collisionless, yet are commonly modeled as a fluid using ideal general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). Dissipative effects such as heat conduction and viscosity can be important in a collisionless plasma and will potentially alter the dynamics and radiative properties of the flow from that in ideal fluid models; we refer to models that include these processes as Extended GRMHD. Here we describe a new conservative code, grim, that enables all of the above and additional physics to be efficiently incorporated. grim combines time evolution and primitive variable inversion needed for conservative schemes into a single step using an algorithm that only requires the residuals of the governing equations as inputs. This algorithm enables the code to be physics agnostic as well as flexibility regarding time-stepping schemes. grim runs on CPUs, as well as on GPUs, using the same code. We formulate a performance model and use it to show that our implementation runs optimally on both architectures. grim correctly captures classical GRMHD test problems as well as a new suite of linear and nonlinear test problems with anisotropic conduction and viscosity in special and general relativity. As tests and example applications, we resolve the shock substructure due to the presence of dissipation, and report on relativistic versions of the magneto-thermal instability and heat flux driven buoyancy instability, which arise due to anisotropic heat conduction, and of the firehose instability, which occurs due to anisotropic pressure (i.e., viscosity). Finally, we show an example integration of an accretion flow around a Kerr black hole, using Extended GRMHD.

  12. Investigation of shock waves in the relativistic Riemann problem: A comparison of viscous fluid dynamics to kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bouras, I.; El, A.; Fochler, O.; Greiner, C.; Molnar, E.; Niemi, H.; Xu, Z.; Rischke, D. H.

    2010-08-15

    We solve the relativistic Riemann problem in viscous matter using the relativistic Boltzmann equation and the relativistic causal dissipative fluid-dynamical approach of Israel and Stewart. Comparisons between these two approaches clarify and point out the regime of validity of second-order fluid dynamics in relativistic shock phenomena. The transition from ideal to viscous shocks is demonstrated by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio {eta}/s. We also find that a good agreement between these two approaches requires a Knudsen number Kn<1/2.

  13. TWO-FLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF RELATIVISTIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex

    2009-05-10

    We investigate the large-scale evolution of a relativistic magnetic reconnection in an electron-positron pair plasma by a relativistic two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. We introduce an interspecies friction force as an effective resistivity to dissipate magnetic fields. We demonstrate that magnetic reconnection successfully occurs in our two-fluid system, and that it involves Petschek-type bifurcated current layers in a later stage. We further observe a quasi-steady evolution thanks to an open boundary condition, and find that the Petschek-type structure is stable over the long time period. Simulation results and theoretical analyses exhibit that the Petschek outflow channel becomes narrower when the reconnection inflow contains more magnetic energy, as previously claimed. Meanwhile, we find that the reconnection rate goes up to {approx}1 in extreme cases, which is faster than previously thought. The role of the resistivity, implications for reconnection models in the magnetically dominated limit, and relevance to kinetic reconnection works are discussed.

  14. New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton Singh, Ksh; Pradhan, Narendra; Pant, Neeraj

    2017-08-01

    A new exact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropic massive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two compact stars, namely, XTE J1739-289 (strange star 1.51M_{⊙}, 10.9 km) and PSR J1614-2230 (neutron star 1.97M_{⊙}, 14 km). The solution also satisfies all energy conditions with the compactness parameter lying within the Buchdahl limit.

  15. Nonlocal dynamics of dissipative phononic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemati, Navid; Lee, Yoonkyung E.; Lafarge, Denis; Duclos, Aroune; Fang, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    We describe the nonlocal effective properties of a two-dimensional dissipative phononic crystal made by periodic arrays of rigid and motionless cylinders embedded in a viscothermal fluid such as air. The description is based on a nonlocal theory of sound propagation in stationary random fluid/rigid media that was proposed by Lafarge and Nemati [Wave Motion 50, 1016 (2013), 10.1016/j.wavemoti.2013.04.007]. This scheme arises from a deep analogy with electromagnetism and a set of physics-based postulates including, particularly, the action-response procedures, whereby the effective density and bulk modulus are determined. Here, we revisit this approach, and clarify further its founding physical principles through presenting it in a unified formulation together with the two-scale asymptotic homogenization theory that is interpreted as the local limit. Strong evidence is provided to show that the validity of the principles and postulates within the nonlocal theory extends to high-frequency bands, well beyond the long-wavelength regime. In particular, we demonstrate that up to the third Brillouin zone including the Bragg scattering, the complex and dispersive phase velocity of the least-attenuated wave in the phononic crystal which is generated by our nonlocal scheme agrees exactly with that reproduced by a direct approach based on the Bloch theorem and multiple scattering method. In high frequencies, the effective wave and its associated parameters are analyzed by treating the phononic crystal as a random medium.

  16. A two-fluid model for relativistic heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    López-Monsalvo, César S.

    2014-01-14

    Three years ago it was presented in these proceedings the relativistic dynamics of a multi-fluid system together with various applications to a set of topical problems [1]. In this talk, I will start from such dynamics and present a covariant formulation of relativistic thermodynamics which provides us with a causal constitutive equation for the propagation of heat in a relativistic setting.

  17. RELATIVISTIC TWO-FLUID SIMULATIONS OF GUIDE FIELD MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex

    2009-11-01

    The nonlinear evolution of relativistic magnetic reconnection in sheared magnetic configuration (with a guide field) is investigated by using two-dimensional relativistic two-fluid simulations. Relativistic guide field reconnection features the charge separation and the guide field compression in and around the outflow channel. As the guide field increases, the composition of the outgoing energy changes from enthalpy-dominated to Poynting-dominated. The inertial effects of the two-fluid model play an important role to sustain magnetic reconnection. Implications for the single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic approach and the physics models of relativistic reconnection are briefly addressed.

  18. A covariant action principle for dissipative fluid dynamics: from formalism to fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, N.; Comer, G. L.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new variational framework for dissipative general relativistic fluid dynamics. The model extends the convective variational principle for multi-fluid systems to account for a range of dissipation channels. The key ingredients in the construction are (i) the use of a lower dimensional matter space for each fluid component, and (ii) an extended functional dependence for the associated volume forms. In an effort to make the concepts clear, the formalism is developed step-by-step with model examples considered at each level. Thus we consider a model for heat flow, derive the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations and discuss why the individual dissipative stress tensors need not be spacetime symmetric. We argue that the new formalism, which notably does not involve an expansion away from an assumed equilibrium state, provides a conceptual breakthrough in this area of research. We also provide an ambitious list of directions in which one may want to extend it in the future. This involves an exciting set of problems, relating to both applications and foundational issues.

  19. A hydrodynamic approach to the study of anisotropic instabilities in dissipative relativistic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra

    2016-12-01

    We develop a purely hydrodynamic formalism to describe collisional, anisotropic instabilities in a relativistic plasma, that are usually described with kinetic theory tools. Our main motivation is the fact that coarse-grained models of high particle number systems give more clear and comprehensive physical descriptions of those systems than purely kinetic approaches, and can be more easily tested experimentally as well as numerically. Also they make it easier to follow perturbations from linear to nonlinear regimes. In particular, we aim at developing a theory that describes both a background nonequilibrium fluid configurations and its perturbations, to be able to account for the backreaction of the latter on the former. Our system of equations includes the usual conservation laws for the energy-momentum tensor and for the electric current, and the equations for two new tensors that encode the information about dissipation. To make contact with kinetic theory, we write the different tensors as the moments of a nonequilibrium one-particle distribution function (1pdf) which, for illustrative purposes, we take in the form of a Grad-like ansatz. Although this choice limits the applicability of the formalism to states not far from equilibrium, it retains the main features of the underlying kinetic theory. We assume the validity of the Vlasov-Boltzmann equation, with a collision integral given by the Anderson-Witting prescription, which is more suitable for highly relativistic systems than Marle’s (or Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook) form, and derive the conservation laws by taking its corresponding moments. We apply our developments to study the emergence of instabilities in an anisotropic, but axially symmetric background. For small departures of isotropy we find the dispersion relation for normal modes, which admit unstable solutions for a wide range of values of the parameter space.

  20. Relativistic second-order dissipative hydrodynamics at finite chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Amaresh; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Starting from the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation and employing a Chapman-Enskog like expansion for the distribution function close to equilibrium, we derive second-order evolution equations for the shear stress tensor and the dissipative charge current for a system of massless quarks and gluons. The transport coefficients are obtained exactly using quantum statistics for the phase space distribution functions at non-zero chemical potential. We show that, within the relaxation time approximation, the second-order evolution equations for the shear stress tensor and the dissipative charge current can be decoupled. We find that, for large values of the ratio of chemical potential to temperature, the charge conductivity is small compared to the coefficient of shear viscosity. Moreover, we show that in the relaxation-time approximation, the limiting behaviour of the ratio of heat conductivity to shear viscosity is qualitatively similar to that obtained for a strongly coupled conformal plasma.

  1. Effective actions for relativistic fluids from holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Heller, Michal P.; Pinzani-Fokeeva, Natalia

    2015-08-01

    Motivated by recent progress in developing action formulations of relativistic hydrodynamics, we use holography to derive the low energy dissipationless effective action for strongly coupled conformal fluids. Our analysis is based on the study of novel double Dirichlet problems for the gravitational field, in which the boundary conditions are set on two codimension one timelike hypersurfaces (branes). We provide a geometric interpretation of the Goldstone bosons appearing in such constructions in terms of a family of spatial geodesics extending between the ultraviolet and the infrared brane. Furthermore, we discuss supplementing double Dirichlet problems with information about the near-horizon geometry. We show that upon coupling to a membrane paradigm boundary condition, our approach reproduces correctly the complex dispersion relation for both sound and shear waves. We also demonstrate that upon a Wick rotation, our formulation reproduces the equilibrium partition function formalism, provided the near- horizon geometry is properly accounted for. Finally, we define the conserved hydrodynamic entropy current as the Noether current associated with a particular transformation of the Goldstone bosons.

  2. Entropy production for a relativistic simple fluid in a weak electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Perciante, A. L.; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A.; Brun-Battistini, D.

    2016-11-01

    Thermal dissipation in plasmas includes a variety of effects, most of them arising from the fact that these gases are usually composed of at least two species. In the case of a mild temperature single component charged fluid kinetic theory indicates that the temperature gradient is the only source of vector-type dissipation. However, if the temperature increases to a point in which the molecule's velocities approach the speed of light, electrothermal dissipation is possible even for the single component charged gas. The modification to the structure of the entropy production introduced by this effect is established in order to address the second law of thermodynamics for such a system. The entropy balance equation is obtained from the relativistic Boltzmann equation and the vector contribution to the entropy production is calculated in terms of the thermodynamic forces and the electromagnetic field using Chapman-Enskog's expansion. It is shown that the structure is consistent with the constitutive equation previously reported, in which a thermoelectric effect was found for a single component relativistic fluid. This effect does not have a non-relativistic counterpart and presents no ambiguity regarding the frame chosen as the comoving frame, which is an issue in the mixture case.

  3. Dissipative effects on nonlinear waves in rotating fluids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibovich, S.; Randall, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Modifications to the existing inviscid theory of long-wave propagation in rotating fluids are studied. A modification to the Korteweg-deVries equation is found to describe weak dissipation in long waves in a swirling fluid. General features of solutions are discussed, and a solution for the damping of solitary waves is presented.

  4. Time-dependent closure relations for relativistic collisionless fluid equations.

    PubMed

    Bendib-Kalache, K; Bendib, A; El Hadj, K Mohammed

    2010-11-01

    Linear fluid equations for relativistic and collisionless plasmas are derived. Closure relations for the fluid equations are analytically computed from the relativistic Vlasov equation in the Fourier space (ω,k), where ω and k are the conjugate variables of time t and space x variables, respectively. The mathematical method used is based on the projection operator techniques and the continued fraction mathematical tools. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated for arbitrary parameter ω/kc where c is the speed of light, and for arbitrary relativistic parameter z=mc²/T , where m is the particle rest mass and T, the plasma temperature in energy units.

  5. Time-dependent closure relations for relativistic collisionless fluid equations

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib-Kalache, K.; Bendib, A.; El Hadj, K. Mohammed

    2010-11-15

    Linear fluid equations for relativistic and collisionless plasmas are derived. Closure relations for the fluid equations are analytically computed from the relativistic Vlasov equation in the Fourier space ({omega},k), where {omega} and k are the conjugate variables of time t and space x variables, respectively. The mathematical method used is based on the projection operator techniques and the continued fraction mathematical tools. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated for arbitrary parameter {omega}/kc where c is the speed of light, and for arbitrary relativistic parameter z=mc{sup 2}/T, where m is the particle rest mass and T, the plasma temperature in energy units.

  6. Global Regularity for Several Incompressible Fluid Models with Partial Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiahong; Xu, Xiaojing; Ye, Zhuan

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines the global regularity problem on several 2D incompressible fluid models with partial dissipation. They are the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) equation, the 2D Euler equation and the 2D Boussinesq equations. These are well-known models in fluid mechanics and geophysics. The fundamental issue of whether or not they are globally well-posed has attracted enormous attention. The corresponding models with partial dissipation may arise in physical circumstances when the dissipation varies in different directions. We show that the SQG equation with either horizontal or vertical dissipation always has global solutions. This is in sharp contrast with the inviscid SQG equation for which the global regularity problem remains outstandingly open. Although the 2D Euler is globally well-posed for sufficiently smooth data, the associated equations with partial dissipation no longer conserve the vorticity and the global regularity is not trivial. We are able to prove the global regularity for two partially dissipated Euler equations. Several global bounds are also obtained for a partially dissipated Boussinesq system.

  7. Global Regularity for Several Incompressible Fluid Models with Partial Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiahong; Xu, Xiaojing; Ye, Zhuan

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the global regularity problem on several 2D incompressible fluid models with partial dissipation. They are the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) equation, the 2D Euler equation and the 2D Boussinesq equations. These are well-known models in fluid mechanics and geophysics. The fundamental issue of whether or not they are globally well-posed has attracted enormous attention. The corresponding models with partial dissipation may arise in physical circumstances when the dissipation varies in different directions. We show that the SQG equation with either horizontal or vertical dissipation always has global solutions. This is in sharp contrast with the inviscid SQG equation for which the global regularity problem remains outstandingly open. Although the 2D Euler is globally well-posed for sufficiently smooth data, the associated equations with partial dissipation no longer conserve the vorticity and the global regularity is not trivial. We are able to prove the global regularity for two partially dissipated Euler equations. Several global bounds are also obtained for a partially dissipated Boussinesq system.

  8. Relativistic Fluid Dynamics: Physics for Many Different Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Nils; Comer, Gregory L.

    2007-12-01

    The relativistic fluid is a highly successful model used to describe the dynamics of many-particle, relativistic systems. It takes as input basic physics from microscopic scales and yields as output predictions of bulk, macroscopic motion. By inverting the process, an understanding of bulk features can lead to insight into physics on the microscopic scale. Relativistic fluids have been used to model systems as “small” as heavy ions in collisions, and as large as the Universe itself, with “intermediate” sized objects like neutron stars being considered along the way. The purpose of this review is to discuss the mathematical and theoretical physics underpinnings of the relativistic (multiple) fluid model. We focus on the variational principle approach championed by Brandon Carter and his collaborators, in which a crucial element is to distinguish the momenta that are conjugate to the particle number density currents. This approach differs from the “standard” text-book derivation of the equations of motion from the divergence of the stress-energy tensor in that one explicitly obtains the relativistic Euler equation as an “integrability” condition on the relativistic vorticity. We discuss the conservation laws and the equations of motion in detail, and provide a number of (in our opinion) interesting and relevant applications of the general theory.

  9. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, Patryk; Malec, Edward

    2015-06-01

    We formulate new general-relativistic extensions of Newtonian rotation laws for self-gravitating stationary fluids. They have been used to rederive, in the first post-Newtonian approximation, the well-known geometric dragging of frames. We derive two other general-relativistic weak-field effects within rotating tori: the recently discovered dynamic antidragging and a new effect that measures the deviation from the Keplerian motion and/or the contribution of the fluids self-gravity. One can use the rotation laws to study the uniqueness and the convergence of the post-Newtonian approximations as well as the existence of the post-Newtonian limits.

  10. Nonlinear waves and shocks in relativistic two-fluid hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haim, L.; Gedalin, M.; Spitkovsky, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Balikhin, M.

    2012-06-01

    Relativistic shocks are present in a number of objects where violent processes are accompanied by relativistic outflows of plasma. The magnetization parameter σ = B2/4πnmc2 of the ambient medium varies in wide range. Shocks with low σ are expected to substantially enhance the magnetic fields in the shock front. In non-relativistic shocks the magnetic compression is limited by nonlinear effects related to the deceleration of flow. Two-fluid analysis of perpendicular relativistic shocks shows that the nonlinearities are suppressed for σ<<1 and the magnetic field reaches nearly equipartition values when the magnetic energy density is of the order of the ion energy density, Beq2 ~ 4πnmic2γ. A large cross-shock potential eφ/mic2γ0 ~ B2/Beq2 develops across the electron-ion shock front. This potential is responsible for electron energization.

  11. Dissipative dynamics of fluid lipid membranes enriched in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Laura R; Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; Moleiro, Lara H; Prévost, Sylvain; López-Montero, Iván; Hellweg, Thomas; Monroy, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Cholesterol is an intriguing component of fluid lipid membranes: It makes them stiffer but also more fluid. Despite the enormous biological significance of this complex dynamical behavior, which blends aspects of membrane elasticity with viscous friction, their mechanical bases remain however poorly understood. Here, we show that the incorporation of physiologically relevant contents of cholesterol in model fluid membranes produces a fourfold increase in the membrane bending modulus. However, the increase in the compression rigidity that we measure is only twofold; this indicates that cholesterol increases coupling between the two membrane leaflets. In addition, we show that although cholesterol makes each membrane leaflet more fluid, it increases the friction between the membrane leaflets. This dissipative dynamics causes opposite but advantageous effects over different membrane motions: It allows the membrane to rearrange quickly in the lateral dimension, and to simultaneously dissipate out-of-plane stresses through friction between the two membrane leaflets. Moreover, our results provide a clear correlation between coupling and friction of membrane leaflets. Furthermore, we show that these rigid membranes are optimal to resist slow deformations with minimum energy dissipation; their optimized stability might be exploited to design soft technological microsystems with an encoded mechanics, vesicles or capsules for instance, useful beyond classical applications as model biophysical systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Relativistic perfect fluids in local thermal equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Bartolomé; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Sáez, Juan Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Every evolution of a fluid is uniquely described by an energy tensor. But the converse is not true: an energy tensor may describe the evolution of different fluids. The problem of determining them is called here the inverse problem. This problem may admit unphysical or non-deterministic solutions. This paper is devoted to solve the inverse problem for perfect energy tensors in the class of perfect fluids evolving in local thermal equilibrium (l.t.e.). The starting point is a previous result (Coll and Ferrando in J Math Phys 30:2918-2922, 1989) showing that thermodynamic fluids evolving in l.t.e. admit a purely hydrodynamic characterization. This characterization allows solving this inverse problem in a very compact form. The paradigmatic case of perfect energy tensors representing the evolution of ideal gases is studied in detail and some applications and examples are outlined.

  13. A Causal, Covariant Theory of Dissipative Fluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scofield, Dillon; Huq, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    The use of newtonian viscous dissipation theory in covariant fluid flow theories is known to lead to predictions that are inconsistent with the second law of thermodynamics and to predictions that are acausal. For instance, these problems effectively limit the covariant form of the Navier-Stokes theory (NST) to time-independent flow regimes. Thus the NST, the work horse of fluid dynamical theory, is limited in its ability to model time-dependent turbulent, stellar or thermonuclear flows. We show how such problems are avoided by a new geometrodynamical theory of fluids. This theory is based on a recent result of geometrodynamics showing current conservation implies gauge field creation, called the vortex field lemma and classification of flows by their Pfaff dimension. Experimental confirmation of the theory is reviewed.

  14. Instabilities in relativistic two-component (super)fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Alexander; Schmitt, Andreas; Stetina, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We study two-fluid systems with nonzero fluid velocities and compute their sound modes, which indicate various instabilities. For the case of two zero-temperature superfluids we employ a microscopic field-theoretical model of two coupled bosonic fields, including an entrainment coupling and a nonentrainment coupling. We analyze the onset of the various instabilities systematically and point out that the dynamical two-stream instability can occur only beyond Landau's critical velocity, i.e., in an already energetically unstable regime. A qualitative difference is found for the case of two normal fluids, where certain transverse modes suffer a two-stream instability in an energetically stable regime if there is entrainment between the fluids. Since we work in a fully relativistic setup, our results are very general and are of potential relevance for (super)fluids in neutron stars and, in the nonrelativistic limit of our results, in the laboratory.

  15. On the role of dissipation in structure formation for dilute relativistic gases: the fluctuating static background case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Perciante, A. L.; Méndez, A. R.; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A.

    2017-07-01

    A correction to the Jeans stability criterion due to dissipation is established for the case of dilute high temperature gases. This effect is only relevant in the relativistic scenario and includes additional terms due to a density gradient driven heat flux, a non-vanishing bulk viscosity and the space-time dependent gravitational potential first order fluctuations. The result is obtained by thoroughly analyzing the exponentially growing modes present in the dynamics of density fluctuations in the linearized relativistic Navier-Stokes regime. The corrections to the corresponding Jeans mass and wavenumber are explicitly obtained and are compared to the non-relativistic and non-dissipative values using the transport coefficients obtained in the BGK approximation.

  16. Relativistic MHD simulations of core-collapse GRB jets: 3D instabilities and magnetic dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberg, Omer; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Relativistic jets are associated with extreme astrophysical phenomena, like the core collapse of massive stars in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the accretion on to supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. It is generally accepted that these jets are powered electromagnetically, by the magnetized rotation of a central compact object (black hole or neutron star). However, how the jets produce the observed emission and survive the propagation for many orders of magnitude in distance without being disrupted by current-driven instabilities is the subject of active debate. We carry out time-dependent 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of relativistic, Poynting-flux-dominated jets. The jets are launched self-consistently by the rotation of a strongly magnetized central object. This determines the natural degree of azimuthal magnetic field winding, a crucial factor that controls jet stability. We find that the jets are susceptible to two types of instability: (i) a global, external kink mode that grows on long time-scales. It bodily twists the jet, reducing its propagation velocity. We show analytically that in flat density profiles, like the ones associated with galactic cores, the external mode grows and may stall the jet. In the steep profiles of stellar envelopes the external kink weakens as the jet propagates outward. (ii) a local, internal kink mode that grows over short time-scales and causes small-angle magnetic reconnection and conversion of about half of the jet electromagnetic energy flux into heat. We suggest that internal kink instability is the main dissipation mechanism responsible for powering GRB prompt emission.

  17. Relativistic Particle and Relativistic Fluids: Magnetic Moment and Spin-Orbit Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabali, Dimitra; Nair, V. P.

    2014-11-01

    We consider relativistic charged-particle dynamics and relativistic magnetohydrodynamics using symplectic structures and actions given in terms of coadjoint orbits of the Poincaré group. The particle case is meant to clarify some points such as how minimal coupling (as defined in the text) leads to a gyromagnetic ratio g =2 and to set the stage for fluid dynamics. The general group-theoretic framework is further explained and is then used to set up Abelian magnetohydrodynamics including spin effects. An interesting new physical effect is precession of spin density induced by gradients in pressure and energy density. The Euler equation (the dynamics of the velocity field) is also modified by gradients of the spin density.

  18. A flux-conservative formalism for convective and dissipative multi-fluid systems, with application to Newtonian superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, N.; Comer, G. L.

    2006-09-01

    We develop a flux-conservative formalism for a Newtonian multi-fluid system, including dissipation and entrainment (i.e. allowing the momentum of one fluid to be a linear combination of the velocities of all fluids). Maximum use is made of mass, energy and linear and angular momentum conservation to specify the equations of motion. Also used extensively are insights gleaned from a convective variational action principle, the key being the distinction between each velocity and its canonically conjugate momentum (which is modified because of entrainment). Dissipation is incorporated to second order in the 'thermodynamic forces' via the approach pioneered by Onsager, which makes it transparent how to guarantee the law of increase of entropy. An immediate goal of the investigation is to understand better the number, and form, of independent dissipation terms required for a consistent set of equations of motion in the multi-fluid context. A significant, but seemingly innocuous detail is that one must be careful to isolate 'forces' that can be written as total gradients, otherwise errors can be made in relating the net internal force to the net externally applied force. Our long-range aim is to provide a formalism that can be used to model dynamical multi-fluid systems both perturbatively and via fully nonlinear 3D numerical evolutions. To elucidate the formalism we consider the standard model for a heat-conducting, superfluid neutron star, which is believed to be dominated by superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons and a highly degenerate, ultra-relativistic gas of normal fluid electrons. We determine that in this case there are, in principle, 19 dissipation coefficients in the final set of equations. A final reduction of the system is made by neglecting heat conduction. This leads to an extension of the standard two-fluid model for neutron star cores, which has been used in a number of previous applications, and illustrates how mutual friction is represented in

  19. Fluid-magnetic helicity in axisymmetric stationary relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, G.

    2017-10-01

    The present work is intended to gain a fruitful insight into the understanding of the formations of magneto-vortex configurations and their role in the physical processes of mutual exchange of energies associated with fluid's motion and the magnetic fields in an axisymmetric stationary hydromagnetic system subject to strong gravitational field (e.g., neutron star/magnetar). It is found that the vorticity flux vector field associated with vorticity 2-form is a linear combination of fluid's vorticity vector and of magnetic vorticity vector. The vorticity flux vector obeys Helmholtz's flux conservation. The energy equation associated with the vorticity flux vector field is deduced. It is shown that the mechanical rotation of vorticity flux surfaces contributes to the formation of vorticity flux vector field. The dynamo action for the generation of toroidal components of vorticity flux vector field is described in the presence of meridional circulations. It is shown that the stretching of twisting magnetic lines due to differential rotation leads to the breakdown of gravitational isorotation in the absence of meridional circulations. An explicit expression consists of rotation of vorticity flux surface, energy and angular momentum per baryon for the fluid-magnetic helicity current vector is obtained. The conservation of fluid-magnetic helicity is demonstrated. It is found that the fluid-magnetic helicity displays the energy spectrum arising due to the interaction between the mechanical rotation of vorticity flux surfaces and the fluid's motion obeying Euler's equations. The dissipation of a linear combination of modified fluid helicity and magnetic twist is shown to occur due to coupled effect of frame dragging and meridional circulation. It is found that the growing twist of magnetic lines causes the dissipation of modified fluid helicity in the absence of meridional circulations.

  20. Relativistic vortex dynamics in axisymmetric stationary perfect fluid configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, G.

    2017-06-01

    Relativistic formulation of Helmholtz's vorticity transport equation is presented on the basis of Maxwell-like version of Euler's equation of motion. Entangled characteristics associated with vorticity flux conservation in a vortex tube and in a stream tube are displayed on basis of Greenberg's theory of spacelike congruence of vortex lines and 1+1+(2) decomposition of the gradient of fluid's 4-velocity. Vorticity flux surfaces are surfaces of revolution about the rotation axis and are rotating with fluid's angular velocity due to gravitational isorotation in a stationary axisymmetric perfect fluid configuration. Fluid's angular velocity, angular momentum per baryon, injection energy, and invariant rotational potential are constant on such vorticity flux surfaces. Gravitation causes distortion of coaxial cylindrical vorticity flux surfaces in the limit of post-Newtonian approximation. The rotation of the fluid with angular velocity relative to vorticity flux surfaces generates swirl which causes the stretching of material vortex lines being wrapped on vorticity flux surfaces. Fluid helicity which is conserved in the fluid's rest frame does not remain conserved in a locally nonrotating frame because of the existence of swirl. Vortex lines are twist free in the absence of meridional circulations, but the twisting of spacetime due to dragging effect leads to the increase in vorticity flux in a vortex tube.

  1. A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, C.L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Sidikman, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes is developed which focuses on an improved description of the ion dynamics. The model is simple enough to allow nonlinear calculations with many harmonics for the times necessary to reach saturation. The model is motivated by a discussion that starts with the gyro-kinetic equation and emphasizes the importance of simultaneously including particular features of magnetic drift resonance, shear, and Landau effects. To ensure that these features are simultaneously incorporated in a Landau fluid model with only two evolution equations, a new approach to determining the closure coefficients is employed. The effect of this technique is to reduce the matching of fluid and kinetic responses to a single variable, rather than two, and to allow focusing on essential features of the fluctuations in question, rather than features that are only important for other types of fluctuations. Radially resolved nonlinear calculations of this model, advanced in time to reach saturation, are presented to partially illustrate its intended use. These calculations have a large number of poloidal and toroidal harmonics to represent the nonlinear dynamics in a converged steady state which includes cascading of energy to both short and long wavelengths.

  2. A dissipative random velocity field for fully developed fluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevillard, Laurent; Pereira, Rodrigo; Garban, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the statistical properties, based on numerical simulations and analytical calculations, of a recently proposed stochastic model for the velocity field of an incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic and fully developed turbulent flow. A key step in the construction of this model is the introduction of some aspects of the vorticity stretching mechanism that governs the dynamics of fluid particles along their trajectory. An additional further phenomenological step aimed at including the long range correlated nature of turbulence makes this model depending on a single free parameter that can be estimated from experimental measurements. We confirm the realism of the model regarding the geometry of the velocity gradient tensor, the power-law behaviour of the moments of velocity increments, including the intermittent corrections, and the existence of energy transfers across scales. We quantify the dependence of these basic properties of turbulent flows on the free parameter and derive analytically the spectrum of exponents of the structure functions in a simplified non dissipative case. A perturbative expansion shows that energy transfers indeed take place, justifying the dissipative nature of this random field.

  3. A relativistic two-fluid model of compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Rahaman, Farook; Mallick, Arkopriya

    2017-03-01

    We propose a relativistic model of compact star admitting conformal symmetry. Quark matter and baryonic matter which are considered as two different fluids, constitute the star. We define interaction equations between the normal baryonic matter and the quark matter and study the physical situations for repulsive, attractive and zero interaction between the constituent matters. The measured value of the Bag constant is used to explore the spacetime geometry inside the star. From the observed values of the masses of some compact objects, we have obtained theoretical values of the radii. Theoretical values of the radii match well with the previous predictions for such compact objects.

  4. Relativistic MHD Simulations of Collision-induced Magnetic Dissipation in Poynting-flux-dominated Jets/outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai

    2015-06-01

    We perform 3D relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD)) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable PFD jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvénic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. Our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke significant magnetic energy dissipation in PFD jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model for gamma-ray bursts, and reconnection triggered mini jets model for active galactic nuclei. The simulation movies are shown in http://www.physics.unlv.edu/∼deng/simulation1.html.

  5. Relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation in poynting-flux-dominated jets/outflows

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai

    2015-05-29

    We perform 3D relativistic ideal MHD simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting- ux-dominated) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable Poynting- ux-dominated jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvenic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini-jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. In conclusion, our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke signi cant magnetic energy dissipation in Poynting- ux-dominated jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence (ICMART) model for GRBs, and reconnection triggered mini-jets model for AGNs.

  6. Relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation in poynting-flux-dominated jets/outflows

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; ...

    2015-05-29

    We perform 3D relativistic ideal MHD simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting- ux-dominated) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable Poynting- ux-dominated jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvenic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in themore » relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini-jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. In conclusion, our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke signi cant magnetic energy dissipation in Poynting- ux-dominated jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence (ICMART) model for GRBs, and reconnection triggered mini-jets model for AGNs.« less

  7. RELATIVISTIC MHD SIMULATIONS OF COLLISION-INDUCED MAGNETIC DISSIPATION IN POYNTING-FLUX-DOMINATED JETS/OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu E-mail: sli@lanl.gov

    2015-06-01

    We perform 3D relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD)) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable PFD jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvénic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. Our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke significant magnetic energy dissipation in PFD jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model for gamma-ray bursts, and reconnection triggered mini jets model for active galactic nuclei. The simulation movies are shown in http://www.physics.unlv.edu/∼deng/simulation1.html.

  8. Mode-by-mode fluid dynamics for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerchinger, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2014-01-01

    We propose to study the fluid dynamic propagation of fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions differentially with respect to their azimuthal, radial and longitudinal wavelength. To this end, we introduce a background-fluctuation splitting and a Bessel-Fourier decomposition of the fluctuating modes. We demonstrate how the fluid dynamic evolution of realistic events can be built up from the propagation of individual modes. We describe the main elements of this mode-by-mode fluid dynamics, and we discuss its use in the fluid dynamic analysis of heavy ion collisions. As a first illustration, we quantify to what extent only fluctuations of sufficiently large radial wave length contribute to harmonic flow coefficients. We find that fluctuations of short wave length are suppressed not only due to larger dissipative effects, but also due to a geometrical averaging over the freeze-out hyper-surface. In this way, our study further substantiates the picture that harmonic flow coefficients give access to a coarse-grained version of the initial conditions for heavy ion collisions, only.

  9. The effect of temperature on generic stable periodic structures in the parameter space of dissipative relativistic standard map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, Ana C. C.; Albuquerque, Holokx A.; Manchein, Cesar

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we have characterized changes in the dynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic standard map in the presence of dissipation and specially when it is submitted to thermal effects modeled by a Gaussian noise reservoir. By the addition of thermal noise in the dissipative relativistic standard map (DRSM) it is possible to suppress typical stable periodic structures (SPSs) embedded in the chaotic domains of parameter space for large enough temperature strengths. Smaller SPSs are first affected by thermal effects, starting from their borders, as a function of temperature. To estimate the necessary temperature strength capable to destroy those SPSs we use the largest Lyapunov exponent to obtain the critical temperature (TC) diagrams. For critical temperatures the chaotic behavior takes place with the suppression of periodic motion, although the temperature strengths considered in this work are not so large to convert the deterministic features of the underlying system into a stochastic ones.

  10. Ideal relativistic fluid limit for a medium with polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, David; Tinti, Leonardo; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2017-09-01

    We use Lagrangian effective field theory techniques to construct the equations of motion for an ideal relativistic fluid of which the constituent degrees of freedom have microscopic polarization. We discuss the meaning of such a system and argue that it is the first term in the Effective Field Theory (EFT) appropriate for describing polarization observables in heavy ion collisions, such as final-state particle polarization and chiral magnetic and vortaic effects. We show that this system will generally require nondissipative dynamics at higher order in the gradient than second order, leading to potential stability issues known with such systems. We comment on the significance of this in the light of conjectured lower limits on viscosity.

  11. Uniqueness of the equilibrium configurations of slowy rotating relativistic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenzle, H.P.; Savage, J.R.

    1980-11-01

    We consider the equations of a general relativistic space-time that is stationary, asymptotically Euclidean, diffeomorphic to R/sup 4/ and consists of an exterior vacuum solution and an interior perfect fluid in rigid motion. If one requires further that the solution be close to the static spherically symmetric ones (in the sense of a suitable topology on the set of stationary space--time metrics) it is shown that for a given equation of state rho( p) and given total mass m and (small) angular momentum J there are no smooth curves of physically distinct global axially symmetric solutions. In view of a recent result of Lindblom that all such space-times are axisymmetric this result is quite general. The method is a generalization of the one used to prove (in a ''local'' sense) the uniqueness of the spherical solution in the static case.

  12. Extrema principles of entropy production and energy dissipation in fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

    1988-01-01

    A survey is presented of several extrema principles of energy dissipation as applied to problems in fluid mechanics. An exact equation is derived for the dissipation function of a homogeneous, isotropic, Newtonian fluid, with terms associated with irreversible compression or expansion, wave radiation, and the square of the vorticity. By using entropy extrema principles, simple flows such as the incompressible channel flow and the cylindrical vortex are identified as minimal dissipative distributions. The principal notions of stability of parallel shear flows appear to be associated with a maximum dissipation condition. These different conditions are consistent with Prigogine's classification of thermodynamic states into categories of equilibrium, linear nonequilibrium, and nonlinear nonequilibrium thermodynamics; vortices and acoustic waves appear as examples of dissipative structures. The measurements of a typical periodic shear flow, the rectangular wall jet, show that direct measurements of the dissipative terms are possible.

  13. Extrema principles of entrophy production and energy dissipation in fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

    1988-01-01

    A survey is presented of several extrema principles of energy dissipation as applied to problems in fluid mechanics. An exact equation is derived for the dissipation function of a homogeneous, isotropic, Newtonian fluid, with terms associated with irreversible compression or expansion, wave radiation, and the square of the vorticity. By using entropy extrema principles, simple flows such as the incompressible channel flow and the cylindrical vortex are identified as minimal dissipative distributions. The principal notions of stability of parallel shear flows appears to be associated with a maximum dissipation condition. These different conditions are consistent with Prigogine's classification of thermodynamic states into categories of equilibrium, linear nonequilibrium, and nonlinear nonequilibrium thermodynamics; vortices and acoustic waves appear as examples of dissipative structures. The measurements of a typical periodic shear flow, the rectangular wall jet, show that direct measurements of the dissipative terms are possible.

  14. Energy Spectrum in the Dissipation Range of Fluid Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, D. O.; Chen, S.; Doolen, G. D.; Kraichnan, R. H.; Wang, L.-P.; Zhou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High resolution, direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are carried out to study the energy spectrum in the dissipation range. An energy spectrum of the form A(k/k( sub d))(sup alpha) exp[- betak/k(sub d) is confirmed. The possible values of the parameters alpha and beta, as well as their dependence on Revnolds numbers and length scales, are investigated, showing good agreement with recent theoretical predictions. A "bottleneck'-type effect is reported at k/k(sub d) approximately 4, exhibiting a possible transition from near-dissipation to far- dissipation.

  15. Validity of Taylor's Dissipation-Viscosity Independence Postulate in Variable-Viscosity Turbulent Fluid Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kurnchul; Girimaji, Sharath S.; Kerimo, Johannes

    2008-08-01

    G. I. Taylor’s postulate [Proc. R. Soc. APRLAAZ0080-4630 151, 421 (1935)10.1098/rspa.1935.0158] that dissipation is independent of viscosity at high Reynolds numbers is the foundation of many single-fluid turbulence theories and closure models. The validity of this key postulate in an important class of flows, turbulent mixtures, is not yet clearly established. We devise a simple numerical experiment of decaying turbulence in a mixture of two fluids of vastly different viscosities to examine dissipation scaling. Initially, the two fluids are segregated, and dissipation is directly proportional to viscosity. As turbulence evolves and fluids mix, the velocity gradients rapidly adapt to the viscosity field, and within one-half eddy turnover time, dissipation-viscosity independence is established. Viscosity-weighted velocity-gradient skewness is shown to be constant, leading to the validity of Taylor’s postulate in turbulent mixtures.

  16. From conduction to convection of thermally relativistic fluids between two parallel walls under gravitational force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2017-01-01

    The thermal conduction and convection of thermally relativistic fluids between two parallel walls under the gravitational force are discussed both theoretically and numerically. In the theoretical discussion, the Lorentz contraction is assumed to be negligible and spacetime is assumed to be flat. For understanding of the thermal conduction and convection of thermally relativistic fluids between two parallel walls under the gravitational force, the relativistic Boltzmann equation is solved using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, numerically. Numerical results indicate that strongly nonequilibrium states are formed in vicinities of two walls, which do not allow us to discuss the transition of the thermal conduction to the thermal convection of thermally relativistic fluids under the gravitational force in the framework of the relativistic Navier-Stokes-Fourier equation, when the flow-field is under the transition regime between the rarefied and continuum regimes, whereas such strongly nonequilibrium states are not formed in vicinities of two walls under the nonrelativistic limit.

  17. Dissipative relaxed states in two-fluid plasma with external drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Janaki, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    In this work the principle of minimum dissipation rate is applied to an externally driven two-fluid plasma. The definition of generalized helicity has been modified to a gauge invariant form to incorporate open systems. The relaxed state is represented by a double-curl equation and supports nonzero flow. In the limit of vanishingly small dissipation, the equation is shown to retain the double-curl form that represents a steady state configuration supported by a two-fluid plasma.

  18. Gravitational collapse of dissipative fluid as a source of gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Sanjukta Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2016-01-15

    Gravitational collapse of cylindrical anisotropic fluid has been considered in analogy with the work of Misner and Sharp. Using Darmois matching conditions, the interior cylindrical dissipative fluid (in the form of shear viscosity and heat flux) is matched to an exterior vacuum Einstein–Rosen space–time. It is found that on the bounding 3-surface the radial pressure of the anisotropic perfect fluid is linearly related to the shear viscosity and the heat flux of the dissipative fluid on the boundary. This non-zero radial pressure on the bounding surface may be considered as the source of gravitational waves outside the collapsing matter distribution.

  19. Fluid simulations of nonlocal dissipative drift-wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.; Cohen, R. H.; Crotinger, J. A.; Shestakov, A. I.

    1995-03-01

    A two-dimensional [2d(x,y)] fluid code has been developed to explore nonlocal dissipative drift-wave turbulence and anomalous transport. In order to obtain steady-state turbulence, the y-averaged fluctuating density has been forced to be zero in simulations, thus the difficulty of choosing proper sources and sinks in turbulence simulation codes has been avoided. If Ln≫Lc or Lαlc≫Lc, where Ln is the density gradient scale length, Lc the turbulence correlation length Lc, and Lαlc the adiabaticity-layer width, it has been shown that ``local'' turbulence simulations give reasonable results. However, for Ln˜Lc, or Lαlc˜Lc ``local'' turbulence codes are found to overestimate the flux. For a family of hyperbolic tangent background density profiles, n0(x)=nm-n1 tanh[(2x-Lx)/2Δn] with n1<0.5nm, it has been demonstrated that the nonlocality of the turbulence leads to a transition from local gyro-Bohm (Dlocal≂7.6(Te/eB)[ρs/Ln(x)] [αlc(x)/0.01]-1/3), where αlc(x)=α(x)/κ(x)<1, to nonlocal gyro-Bohm transport scaling [Dnonlocal≂7.6(Te/eB)(n1ρs/nmΔn) (αnlc/0.01)-1/3(Δn/40ρs)2/5 for αnlc(x)=α/κmax<1, κ(x)=ρs/Ln(x) and α=k2∥χe]. For the case Φ0(x)=-n0(x) with the model hyperbolic tangent density profiles n0(x), velocity shear increases the turbulence flux by 230% and the root-mean-square (RMS) fluctuating density by 36%. Otherwise, for Φ0(x)=n0(x), the turbulence flux is reduced by 71% and the RMS value of fluctuating density is decreased by 31% by velocity shear effects.

  20. Charged relativistic fluids and non-linear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereli, T.; Tucker, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic fields in Maxwell's theory satisfy linear equations in the classical vacuum. This is modified in classical non-linear electrodynamic theories. To date there has been little experimental evidence that any of these modified theories are tenable. However with the advent of high-intensity lasers and powerful laboratory magnetic fields this situation may be changing. We argue that an approach involving the self-consistent relativistic motion of a smooth fluid-like distribution of matter (composed of a large number of charged or neutral particles) in an electromagnetic field offers a viable theoretical framework in which to explore the experimental consequences of non-linear electrodynamics. We construct such a model based on the theory of Born and Infeld and suggest that a simple laboratory experiment involving the propagation of light in a static magnetic field could be used to place bounds on the fundamental coupling in that theory. Such a framework has many applications including a new description of the motion of particles in modern accelerators and plasmas as well as phenomena in astrophysical contexts such as in the environment of magnetars, quasars and gamma-ray bursts.

  1. Small amplitude waves in a hot relativistic two-fluid plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyun, S.; Kennel, C. F.

    1978-01-01

    The dispersion relation for small amplitude waves in a hot relativistic plasma embedded in a uniform magnetic field is derived. Four plasma modes exist for propagation oblique to the magnetic field, and the mode properties are summarized in a hot relativistic generalization of the cold plasma pond diagram of Stix (1962). The two-fluid approximation is considered, and two-fluid equations are applied in this procedure which summarizes properties of linear waves in an unbounded magnetized relativistic plasma by means of a parameter-space diagram of wave phase velocity.

  2. Second-order perturbations of cosmological fluids: Relativistic effects of pressure, multicomponent, curvature, and rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2007-11-15

    We present general relativistic correction terms appearing in Newton's gravity to the second-order perturbations of cosmological fluids. In our previous work we have shown that to the second-order perturbations, the density and velocity perturbation equations of general relativistic zero-pressure, irrotational, single-component fluid in a spatially flat background coincide exactly with the ones known in Newton's theory without using the gravitational potential. We also have shown the effect of gravitational waves to the second order, and pure general relativistic correction terms appearing in the third-order perturbations. Here, we present results of second-order perturbations relaxing all the assumptions made in our previous works. We derive the general relativistic correction terms arising due to (i) pressure, (ii) multicomponent, (iii) background spatial curvature, and (iv) rotation. In the case of multicomponent zero-pressure, irrotational fluids under the flat background, we effectively do not have relativistic correction terms, thus the relativistic equations expressed in terms of density and velocity perturbations again coincide with the Newtonian ones. In the other three cases we generally have pure general relativistic correction terms. In the case of pressure, the relativistic corrections appear even in the level of background and linear perturbation equations. In the presence of background spatial curvature, or rotation, pure relativistic correction terms directly appear in the Newtonian equations of motion of density and velocity perturbations to the second order; to the linear order, without using the gravitational potential (or metric perturbations), we have relativistic/Newtonian correspondences for density and velocity perturbations of a single-component fluid including the rotation even in the presence of background spatial curvature. In the small-scale limit (far inside the horizon), to the second-order, relativistic equations of density and

  3. Generalized Boussinesq-Scriven surface fluid model with curvature dissipation for liquid surfaces and membranes.

    PubMed

    Aguilar Gutierrez, Oscar F; Herrera Valencia, Edtson E; Rey, Alejandro D

    2017-10-01

    Curvature dissipation is relevant in synthetic and biological processes, from fluctuations in semi-flexible polymer solutions, to buckling of liquid columns, tomembrane cell wall functioning. We present a micromechanical model of curvature dissipation relevant to fluid membranes and liquid surfaces based on a parallel surface parameterization and a stress constitutive equation appropriate for anisotropic fluids and fluid membranes.The derived model, aimed at high curvature and high rate of change of curvature in liquid surfaces and membranes, introduces additional viscous modes not included in the widely used 2D Boussinesq-Scriven rheological constitutive equation for surface fluids.The kinematic tensors that emerge from theparallel surface parameterization are the interfacial rate of deformation and the surface co-rotational Zaremba-Jaumann derivative of the curvature, which are used to classify all possibledissipative planar and non-planar modes. The curvature dissipation function that accounts for bending, torsion and twist rates is derived and analyzed under several constraints, including the important inextensional bending mode.A representative application of the curvature dissipation model to the periodic oscillation in nano-wrinkled outer hair cells show how and why curvature dissipation decreases with frequency, and why the 100kHz frequency range is selected. These results contribute to characterize curvature dissipation in membranes and liquid surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation in Poynting-flux-dominated jets/outflows

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Wei

    2015-07-21

    The question of the energy composition of the jets/outflows in high-energy astrophysical systems, e.g. GRBs, AGNs, is taken up first: Matter-flux-dominated (MFD), σ < 1, and/or Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD), σ >1? The standard fireball IS model and dissipative photosphere model are MFD, while the ICMART (Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence) model is PFD. Motivated by ICMART model and other relevant problems, such as “jets in a jet” model of AGNs, the author investigates the models from the EMF energy dissipation efficiency, relativistic outflow generation, and σ evolution points of view, and simulates collisions between high-σ blobs to mimic the situation of the interactions inside the PFD jets/outflows by using a 3D SRMHD code which solves the conservative form of the ideal MHD equations. σb,f is calculated from the simulation results (threshold = 1). The efficiency obtained from this hybrid method is similar to the efficiency got from the energy evolution of the simulations (35.2%). Efficiency is nearly σ independent, which is also confirmed by the hybrid method. σb,i - σb,f provides an interesting linear relationship. Results of several parameter studies of EMF energy dissipation efficiency are shown.

  5. Viscous dissipation in 2D fluid dynamics as a symplectic process and its metriplectic representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blender, Richard; Badin, Gualtiero

    2017-03-01

    Dissipation can be represented in Hamiltonian mechanics in an extended phase space as a symplectic process. The method uses an auxiliary variable which represents the excitation of unresolved dynamics and a Hamiltonian for the interaction between the resolved dynamics and the auxiliary variable. This method is applied to viscous dissipation (including hyper-viscosity) in a two-dimensional fluid, for which the dynamics is non-canonical. We derive a metriplectic representation and suggest a measure for the entropy of the system.

  6. Stochastic two-fluid model for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ayik, S. |; Ivanov, Y.B.; Russkikh, V.N.; Noerenberg, W.

    1993-04-01

    A reduction of the relativistic Boltzmann-Langevin Equation (BLE), to a stochastic two-fluid model is presented, and transport coefficients associated with fluid dynamical variables are extracted. The approach is applied to investigate equilibration in a counter-streaming nuclear system.

  7. Stochastic two-fluid model for relativistic heavy-ion collisions. [Boltzmann[endash]Langevin Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ayik, S. Joint Inst. for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN ); Ivanov, Y.B.; Russkikh, V.N.; Noerenberg, W. )

    1993-01-01

    A reduction of the relativistic Boltzmann-Langevin Equation (BLE), to a stochastic two-fluid model is presented, and transport coefficients associated with fluid dynamical variables are extracted. The approach is applied to investigate equilibration in a counter-streaming nuclear system.

  8. Fluid flow and dissipation in intersecting counter-flow pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Kerem

    2005-11-01

    Intersecting pipe junctions are common in industrial and biomedical flows. For the later application, standard surgical connections of vessel lumens results a ``+'' shaped topology through a side-to-side or end-to-side anastomosis. Our earlier experimental/computational studies have compared different geometries quantifying the hydrodynamic power loss through the junction where dominant coherent structures are identified. In this study we have calculated the contribution of these structures to the total energy dissipation and its spatial distribution in the connection. A large set of idealized models are studied in which the basic geometric configuration is parametrically varied (from side-to-side to end-to-side anastomosis) which quantified the strength of the secondary flows and coherent structures as a function of the geometric configuration. Steady-state, 3D, incompressible computations are performed using the commercial CFD code FIDAP with unstructured tetrahedral grids. Selected cases are compared with the in-house code results (in Cartesian and structured grids). Grid verification and experimental validation with flow-vis and PIV are presented. Identifying the dissipation hot-spots will enable a targeted inverse design of the junction by reducing the degree of optimization with a focused parameter space.

  9. “Ripples” on a relativistically expanding fluid

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Shuzhe; Liao, Jinfeng; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2014-12-29

    Recent studies have shown that fluctuations of various types play important roles in the evolution of the fireball created in relativistic heavy ion collisions and bear many phenomenological consequences for experimental observables. In addition, the bulk dynamics of the fireball is well described by relativistic hydrodynamic expansion and the fluctuations on top of such expanding background can be studied within the linearized hydrodynamic framework. In this paper we present complete and analytic sound wave solutions on top of both Bjorken flow and Hubble flow backgrounds.

  10. Spectral Energy Transfer and Dissipation of Magnetic Energy from Fluid to Kinetic Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, K.; Li, H.

    2007-01-19

    We investigate the magnetic energy transfer from the fluid to kinetic scales and dissipation processes using three-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell plasma simulations. The nonlinear evolution of a sheet pinch is studied where we show that it exhibits both fluid scale global relaxation and kinetic scale collisionless reconnection at multiple resonant surfaces. The interactions among collisionless tearing modes destroy the original flux surfaces and produce stochastic fields, along with generating sheets and filaments of intensified currents. In addition, the magnetic energy is transferred from the original shear length scale both to the large scales due to the global relaxation and to the smaller, kinetic scales for dissipation. The dissipation is dominated by the thermal or pressure effect in the generalized Ohm's law, and electrons are preferentially accelerated.

  11. The role of turbulent dissipation in planetary fluid interiors driven by tidal and librational forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannan, Alex; Favier, Benjamin; Bills, Bruce; Lemasquerier, Daphne; Le Bars, Michael; Aurnou, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    The turbulent fluid motions generated in the liquid metal cores and oceans of planetary bodies can have profound effects on energy dissipation and magnetic field generation. An important driver of such fluid motions is mechanical forcing from precession, libration, and tidal forcing. On Earth, the dissipation of energy through tidal forcing occurs primarily in the oceans and may be due, in part, to nonlinear tidally forced resonances. However, the role that such nonlinear resonances play are not generally considered for other planetary bodies also possessing oceans and liquid metal cores.Recent laboratory experimental and numerical studies of Grannan et al. 2014 and Favier et al. 2015 have shown that nonlinear fluid resonances generated by sufficiently strong librational forcing can drive turbulent flows in ellipsoidal containers that mimic gravitational deformations. In Grannan et al. 2016, similar results were found for strong tidal forcing. Thus, a generalized scaling law for the turbulent r.m.s. velocity is derived, U~ɛβE-α, where ɛ is the dimensionless amplitude of the tidal or librational forcing, β is the dimensionless tidal deformation of the body, E is the dimensionless Ekman number characterizing the ratio of viscous to Coriolis forces, and α is a varying exponent.Using planetary values for tidal and librational forcing parameters, the turbulent dissipation is estimated for multiple bodies. For the subsurface oceans of Europa and Enceladus, the amount of nonlinear dissipation is comparable to the dissipation generated from linear resonances of the fluid layer and from upper bounding estimates of the tidal dissipation in the solid icy shell. In addition, our estimates of this turbulent dissipation provide bounds for the stratification in these subsurface oceans. Finally we find that dissipation from these nonlinear resonances in the liquid metal cores of the the early and present Earth, Io, and several exoplanets may help drive the dynamos in these

  12. INVERSE CASCADE OF NONHELICAL MAGNETIC TURBULENCE IN A RELATIVISTIC FLUID

    SciTech Connect

    Zrake, Jonathan

    2014-10-20

    The free decay of nonhelical relativistic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is studied numerically, and found to exhibit cascading of magnetic energy toward large scales. Evolution of the magnetic energy spectrum P{sub M} (k, t) is self-similar in time and well modeled by a broken power law with subinertial and inertial range indices very close to 7/2 and –2, respectively. The magnetic coherence scale is found to grow in time as t {sup 2/5}, much too slow to account for optical polarization of gamma-ray burst afterglow emission if magnetic energy is to be supplied only at microphysical length scales. No bursty or explosive energy loss is observed in relativistic MHD turbulence having modest magnetization, which constrains magnetic reconnection models for rapid time variability of GRB prompt emission, blazars, and the Crab nebula.

  13. Irreversible compressible work and available potential energy dissipation in turbulent stratified fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailleux, Rémi

    2013-07-01

    Although it plays a key role in the theory of stratified turbulence, the concept of available potential energy (APE) dissipation has remained until now a rather mysterious quantity, owing to the lack of rigorous result about its irreversible character or energy conversion type. Here, we show by using rigorous energetics considerations rooted in the analysis of the Navier-Stokes for a fully compressible fluid with a nonlinear equation of state that the APE dissipation is an irreversible energy conversion that dissipates kinetic energy into internal energy, exactly as viscous dissipation. These results are established by showing that APE dissipation contributes to the irreversible production of entropy, and by showing that it is a part of the work of expansion/contraction. Our results provide a new interpretation of the entropy budget, that leads to a new exact definition of turbulent effective diffusivity, which generalizes the Osborn-Cox model, as well as a rigorous decomposition of the work of expansion/contraction into reversible and irreversible components. In the context of turbulent mixing associated with parallel shear flow instability, our results suggests that there is no irreversible transfer of horizontal momentum into vertical momentum, as seems to be required when compressible effects are neglected, with potential consequences for the parameterizations of momentum dissipation in the coarse-grained Navier-Stokes equations.

  14. The energy-momentum tensor for a dissipative fluid in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Oscar M.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.

    2016-10-01

    Considering the growing interest of the astrophysicist community in the study of dissipative fluids with the aim of getting a more realistic description of the universe, we present in this paper a physical analysis of the energy-momentum tensor of a viscous fluid with heat flux. We introduce the general form of this tensor and, using the approximation of small velocity gradients, we relate the stresses of the fluid with the viscosity coefficients, the shear tensor and the expansion factor. Exploiting these relations, we can write the stresses in terms of the extrinsic curvature of the normal surface to the 4-velocity vector of the fluid, and we can also establish a connection between the perfect fluid and the symmetries of the spacetime. On the other hand, we calculate the energy conditions for a dissipative fluid through contractions of the energy-momentum tensor with the 4-velocity vector of an arbitrary observer. This method is interesting because it allows us to compute the conditions in a reasonably easy way and without considering any approximation or restriction on the energy-momentum tensor.

  15. FLIP (fluid-implicit-particle): A low-dissipation, particle-in-cell method for fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Brackbill, J.U.; Kothe, D.B.; Ruppel, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Since convective transport is the largest source of computational diffusion, FLIP (fluid-implicit-particle) eliminates convection, and uses instead a Lagrangian formulation. In FLIP, as in PIC, particles represent the fluid: a grid is used only to calculate interactions among particles. FLIP is an adaptation to fluid flows of the implicit moment method for plasma simulation. The particles carry coordinates, momentum, mass and energy; everything necessary to describe the fluid. Using the particle data, Lagrangian moment equations solved on a grid advance the particle variables from time step to time step. An adaptive grid and implicit time differencing extend the method to singular and low-speed flows. Aspects of FLIP's properties are illustrated by calculations of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an unstable, subsonic stream, and a supersonic jet. The results demonstrate FLIP's applicability to the many problems where low dissipation is crucial to correct modeling. 21 refs.

  16. Computing bulk and shear viscosities from simulations of fluids with dissipative and stochastic interactions.

    PubMed

    Jung, Gerhard; Schmid, Friederike

    2016-05-28

    Exact values for bulk and shear viscosity are important to characterize a fluid, and they are a necessary input for a continuum description. Here we present two novel methods to compute bulk viscosities by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of steady-state systems with periodic boundary conditions - one based on frequent particle displacements and one based on the application of external bulk forces with an inhomogeneous force profile. In equilibrium simulations, viscosities can be determined from the stress tensor fluctuations via Green-Kubo relations; however, the correct incorporation of random and dissipative forces is not obvious. We discuss different expressions proposed in the literature and test them at the example of a dissipative particle dynamics fluid.

  17. Dynamics of suspended microchannel resonators conveying opposite internal fluid flow: Stability, frequency shift and energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Ming; Yan, Han; Jiang, Hui-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of suspended microchannel resonators which convey internal flows with opposite directions are investigated. The fluid-structure interactions between the laminar fluid flow and oscillating cantilever are analyzed by comprehensively considering the effects of velocity profile, flow viscosity and added flowing particle. A new model is developed to characterize the dynamic behavior of suspended microchannel resonators with the fluid-structure interactions. The stability, frequency shift and energy dissipation of suspended microchannel resonators are analyzed and discussed. The results demonstrate that the frequency shifts induced by the added flowing particle which are obtained from the new model have a good agreement with the experimental data. The steady mean flow can cause the frequency shift and influence the stability of the dynamic system. As the flow velocity reaches the critical value, the coupled-mode flutter occurs via a Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation. The perturbation flow resulted from the vibration of the microcantilever leads to energy dissipation, while the steady flow does not directly cause the damping which increases with the increasing of the flow velocity predicted by the classical model. It can also be found that the steady flow firstly changes the mode shape of the cantilever and consequently affects the energy dissipation.

  18. Many-body dissipative particle dynamics modeling of fluid flow in fine-grained nanoporous shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yidong; Goral, Jan; Huang, Hai; Miskovic, Ilija; Meakin, Paul; Deo, Milind

    2017-05-01

    A many-body dissipative particle dynamics model, namely, MDPD, is applied for simulation of pore-scale, multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in fine-grained, nanoporous shales. Since this model is able to simultaneously capture the discrete features of fluid molecules in nanometer size pores and continuum fluid dynamics in larger pores, and is relatively easy to parameterize, it has been recognized as being particularly suitable for simulating complex fluid flow in multi-length-scale nanopore networks of shales. A remarkable feature of this work is the integration of a high-resolution FIB-SEM (focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy) digital imaging technique to the MDPD model for providing 3D voxel data that contain the invaluable geometrical and compositional information of shale samples. This is the first time that FIB-SEM is seamlessly linked to a Lagrangian model like MDPD for fluid flow simulation, which offers a robust approach to bridging gaps between the molecular- and continuum-scales, since the relevant spatial and temporal scales are too big for molecular dynamics, and too small for computational fluid dynamics with known constitutive models. Simulations ranging from a number of benchmark problems to a forced two-fluid flow in a Woodford shale sample are presented. Results indicate that this model can be used to deliver reasonable simulations for multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in arbitrarily complex pore networks in shales.

  19. Assessing the numerical dissipation rate and viscosity in CFD simulations of fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schranner, F. S.; Domaradzki, J. A.; Hickel, S.; Adams, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a method for quantifying the effective numerical dissipation rate and the effective numerical viscosity in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. Differently from the previous approach that was formulated in spectral space, the proposed method is developed in a physical-space representation and allows for determining numerical dissipation rates and viscosities locally, i.e., at the individual cell level or for arbitrary subdomains of the computational domain. The method is self-contained using only results produced by the Navier-Stokes solver being investigated. Since no extraneous information is required, the method is suitable for a straightforward quantification of the numerical dissipation as a post-processing step. We demonstrate the method's capabilities on the example of implicit large-eddy simulations of three-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex flows that exhibit laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow behavior at different stages of time evolution. For validation, we compare the numerical dissipation rate obtained using this method with exact reference data obtained with an accurate, spectral-space approach. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  20. Local equilibrium solutions in simple anisotropic cosmological models, as described by relativistic fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shogin, Dmitry; Amund Amundsen, Per

    2016-10-01

    We test the physical relevance of the full and the truncated versions of the Israel-Stewart (IS) theory of irreversible thermodynamics in a cosmological setting. Using a dynamical systems method, we determine the asymptotic future of plane symmetric Bianchi type I spacetimes with a viscous mathematical fluid, keeping track of the magnitude of the relative dissipative fluxes, which determines the applicability of the IS theory. We consider the situations where the dissipative mechanisms of shear and bulk viscosity are involved separately and simultaneously. It is demonstrated that the only case in the given model when the fluid asymptotically approaches local thermal equilibrium, and the underlying assumptions of the IS theory are therefore not violated, is that of a dissipative fluid with vanishing bulk viscosity. The truncated IS equations for shear viscosity are found to produce solutions which manifest pathological dynamical features and, in addition, to be strongly sensitive to the choice of initial conditions. Since these features are observed already in the case of an oversimplified mathematical fluid model, we have no reason to assume that the truncation of the IS transport equations will produce relevant results for physically more realistic fluids. The possible role of bulk and shear viscosity in cosmological evolution is also discussed.

  1. Exact relativistic expressions for wave refraction in a generally moving fluid.

    PubMed

    Cavalleri, G; Tonni, E; Barbero, F

    2013-04-01

    The law for the refraction of a wave when the two fluids and the interface are moving with relativistic velocities is given in an exact form, at the same time correcting a first order error in a previous paper [Cavalleri and Tonni, Phys. Rev. E 57, 3478 (1998)]. The treatment is then extended to a generally moving fluid with variable refractive index, ready to be applied to the refraction of acoustic, electromagnetic, or magnetohydrodynamic waves in the atmosphere of rapidly rotating stars. In the particular case of a gas cloud receding because of the universe expansion, our result can be applied to predict observable micro- and mesolensings. The first order approximation of our exact result for the deviation due to refraction of the light coming from a further quasar has a relativistic dependence equal to the one obtained by Einsteins' linearized theory of gravitation.

  2. The impact of dissipation and noise on fluctuations in chiral fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahrgang, Marlene; Herold, Christoph; Leupold, Stefan; Mishustin, Igor; Bleicher, Marcus

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium evolution of the sigma field coupled to a fluid dynamic expansion of a hot fireball to model the chiral phase transition in heavy-ion collisions. The dissipative processes and fluctuations are allowed under the assumption that the total energy of the coupled system is conserved. We use the linear sigma model with constituent quarks to investigate the effects of the chiral phase transition on the equilibration and excitation of the sigma modes. The quark fluid acts as a heat bath in local thermal equilibrium and the sigma field evolves according to a semiclassical stochastic Langevin equation of motion. The effects of supercooling and reheating of the fluid in a first order phase transition are observed via the delayed relaxation of the sigma field to a new equilibrium state. At the first order phase transition the nonequilibrium fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Communicated by Steffen Bass

  3. Financial Brownian particle in the layered order-book fluid and fluctuation-dissipation relations.

    PubMed

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako

    2014-03-07

    We introduce a novel description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets as that of an effective colloidal Brownian particle embedded in fluid particles. The analysis of comprehensive market data enables us to identify all motions of the fluid particles. Correlations between the motions of the Brownian particle and its surrounding fluid particles reflect specific layering interactions; in the inner layer the correlation is strong and with short memory, while in the outer layer it is weaker and with long memory. By interpreting and estimating the contribution from the outer layer as a drag resistance, we demonstrate the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation in this nonmaterial Brownian motion process.

  4. Financial Brownian Particle in the Layered Order-Book Fluid and Fluctuation-Dissipation Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets as that of an effective colloidal Brownian particle embedded in fluid particles. The analysis of comprehensive market data enables us to identify all motions of the fluid particles. Correlations between the motions of the Brownian particle and its surrounding fluid particles reflect specific layering interactions; in the inner layer the correlation is strong and with short memory, while in the outer layer it is weaker and with long memory. By interpreting and estimating the contribution from the outer layer as a drag resistance, we demonstrate the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation in this nonmaterial Brownian motion process.

  5. The rapid dissipation of magnetic fields in highly conducting fluids. [in solar or stellar atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamical conditions that exist when long straight parallel twisted flux tubes in a highly conducting fluid are packed together in a broad array are treated. It is shown that in general there is no hydrostatic equilibrium. In place of equilibrium, there is a dynamical nonequilibrium, which leads to neutral point reconnection and progressive coalescence of neighboring tubes (with the same sense of twisting); this in turn forms tubes of large diameter and reduced twist. The magnetic energy in the twisting of each tube declines toward zero, being dissipated into small-scale motions of the fluid and thence into heat. Referring to the sun, it is pointed out that the twisting and mutual wrapping is converted directly into fluid motion and heat by the dynamical nonequilibrium, so that the work done by the convection of the footpoints goes directly into heating the corona above.

  6. Viscous dissipation effects on heat transfer from turbulent flow with high Prandtl number fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, B. T. F.; Pang, Y.; Thomas, L. C.

    A comprehensive surface renewal type model, namely, the surface rejuvenation model, is employed to determine the viscous dissipation effect on heat transfer from turbulent flow with high Prandtl number fluids. In this work, the probability distributions for the stochastic variables which include the approach distance, the contact time, the residence time, and the initial temperature profile of the incoming eddies near the wall region are utilized. The Nusselt number, recovery factor, and temperature profile are obtained in integral forms which are then solved numerically. The ratio of Nusselt numbers in the presence of viscous effect to that in the absence of dissipation is presented in terms of Brinkman number, Prandtl number and Reynolds number for both cases of wall heating and cooling. Comparisons of the predicted recovery factor for turbulent pipe flow are also made based on the present model, previous eddy diffusivity models and the elementary surface renewal model for a wide range of Prandtl number.

  7. A Second-order Divergence-constrained Multidimensional Numerical Scheme for Relativistic Two-fluid Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Takanobu

    2016-11-01

    A new multidimensional simulation code for relativistic two-fluid electrodynamics (RTFED) is described. The basic equations consist of the full set of Maxwell’s equations coupled with relativistic hydrodynamic equations for separate two charged fluids, representing the dynamics of either an electron-positron or an electron-proton plasma. It can be recognized as an extension of conventional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). Finite resistivity may be introduced as a friction between the two species, which reduces to resistive RMHD in the long wavelength limit without suffering from a singularity at infinite conductivity. A numerical scheme based on HLL (Harten-Lax-Van Leer) Riemann solver is proposed that exactly preserves the two divergence constraints for Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. Several benchmark problems demonstrate that it is capable of describing RMHD shocks/discontinuities at long wavelength limit, as well as dispersive characteristics due to the two-fluid effect appearing at small scales. This shows that the RTFED model is a promising tool for high energy astrophysics application.

  8. High order numerical simulations of the Richtmyer- Meshkov instability in a relativistic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, O.; Dumbser, M.

    2015-07-01

    We study the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability of a relativistic perfect fluid by means of high order numerical simulations with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The numerical scheme combines a finite volume reconstruction in space, a local space-time discontinuous Galerkin predictor method, a high order one-step time update scheme, and a "cell-by-cell" space-time AMR strategy with time-accurate local time stepping. In this way, third order accurate (both in space and in time) numerical simulations of the RM instability are performed, spanning a wide parameter space. We present results both for the case in which a light fluid penetrates into a higher density one (Atwood number A > 0) and for the case in which a heavy fluid penetrates into a lower density one (Atwood number A < 0). We find that for large Lorentz factors γs of the incident shock wave, the relativistic RM instability is substantially weakened and ultimately suppressed. More specifically, the growth rate of the RM instability in the linear phase has a local maximum which occurs at a critical value of γs ≈ [1.2, 2]. Moreover, we have also revealed a genuinely relativistic effect, absent in Newtonian hydrodynamics, which arises in three dimensional configurations with a non-zero velocity component tangent to the incident shock front. In particular, in A > 0 models, the tangential velocity has a net magnification effect, while in A < 0 models, the tangential velocity has a net suppression effect.

  9. Local Existence of Solutions of Self Gravitating Relativistic Perfect Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Uwe; Karp, Lavi

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the evolution of the Einstein gravitational fields which are coupled to a perfect fluid. We consider the Einstein-Euler system in asymptotically flat spacestimes and therefore use the condition that the energy density might vanish or tend to zero at infinity, and that the pressure is a fractional power of the energy density. In this setting we prove local in time existence, uniqueness and well-posedness of classical solutions. The zero order term of our system contains an expression which might not be a C ∞ function and therefore causes an additional technical difficulty. In order to achieve our goals we use a certain type of weighted Sobolev space of fractional order. In Brauer and Karp (J Diff Eqs 251:1428-1446, 2011) we constructed an initial data set for these of systems in the same type of weighted Sobolev spaces. We obtain the same lower bound for the regularity as Hughes et al. (Arch Ratl Mech Anal 63(3):273-294, 1977) got for the vacuum Einstein equations. However, due to the presence of an equation of state with fractional power, the regularity is bounded from above.

  10. Derivation of electrostatic Korteweg-deVries equation in fully relativistic two-fluid plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nam C.

    2008-08-15

    A second order Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation that describes the evolution of nonlinear electrostatic waves in fully relativistic two-fluid plasmas is derived without any assumptions restricting the magnitudes of the flow velocity and the temperatures of each species. In the derivation, the positive and negative species of plasmas are treated with equal footings, not making any species specific assumptions. Thus, the resulting equation, which is expressed in transparent form symmetric in particle species, can be applied to any two-fluid plasmas having arbitrarily large flow velocity and ultrarelativistically high temperatures. The phase velocity of the nonlinear electrostatic waves found in this paper is shown to be related to the flow velocity and the acoustic wave velocity through the Lorentz addition law of velocities, revealing the relativistic nature of the formulation in the present study. The derived KdV equation is applied to some limiting cases, and it is shown that it can be reduced to existing results in nonrelativistic plasmas, while there are some discrepancies from the results in the weak relativistic approximations.

  11. Simulating the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in polymer fluids with dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanggui; Geng, Xingguo; Zhuang, Xin; Wang, Lihua; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability that occurs in the flow of polymer fluids is numerically investigated with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method at the mesoscale particle level. For modeling two-phase flow, the Flory-Huggins parameter is introduced to model binary fluids. And the polymer chains in fluids are described by the modified FENE model that depicts both the elastic tension and the elastic repulsion between the adjacent beads with bond length as the equilibrium length of one segment. Besides, a bead repulsive potential is employed to capture entanglements between polymer chains. Through our model and numerical simulation, we research the dynamics behaviors of the RT instability in polymer fluid medium. Furthermore, we also explore the effects of polymer volume concentration, chain length, and extensibility on the evolution of RT instability. These simulation results show that increasing any of the parameters, concentration, chain length, and extensibility, the saturation length of spikes becomes longer, and the two polymer fluids have less mixture. On the contrary, for the case of low concentration, or short chain, or small extensibility, the spikes easily split and break up, and the RT instability pattern evolves into chaotic structure. These observations indicate that the polymer and its properties drastically modify the RT instability pattern.

  12. Conduction and dissipation in the shearing flow of granular materials modeled as non-Newtonian fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.

    2007-06-15

    After providing a brief review of the constitutive modeling of the stress tensor for granular materials using non-Newtonian fluid models, we study the flow between two horizontal flat plates. It is assumed that the granular media behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid (of the Reiner–Rivlin type); we use the constitutive relation derived by Rajagopal and Massoudi [Rajagopal, K. R. and M. Massoudi, “A Method for measuring material moduli of granular materials: flow in an orthogonal rheometer,” Topical Report, DOE/PETC/TR-90/3, 1990] which can predict the normal stress differences. The lower plate is fixed and heated, and the upper plate (which is at a lower temperature than the lower plate) is set into motion with a constant velocity. The steady fully developed flow and the heat transfer equations are made dimensionless and are solved numerically; the effects of different dimensionless numbers and viscous dissipation are discussed.

  13. Dynamical systems approach to relativistic spherically symmetric static perfect fluid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzle, J. Mark; Röhr, Niklas; Uggla, Claes

    2003-11-01

    We investigate relativistic spherically symmetric static perfect fluid models with barotropic equations of state that are asymptotically polytropic and linear at low and high pressures, respectively. We generalize standard work on Newtonian polytropes to a relativistic setting and to a much larger class of equations of state. This is accomplished by introducing dimensionless variables that are asymptotically homology invariant in the low pressure regime, which yields a reformulation of the field equations into a regular dynamical system on a three-dimensional compact state space. A global picture of the solution space is thus obtained which makes it possible to derive qualitative features and to prove theorems about mass radius properties. Moreover, the framework is also suited for numerical computations, as illustrated by several numerical examples, e.g., the ideal neutron gas and examples that involve phase transitions.

  14. Dissipative Particle Dynamics and Other Particle Methods for Multiphase Fluid Flow in Fractured and Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Meakin; Zhijie Xu

    2008-06-01

    Particle methods are much less computationally efficient than grid based numerical solution of the Navier Stokes equation, and they have been used much less extensively, particularly for engineering applications. However, they have important advantages for some applications. These advantages include rigorous mast conservation, momentum conservation and isotropy. In addition, there is no need for explicit interface tracking/capturing. Code development effort is relatively low, and it is relatively simple to simulate flows with moving boundaries. In addition, it is often quite easy to include coupling of fluid flow with other physical phenomena such a phase separation. Here we describe the application of three particle methods: molecular dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. While these methods were developed to simulate fluids and other materials on three quite different scales – the molecular, meso and continuum scales, they are very closely related from a computational point of view. The mesoscale (between the molecular and continuum scales) dissipative particle dynamics method can be used to simulate systems that are too large to simulate using molecular dynamics but small enough for thermal fluctuations to play an important role. Important examples include polymer solutions, gels, small particle suspensions and membranes. In these applications inter particle and intra molecular hydrodynamic interactions are automatically included

  15. Mucosal fluid evaporation is not the method of heat dissipation from fourth-degree laryngopharyngeal burns

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jiang-bo; Zhang, Guo-an; Qiu, Yu-xuan; Wen, Chun-quan; Fu, Tai-ran

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to explore whether mucosal fluid evaporation represents a method of heat dissipation from thermal air inhalation injury and to assess laryngopharyngeal tissue damage according to heat quantity changes of dry air and vapour. Fifteen adult male beagles were divided into five groups to inhale heated air or vapour for 10 min as follows: control group (ordinary air), group I (91–110 °C heated air), group II (148–175 °C heated air), group III (209–227 °C heated air), and group IV (96 °C saturated vapour). The heat quantity changes of the dry air and vapour were calculated via thermodynamic formulas. The macroscopic and histological features of the laryngopharynxes were examined and assessed by various tissue damage grading systems. Group IV exhibited the most serious laryngopharyngeal damage, including cilia exfoliation, submucosal thrombosis, glandular atrophy, and chondrocyte degeneration, which is indicative of fourth-degree injury. The quality, heat quantity, and proportional reduction of heat quantity of vapour in group IV were all higher than those in the other groups. Furthermore, we found that mucosal fluid evaporation is not the method of heat dissipation from thermal air inhalation injury used by the airways. Laryngopharyngeal tissue damage depends chiefly on the heat quantity of vapour in the air. PMID:27349685

  16. Higher order solutions to ion-acoustic solitons in a weakly relativistic two-fluid plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Tarsem Singh; Bala, Parveen; Kaur, Harvinder

    2008-12-15

    The nonlinear wave structure of small amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASs) is investigated in a two-fluid plasma consisting of weakly relativistic streaming ions and electrons. Using the reductive perturbation theory, the basic set of governing equations is reduced to the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the lowest order perturbation. This analysis is further extended using the renormalization technique for the inclusion of higher order nonlinear and dispersive effects for better accuracy. The effect of higher order correction and various parameters on the soliton characteristics is investigated and also discussed.

  17. Spinodal amplification of density fluctuations in fluid-dynamical simulations of relativistic nuclear collisions.

    PubMed

    Steinheimer, Jan; Randrup, Jørgen

    2012-11-21

    Extending a previously developed two-phase equation of state, we simulate head-on relativistic lead-lead collisions with fluid dynamics, augmented with a finite-range term, and study the effects of the phase structure on the evolution of the baryon density. For collision energies that bring the bulk of the system into the mechanically unstable spinodal region of the phase diagram, the density irregularities are being amplified significantly. The resulting density clumping may be exploited as a signal of the phase transition, possibly through an enhanced production of composite particles.

  18. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation for the density currents of polymer fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanggui; Geng, Xingguo; Liu, Zhijun; Liu, Qingsheng; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the two-dimensional lock-exchange density currents of polymer fluids are numerically investigated using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) at the mesoscale particle level. A modified finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) chain model is chosen to describe the polymer system, which perfectly depicts not only the elastic tension but also the elastic repulsion between the adjacent beads with bond length as the equilibrium length of one segment. Through the model and numerical simulation, we analyze the dynamics behavior of the density currents of polymer fluids. A comparison with its Newtonian counterpart suggests that the interface between two polymer fluids is more smoothed, and the front structure is different from the Newtonian case because the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and cleft instability are suppressed by the polymer. Besides, we also probe the influences of polymer volume concentration, chain length and extensibility on the density currents. These simulation results show that increasing any of the parameters, concentration, chain length, and extensibility, the inhibiting effect of polymer on the density currents becomes more significant.

  19. Verification of energy dissipation rate scalability in pilot and production scale bioreactors using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Suspension mammalian cell cultures in aerated stirred tank bioreactors are widely used in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Given that production scale cell culture operations are typically performed in very large bioreactors (≥ 10,000 L), bioreactor scale-down and scale-up become crucial in the development of robust cell-culture processes. For successful scale-up and scale-down of cell culture operations, it is important to understand the scale-dependence of the distribution of the energy dissipation rates in a bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide an additional layer of depth to bioreactor scalability analysis. In this communication, we use CFD analyses of five bioreactor configurations to evaluate energy dissipation rates and Kolmogorov length scale distributions at various scales. The results show that hydrodynamic scalability is achievable as long as major design features (# of baffles, impellers) remain consistent across the scales. Finally, in all configurations, the mean Kolmogorov length scale is substantially higher than the average cell size, indicating that catastrophic cell damage due to mechanical agitation is highly unlikely at all scales. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Dissipative particle dynamics study of phase separation in binary fluid mixtures in periodic and confined domains.

    PubMed

    Gidituri, Harinadha; Anand, D Vijay; Vedantam, Srikanth; Panchagnula, Mahesh V

    2017-08-21

    We investigate the phase separation behavior of binary mixtures in two-dimensional periodic and confined domains using dissipative particle dynamics. Two canonical problems of fluid mechanics are considered for the confined domains: square cavity with no-slip walls and lid-driven cavity with one driven wall. The dynamics is studied for both weakly and strongly separating mixtures and different area fractions. The phase separation process is analyzed using the structure factor and the total interface length. The dynamics of phase separation in the square cavity and lid-driven cavity are observed to be significantly slower when compared to the dynamics in the periodic domain. The presence of the no-slip walls and the inertial effects significantly influences the separation dynamics. Finally, we show that the growth exponent for the strongly separating case is invariant to changes in the inter-species repulsion parameter.

  1. Dissipative particle dynamics study of phase separation in binary fluid mixtures in periodic and confined domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gidituri, Harinadha; Anand, D. Vijay; Vedantam, Srikanth; Panchagnula, Mahesh V.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the phase separation behavior of binary mixtures in two-dimensional periodic and confined domains using dissipative particle dynamics. Two canonical problems of fluid mechanics are considered for the confined domains: square cavity with no-slip walls and lid-driven cavity with one driven wall. The dynamics is studied for both weakly and strongly separating mixtures and different area fractions. The phase separation process is analyzed using the structure factor and the total interface length. The dynamics of phase separation in the square cavity and lid-driven cavity are observed to be significantly slower when compared to the dynamics in the periodic domain. The presence of the no-slip walls and the inertial effects significantly influences the separation dynamics. Finally, we show that the growth exponent for the strongly separating case is invariant to changes in the inter-species repulsion parameter.

  2. Tidal dissipation in stars and fluid planetary layers and its impact on the evolution of star-planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Mathis, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2015-09-01

    Tidal dissipation in stars and planets is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of planetary systems. It intrinsically depends on the nature of the tidal response of celestial bodies, which is directly linked to their internal structure and friction. Indeed, it is highly resonant in the case of fluids. In this work, we present a local analytical modeling of tidal gravito-inertial waves, which can be excited in stars and fluid planetary layers. This model allows us to understand the properties of their resonant dissipation as a function of the excitation frequencies, the rotation, the stratification, and the viscous and thermal properties of the studied fluid regions. Next, we introduce such a complex tidal dissipation frequency-spectra in a celestial mechanics numerical code to give a qualitative overview of its impact on the evolution of planetary systems. We consider the example of a two-body coplanar system with a punctual perturber orbiting a central fluid body. We demonstrate how the viscous dissipation of tidal waves can lead to a strongly erratic orbital evolution. Finally, we characterize such a non-regular dynamics as a function of the properties of resonances, which have been determined thanks to our local fluid model.

  3. Propagation of an ultra-short, intense laser in a relativistic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, A.B.; Decker, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    A Maxwell-relativistic fluid model is developed to describe the propagation of an ultrashort, intense laser pulse through an underdense plasma. The model makes use of numerically stabilizing fast Fourier transform (FFT) computational methods for both the Maxwell and fluid equations, and it is benchmarked against particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Strong fields generated in the wake of the laser are calculated, and the authors observe coherent wake-field radiation generated at harmonics of the plasma frequency due to nonlinearities in the laser-plasma interaction. For a plasma whose density is 10% of critical, the highest members of the plasma harmonic series begin to overlap with the first laser harmonic, suggesting that widely used multiple-scales-theory, by which the laser and plasma frequencies are assumed to be separable, ceases to be a useful approximation.

  4. The effect of a two-fluid atmosphere on relativistic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Gabriel; Brassel, Byron P.; Maharaj, Sunil D.

    2015-07-01

    We model the physical behaviour at the surface of a relativistic radiating star in the strong gravity limit. The spacetime in the interior is taken to be spherically symmetrical and shear-free. The heat conduction in the interior of the star is governed by the geodesic motion of fluid particles and a non-vanishing radially directed heat flux. The local atmosphere in the exterior region is a two-component system consisting of standard pressureless (null) radiation and an additional null fluid with non-zero pressure and constant energy density. We analyse the generalised junction condition for the matter and gravitational variables on the stellar surface and generate an exact solution. We investigate the effect of the exterior energy density on the temporal evolution of the radiating fluid pressure, luminosity, gravitational redshift and mass flow at the boundary of the star. The influence of the density on the rate of gravitational collapse is also probed and the strong, dominant and weak energy conditions are also tested. We show that the presence of the additional null fluid has a significant effect on the dynamical evolution of the star.

  5. Steady shear rheometry of dissipative particle dynamics models of polymer fluids in reverse Poiseuille flow.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce

    2010-04-14

    Polymer fluids are modeled with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) as undiluted bead-spring chains and their solutions. The models are assessed by investigating their steady shear-rate properties. Non-Newtonian viscosity and normal stress coefficients, for shear rates from the lower to the upper Newtonian regimes, are calculated from both plane Couette and plane Poiseuille flows. The latter is realized as reverse Poiseuille flow (RPF) generated from two Poiseuille flows driven by uniform body forces in opposite directions along two-halves of a computational domain. Periodic boundary conditions ensure the RPF wall velocity to be zero without density fluctuations. In overlapping shear-rate regimes the RPF properties are confirmed to be in good agreement with those calculated from plane Couette flow with Lees-Edwards periodic boundary conditions (LECs), the standard virtual rheometer for steady shear-rate properties. The concentration and the temperature dependence of the properties of the model fluids are shown to satisfy the principles of concentration and temperature superposition commonly employed in the empirical correlation of real polymer-fluid properties. The thermodynamic validity of the equation of state is found to be a crucial factor for the achievement of time-temperature superposition. With these models, RPF is demonstrated to be an accurate and convenient virtual rheometer for the acquisition of steady shear-rate rheological properties. It complements, confirms, and extends the results obtained with the standard LEC configuration, and it can be used with the output from other particle-based methods, including molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, smooth particle hydrodynamics, and the lattice Boltzmann method.

  6. Influence of Dissipation on Heat Transfer During Flow of a Non-Newtonian Fluid in a Porous Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. V.; Yunitskii, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    A study is made of flow and heat transfer during the motion of a non-Newtonian (power-law) fluid in a plane channel filled with porous material. The Brinkman equation is used as the equation of state, and a one-temperature model, in representing the energy equation. Account us taken of dissipative heat releases. The problem is solved for temperature boundary conditions of the first kind. The authors show the influence of dissipation on the development of the temperature profile, and also on the distributions of the local Nusselt number and the mass-mean temperature along the channel.

  7. On slow flows of a weakly stratified relativistic fluid in a static gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, V. P.

    2014-04-01

    Simplified equations for slow flows of a weakly stratified (in entropy) fluid inside or near a massive astrophysical object have been derived from the variational formulation of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics under the conditions that the gravitational field in the leading order is centrosymmetric and static and that the effect of a magnetic field is negligibly small. Internal waves and vortices in such systems are soft modes as compared to sound. This circumstance allows the formulation of a "soundproof" Hamiltonian model. This model is an analog of nonrelativistic hydrodynamic anelastic models, which are widely used in studies of internal waves and/or convection in spatially inhomogeneous compressible media in atmospheric physics, geophysics, and astrophysics.

  8. Finite element simulation of nonlinear wave propagation in thermoviscous fluids including dissipation.

    PubMed

    Hoffelner, J; Landes, H; Kaltenbacher, M; Lerch, R

    2001-05-01

    A recently developed finite element method (FEM) for the numerical simulation of nonlinear sound wave propagation in thermoviscous fluids is presented. Based on the nonlinear wave equation as derived by Kuznetsov, typical effects associated with nonlinear acoustics, such as generation of higher harmonics and dissipation resulting from the propagation of a finite amplitude wave through a thermoviscous medium, are covered. An efficient time-stepping algorithm based on a modification of the standard Newmark method is used for solving the non-linear semidiscrete equation system. The method is verified by comparison with the well-known Fubini and Fay solutions for plane wave problems, where good agreement is found. As a practical application, a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) source is considered. Impedance simulations of the piezoelectric transducer and the complete HIFU source loaded with air and water are performed and compared with measured data. Measurements of radiated low and high amplitude pressure pulses are compared with corresponding simulation results. The obtained good agreement demonstrates validity and applicability of the nonlinear FEM.

  9. On the modeling of modes coupling in dissipative fluid-filled waveguide with corrugated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valier-Brasier, Tony; Potel, Catherine; Bruneau, Michel

    2009-08-01

    This paper aims at providing an alternative analytical model, which would be more suitable than a previous one [C. Potel and M. Bruneau, J. Sound Vib. 313, 738 (2008)], to describe the mode coupling due to scattering on small one-dimensional irregularities (parallel ridges) of the surfaces of a fluid-filled waveguide. Both models rely on standard integral formulation and modal analysis, the acoustic field being expressed as a coupling between eigenmodes of a regularly shaped waveguide, which bounds outwardly the corrugated waveguide considered. But the model presented here departs from the previous one essentially because it starts from the integral formulation for the acoustic pressure field, the solution relying on a modal expansion, whereas the previous one starts from the inner product of the set of differential equations (which govern the acoustic pressure field) and the appropriate eigenfunctions, the solution being obtained from using a one-dimensional integral formulation. Substituting this alternative model for the previous one clearly accelerates convergences (even permits to avoid divergences) of the iterative process used to solve the problem. Finally, complex eigenfunctions are introduced here in order to account for the dissipative effects due to thermoviscous phenomena (through an impedancelike boundary condition), which is of importance at the cut-off frequencies.

  10. A variational approach to resistive relativistic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, N.; Comer, G. L.; Hawke, I.

    2017-06-01

    We develop an action principle to construct the field equations for a multi-fluid system containing charge-neutral fluids, plasmas, and dissipation (via resistive interactions), by combining the standard, Maxwell action and minimal coupling of the electromagnetic field with a recently developed action for relativistic dissipative fluids. We use a pull-back formalism from spacetime to abstract matter spaces to build unconstrained variations for both the charge-neutral fluids and currents making up the plasmas. Using basic linear algebra techniques, we show that a general ‘relabeling’ invariance exists for the abstract matter spaces. With the field equations in place, a phenomenological model for the resistivity is developed, using as constraints charge conservation and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. A minimal model for a system of electrons, protons, and heat is developed using the Onsager procedure for incorporating dissipation.

  11. A statistical model for relativistic quantum fluids interacting with an intense electromagnetic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Asenjo, Felipe A.

    2016-05-01

    A statistical model for relativistic quantum fluids interacting with an arbitrary amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave is developed in two steps. First, the energy spectrum and the wave function for a quantum particle (Klein Gordon and Dirac) embedded in the electromagnetic wave are calculated by solving the appropriate eigenvalue problem. The energy spectrum is anisotropic in the momentum K and reflects the electromagnetic field through the renormalization of the rest mass m to M =√{m2+q2A2 } . Based on this energy spectrum of this quantum particle plus field combination (QPF), a statistical mechanics model of the quantum fluid made up of these weakly interacting QPF is developed. Preliminary investigations of the formalism yield highly interesting results—a new scale for temperature, and fundamental modification of the dispersion relation of the electromagnetic wave. It is expected that this formulation could, inter alia, uniquely advance our understanding of laboratory as well as astrophysical systems where one encounters arbitrarily large electromagnetic fields.

  12. Flow of a non-linear (density-gradient-dependent) viscous fluid with heat generation, viscous dissipation and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Phuoc, Tran X.

    2008-09-25

    In this paper, we study the flow of a compressible (density-gradient-dependent) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The convective heat transfer is also considered where a source team, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed.

  13. Flow of a non-linear (density-gradient-dependent) viscous fluid with heat generation, viscous dissipation and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Tran, P.X.

    2008-09-22

    In this paper, we study the flow of a compressible (density-gradient-dependent) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The convective heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed

  14. Quantization of the relativistic fluid in physical phase space on Kaehler manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Holender, L.; Vancea, I. V.; Santos, M. A.

    2008-02-15

    We discuss the quantization of a class of relativistic fluid models defined in terms of one real and two complex conjugate potentials with values on a Kaehler manifold, and parametrized by the Kaehler potential K(z,z) and a real number {lambda}. In the Hamiltonian formulation, the canonical conjugate momenta of the potentials are subjected to second-class constraints which allow us to apply the symplectic projector method in order to find the physical degrees of freedom and the physical Hamiltonian. We construct the quantum theory for that class of models by employing the canonical quantization methods. We also show that a semiclassical theory in which the Kaehler and the complex potentials are not quantized has a highly degenerate vacuum. We define and compute the quantum topological number (quantum linking number) operator which has nonvanishing contributions from the Kaehler and complex potentials only. Also, we show that the vacuum and the states formed by tensoring the number operators eigenstates have zero linking number, and show that linear combinations of the tensor product of number operators eigenstates which have the form of entangled states have nonzero linking number.

  15. Fluid simulation of relativistic electron beam driven wakefield in a cold plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Ratan Kumar; Sengupta, Sudip; Das, Amita

    2015-07-15

    Excitation of wakefield in a cold homogeneous plasma, driven by an ultra-relativistic electron beam is studied in one dimension using fluid simulation techniques. For a homogeneous rigid beam having density (n{sub b}) less than or equal to half the plasma density (n{sub 0}), simulation results are found to be in good agreement with the analytical work of Rosenzweig [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 555 (1987)]. Here, Rosenzweig's work has been analytically extended to regimes where the ratio of beam density to plasma density is greater than half and results have been verified using simulation. Further in contrast to Rosenzweig's work, if the beam is allowed to evolve in a self-consistent manner, several interesting features are observed in simulation viz. splitting of the beam into beam-lets (for l{sub b} > λ{sub p}) and compression of the beam (for l{sub b} < λ{sub p}), l{sub b} and λ{sub p}, respectively, being the initial beam length and plasma wavelength.

  16. Nonlinear dissipative and dispersive electrostatic structures in unmagnetized relativistic electron-ion plasma with warm ions and trapped electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, W.; Hamid, Naira; Ilyas, Iffat; Siddiq, M.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we have investigated electrostatic solitary and shock waves in an unmagnetized relativistic electron-ion (ei) plasma in the presence of warm ions and trapped electrons. In this regard, we have derived the trapped Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (TKdVB) equation using the small amplitude approximation method, which to the best of our knowledge has not been investigated in plasmas. Since the TKdVB equation involves fractional nonlinearity on account of trapped electrons, we have employed a smartly crafted extension of the tangent hyperbolic method and presented the solution of the TKdVB equation in this paper. The limiting cases of the TKdVB equation yield trapped Burgers (TB) and trapped Korteweg-de Vries (TKdV) equations. We have also presented the solutions of TB and TKdV equations. We have also explored how the plasma parameters affect the propagation characteristics of the nonlinear structures obtained for these modified nonlinear partial differential equations. We hope that the present work will open new vistas of research in the nonlinear plasma theory both in classical and quantum plasmas.

  17. Entropic formulation of relativistic continuum mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    An entropic formulation of relativistic continuum mechanics is developed in the Landau-Lifshitz frame. We introduce two spatial scales, one being the small scale representing the linear size of each material particle and the other the large scale representing the linear size of a large system which consists of material particles and is to linearly regress to the equilibrium. We propose a local functional which is expected to represent the total entropy of the larger system and require the entropy functional to be maximized in the process of linear regression. We show that Onsager's original idea on linear regression can then be realized explicitly as current conservations with dissipative currents in the desired form. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this formulation by showing that one can treat a wide class of relativistic continuum materials, including standard relativistic viscous fluids and relativistic viscoelastic materials.

  18. Influence of viscous dissipation and thermophoresis on Darcy-Forchheimer mixed convection in a fluid saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Seddeek, M A

    2006-01-01

    Mixed convection flow, heat, and mass transfer about an isothermal vertical flat plate embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium and the effects of viscous dissipation and thermophoresis in both aiding and opposing flows are analyzed. The similarity solution is used to transform the problem under consideration into a boundary value problem of coupled ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically by using the shooting method. Numerical computations are carried out for the non-dimensional physical parameter. The results are analyzed for the effect of different physical parameters such as thermophoretic, mixed convection, inertia parameter, buoyancy ratio, and Schmid number on the flow, heat, and mass transfer characteristics. Two cases are considered, one corresponding to the presence of viscous dissipation and the other to the absence of it.

  19. Studies of Entanglement Entropy, and Relativistic Fluids for Thermal Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillane, Michael

    In this dissertation we consider physical consequences of adding a finite temperature to quantum field theories. At small length scales entanglement is a critically important feature. It is therefore unsurprising that entanglement entropy and Renyi entropy are useful tools in studying quantum phase transition, and quantum information. In this thesis we consider the corrections to entanglement and Renyi entropies due to addition of a finite temperature. More specifically, we investigate the entanglement entropy of a massive scalar field in 1+1 dimensions at nonzero temperature. In the small mass ( m) and temperature (T) limit, we put upper and lower bounds on the two largest eigenvalues of the covariance matrix used to compute the entanglement entropy. We argue that the entanglement entropy has e-m/T scaling in the limit T << m.. Additionally, we calculate thermal corrections to Renyi entropies for free massless fermions on R x S d-1. By expanding the density matrix in a Boltzmann sum, the problem of finding the Renyi entropies can be mapped to the problem of calculating a two point function on an n-sheeted cover of the sphere. We map the problem on the sphere to a conical region in Euclidean space. By using the method of images, we calculate the two point function and recover the Renyi entropies. At large length scales hydrodynamics is a useful way to study quantum field theories. We review recent interest in the Riemann problem as a method for generating a non-equilibrium steady state. The initial conditions consist of a planar interface between two halves of a system held at different temperatures in a hydrodynamic regime. The resulting fluid flow contains a fixed temperature region with a nonzero flux. We briefly discuss the effects of a conserved charge. Next we discuss deforming the relativistic equations with a nonlinear term and how that deformation affects the temperature and velocity in the region connecting the asymptotic fluids. Finally, we study

  20. Dissipative Particle Dynamics and Other Particle Methods for Multiphase Fluid Flow in Fractured and Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Meakin; Zhijie Xu

    2009-08-01

    Particle methods are less computationally efficient than grid based numerical solution of the Navier Stokes equation. However, they have important advantages including rigorous mass conservation, momentum conservation and isotropy. In addition, there is no need for explicit interface tracking/capturing and code development effort is relatively low. We describe applications of three particle methods: molecular dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The mesoscale (between the molecular and continuum scales) dissipative particle dynamics method can be used to simulate systems that are too large to simulate using molecular dynamics but small enough for thermal fluctuations to play an important role.

  1. Geothermal Conceptual Model in Earthquake Swarm Area: Constrains from Physical Properties of Supercritical Fluids and Dissipative Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    In recent five years, geothermal energy became one of the most prosperous renewable energy in the world, but produces only 0.5% of the global electricity. Why this great potential of green energy cannot replace the fuel and nuclear energy? The necessity of complicated exploration procedures and precious experts in geothermal field is similar to that of the oil and gas industry. The Yilan Plain (NE Taiwan) is one of the hot area for geothermal development and research in the second phase of National Energy Program (NEP-II). The geological and geophysical studies of the area indicate that the Yilan Plain is an extension of the Okinawa Trough back arc rifting which provide the geothermal resource. Based on the new constrains from properties of supercritical fluids and dissipative structure theory, the geophysical evidence give confident clues on how the geothermal system evolved at depth. The geothermal conceptual model in NEP-II indicates that the volcanic intrusion under the complicate fault system is possibly beneath the Yilan Plain. However, the bottom temperature of first deep drilling and geochemical evidence in NEP-II imply no volcanic intrusion. In contrast, our results show that seismic activities in geothermal field observed self-organization, and are consistent with the brittle-ductile / brittle-plastic transition, which indicates that supercritical fluids triggered earthquake swarms. The geothermal gradient and geochemical anomalies in Yilan Plain indicate an open system far from equilibrium. Mantle and crust exchange energy and materials through supercritical fluids to generate a dissipative structure in geothermal fields and promote water-rock interactions and fractures. Our initial studies have suggested a dissipative structure of geothermal system that could be identified by geochemical and geophysical data. The key factor is the tectonic setting that triggered supercritical fluids upwelling from deep (possibly from the mantle or the upper crust). Our

  2. Fluctuation-dissipation relations for motions of center of mass in driven granular fluids under gravity.

    PubMed

    Wakou, Jun'ichi; Isobe, Masaharu

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the validity of fluctuation-dissipation relations in the nonequilibrium stationary state of fluidized granular media under gravity by two independent approaches, based on theory and numerical simulations. A phenomenological Langevin-type theory describing the fluctuation of center of mass height, which was originally constructed for a one-dimensional granular gas on a vibrating bottom plate, was generalized to any dimensionality, even for the case in which the vibrating bottom plate is replaced by a thermal wall. The theory predicts a fluctuation-dissipation relation known to be satisfied at equilibrium, with a modification that replaces the equilibrium temperature by an effective temperature defined by the center of mass kinetic energy. To test the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, we performed extensive and accurate event-driven molecular dynamics simulations for the model system with a thermal wall at the bottom. The power spectrum and response function of the center of mass height were measured and closely compared with theoretical predictions. It is shown that the fluctuation-dissipation relation for the granular system is satisfied, especially in the high-frequency (short time) region, for a wide range of system parameters. Finally, we describe the relationship between systematic deviations in the low-frequency (long time) region and the time scales of the driven granular system.

  3. Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a moving vertical flat plate in an external fluid flow with viscous dissipation effect.

    PubMed

    Bachok, Norfifah; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity) differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface.

  4. Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Moving Vertical Flat Plate in an External Fluid Flow with Viscous Dissipation Effect

    PubMed Central

    Bachok, Norfifah; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity) differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface. PMID:23577156

  5. New understanding of the role of cerebrospinal fluid: offsetting of arterial and brain pulsation and self-dissipation of cerebrospinal fluid pulsatile flow energy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung Jay; Yoon, Soo Han; Kang, Jae-Kyu

    2011-06-01

    Many theories have been postulated to date regarding the mechanisms involved in the absorption of the intracranial arterial blood flow energy in the intracranial space, but it is as yet nor clearly defined. The blood flow energy that is transmitted from the heart formulates the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatile flow, and is known to constitute the major energy of the CSF flow, while the bulk flow carries only small energy. The intracranial space that is enclosed in a solid cranium and is an isolate system as in the Monroe-Kellie doctrine, and the authors propose to re-analyze the Monroe-Kellie doctrine concept in terms of energy transfer and dissipation of the Windkessel effect. We propose that the large blood flow energy that initiates in the heart is transferred in order of precedence to the arteries, arterioles, brain parenchyma, and finally to CSF within the cranium, in which the energy is confined and unable to be transferred, so that the final transfer of energy to the CSF pulsatile flow is self-dissipated in terms of direction and chronology in CSF pulsatile flow. In order for the CSF pulsatile flow that is transferred from arterial blood flow energy to be dissipated in the intracranial space, this cannot be explained with bulk flow energy in any perspective, since the pulsatile flow kinetic energy is greater than the bulk flow kinetic energy by at least a 100-fold. The pulsatile flow energy within the closed intracranial space cannot be transferred and is confined, as postulated by the Monroe-Kellie doctrine, and therefore the authors propound that the pulsatile flow dissipates by itself. The dissipation of the CSF pulsatile flow kinetic energy will be in all directions in a diffuse and random manner, and is offset by the CSF flow energy vector due to the CSF mixing process. Such energy dissipation will lead to maintenance of low CSF flow energy, which will result in maintaining low intracranial pressure (ICP), and sufficient brain perfusion. It is our

  6. General Relativistic Elastic Body, Fluid,quasi-rigid Body, Quasi-liquid and Others in Multiple Coordinate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chongming

    2009-05-01

    The approximation method in multiple coordinate systems at first post Newtonian (1 PN) level has been established by Darmour, Soffel and Xu (Phys. Rev. D(PRD) 43, 3273 (1991);D 45, 1017(1992);D 47, 3124 (1993);D 49, 618 (1994)). Normally, to discuss an astronomical object (e.g. a star in binary systems or the earth in solar system) we need multiple coordinate systems, especially for precise astrometry 1 PN (some time even 2 PN) approximate method is required. As we know up to now the ideas on elastic body, fluid, rigid body and liquid in the framework of Newtonian physics are still very useful for understanding and calculating some practical problems. Although the general relativistic theories of elastic body, general relativistic hydrodynamics and post-Newtonian quasi-rigid body have been discussed by many authors (including our papers (PRD63, 043002(2001); D63, 064001(2001); D68, 064009(2003); D69, 024003(2004); D71,024030 (2005))), but there is no completing discussion on all of these ideas in a unified point view. The applications of these ideas in the general relativity are important in the research fields of astrometry and geophysics, especially in case precise measurements reach so higher level (millimicro arc sec). The extended relativistic versions of these ideas should be revised the Newtonian results. In this paper, we shall give a complete discussion on all of these ideas in 1 PN approximation. We shall clarify the ideas on perfect elastic material, quasi-rigid body, quasi-liquid and so on with some precise mathematical forms. For fluid we show the hydrodynamic equations of a non-perfect fluid in multiple coordinates systems (both local and global).

  7. A mesoscopic bridging scale method for fluids and coupling dissipative particle dynamics with continuum finite element method.

    PubMed

    Kojic, Milos; Filipovic, Nenad; Tsuda, Akira

    2013-01-15

    A multiscale procedure to couple a mesoscale discrete particle model and a macroscale continuum model of incompressible fluid flow is proposed in this study. We call this procedure the mesoscopic bridging scale (MBS) method since it is developed on the basis of the bridging scale method for coupling molecular dynamics and finite element models [G.J. Wagner, W.K. Liu, Coupling of atomistic and continuum simulations using a bridging scale decomposition, J. Comput. Phys. 190 (2003) 249-274]. We derive the governing equations of the MBS method and show that the differential equations of motion of the mesoscale discrete particle model and finite element (FE) model are only coupled through the force terms. Based on this coupling, we express the finite element equations which rely on the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations, in a way that the internal nodal FE forces are evaluated using viscous stresses from the mesoscale model. The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method for the discrete particle mesoscale model is employed. The entire fluid domain is divided into a local domain and a global domain. Fluid flow in the local domain is modeled with both DPD and FE method, while fluid flow in the global domain is modeled by the FE method only. The MBS method is suitable for modeling complex (colloidal) fluid flows, where continuum methods are sufficiently accurate only in the large fluid domain, while small, local regions of particular interest require detailed modeling by mesoscopic discrete particles. Solved examples - simple Poiseuille and driven cavity flows illustrate the applicability of the proposed MBS method.

  8. A mesoscopic bridging scale method for fluids and coupling dissipative particle dynamics with continuum finite element method

    PubMed Central

    Kojic, Milos; Filipovic, Nenad; Tsuda, Akira

    2012-01-01

    A multiscale procedure to couple a mesoscale discrete particle model and a macroscale continuum model of incompressible fluid flow is proposed in this study. We call this procedure the mesoscopic bridging scale (MBS) method since it is developed on the basis of the bridging scale method for coupling molecular dynamics and finite element models [G.J. Wagner, W.K. Liu, Coupling of atomistic and continuum simulations using a bridging scale decomposition, J. Comput. Phys. 190 (2003) 249–274]. We derive the governing equations of the MBS method and show that the differential equations of motion of the mesoscale discrete particle model and finite element (FE) model are only coupled through the force terms. Based on this coupling, we express the finite element equations which rely on the Navier–Stokes and continuity equations, in a way that the internal nodal FE forces are evaluated using viscous stresses from the mesoscale model. The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method for the discrete particle mesoscale model is employed. The entire fluid domain is divided into a local domain and a global domain. Fluid flow in the local domain is modeled with both DPD and FE method, while fluid flow in the global domain is modeled by the FE method only. The MBS method is suitable for modeling complex (colloidal) fluid flows, where continuum methods are sufficiently accurate only in the large fluid domain, while small, local regions of particular interest require detailed modeling by mesoscopic discrete particles. Solved examples – simple Poiseuille and driven cavity flows illustrate the applicability of the proposed MBS method. PMID:23814322

  9. Natural convection in Bingham plastic fluids from an isothermal spheroid: Effects of fluid yield stress, viscous dissipation and temperature-dependent viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anoop Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay; Chhabra, Rajendra Prasad

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the buoyancy-induced convection from an isothermal spheroid is studied in a Bingham plastic fluid. Extensive results on the morphology of approximate yield surfaces, temperature profiles, and the local and average Nusselt numbers are reported to elucidate the effects of the pertinent dimensionless parameters: Rayleigh number, 102 ≤ Ra ≤ 106; Prandtl number, 20 ≤ Pr ≤ 100; Bingham number, 0 ≤ Bn ≤ 103, and aspect ratio, 0.2 ≤ e ≤ 5. Due to the fluid yield stress, fluid-like (yielded) and solid-like (unyielded) regions coexist in the flow domain depending upon the prevailing stress levels vis-a-vis the value of the fluid yield stress. The yielded parts progressively grow in size with the rising Rayleigh number while this tendency is countered by the increasing Bingham and Prandtl numbers. Due to these two competing effects, a limiting value of the Bingham number ( Bn max) is observed beyond which heat transfer occurs solely by conduction due to the solid-like behaviour of the fluid everywhere in the domain. Such limiting values bear a positive dependence on the Rayleigh number ( Ra) and aspect ratio ( e). In addition to this, oblate shapes ( e < 1) foster heat transfer with respect to spheres ( e = 1) while prolate shapes ( e > 1) impede it. Finally, simple predictive expressions for the maximum Bingham number and the average Nusselt number are developed which can be used to predict a priori the overall heat transfer coefficient in a new application. Also, a criterion is developed in terms of the composite parameter Bn• Gr-1/2 which predicts the onset of convection in such fluids. Similarly, another criterion is developed which delineates the conditions for the onset of settling due to buoyancy effects. The paper is concluded by presenting limited results to delineate the effects of viscous dissipation and the temperature-dependent viscosity on the Nusselt number. Both these effects are seen to be rather small in Bingham plastic fluids.

  10. On the role of mass diffusion and fluid dynamics in the dissipation of chunk mix

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L D

    1999-03-01

    When numerically simulating multicomponent turbulent flows, subgrid-scale diffusion of chemical species requires closure. This mixing of chemical species at the molecular level dissipates concentration uctuations, which limits possible demixing and affects other pro- cesses such as energy transport and reaction rates at the subgrid level. We discuss some of the physical processes that reduce small chunks of a heavy material in a light gas or plasma to a mixture at the atomic level. Preliminary direct numerical simulations of these processes are presented using the dissipation of small spheres of heavy gas in a light gas as an archetypal process in turbulent micromixing in multicomponent ows, including classical uid instabilities and shock ejecta. We use a detailed approach for the diffusion process, directly solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations for the mass fluxes. We discuss the dissipa- tion of a 24µm sphere of xenon in helium in three different flow regimes, and we present suggestions for future work intended as input to improved subgrid-scale turbulence models.

  11. Self-Gravitating Relativistic Fluids: The Formation of a Free Phase Boundary in the Phase Transition from Hard to Soft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Demetrios; Lisibach, André

    2016-11-01

    In the 1990s Christodoulou introduced an idealized fluid model intended to capture some of the features of the gravitational collapse of a massive star to form a neutron star or a black hole. This was the two-phase model introduced in `Self-gravitating relativistic fluids: a two phase model' (Demeterios, Arch Ration Mech Anal 130:343-400, 1995). The present work deals with the formation of a free phase boundary in the phase transition from hard to soft in this model. In this case the phase boundary has corners at the null points; the points which separate the timelike and spacelike components of the interface between the two phases. We prove the existence and uniqueness of a free phase boundary. Also the local form of the shock near the null point is established.

  12. Dissipative Boltzmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hiscock, W.A.; Salmonson, J. )

    1991-05-15

    The equations governing a flat Robertson-Walker cosmological model containing a dissipative Boltzmann gas are integrated numerically. The bulk viscous stress is modeled using the Eckart and Israel-Stewart theories of dissipative relativistic fluids; the resulting cosmologies are compared and contrasted. The Eckart models are shown to always differ in a significant quantitative way from the Israel-Stewart models. It thus appears inappropriate to use the pathological (nonhyperbolic) Eckart theory for cosmological applications. For large bulk viscosities, both cosmological models approach asymptotic nonequilibrium states; in the Eckart model the total pressure is negative, while in the Israel-Stewart model the total pressure is asymptotically zero. The Eckart model also expands more rapidly than the Israel-Stewart models. These results suggest that bulk-viscous'' inflation may be an artifact of using a pathological fluid theory such as the Eckart theory.

  13. MHD slip flow of a dissipative Casson fluid over a moving geometry with heat source/sink: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C. S. K.; Sandeep, N.

    2017-04-01

    A Mathematical model is developed for investigating the heat and mass transfer of magnetohydrodynamic Casson fluid over a moving wedge with slip, nonlinear thermal radiation, uniform heat source/sink and chemical reaction. For regulating the momentum and concentration gradients we also considered the viscous dissipation and cross diffusion effects. Numerical solutions are carried out by employing Runge-Kutta and Newton's methods. The effects of the physical governing factors on the flow, temperature and concentration profiles are illustrated graphically for accelerating and decelerating flow cases. We also computed the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers along with friction factor for the same cases. It is found that increasing the temperature jump parameter encourages the heat transfer rate. It is also concluded that the local Nusselt number is high in accelerating flow case when equated with the decelerating flow case.

  14. Momentum and charge transport in non-relativistic holographic fluids from Hořava gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Richard A.; Grozdanov, Sašo; Janiszewski, Stefan; Kaminski, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    We study the linearized transport of transverse momentum and charge in a conjectured field theory dual to a black brane solution of Hořava gravity with Lifshitz exponent z = 1. As expected from general hydrodynamic reasoning, we find that both of these quantities are diffusive over distance and time scales larger than the inverse temperature. We compute the diffusion constants and conductivities of transverse momentum and charge, as well the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, and find that they differ from their relativistic counterparts. To derive these results, we propose how the holographic dictionary should be modified to deal with the multiple horizons and differing propagation speeds of bulk excitations in Hořava gravity. When possible, as a check on our methods and results, we use the covariant Einstein-Aether formulation of Hořava gravity, along with field redefinitions, to re-derive our results from a relativistic bulk theory.

  15. Convexity and symmetrization in relativistic theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, T.

    1990-09-01

    There is a strong motivation for the desire to have symmetric hyperbolic field equations in thermodynamics, because they guarantee well-posedness of Cauchy problems. A generic quasi-linear first order system of balance laws — in the non-relativistic case — can be shown to be symmetric hyperbolic, if the entropy density is concave with respect to the variables. In relativistic thermodynamics this is not so. This paper shows that there exists a scalar quantity in relativistic thermodynamics whose concavity guarantees a symmetric hyperbolic system. But that quantity — we call it —bar h — is not the entropy, although it is closely related to it. It is formed by contracting the entropy flux vector — ha with a privileged time-like congruencebar ξ _α . It is also shown that the convexity of h plus the requirement that all speeds be smaller than the speed of light c provide symmetric hyperbolic field equations for all choices of the direction of time. At this level of generality the physical meaning of —h is unknown. However, in many circumstances it is equal to the entropy. This is so, of course, in the non-relativistic limit but also in the non-dissipative relativistic fluid and even in relativistic extended thermodynamics for a non-degenerate gas.

  16. Variable viscosity on unsteady dissipative Carreau fluid over a truncated cone filled with titanium alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C. S. K.; Sekhar, K. R.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Lorenzini, G.; Viswanatha Reddy, G.; Lorenzini, E.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we proposed a theoretical investigation on the temperature-dependent viscosity effect on magnetohydrodynamic dissipative nanofluid over a truncated cone with heat source/sink. The involving set of nonlinear partial differential equations is transforming to set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using self-similarity solutions. The transformed governing equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-based Newton's technique. The effects of various dimensionless parameters on the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number profiles are discussed and presented with the support of graphs. We also obtained the validation of the current solutions with existing solution under some special cases. The water-based titanium alloy has a lesser friction factor coefficient as compared with kerosene-based titanium alloy, whereas the rate of heat transfer is higher in water-based titanium alloy compared with kerosene-based titanium alloy. From this we can highlight that depending on the industrial needs cooling/heating chooses the water- or kerosene-based titanium alloys.

  17. Variable viscosity on unsteady dissipative Carreau fluid over a truncated cone filled with titanium alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C. S. K.; Sekhar, K. R.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Lorenzini, G.; Viswanatha Reddy, G.; Lorenzini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a theoretical investigation on the temperature-dependent viscosity effect on magnetohydrodynamic dissipative nanofluid over a truncated cone with heat source/sink. The involving set of nonlinear partial differential equations is transforming to set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using self-similarity solutions. The transformed governing equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-based Newton's technique. The effects of various dimensionless parameters on the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number profiles are discussed and presented with the support of graphs. We also obtained the validation of the current solutions with existing solution under some special cases. The water-based titanium alloy has a lesser friction factor coefficient as compared with kerosene-based titanium alloy, whereas the rate of heat transfer is higher in water-based titanium alloy compared with kerosene-based titanium alloy. From this we can highlight that depending on the industrial needs cooling/heating chooses the water- or kerosene-based titanium alloys.

  18. Construction of dissipative particle dynamics models for complex fluids via the Mori-Zwanzig formulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George Em

    2014-11-21

    We present a bottom-up coarse-graining procedure to construct mesoscopic force fields directly from microscopic dynamics. By grouping many bonded atoms in the molecular dynamics (MD) system into a single cluster, we compute both the conservative and non-conservative interactions between neighboring clusters. In particular, we perform MD simulations of polymer melts to provide microscopic trajectories for evaluating coarse-grained (CG) interactions. Subsequently, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is considered as the effective dynamics resulting from the Mori-Zwanzig (MZ) projection of the underlying atomistic dynamics. The forces between finite-size clusters have, in general, both radial and transverse components and hence we employ four different DPD models to account differently for such interactions. Quantitative comparisons between these DPD models indicate that the DPD models with MZ-guided force fields yield much better static and dynamics properties, which are consistent with the underlying MD system, compared to standard DPD with empirical formulae. When the rotational motion of the particle is properly taken into account, the entire velocity autocorrelation function of the MD system as well as the pair correlation function can be accurately reproduced by the MD-informed DPD model. Since this coarse-graining procedure is performed on an unconstrained MD system, our framework is general and can be used in other soft matter systems in which the clusters can be faithfully defined as CG particles.

  19. A Lattice-Boltzmann model to simulate diffractive nonlinear ultrasound beam propagation in a dissipative fluid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, Mohamad; Hajihasani, Mojtaba; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasound waves have been widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Accurate and effective simulation of ultrasound beam propagation and its interaction with tissue has been proved to be important. The nonlinear nature of the ultrasound beam propagation, especially in the therapeutic regime, plays an important role in the mechanisms of interaction with tissue. There are three main approaches in current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to model and simulate nonlinear ultrasound beams: macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic approaches. In this work, a mesoscopic CFD method based on the Lattice-Boltzmann model (LBM) was investigated. In the developed method, the Boltzmann equation is evolved to simulate the flow of a Newtonian fluid with the collision model instead of solving the Navier-Stokes, continuity and state equations which are used in conventional CFD methods. The LBM has some prominent advantages over conventional CFD methods, including: (1) its parallel computational nature; (2) taking microscopic boundaries into account; and (3) capability of simulating in porous and inhomogeneous media. In our proposed method, the propagating medium is discretized with a square grid in 2 dimensions with 9 velocity vectors for each node. Using the developed model, the nonlinear distortion and shock front development of a finiteamplitude diffractive ultrasonic beam in a dissipative fluid medium was computed and validated against the published data. The results confirm that the LBM is an accurate and effective approach to model and simulate nonlinearity in finite-amplitude ultrasound beams with Mach numbers of up to 0.01 which, among others, falls within the range of therapeutic ultrasound regime such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams. A comparison between the HIFU nonlinear beam simulations using the proposed model and pseudospectral methods in a 2D geometry is presented.

  20. Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Dissipative Coupled Weakly Compressible Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, A.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Bellotti, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in deep sea measurement technology provide an increasing opportunity to detect and interpret hydro-acoustic waves as a component in improved Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). For the idealized case of a homogeneous water column above a moving but otherwise rigid bottom (in terms of assessing acoustic wave interaction), the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by local water depth at source area; i.e. the period of the first acoustic mode is given by four times the required time for sound to travel from the seabed to the surface. Spreading off from earthquake zone, the dominant spectrum is filtered and enriched by seamounts and barriers. This study focuses on the characteristics of hydro-acoustic waves generated by sudden sea bottom motion in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with an underlying sedimentary layer, where the added complexity of the sediment layer rheology leads to both the lowering of dominant spectral peaks and wave attenuation across the full spectrum. To overcome the computational difficulties of three-dimensional models, we derive a depth integrated equation valid for varying water depth and sediment thickness. Damping behavior of the two layered system is initially taken into account by introducing the viscosity of fluid-like sedimentary layer. We show that low frequency pressure waves which are precursor components of tsunamis contain information of seafloor motion.

  1. Exact power series solutions of the structure equations of the general relativistic isotropic fluid stars with linear barotropic and polytropic equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, T.; Mak, M. K.

    2016-09-01

    Obtaining exact solutions of the spherically symmetric general relativistic gravitational field equations describing the interior structure of an isotropic fluid sphere is a long standing problem in theoretical and mathematical physics. The usual approach to this problem consists mainly in the numerical investigation of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff and of the mass continuity equations, which describes the hydrostatic stability of the dense stars. In the present paper we introduce an alternative approach for the study of the relativistic fluid sphere, based on the relativistic mass equation, obtained by eliminating the energy density in the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite its apparent complexity, the relativistic mass equation can be solved exactly by using a power series representation for the mass, and the Cauchy convolution for infinite power series. We obtain exact series solutions for general relativistic dense astrophysical objects described by the linear barotropic and the polytropic equations of state, respectively. For the polytropic case we obtain the exact power series solution corresponding to arbitrary values of the polytropic index n. The explicit form of the solution is presented for the polytropic index n=1, and for the indexes n=1/2 and n=1/5, respectively. The case of n=3 is also considered. In each case the exact power series solution is compared with the exact numerical solutions, which are reproduced by the power series solutions truncated to seven terms only. The power series representations of the geometric and physical properties of the linear barotropic and polytropic stars are also obtained.

  2. A Unified Theory of Turbulence: Maximum Entropy Increase Due To Turbulent Dissipation In Fluid Systems From Laboratory-scale Turbulence To Global-scale Circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Hisashi; Shimokawa, Shinya; Sakuma, Hirofumi

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature, yet remains an enigma in many respects. Here we investigate dissipative properties of turbulence so as to find out a statistical "law" of turbulence. Two general expressions are derived for a rate of entropy increase due to thermal and viscous dissipation (turbulent dissipation) in a fluid system. It is found with these equations that phenomenological properties of turbulence such as Malkus's suggestion on maximum heat transport in thermal convection as well as Busse's sug- gestion on maximum momentum transport in shear turbulence can rigorously be ex- plained by a unique state in which the rate of entropy increase due to the turbulent dissipation is at a maximum (dS/dt = Max.). It is also shown that the same state cor- responds to the maximum entropy climate suggested by Paltridge. The tendency to increase the rate of entropy increase has also been confirmed by our recent GCM ex- periments. These results suggest the existence of a universal law that manifests itself in the long-term statistics of turbulent fluid systems from laboratory-scale turbulence to planetary-scale circulations. Ref.) Ozawa, H., Shimokawa, S., and Sakuma, H., Phys. Rev. E 64, 026303, 2001.

  3. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of a relativistic gas at the transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo

    2016-11-01

    The Jüttner distribution function for equilibrium relativistic fluids has two well-known limits, the non-relativistic limit at low temperatures and ultra-relativistic limit for high temperatures. Recently, the description of this transition in velocity space in the system, from a gaussian to a bimodal distribution was made by Mendoza et al. Physically, it is a transition between a regime where the relativistic energy is dominated by kinetic to another where the rest energy dominates. It has been found that the critical temperature at which the relativistic corrections becomes relevant, depends just on the dimension of the system, this allowed a description in terms of the theory of critical points (Montakhab et al.). In this contribution a review of the thermodynamic quantities that are only dependent on the ratio between temperature and critical temperature, and the dimension is made. We will also analyze the effects of critical temperature on dissipative processes in simple special relativistic fluids. Particularly, purely relativistic terms that are usually proportional to the number density gradient are studied. The transport coefficients can be written in terms of the transition temperature, this will allow us to identify the lower order relativistic effects just in terms of the dimension of the system.

  4. Well behaved parametric class of relativistic charged fluid ball in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Neeraj

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents a class of interior solutions of Einstein-Maxwell field equations of general relativity for a static, spherically symmetric distribution of the charged fluid. This class of solutions describes well behaved charged fluid balls. The class of solutions gives us wide range of parameter K (0≤ K≤42) for which the solution is well behaved hence, suitable for modeling of super dense star. For this solution the mass of a star is maximized with all degree of suitability and by assuming the surface density ρ b =2×1014 g/cm3. Corresponding to K=2 and X=0.30, the maximum mass of the star comes out to be 4.96 M Θ with linear dimension 34.16 km and central redshift and surface redshift 2.1033 and 0.683 respectively. In absence of the charge we are left behind with the well behaved fourth model of Durgapal (J. Phys., A, Math. Gen. 15:2637, 1982).

  5. Two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves in relativistic plasmas. I. The fluid plasma model

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Lefebvre, E.

    2011-09-15

    The properties of two-dimensional linearly s-polarized solitary waves are investigated by fluid-Maxwell equations and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. These self-trapped electromagnetic waves appear during laser-plasma interactions, and they have a dominant electric field component E{sub z}, normal to the plane of the wave, that oscillates at a frequency below the electron plasma frequency {omega}{sub pe}. A set of equations that describe the waves are derived from the plasma fluid model in the case of cold or warm plasma and then solved numerically. The main features, including the maximum value of the vector potential amplitude, the total energy, the width, and the cavitation radius are presented as a function of the frequency. The amplitude of the vector potential increases monotonically as the frequency of the wave decreases, whereas the width reaches a minimum value at a frequency of the order of 0.82 {omega}{sub pe}. The results are compared with a set of PIC simulations where the solitary waves are excited by a high-intensity laser pulse.

  6. The effect of resolution on viscous dissipation measured with 4D flow MRI in patients with Fontan circulation: Evaluation using computational fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cibis, Merih; Jarvis, Kelly; Markl, Michael; Rose, Michael; Rigsby, Cynthia; Barker, Alex J.; Wentzel, Jolanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Viscous dissipation inside Fontan circulation, a parameter associated with the exercise intolerance of Fontan patients, can be derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or 4D flow MRI velocities. However, the impact of spatial resolution and measurement noise on the estimation of viscous dissipation is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of these parameters on viscous dissipation calculation. Six Fontan patients underwent whole heart 4D flow MRI. Subject-specific CFD simulations were performed. The CFD velocities were down-sampled to isotropic spatial resolutions of 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm and to MRI resolution. Viscous dissipation was compared between (1) high resolution CFD velocities, (2) CFD velocities down-sampled to MRI resolution, (3) down-sampled CFD velocities with MRI mimicked noise levels, and (4) in-vivo 4D flow MRI velocities. Relative viscous dissipation between subjects was also calculated. 4D flow MRI velocities (15.6±3.8 cm/s) were higher, although not significantly different than CFD velocities (13.8±4.7 cm/s, p=0.16), down-sampled CFD velocities (12.3±4.4 cm/s, p=0.06) and the down-sampled CFD velocities with noise (13.2±4.2 cm/s, p=0.06). CFD-based viscous dissipation (0.81±0.55 mW) was significantly higher than those based on down-sampled CFD (0.25±0.19 mW, p=0.03), down-sampled CFD with noise (0.49±0.26 mW, p=0.03) and 4D flow MRI (0.56±0.28 mW, p=0.06). Nevertheless, relative viscous dissipation between different subjects was maintained irrespective of resolution and noise, suggesting that comparison of viscous dissipation between patients is still possible. PMID:26298492

  7. Variety of Well behaved parametric classes of relativistic charged fluid spheres in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Neeraj; Rajasekhara, S.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents a variety of classes of interior solutions of Einstein-Maxwell field equations of general relativity for a static, spherically symmetric distribution of the charged fluid with well behaved nature. These classes of solutions describe perfect fluid balls with positively finite central pressure, positively finite central density; their ratio is less than one and causality condition is obeyed at the center. The outmarch of pressure, density, pressure-density ratio and the adiabatic speed of sound is monotonically decreasing for these solutions. Keeping in view of well behaved nature of these solutions, two new classes of solutions are being studied extensively. Moreover, these classes of solutions give us wide range of constant K for which the solutions are well behaved hence, suitable for modeling of super dense star. For solution (I1) the mass of a star is maximized with all degree of suitability and by assuming the surface density ρ b =2×1014 g/cm3 corresponding to K=1.19 and X=0.20, the maximum mass of the star comes out to be 2.5 M Θ with linear dimension 25.29 Km and central redshift 0.2802. It has been observed that with the increase of charge parameter K, the mass of the star also increases. For n=4,5,6,7, the charged solutions are well behaved with their neutral counterparts however, for n=1,2,3, the charged solution are well behaved but their neutral counterparts are not well behaved.

  8. A new relativistic stellar model with anisotropic fluid in Karmarkar space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ksh. Newton; Pant, Neeraj; Troconis, O.

    2017-02-01

    We are presenting a new class of well-behaved solutions in embedding class-I. We proceed our calculations by assuming a new type of grr metric potential and solved for the other metric gtt using Karmarkar condition. The necessary condition that any solutions of Einstein's field equations to be class-I is to satisfy Karmarkar condition and sufficient condition is to satisfy Pandey-Sharma condition i.e. R2323 ≠ 0. The solution also satisfies strong energy condition, null energy condition, dominant energy condition and weak energy condition. The obtained compactness parameter is within Buchdahl limit i.e. 2 M / R ≤ 8 / 9. The solution also satisfies the causality condition and can represent stable stellar fluid system as the adiabatic index Γ > 4 / 3 and the stability factor holds - 1 ≤ vt2- vr2 ≤ 0 good. Finally, we have tuned our solution for two compact stars PSR J1614-2230 and 4U1608-52 which are well-behaved in all respects.

  9. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel

    2017-05-01

    We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the "conventional" magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell's equations in matter) to those in the "dual" version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).

  10. Study of turbulent energy dissipation rate of fluid flow in the vicinity of dispersed phase boundary using spatiotemporal tree model.

    PubMed

    Sikiö, Päivi; Jalali, Payman

    2014-12-01

    The hierarchical shell models of turbulence including a spatial dimension, namely, spatiotemporal tree models, reproduce the intermittent behavior of Navier-Stokes equations in both space and time dimensions corresponding to high Reynolds number turbulent flows. This model is used, for the first time in this paper, in a one-dimensional flow zone containing a dispersed-phase particle that can be used in the study of dispersed-phase flows. In this paper, a straightforward method has been used to introduce discrete phase into the spatiotemporal tree model that leads to an increased amount of turbulent energy dissipation rate in the vicinity of the discrete phase. The effects of particle insertion and particle size on the turbulent energy dissipation rate are demonstrated. Moreover, the space-scale behavior of the time-averaged turbulent energy dissipation rate in the presence of dispersed phase is demonstrated by means of continuous wavelet transform.

  11. MHD dissipative flow and heat transfer of Casson fluids due to metachronal wave propulsion of beating cilia with thermal and velocity slip effects under an oblique magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Tripathi, D.; Bég, O. Anwar; Khan, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical investigation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer of electrically-conducting viscoplastic fluids through a channel is conducted. The robust Casson model is implemented to simulate viscoplastic behavior of fluids. The external magnetic field is oblique to the fluid flow direction. Viscous dissipation effects are included. The flow is controlled by the metachronal wave propagation generated by cilia beating on the inner walls of the channel. The mathematical formulation is based on deformation in longitudinal and transverse velocity components induced by the ciliary beating phenomenon with cilia assumed to follow elliptic trajectories. The model also features velocity and thermal slip boundary conditions. Closed-form solutions to the non-dimensional boundary value problem are obtained under physiological limitations of low Reynolds number and large wavelength. The influence of key hydrodynamic and thermo-physical parameters i.e. Hartmann (magnetic) number, Casson (viscoplastic) fluid parameter, thermal slip parameter and velocity slip parameter on flow characteristics are investigated. A comparative study is also made with Newtonian fluids (corresponding to massive values of plastic viscosity). Stream lines are plotted to visualize trapping phenomenon. The computations reveal that velocity increases with increasing the magnitude of Hartmann number near the channel walls whereas in the core flow region (center of the channel) significant deceleration is observed. Temperature is elevated with greater Casson parameter, Hartmann number, velocity slip, eccentricity parameter, thermal slip and also Brinkmann (dissipation) number. Furthermore greater Casson parameter is found to elevate the quantity and size of the trapped bolus. In the pumping region, the pressure rise is reduced with greater Hartmann number, velocity slip, and wave number whereas it is enhanced with greater cilia length.

  12. Relativistic Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Over the past one hundred years, Brownian motion theory has contributed substantially to our understanding of various microscopic phenomena. Originally proposed as a phenomenological paradigm for atomistic matter interactions, the theory has since evolved into a broad and vivid research area, with an ever increasing number of applications in biology, chemistry, finance, and physics. The mathematical description of stochastic processes has led to new approaches in other fields, culminating in the path integral formulation of modern quantum theory. Stimulated by experimental progress in high energy physics and astrophysics, the unification of relativistic and stochastic concepts has re-attracted considerable interest during the past decade. Focusing on the framework of special relativity, we review, here, recent progress in the phenomenological description of relativistic diffusion processes. After a brief historical overview, we will summarize basic concepts from the Langevin theory of nonrelativistic Brownian motions and discuss relevant aspects of relativistic equilibrium thermostatistics. The introductory parts are followed by a detailed discussion of relativistic Langevin equations in phase space. We address the choice of time parameters, discretization rules, relativistic fluctuation-dissipation theorems, and Lorentz transformations of stochastic differential equations. The general theory is illustrated through analytical and numerical results for the diffusion of free relativistic Brownian particles. Subsequently, we discuss how Langevin-type equations can be obtained as approximations to microscopic models. The final part of the article is dedicated to relativistic diffusion processes in Minkowski spacetime. Since the velocities of relativistic particles are bounded by the speed of light, nontrivial relativistic Markov processes in spacetime do not exist; i.e., relativistic generalizations of the nonrelativistic diffusion equation and its Gaussian solutions

  13. Derivation of nonlinear Schroedinger equation for electrostatic and electromagnetic waves in fully relativistic two-fluid plasmas by the reductive perturbation method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nam C.

    2012-08-15

    The reductive perturbation method is used to derive a generic form of nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) that describes the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic (ES)/electromagnetic (EM) waves in fully relativistic two-fluid plasmas. The matrix eigenvector analysis shows that there are two mutually exclusive modes of waves, each mode involving only either one of two electric potentials, A and {phi}. The general result is applied to the electromagnetic mode in electron-ion plasmas with relativistically high electron temperature (T{sub e} Much-Greater-Than m{sub e}c{sup 2}). In the limit of high frequency (ck Much-Greater-Than {omega}{sub e}), the NLSE predicts bump type electromagnetic soliton structures having width scaling as {approx}kT{sub e}{sup 5/2}. It is shown that, in electron-positron pair plasmas with high temperature, dip type electromagnetic solitons can exist. The NLSE is also applied to electrostatic (Langmuir) wave and it is shown that dip type solitons can exist if k{lambda}{sub D} Much-Less-Than 1, where {lambda}{sub D} is the electron's Debye length. For the k{lambda}{sub D} Much-Greater-Than 1, however, the solution is of bump type soliton with width scaling as {approx}1/(k{sup 5}T{sub e}). It is also shown that dip type solitons can exist in cold plasmas having relativistically high streaming speed.

  14. A high-order relativistic two-fluid electrodynamic scheme with consistent reconstruction of electromagnetic fields and a multidimensional Riemann solver for electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Amano, Takanobu; Garain, Sudip; Kim, Jinho

    2016-08-01

    In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. The primary variables in the Maxwell solver are taken to be the facially-collocated components of the electric and magnetic fields. Consistent with such a collocation, three important innovations are reported here. The first two pertain to the Maxwell solver. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our second innovation, a multidimensionally upwinded strategy is presented which ensures that the magnetic field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of Faraday's law and the electric field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of the generalized Ampere's law. This multidimensional upwinding is achieved via a multidimensional Riemann solver. The multidimensional Riemann solver automatically provides edge-centered electric field components for the Stokes law-based update of the magnetic field. It also provides edge-centered magnetic field components for the Stokes law-based update of the electric field. The update strategy ensures that the electric field is always consistent with Gauss' law and the magnetic field is always divergence-free. This

  15. A high-order relativistic two-fluid electrodynamic scheme with consistent reconstruction of electromagnetic fields and a multidimensional Riemann solver for electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Amano, Takanobu; Garain, Sudip; Kim, Jinho

    2016-08-01

    In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. The primary variables in the Maxwell solver are taken to be the facially-collocated components of the electric and magnetic fields. Consistent with such a collocation, three important innovations are reported here. The first two pertain to the Maxwell solver. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our second innovation, a multidimensionally upwinded strategy is presented which ensures that the magnetic field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of Faraday's law and the electric field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of the generalized Ampere's law. This multidimensional upwinding is achieved via a multidimensional Riemann solver. The multidimensional Riemann solver automatically provides edge-centered electric field components for the Stokes law-based update of the magnetic field. It also provides edge-centered magnetic field components for the Stokes law-based update of the electric field. The update strategy ensures that the electric field is always consistent with Gauss' law and the magnetic field is always divergence-free. This

  16. Relativistic effects on plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad

    2014-07-15

    The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.

  17. Generalized global symmetries and dissipative magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Hofman, Diego M.; Iqbal, Nabil

    2017-05-01

    The conserved magnetic flux of U (1 ) electrodynamics coupled to matter in four dimensions is associated with a generalized global symmetry. We study the realization of such a symmetry at finite temperature and develop the hydrodynamic theory describing fluctuations of a conserved 2-form current around thermal equilibrium. This can be thought of as a systematic derivation of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics, constrained only by symmetries and effective field theory. We construct the entropy current and show that at first order in derivatives, there are seven dissipative transport coefficients. We present a universal definition of resistivity in a theory of dynamical electromagnetism and derive a direct Kubo formula for the resistivity in terms of correlation functions of the electric field operator. We also study fluctuations and collective modes, deriving novel expressions for the dissipative widths of magnetosonic and Alfvén modes. Finally, we demonstrate that a nontrivial truncation of the theory can be performed at low temperatures compared to the magnetic field: this theory has an emergent Lorentz invariance along magnetic field lines, and hydrodynamic fluctuations are now parametrized by a fluid tensor rather than a fluid velocity. Throughout, no assumption is made of weak electromagnetic coupling. Thus, our theory may have phenomenological relevance for dense electromagnetic plasmas.

  18. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  19. Direct detection of the gel-fluid phase transition of a single supported phospholipid bilayer using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wargenau, Andreas; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2014-08-19

    Supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) are valuable models for fundamental studies of biological membranes and their interaction with biologically relevant solutes or particles. Herein, we demonstrate the capability of the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to directly detect the gel-fluid phase transition of a SPB. The approach involves comparison of the frequency response of a bare and a bilayer-coated QCM-D crystal during linear temperature variation. Phase transition results in a change of the resonance frequency that coincides directly with the accompanied change in bilayer thickness detected by ellipsometry. Experiments performed at different heating rates further demonstrate the use of dissipation monitoring to determine the phase transition temperature based on the temperature-induced viscosity changes of the ambient medium in the immediate environment of the bilayer. Unlike other methods, the proposed approach enables precise determination of the phase transition of a SPB without the need for thermal equilibration of the measurement chamber and, thus, has great potential for sensitive detection of structural and/or compositional changes of the bilayer.

  20. MHD Effects on Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid Past a Continuously Moving Porous Flat Plate with Heat Flux and Viscous Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishan, N.; Shashidar Reddy, B.

    2013-06-01

    The problem of a magneto-hydro dynamic flow and heat transfer to a non-Newtonian power-law fluid flow past a continuously moving flat porous plate in the presence of sucion/injection with heat flux by taking into consideration the viscous dissipation is analysed. The non-linear partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer are transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations and then solved numerically by an implicit finite difference scheme. The solution is found to be dependent on various governing parameters including the magnetic field parameter M, power-law index n, suction/injection parameter ƒw, Prandtl number Pr and Eckert number Ec. A systematical study is carried out to illustrate the effects of these major parameters on the velocity profiles, temperature profile, skin friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer and the local Nusslet number.

  1. Partial slip and dissipation on MHD radiative ferro-fluid over a non-linear permeable convectively heated stretching sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, N.; Durga Prasad, P.; Raju, C. S. K.; Varma, S. V. K.; Shehzad, S. A.

    The simultaneous interaction of viscous dissipative and thermal radiation in MHD two dimensional flows of ferro-liquid over a nonlinear moving surface is analyzed here. The slip on velocity and convective boundary condition on temperature are imposed on stretching surface. We used water as conventional base liquid which have magnetite (Fe3O4) and alumina (Al2O3) as nanoparticles. The governing mathematical expressions are converted into non-dimensional form via nonlinear type similarity variables. The resulting mathematical model is numerically solved with the help of MATLAB solver bvp4c. The roles of non-dimensional constraints on velocity and temperature are elaborated through plots. The numerical data of skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number is presented and visualized. The validity of computed results is analyzed through comparative benchmark.

  2. Fast Lattice Boltzmann Solver for Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Boghosian, B. M.; Succi, S.

    2010-07-02

    A lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically validated through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic fluids. In order to illustrate its capability to handle complex geometries, the scheme is also applied to the case of a three-dimensional relativistic shock wave, generated by a supernova explosion, impacting on a massive interstellar cloud. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the proven advantages of lattice Boltzmann methods, namely, computational efficiency and easy handling of complex geometries, to the context of (mildly) relativistic fluid dynamics at large, from quark-gluon plasmas up to supernovae with relativistic outflows.

  3. Relativistic Fluid-Dynamical Approach for Nuclear Collisions at Energies from 1 TO 100 GeV Per Nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishustin, I. N.; Russkikh, V. N.; Satarov, L. M.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * FORMULATION OF ONE-FLUID MODEL * Applicability Conditions and Basic Equations * Equation of State of Hadronic Matter * Numerical Procedure for Solving One-Fluid Equations * Calculation of Secondary Particle Spectra * RESULTS OF ONE-FLUID MODEL * Space-Time Picture of Collision Process * Comparison with Experimental Data at Berkeley and Dubna Energies

  4. Beyond ideal magnetohydrodynamics: resistive, reactive and relativistic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, N.; Dionysopoulou, K.; Hawke, I.; Comer, G. L.

    2017-06-01

    We develop a new framework for the modelling of charged fluid dynamics in general relativity. The model, which builds on a recently developed variational multi-fluid framework for dissipative fluids, accounts for relevant effects like the inertia of both charge currents and heat and, for mature systems, the decoupling of superfluid components. We discuss how the model compares to standard relativistic magnetohydronamics and consider the connection between the fluid dynamics, the microphysics and the underlying equation of state. As illustrations of the formalism, we consider three distinct two-fluid models describing (i) an Ohm’s law for resistive charged flows, (ii) a relativistic heat equation, and (iii) an equation representing the momentum of a decoupled superfluid component. As a more complex example, we also formulate a three-fluid model which demonstrates the thermo-electric effect. The new framework allows us to model neutron stars (and related systems) at a hierarchy of increasingly complex levels, and should enable us to make progress on a range of exciting problems in astrophysics and cosmology.

  5. Nano-batteries in a carry fluid as power supply: Freeform geometry, superfast refilling, and heat self-dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangyu; Powell, Patrick; Lu, Wei

    2014-12-01

    This letter proposes and analyzes a system composed of many micro- or nano-scale batteries. Each battery is a self-contained Li-ion micro-battery enclosed in an insulating shell, and can charge/ discharge wirelessly or through contacts. Thousands of such batteries are carried by an inert fluid to form a power fluid to drive an electric vehicle. This power fluid can be stored in the tank and replaced easily with a fully charged fluid by refilling once its energy is depleted. The system can provide better energy density, higher power density, and extremely fast "charging" within minutes. The architecture eliminates the large over-capacity design in the current battery packs, significantly reducing the weight and cost. It would also enable progressive improvements of vehicle performance by replacing the micro-batteries. The battery system has flexible geometry, and therefore can essentially go into a storage space of any geometry, allowing uniform design of battery configurations for diverse applications.

  6. Comments on ''theory of dissipative density-gradient-driven turbulence in the tokamak edge'' (Phys. Fluids 28, 1419 (1985))

    SciTech Connect

    Krommes, J.A.

    1985-11-01

    The author critiques the model of tokamak edge turbulence by P.W. Terry and P.H. Diamond (Phys. Fluids 28, 1419, 1985). The critique includes a discussion of the physical basis, consistency and quantitative accuracy of the Terry-Diamond model. 19 refs. (WRF)

  7. The resolved layer of a collisionless, high beta, supercritical, quasi-perpendicular shock wave. II - Dissipative fluid electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Aggson, T. L.; Mangeney, A.; Lacombe, C.; Harvey, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Using the results of Scudder et al. (1986) on the bow shock wave observed by ISEE satellites, a quantitative description is presented of the electrodynamics of ion and electron fluids, and phase-standing wave interaction which manifests itself as a supercritical MHD shock. The cross-shock electrical profile was determined in both the normal incidence frame and in the deHoffman-Teller frame by two different methods, and the results were compared with dc electric field measurements.

  8. The resolved layer of a collisionless, high beta, supercritical, quasi-perpendicular shock wave. II - Dissipative fluid electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Aggson, T. L.; Mangeney, A.; Lacombe, C.; Harvey, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Using the results of Scudder et al. (1986) on the bow shock wave observed by ISEE satellites, a quantitative description is presented of the electrodynamics of ion and electron fluids, and phase-standing wave interaction which manifests itself as a supercritical MHD shock. The cross-shock electrical profile was determined in both the normal incidence frame and in the deHoffman-Teller frame by two different methods, and the results were compared with dc electric field measurements.

  9. Computational analysis of magnetohydrodynamic Sisko fluid flow over a stretching cylinder in the presence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Arif; Malik, M. Y.; Bilal, S.; Awais, M.; Salahuddin, T.

    Present communication presents numerical investigation of magnetohydrodynamic Sisko fluid flow over linearly stretching cylinder along with combined effects of temperature depending thermal conductivity and viscous dissipation. The arising set of flow govern equations are simplified under usual boundary layer assumptions. A set of variable similarity transforms are employed to shift the governing partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The solution of attained highly nonlinear simultaneous equations is computed by an efficient technique (shooting method). Numerical computations are accomplished and interesting aspects of flow velocity and temperature are visualized via graphs for different parametric conditions. A comprehensive discussion is presented to reveal the influence of flow parameters on wall shear stress and local Nusselt number via figures and tables.Furthermore, it is observed that magnetic field provides noticeable resistance to the fluid motion while both material parameter and curvature accelerates it. The progressing values of both Eckert number and thermal conductivity parameter have qualitively same effects i.e. they rise the temperature. Additionally, material parameter and curvature parameter increase the coefficient of skin friction absolutely and qualitively similar effects are noticed for Nusselt number against variations in Prandtl number and curvature parameter. On the other hand local Nusselt diminishes for larger values of Eckert number and power law index. The present results are compared with existing literature via tables, they have good covenant with previous results.

  10. Influence of Hall Current and Viscous Dissipation on Pressure Driven Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluid with Heat Generation: A Mathematical Study.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Saima; Qasim, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of heat sink (or source) on the peristaltic motion of pseudoplastic fluid in the presence of Hall current, where channel walls are non-conducting in nature. Flow analysis has been carried out under the approximations of a low Reynolds number and long wavelength. Coupled equations are solved using shooting method for numerical solution for the axial velocity function, temperature and pressure gradient distributions. We analyze the influence of various interesting parameters on flow quantities. The present study can be considered as a mathematical presentation of the dynamics of physiological organs with stones.

  11. Fluid Flow and Effusive Desorption: Dominant Mechanisms of Energy Dissipation after Energetic Cluster Bombardment of Molecular Solids.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Daniel A; Postawa, Zbigniew; Wucher, Andreas; Blenkinsopp, Paul; Garrison, Barbara J; Winograd, Nicholas

    2011-07-22

    The angular distribution of intact organic molecules desorbed by energetic C(60) primary ions was probed both experimentally and with molecular dynamics computer simulations. For benzo[a]pyrene, the angular distribution of intact molecules is observed to peak at off-normal angles. Molecular dynamics computer simulations on a similar system show the mechanism of desorption involves fast deposition of energy followed by fluid-flow and effusive-type emission of intact molecules. The off-normal peak in the angular distribution is shown to arise from emission of intact molecules from the rim of a crater formed during the cluster impact. This signature is unique for molecules because fragmentation processes remove molecules that would otherwise eject at directions near-normal to the surface.

  12. A phase-field approach to no-slip boundary conditions in dissipative particle dynamics and other particle models for fluid flow in geometrically complex confined systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul

    2009-06-21

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an effective mesoscopic particle model with a lower computational cost than molecular dynamics because of the soft potentials that it employs. However, the soft potential is not strong enough to prevent the DPD particles that are used to represent the fluid from penetrating solid boundaries represented by stationary DPD particles. A phase-field variable, phi(x,t), is used to indicate the phase at point x and time t, with a smooth transition from -1 (phase 1) to +1 (phase 2) across the interface. We describe an efficient implementation of no-slip boundary conditions in DPD models that combines solid-liquid particle-particle interactions with reflection at a sharp boundary located with subgrid scale accuracy using the phase field. This approach can be used for arbitrarily complex flow geometries and other similar particle models (such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics), and the validity of the model is demonstrated by DPD simulations of flow in confined systems with various geometries.

  13. Solute-fluid coupling and energy dissipation in supercritical fluids: 9-cyanoanthracene in C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CO{sub 2}, and CF{sub 3}H

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, J.K.; Niemeyer, E.D.; Bright, F.V.

    1996-05-16

    We report on the coupling and dissipation of energy between a model fluorescent solute, 9-cyanoanthracene (9CA), and several supercritical fluid solvents. To this end, we have determined experimentally the fluorescence quantum yields and excited-state fluorescence lifetimes for dilute solutions of 9CA in supercritical C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CO{sub 2}, and CF{sub 3}H. The 9CA quantum yield is substantially less than unity at lower fluid densities; it approaches unity only at the high-density, liquid-like region. The 9CA excited-state lifetime is also shortened significantly in the low-density region. The radiative (k{sub r}) and nonradiative (k{sub nr}) decay rates for 9CA are found to be strongly density dependent. In the low-density region, the nonradiative rate dominates; however, in the high-density region the 9CA de-excitation follows the radiative pathway. To yield agreement between the experimental k{sub r} data and the Strickler-Berg predictions, we require there to be changes in the total 9CA molar absorptivity with denisity. Recent experiments on anthracene and pyrene in supercritical CO{sub 2} demonstrate that the average solute molar absorptivity is indeed a function of fluid density. The strong density dependence of the nonradiative decay rate is interpreted in terms of an increase in fluid density leading to an increase in the energy gap ({Delta}E) between T{sub 2} and S{sub 1} states. 69 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Dissipative systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasalle, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A theory is presented that shows how the concept of dissipative systems of ordinary differential equations can be extended to include a broad class of functional and partial differential equations, such as retarded functional differential equations and parabolic partial differential equations. Since the basic hypotheses are all in terms of boundedness, finding sufficient conditions in terms of Liapunov functions would not be too difficult.

  15. New class of Well behaved exact solutions of relativistic charged white-dwarf star with perfect fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Neeraj

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents a class of interior solutions of Einstein-Maxwell field equations of general relativity for a static, spherically symmetric distribution of the charged fluid. This class of solutions describes well behaved charged fluid balls. The class of solutions gives us wide range of parameter K (0.3277≤ K≤0.49), for which the solution is well behaved hence, suitable for modeling of super dense star. For this solution the mass of a star is maximized with all degree of suitability and by assuming the surface density ρ b =2×1014 g/cm3. Corresponding to K=0.3277 with X=-0.15, the maximum mass of the star comes out to be M=0.92 M Θ with radius r b ≈17.15 km and the surface red shift Z b ≈0.087187. It has been observed that under well behaved conditions this class of solutions gives us the mass of super dense object within the range of white-dwarf.

  16. Dissipative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasalle, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    The abstract theory presented shows how the theory of dissipative systems of ordinary differential equations can be extended to include a wide class of functional and partial differential equations. Since the basic hypotheses are all in terms of boundedness, finding sufficient conditions in terms of Liapunov functions was not difficult. Work is being undertaken to solve some nontrivial examples to illustrate how the theory can applied.

  17. On the convexity of relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, José M.; Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Martí, José M.; Miralles, Juan A.

    2013-03-01

    The relativistic hydrodynamic system of equations for a perfect fluid obeying a causal equation of state is hyperbolic (Anile 1989 Relativistic Fluids and Magneto-Fluids (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this report, we derive the conditions for this system to be convex in terms of the fundamental derivative of the equation of state (Menikoff and Plohr1989 Rev. Mod. Phys. 61 75). The classical limit is recovered. Communicated by L Rezzolla

  18. An Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Model for Relativistic Weakly Collisional Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F.; Foucart, Francois; Quataert, Eliot

    2015-09-01

    Black holes that accrete far below the Eddington limit are believed to accrete through a geometrically thick, optically thin, rotationally supported plasma that we will refer to as a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF). RIAFs are typically collisionless in the sense that the Coulomb mean free path is large compared to {GM}/{c}2, and relativistically hot near the event horizon. In this paper we develop a phenomenological model for the plasma in RIAFs, motivated by the application to sources such as Sgr A* and M87. The model is derived using Israel-Stewart theory, which considers deviations up to second order from thermal equilibrium, but modified for a magnetized plasma. This leads to thermal conduction along magnetic field lines and a difference in pressure, parallel and perpendicular to the field lines (which is equivalent to anisotropic viscosity). In the non-relativistic limit, our model reduces to the widely used Braginskii theory of magnetized, weakly collisional plasmas. We compare our model to the existing literature on dissipative relativistic fluids, describe the linear theory of the plasma, and elucidate the physical meaning of the free parameters in the model. We also describe limits of the model when the conduction is saturated and when the viscosity implies a large pressure anisotropy. In future work, the formalism developed in this paper will be used in numerical models of RIAFs to assess the importance of non-ideal processes for the dynamics and radiative properties of slowly accreting black holes.

  19. Behaviour of charged collapsing fluids after hydrostatic equilibrium in R^n gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausar, Hafiza Rizwana

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the transport equation and its coupling with the Maxwell equation in the framework of R^n gravity. Using Müller-Israel-Stewart theory for the conduction of dissipative fluids, we analyze the temperature, heat flux, viscosity and thermal conductivity in the scenario of relaxation time. All these thermodynamical variables appear in the form of a single factor whose influence is discussed on the evolution of relativistic model for the heat conducting collapsing star.

  20. Perspective: Dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Español, Pep; Warren, Patrick B.

    2017-04-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) belongs to a class of models and computational algorithms developed to address mesoscale problems in complex fluids and soft matter in general. It is based on the notion of particles that represent coarse-grained portions of the system under study and allow, therefore, reaching time and length scales that would be otherwise unreachable from microscopic simulations. The method has been conceptually refined since its introduction almost twenty five years ago. This perspective surveys the major conceptual improvements in the original DPD model, along with its microscopic foundation, and discusses outstanding challenges in the field. We summarize some recent advances and suggest avenues for future developments.

  1. Perspective: Dissipative particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Español, Pep; Warren, Patrick B

    2017-04-21

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) belongs to a class of models and computational algorithms developed to address mesoscale problems in complex fluids and soft matter in general. It is based on the notion of particles that represent coarse-grained portions of the system under study and allow, therefore, reaching time and length scales that would be otherwise unreachable from microscopic simulations. The method has been conceptually refined since its introduction almost twenty five years ago. This perspective surveys the major conceptual improvements in the original DPD model, along with its microscopic foundation, and discusses outstanding challenges in the field. We summarize some recent advances and suggest avenues for future developments.

  2. The relation between relativistic and non-relativistic continuum thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellstede, G. O.; von Borzeszkowski, H.-H.; Chrobok, T.; Muschik, W.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the relativistic theory of irreversible processes with the aim to answer the following questions: (1) Under which conditions is this theory a relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic theory of irreversible processes (in particular, this implies to ask for the conditions under which the first law of thermodynamics can be recovered from the relativistic conservation law of total energy), and (2) how do the relativistic corrections look like? To this end, we perform a low-energy approximation for the balance equations underlying the theory, i.e., for the balances of the particle number, the energy-momentum and the entropy. It is shown that, going up to the 3rd order in the expansion series of the balances, the non-relativistic theory can be derived when one assumes that the 4-current of the particle flow is purely convective and the product of the 3-dimensional acceleration and velocity is equal to zero. Afterwards, the higher-order terms are discussed. Since our discussion mainly makes use of those balance equations that lie on the basis of most versions of continuum thermodynamics, the results do not only refer to early TIP presented by Eckart (Phys Rev 58:919, 1940) and Landau and Lifshitz (Fluid mechanics. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1940), but also to its extended and/or general-relativistic versions.

  3. Dissipation of anomalous pressures in the subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Abacioglu, Yafes; England, William; Smalley, Craig

    2004-11-01

    Zones of anomalous pressure, higher and lower than hydrostatic pressure, have been observed in many sedimentary basins around the world. These normally consist of groups of pressure compartments: volumes of higher-permeability rock surrounded on all sides by lower-permeability barriers. Knowledge of the timescales over which these abnormal pressures are maintained and the mechanisms by which they dissipate is critical for understanding how fluids, such as oil and gas, move in the subsurface. Existing analytic solutions investigate pressure dissipation through low-permeability barriers on top of or underneath an isolated pressure compartment. There are no analytic solutions describing pressure dissipation through lateral barriers, such as faults, or investigating the impact of groups of pressure compartments on the rate of pressure dissipation. This paper presents simple analytic models to investigate pressure dissipation through barriers, such as faults, forming the sides of pressure compartments. The timescales are compared with a solution for pressure dissipation through barriers on top of and underneath the compartment. It also investigates analytically the rate of pressure dissipation from groups of pressure compartments. Lateral seal permeabilities of 10-19 m2 may delay pressure equilibration for millions of years provided the compartment has a sufficiently high fluid storage capacity. Factors contributing toward a high fluid storage capacity include a high fluid compressibility (as is the case in hydrocarbon reservoirs) and a high porosity. The grouping of abnormally pressured compartments into "megacompartment complexes" may delay pressure dissipation for hundreds of millions of years.

  4. From a complex scalar field to the two-fluid picture of superfluidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Schmitt, Andreas; Stetina, Stephan

    2013-03-01

    The hydrodynamic description of a superfluid is usually based on a two-fluid picture. We compute the basic properties of the relativistic two-fluid system from the underlying microscopic physics of a relativistic φ4 complex scalar field theory. We work at nonzero but small temperature and weak coupling, and we neglect dissipation. We clarify the relationship between different formulations of the two-fluid model and how they are parametrized in terms of partly redundant current and momentum four-vectors. As an application, we compute the velocities of first and second sound at small temperatures and in the presence of a superflow. While our results are of a very general nature, we also comment on their interpretation as a step towards the hydrodynamics of the color-flavor locked state of quark matter, which, particularly in the presence of kaon condensation, appears to be a complicated multicomponent fluid.

  5. Unravelling tidal dissipation in gaseous giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenel, M.; Mathis, S.; Remus, F.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Tidal dissipation in planetary interiors is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of star-planet and planet-moon systems. New constraints on this dissipation are now obtained both in the solar and exo-planetary systems. Aims: Tidal dissipation in planets is intrinsically related to their internal structure. Indeed, the dissipation behaves very differently when we compare its properties in solid and fluid planetary layers. Since planetary interiors consist of both types of regions, it is necessary to be able to assess and compare the respective intensity of the reservoir of dissipation in each type of layers. Therefore, in the case of giant planets, the respective contribution of the potential central dense rocky/icy core and of the deep convective fluid envelope must be computed as a function of the mass and the radius of the core. This will allow us to obtain their respective strengths. Methods: Using a method that evaluates the reservoir of dissipation associated to each region, which is a frequency-average of complex tidal Love numbers, we compared the respective contributions of the central core and of the fluid envelope. Results: For Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets, we show that the viscoelastic dissipation in the core could dominate the turbulent friction acting on tidal inertial waves in the envelope. However, the fluid dissipation would not be negligible. This demonstrates that it is necessary to build complete models of tidal dissipation in planetary interiors from their deep interior to their surface without any arbitrary assumptions. Conclusions: We demonstrate how important it is to carefully evaluate the respective strength of each type of dissipation mechanism in planetary interiors and to go beyond the usually adopted ad-hoc models. We confirm the significance of tidal dissipation in the potential dense core of gaseous giant planets.

  6. Magnetoresistance in relativistic hydrodynamics without anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Andrew; Karch, Andreas; Lucas, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    We present expressions for the magnetoconductivity and the magnetoresistance of a strongly interacting metal in 3 + 1 dimensions, derivable from relativistic hydrodynamics. Such an approach is suitable for ultraclean metals with emergent Lorentz invariance. When this relativistic fluid contains chiral anomalies, it is known to exhibit longitudinal negative magnetoresistance. We show that similar effects can arise in non-anomalous relativistic fluids due to the distinctive gradient expansion. In contrast with a Galilean-invariant fluid, the resistivity tensor of a dirty relativistic fluid exhibits similar angular dependence to negative magnetoresistance, even when the constitutive relations and momentum relaxation rate are isotropic. We further account for the effect of magnetic field-dependent corrections to the gradient expansion and the effects of long-wavelength impurities on magnetoresistance. We note that the holographic D3/D7 system exhibits negative magnetoresistance.

  7. Relativistic klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.

    1989-03-01

    Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Relativistic geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, J.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum metrology enables new applications in geodesy, including relativistic geodesy. The recent progress in optical atomic clocks and in long-distance frequency transfer by optical fiber together pave the way for using measurements of the gravitational frequency redshift for geodesy. The remote comparison of frequencies generated by calibrated clocks will allow for a purely relativistic determination of differences in gravitational potential and height between stations on Earth surface (chronometric leveling). The long-term perspective is to tie potential and height differences to atomic standards in order to overcome the weaknesses and inhomogeneity of height systems determined by classical spirit leveling. Complementarily, gravity measurements with atom interferometric setups, and satellite gravimetry with space borne laser interferometers allow for new sensitivities in the measurement of the Earth's gravity field.

  9. Modeling relativistic nuclear collisions.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderlik, C.; Magas, V.; Strottman, D.; Csernai, L. P.

    2001-01-01

    Modeling Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisioiis at RHIC and LHC energies using a Multi Module Model is presented. The first Module is the Effective String Rope Model for the calculation of the initial stages of the reaction; the output of this module is used as the initial state for the subsequent one-fluid hydrodynainical calculation module. It is shown that such an initial state leads to the creation of the third flow component. The hydrodynamical evolution of the energy density distribution is presented for RHIC energies. The final module describing the Freeze Out; and Hadronization is also discussed.

  10. Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; Markovic, Dragoljub

    1997-06-01

    Preface; Prologue: Conference overview Bernard Carr; Part I. The Universe At Large and Very Large Redshifts: 2. The size and age of the Universe Gustav A. Tammann; 3. Active galaxies at large redshifts Malcolm S. Longair; 4. Observational cosmology with the cosmic microwave background George F. Smoot; 5. Future prospects in measuring the CMB power spectrum Philip M. Lubin; 6. Inflationary cosmology Michael S. Turner; 7. The signature of the Universe Bernard J. T. Jones; 8. Theory of large-scale structure Sergei F. Shandarin; 9. The origin of matter in the universe Lev A. Kofman; 10. New guises for cold-dark matter suspects Edward W. Kolb; Part II. Physics and Astrophysics Of Relativistic Compact Objects: 11. On the unification of gravitational and inertial forces Donald Lynden-Bell; 12. Internal structure of astrophysical black holes Werner Israel; 13. Black hole entropy: external facade and internal reality Valery Frolov; 14. Accretion disks around black holes Marek A. Abramowicz; 15. Black hole X-ray transients J. Craig Wheeler; 16. X-rays and gamma rays from active galactic nuclei Roland Svensson; 17. Gamma-ray bursts: a challenge to relativistic astrophysics Martin Rees; 18. Probing black holes and other exotic objects with gravitational waves Kip Thorne; Epilogue: the past and future of relativistic astrophysics Igor D. Novikov; I. D. Novikov's scientific papers and books.

  11. Relativistic theory of radiofrequency current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Balescu, R.; Metens, T. )

    1991-05-01

    A fully relativistic kinetic theory of rf current drive in a tokamak is developed for both the lower hybrid and the electron cyclotron mechanisms. The problem is treated as a generalization of the classical transport equations, in which the thermodynamic forces are modified by the addition of a rf-source term. In the limit of weak rf amplitude and neglecting toroidal effects (such as particle trapping), explicit analytical expressions are obtained for the rf-generated current, the dissipated power, and the current drive efficiency. These expressions are fully relativistic and are valid over the whole admissible range of frequencies and for all electron temperatures. The relation between efficiency and parallel relativistic transport coefficients is exhibited. The most important relativistic effect is a dramatic broadening of the frequency range over which the rf-generated current is significantly different from zero.

  12. Energy Dissipation by Tides and Librations in Synchronous Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, B. G.; Ray, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Energy dissipation associated with physical librations of large synchronous satellites may be important for maintaining internal fluid layers. Depending on the depth and viscosity of the fluid layer, viscous heating from librations may exceeed that from tides.

  13. SCALING OF THE ANOMALOUS BOOST IN RELATIVISTIC JET BOUNDARY LAYER

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the one-dimensional interaction of a relativistic jet and an external medium. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations show an anomalous boost of the jet fluid in the boundary layer, as previously reported. We describe the boost mechanism using an ideal relativistic fluid and magnetohydrodynamic theory. The kinetic model is also examined for further understanding. Simple scaling laws for the maximum Lorentz factor are derived, and verified by the simulations.

  14. Wave dissipation by muddy seafloors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgar, Steve; Raubenheimer, Britt

    2008-04-01

    Muddy seafloors cause tremendous dissipation of ocean waves. Here, observations and numerical simulations of waves propagating between 5- and 2-m water depths across the muddy Louisiana continental shelf are used to estimate a frequency- and depth-dependent dissipation rate function. Short-period sea (4 s) and swell (7 s) waves are shown to transfer energy to long-period (14 s) infragravity waves, where, in contrast with theories for fluid mud, the observed dissipation rates are highest. The nonlinear energy transfers are most rapid in shallow water, consistent with the unexpected strong increase of the dissipation rate with decreasing depth. These new results may explain why the southwest coast of India offers protection for fishing (and for the 15th century Portuguese fleet) only after large waves and strong currents at the start of the monsoon move nearshore mud banks from about 5- to 2-m water depth. When used with a numerical nonlinear wave model, the new dissipation rate function accurately simulates the large reduction in wave energy observed in the Gulf of Mexico.

  15. On spectral relaxation method approach for steady von Kármán flow of a Reiner-Rivlin fluid with Joule heating, viscous dissipation and suction/injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motsa, Sandile S.; Makukula, Zodwa G.

    2013-03-01

    In this study we use the spectral relaxation method (SRM) for the solution of the steady von Kármán flow of a Reiner-Rivlin fluid with Joule heating and viscous dissipation. The spectral relaxation method is a new Chebyshev spectral collocation based iteration method that is developed from the Gauss-Seidel idea of decoupling systems of equations. In this work, we investigate the applicability of the method in solving strongly nonlinear boundary value problems of von Kármán flow type. The SRM results are validated against previous results present in the literature and with those obtained using the bvp4c, a MATLAB inbuilt routine for solving boundary value problems. The study highlights the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed SRM method in solving highly nonlinear boundary layer type equations.

  16. RANKINE-HUGONIOT RELATIONS IN RELATIVISTIC COMBUSTION WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yang; Law, Chung K.

    2012-12-01

    As a foundational element describing relativistic reacting waves of relevance to astrophysical phenomena, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations classifying the various propagation modes of detonation and deflagration are analyzed in the relativistic regime, with the results properly degenerating to the non-relativistic and highly relativistic limits. The existence of negative-pressure downstream flows is noted for relativistic shocks, which could be of interest in the understanding of the nature of dark energy. Entropy analysis for relativistic shock waves is also performed for relativistic fluids with different equations of state (EoS), denoting the existence of rarefaction shocks in fluids with adiabatic index {Gamma} < 1 in their EoS. The analysis further shows that weak detonations and strong deflagrations, which are rare phenomena in terrestrial environments, are expected to exist more commonly in astrophysical systems because of the various endothermic reactions present therein. Additional topics of relevance to astrophysical phenomena are also discussed.

  17. Boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a viscous fluid over a stretching sheet with viscous dissipation, internal heat generation and prescribed heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaludin, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda; Shafie, Sharidan

    2017-08-01

    This study presents the numerical solutions of boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet with viscous dissipation and internal heat generation. Thermal boundary condition on the surface, namely prescribed heat flux (PHF) is used. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying the similarity transformations before reduced to the system of first order ordinary differential equations. Then the system of first order ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme, known as the Keller-box method. The numerical solutions are generated using MATLAB. Temperature profiles and the temperature gradient for some values of the Prandtl number, Eckert number and heat/source sink parameter are presented in figures and discussed in details.

  18. Influence of nonlinear thermal radiation and viscous dissipation on three-dimensional flow of Jeffrey nano fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh Kumar, K.; Rudraswamy, N. G.; Gireesha, B. J.; Krishnamurthy, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Present exploration discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on three dimensional flow and heat transfer of a Jeffrey nanofluid in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation. Here the flow is generated over bidirectional stretching sheet in the presence of applied magnetic field by accounting thermophoresis and Brownian motion of nanoparticles. Suitable similarity transformations are employed to reduce the governing partial differential equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. Graphically results are presented and discussed for various parameters. Validation of the current method is proved by comparing our results with the existing results under limiting situations. It can be concluded that combined effect of Joule and viscous heating increases the temperature profile and thermal boundary layer thickness.

  19. Relativistic causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Giovanni; Owen Weatherall, James

    2014-11-01

    Relativity theory is often taken to include, or to imply, a prohibition on superluminal propagation of causal processes. Yet, what exactly the prohibition on superluminal propagation amounts to and how one should deal with its possible violation have remained open philosophical problems, both in the context of the metaphysics of causation and the foundations of physics. In particular, recent work in philosophy of physics has focused on the causal structure of spacetime in relativity theory and on how this causal structure manifests itself in our most fundamental theories of matter. These topics were the subject of a workshop on "Relativistic Causality in Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity" that we organized (along with John Earman) at the Center for Philosophy of Science in Pittsburgh on April 5-7, 2013. The present Special Issue comprises contributions by speakers in that workshop as well as several other experts exploring different aspects of relativistic causality. We are grateful to the journal for hosting this Special Issue, to the journal's managing editor, Femke Kuiling, for her help and support in putting the issue together, and to the authors and the referees for their excellent work.

  20. Tidal disruption of dissipative planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, H.; Boss, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    A self-consistent numerical model is developed for the tidal disruption of a solid planetesimal. The planetesimal is treated as a highly viscous, slightly compressible fluid whose disturbed parts are an inviscid, pressureless fluid undergoing distortion and disruption. The distortions were constrained to being symmetrical above and below the equatorial plane. The tidal potential is expanded in terms of Legendre polynomials, which eliminates the center of mass acceleration effects, permitting definition of equations of motion in a noninertial frame. Consideration is given to viscous dissipation and to characteristics of the solid-atmosphere boundary. The model is applied to sample cases in one, two and three dimensions.

  1. Tidal disruption of dissipative planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, H.; Boss, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    A self-consistent numerical model is developed for the tidal disruption of a solid planetesimal. The planetesimal is treated as a highly viscous, slightly compressible fluid whose disturbed parts are an inviscid, pressureless fluid undergoing distortion and disruption. The distortions were constrained to being symmetrical above and below the equatorial plane. The tidal potential is expanded in terms of Legendre polynomials, which eliminates the center of mass acceleration effects, permitting definition of equations of motion in a noninertial frame. Consideration is given to viscous dissipation and to characteristics of the solid-atmosphere boundary. The model is applied to sample cases in one, two and three dimensions.

  2. Particle acceleration, magnetization and radiation in relativistic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derishev, Evgeny V.; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms of particle acceleration and radiation, as well as magnetic field build-up and decay in relativistic collisionless shocks, are open questions with important implications to various phenomena in high-energy astrophysics. While the Weibel instability is possibly responsible for magnetic field build-up and diffusive shock acceleration is a model for acceleration, both have problems and current particle-in-cell simulations show that particles are accelerated only under special conditions and the magnetic field decays on a very short length-scale. We present here a novel model for the structure and the emission of highly relativistic collisionless shocks. The model takes into account (and is based on) non-local energy and momentum transport across the shock front via emission and absorption of high-energy photons. This leads to a pre-acceleration of the fluid and pre-amplification of the magnetic fields in the upstream region. Both have drastic implications on the shock structure. The model explains the persistence of the shock-generated magnetic field at large distances from the shock front. The dissipation of this magnetic field results in a continuous particle acceleration within the downstream region. A unique feature of the model is the existence of an `attractor', towards which any shock will evolve. The model is applicable to any relativistic shock, but its distinctive features show up only for sufficiently large compactness. We demonstrate that prompt and afterglow gamma-ray bursts' shocks satisfy the relevant conditions, and we compare their observations with the predictions of the model.

  3. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Dynamic Behavior of Entanglement Between Two Spatially Separated Atoms in Two Dissipative and Driven Cavity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hui-Ping; Li, Jian; Liu, Jin; Li, Jun-Gang

    2009-03-01

    We consider two two-level atoms, interacting with two independent dissipative cavities, each of which is driven by an external source. The two cavity fields are both initially prepared in the coherent states, and the two two-level atoms are initially prepared in the singlet state |Ψ-rangle = (|egrangle - |gerangle)/√2. We investigate the influence of the damping constant κ, the intensity of the external sources F, and the relative difference of the atomic couplings r on the entanglement between the two atoms. In the dispersive approximation, we find that the entanglement between the two atoms decreases with the time evolution, and the decreasing rate of entanglement depends on the values of F/κ, κ/ω, and r. For the given small values of F/κ and κ/ω, on the one hand, the increasing of r favors entanglement decreasing of the atomic system, on the other hand, when r → 1 the entanglement decreasing becomes slower. With the increasing of the value of κ/ω, the influence of r on the decreasing rate of entanglement becomes smaller, and gradually disappears for the big value of κ/ω.

  4. MHD Flow and Heat Transfer of a Generalized Burgers’ Fluid Due to an Exponential Accelerating Plate with Effects of the Second Order Slip and Viscous Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Hao-Jie; Bai, Yu

    2017-06-01

    In classical study on generalized viscoelastic fluid, the momentum equation was derived by considering the fractional constitutive model, while the energy equation was ignored its effect. This paper presents an investigation for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer of an incompressible generalized Burgers’ fluid due to an exponential accelerating plate with the effect of the second order velocity slip. The energy equation and momentum equation are coupled by the fractional Burgers’ fluid constitutive model. Numerical solutions for velocity, temperature and shear stress are obtained using the modified implicit finite difference method combined with the G1-algorithm, whose validity is confirmed by the comparison with the analytical solution. Our results show that the influences of the fractional parameters α and β on the flow are opposite each other, which is just like the effects of the two parameters on the temperature. Moreover, the impact trends of the relaxation time λ 1 and retardation time λ 3 on the velocity are opposite each other. Increasing the boundary parameter will promote the temperature, but has little effect on the temperature boundary layer thickness. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China under Grant Nos. 21576023, 51406008, and the National Key Research Program of China under Grant Nos. 2016YFC0700601, 2016YFC0700603, and 2016YFE0115500

  5. Modulational instabilities in relativistic pair plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonça, J. T.

    2016-05-15

    We study the modulational instability of an intense photon beam in a relativistic pair plasma. We use the wave-kinetic description of the photon field and relativistic fluid equations for electrons and positrons. This allows us to consider the influence of the photon spectral distribution and photon recoil effects on the instability threshold and growth rates. The case of very low frequencies modulations, well below plasma frequency, is compared to that of high-frequency modulations corresponding to the plasmon decay instability.

  6. On Lorentz invariants in relativistic magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shu-Di; Wang, Xiao-Gang

    2016-08-15

    Lorentz invariants whose nonrelativistic correspondences play important roles in magnetic reconnection are discussed in this paper. Particularly, the relativistic invariant of the magnetic reconnection rate is defined and investigated in a covariant two-fluid model. Certain Lorentz covariant representations for energy conversion and magnetic structures in reconnection processes are also investigated. Furthermore, relativistic measures for topological features of reconnection sites, particularly magnetic nulls and separatrices, are analyzed.

  7. A high-order kinetic flux-splitting method for the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Qamar, Shamsul . E-mail: shamsul.qamar@mathematik.uni-magdeburg.de; Warnecke, Gerald . E-mail: gerald.warnecke@mathematik.uni-magdeburg.de

    2005-05-01

    In this paper we extend the special relativistic hydrodynamic (SRHD) equations [L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, Pergamon, New York, 1987] and as a limiting case the ultra-relativistic hydrodynamic equations [M. Kunik, S. Qamar, G. Warnecke, J. Comput. Phys. 187 (2003) 572-596] to the special relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (SRMHD). We derive a flux splitting method based on gas-kinetic theory in order to solve these equations in one space dimension. The scheme is based on the direct splitting of macroscopic flux functions with consideration of particle transport. At the same time, particle 'collisions' are implemented in the free transport process to reduce numerical dissipation. To achieve high-order accuracy we use a MUSCL-type initial reconstruction and Runge-Kutta time stepping method. For the direct comparison of the numerical results, we also solve the SRMHD equations with the well-developed second-order central schemes. The 1D computations reported in this paper have comparable accuracy to the already published results. The results verify the desired accuracy, high resolution, and robustness of the kinetic flux splitting method and central schemes.

  8. Shock waves and double layers in electron degenerate dense plasma with viscous ion fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Zobaer, M. S.

    2014-02-15

    The properties of ion-acoustic shock waves and double layers propagating in a viscous degenerate dense plasma (containing inertial viscous ion fluid, non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electron fluid, and negatively charged stationary heavy element) is investigated. A new nonlinear equation (viz. Gardner equation with additional dissipative term) is derived by the reductive perturbation method. The properties of the ion-acoustic shock waves and double layers are examined by the analysis of the shock and double layer solutions of this new equation (we would like to call it “M-Z equation”). It is found that the properties of these shock and double layer structures obtained from this analysis are significantly different from those obtained from the analysis of standard Gardner or Burgers’ equation. The implications of our results to dense plasmas in astrophysical objects (e.g., non-rotating white dwarf stars) are briefly discussed.

  9. Variational thermodynamics of relativistic thin disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C.; Lopez-Monsalvo, Cesar S.; Quevedo, Hernando

    2015-12-01

    We present a relativistic model describing a thin disk system composed of two fluids. The system is surrounded by a halo in the presence of a non-trivial electromagnetic field. We show that the model is compatible with the variational multifluid thermodynamics formalism, allowing us to determine all the thermodynamic variables associated with the matter content of the disk. The asymptotic behavior of these quantities indicates that the single fluid interpretation should be abandoned in favor of a two-fluid model.

  10. Radiation-Dominated Relativistic Current Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroschek, C. H.; Hoshino, M.

    2009-08-01

    Relativistic current sheets (RCSs) feature plasma instabilities considered as the potential key to magnetic energy dissipation in Poynting-flux-dominated plasma flows. Kinetic plasma simulations show that the physical nature of RCS evolution changes in the presence of radiation losses: In the ultrarelativistic regime (i.e., magnetization parameter σ=104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density), the combined effect of nonlinear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the relativistic tearing mode. In contrast to previous studies of the RCS with σ˜1, the relativistic tearing mode then prevails over the drift kink mode. The ultrarelativistic RCS shows a typical life cycle from radiation-induced collapse towards a radiation-quiescent phase with topology analogous to that introduced by Sweet and Parker.

  11. Lagrangian formulation of relativistic Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, David; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    We rederive relativistic hydrodynamics as a Lagrangian effective theory using the doubled coordinates technique, allowing us to include dissipative terms. We include Navier-Stokes shear and bulk terms, as well as Israel-Stewart relaxation time terms, within this formalism. We show how the inclusion of shear dissipation forces the inclusion of the Israel-Stewart term into the theory, thereby providing an additional justification for the form of this term.

  12. Polarization and Structure of Relativistic Parsec-Scale AGN Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutikov, M

    2004-06-10

    range of radii not too close to the jet core. (5) For mildly relativistic jets, when a counter jet can be seen, the polarization of the counter jet is preferentially orthogonal to the axis, unless the jet is strongly dominated by the toroidal magnetic field in its rest frame. (6) For resolved jets, the polarization pattern is not symmetric with respect to jet axis. Under certain conditions, this can be used to deduce the direction of the spin of the central object (black hole or disk), whether it is aligned or anti-aligned with the jet axis. (7) In resolved ''cylindrical shell'' type jets, the central parts of the jet are polarized along the axis, while the outer parts are polarized orthogonal to it, in accordance with observations. We conclude that large-scale magnetic fields can explain the salient polarization properties of parsec-scale AGN jets. Since the typical degrees of polarization are {le} 15%, the emitting parts of the jets must have comparable rest-frame toroidal and poloidal fields. In this case, most relativistic jets are strongly dominated by the toroidal magnetic field component in the observer's frame, B{sub {phi}}/B{sub z} {approx} {Lambda}. We also discuss the possibility that relativistic AGN jets may be electromagnetically (Poynting flux) dominated. In this case, dissipation of the toroidal magnetic field (and not fluid shocks) may be responsible for particle acceleration.

  13. Weakly nonlinear kink-type solitary waves in a fully relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Boukhalfa, Soufiane; Zerguini, Taha Houssine

    2010-08-15

    A fully and coherent relativistic fluid model derived from the covariant formulation of relativistic fluid equations is used to study small but finite amplitude solitary waves. This approach has the characteristic to be consistent with the relativistic principle and consequently leads to a more general set of equations valid for fully relativistic plasmas with arbitrary Lorentz relativistic factor. A kink-solitary wave solution is outlined. Due to electron relativistic effect, the localized structure may experience either a spreading or a compression. This latter phenomenon (compression) becomes less effective and less noticeable as the relativistic character of the ions becomes important. Our results may be relevant to cosmic relativistic double-layers and relativistic plasma structures that involve energetic plasma flows.

  14. Particle Acceleration at Relativistic and Ultra-Relativistic Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, A.

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using diffusive shock acceleration at relativistic and ultra-relativistic shock waves. High upstream flow gamma factors are used, Γ=(1-uup2/c2)-0.5, which are relevant to models of ultra-relativistic particle shock acceleration in the central engines and relativistic jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) fireballs. Numerical investigations are carried out on acceleration properties in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic flow regime (Γ ˜ 10-1000) concerning angular distributions, acceleration time scales, particle energy gain versus number of crossings and spectral shapes. We perform calculations for both parallel and oblique sub-luminal and super-luminal shocks. For parallel and oblique sub-luminal shocks, the spectra depend on whether or not the scattering is represented by pitch angle diffusion or by large angle scattering. The large angle case exhibits a distinctive structure in the basic power-law spectrum not nearly so obvious for small angle scattering. However, both cases yield a significant 'speed-up' of acceleration rate when compared with the conventional, non-relativistic expression, tacc=[c/(uup-udown)] (λup/uup+λdown/udown). An energization by a factor Γ2 for the first crossing cycle and a large energy gains for subsequent crossings as well as the high 'speed-up' factors found, are important in supporting past works, especially the models developed by Vietri and Waxman on ultra-high energy cosmic ray, neutrino and gamma-ray production in GRB. For oblique super-luminal shocks, we calculate the energy gain and spectral shape for a number of different inclinations. For this case the acceleration of particles is 'pictured' by a shock drift mechanism. We use high gamma flows with Lorentz factors in the range 10-40 which are relevant to ultra-relativistic shocks in AGN accretion disks and jets. In all investigations we closely follow the particle's trajectory along the magnetic field

  15. A covariant Fokker-Planck equation for a simple gas from relativistic kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chacon-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A.

    2010-12-14

    A manifestly covariant Fokker-Planck differential equation is derived for the case of a relativistic simple gas by taking a small momentum transfer approximation within the collision integral of the relativistic Boltzmann equation. We follow closely previous work, with the main difference that we keep manifest covariance at every stage of the analysis. In addition, we use the covariant Juettner distribution function to find a relativistic generalization of the Einstein's fluctuation-dissipation relation.

  16. GENERAL RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS ON NONLINEAR POWER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Donghui; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Noh, Hyerim; Hwang, Jai-chan E-mail: jgong@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: jchan@knu.ac.kr

    2011-01-20

    The nonlinear nature of Einstein's equation introduces genuine relativistic higher order corrections to the usual Newtonian fluid equations describing the evolution of cosmological perturbations. We study the effect of such novel nonlinearities on the next-to-leading order matter and velocity power spectra for the case of a pressureless, irrotational fluid in a flat Friedmann background. We find that pure general relativistic corrections are negligibly small over all scales. Our result guarantees that, in the current paradigm of standard cosmology, one can safely use Newtonian cosmology even in nonlinear regimes.

  17. Dissipation effects in mechanics and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2016-07-01

    With the discussion of three examples, we aim at clarifying the concept of energy transfer associated with dissipation in mechanics and in thermodynamics. The dissipation effects due to dissipative forces, such as the friction force between solids or the drag force in motions in fluids, lead to an internal energy increase of the system and/or to heat transfer to the surroundings. This heat flow is consistent with the second law, which states that the entropy of the universe should increase when those forces are present because of the irreversibility always associated with their actions. As far as mechanics is concerned, the effects of the dissipative forces are included in Newton’s equations as impulses and pseudo-works.

  18. Dynamics of dissipative gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Santos, N.O.

    2004-10-15

    The Misner and Sharp approach to the study of gravitational collapse is extended to the dissipative case in, both, the streaming out and the diffusion approximations. The role of different terms in the dynamical equation are analyzed in detail. The dynamical equation is then coupled to a causal transport equation in the context of Israel-Stewart theory. The decreasing of the inertial mass density of the fluid, by a factor which depends on its internal thermodynamics state, is reobtained, at any time scale. In accordance with the equivalence principle, the same decreasing factor is obtained for the gravitational force term. Prospective applications of this result to some astrophysical scenarios are discussed.

  19. Generalized Ohm's law for relativistic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandus, A.; Tsagas, C. G.

    2008-04-01

    We generalize the relativistic expression of Ohm's law by studying a multifluid system of charged species using the 1 + 3 covariant formulation of general relativistic electrodynamics. This is done by providing a fully relativistic, fully non-linear propagation equation for the spatial component of the electric 4-current. Our analysis proceeds along the lines of the non-relativistic studies and extends previous relativistic work on cold plasmas. Exploiting the compactness and transparency of the covariant formalism, we provide a direct comparison with the standard Newtonian versions of Ohm's law and identify the relativistic corrections in an unambiguous way. The generalized expression of Ohm's law is initially given relative to an arbitrary observer and for a multicomponent relativistic charged medium. Then, the law is written with respect to the Eckart frame and for a hot two-fluid plasma with zero total charge. Finally, we apply our analysis to a cold proton-electron plasma and recover the well-known magnetohydrodynamic expressions. In every step, we discuss the approximations made and identify familiar effects, like the Biermann battery and the Hall effect.

  20. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  1. Dissipative photonic lattice solitons.

    PubMed

    Ultanir, Erdem A; Stegeman, George I; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2004-04-15

    We show that discrete dissipative optical lattice solitons are possible in waveguide array configurations that involve periodically patterned semiconductor optical amplifiers and saturable absorbers. The characteristics of these low-power soliton states are investigated, and their propagation constant eigenvalues are mapped on Floquet-Bloch band diagrams. The prospect of observing such low-power dissipative lattice solitons is discussed in detail.

  2. Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows is numerically examined under the fully special relativistic treatment. We first derive relativistic formal solutions for the relativistic radiative transfer equation in relativistic spherical flows. We then iteratively solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation, using an impact parameter method/tangent ray method, and obtain specific intensities in the inertial and comoving frames, as well as moment quantities, and the Eddington factor. We consider several cases; a scattering wind with a luminous central core, an isothermal wind without a core, a scattering accretion on to a luminous core, and an adiabatic accretion on to a dark core. In the typical wind case with a luminous core, the emergent intensity is enhanced at the center due to the Doppler boost, while it reduces at the outskirts due to the transverse Doppler effect. In contrast to the plane-parallel case, the behavior of the Eddington factor is rather complicated in each case, since the Eddington factor depends on the optical depth, the flow velocity, and other parameters.

  3. Dissipative Raman solitons.

    PubMed

    Kalashnikov, Vladimir L; Sorokin, Evgeni

    2014-12-01

    A new type of dissipative solitons--dissipative Raman solitons--are revealed on the basis of numerical study of the generalized complex nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau equation. The stimulated Raman scattering significantly affects the energy scalability of the dissipative solitons, causing splitting to multiple pulses. We show, that an appropriate increase of the group-delay dispersion can suppress the multipulsing instability due to formation of the dissipative Raman soliton, which is chirped, has a Stokes-shifted spectrum, and chaotic modulation on its trailing edge. The strong perturbation of a soliton envelope caused by the stimulated Raman scattering confines the energy scalability preventing the so-called dissipative soliton resonance. We show, that in practical implementations, a spectral filter can extend the stability regions of high-energy pulses.

  4. Relativistic linear restoring force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-09-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke’s law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: dp/dt or dp/dτ. Either formulation recovers Hooke’s law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we introduce a form of retardation appropriate for the description of a linear (in displacement) force arising from the interaction of a pair of particles with a relativistic field. The procedure is akin to replacing Coulomb’s law in electromagnetism with a retarded form (the first correction in the full relativistic case). This retardation leads to the expected oscillation, but with amplitude growth in both its relativistic and non-relativistic incarnations.

  5. Vortical dissipation in two-dimensional shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

    1986-01-01

    An exact expression is derived for the viscous dissipation function of a real homogeneous and isotropic fluid, which has terms associated with the square of vorticity, wave radiation, and dilatation. The implications of the principle of maximal dissipation rate, are explored by means of this equation for a parallel channel flow and a cylindrical vortex flow. The consequences of a condition of maximum dissipation rate on the growth of disturbances in an unsteady, laminar shear layer are apparently consistent with predictions and observations of maximum growth rate of vortical disturbances. Finally, estimates of the magnitudes of several dissipative components of an unsteady vortex flow are obtained from measurements of a periodic wall jet.

  6. Asymptotic theory of relativistic, magnetized jets

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2011-01-15

    The structure of a relativistically hot, strongly magnetized jet is investigated at large distances from the source. Asymptotic equations are derived describing collimation and acceleration of the externally confined jet. Conditions are found for the transformation of the thermal energy into the fluid kinetic energy or into the Poynting flux. Simple scalings are presented for the jet collimation angle and Lorentz factors.

  7. Asymptotic theory of relativistic, magnetized jets.

    PubMed

    Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The structure of a relativistically hot, strongly magnetized jet is investigated at large distances from the source. Asymptotic equations are derived describing collimation and acceleration of the externally confined jet. Conditions are found for the transformation of the thermal energy into the fluid kinetic energy or into the Poynting flux. Simple scalings are presented for the jet collimation angle and Lorentz factors.

  8. Energy dissipation in a fluidic nanomechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sader, John; Burg, Thomas; Manalis, Scott

    2008-11-01

    The fluid-structure interaction of resonating microcantilevers in fluid has been widely studied and is a cornerstone in nanomechanical sensor development. Operation in fluid environments presents significant challenges due to the strong enhancement of fluid damping effects with miniaturization. Recently, Burg et al. [Nature, Vol. 446, 1066 (2007)] proposed a new type of microcantilever device whereby a microfluidic channel was embedded inside the cantilever, which resulted in unprecedented sensitivity. We study the fluid dynamics of these devices by presenting a theoretical model and experimental measurements. Significantly, it is found that energy dissipation in these devices is not a monotonic function of fluid viscosity. A direct consequence is that miniaturization does not necessarily result in degradation in the quality factor, which may indeed be enhanced. This highly desirable feature is unprecedented in current nanomechanical devices and permits direct miniaturization to enhance sensitivity in liquid environments.

  9. Effect of IOP based infusion system with and without balanced phaco tip on cumulative dissipated energy and estimated fluid usage in comparison to gravity fed infusion in torsional phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Malik, Praveen K; Dewan, Taru; Patidar, Arun Kr; Sain, Ekta

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of three different combinations of tip designs and infusion systems in torsional phacoemulsification (INFINITI and CENTURION) in patients with cataract. According to the manufacturer, two unique improvements in the Centurion are: active fluid dynamic management system and use of an intrepid balanced tip. The study specifically aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects, if any, of change in tip design and infusion system individually and in combination on both per-operative parameters as well as endothelial health over 6 months. One hundred and twenty six consenting patients of grade 4.0-6.9 senile cataract were randomized into three groups for phacoemulsification: Group A (n = 42): Gravity fed infusion system and 45(0) Kelman miniflared ABS phaco tip; Group B (n = 42): intraocular pressure (IOP) based infusion system and 45(0) Kelman miniflared ABS phaco tip; Group C (n = 42): IOP based infusion system and 45(0) Intrepid balanced phaco tip. The cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), estimated fluid usage (EFU) and total aspiration time (TAT) were compared peroperatively. The endothelial parameters were followed up postoperatively for six months. The three arms were matched for age (p = 0.525), gender (p = 0.96) and grade of cataract (p = 0.177). Group C was associated with significant reductions in CDE (p = 0.001), EFU (p < 0.0005) as well as TAT (p = 0.001) in comparison to the other groups. All three groups had comparable baseline endothelial cell density (p = 0.876) and central corneal thickness (p = 0.561). On post-operative evaluation, although all groups were comparable till 3 months, by 6 months, the percentage losses in endothelial cell density were significantly lower in group C as compared to the other groups. Use of an IOP based phacoemulsification system in association with use of the Intrepid balanced tip reduces the CDE, EFU and TAT in comparison to a gravity fed system with a mini flared tip or IOP based

  10. Size consistency in smoothed dissipative particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Faure, Gérôme; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Roussel, Julien; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) is a mesoscopic method that allows one to select the level of resolution at which a fluid is simulated. In this work, we study the consistency of the resulting thermodynamic properties as a function of the size of the mesoparticles, both at equilibrium and out of equilibrium. We also propose a reformulation of the SDPD equations in terms of energy variables. This increases the similarities with dissipative particle dynamics with energy conservation and opens the way for a coupling between the two methods. Finally, we present a numerical scheme for SDPD that ensures the conservation of the invariants of the dynamics. Numerical simulations illustrate this approach.

  11. Graphic modeling of epithelial transport system: causality of dissipation.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yusuke

    2003-06-01

    The epithelial transport system is a thermodynamic system which is composed of membranes and fluid compartments. The membranes are assumed to be dissipative subsystems in which power dissipates, and fluid compartments are capacitive subsystems in which power is stored. Each subsystem can be subdivided into elementary thermodynamic processes, and can be represented by generalized capacitors, power transducers and resistors in a bond graph. In the modeling of the dissipative subsystem, the causality of the dissipative process was taken into consideration and the representation of power coupling was developed. The dissipative subsystem can be represented by a combination of coupling modules and conductors. Phenomenological equations with parameters from the model were derived. This study shows that the behavior of transport systems can be simulated using these equations.

  12. Relativistic hydrodynamics of cosmological sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, P. ); McKinney, J. )

    1999-09-01

    We have extended previous numerical calculations of Newtonian cosmological sheets to include self-consistent interactions with the background metric by solving the complete Einstein field equations together with the relativistic perfect fluid hydrodynamics equations. The initial data are parametrized and constructed using the gauge invariant perturbation formalism to specify the free conformal variables for the constraints. Numerical evolutions of initially horizon scale fluctuations are compared with results from perturbation theory and the Zel[close quote]dovich solution for a range of gravitational field strengths, and we discuss the nonlinear hydrodynamic, optical, and geometric characteristics of the sheet structures. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  13. A hydrodynamical model for relativistic spin quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Asenjo, Felipe A.; Munoz, Victor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2011-01-15

    Based on the one-body particle-antiparticle Dirac theory of electrons, a set of relativistic quantum fluid equations for a spin half plasma is derived. The particle-antiparticle nature of the relativistic particles is explicit in this fluid theory, which also includes quantum effects such as spin. The nonrelativistic limit is shown to be in agreement with previous attempts to develop a spin plasma theory derived from the Pauli Hamiltonian. Harnessing the formalism to the study of electromagnetic mode propagation, conceptually new phenomena are revealed; the particle-antiparticle effects increase the fluid opacity to these waves, while the spin effects tend to make the fluid more transparent.

  14. Role of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the evolution of magnetized relativistic sheared plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlin, Nathaniel D.; Newman, William I.

    2013-04-01

    We explore, via analytical and numerical methods, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in relativistic magnetized plasmas, with applications to astrophysical jets. We solve the single-fluid relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations in conservative form using a scheme which is fourth order in space and time. To recover the primitive RMHD variables, we use a highly accurate, rapidly convergent algorithm which improves upon such schemes as the Newton-Raphson method. Although the exact RMHD equations are marginally stable, numerical discretization renders them unstable. We include numerical viscosity to restore numerical stability. In relativistic flows, diffusion can lead to a mathematical anomaly associated with frame transformations. However, in our KH studies, we remain in the rest frame of the system, and therefore do not encounter this anomaly. We use a two-dimensional slab geometry with periodic boundary conditions in both directions. The initial unperturbed velocity peaks along the central axis and vanishes asymptotically at the transverse boundaries. Remaining unperturbed quantities are uniform, with a flow-aligned unperturbed magnetic field. The early evolution in the nonlinear regime corresponds to the formation of counter-rotating vortices, connected by filaments, which persist in the absence of a magnetic field. A magnetic field inhibits the vortices through a series of stages, namely, field amplification, vortex disruption, turbulent breakdown, and an approach to a flow-aligned equilibrium configuration. Similar stages have been discussed in MHD literature. We examine how and to what extent these stages manifest in RMHD for a set of representative field strengths. To characterize field strength, we define a relativistic extension of the Alfvénic Mach number MA. We observe close complementarity between flow and magnetic field behavior. Weaker fields exhibit more vortex rotation, magnetic reconnection, jet broadening, and intermediate turbulence

  15. Simulations of Dynamic Relativistic Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfrey, Kyle Patrick

    Neutron stars and black holes are generally surrounded by magnetospheres of highly conducting plasma in which the magnetic flux density is so high that hydrodynamic forces are irrelevant. In this vanishing-inertia—or ultra-relativistic—limit, magnetohydrodynamics becomes force-free electrodynamics, a system of equations comprising only the magnetic and electric fields, and in which the plasma response is effected by a nonlinear current density term. In this dissertation I describe a new pseudospectral simulation code, designed for studying the dynamic magnetospheres of compact objects. A detailed description of the code and several numerical test problems are given. I first apply the code to the aligned rotator problem, in which a star with a dipole magnetic field is set rotating about its magnetic axis. The solution evolves to a steady state, which is nearly ideal and dissipationless everywhere except in a current sheet, or magnetic field discontinuity, at the equator, into which electromagnetic energy flows and is dissipated. Magnetars are believed to have twisted magnetospheres, due to internal magnetic evolution which deforms the crust, dragging the footpoints of external magnetic field lines. This twisting may be able to explain both magnetars' persistent hard X-ray emission and their energetic bursts and flares. Using the new code, I simulate the evolution of relativistic magnetospheres subjected to slow twisting through large angles. The field lines expand outward, forming a strong current layer; eventually the configuration loses equilibrium and a dynamic rearrangement occurs, involving large-scale rapid magnetic reconnection and dissipation of the free energy of the twisted magnetic field. When the star is rotating, the magnetospheric twisting leads to a large increase in the stellar spin-down rate, which may take place on the long twisting timescale or in brief explosive events, depending on where the twisting is applied and the history of the system

  16. Resistive dissipation and magnetic field topology in the stellar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1993-01-01

    Tangential discontinuities, or current sheets, in a magnetic field embedded in a fluid with vanishing resistivity are created by discontinuous fluid motion. Tangential discontinuities are also created when a magnetic field is allowed to relax to magnetostatic equilibrium after mixing by fluid motions (either continuous or discontinuous) into any but the simplest topologies. This paper shows by formal examples that the current sheets arising solely from discontinuous fluid motions do not contribute significantly to the dissipation of magnetic free energy when a small resistivity is introduced. Dissipation that is significant under coronal conditions occurs only by rapid reconnection, which arises when, and only when, the current sheets are required by the field topology. Hence it is topological dissipation that is primarily responsible for heating tenuous coronal gases in astronomical settings, whether the fluid displacements of the field are continuous or discontinuous.

  17. Dissipative Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kheirandish, F.; Amooshahi, M.

    2008-11-18

    Quantum field theory of a damped vibrating string as the simplest dissipative scalar field theory is investigated by introducing a minimal coupling method. The rate of energy flowing between the system and its environment is obtained.

  18. Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Azeem

    2016-06-21

    The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r{sub i}. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number.

  19. Anelastic Tidal Dissipation in Multi-Layer Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remus, Françcoise; Mathis, Stéphane; Zahn, Jean-Paul; Lainey, Valéry

    2014-04-01

    Earth-like planets have anelastic mantles, whereas giant planets may have anelastic cores. As for the fluid parts, the tidal dissipation of these regions, gravitationally perturbed by a companion, highly depends on its internal friction and thus its internal structure. Therefore, modeling this kind of interaction presents a high interest to constrain planetary interiors, whose properties are still quite uncertain. Here, we examine the anelastic tidal dissipation in deep planetary interiors, in presence of a fluid envelope, and taking into account its dependence on the rheology. Taking plausible values for the anelastic parameters, and discussing the frequency-dependence of the anelastic dissipation, we show how this mechanism may compete with the dissipation in fluid layers, when applied to Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets. We also discuss the case of the icy giants Uranus and Neptune. Finally, we show how the results may be implemented to describe the dynamical evolution of planetary systems.

  20. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  1. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gobbin, M.

    2014-10-01

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  2. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  3. Dissipation in non-equilibrium turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Wouter; Rubinstein, Robert

    2016-11-01

    For about a decade, experimental and numerical studies have reported on the existence of an anomalous behaviour of the viscous dissipation rate in unsteady turbulence (see for instance Vassilicos, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2015). It appears that the short-time transient dynamics can be described by a universal power law, incompatible with Taylor's 1935 dissipation rate estimate. We show that these results can be explained using a non-equilibrium energy distribution, obtained from a low-frequency perturbative expansion of simple spectral closure. The resulting description is fairly simple. In particular, during the transient, according to the predictions, the normalized dissipation rate Cɛ evolves as a function of the Taylor-scale Reynolds number Rλ following the relation Cɛ Rλ- 15 / 14 , in close agreement with experimental and numerical observations.

  4. Basin topology in dissipative chaotic scattering.

    PubMed

    Seoane, Jesús M; Aguirre, Jacobo; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2006-06-01

    Chaotic scattering in open Hamiltonian systems under weak dissipation is not only of fundamental interest but also important for problems of current concern such as the advection and transport of inertial particles in fluid flows. Previous work using discrete maps demonstrated that nonhyperbolic chaotic scattering is structurally unstable in the sense that the algebraic decay of scattering particles immediately becomes exponential in the presence of weak dissipation. Here we extend the result to continuous-time Hamiltonian systems by using the Henon-Heiles system as a prototype model. More importantly, we go beyond to investigate the basin structure of scattering dynamics. A surprising finding is that, in the common case where multiple destinations exist for scattering trajectories, Wada basin boundaries are common and they appear to be structurally stable under weak dissipation, even when other characteristics of the nonhyperbolic scattering dynamics are not. We provide numerical evidence and a geometric theory for the structural stability of the complex basin topology.

  5. Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection around rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asenjo, Felipe; Comisso, Luca

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the classical Sweet-Parker and Petschek models have been extended in the special relativistic regime, both for MHD plasmas and two-fluid electron-positron plasmas. Nevertheless, there could be situations, like in the vicinity of black holes, where also general relativistic effects can become important. Here, we calculate analytically the reconnection rate and other relevant quantities in a magnetic reconnection process around a rotating black hole. A striking result is that the black hole rotation is capable to produce an enhancement of the rate at which magnetic reconnection proceeds. This work is supported by Fondecyt-Chile, Grant No. 11140025.

  6. Ultra-relativistic double explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2017-04-01

    We consider fluid dynamics of relativistic double explosion—when a point explosion with energy E1 is followed by a second explosion with energy E2 after time td (the second explosion could be in a form of a long lasting wind). The primary explosion creates a self-similar relativistic blast wave propagating with Lorentz factor Γ1(t ) . A sufficiently strong second explosion, with total energy E2≥10-2E1 , creates a fast second shock in the external fluid previously shocked by the primary shock. At times longer than the interval between the explosions td, yet short compared with the time when the second shock catches up the primary shock at ˜tdΓ12 , the structure of the second shock is approximately self-similar. The self-similar structure of the second shock exists for the case of constant external density (in this case Γ2∝t-7 /3 ), but not for the wind environment. At early times, the Lorentz factor of the second shock may exceed that of the primary shock and may boost the synchrotron emission of locally accelerated electrons into the Fermi Large Area Telescope range.

  7. Energy dissipation in sheared granular flows

    SciTech Connect

    Karion, A.; Hunt, M.L.

    1999-11-01

    Granular material flows describe flows of solid particles in which the interstitial fluid plays a negligible role in the flow mechanics. Examples include the transport of coal, food products, detergents, pharmaceutical tablets, and toner particles in high-speed printers. Using a two-dimensional discrete element computer simulation of a bounded, gravity-free Couette flow of particles, the heat dissipation rate per unit area is calculated as a function of position in the flow as well as overall solid fraction. The computation results compare favorably with the kinetic theory analysis for rough disks. The heat dissipation rate is also measured for binary mixtures of particles for different small to large solid fraction ratios, and for diameter ratios of ten, five, and two. The dissipation rates increase significantly with overall solid fraction as well as local strain rates and granular temperatures. The thermal energy equation is solved for a Couette flow with one adiabatic wall and one at constant temperature. Solutions use the simulation measurements of the heat dissipation rate, solid fraction, and granular temperature to show that the thermodynamic temperature increases with solid fraction and decreases with particle conductivity. In mixtures, both the dissipation rate and the thermodynamic temperature increase with size ratio and with decreasing ratio of small to large particles.

  8. Relativistic Modeling Capabilities in PERSEUS Extended MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as hybrid X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. A major challenge of a relativistic fluid implementation is the recovery of primitive variables (density, velocity, pressure) from conserved quantities at each time step of a simulation. This recovery, which reduces to straightforward algebra in non-relativistic simulations, becomes more complicated when the equations are made relativistic, and has thus far been a major impediment to two-fluid simulations of relativistic HED plasmas. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm's law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the central part of the primitive variable recovery problem to a straightforward algebraic computation, which enables efficient and accurate relativistic two-fluid simulations. Our code recovers expected non-relativistic results and reveals new physics in the relativistic regime. Work supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001836.

  9. Energetic particle transport in relativistic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion is given of pitch angle dependent and diffusive transport equations for cosmic rays applicable for both special relativistic and general relativistic flows, derived from the relativistic Boltzmann equation. As an example of particle transport in a curved spacetime we give a pitch angle dependent transport equation appropriate for radial accretion onto a Schwarzschild black hole. The roles of fluid shear, acceleration and compression on the energy changes of particles in the diffusive transport equations are emphasized. Also discussed are special flows (e.g. rigidly rotating flows) associated with a Killing vector for which a constant of the motion of the particles can be identified, and for which simplified transport equations can be constructed.

  10. Energy dissipation in substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Loretta A.; Reiff, P. H.; Moses, J. J.; Heelis, R. A.; Moore, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    The energy dissipated by substorms manifested in several ways is discussed: the Joule dissipation in the ionosphere; the energization of the ring current by the injection of plasma sheet particles; auroral election and ion acceleration; plasmoid ejection; and plasma sheet ion heating during the recovery phase. For each of these energy dissipation mechanisms, a 'rule of thumb' formula is given, and a typical dissipation rate and total energy expenditure is estimated. The total energy dissipated as Joule heat (approximately) 2 x 10(exp 15) is found about twice the ring current injection term, and may be even larger if small scale effects are included. The energy expended in auroral electron precipitation, on the other hand, is smaller than the Joule heating by a factor of five. The energy expended in refilling and heating the plasma sheets is estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(exp 14)J, while the energy lost due to plasmoid ejection is between (approximately) (10 exp 13)(exp 14)J.

  11. Energy dissipation in substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Loretta A.; Reiff, P. H.; Moses, J. J.; Heelis, R. A.; Moore, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    The energy dissipated by substorms manifested in several ways is discussed: the Joule dissipation in the ionosphere; the energization of the ring current by the injection of plasma sheet particles; auroral election and ion acceleration; plasmoid ejection; and plasma sheet ion heating during the recovery phase. For each of these energy dissipation mechanisms, a 'rule of thumb' formula is given, and a typical dissipation rate and total energy expenditure is estimated. The total energy dissipated as Joule heat (approximately) 2 x 10(exp 15) is found about twice the ring current injection term, and may be even larger if small scale effects are included. The energy expended in auroral electron precipitation, on the other hand, is smaller than the Joule heating by a factor of five. The energy expended in refilling and heating the plasma sheets is estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(exp 14)J, while the energy lost due to plasmoid ejection is between (approximately) (10 exp 13)(exp 14)J.

  12. Boosting the accuracy of SPH techniques: Newtonian and special-relativistic tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosswog, S.

    2015-04-01

    We study the impact of different discretization choices on the accuracy of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and we explore them in a large number of Newtonian and special-relativistic benchmark tests. As a first improvement, we explore a gradient prescription that requires the (analytical) inversion of a small matrix. For a regular particle distribution, this improves gradient accuracies by approximately 10 orders of magnitude and the SPH formulations with this gradient outperform the standard approach in all benchmark tests. Secondly, we demonstrate that a simple change of the kernel function can substantially increase the accuracy of an SPH scheme. While the `standard' cubic spline kernel generally performs poorly, the best overall performance is found for a high-order Wendland kernel which allows for only very little velocity noise and enforces a very regular particle distribution, even in highly dynamical tests. Thirdly, we explore new SPH volume elements that enhance the treatment of fluid instabilities and, last, but not least, we design new dissipation triggers. They switch on near shocks and in regions where the flow - without dissipation - starts to become noisy. The resulting new SPH formulation yields excellent results even in challenging tests where standard techniques fail completely.

  13. Non-relativistic leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Wörmann, Mirco E-mail: mwoermann@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2014-02-01

    In many phenomenologically interesting models of thermal leptogenesis the heavy neutrinos are non-relativistic when they decay and produce the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We propose a non-relativistic approximation for the corresponding rate equations in the non-resonant case, and a systematic way for computing relativistic corrections. We determine the leading order coefficients in these equations, and the first relativistic corrections. The non-relativistic approximation works remarkably well. It appears to be consistent with results obtained using a Boltzmann equation taking into account the momentum distribution of the heavy neutrinos, while being much simpler. We also compute radiative corrections to some of the coefficients in the rate equations. Their effect is of order 1% in the regime favored by neutrino oscillation data. We obtain the correct leading order lepton number washout rate in this regime, which leads to large ( ∼ 20%) effects compared to previous computations.

  14. Non-dissipative hydrodynamics: effective actions versus entropy current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Rangamani, Mukund

    2013-02-01

    While conventional hydrodynamics incorporating dissipative effects is hard to derive from an action principle, it is nevertheless possible to construct classical actions when the dissipative terms are switched off. In this note we undertake a systematic exploration of such constructions from an effective field theory approach and argue for the existence of non-trivial second order non-dissipative hydrodynamics involving pure energy-momentum transport. We find these fluids to be characterized by five second-order transport coefficients based on the effective action (a three parameter family is Weyl invariant). On the other hand since all flows of such fluids are non-dissipative, they entail zero entropy production; one can therefore understand them using the entropy current formalism which has provided much insight into hydrodynamic transport. An analysis of the most general stress tensor with zero entropy production however turns out to give a seven parameter family of non-dissipative hydrodynamics (a four parameter sub-family being Weyl invariant). The non-dissipative fluids derived from the effective action approach are a special case of the fluid dynamics constrained by conservation of the entropy current. We speculate on the reasons for the mismatch and potential limitations of the effective action approach.

  15. Entropy Splitting and Numerical Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.; Djomehri, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    A rigorous stability estimate for arbitrary order of accuracy of spatial central difference schemes for initial-boundary value problems of nonlinear symmetrizable systems of hyperbolic conservation laws was established recently by Olsson and Oliger (1994) and Olsson (1995) and was applied to the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) and Gerritsen (1996). The basic building block in developing the stability estimate is a generalized energy approach based on a special splitting of the flux derivative via a convex entropy function and certain homogeneous properties. Due to some of the unique properties of the compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas, the splitting resulted in the sum of a conservative portion and a non-conservative portion of the flux derivative. hereafter referred to as the "Entropy Splitting." There are several potential desirable attributes and side benefits of the entropy splitting for the compressible Euler equations that were not fully explored in Gerritsen and Olsson. The paper has several objectives. The first is to investigate the choice of the arbitrary parameter that determines the amount of splitting and its dependence on the type of physics of current interest to computational fluid dynamics. The second is to investigate in what manner the splitting affects the nonlinear stability of the central schemes for long time integrations of unsteady flows such as in nonlinear aeroacoustics and turbulence dynamics. If numerical dissipation indeed is needed to stabilize the central scheme, can the splitting help minimize the numerical dissipation compared to its un-split cousin? Extensive numerical study on the vortex preservation capability of the splitting in conjunction with central schemes for long time integrations will be presented. The third is to study the effect of the non-conservative proportion of splitting in obtaining the correct shock location for high speed complex shock

  16. Fractional dissipative standard map.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Vasily E; Edelman, M

    2010-06-01

    Using kicked differential equations of motion with derivatives of noninteger orders, we obtain generalizations of the dissipative standard map. The main property of these generalized maps, which are called fractional maps, is long-term memory. The memory effect in the fractional maps means that their present state of evolution depends on all past states with special forms of weights. Already a small deviation of the order of derivative from the integer value corresponding to the regular dissipative standard map (small memory effects) leads to the qualitatively new behavior of the corresponding attractors. The fractional dissipative standard maps are used to demonstrate a new type of fractional attractors in the wide range of the fractional orders of derivatives.

  17. Graphene heat dissipating structure

    DOEpatents

    Washburn, Cody M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Wheeler, David R.; Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Railkar, Tarak A.

    2017-08-01

    Various technologies presented herein relate to forming one or more heat dissipating structures (e.g., heat spreaders and/or heat sinks) on a substrate, wherein the substrate forms part of an electronic component. The heat dissipating structures are formed from graphene, with advantage being taken of the high thermal conductivity of graphene. The graphene (e.g., in flake form) is attached to a diazonium molecule, and further, the diazonium molecule is utilized to attach the graphene to material forming the substrate. A surface of the substrate is treated to comprise oxide-containing regions and also oxide-free regions having underlying silicon exposed. The diazonium molecule attaches to the oxide-free regions, wherein the diazonium molecule bonds (e.g., covalently) to the exposed silicon. Attachment of the diazonium plus graphene molecule is optionally repeated to enable formation of a heat dissipating structure of a required height.

  18. Towards a unified lattice kinetic scheme for relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.

    2017-05-01

    We present a systematic derivation of relativistic lattice kinetic equations for finite-mass particles, reaching close to the zero-mass ultrarelativistic regime treated in the previous literature. Starting from an expansion of the Maxwell-Jüttner distribution on orthogonal polynomials, we perform a Gauss-type quadrature procedure and discretize the relativistic Boltzmann equation on space-filling Cartesian lattices. The model is validated through numerical comparison with standard tests and solvers in relativistic fluid dynamics such as Boltzmann approach multiparton scattering and previous relativistic lattice Boltzmann models. This work provides a significant step towards the formulation of a unified relativistic lattice kinetic scheme, covering both massive and near-massless particles regimes.

  19. Towards a unified lattice kinetic scheme for relativistic hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Gabbana, A; Mendoza, M; Succi, S; Tripiccione, R

    2017-05-01

    We present a systematic derivation of relativistic lattice kinetic equations for finite-mass particles, reaching close to the zero-mass ultrarelativistic regime treated in the previous literature. Starting from an expansion of the Maxwell-Jüttner distribution on orthogonal polynomials, we perform a Gauss-type quadrature procedure and discretize the relativistic Boltzmann equation on space-filling Cartesian lattices. The model is validated through numerical comparison with standard tests and solvers in relativistic fluid dynamics such as Boltzmann approach multiparton scattering and previous relativistic lattice Boltzmann models. This work provides a significant step towards the formulation of a unified relativistic lattice kinetic scheme, covering both massive and near-massless particles regimes.

  20. Homothetic motion in radiating and dissipative spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, W.; Castillo, L.

    1995-10-01

    A method used to study the evolution of radiating dissipative fluid spheres is applied to the case in which the space-time admits a homothetic motion. We obtain a system of equations at the surface of the distribution which is integrated numerically. Considering that the shear viscosity induces anisotropy, we obtain a model derived from the static solution by Herrera, Jiménez, Leal, Esculpi, Ponce de León, and Galina [J. Math. Phys. 25, 3274 (1984)] for homothetic fluids but which includes dynamic variables. Therefore, the profiles of the physical variables at the surface are calculated and discussed in the light of one astrophysical scenario.

  1. Nonlinear magnetosonic waves in dense plasmas with non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Rehman, Aman-ur-

    2014-11-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic waves in the perpendicular direction to the ambient magnetic field is studied in dense plasmas for non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure. The sources of nonlinearities are the divergence of the ions and electrons fluxes, Lorentz forces on ions and electrons fluids and the plasma current density in the system. The Korteweg-de Vries equation for magnetosonic waves propagating in the perpendicular direction of the magnetic field is derived by employing reductive perturbation method for non-relativistic as well as ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases in dense plasmas. The plots of the magnetosonic wave solitons are also shown using numerical values of the plasma parameters such a plasma density and magnetic field intensity of the white dwarfs from literature. The dependence of plasma density and magnetic field intensity on the magnetosonic wave propagation is also pointed out in dense plasmas for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases.

  2. Estakhr's Proper-Time Averaged of Material-Geodesic Equations (an umberella term equation for Relativistic Astrophysics, Relativistic Jets, Gamma-Ray Burst, Big Bang Hydrodynamics, Supernova Hydrodynamics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estakhr, Ahmad Reza

    2016-10-01

    DJ̲μ/Dτ =J̲ν ∂νU̲μ + ∂νT̲μν +Γαβμ J̲αU̲β ︷ Steady Component + ∂νRμν +Γαβμ Rαβ ︷ Perturbations EAMG equations are proper time-averaged equations of relativistic motion for fluid flow and used to describe Relativistic Turbulent Flows. The EAMG equations are used to describe Relativistic Jet.

  3. Energy dissipation in flows through curved spaces

    PubMed Central

    Debus, J.-D.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid dynamics in intrinsically curved geometries is encountered in many physical systems in nature, ranging from microscopic bio-membranes all the way up to general relativity at cosmological scales. Despite the diversity of applications, all of these systems share a common feature: the free motion of particles is affected by inertial forces originating from the curvature of the embedding space. Here we reveal a fundamental process underlying fluid dynamics in curved spaces: the free motion of fluids, in the complete absence of solid walls or obstacles, exhibits loss of energy due exclusively to the intrinsic curvature of space. We find that local sources of curvature generate viscous stresses as a result of the inertial forces. The curvature- induced viscous forces are shown to cause hitherto unnoticed and yet appreciable energy dissipation, which might play a significant role for a variety of physical systems involving fluid dynamics in curved spaces. PMID:28195148

  4. Energy dissipation in flows through curved spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debus, J.-D.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2017-02-01

    Fluid dynamics in intrinsically curved geometries is encountered in many physical systems in nature, ranging from microscopic bio-membranes all the way up to general relativity at cosmological scales. Despite the diversity of applications, all of these systems share a common feature: the free motion of particles is affected by inertial forces originating from the curvature of the embedding space. Here we reveal a fundamental process underlying fluid dynamics in curved spaces: the free motion of fluids, in the complete absence of solid walls or obstacles, exhibits loss of energy due exclusively to the intrinsic curvature of space. We find that local sources of curvature generate viscous stresses as a result of the inertial forces. The curvature- induced viscous forces are shown to cause hitherto unnoticed and yet appreciable energy dissipation, which might play a significant role for a variety of physical systems involving fluid dynamics in curved spaces.

  5. Dissipative Work in Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G.; Ferreira, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the concept of dissipative work and shows that such a kind of work is an invariant non-negative quantity. This feature is then used to get a new insight into adiabatic irreversible processes; for instance, why the final temperature in any adiabatic irreversible process is always higher than that attained in a reversible process…

  6. Dissipative Work in Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G.; Ferreira, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the concept of dissipative work and shows that such a kind of work is an invariant non-negative quantity. This feature is then used to get a new insight into adiabatic irreversible processes; for instance, why the final temperature in any adiabatic irreversible process is always higher than that attained in a reversible process…

  7. Relativistic Kinetic Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.

    2017-02-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  8. Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum in special relativistic hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Perciante, A. L.; Garcia-Colin, L. S.

    2009-06-15

    In this paper we calculate the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum for a relativistic simple fluid according to three different versions available for a relativistic approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics. An outcome of these calculations is that Eckart's version predicts that such spectrum does not exist. This provides an argument to question its validity. The remaining two results, which differ one from another, do provide a finite form for such spectrum. This raises the rather intriguing question as to which of the two theories is a better candidate to be taken as a possible version of relativistic nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The answer will clearly require deeper examination of this problem.

  9. Relativistic Navigation: A Theoretical Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    1996-01-01

    We present a theoretical foundation for relativistic astronomical measurements in curved space-time. In particular, we discuss a new iterative approach for describing the dynamics of an isolated astronomical N-body system in metric theories of gravity. To do this, we generalize the Fock-Chandrasekhar method of the weak-field and slow-motion approximation (WFSMA) and develop a theory of relativistic reference frames (RF's) for a gravitationally bounded many-extended-body problem. In any proper RF constructed in the immediate vicinity of an arbitrary body, the N-body solutions of the gravitational field equations are formally presented as a sum of the Riemann-flat inertial space-time, the gravitational field generated by the body itself, the unperturbed solutions for each body in the system transformed to the coordinates of this proper RF, and the gravitational interaction term. We develop the basic concept of a general WFSMA theory of the celestial RF's applicable to a wide class of metric theories of gravity and an arbitrary model of matter distribution. We apply the proposed method to general relativity. Celestial bodies are described using a perfect fluid model; as such, they possess any number of internal mass and current multipole moments that explicitly characterize their internal structures. The obtained relativistic corrections to the geodetic equations of motion arise because of a coupling of the bodies' multiple moments to the surrounding gravitational field. The resulting relativistic transformations between the different RF's extend the Poincare group to the motion of deformable self-gravitating bodies. Within the present accuracy of astronomical measurements we discuss the properties of the Fermi-normal-like proper RF that is defined in the immediate vicinity of the extended compact bodies. We further generalize the proposed approximation method and include two Eddington parameters (gamma, Beta). This generalized approach was used to derive the

  10. A Note on Kinetic Energy, Dissipation and Enstrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, Ye; Fan, Meng

    1998-01-01

    The dissipation rate of a Newtonian fluid with constant shear viscosity can be shown to include three constituents: dilatation, vorticity, and surface strain. The last one is found to make no contributions to the change of kinetic energy. These dissipation constituents arc used to identify typical compact turbulent flow structures at high Reynolds numbers. The incompressible version of the simplified kinetic-energy equation is then cast to a novel form, which is free from the work rate done by surface stresses but in which the full dissipation re-enters.

  11. Relativistic thermodynamics with an invariant energy scale

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sudipta; Ghosh, Subir; Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2009-12-15

    A particular framework for quantum gravity is the doubly special relativity (DSR) formalism that introduces a new observer independent scale, the Planck energy. Our aim in this paper is to study the effects of this energy upper bound in relativistic thermodynamics. We have explicitly computed the modified equation of state for an ideal fluid in the DSR framework. In deriving our result we exploited the scheme of treating DSR as a nonlinear representation of the Lorentz group in special relativity.

  12. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  13. Relativistic GLONASS and geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurova, E. M.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Karpik, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    GNSS technology is playing a major role in applications to civil, industrial and scientific areas. Nowadays, there are two fully functional GNSS: American GPS and Russian GLONASS. Their data processing algorithms have been historically based on the Newtonian theory of space and time with only a few relativistic effects taken into account as small corrections preventing the system from degradation on a fairly long time. Continuously growing accuracy of geodetic measurements and atomic clocks suggests reconsidering the overall approach to the GNSS theoretical model based on the Einstein theory of general relativity. This is essentially more challenging but fundamentally consistent theoretical approach to relativistic space geodesy. In this paper, we overview the basic principles of the relativistic GNSS model and explain the advantages of such a system for GLONASS and other positioning systems. Keywords: relativistic GLONASS, Einstein theory of general relativity.

  14. Relativistic Jets and Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Woosley, S. E.

    2001-05-01

    In order to study the relativistic jets from collapsars, we have developed a special relativistic multiple-dimensional hydrodynamics code similar to the GENESIS code (Aloy et al., ApJS, 122, 151). The code is based on the PPM interpolation algorithm and Marquina's Riemann solver. Using this code, we have simulated the propagation of axisymmetric jets along the rotational axis of collapsed rotating stars (collapsars). Using the progenitors of MacFadyen, Woosley, and Heger, a relativistic jet is injected at a given inner boundary radius. This radius, the opening angle of the jet, its Lorentz factor, and its total energy are parameters of the problem. A highly collimated, relativistic outflow is observed at the surface of the star several seconds later. We will discuss the hydrodynamical focusing of the jet, it's break out properties, time evolution, and sensitivity to the adopted parameters.

  15. Substructures in Simulations of Relativistic Jet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphael de Oliveira; Oliveira, Samuel Rocha de

    2017-02-01

    We present a set of simulations of relativistic jets from accretion disk initial setup with numerical solutions of a system of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) partial differential equations in a fixed black hole (BH) spacetime which is able to show substructures formations inside the jet as well as lobe formation on the jet head. For this, we used a central scheme of finite volume method without dimensional split and with no Riemann solvers namely the Nessyahu-Tadmor method. Thus, we were able to obtain stable numerical solutions with spurious oscillations under control and with no excessive numerical dissipation. Therefore, we developed some setups for initial conditions capable of simulating the formation of relativistic jets from the accretion disk falling onto central black hole until its ejection, both immersed in a magnetosphere. In our simulations, we were able to observe some substructure of a jet created from an accretion initial disk, namely, jet head, knots, cocoon, and lobe. Also, we present an explanation for cocoon formation and lobe formation. Each initial scenario was determined by ratio between disk density and magnetosphere density, showing that this relation is very important for the shape of the jet and its substructures.

  16. Substructures in Simulations of Relativistic Jet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphael de Oliveira; Oliveira, Samuel Rocha de

    2017-04-01

    We present a set of simulations of relativistic jets from accretion disk initial setup with numerical solutions of a system of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) partial differential equations in a fixed black hole (BH) spacetime which is able to show substructures formations inside the jet as well as lobe formation on the jet head. For this, we used a central scheme of finite volume method without dimensional split and with no Riemann solvers namely the Nessyahu-Tadmor method. Thus, we were able to obtain stable numerical solutions with spurious oscillations under control and with no excessive numerical dissipation. Therefore, we developed some setups for initial conditions capable of simulating the formation of relativistic jets from the accretion disk falling onto central black hole until its ejection, both immersed in a magnetosphere. In our simulations, we were able to observe some substructure of a jet created from an accretion initial disk, namely, jet head, knots, cocoon, and lobe. Also, we present an explanation for cocoon formation and lobe formation. Each initial scenario was determined by ratio between disk density and magnetosphere density, showing that this relation is very important for the shape of the jet and its substructures.

  17. Relativistic and non-relativistic solitons in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Satyendra Nath

    This thesis entitled as "Relativistic and Non-relativistic Solitons in Plasmas" is the embodiment of a number of investigations related to the formation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas under various physical situations. The whole work of the thesis is devoted to the studies of solitary waves in cold and warm collisionless magnetized or unmagnetized plasmas with or without relativistic effect. To analyze the formation of solitary waves in all our models of plasmas, we have employed two established methods namely - reductive perturbation method to deduce the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the solutions of which represent the important but near exact characteristic concepts of soliton-physics. Next, the pseudopotential method to deduce the energy integral with total nonlinearity in the coupling process for exact characteristic results of solitons has been incorporated. In Chapter 1, a brief description of plasma in nature and laboratory and its generation are outlined elegantly. The nonlinear differential equations to characterize solitary waves and the relevant but important methods of solutions have been mentioned in this chapter. The formation of solitary waves in unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas, and in relativistic plasmas has been described through mathematical entity. Applications of plasmas in different fields are also put forwarded briefly showing its importance. The study of plasmas as they naturally occur in the universe encompasses number of topics including sun's corona, solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, ionospheres, auroras, cosmic rays and radiation. The study of space weather to understand the universe, communications and the activities of weather satellites are some useful areas of space plasma physics. The surface cleaning, sterilization of food and medical appliances, killing of bacteria on various surfaces, destroying of viruses, fungi, spores and plasma coating in industrial instruments ( like computers) are some of the fields

  18. Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, Franklin S.

    2006-01-01

    The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.

  19. Dissipative solitons in fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turitsyn, S. K.; Rosanov, N. N.; Yarutkina, I. A.; Bednyakova, A. E.; Fedorov, S. V.; Shtyrina, O. V.; Fedoruk, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    Dissipative solitons (also known as auto-solitons) are stable, nonlinear, time- or space-localized solitary waves that occur due to the balance between energy excitation and dissipation. We review the theory of dissipative solitons applied to fiber laser systems. The discussion context includes the classical Ginzburg-Landau and Maxwell-Bloch equations and their modifications that allow describing laser-cavity-produced waves. Practical examples of laser systems generating dissipative solitons are discussed.

  20. Relativistic effects in chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsimirskii, K.B.

    1995-11-01

    Relativistic effects become apparent when the velocity of the electron is arbitrarily close to the speed of light (137 au) without actually attaining it (in heavy atoms of elements at the end of Mendeleev`s Periodic Table). At the orbital level, the relativistic effect is apparent in the radial contraction of penetrating s and p shells, expansion of nonpenetrating d and f shells, and the spin-orbit splitting of p-,d-, and f-shells. The appearance of a relativistic effect is indicated in the variation in the electronic configurations of the atoms in the Periodic Table, the appearance of new types of closed electron shells (6s{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, 6p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, 7s{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, 5d{sub 3/2}{sup 4}), the stabilization of unstable oxidation states of heavy elements, the characteristic variation in the ionization enthalpies of heavy atoms, their electron affinity, hydration energies, redox potentials, and optical electronegativities. In the spectra of coordination compounds, a relativistic effect is observed when comparing the position of the charge transfer bands in analogous compounds, the parameters characterizing the ligand field strength (10Dq), the interatomic distances and angles in compounds of heavy elements. A relativistic effect is also apparent in the ability of heavy metals to form clusters and superclusters. Relativistic corrections also affect other properties of heavy metal compounds (force constants, dipole moments, biological activity, etc.).

  1. Intermittency, coherent structures and dissipation in plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, M.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T. N.; Wu, P.; Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.

    2016-04-15

    Collisionless dissipation in turbulent plasmas such as the solar wind and the solar corona has been an intensively studied subject recently, with new insights often emerging from numerical simulation. Here we report results from high resolution, fully kinetic simulations of plasma turbulence in both two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions, studying the relationship between intermittency and dissipation. The simulations show development of turbulent coherent structures, characterized by sheet-like current density structures spanning a range of scales. An approximate dissipation measure is employed, based on work done by the electromagnetic field in the local electron fluid frame. This surrogate dissipation measure is highly concentrated in small subvolumes in both 2D and 3D simulations. Fully kinetic simulations are also compared with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations in terms of coherent structures and dissipation. The interesting result emerges that the conditional averages of dissipation measure scale very similarly with normalized current density J in 2D and 3D particle-in-cell and in MHD. To the extent that the surrogate dissipation measure is accurate, this result implies that on average dissipation scales as ∼J{sup 2} in turbulent kinetic plasma. Multifractal intermittency is seen in the inertial range in both 2D and 3D, but at scales ∼ion inertial length, the scaling is closer to monofractal.

  2. Viscosity measurement techniques in Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao M.

    2015-11-01

    In this study two main groups of viscosity measurement techniques are used to measure the viscosity of a simple fluid using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, DPD. In the first method, a microscopic definition of the pressure tensor is used in equilibrium and out of equilibrium to measure the zero-shear viscosity and shear viscosity, respectively. In the second method, a periodic Poiseuille flow and start-up transient shear flow is used and the shear viscosity is obtained from the velocity profiles by a numerical fitting procedure. Using the standard Lees-Edward boundary condition for DPD will result in incorrect velocity profiles at high values of the dissipative parameter. Although this issue was partially addressed in Chatterjee (2007), in this work we present further modifications (Lagrangian approach) to the original LE boundary condition (Eulerian approach) that will fix the deviation from the desired shear rate at high values of the dissipative parameter and decrease the noise to signal ratios in stress measurement while increases the accessible low shear rate window. Also, the thermostat effect of the dissipative and random forces is coupled to the dynamic response of the system and affects the transport properties like the viscosity and diffusion coefficient. We investigated thoroughly the dependency of viscosity measured by both Eulerian and Lagrangian methodologies, as well as numerical fitting procedures and found that all the methods are in quantitative agreement.

  3. Pederson Current Dissipation In Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    Pederson current dissipation in emerging active regions. Certain regions of the solar atmosphere, such as the photosphere and chromosphere, as well as prominences, contain a significant amount of neutral atoms, and a complete description of the plasma requires including the effects of partial ionization. In the chromosphere the dissipation of Pederson currents is important for the evolution of emerging magnetic fields. Due to the relatively high number density in the chromosphere, the ion-neutral collision time-scale is much smaller than timescales associated with flux emergence. Hence we use a single-fluid approach to model the partially ionized plasma. Looking at both the emergence of large-scale sub-surface structures, and the emergence and reconnection of undulatory fields, we investigate the effect of Pederson current dissipation on the state of the emerging field, on magnetic reconnection and on dissipative heating of the atmosphere. Specifically we examine the effect of motions across fieldlines in the partially ionized regions, and how this can increase the free energy supplied to the corona by flux emergence. We also look at reconnection associated with flux emergence in the partially ionized atmosphere, and how this can account for observed small-scale brightenings (Ellerman Bombs).

  4. Noether's Theorem of Relativistic-Electromagnetic Ideal Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar Elsas, J. H.; Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2015-06-01

    We present a variational approach for relativistic ideal hydrodynamics interacting with electromagnetic fields. The momentum of fluid is introduced as the canonical conjugate variable of the position of a fluid element, which coincides with the conserved quantity derived from Noether's theorem. We further show that our formulation can reproduce the usual electromagnetic hydrodynamics which is obtained so as to satisfy the conservation of the inertia of fluid motion.

  5. Heat Flux for a Relativistic Dilute Bidimensional Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Perciante, A. L.; Méndez, A. R.; Escobar-Aguilar, E.

    2017-02-01

    Relativistic kinetic theory predicts substantial modifications to the dissipation mechanisms of a dilute gas. For the heat flux, these include (in the absence of external forces) a correction to the thermal conductivity and the appearance of a new, purely relativistic, term proportional to the density gradient. In this work we obtain such constitutive equation for the particular case of a bidimensional gas. The calculation is based on the Chapman-Enskog solution to the relativistic Boltzmann equation and yields analytical expressions for the corresponding transport coefficients, which are evaluated for the particular case of hard disks. These results will be useful for numerical simulations and may be applied to bidimensional non-dense materials.

  6. Heat Flux for a Relativistic Dilute Bidimensional Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Perciante, A. L.; Méndez, A. R.; Escobar-Aguilar, E.

    2017-04-01

    Relativistic kinetic theory predicts substantial modifications to the dissipation mechanisms of a dilute gas. For the heat flux, these include (in the absence of external forces) a correction to the thermal conductivity and the appearance of a new, purely relativistic, term proportional to the density gradient. In this work we obtain such constitutive equation for the particular case of a bidimensional gas. The calculation is based on the Chapman-Enskog solution to the relativistic Boltzmann equation and yields analytical expressions for the corresponding transport coefficients, which are evaluated for the particular case of hard disks. These results will be useful for numerical simulations and may be applied to bidimensional non-dense materials.

  7. Nonlinear r-modes in rapidly rotating relativistic stars.

    PubMed

    Stergioulas, N; Font, J A

    2001-02-12

    The r-mode instability in rotating relativistic stars has been shown recently to have important astrophysical implications, provided that r-modes are not saturated at low amplitudes by nonlinear effects or by dissipative mechanisms. Here, we present the first study of nonlinear r-modes in isentropic, rapidly rotating relativistic stars, via 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamical evolutions. We find that (1) on dynamical time scales, there is no strong nonlinear coupling of r-modes to other modes at amplitudes of order one-the maximum r-mode amplitude is of order unity. (2) r-modes and inertial modes in isentropic stars are predominantly discrete modes. (3) The kinematical drift associated with r-modes appears to be present in our simulations, but confirmation requires more precise initial data.

  8. Dissipative processes in superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Colucci, Giuseppe; Manuel, Cristina

    2011-05-23

    We present some results about a novel damping mechanism of r-mode oscillations in neutron stars due to processes that change the number of protons, neutrons and electrons. Deviations from equilibrium of the number densities of the various species lead to the appearance in the Euler equations of the system of a dissipative mechanism, the so-called rocket effect. The evolution of the r-mode oscillations of a rotating neutron star are influenced by the rocket effect and we present estimates of the corresponding damping timescales. In the description of the system we employ a two-fluid model, with one fluid consisting of all the charged components locked together by the electromagnetic interaction, while the second fluid consists of superfluid neutrons. Both components can oscillate however the rocket effect can only efficiently damp the countermoving r-mode oscillations, with the two fluids oscillating out of phase. In our analysis we include the mutual friction dissipative process between the neutron superfluid and the charged component. We neglect the interaction between the two r-mode oscillations as well as effects related with the crust of the star. Moreover, we use a simplified model of neutron star assuming a uniform mass distribution.

  9. Estimation of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huey-Long; Hondzo, Miki; Rao, A. Ramachandra

    2001-06-01

    The kinetic energy dissipation rate is one of the key intrinsic fluid flow parameters in environmental fluid dynamics. In an indirect method the kinetic energy dissipation rate is estimated from the Batchelor spectrum. Because the Batchelor spectrum has a significant difference between the highest and lowest spectral values, the spectral bias in the periodogram causes the lower spectral values at higher frequencies to increase. Consequently, the accuracy in fitting the Batchelor spectrum is affected. In this study, the multitaper spectral estimation method is compared to conventional methods in estimating the synthetic temperature gradient spectra. It is shown in the results that the multitaper spectra have less bias than the Hamming window smoothed spectra and the periodogram in estimating the synthetic temperature gradient spectra. The results of fitting the Batchelor spectrum based on four error functions are compared. When the theoretical noise spectrum is available and delineated at the intersection of the estimated spectrum, the fitting results of the kinetic energy dissipation rate corresponding to the four error functions do not have significant differences. However, when the noise spectrum is unknown and part of the Batchelor spectrum overlaps the region where the noise spectrum dominates, the weighted chi-square distributed error function has the best fitting results.

  10. ENHANCED DISSIPATION RATE OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN STRIPED PULSAR WINDS BY THE EFFECT OF TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Takamoto, Makoto; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro E-mail: inouety@phys.aoyama.ac.jp

    2012-08-10

    In this paper, we report on turbulent acceleration of the dissipation of the magnetic field in the post-shock region of a Poynting flux-dominated flow, such as the Crab pulsar wind nebula. We have performed two-dimensional resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of subsonic turbulence driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability at the shock fronts of the Poynting flux-dominated flows in pulsar winds. We find that turbulence stretches current sheets which substantially enhances the dissipation of the magnetic field, and that most of the initial magnetic field energy is dissipated within a few eddy-turnover times. We also develop a simple analytical model for turbulent dissipation of the magnetic field that agrees well with our simulations. The analytical model indicates that the dissipation rate does not depend on resistivity even in the small resistivity limit. Our findings can possibly alleviate the {sigma}-problem in the Crab pulsar wind nebulae.

  11. Detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cissoko, M. )

    1992-02-15

    This paper is concerned with an algebraic study of the equations of detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics taking into account the pressure and the energy of thermal radiation. A new approach to shock and detonation wavefronts is outlined. The fluid under consideration is assumed to be perfect (nonviscous and nonconducting) and to obey the following equation of state: {ital p}=({gamma}{minus}1){rho} where {ital p}, {rho}, and {gamma} are the pressure, the total energy density, and the adiabatic index, respectively. The solutions of the equations of detonation waves are reduced to the problem of finding physically acceptable roots of a quadratic polynomial {Pi}({ital X}) where {ital X} is the ratio {tau}/{tau}{sub 0} of dynamical volumes behind and ahead of the detonation wave. The existence and the locations of zeros of this polynomial allow it to be shown that if the equation of state of the burnt fluid is known then the variables characterizing the unburnt fluid obey well-defined physical relations.

  12. Quantum dissipative Higgs model

    SciTech Connect

    Amooghorban, Ehsan Mahdifar, Ali

    2015-09-15

    By using a continuum of oscillators as a reservoir, we present a classical and a quantum-mechanical treatment for the Higgs model in the presence of dissipation. In this base, a fully canonical approach is used to quantize the damped particle on a spherical surface under the action of a conservative central force, the conjugate momentum is defined and the Hamiltonian is derived. The equations of motion for the canonical variables and in turn the Langevin equation are obtained. It is shown that the dynamics of the dissipative Higgs model is not only determined by a projected susceptibility tensor that obeys the Kramers–Kronig relations and a noise operator but also the curvature of the spherical space. Due to the gnomonic projection from the spherical space to the tangent plane, the projected susceptibility displays anisotropic character in the tangent plane. To illuminate the effect of dissipation on the Higgs model, the transition rate between energy levels of the particle on the sphere is calculated. It is seen that appreciable probabilities for transition are possible only if the transition and reservoir’s oscillators frequencies to be nearly on resonance.

  13. Theoretical Consolidation of Acoustic Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, M. J.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2012-01-01

    In many engineering problems, the effects of dissipation can be extremely important. Dissipation can be represented by several parameters depending on the context and the models that are used. Some examples of dissipation-related parameters are damping ratio, viscosity, resistance, absorption coefficients, pressure drop, or damping rate. This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the theoretical consolidation of the classic absorption coefficients with several other dissipation parameters including linearized resistance. The primary goal of this TM is to theoretically consolidate the linearized resistance with the absorption coefficient. As a secondary goal, other dissipation relationships are presented.

  14. Nonequilibrium Phase Behavior from Minimization of Free Power Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krinninger, Philip; Schmidt, Matthias; Brader, Joseph M.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a general theory for describing phase coexistence between nonequilibrium steady states in Brownian systems, based on power functional theory [M. Schmidt and J. M. Brader, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 214101 (2013)]. We apply the framework to the special case of fluid-fluid phase separation of active soft sphere swimmers. The central object of the theory, the dissipated free power, is calculated via computer simulations and compared to a simple analytical approximation. The theory describes well the simulation data and predicts motility-induced phase separation due to avoidance of dissipative clusters.

  15. Modern fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, S.-I.

    The properties of fluids are examined, taking into account fluids and modern fluid mechanics, the properties of liquids and gases, the properties of a plasma, the kinetic theory of fluids, the Boltzmann-Maxwellian laws of distribution, atomic and molecular structures, specific heats, enthalpy, ionization, radiation, viscosity, rheology, heat transfer, and the mixture of fluids. Statics of fluids are considered along with the fundamentals of fluid dynamics, giving attention to flow regimes, the conservation of mass, the equation of continuity, diffusion equations, the stream function, equations of motion, Kelvin's theorem, equations of motion from the Lagrangian point of view, boundary conditions, and initial conditions. Other topics discussed are related to dimensional analysis and dynamics similarity, aerothermochemistry, magnetofluid dynamics and plasma dynamics, radiation gasdynamics, rarefied gasdynamics, non-Newtonian fluids, two-phase flows, the multifluid theory of a plasma, and relativistic fluid mechanics

  16. The free librations of a dissipative moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that dissipation in the moon produces a small offset (approximately 0.23 arcsec) of the moon's rotation axis from the plane defined by the ecliptic and lunar orbit normals. Both solid body tidal friction and viscous fluid friction at a core-mantle interface are thought to be plausible mechanisms. The merits of both are discussed, and it is found that solid friction requires a low lunar tidal Q (approximately 28), whereas turbulent fluid friction requires a core with a radius of approximately 330 km to cause the signature observed by lunar laser ranging. Large (approximately 0.4-8.0 arcsec) free librations of the lunar figure have also been detected through laser ranging. Both a very recent impact on the moon and fluid turbulence in the lunar core are considered plausible mechanisms for generating these librations.

  17. Blast Dynamics in a Dissipative Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, M.; Villamaina, D.; Trizac, E.

    2015-11-01

    The blast caused by an intense explosion has been extensively studied in conservative fluids, where the Taylor-von Neumann-Sedov hydrodynamic solution is a prototypical example of self-similarity driven by conservation laws. In dissipative media, however, energy conservation is violated, yet a distinctive self-similar solution appears. It hinges on the decoupling of random and coherent motion permitted by a broad class of dissipative mechanisms. This enforces a peculiar layered structure in the shock, for which we derive the full hydrodynamic solution, validated by a microscopic approach based on molecular dynamics simulations. We predict and evidence a succession of temporal regimes, as well as a long-time corrugation instability, also self-similar, which disrupts the blast boundary. These generic results may apply from astrophysical systems to granular gases, and invite further cross-fertilization between microscopic and hydrodynamic approaches of shock waves.

  18. Blast Dynamics in a Dissipative Gas.

    PubMed

    Barbier, M; Villamaina, D; Trizac, E

    2015-11-20

    The blast caused by an intense explosion has been extensively studied in conservative fluids, where the Taylor-von Neumann-Sedov hydrodynamic solution is a prototypical example of self-similarity driven by conservation laws. In dissipative media, however, energy conservation is violated, yet a distinctive self-similar solution appears. It hinges on the decoupling of random and coherent motion permitted by a broad class of dissipative mechanisms. This enforces a peculiar layered structure in the shock, for which we derive the full hydrodynamic solution, validated by a microscopic approach based on molecular dynamics simulations. We predict and evidence a succession of temporal regimes, as well as a long-time corrugation instability, also self-similar, which disrupts the blast boundary. These generic results may apply from astrophysical systems to granular gases, and invite further cross-fertilization between microscopic and hydrodynamic approaches of shock waves.

  19. Magnetoacoustic shock waves in dissipative degenerate plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.

    2011-11-15

    Quantum magnetoacoustic shock waves are studied in homogenous, magnetized, dissipative dense electron-ion plasma by using two fluid quantum magneto-hydrodynamic (QMHD) model. The weak dissipation effects in the system are taken into account through kinematic viscosity of the ions. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) equation for magnetoacoustic wave propagating in the perpendicular direction to the external magnetic field in dense plasmas. The strength of magnetoacoustic shock is investigated with the variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, and ion kinematic viscosity of dense plasma system. The necessary condition for the existence of monotonic and oscillatory shock waves is also discussed. The numerical results are presented for illustration by using the data of astrophysical dense plasma situations such as neutron stars exist in the literature.

  20. Relativistic hadrons and the origin of relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, John; Kazanas, D.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the hydrodynamic origin of relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Specifically, we propose that the presence of a population of relativistic hadrons in the AGN 'central engine' and the associated neutron production suffices to produce outflows which under rather general conditions could be relativistic. The main such condition is that the size of the neutron production region be larger than the neutron flight path tau(sub n) approximately 3 x 10(exp 13) cm. This condition guarantees that the mean energy per particle in the proton fluid, resulting from the decay of the neutrons outside their production region, be greater than the proton rest mass. The expansion of this fluid can then lead naturally to a relativistic outflow by conversion of its internal energy to directed motion. We follow the development of such flows by solving the mass, energy as well as the kinetic equation for the proton gas in steady state, taking into account the source terms due to compute accurately the adiabatic index of the expanding gas, and in conjunction with Bernoulli's equation the detailed evolution of the bulk Lorentz factor. We further examine the role of large-scale magnetic fields in confining these outflows to produce the jets observed at larger scales.

  1. Relativistic hadrons and the origin of relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, John; Kazanas, D.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the hydrodynamic origin of relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Specifically, we propose that the presence of a population of relativistic hadrons in the AGN 'central engine' and the associated neutron production suffices to produce outflows which under rather general conditions could be relativistic. The main such condition is that the size of the neutron production region be larger than the neutron flight path tau(sub n) approximately 3 x 10(exp 13) cm. This condition guarantees that the mean energy per particle in the proton fluid, resulting from the decay of the neutrons outside their production region, be greater than the proton rest mass. The expansion of this fluid can then lead naturally to a relativistic outflow by conversion of its internal energy to directed motion. We follow the development of such flows by solving the mass, energy as well as the kinetic equation for the proton gas in steady state, taking into account the source terms due to compute accurately the adiabatic index of the expanding gas, and in conjunction with Bernoulli's equation the detailed evolution of the bulk Lorentz factor. We further examine the role of large-scale magnetic fields in confining these outflows to produce the jets observed at larger scales.

  2. SAMPEX Relativistic Microbursts Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Comess, M.; Smith, D. M.; Selesnick, R. S.; Sample, J. G.; Millan, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Relativistic (>1 MeV) electron microburst precipitation is thought to account for significant relativistic electron loss. We present the statistical and spectral analysis of relativistic microbursts observed by the Proton/Electron Telescope (PET) on board the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer(SAMPEX) satellite from 1992 to 2004. Spectrally we find that microbursts are well fit by an exponential energy distribution in the 0.5-4 MeV range with a spectral e-folding energy of E0 < 375 keV. We also discuss the comparison of morning microbursts with events at midnight, which were first identified as microbursts by O'Brien et al. (2004). Finally, we compare the loss-rates due to microbursts and non-microburst precipitation during storm times and averaged over all times.

  3. B1:. Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, John L.

    2002-09-01

    This review summarizes the parallel session on relativistic astrophysics at GR16. Much of the work reported here involved the structure and stability of neutron stars and the astrophysics of accretion disks around neutron stars and black holes. A large part of the recent work in relativistic astrophysics is tied to numerical investigations of binary coalescence and gravitational waves, but these topics demanded sessions of their own; gravitational waves in the present session were mentioned in connection with neutron-star instability and in a talk on coupling of gravitational waves to radio waves. Two talks involved relativistic stellar systems and cosmology. Finally, several authors outlined advances involving gravitational collapse, cosmic censorship, and baby universes.

  4. Relativistic hydrodynamics and other topics in numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabarrieta, Ignacio (Inaki)

    In this thesis I consider three different projects in numerical relativity. The first one is a study of the spherically-symmetric collapse of a scalar field with a potential that mimics the inclusion of angular momentum. This work has been carried out in collaboration with M. W. Choptuik, W. Unruh and J. Ventrella. In this study we found a new family of type II critical solutions which are discretely self similar. The second project involves work I did in another collaboration with M. W. Choptuik, L. Lehner, R. Petryk, F. Pretorius and H. Villegas. Here we study the dynamical evolution of 5-dimensional generalizations of black holes, called black strings, which are known to be unstable to sufficiently long-wavelength perturbations along the string direction. Not only have we been able to dynamically trigger the instability, explicitly verifying the results from perturbation theory, we have been able to evolve for sufficiently long times to observe that the system goes through a phase (not necessarily the final end- state) that resembles a series of black holes connected by a thin black string. The third and most extensive part of this thesis is a study of ideal fluids fully coupled to gravity, both in spherical symmetry and in axisymmetry. In this project we have cast both the dynamic and equilibrium equations for general relativistic hydrodynamics in the 2 + 1 + 1 formalism and in a way that is tailor-made for the use of high resolution shock capturing methods. In addition, our implementation, for the case of no rotation, is able to evolve discontinuous data and has proven to be convergent. Unfortunately our implementation currently has too much numerical dissipation, and suggests that the use of adaptive methods may be very helpful in achieving long term evolution of star-like configurations.

  5. Tidal dissipation in the dense anelastic core of giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remus, Francoise; Mathis, Stéphane; Lainey, Valéry

    2014-05-01

    The prescriptions used today in celestial mechanics to describe dynamical processes, such as tidal interactions, are somewhat crude. In particular, the quality factor Q, quantifying the tidal dissipation, is often taken as constant, despite its dependence on internal structure, and thus on the tidal frequency. In a solid layer, Efroimsky & Lainey (2007) showed the importance of using a realistic prescription of Q to estimate the evolution speed of the Mars-Phobos system. Such studies confirm the necessity to go beyond evolution models using ad-hoc Q values. Recent astrometric observations of the dynamical evolution of the Jovian and Saturnian systems have shown a higher tidal dissipation than expected (for Jupiter: Q≈3.6×10^4, and for Saturn: Q≈1.7×10^3, from Lainey et al. 2009,2012 resp.). According to a recent model of the Saturnian system formation, such a high tidal dissipation is required by the satellites to migrate up to their present location over the age of the solar system (Charnoz et al., 2011). Globally, gas giants are constituted by a large fluid envelope and a dense central icy/rocky core (Hubbard & Marley 1989). Fluid models, where the tide excites the inertial waves of the convective envelope, show that the resulting tidal dissipation is of the order of Q≈10^5-10^7 (Wu 2005, Ogilvie & Lin 2004). These models have neglected the possible dissipation by the core. Thus, we have developed a model evaluating the tidal dissipation in the anelastic central region of a two-layer planet, surrounded by a static envelope, tidally excited by the hostingstar or a satellite (Remus et al., 2012). The tide exerted by the companion deforms both the envelope and the core. Because of its anelasticity, the core also creates tidal dissipation. I will discuss how the tidal dissipation depends on the rheological parameters and the size of the core. Assuming realistic models of internal structure and taking into account the frequency dependence of the solid

  6. Three-dimensional evolution of a relativistic current sheet: triggering of magnetic reconnection by the guide field.

    PubMed

    Zenitani, S; Hoshino, M

    2005-08-26

    The linear and nonlinear evolution of a relativistic current sheet of pair (e(+/-)) plasmas is investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. In a Harris configuration, it is obtained that the magnetic energy is fast dissipated by the relativistic drift kink instability (RDKI). However, when a current-aligned magnetic field (the so-called "guide field") is introduced, the RDKI is stabilized by the magnetic tension force and it separates into two obliquely propagating modes, which we call the relativistic drift-kink-tearing instability. These two waves deform the current sheet so that they trigger relativistic magnetic reconnection at a crossover thinning point. Since relativistic reconnection produces a lot of nonthermal particles, the guide field is of critical importance to study the energetics of a relativistic current sheet.

  7. The special relativistic shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Kevin W.

    1986-01-01

    The shock-tube problem has served as a popular test for numerical hydrodynamics codes. The development of relativistic hydrodynamics codes has created a need for a similar test problem in relativistic hydrodynamics. The analytical solution to the special relativistic shock-tube problem is presented here. The relativistic shock-jump conditions and rarefaction solution which make up the shock tube are derived. The Newtonian limit of the calculations is given throughout.

  8. On Dissipation Function of Ocean Waves due to Whitecapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, V. E.; Korotkevich, A. O.; Prokofiev, A. O.

    2009-09-09

    The Hasselmann kinetic equation provides a statistical description of waves ensemble. Several catastrophic events are beyond statistical model. In the case of gravity waves on the surface of the deep fluid may be the most frequent and important events of such kind are whitecapping and wave breaking. It was shown earlier that such effects leads to additional dissipation in the energy contaning region around waves spectral peak, which can be simulated by means of empiric dissipative term in kinetic equation. In order to find dependence of this term with respect to nonlinearity in the system (steepness of the surface) we preformed two numerical experiments: weakly nonlinear one in the framework of 3D hydrodynamics and fully nonlinear one for 2D hydrodynamic. In spite of significantly different models and initial conditions, both these experiments yielded close results. Obtained data can be used to define analytical formula for dependence of the dissipative term of dissipation coefficient with respect to mean steepness of the surface.

  9. Second-order dissipative hydrodynamics for plasma with chiral asymmetry and vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Rybalka, D. O.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2017-05-01

    By making use of the chiral kinetic theory in the relaxation-time approximation, we derive an Israel-Stewart type formulation of the hydrodynamic equations for a chiral relativistic plasma made of neutral particles (e.g., neutrinos). The effects of chiral asymmetry are captured by including an additional continuity equation for the axial charge, as well as the leading-order quantum corrections due to the spin of particles. In a formulation of the chiral kinetic theory used, we introduce a symmetric form of the energy-momentum tensor that is suitable for the description of a weakly nonuniform chiral plasma. By construction, the energy and momentum are conserved to the same leading order in the Planck constant as the kinetic equation itself. By making use of such a chiral kinetic theory and the Chapman-Enskog approach, we obtain a set of second-order dissipative hydrodynamic equations. The effects of the fluid vorticity and velocity fluctuations on the dispersion relations of chiral vortical waves are analyzed.

  10. The dissipative Budden problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. N.; Morehead, J. J.; Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.

    1997-11-01

    The linear conversion of a magnetosonic wave (MW) to an ion-hybrid wave (HW) in a tokamak is a two-step process: first the (low-field) incident MW converts to a low-k HW, which propagates in k-space and then partially converts to an outgoing ``reflected" MW, the remainder being transmitted to become the desired high-k HW. In the absence of dissipation, this process would repeat indefinitely, as the ``reflected" MW returns to the plasma core after a true reflection at the outer edge of the plasma. In the presence of fusion alphas, however, we show that the intermediate (low-k) HW is extinguished by strong gyroresonant damping^. We demonstrate this effect by solving a modified Budden equation for this process with finite k-dependent dissipation which acts only on the HW mode. \\vspace*.2cm ^dagA. N. Kaufman, J. J. Morehead, A. J. Brizard & E. R. Tracy, to appear in the Proceedings of the 12th Topical Conference on RF Power in Plasmas, Savannah, GA (AIP, 1997). \\vspace*.2cm This work was supported by the US DOE.

  11. Dissipation of Tidal Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The moon's gravity imparts tremendous energy to the Earth, raising tides throughout the global oceans. What happens to all this energy? This question has been pondered by scientists for over 200 years, and has consequences ranging from the history of the moon to the mixing of the oceans. Richard Ray at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. and Gary Egbert of the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. studied six years of altimeter data from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite to address this question. According to their report in the June 15 issue of Nature, about 1 terawatt, or 25 to 30 percent of the total tidal energy dissipation, occurs in the deep ocean. The remainder occurs in shallow seas, such as on the Patagonian Shelf. 'By measuring sea level with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter, our knowledge of the tides in the global ocean has been remarkably improved,' said Richard Ray, a geophysicist at Goddard. The accuracies are now so high that this data can be used to map empirically the tidal energy dissipation. (Red areas, above) The deep-water tidal dissipation occurs generally near rugged bottom topography (seamounts and mid-ocean ridges). 'The observed pattern of deep-ocean dissipation is consistent with topographic scattering of tidal energy into internal motions within the water column, resulting in localized turbulence and mixing', said Gary Egbert an associate professor at OSU. One important implication of this finding concerns the possible energy sources needed to maintain the ocean's large-scale 'conveyor-belt' circulation and to mix upper ocean heat into the abyssal depths. It is thought that 2 terawatts are required for this process. The winds supply about 1 terawatt, and there has been speculation that the tides, by pumping energy into vertical water motions, supply the remainder. However, all current general circulation models of the oceans ignore the tides. 'It is possible that properly

  12. Floating hydrometer with energy dissipating baffle

    SciTech Connect

    Kownurko, W.A.

    1987-11-24

    This patent describes a floating hydrometer employable for purposes of obtaining measurements of the presence of suspended solids in a fluid substance contained in a receptacle comprising: a. a probe portion operative as an instrument-bearing housing; b. an elongated tubular element having a hollow interior and at least one open end so as to enable the flow into the hollow interior of the elongated tubular element through the open end; and c. energy dissipating baffle means having a first mode of action and a second mode of action and including a member having a hollow interior.

  13. Alfven wave absorption in dissipative plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrikov, M. B.; Taiurskii, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    We consider nonlinear absorption of Alfven waves due to dissipative effects in plasma and relaxation of temperatures of electrons and ions. This study is based on an exact solution of the equations of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics (EMHD) of plasma. It is shown that in order to study the decay of Alfven waves, it suffices to examine the behavior of their amplitudes whose evolution is described by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) obtained in this paper. On finite time intervals, the system of equations on the amplitudes is studied numerically, while asymptotic integration (the Hartman-Grobman theorem) is used to examine its large-time behavior.

  14. Dissipative universe-inflation with soft singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Iver; Timoshkin, Alexander V.

    We investigate the early-time accelerated universe after the Big Bang. We pay attention to the dissipative properties of the inflationary universe in the presence of a soft type singularity, making use of the parameters of the generalized equation of state of the fluid. Flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric is being used. We consider cosmological models leading to the so-called type IV singular inflation. Our obtained theoretical results are compared with observational data from the Planck satellite. The theoretical predictions for the spectral index turn out to be in agreement with the data, while for the scalar-to-tensor ratio, there are minor deviations.

  15. Polarizable water model for Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peter, Emanuel

    2015-11-01

    Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is an efficient particle-based method for modeling mesoscopic behavior of fluid systems. DPD forces conserve the momentum resulting in a correct description of hydrodynamic interactions. Polarizability has been introduced into some coarse-grained particle-based simulation methods; however it has not been done with DPD before. We developed a new polarizable coarse-grained water model for DPD, which employs long-range electrostatics and Drude oscillators. In this talk, we will present the model and its applications in simulations of membrane systems, where polarization effects play an essential role.

  16. Kinetic Modeling of Radiative Turbulence in Relativistic Astrophysical Plasmas: Particle Acceleration and High-Energy Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri

    radiation reaction effects. In addition to measuring the general fluid-level statistical properties of kinetic turbulence (e.g., the turbulent spectrum in the inertial and sub-inertial range), as well as the overall energy dissipation and particle acceleration, the proposed study will also investigate their intermittency and time variability, resulting in direction- and time-resolved emitted photon spectra and direction- and energy-resolved light curves, which can then be compared with observations. To gain deeper physical insight into the intermittent particle acceleration processes in turbulent astrophysical environments, the project will also identify and analyze statistically the current sheets, shocks, and other relevant localized particle-acceleration structures found in the simulations. In particular, it will assess whether relativistic kinetic turbulence in PWN can self-consistently generate such structures that are long and strong enough to accelerate large numbers of particles to the PeV energies required to explain the Crab gamma-ray flares, and where and under what conditions such acceleration can occur. The results of this research will also advance our understanding the origin of ultra-rapid TeV flares in blazar jets and will have important implications for GRB prompt emission, as well as AGN radio-lobes and radiatively-inefficient accretion flows, such as the flow onto the supermassive black hole at our Galactic Center.

  17. Relativistic hydrodynamics from the projection operator method.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yuki; Hidaka, Yoshimasa

    2013-02-01

    We study relativistic hydrodynamics in the linear regime, based on Mori's projection operator method. In relativistic hydrodynamics, it is considered that an ambiguity about the fluid velocity occurs from the choice of a local rest frame: the Landau and Eckart frames. We find that the difference of the frames is not the choice of the local rest frame, but rather that of dynamic variables in the linear regime. We derive hydrodynamic equations in both frames by the projection operator method. We show that the natural derivation gives the linearized Landau equation. Also we find that, even for the Eckart frame, the slow dynamics is actually described by the dynamic variables for the Landau frame.

  18. Towards Understanding the Physics of Collisionless Relativistic Shocks. Relativistic Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Guy; Bykov, Andrei; Ellison, Don; Lemoine, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Relativistic astrophysical collisionless shocks represent outstanding dissipation agents of the huge power of relativistic outflows produced by accreting black holes, core collapsed supernovae and other objects into multi-messenger radiation (cosmic rays, neutrinos, electromagnetic radiation). This article provides a theoretical discussion of the fundamental physical ingredients of these extreme phenomena. In the context of weakly magnetized shocks, in particular, it is shown how the filamentation type instabilities, which develop in the precursor of pair dominated or electron-ion shocks, provide the seeds for the scattering of high energy particles as well as the agent which preheats and slows down the incoming precursor plasma. This analytical discussion is completed with a mesoscopic, non-linear model of particle acceleration in relativistic shocks based on Monte Carlo techniques. This Monte Carlo model uses a semi-phenomenological description of particle scattering which allows it to calculate the back-reaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure on length and momentum scales which are currently beyond the range of microscopic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations.

  19. The Relativistic Rocket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  20. Radiation from Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Sol, H.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Fishman, G. J.; Preece, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electron-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the presence of relativistic jets, instabilities such as the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability create collisionless shocks, which are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons in small-scale magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation, a case of diffusive synchrotron radiation, may be important to understand the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  1. Relativistic impulse dynamics.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Stanley M

    2011-08-01

    Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.

  2. The Relativistic Rocket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  3. Ion-acoustic envelope modes in a degenerate relativistic electron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    McKerr, M.; Kourakis, I.; Haas, F.

    2016-05-15

    A self-consistent relativistic two-fluid model is proposed for one-dimensional electron-ion plasma dynamics. A multiple scales perturbation technique is employed, leading to an evolution equation for the wave envelope, in the form of a nonlinear Schrödinger type equation (NLSE). The inclusion of relativistic effects is shown to introduce density-dependent factors, not present in the non-relativistic case—in the conditions for modulational instability. The role of relativistic effects on the linear dispersion laws and on envelope soliton solutions of the NLSE is discussed.

  4. Fokker-Planck-Boltzmann equation for dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, C. A.; Backx, G.; Ernst, M. H.

    1997-05-01

    The algorithm for Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD), as modified by Español and Warren, is used as a starting point for proving an H-theorem for the free energy and deriving hydrodynamic equations. Equilibrium and transport properties of the DPD fluid are explicitly calculated in terms of the system parameters for the continuous time version of the model.

  5. Enceladus' tidal dissipation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, Gabriel; Behounkova, Marie; Choblet, Gael; Cadek, Ondrej; Soucek, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    A series of chemical and physical evidence indicates that the intense activity at Enceladus' South Pole is related to a subsurface salty water reservoir underneath the tectonically active ice shell. The detection of a significant libration implies that this water reservoir is global and that the average ice shell thickness is about 20-25km (Thomas et al. 2016). The interpretation of gravity and topography data further predicts large variations in ice shell thickness, resulting in a shell potentially thinner than 5 km in the South Polar Terrain (SPT) (Cadek et al. 2016). Such an ice shell structure requires a very strong heat source in the interior, with a focusing mechanism at the SPT. Thermal diffusion through the ice shell implies that at least 25-30 GW is lost into space by passive diffusion, implying a very efficient dissipation mechanism in Enceladus' interior to maintain such an ocean/ice configuration thermally stable.In order to determine in which conditions such a large dissipation power may be generated, we model the tidal response of Enceladus including variable ice shell thickness. For the rock core, we consider a wide range of rheological parameters representative of water-saturated porous rock materials. We demonstrate that the thinning toward the South Pole leads to a strong increase in heat production in the ice shell, with a optimal thickness obtained between 1.5 and 3 km, depending on the assumed ice viscosity. Our results imply that the heat production in the ice shell within the SPT may be sufficient to counterbalance the heat loss by diffusion and to power eruption activity. However, outside the SPT, a strong dissipation in the porous core is required to counterbalance the diffusive heat loss. We show that about 20 GW can be generated in the core, for an effective viscosity of 1012 Pa.s, which is comparable to the effective viscosity estimated in water-saturated glacial tills on Earth. We will discuss the implications of this revisited tidal

  6. Interaction of a relativistic soliton with a nonuniform plasma.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, M R; Abbasi, H; Pajouh, H Hakimi; Shukla, P K; Tsintsadze, N L

    2002-06-01

    By using a relativistic fluid model, a nonlinear theory for the propagation of an intense laser pulse in an inhomogeneous cold plasma is developed. Assuming that the radiation spot size is larger than the plasma wavelength, we derive an envelope equation for the momentum of the electron fluid, taking into account relativistic electron mass variation and finite amplitude electron density perturbations that are driven by the relativistic ponderomotive force of light. Localized solutions of the envelope equation are discussed from an energy integral containing an effective potential. Numerical results for envelope solitons are obtained in a quasistationary approximation. The dependency of these localized solutions on the amplitude and the group velocity of the laser pulse is discussed. Also derived is an equation that governs the dynamics of the pulse center.

  7. Ultralow-Dissipation Superfluid Micromechanical Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souris, F.; Rojas, X.; Kim, P. H.; Davis, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Micro- and nanomechanical resonators with ultralow dissipation have great potential as useful quantum resources. The superfluid micromechanical resonators presented here possess several advantageous characteristics: straightforward thermalization, dissipationless flow, and in situ tunability. We identify and quantitatively model the various dissipation mechanisms in two resonators, one fabricated from borosilicate glass and one from single-crystal quartz. As the resonators are cryogenically cooled into the superfluid state, the damping from thermal effects and from the normal-fluid component are strongly suppressed. At our lowest temperatures, damping is limited solely by internal dissipation in the substrate materials, and the resonators reach quality factors of up to 913 000 at 13 mK. By lifting this limitation through substrate-material choice and resonator design, modeling suggests that the resonators could reach quality factors as high as 108 at 100 mK, putting this architecture in an ideal position to harness mechanical quantum effects and to facilitate the study of superfluids in confined geometries.

  8. On the stability and energy dissipation in magnetized radio galaxy jets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberg, Omer; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    It is commonly accepted that the relativistic jets observed in radio galaxies are launched magnetically and are powered by the rotational energy of the central supermassive black hole. Such jets carry most of their energy in the form of electromagnetic Poynting flux. However by the time the ejecta reach the emission zone most of that energy is transferred to relativistic motions of the jet material with a large fraction given to non-thermal particles, which calls for an efficient dissipation mechanism to work within the jet without compromising its integrity. Understanding the energy dissipation mechanisms and stability of Poynting flux dominated jets is therefore crucial for modeling these astrophysical objects. In this talk I will present the first self consistent 3D simulations of the formation and propagation of highly magnetized (σ ˜25), relativistic jets in a medium. We find that the jets develop two types of instability: i) a local, "internal" kink mode which efficiently dissipates half of the magnetic energy into heat, and ii) a global "external" mode that grows on longer time scales and causes the jets to bend sideways and wobble. Low power jets propagating in media with flat density profiles, such as galaxy cluster cores, are susceptible to the global mode, and develop FRI like morphology. High power jets remain stable as they cross the cores, break out and accelerate to large distances, appearing as FRII jets. Thus magnetic kink instability can account for both the magnetic energy dissipation and the population dichotomy in radio galaxy jets.

  9. Magnetorheological rotational flow with viscous dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Nariman

    2017-05-01

    Effects of a magnetic field and fluid nonlinearity are investigated for the rotational flow of the Carreau-type fluid while viscous dissipation is taken into account. The governing motion and energy balance equations are coupled, adding complexity to the already highly correlated set of differential equations. The numerical solution is obtained for the narrow-gap limit and steady-state base flow. Magnetic field effect on local entropy generation due to steady two-dimensional laminar forced convection flow was investigated. This study was focused on the entropy generation characteristics and its dependency on various dimensionless parameters. The effects of the Hartmann number, the Brinkman number, and the Deborah number on the stability of the flow were investigated. The introduction of the magnetic field induces a resistive force acting in the opposite direction of the flow, thus causing its deceleration. Moreover, the study shows that the presence of magnetic field tends to slow down the fluid motion. It, however, increases the fluid temperature. Moreover, the total entropy generation number decreases as the Hartmann number and fluid elasticity increase and increases with increasing Brinkman number.

  10. Relativistic Processes and the Internal Structure of Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Castillo, D. E.; Kubis, S.

    2011-10-14

    Models for the internal composition of Dense Compact Stars are reviewed as well as macroscopic properties derived by observations of relativistic processes. Modeling of pure neutron matter Neutron Stars is presented and crust properties are studied by means of a two fluid model.

  11. Relativistic Magnetoacoustic Ion Cyclotron Instabilities Driven by MeV Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. R.; Chen, Y. Y.; Huang, J. D.; Huang, X. E.

    2002-11-01

    The relativistic instabilities of the magnetoacoustic ion cyclotron waves driven by MeV ions is studied and compared with the classical instabilities. The waves can be unstable classically as driven by the fast ions due to the coupling of electromagnetic Alfven mode and the ion Bernstein mode. [ R. O. Dendy, C. N. Lashmore-Davies, and K. F. Kam Phys.Fluids B4 (4) Dec (1992)]. Obtained from the kinetic theory, the relativistic dispersion relation that includes the instability driving terms of both classical and relativistic effects is studied analytically and numerically. The growth rate raised by the relativistic effects is significantly larger than that of the classical effects. There are three relativistic terms from the electrostatic component, electromagnetic field component, and their coupling, respectively. All have the same sign; that is, they enhance each other to drive the relativistic magnetoacoustic ion cyclotron instability.

  12. Tidal Dissipation in Rotating Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, G. I.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2004-07-01

    Many extrasolar planets orbit sufficiently close to their host stars that significant tidal interactions can be expected, resulting in an evolution of the spin and orbital properties of the planets. The accompanying dissipation of energy can also be an important source of heat, leading to the inflation of short-period planets and even mass loss through Roche lobe overflow. Tides may therefore play an important role in determining the observed distributions of mass, orbital period, and eccentricity of the extrasolar planets. In addition, tidal interactions between gaseous giant planets in the solar system and their moons are thought to be responsible for the orbital migration of the satellites, leading to their capture into resonant configurations. Traditionally, the efficiency of tidal dissipation is simply parameterized by a quality factor Q, which depends, in principle, in an unknown way on the frequency and amplitude of the tidal forcing. In this paper we treat the underlying fluid dynamical problem with the aim of determining the efficiency of tidal dissipation in gaseous giant planets such as Jupiter, Saturn, or the short-period extrasolar planets. Efficient convection enforces a nearly adiabatic stratification in these bodies, which may or may not contain solid cores. With some modifications, our approach can also be applied to low-mass stars with extended convective envelopes. In cases of interest, the tidal forcing frequencies are typically comparable to the spin frequency of the planet but are small compared to its dynamical frequency. We therefore study the linearized response of a slowly and possibly differentially rotating planet to low-frequency tidal forcing. Convective regions of the planet support inertial waves, which possess a dense or continuous frequency spectrum in the absence of viscosity, while any radiative regions support generalized Hough waves. We formulate the relevant equations for studying the excitation of these disturbances and

  13. Control of the Dissipation Dynamics of Nanomechanical Resonator in Viscous Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-24

    REPORT Control of the dissipation dynamics of nanomechanical resonator in viscous media 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This research aims...to quantify and control the dissipation dynamics of NEMS device in fluid and eventually recover the quality factor of NEMS device in fluid. Our...approach bases upon innovative modeling of micromechanical damping dynamics and exploitation of anti-damping in optomechanical resonators parametrically

  14. Dissipation in ferrofluids: mesoscopic versus hydrodynamic theory.

    PubMed

    Müller, H W; Engel, A

    1999-12-01

    Part of the field dependent dissipation in ferrofluids occurs due to the rotational motion of the ferromagnetic grains relative to the viscous flow of the carrier fluid. The classical theoretical description due to Shliomis (Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 2411 (1971) [Sov. Phy JETP 34, 1291 (1972)]) uses a mesoscopic treatment of the particle motion to derive a relaxation equation for the nonequilibrium part of the magnetization. Complementary, the hydrodynamic approach of Liu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3580 (1993)] involves only macroscopic quantities and results in dissipative Maxwell equations for the magnetic fields in the ferrofluid. Different stress tensors and constitutive equations lead to deviating theoretical predictions in those situations, where the magnetic relaxation processes cannot be considered instantaneous on the hydrodynamic time scale. We quantify these differences for two situations of experimental relevance, namely, a resting fluid in an oscillating oblique field and the damping of parametrically excited surface waves. The possibilities of an experimental differentiation between the two theoretical approaches is discussed.

  15. Dynamics of dissipative multifluid neutron star cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.; Andersson, N.; Comer, G. L.

    2012-09-01

    We present a Newtonian multifluid formalism for superfluid neutron star cores, focusing on the additional dissipative terms which arise when one takes into account the individual dynamical degrees of freedom associated with the coupled “fluids.” The problem is of direct astrophysical interest as the nature of the dissipative terms can have significant impact on the damping of the various oscillation modes of the star and the associated gravitational-wave signatures. A particularly interesting application concerns the gravitational-wave driven instability of f- and r-modes. We apply the developed formalism to two specific three-fluid systems: (i) a hyperon core in which both Λ and Σ- hyperons are present and (ii) a core of deconfined quarks in the color-flavor-locked phase in which a population of neutral K0 kaons is present. The formalism is, however, general and can be applied to other problems in neutron-star dynamics (such as the effect of thermal excitations close to the superfluid transition temperature) as well as laboratory multifluid systems.

  16. DYNAMICS OF STRONGLY TWISTED RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Parfrey, Kyle; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Hui, Lam

    2013-09-10

    Magnetar magnetospheres are believed to be strongly twisted due to shearing of the stellar crust by internal magnetic stresses. We present time-dependent axisymmetric simulations showing in detail the evolution of relativistic force-free magnetospheres subjected to slow twisting through large angles. When the twist amplitude is small, the magnetosphere moves quasi-statically through a sequence of equilibria of increasing free energy. At some twist amplitude the magnetosphere becomes tearing-mode unstable to forming a resistive current sheet, initiating large-scale magnetic reconnection in which a significant fraction of the magnetic free energy can be dissipated. This ''critical'' twist angle is insensitive to the resistive length scale. Rapid shearing temporarily stabilizes the magnetosphere beyond the critical angle, allowing the magnetosphere of a rapidly differentially rotating star to store and dissipate more free energy. In addition to these effects, shearing the surface of a rotating star increases the spindown torque applied to the star. If shearing is much slower than rotation, the resulting spikes in spindown rate can occur on timescales anywhere from the long twisting timescale to the stellar spin period or shorter, depending both on the stellar shear distribution and the existing distribution of magnetospheric twists. A model in which energy is stored in the magnetosphere and released by a magnetospheric instability therefore predicts large changes in the measured spindown rate before soft gamma repeater giant flares.

  17. Sub-photospheric Shocks in Relativistic Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines the mechanism of internal shocks in opaque relativistic outflows, in particular in cosmological gamma-ray bursts. The shocks produce neutrino emission and affect the observed photospheric radiation from the explosion. They develop from internal compressive waves and can be of different types depending on the composition of the outflow. (1) Shocks in “photon gas,” with negligible plasma inertia, have a unique structure determined by the force-free condition—zero radiation flux in the plasma rest frame. Radiation dominance over plasma inertia suppresses the formation of collisionless shocks mediated by collective electromagnetic fields. (2) If the outflow is sufficiently magnetized, a strong collisionless subshock develops, which is embedded in a thicker radiation-mediated structure. (3) Waves in outflows with a free neutron component lead to dissipation through nuclear collisions. At large optical depths, shocks have a thickness comparable to the neutron free path, with embedded radiation-mediated and collisionless subshocks. The paper also presents first-principles simulations of magnetized flows filled with photons, demonstrating the formation of shocks and their structure. Simple estimates show that magnetized sub-photospheric shocks are efficient producers of photons and have a great impact on the observed photospheric radiation. The shock structure changes as the outflow expands toward its photosphere. The dissipation is accompanied by strong {e}+/- pair creation, and the {e}+/- -dressed shock carries the photosphere with it up to two decades in radius, emitting a strong pulse of nonthermal radiation.

  18. Relativistic electrons in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simnett, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning relativistic electrons, above 0.3 MeV, in interplanetary space, as measured by detectors on board satellites operating beyond the influence of the magnetosphere. The electrons have a galactic component, which at the lower energies is subject both to solar modulation and to spasmodic 'quiet time' increases and a direct solar component correlated with flare activity. The recent measurements have established the form of the differential energy spectrum of solar flare electrons. Electrons have been detected from flares behind the visible solar disk. Relativistic electrons do not appear to leave the sun at the time of the flash phase of the flare, although there are several signatures of electron acceleration at this time. The delay is interpreted as taking place during the transport of the electrons through the lower corona.

  19. Relativistic Pseudospin Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ginocchio, Joseph N.

    2011-05-06

    We show that the pseudospin symmetry that Akito Arima discovered many years ago (with collaborators) is a symmetry of the the Dirac Hamiltonian for which the sum of the scalar and vector potentials are a constant. In this paper we discuss some of the implications of this relativistic symmetry and the experimental data that support these predictions. In his original paper Akito also discussed pseudo-U(3) symmetry. We show that pseudo-U(3) symmetry is a symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian for which the sum of harmonic oscillator vector and scalar potentials are equal to a constant, and we give the generators of pseudo-U(3) symmetry. Going beyond the mean field we summarize new results on non relativistic shell model Hamiltonians that have pseudospin symmetry and pseudo-orbital angular momentum symmetry as a dynamical symmetries.

  20. Quantifying Numerical Dissipation due to Filtering in Implicit LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadieux, Francois; Domaradzki, Julian Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Numerical dissipation plays an important role in LES and has given rise to the widespread use of implicit LES in the academic community. Recent results demonstrate that even with higher order codes, the use of stabilizing filters can act as a source of numerical dissipation strong enough to compare to an explicit subgrid-scale model (Cadieux et al., JFE 136-6). The amount of numerical dissipation added by such filtering operation in the simulation of a laminar separation bubble is quantified using a new method developed by Schranner et al., Computers & Fluids 114. It is then compared to a case where the filter is turned off, as well as the subgrid-scale dissipation that would be added by the σ model. The sensitivity of the method to the choice of subdomain location and size is explored. The effect of different derivative approximations and integration methods is also scrutinized. The method is shown to be robust and accurate for large subdomains. Results show that without filtering, numerical dissipation in the high order code is negligible, and that the filtering operation at the resolution considered adds substantial numerical dissipation in the same regions and at a similar rate as the σ subgrid-scale model would. NSF grant CBET-1233160.

  1. The joint dissipation rate for multiple scalars in differential diffusion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Prakash; Yeung, P. K.; Fox, R. O.

    1999-11-01

    We continue recent numerical studies of scalar dissipation fluctuations in turbulent mixing, with current emphasis on modeling and extension to differential diffusion for scalars with different molecular diffusivities. Data are taken from high-resolution direct numerical simulations for homogeneous scalar fields with uniform mean gradient. Amplification of scalar gradients by strain rate fluctuations in principal axes is of greatest interest, with a nearly universal time scale slightly less than 2 Kolmogorov time scales. Preferential alignment of scalar gradients with the most compressive strain rate conditioned upon the energy dissipation is observed in studies of both the dissipation rate of each scalar and their joint dissipation rate (which appears in the covariance equation). The gradient correlation between scalars with Schmidt numbers 1/8 to 1 is strongest in the most compressive strain direction. The Lagrangian PDF model for the joint dissipation (Fox 1999, Phys. Fluids 11, 1550) contains closures for each of the terms in the conditional joint dissipation rate balance equation. The DNS data are used to validate and improve the conditional closures, as well as to check for Reynolds and Schmidt number dependencies.

  2. Analytic solutions of the relativistic Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka; Martinez, Mauricio; Xiao, Bo-Wen

    2015-04-01

    We present new analytic solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation. We first obtain spherically expanding solutions which are the kinetic counterparts of the exact solutions of the Israel-Stewart equation in the literature. This allows us to compare the solutions of the kinetic and hydrodynamic equations at an analytical level. We then derive a novel boost-invariant solution of the Boltzmann equation which has an unconventional dependence on the proper time. The existence of such a solution is also suggested in second-order hydrodynamics and fluid-gravity correspondence.

  3. Relativistic statistical arbitrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander; Freer, Cameron

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in high-frequency financial trading have made light propagation delays between geographically separated exchanges relevant. Here we show that there exist optimal locations from which to coordinate the statistical arbitrage of pairs of spacelike separated securities, and calculate a representative map of such locations on Earth. Furthermore, trading local securities along chains of such intermediate locations results in a novel econophysical effect, in which the relativistic propagation of tradable information is effectively slowed or stopped by arbitrage.

  4. Relativistic statistical arbitrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.

    2010-11-01

    Recent advances in high-frequency financial trading have made light propagation delays between geographically separated exchanges relevant. Here we show that there exist optimal locations from which to coordinate the statistical arbitrage of pairs of spacelike separated securities, and calculate a representative map of such locations on Earth. Furthermore, trading local securities along chains of such intermediate locations results in a novel econophysical effect, in which the relativistic propagation of tradable information is effectively slowed or stopped by arbitrage.

  5. Local relativistic exact decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Daoling; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-01

    We present a systematic hierarchy of approximations for local exact decoupling of four-component quantum chemical Hamiltonians based on the Dirac equation. Our ansatz reaches beyond the trivial local approximation that is based on a unitary transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal part of the Hamiltonian. Systematically, off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix blocks can be subjected to a unitary transformation to yield relativistically corrected matrix elements. The full hierarchy is investigated with respect to the accuracy reached for the electronic energy and for selected molecular properties on a balanced test molecule set that comprises molecules with heavy elements in different bonding situations. Our atomic (local) assembly of the unitary exact-decoupling transformation—called local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU)—provides an excellent local approximation for any relativistic exact-decoupling approach. Its order-N2 scaling can be further reduced to linear scaling by employing a neighboring-atomic-blocks approximation. Therefore, DLU is an efficient relativistic method well suited for relativistic calculations on large molecules. If a large molecule contains many light atoms (typically hydrogen atoms), the computational costs can be further reduced by employing a well-defined nonrelativistic approximation for these light atoms without significant loss of accuracy. We also demonstrate that the standard and straightforward transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal entries in the Hamiltonian—denoted diagonal local approximation to the Hamiltonian (DLH) in this paper—introduces an error that is on the order of the error of second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (i.e., DKH2) when compared with exact-decoupling results. Hence, the local DLH approximation would be pointless in an exact-decoupling framework, but can be efficiently employed in combination with the fast to evaluate DKH2 Hamiltonian in order to speed up calculations

  6. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  7. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like) galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s-1 at peak), rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds) and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ˜ 2 - 5), created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  8. Relativistic gravity gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-12-01

    In general relativity, relativistic gravity gradiometry involves the measurement of the relativistic tidal matrix, which is theoretically obtained from the projection of the Riemann curvature tensor onto the orthonormal tetrad frame of an observer. The observer's 4-velocity vector defines its local temporal axis and its local spatial frame is defined by a set of three orthonormal nonrotating gyro directions. The general tidal matrix for the timelike geodesics of Kerr spacetime has been calculated by Marck [Proc. R. Soc. A 385, 431 (1983)]. We are interested in the measured components of the curvature tensor along the inclined "circular" geodesic orbit of a test mass about a slowly rotating astronomical object of mass M and angular momentum J . Therefore, we specialize Marck's results to such a "circular" orbit that is tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the Kerr source. To linear order in J , we recover the gravitomagnetic beating phenomenon [B. Mashhoon and D. S. Theiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1542 (1982)], where the beat frequency is the frequency of geodetic precession. The beat effect shows up as a special long-period gravitomagnetic part of the relativistic tidal matrix; moreover, the effect's short-term manifestations are contained in certain post-Newtonian secular terms. The physical interpretation of this effect is briefly discussed.

  9. A relativistic gravity train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Edward

    2017-08-01

    A nonrelativistic particle released from rest at the edge of a ball of uniform charge density or mass density oscillates with simple harmonic motion. We consider the relativistic generalizations of these situations where the particle can attain speeds arbitrarily close to the speed of light; generalizing the electrostatic and gravitational cases requires special and general relativity, respectively. We find exact closed-form relations between the position, proper time, and coordinate time in both cases, and find that they are no longer harmonic, with oscillation periods that depend on the amplitude. In the highly relativistic limit of both cases, the particle spends almost all of its proper time near the turning points, but almost all of the coordinate time moving through the bulk of the ball. Buchdahl's theorem imposes nontrivial constraints on the general-relativistic case, as a ball of given density can only attain a finite maximum radius before collapsing into a black hole. This article is intended to be pedagogical, and should be accessible to those who have taken an undergraduate course in general relativity.

  10. Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klink, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.

  11. General relativistic neutrino transport using spectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, Bruno; Penner, Andrew Jason; Novak, Jérôme; Bonazzola, Silvano

    2014-02-01

    We present a new code, Lorene's Ghost (for Lorene's gravitational handling of spectral transport) developed to treat the problem of neutrino transport in supernovae with the use of spectral methods. First, we derive the expression for the nonrelativistic Liouville operator in doubly spherical coordinates (r, θ, ϕ, ɛ, Θ, Φ), and further its general relativistic counterpart. We use the 3 + 1 formalism with the conformally flat approximation for the spatial metric, to express the Liouville operator in the Eulerian frame. Our formulation does not use any approximations when dealing with the angular arguments (θ, ϕ, Θ, Φ), and is fully energy-dependent. This approach is implemented in a spherical shell, using either Chebyshev polynomials or Fourier series as decomposition bases. It is here restricted to simplified collision terms (isoenergetic scattering) and to the case of a static fluid. We finish this paper by presenting test results using basic configurations, including general relativistic ones in the Schwarzschild metric, in order to demonstrate the convergence properties, the conservation of particle number and correct treatment of some general relativistic effects of our code. The use of spectral methods enables to run our test cases in a six-dimensional setting on a single processor.

  12. Entanglement Created by Dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    Alharbi, Abdullah F.; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2011-10-27

    A technique for entangling closely separated atoms by the process of dissipative spontaneous emission is presented. The system considered is composed of two non-identical two-level atoms separated at the quarter wavelength of a driven standing wave laser field. At this atomic distance, only one of the atoms can be addressed by the laser field. In addition, we arrange the atomic dipole moments to be oriented relative to the inter-atomic axis such that the dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms is zero at this specific distance. It is shown that an entanglement can be created between the atoms on demand by tuning the Rabi frequency of the driving field to the difference between the atomic transition frequencies. The amount of the entanglement created depends on the ratio between the damping rates of the atoms, but is independent of the frequency difference between the atoms. We also find that the transient buildup of an entanglement between the atoms may differ dramatically for different initial atomic conditions.

  13. Planar radial weakly dissipative diffeomorphisms.

    PubMed

    Simó, C; Vieiro, A

    2010-12-01

    We study the effect of a small dissipative radial perturbation acting on a one parameter family of area preserving diffeomorphisms. This is a specific type of dissipative perturbation. The interest is on the global effect of the dissipation on a fixed domain around an elliptic fixed/periodic point of the family, rather than on the effects around a single resonance. We describe the local/global bifurcations observed in the transition from the conservative to a weakly dissipative case: the location of the resonant islands, the changes in the domains of attraction of the foci inside these islands, how the resonances disappear, etc. The possible ω-limits are determined in each case. This topological description gives rise to three different dynamical regimes according to the size of dissipative perturbation. Moreover, we determine the conservative limit of the probability of capture in a generic resonance from the interpolating flow approximation, hence assuming no homoclinics in the resonance. As a paradigm of weakly dissipative radial maps, we use a dissipative version of the Hénon map. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Role of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the evolution of magnetized relativistic sheared plasma flows.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Nathaniel D; Newman, William I

    2013-04-01

    We explore, via analytical and numerical methods, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in relativistic magnetized plasmas, with applications to astrophysical jets. We solve the single-fluid relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations in conservative form using a scheme which is fourth order in space and time. To recover the primitive RMHD variables, we use a highly accurate, rapidly convergent algorithm which improves upon such schemes as the Newton-Raphson method. Although the exact RMHD equations are marginally stable, numerical discretization renders them unstable. We include numerical viscosity to restore numerical stability. In relativistic flows, diffusion can lead to a mathematical anomaly associated with frame transformations. However, in our KH studies, we remain in the rest frame of the system, and therefore do not encounter this anomaly. We use a two-dimensional slab geometry with periodic boundary conditions in both directions. The initial unperturbed velocity peaks along the central axis and vanishes asymptotically at the transverse boundaries. Remaining unperturbed quantities are uniform, with a flow-aligned unperturbed magnetic field. The early evolution in the nonlinear regime corresponds to the formation of counter-rotating vortices, connected by filaments, which persist in the absence of a magnetic field. A magnetic field inhibits the vortices through a series of stages, namely, field amplification, vortex disruption, turbulent breakdown, and an approach to a flow-aligned equilibrium configuration. Similar stages have been discussed in MHD literature. We examine how and to what extent these stages manifest in RMHD for a set of representative field strengths. To characterize field strength, we define a relativistic extension of the Alfvénic Mach number M(A). We observe close complementarity between flow and magnetic field behavior. Weaker fields exhibit more vortex rotation, magnetic reconnection, jet broadening, and intermediate turbulence

  15. Variational principle for theories with dissipation from analytic continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The analytic continuation from the Euclidean domain to real space of the one-particle irreducible quantum effective action is discussed in the context of generalized local equilibrium states. Discontinuous terms associated with dissipative behavior are parametrized in terms of a conveniently defined sign operator. A generalized variational principle is then formulated, which allows to obtain causal and real dissipative equations of motion from the analytically continued quantum effective action. Differential equations derived from the implications of general covariance determine the space-time evolution of the temperature and fluid velocity fields and allow for a discussion of entropy production including a local form of the second law of thermodynamics.

  16. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Hadden, Samuel

    2012-02-01

    We derive a number of solutions for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: A system of highly nonlinear, relativistic, time-dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.

  17. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Hadden, Samuel

    2012-02-01

    We derive a number of solutions for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: A system of highly nonlinear, relativistic, time-dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.

  18. Thermal dissipation in quantum turbulence.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michikazu; Tsubota, Makoto

    2006-10-06

    The microscopic mechanism of thermal dissipation in quantum turbulence is numerically studied by solving the coupled system involving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. At low temperatures, the obtained dissipation does not work at scales greater than the vortex core size. However, as the temperature increases, dissipation works at large scales and it affects the vortex dynamics. We successfully obtain the mutual friction coefficients of the vortex in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates dynamics as functions of temperature.

  19. Thermal Dissipation in Quantum Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Michikazu; Tsubota, Makoto

    2006-10-06

    The microscopic mechanism of thermal dissipation in quantum turbulence is numerically studied by solving the coupled system involving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. At low temperatures, the obtained dissipation does not work at scales greater than the vortex core size. However, as the temperature increases, dissipation works at large scales and it affects the vortex dynamics. We successfully obtain the mutual friction coefficients of the vortex in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates dynamics as functions of temperature.

  20. SCALING LAW OF RELATIVISTIC SWEET-PARKER-TYPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro; Masada, Youhei; Matsumoto, Jin

    2011-10-01

    Relativistic Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection is investigated by relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations. As an initial setting, we assume anti-parallel magnetic fields and a spatially uniform resistivity. A perturbation imposed on the magnetic fields triggers magnetic reconnection around a current sheet, and the plasma inflows into the reconnection region. The inflows are then heated due to ohmic dissipation in the diffusion region and finally become relativistically hot outflows. The outflows are not accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (i.e., Lorentz factor {approx_equal} 1), even when the magnetic energy dominates the thermal and rest mass energies in the inflow region. Most of the magnetic energy in the inflow region is converted into the thermal energy of the outflow during the reconnection process. The energy conversion from magnetic to thermal energy in the diffusion region results in an increase in the plasma inertia. This prevents the outflows from being accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds. We find that the reconnection rate R obeys the scaling relation R{approx_equal}S{sup -0.5}, where S is the Lundquist number. This feature is the same as that of non-relativistic reconnection. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Lyubarsky for Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection.

  1. The Magnitude of Viscous Dissipation in Strongly Stratified Two-dimensional Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Laura K.; Browning, Matthew K.

    2017-08-01

    Convection in astrophysical systems must be maintained against dissipation. Although the effects of dissipation are often assumed to be negligible, theory suggests that in strongly stratified convecting fluids, the dissipative heating rate can exceed the luminosity carried by convection. Here, we explore this possibility using a series of numerical simulations. We consider two-dimensional numerical models of hydrodynamic convection in a Cartesian layer under the anelastic approximation and demonstrate that the dissipative heating rate can indeed exceed the imposed luminosity. We establish a theoretical expression for the ratio of the dissipative heating rate to the luminosity emerging at the upper boundary, in terms only of the depth of the layer and the thermal scale height. In particular, we show that this ratio is independent of the diffusivities and confirm this with a series of numerical simulations. Our results suggest that dissipative heating may significantly alter the internal dynamics of stars and planets.

  2. f-Mode instability in relativistic neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Gaertig, E; Glampedakis, K; Kokkotas, K D; Zink, B

    2011-09-02

    We present the first calculation of the basic properties of the f-mode instability in rapidly rotating relativistic neutron stars, adopting the Cowling approximation. By accounting for dissipation in neutron star matter, i.e., shear or bulk viscosity and superfluid mutual friction, we calculate the associated instability window. For our specific stellar model, a relativistic polytrope, we obtain a minimum gravitational growth time scale (for the dominant ℓ=m=4 mode) of the order of 10(3)-10(4)  s near the Kepler frequency Ω(K) while the instability is active above ∼0.92  Ω(K) and for temperatures ∼(10(9)-2×10(10))  K, characteristic of newborn neutron stars.

  3. Conservation Laws with Dissipation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    their standard variants (Lagrangean or Euclidean formulation, solids or fluids, one or several space dimensions, etc.), lead to systems of...697-715. [9] GREENBERG , J.M., MACCAMY, R.C. and V.J. MIZEL, On the existence, uniqueness and stability of solutions of the equation a’(ux)Uxx + Xuxtx...P0 utt. J. Math. Mech. 17(1968), 707-728. [10] GREENBERG , J.M., On the existence, uniqueness and stability of solutions of the equation P0Xtt = E

  4. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  5. Dissipative Forces and Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eck, John S.; Thompson, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Shows how to include the dissipative forces of classical mechanics in quantum mechanics by the use of non-Hermetian Hamiltonians. The Ehrenfest theorem for such Hamiltonians is derived, and simple examples which show the classical correspondences are given. (MLH)

  6. Dissipative Forces and Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eck, John S.; Thompson, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Shows how to include the dissipative forces of classical mechanics in quantum mechanics by the use of non-Hermetian Hamiltonians. The Ehrenfest theorem for such Hamiltonians is derived, and simple examples which show the classical correspondences are given. (MLH)

  7. Dissipation, interaction, and relative entropy.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, B; Granger, L; Moreau, M; Schulman, L S

    2014-03-01

    Many thermodynamic relations involve inequalities, with equality if a process does not involve dissipation. In this article we provide equalities in which the dissipative contribution is shown to involve the relative entropy (also called the Kullback-Leibler divergence). The processes considered are general time evolutions in both classical and quantum mechanics, and the initial state is sometimes thermal, sometimes partially so. As an application, the relative entropy is related to transport coefficients.

  8. Stress tensor and bulk viscosity in relativistic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, Rainer J.; Mueller, Berndt; Schaefer, Andreas

    2008-09-15

    We discuss the influence of different initial conditions for the stress tensor and the effect of bulk viscosity on the expansion and cooling of the fireball created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In particular, we explore the evolution of longitudinal and transverse components of the pressure and the extent of dissipative entropy production in the one-dimensional, boost-invariant hydrodynamic model. We find that a bulk viscosity consistent with recent estimates from lattice QCD further slows the equilibration of the system; however, it does not significantly increase the entropy produced.

  9. Power dissipation in automotive suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm C.; Swift, Stuart J.

    2011-02-01

    For a standard quarter-car vehicle model and a road disturbance whose velocity profile is white noise, it is shown that the power dissipated in the suspension is proportional to the tyre vertical stiffness and the noise intensity, but is independent of all masses and suspension parameters. The dependence of this result on the modelling assumptions is explored. It is shown that the road disturbance model is ill-posed for the computation of power dissipation in the tyre and a modification is suggested. Computational results then indicate that the total power dissipation is still very insensitive to variations in vehicle and suspension parameters, but not tyre parameters, even though the suspension power dissipation and the tyre power dissipation vary individually. The extension of the result to half-car vehicle models is also considered. For both the pitch-plane and roll-plane models, it is found from numerical examples that the broad conclusion of large dependence of the total power dissipation on tyre parameters and small dependence on all other parameters remains. A brief discussion is included on the contribution to power loss due to rolling resistance.

  10. Relativistic Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosler, Dominic

    In this Ph.D. thesis, I investigate the communication abilities of non-inertial observers and the precision to which they can measure parametrized states. I introduce relativistic quantum field theory with field quantisation, and the definition and transformations of mode functions in Minkowski, Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces. I introduce information theory by discussing the nature of information, defining the entropic information measures, and highlighting the differences between classical and quantum information. I review the field of relativistic quantum information. We investigate the communication abilities of an inertial observer to a relativistic observer hovering above a Schwarzschild black hole, using the Rindler approximation. We compare both classical communication and quantum entanglement generation of the state merging protocol, for both the single and dual rail encodings. We find that while classical communication remains finite right up to the horizon, the quantum entanglement generation tends to zero. We investigate the observers' abilities to precisely measure the parameter of a state that is communicated between Alice and Rob. This parameter was encoded to either the amplitudes of a single excitation state or the phase of a NOON state. With NOON states the dual rail encoding provided greater precision, which is different to the results for the other situations. The precision was maximum for a particular number of excitations in the NOON state. We calculated the bipartite communication for Alice-Rob and Alice-AntiRob beyond the single mode approximation. Rob and AntiRob are causally disconnected counter-accelerating observers. We found that Alice must choose in advance with whom, Rob or AntiRob she wants to create entanglement using a particular setup. She could communicate classically to both.

  11. Cosmological Model with Dark Matter in a Dissipative Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshkin, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    A cosmological model is considered, in which two ideal fluids interact: dark energy and dark matter, in a homogeneous and isotropic flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Universe with scattering. Scattering in this Universe is investigated in two ways: in terms of bulk viscosity and with the help of the entropic model. The interaction between dark energy and dark matter is described in terms of parameters of the equation of state for dark energy, which take account of dissipative properties of the Universe. In the example of the model of the Universe with a singularity known as the Little Rip, application of a formalism describing dissipative properties is demonstrated. An analytical representation of this model in terms of thermodynamic parameters of the equation of state for dark energy, taking dissipation into account, is obtained. In the expression for the coefficient of bulk viscosity, corrections are taken into account which are due to the interaction between dark energy and dark matter.

  12. Response of driven sessile drops with contact-line dissipation.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Joshua B; Steen, Paul H

    2016-11-04

    A partially-wetting sessile drop is driven by a sinusoidal pressure field that produces capillary waves on the liquid/gas interface. Response diagrams and phase shifts for the droplet, whose contact-line moves with contact-angle that is a smooth function of the contact line speed, are reported. Contact-line dissipation originating from the contact-line speed condition leads to damping for drops with finite contact-line mobility, even for inviscid fluids. The critical mobility and associated driving frequency to generate the largest contact-line dissipation is computed. Viscous dissipation is approximated using the irrotational flow and the critical Ohnesorge number bounding regions beyond which a given mode becomes over-damped is computed. Regions of modal coexistence where two modes can be simultaneously excited by a single forcing frequency are identified. Predictions compare favorably to related experiments on vibrated drops.

  13. Energy dissipation in oscillating flow through straight and coiled pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1996-10-01

    The energy dissipation is reported for oscillating flow in U-shaped pipes with 180{degree}, 540{degree}, and 900{degree} curves at the base of the U. Analysis permits separation of the dissipation in the straight and curved portions of the pipe. Using water, water/glycerine mixtures, liquid nitrogen, and helium gas, the dissipation was measured for fluid flow regimes (Reynolds number, quality factor, and pipe curvature) which have not previously been reported. Measured loss in the straight portion is compared to numerical solutions using a turbulent quasisteady representation of the wall shear stress. Measured loss in the curved portion is compared to simple theory. The results are applicable to thermoacoustic devices. {copyright} {ital 1996 Acoustical Society of America.}

  14. Dispersive and dissipative nonlinear structures in degenerate Fermi-Dirac Pauli quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Biswajit; Sinha, Anjana; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2016-09-01

    We study the interplay between dispersion due to the electron degeneracy parameter and dissipation caused by plasma resistivity, in degenerate Fermi-Dirac Pauli quantum plasma. Considering relativistic degeneracy pressure for electrons, we investigate both arbitrary and small amplitude nonlinear structures. The corresponding trajectories are also plotted in the phase plane. The linear analysis for the dispersion relation yields interesting features. The present work is anticipated to be of physical relevance in the study of compact magnetized astrophysical objects like white dwarfs.

  15. Newtonian and relativistic cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

    2012-03-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is well known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the same equations as arise in relativistic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robinson-Walker cosmology, and it also is known that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies continues to hold in linearized perturbation theory in the marginally bound/spatially flat case. Nevertheless, it is far from obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. We investigate this issue in the light of a perturbative framework that we have recently developed [S. R. Green and R. M. Wald, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 83, 084020 (2011).10.1103/PhysRevD.83.084020], which allows for such nonlinearity at small scales. We propose a relatively straightforward dictionary—which is exact at the linearized level—that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into general relativistic dust cosmologies, and we use our “ordering scheme” to determine the degree to which the resulting metric and matter distribution solve Einstein’s equation. We find that, within our ordering scheme, Einstein’s equation fails to hold at “order 1” at small scales and at “order ɛ” at large scales. We then find the additional corrections to the metric and matter distribution needed to satisfy Einstein’s equation to these orders. While these corrections are of some interest in their own right, our main purpose in calculating them is that their smallness should provide a criterion for the validity of the original dictionary (as well as simplified versions of this dictionary). We expect that, in realistic Newtonian cosmologies, these additional corrections will be very small; if so, this should provide strong justification for the use of Newtonian simulations

  16. The relativist stance.

    PubMed

    Rössler, O E; Matsuno, K

    1998-04-01

    The two mindsets of absolutism and relativism are juxtaposed, and the relational or relativist stance is vindicated. The only 'absolute' entity which undeniably exists, consciousness has the reality of a dream. The escape hatch from this prison is relational, as Descartes and Levinas found out: Unfalsified relational consistency implies exteriority. Exteriority implies infinite power which in turn makes compassion inevitable. Aside from ethics as a royal way to enlightenment, a new technology called 'deep technology' may be accessible. It changes the whole world in a demonstrable fashion by manipulation of the micro frame--that is, the observer-world interface.

  17. Relativistic quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, R. B.; Ralph, T. C.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past few years, a new field of high research intensity has emerged that blends together concepts from gravitational physics and quantum computing. Known as relativistic quantum information, or RQI, the field aims to understand the relationship between special and general relativity and quantum information. Since the original discoveries of Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect, it has been known that incorporating the concepts of quantum theory into relativistic settings can produce new and surprising effects. However it is only in recent years that it has become appreciated that the basic concepts involved in quantum information science undergo significant revision in relativistic settings, and that new phenomena arise when quantum entanglement is combined with relativity. A number of examples illustrate that point. Quantum teleportation fidelity is affected between observers in uniform relative acceleration. Entanglement is an observer-dependent property that is degraded from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Entanglement can also be extracted from the vacuum of relativistic quantum field theories, and used to distinguish peculiar motion from cosmological expansion. The new quantum information-theoretic framework of quantum channels in terms of completely positive maps and operator algebras now provides powerful tools for studying matters of causality and information flow in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. This focus issue provides a sample of the state of the art in research in RQI. Some of the articles in this issue review the subject while others provide interesting new results that will stimulate further research. What makes the subject all the more exciting is that it is beginning to enter the stage at which actual experiments can be contemplated, and some of the articles appearing in this issue discuss some of these exciting new developments. The subject of RQI pulls together concepts and ideas from

  18. Republication of: Relativistic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, H. P.

    2012-08-01

    This is a reprinting of the paper by Howard Percy Robertson, first published in 1933 in Rev. Mod. Phys., that is a very authoritative summary of relativistic cosmology at the stage at which it was up to 1933. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by George Ellis, and by Robertson's biography, compiled by Andrzej Krasinski from printed sources.

  19. Relativistic quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, Jedrzej

    Special relativity states that information cannot travel faster than the speed of light, which means that communication between agents occupying distinct locations incurs some minimal delay. Alternatively, we can see it as temporary communication constraints between distinct agents and such constraints turn out to be useful for cryptographic purposes. In relativistic cryptography we consider protocols in which interactions occur at distinct locations at well-defined times and we investigate why such a setting allows to implement primitives which would not be possible otherwise. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. Ultrabaric relativistic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, G.; Weiss, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ultrabaric superfluid solutions are obtained for Einstein's equations to examine the possibility of the existence of superluminal sound speeds. The discussion is restricted only by requiring the energy-momentum tensor and the equation of state of matter to be represented by full relativistic equations. Only a few universes are known to satisfy the conditions, and those exhibit tension and are inflationary. Superluminal sound velocities are shown, therefore, to be possible for the interior Schwarzchild metric, which has been used to explain the red shift of quasars, and the Stephiani solution (1967). The latter indicates repeated transitions between superluminal and subliminal sound velocities in the hyperbaric superfluid of the early universe.

  1. Dissipative axial inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notari, Alessio; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2016-12-01

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term phi/fγ F ~F, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρR, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff fγ, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if fγ is smaller than the field excursion phi0 by about a factor of at least Script O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4-5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with fγ. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρR rather than dot phi2/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/fγ to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/fG to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed phi0~ fG.

  2. Anelastic tidal dissipation in multi-layer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remus, F.; Mathis, S.; Zahn, J.-P.; Lainey, V.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Earth-like planets have viscoelastic mantles, whereas giant planets may have viscoelastic cores. The tidal dissipation of these solid regions, which are gravitationally perturbed by a companion body, strongly depends on their rheology and the tidal frequency. Therefore, modeling tidal interactions provides constraints on planets' properties and helps us to understand their history and evolution, in either our solar system or exoplanetary systems. Aims: We examine the equilibrium tide in the anelastic parts of a planet for every rheology, and by taking into account the presence of a fluid envelope of constant density. We show how to obtain the different Love numbers describing its tidal deformation, and discuss how the tidal dissipation in the solid parts depends on the planet's internal structure and rheology. Finally, we show how our results may be implemented to describe the dynamical evolution of planetary systems. Methods: We expand in Fourier series the tidal potential exerted by a point mass companion, and express the dynamical equations in the orbital reference frame. The results are cast in the form of a complex disturbing function, which may be implemented directly in the equations governing the dynamical evolution of the system. Results: The first manifestation of the tide is to distort the shape of the planet adiabatically along the line of centers. The response potential of the body to the tidal potential then defines the complex Love numbers, whose real part corresponds to the purely adiabatic elastic deformation and the imaginary part accounts for dissipation. The tidal kinetic energy is dissipated into heat by means of anelastic friction, which is modeled here by the imaginary part of the complex shear modulus. This dissipation is responsible for the imaginary part of the disturbing function, which is implemented in the dynamical evolution equations, from which we derive the characteristic evolution times. Conclusions: The rate at which the

  3. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  4. A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Andreas F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…

  5. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  6. A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Andreas F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…

  7. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauser, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  8. Modeling nanoscale hydrodynamics by smoothed dissipative particle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Huan; Mundy, Christopher J.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Voulgarakis, Nikolaos

    2015-05-21

    Thermal fluctuation and hydrophobicity are two hallmarks of fluid hydrodynamics on the nano-scale. It is a challenge to consistently couple the small length and time scale phenomena associated with molecular interaction with larger scale phenomena. The development of this consistency is the essence of mesoscale science. In this study, we develop a nanoscale fluid model based on smoothed dissipative particle dynamics that accounts for the phenomena of associated with density fluctuations and hydrophobicity. We show consistency in the fluctuation spectrum across scales. In doing so, it is necessary to account for finite fluid particle size. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the present model can capture of the void probability and solvation free energy of apolar particles of different sizes. The present fluid model is well suited for a understanding emergent phenomena in nano-scale fluid systems.

  9. Hydrodynamic waves in an anomalous charged fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali; Hejazi, Kasra; Rezaei, Zahra

    2016-11-01

    We study the collective excitations in a relativistic fluid with an anomalous U (1) current. In 3 + 1 dimensions at zero chemical potential, in addition to ordinary sound modes we find two propagating modes in presence of an external magnetic field. The first one which is a transverse degenerate mode, propagates with a velocity proportional to the coefficient of gravitational anomaly; this is in fact the Chiral Alfvén wave recently found in [1]. Another one is a wave of density perturbation, namely a chiral magnetic wave (CMW). The velocity dependence of CMW on the chiral anomaly coefficient is well known. We compute the dependence of CMW's velocity on the coefficient of gravitational anomaly as well. We also show that the dissipation splits the degeneracy of CAW. At finite chiral charge density we show that in general there may exist five chiral hydrodynamic waves. Of these five waves, one is the CMW while the other four are mixed Modified Sound-Alfvén waves. It turns out that in propagation transverse to the magnetic field no anomaly effect appears while in parallel to the magnetic field we find sound waves become dispersive due to anomaly.

  10. Relativistic Continuum Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grineviciute, Janina; Halderson, Dean

    2011-04-01

    The R-matrix formalism of Lane and Thomas has been extended to the relativistic case so that the many-coupled channels problem may be solved for systems in which binary breakup channels satisfy a relative Dirac equation. The formalism was previously applied to the relativistic impulse approximation RIA and now we applied it to Quantum Hadrodynamics QHD in the continuum Tamm-Dancoff approximation TDA with the classical meson fields replaced by one-meson exchange potentials. None of the published QHD parameters provide a decent fit to the 15 N + p elastic cross section. The deficiency is also evident in inability of the QHD parameters with the one meson exchange potentials to reproduce the QHD single particle energies. Results with alternate parameters sets are presented. A. M. Lane and R. G. Thomas, R-Matrix Theory of Nuclear Reactions, Reviews of Modern Physics, 30 (1958) 257

  11. Robust relativistic bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.

  12. Relativistic harmonic oscillator revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, Itzhak

    2009-02-15

    The familiar Fock space commonly used to describe the relativistic harmonic oscillator, for example, as part of string theory, is insufficient to describe all the states of the relativistic oscillator. We find that there are three different vacua leading to three disconnected Fock sectors, all constructed with the same creation-annihilation operators. These have different spacetime geometric properties as well as different algebraic symmetry properties or different quantum numbers. Two of these Fock spaces include negative norm ghosts (as in string theory), while the third one is completely free of ghosts. We discuss a gauge symmetry in a worldline theory approach that supplies appropriate constraints to remove all the ghosts from all Fock sectors of the single oscillator. The resulting ghost-free quantum spectrum in d+1 dimensions is then classified in unitary representations of the Lorentz group SO(d,1). Moreover, all states of the single oscillator put together make up a single infinite dimensional unitary representation of a hidden global symmetry SU(d,1), whose Casimir eigenvalues are computed. Possible applications of these new results in string theory and other areas of physics and mathematics are briefly mentioned.

  13. Tidal Dissipation in Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong

    Observations of exoplanetary systems containing hot Jupiters have provided strong hints that tidal dissipation plays an important role in shaping the property, formation and evolution of these systems. However, most previous studies and discussions of tidal effects in hot Jupiter systems have relied on parameterized equilibrium ("weak friction") tidal theory, which does not capture the underlying physics of tidal dissipation. We propose a multifaceted theoretical/computational program devoted to understanding the physics of tidal dissipation in hot Jupiter systems, including tides in the planets and in the host stars. For the planets, we will study dynamical tides in the liquid envelope, taking account of the rotational effect, periodic thermal forcing, and the possible role of composition gradient. We will also explore viscoelastic dissipation in the solid core which may exist inside the planet. We will apply the results of our tidal dissipation calculations to the high-eccentricity migration mechanism for the formation of hot Jupiters and examine how tidal dissipation may contribute to the observed planetary radius inflation. For the host stars, we will study dynamical stellar tides raised by planets on eccentric and inclined orbits. We will consider stars of various masses (with and without surface convection zones) and examine how tidal dissipations affect the spin- orbit misalignment angles and planetary orbital decay. The overall goal of our proposed research projects is to significantly increase our understanding of how tidal interactions between stars and planets shape the observed properties of exoplanetary systems. This proposal is relevant to NASA's existing and planned space missions (e.g., HST, SOFIA, Herschel, Kepler, TESS and JWST) to understand the origins of stars and planets. It directly addresses NASA's research objectives of understanding the phenomena and processes associated with planetary system formation and evolution and of measuring the

  14. Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Aquino, D.; Rinaldi, C.

    2015-11-01

    The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given.

  15. Polarizable protein model for Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Emanuel; Lykov, Kirill; Pivkin, Igor

    2015-11-01

    In this talk, we present a novel polarizable protein model for the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation technique, a coarse-grained particle-based method widely used in modeling of fluid systems at the mesoscale. We employ long-range electrostatics and Drude oscillators in combination with a newly developed polarizable water model. The protein in our model is resembled by a polarizable backbone and a simplified representation of the sidechains. We define the model parameters using the experimental structures of 2 proteins: TrpZip2 and TrpCage. We validate the model on folding of five other proteins and demonstrate that it successfully predicts folding of these proteins into their native conformations. As a perspective of this model, we will give a short outlook on simulations of protein aggregation in the bulk and near a model membrane, a relevant process in several Amyloid diseases, e.g. Alzheimer's and Diabetes II.

  16. Perfect fluidity of a dissipative system: Analytical solution for the Boltzmann equation in AdS2 Ⓧ S2

    DOE PAGES

    Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2015-12-30

    In this paper we obtain an analytical solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation under the relaxation time approximation that describes the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a radially expanding massless gas. This solution is found by mapping this expanding system in flat spacetime to a static flow in the curved spacetime AdS2 Ⓧ S2. We further derive explicit analytic expressions for the momentum dependence of the single-particle distribution function as well as for the spatial dependence of its moments. We find that this dissipative system has the ability to flow as a perfect fluid even though its entropy density does not matchmore » the equilibrium form. The nonequilibrium contribution to the entropy density is shown to be due to higher-order scalar moments (which possess no hydrodynamical interpretation) of the Boltzmann equation that can remain out of equilibrium but do not couple to the energy-momentum tensor of the system. Furthermore, in this system the slowly moving hydrodynamic degrees of freedom can exhibit true perfect fluidity while being totally decoupled from the fast moving, nonhydrodynamical microscopic degrees of freedom that lead to entropy production.« less

  17. Precipitation of Relativistic Electrons by Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    We use the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave fields produced in a two dimensional hybrid code simulation (full dynamics particle ions, but inertialess fluid electrons) in dipole geometry in order to investigate the effect of magnetospheric EMIC waves on relativistic electrons. The plane of the simulation includes variation in the L shell direction and along magnetic field lines. Relativistic test particle electrons are inserted into the simulation when the wave fields are near their maximum amplitude. These electrons can be scattered into the loss cone so that they precipitate into the ionosphere. We find the effective pitch angle diffusion coefficient and probability of precipitation using these test particles. The pitch angle diffusion coefficients are largest for relativistic energies greater than 2 MeV, though they may be substantial for lower energies. The probability of precipitation is highest for low energy particles at small initial equatorial pitch angle. For high initial equatorial pitch angles, the probability of precipitation increases greatly with respect to particle energy. Starting from an isotropic pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons with a Gaussian spread in the relativistic momentum, we find only a small drop in the probability of precipitation during 13 s time as the particle energy decreases. But that result depends on the initial pitch angle distribution. Starting with a distribution of particles steeply peaked at 90° initial equatorial pitch angle, the probability of precipitation would be greater for high-energy particles. We will discuss the mechanism of pitch angle scattering.

  18. Modelling thrombosis using dissipative particle dynamics method

    PubMed Central

    Filipovic, N; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A

    2008-01-01

    Aim. Arterial occlusion is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. The main mechanism causing vessel occlusion is thrombus formation, which may be initiated by the activation of platelets. The focus of this study is on the mechanical aspects of platelet-mediated thrombosis which includes the motion, collision, adhesion and aggregation of activated platelets in the blood. A review of the existing continuum-based models is given. A mechanical model of platelet accumulation onto the vessel wall is developed using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method in which the blood (i.e. colloidal-composed medium) is treated as a group of mesoscale particles interacting through conservative, dissipative, attractive and random forces. Methods. Colloidal fluid components (plasma and platelets) are discretized by mesoscopic (micrometre-size) particles that move according to Newton's law. The size of each mesoscopic particle is small enough to allow tracking of each constituent of the colloidal fluid, but significantly larger than the size of atoms such that, in contrast to the molecular dynamics approach, detailed atomic level analysis is not required. Results. To test this model, we simulated the deposition of platelets onto the wall of an expanded tube and compared our computed results with the experimental data of Karino et al. (Miscrovasc. Res. 17, 238–269, 1977). By matching our simulations to the experimental results, the platelet aggregation/adhesion binding force (characterized by an effective spring constant) was determined and found to be within a physiologically reasonable range. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the DPD method offers a promising new approach to the modelling of platelet-mediated thrombosis. The DPD model includes interaction forces between platelets both when they are in the resting state (non-activated) and when they are activated, and therefore it can be extended to the analysis of kinetics of binding and other phenomena relevant to

  19. A NEW NUMERICAL SCHEME FOR RESISTIVE RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS USING METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Takamoto, Makoto; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2011-07-10

    We present a new numerical method of special relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamics with scalar resistivity that can treat a range of phenomena, from non-relativistic to relativistic (shock, contact discontinuity, and Alfven wave). The present scheme calculates the numerical flux of fluid by using an approximate Riemann solver and electromagnetic field by using the method of characteristics. Since this scheme uses appropriate characteristic velocities, it is capable of accurately solving problems that cannot be approximated as ideal magnetohydrodynamics and whose characteristic velocity is much lower than the velocity of light. The numerical results show that our scheme can solve the above problems as well as nearly ideal MHD problems. Our new scheme is particularly well suited to systems with initially weak magnetic field and mixed phenomena of relativistic and non-relativistic velocity, for example magnetorotational instability in an accretion disk and super Alfvenic turbulence.

  20. Dissipative structures and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Langhorst, Benjamin R; Chu, Henry S

    2013-11-05

    Dissipative structures include at least one panel and a cell structure disposed adjacent to the at least one panel having interconnected cells. A deformable material, which may comprise at least one hydrogel, is disposed within at least one interconnected cell proximate to the at least one panel. Dissipative structures may also include a cell structure having interconnected cells formed by wall elements. The wall elements may include a mesh formed by overlapping fibers having apertures formed therebetween. The apertures may form passageways between the interconnected cells. Methods of dissipating a force include disposing at least one hydrogel in a cell structure proximate to at least one panel, applying a force to the at least one panel, and forcing at least a portion of the at least one hydrogel through apertures formed in the cell structure.

  1. DISSIPATIVE DIVERGENCE OF RESONANT ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean-motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g., 2:1, 3:2, and 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here, we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.

  2. Model of dissipative dielectric elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang Foo, Choon; Cai, Shengqiang; Jin Adrian Koh, Soo; Bauer, Siegfried; Suo, Zhigang

    2012-02-01

    The dynamic performance of dielectric elastomer transducers and their capability of electromechanical energy conversion are affected by dissipative processes, such as viscoelasticity, dielectric relaxation, and current leakage. This paper describes a method to construct a model of dissipative dielectric elastomers on the basis of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We characterize the state of the dielectric elastomer with kinematic variables through which external loads do work, and internal variables that measure the progress of the dissipative processes. The method is illustrated with examples motivated by existing experiments of polyacrylate very-high-bond dielectric elastomers. This model predicts the dynamic response of the dielectric elastomer and the leakage current behavior. We show that current leakage can be significant under large deformation and for long durations. Furthermore, current leakage can result in significant hysteresis for dielectric elastomers under cyclic voltage.

  3. Hydrodynamics of Relativistic Fireballs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piran, Tsvi; Shemi, Amotz; Narayan, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Many models of gamma-ray bursts involve a fireball, which is an optically thick concentration of radiation energy with a high ratio of energy density to rest mass. We examine analytically and numerically the evolution of a relativistic fireball. We show that, after an early rearrangement phase, most of the matter and energy in the fireball is concentrated within a narrow shell. The shell propagates at nearly the speed of light, with a frozen radial profile, and according to a simple set of scaling laws. The spectrum of the escaping radiation is harder at early times and softer later on. Depending on the initial energy-to-mass ratio, the final outcome of a fireball is either photons with roughly the initial temperature or ultrarelativistic baryons. In the latter case, the energy could be converted back to gamma-rays via interaction with surrounding material.

  4. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumberg, Victor A.

    2010-08-01

    Relativistic celestial mechanics (RCM) refers to a science to study the motion of celestial bodies within the framework of general relativity theory (GRT) by Einstein. Being a straightforward successor of Newtonian celestial mechanics RCM embraces all aspects of motion of celestial bodies including (1) physics of motion, i.e. investigation of the physical nature of all effects influencing the motion of celestial bodies and formulation of a physical model for a specific problem; (2) mathematics of motion, i.e. investigation of the mathematical characteristics of the solutions of the differential equations of motion of celestial bodies; (3) computation of motion, i.e. the actual determination of the quantitative characteristics of motion; (4) astronomy of motion, i.e. application of mathematical solution of a problem to a specific celestial body, comparison with the results of observations, determination of initial values and parameters of motion, and checking the physical and mathematical models employed for a given problem.

  5. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1985-06-01

    This paper constructs a relativistic theory of gravitation based on the special principle of relativity and the principle of geometrization. The gravitational field is regarded as a physical field in the spirit of Faraday and Maxwell, possessing energy, momentum, and spin 2 and 0. The source of the gravitational field is the total conserved energy momentum tensor of the matter and the gravitational field in Minkowski space. Conservation laws hold rigorously for the energy, momentum, and angular momentum of the matter and the gravitational field. The theory explains all the existing gravitational experiments. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemann space has a field origin in the theory, arising as an effective force space through the action of the gravitational field on the matter.

  6. Photodetachment of relativistic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, J.B.; Gram, P.A.M.; Hamm, M.E.; Hamm, R.W.; Bryant, H.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Clark, D.A.; Frost, C.A.; Smith, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    A series of fundamental laser ion beam experiments has been made feasible by the high-quality, relativistic (..beta.. = 0.842) H/sup -/ ion beam available at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The relatavistic Doppler shift of the light from an ordinary ultraviolet laser provides what is, in effect, a continuously tunable vacuum-ultraviolet laser in the rest frame of the moving ions. The Lorentz transformation of a modest laboratory magnetic field provides an electric field of several megavolts/centimeter. The latest results of photo-detachment work with H/sup -/ beams and our spectroscopic work with H/sup 0/ beams are presented. Plans for future work are discussed.

  7. Processes in relativistic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of a Boltzmann distribution in particle kinetic energies is investigated for a plasma with theta = KTe/mc-squared much greater than unity, where m is the electron mass. It is shown that thermalization of the electron gas by binary collisions is not sufficiently effective to maintain the equilibrium distribution when other processes that perturb the equilibrium are taken into account. Electron-positron pair production in electron-electron and electron-ion collisions, and perturbations of a Boltzmann distribution by nonthermal processes are evaluated. Thermalization by means of other mechanisms, such as interaction with plasma waves is discussed, and the opacity of a relativistic plasma is computed for Compton scattering, pair production in the fields of electrons and ions, inverse bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron self-absorption.

  8. Relativistic Light Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David

    2017-06-01

    One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot, we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ˜10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.

  9. Quantum dissipative Rashba spin ratchets.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Sergey; Bercioux, Dario; Grifoni, Milena; Richter, Klaus

    2008-06-13

    We predict the possibility to generate a finite stationary spin current by applying an unbiased ac driving to a quasi-one-dimensional asymmetric periodic structure with Rashba spin-orbit interaction and strong dissipation. We show that under a finite coupling strength between the orbital degrees of freedom the electron dynamics at low temperatures exhibits a pure spin ratchet behavior, i.e., a finite spin current and the absence of charge transport in spatially asymmetric structures. It is also found that the equilibrium spin currents are not destroyed by the presence of strong dissipation.

  10. Dissipative heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmeier, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    This report is a compilation of lecture notes of a series of lectures held at Argonne National Laboratory in October and November 1984. The lectures are a discussion of dissipative phenomena as observed in collisions of atomic nuclei. The model is based on a system which has initially zero temperature and the initial energy is kinetic and binding energy. Collisions excite the nuclei, and outgoing fragments or the compound system deexcite before they are detected. Brownian motion is used to introduce the concept of dissipation. The master equation and the Fokker-Planck equation are derived. 73 refs., 59 figs. (WRF)

  11. Anelastic tidal dissipation in multi-layer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remus, F.; Mathis, S.; Zahn, J.-P.; Lainey, V.

    2012-09-01

    Earth-like planets have anelastic mantles, whereas giant planets may have anelastic cores. As for the fluid parts of a body, the tidal dissipation of such solid regions, gravitationally perturbed by a companion body, highly depends on its internal friction, and thus on its internal structure. Therefore, modelling this kind of interaction presents a high interest to provide constraints on planets interiors, whose properties are still quite uncertain. Here, we examine the equilibrium tide in the solid part of a planet, taking into account the presence of a fluid envelope. We derive the different Love numbers that describe its deformation and discuss the dependence of the quality factor Q on the chosen anelastic model and the size of the core. Taking plausible values for the anelastic parameters, and discussing the frequency-dependence of the solid dissipation, we show how this mechanism may compete with the dissipation in fluid layers, when applied to Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets. We also discuss the case of the icy giants Uranus and Neptune. Finally, we present the way to implement the results in the equations that describe the dynamical evolution of planetary systems.

  12. Some problems in relativistic thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Veitsman, E. V.

    2007-11-15

    The relativistic equations of state for ideal and real gases, as well as for various interface regions, have been derived. These dependences help to eliminate some controversies in the relativistic thermodynamics based on the special theory of relativity. It is shown, in particular, that the temperature of system whose velocity tends to the velocity of light in vacuum varies in accordance with the Ott law T = T{sub 0}/{radical}1 - v{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. Relativistic dependences for heat and mass transfer, for Ohm's law, and for a viscous flow of a liquid have also been derived.

  13. ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B.; Xu, X. J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-15

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  14. Dissipative-particle-dynamics model of biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Scheibe, Timothy D

    2011-06-01

    A dissipative-particle-dynamics model for the quantitative simulation of biofilm growth controlled by substrate (nutrient) consumption, advective and diffusive substrate transport, and hydrodynamic interactions with fluid flow (including fragmentation and reattachment) is described. The model was used to simulate biomass growth, decay, and spreading. It predicts how the biofilm morphology depends on flow conditions, biofilm growth kinetics, the rheomechanical properties of the biofilm, and adhesion to solid surfaces. The morphology of the model biofilm depends strongly on its rigidity and the magnitude of the body force that drives the fluid over the biofilm.

  15. Dissipative-particle-dynamics model of biofilm growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Scheibe, Timothy D.

    2011-06-01

    A dissipative-particle-dynamics model for the quantitative simulation of biofilm growth controlled by substrate (nutrient) consumption, advective and diffusive substrate transport, and hydrodynamic interactions with fluid flow (including fragmentation and reattachment) is described. The model was used to simulate biomass growth, decay, and spreading. It predicts how the biofilm morphology depends on flow conditions, biofilm growth kinetics, the rheomechanical properties of the biofilm, and adhesion to solid surfaces. The morphology of the model biofilm depends strongly on its rigidity and the magnitude of the body force that drives the fluid over the biofilm.

  16. A stochastic boundary forcing for dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2007-07-01

    The method of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an effective, coarse grained model of the hydrodynamics of complex fluids. DPD simulations of wall-bounded flows are however often associated with spurious fluctuations of the fluid properties near the wall. We present a novel stochastic boundary forcing for DPD simulations of wall-bounded flows, based on the identification of fluctuations in simulations of the corresponding homogeneous system at equilibrium. The present method is shown to enforce accurately the no-slip boundary condition, while minimizing spurious fluctuations of material properties, in a number of benchmark problems.

  17. Dissipative-particle-dynamics model of biofilm growth

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.

    2011-06-13

    A dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model for the quantitative simulation of biofilm growth controlled by substrate (nutrient) consumption, advective and diffusive substrate transport, and hydrodynamic interactions with fluid flow (including fragmentation and reattachment) is described. The model was used to simulate biomass growth, decay, and spreading. It predicts how the biofilm morphology depends on flow conditions, biofilm growth kinetics, the rheomechanical properties of the biofilm and adhesion to solid surfaces. The morphology of the model biofilm depends strongly on its rigidity and the magnitude of the body force that drives the fluid over the biofilm.

  18. Mixing of relativistic ideal gases with relative relativistic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Narvaez, R. E.; Ares de Parga, A. M.; Ares de Parga, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Redefined Relativistic Thermodynamics is tested by means of mixing two ideal gases at different temperatures and distinct velocities. The conservation of the 4-vector energy-momentum leads to a tremendous increment of the temperature. This phenomenon can be used in order to describe the heating of a cold clump with shocked jets material. A prediction for improving the ignition of a Tokamak is proposed. The compatibility of the Redefined Relativistic Thermodynamics with the Thermodynamical Field Theory is analyzed.

  19. Self-consistent conversion of a viscous fluid to particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Denes; Wolff, Zack

    2017-02-01

    Comparison of hydrodynamic and "hybrid" hydrodynamics+transport calculations with heavy-ion data inevitably requires the conversion of the fluid to particles. For dissipative fluids the conversion is ambiguous without additional theory input complementing hydrodynamics. We obtain self-consistent shear viscous phase-space corrections from linearized Boltzmann transport theory for a gas of hadrons. These corrections depend on the particle species, and incorporating them in Cooper-Frye freeze-out affects identified particle observables. For example, with additive quark model cross sections, proton elliptic flow is larger than pion elliptic flow at moderately high pT in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. This is in contrast to Cooper-Frye freeze-out with the commonly used "democratic Grad" ansatz that assumes no species dependence. Various analytic and numerical results are also presented for massless and massive two-component mixtures to better elucidate how species dependence arises. For convenient inclusion in pure hydrodynamic and hybrid calculations, Appendix G contains self-consistent viscous corrections for each species both in tabulated and parametrized form.

  20. Effects of relativistic electron temperature on parametric instabilities for intense laser propagation in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yao; Zheng, Jun; Chen, Min; Yu, Lu-Le; Weng, Su-Ming; Ren, Chuang; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Sheng, Zheng-Ming E-mail: zhengming.sheng@strath.ac.uk

    2014-11-15

    Effects of relativistic electron temperature on stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering instabilities for high intensity lasers propagating in underdense plasma are studied theoretically and numerically. The dispersion relations for these instabilities are derived from the relativistic fluid equation. For a wide range of laser intensity and electron temperature, it is found that the maximum growth rate and the instability region in k-space can be reduced at relativistic electron temperature. Particle-in-cell simulations are carried out, which confirm the theoretical analysis.

  1. Relativistic perturbations in ΛCDM: Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Eleonora; Rampf, Cornelius E-mail: cornelius.rampf@port.ac.uk

    2016-01-01

    We study the relativistic dynamics of a pressure-less and irrotational fluid of dark matter (CDM) with a cosmological constant (Λ), up to second order in cosmological perturbation theory. In our analysis we also account for vector and tensor perturbations and include primordial non-Gaussianity. We consider three gauges: the synchronous-comoving gauge, the Poisson gauge and the total matter gauge, where the first is the unique relativistic Lagrangian frame of reference, and the latters are convenient gauge choices for Eulerian frames. Our starting point is the metric and fluid variables in the Poisson gauge up to second order. We then perform the gauge transformations to the synchronous-comoving gauge and subsequently to the total matter gauge. Our expressions for the metrics, densities, velocities, and the gauge generators are novel and coincide with known results in the limit of a vanishing cosmological constant.

  2. On wave stability in relativistic cosmic-ray hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Wave stability of a two-fluid hydrodynamical model describing the acceleration of cosmic rays by the first-order Fermi mechanism in relativistic, cosmic-ray-modified shocks is investigated. For a uniform background state, the short- and long-wavelength wave speeds are shown to interlace, thus assuring wave stability in this case. A JWKB analysis is performed to investigate the stability of short-wavelength thermal gas sound waves in the smooth, decelerating supersonic flow upstream of a relativistic, cosmic-ray-modified shock. The stability of the waves is assessed both in terms of the fluid velocity and density perturbations, as well as in terms of the wave action. The stability and interaction of the short-wavelength cosmic-ray coherent mode with the background flow is also studied.

  3. Multifractal-cascade model for inertial and dissipation ranges based on the wavelet reconstruction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Long; Rauh, Cornelia; Delgado, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The discrete wavelet is introduced to construct the turbulent velocity fields. The simple binary cascade model p model is served as the inertial range model for velocity increments. The dissipation model, which follows Foias et al. [Phys. Fluids A 2, 464 (1990), 10.1063/1.857744] takes the form of exp(-g k ) . The length of inertial and dissipation ranges is computed according to the different construction levels. Based on the binary cascade theory and the proposed dissipation model, the Reynolds number regarding to the cascade process can be estimated. The dissipation rate calculated from the proposed model not only agrees with the existing experiment data, but also suggests that the dissipation rate is not an independent variable with respect to the Reynolds number.

  4. Evaluation of the turbulent kinetic dissipation rate in an agitated vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysela, Bohus; Konfrst, Jiri; Chara, Zdenek; Sulc, Radek; Jasikova, Darina

    The design of agitated tanks depends on operating conditions and processes for that are used for. An important parameter for the scale-up modelling is the dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy. The dissipation rate is commonly assumed to be a function of the impeller power input. But this approach gives no information about distribution of the dissipation rate inside the agitated volume. In this paper the distributions of the dissipation rate inside the agitated vessels are estimated by evaluations of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The results obtained from RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations) k-ɛ turbulent model and LES (Large Eddy Simulations) with Smagorinsky SGS (Sub Grid Scale) model are compared. The agitated vessels with standard geometry equipped with four baffles and stirred by either a standard Rushton turbine or a high shear impeller were investigated. The results are compared with mean dissipation rate estimated from the total impeller power input.

  5. The mechanics of relativistic space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirov, U. N.

    The relativistic mechanics of an artificial space body with a variable rest mass is presented in a systematic manner. In particular, attention is given to the principles of Lobachevskii geometry, Riemann geometry, and relativity; general Lorentz transformations and relativistic kinematics; the principal theorems of the relativistic mechanics of a space vehicle in spherically symmetric gravitational fields; and the relativistic motion of a space vehicle with jet propulsion. Possible applications of relativistic mechanics are examined.

  6. Dense plasma heating by crossing relativistic electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratan, N.; Sircombe, N. J.; Ceurvorst, L.; Sadler, J.; Kasim, M. F.; Holloway, J.; Levy, M. C.; Trines, R.; Bingham, R.; Norreys, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate, using relativistic fluid theory and Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, the local heating of a dense plasma by two crossing electron beams. Heating occurs as an instability of the electron beams drives Langmuir waves, which couple nonlinearly into damped ion-acoustic waves. Simulations show a factor 2.8 increase in electron kinetic energy with a coupling efficiency of 18%. Our results support applications to the production of warm dense matter and as a driver for inertial fusion plasmas.

  7. Dense plasma heating by crossing relativistic electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ratan, N; Sircombe, N J; Ceurvorst, L; Sadler, J; Kasim, M F; Holloway, J; Levy, M C; Trines, R; Bingham, R; Norreys, P A

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate, using relativistic fluid theory and Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, the local heating of a dense plasma by two crossing electron beams. Heating occurs as an instability of the electron beams drives Langmuir waves, which couple nonlinearly into damped ion-acoustic waves. Simulations show a factor 2.8 increase in electron kinetic energy with a coupling efficiency of 18%. Our results support applications to the production of warm dense matter and as a driver for inertial fusion plasmas.

  8. Squirming propulsion in viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Corato, Marco; Greco, Francesco; Maffettone, Pier Luca

    2015-11-01

    The locomotion of organisms in Newtonian fluids at low-Reynolds numbers displays very different features from that at large Reynolds numbers; indeed, in this regime the viscous forces are dominant over the inertial ones and propulsion is possible only with non-time-reversible swimming strokes. In many situations of biological interest, however, small organisms are propelling themselves through non-Newtonian fluids such as mucus or biofilms, which display highly viscoelastic properties. Fluid viscoelasticity affects in a complex way both the micro-organisms' swimming velocity and dissipated power, possibly affecting their collective behavior. In our work, we employ the so called ``squirmer'' model to study the motion of spherical ciliated organisms in a viscoelastic fluid. We derive analytical formulas for the squirmer swimming velocity and dissipated power that show a complex interplay between the fluid constitutive behavior and the propulsion mechanism.

  9. Spacecraft detumbling through energy dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz-Coy, Norman; Chatterjee, Anindya

    1993-01-01

    The attitude motion of a tumbling, rigid, axisymmetric spacecraft is considered. A methodology for detumbling the spacecraft through energy dissipation is presented. The differential equations governing this motion are stiff, and therefore an approximate solution, based on the variation of constants method, is developed and utilized in the analysis of the detumbling strategy. Stability of the detumbling process is also addressed.

  10. Variational Derivation of Dissipative Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogo, Kiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    A new variational principle is formulated to derive various dissipative equations. Model equations considered are the damping equation, Bloch equation, diffusion equation, Fokker-Planck equation, Kramers equation and Smoluchowski equation. Each equation and its time reversal equation are simultaneously obtained in our variational principle.

  11. On Some Numerical Dissipation Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. C.; Radespiel, R.; Turkel, E.

    1998-01-01

    Several schemes for introducing an artificial dissipation into a central difference approximation to the Euler and Navier Stokes equations are considered. The focus of the paper is on the convective upwind and split pressure (CUSP) scheme, which is designed to support single interior point discrete shock waves. This scheme is analyzed and compared in detail with scalar dissipation and matrix dissipation (MATD) schemes. Resolution capability is determined by solving subsonic, transonic, and hypersonic flow problems. A finite-volume discretization and a multistage time-stepping scheme with multigrid are used to compute solutions to the flow equations. Numerical solutions are also compared with either theoretical solutions or experimental data. For transonic airfoil flows the best accuracy on coarse meshes for aerodynamic coefficients is obtained with a simple MATD scheme. The coarse-grid accuracy for the original CUSP scheme is improved by modifying the limiter function used with the scheme, giving comparable accuracy to that obtained with the MATD scheme. The modifications reduce the background dissipation and provide control over the regions where the scheme can become first order.

  12. Relativistic Electron Beams Above Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, Martin; Roussel-Dupre, Robert; Symbalisty, Eugene; Chanrion, Olivier; van der Velde, Oscar; Soula, Serge; Odzimek, Anna; Bennett, Alec; Whitley, Toby; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that lightning discharges generate upward-directed relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. This extends the phenomenon of relativistic runaway breakdown believed to occur inside thunderclouds to the atmosphere above thunderclouds. This marks a profound advance in our understanding of the atmosphere because we now know it acts as a giant, natural, particle accelerator. The accelerated electrons can reach significant relativistic energies of some MeV during their passage from the troposphere, through the middle atmosphere, into near-Earth space. These relativistic electron beams constitute a current above thunderclouds and effectively transfer energy from the troposphere to the middle atmosphere. This coupling process thereby forms a novel element of the global atmospheric electric circuit which links tropospheric thunderclouds to the atmosphere above. This contribution describes the radio remote sensing of upward electron beams to determine their occurrence frequency and to characterise their physical properites.

  13. Relativistic Transformation of Solid Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Rederives the relativistic transformations of light intensity from compact sources (stars) to show where and how the transformation of a solid angle contributes. Discusses astrophysical and other applications of the transformations. (Author/CS)

  14. Superposition as a Relativistic Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ord, G. N.

    2017-07-01

    By associating a binary signal with the relativistic worldline of a particle, a binary form of the phase of non-relativistic wavefunctions is naturally produced by time dilation. An analog of superposition also appears as a Lorentz filtering process, removing paths that are relativistically inequivalent. In a model that includes a stochastic component, the free-particle Schrödinger equation emerges from a completely relativistic context in which its origin and function is known. The result establishes the fact that the phase of wavefunctions in Schrödinger's equation and the attendant superposition principle may both be considered remnants of time dilation. This strongly argues that quantum mechanics has its origins in special relativity.

  15. Relativistic effects in atom gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2017-01-01

    Atom interferometry is currently developing rapidly, which is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. Thus, it is extremely significant to develop a general relativistic model for atom interferometers. In this paper, we mainly present an analytical derivation process and first give a complete vectorial expression for the relativistic interferometric phase shift in an atom interferometer. The dynamics of the interferometer are studied, where both the atoms and the light are treated relativistically. Then, an appropriate coordinate transformation for the light is performed crucially to simplify the calculation. In addition, the Bordé A B C D matrix combined with quantum mechanics and the "perturbation" approach are applied to make a methodical calculation for the total phase shift. Finally, we derive the relativistic phase shift kept up to a sensitivity of the acceleration ˜1 0-14 m/s 2 for a 10 -m -long atom interferometer.

  16. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  17. Polarization swings reveal magnetic energy dissipation in blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haocheng; Chen, Xuhui; Böttcher, Markus; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-05-01

    The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (≳ 180°) polarization angle swings are observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light-travel-time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic-field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

  18. POLARIZATION SWINGS REVEAL MAGNETIC ENERGY DISSIPATION IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haocheng; Böttcher, Markus; Chen, Xuhui; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-05-01

    The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (≳180°) polarization angle swings are sometimes observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light travel time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

  19. Polarization Swings Reveal Magnetic Energy Dissipation in Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Chen, Xuhui; Böttcher, Markus; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-05-01

    The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (≳180°) polarization angle swings are sometimes observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light travel time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

  20. Polarization swings reveal magnetic energy dissipation in blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Haocheng; Chen, Xuhui; Böttcher, Markus; ...

    2015-05-01

    The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (≳ 180°) polarization angle swings are observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light-travel-time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization informationmore » in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic-field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.« less

  1. A Lagrangian fluctuation-dissipation relation for scalar turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivas, Theodore; Eyink, Gregory

    2016-11-01

    An exact relation is derived between the dissipation of scalar fluctuations and the variance of the scalar inputs (due to initial scalar values, scalar sources, and boundary fluxes) as those are sampled by stochastic Lagrangian trajectories. Previous work on the Kraichnan (1968) model of turbulent scalar advection has shown that anomalous scalar dissipation, non-vanishing in the limit of vanishing viscosity and diffusivity, is in that model due to Lagrangian spontaneous stochasticity, or non-determinism of the Lagrangian particle trajectories in the limit. We here extend this result to scalars advected by any incompressible velocity field. For fluid flows in domains without walls (e.g. periodic boxes) and for insulating/impermeable walls with zero scalar fluxes, we prove that anomalous scalar dissipation and spontaneous stochasticity are completely equivalent. For flows with imposed scalar values or non-vanishing scalar fluxes at the walls, spontaneous stochasticity still implies anomalous scalar dissipation but simple examples show that a distinct mechanism of non-vanishing dissipation can be thin scalar boundary layers near the walls. As an example, we consider turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. We here obtain an exact relation between steady-state thermal dissipation and the time for diffusive tracer particles released at the top or bottom wall to mix to their final uniform value near those walls. We show that an "ultimate regime" of turbulent convection as predicted by Kraichnan (1962) will occur at high Rayleigh numbers, unless this near-wall mixing time is asymptotically much longer than the large-scale circulation time.

  2. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp

    2009-05-15

    We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}

  3. Finite Element Method for Capturing Ultra-relativistic Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, G. A.; Chung, T. J.

    2003-01-01

    While finite element methods are used extensively by researchers solving computational fluid dynamics in fields other than astrophysics, their use in astrophysical fluid simulations has been predominantly overlooked. Current simulations using other methods such as finite difference and finite volume (based on finite difference) have shown remarkable results, but these methods are limited by their fundamental properties in aspects that are important for simulations with complex geometries and widely varying spatial and temporal scale differences. We have explored the use of finite element methods for astrophysical fluids in order to establish the validity of using such methods in astrophysical environments. We present our numerical technique applied to solving ultra-relativistic (Lorentz Factor Gamma >> 1) shocks which are prevalent in astrophysical studies including relativistic jets and gamma-ray burst studies. We show our finite element formulation applied to simulations where the Lorentz factor ranges up to 2236 and demonstrate its stability in solving ultra-relativistic flows. Our numerical method is based on the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) Method, unique in that numerical diffusion is derived from physical parameters rather than traditional artificial viscosity methods. Numerical instabilities account for most of the difficulties when capturing shocks in this regime. Our method results in stable solutions and accurate results as compared with other methods.

  4. Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Kathrin Fedosov, Dmitry A. Gompper, Gerhard

    2015-01-15

    Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier–Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor–Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.

  5. Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Kathrin; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier-Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor-Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.

  6. Gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula: A case of relativistic reconnection?

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, B.; Werner, G. R. Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2014-05-15

    The Crab Nebula was formed after the collapse of a massive star about a thousand years ago, leaving behind a pulsar that inflates a bubble of ultra-relativistic electron-positron pairs permeated with magnetic field. The observation of brief but bright flares of energetic gamma rays suggests that pairs are accelerated to PeV energies within a few days; such rapid acceleration cannot be driven by shocks. Here, it is argued that the flares may be the smoking gun of magnetic dissipation in the Nebula. Using 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations, it is shown that the observations are consistent with relativistic magnetic reconnection, where pairs are subject to strong radiative cooling. The Crab flares may highlight the importance of relativistic magnetic reconnection in astrophysical sources.

  7. Ion acoustic shock and solitary waves in highly relativistic plasmas with nonextensive electrons and positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) -like equation is derived to study the characteristics of nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic solitions in a highly relativistic plasma containing relativistic ions and nonextensive distribution of electrons and positrons using the well known reductive perturbation technique. The KdVB-like equation is solved employing the Bernoulli's equation method taking unperturbed positron to electron concentration ratio, electron to positron temperature ratio, strength of nonextensivity, ion kinematic viscosity, and highly relativistic streaming factor. It is found that these parameters significantly modify the structures of the solitonic excitation. The ion acoustic shock profiles are observed due to the influence of ion kinematic viscosity. In the absence of dissipative term to the KdVB equation, compressive and rarefactive solitons are observed in case of superthermality, but only compressive solitons are found for the case of subthermality.

  8. Target nucleus in relativistic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Warwick, A.I.; Wieman, H.

    1982-03-01

    Both the fireball model and hydrodynamical model predict, in a central collision, a fast energy dissipation in the early diving stage of the projectile into the target nucleus. In the final state both models show total incident energy largely dispersed over the whole target nucleus. In a quantitative comparison with the data for the Intranuclear Cascade Calculations, however, the 90/sup 0/ double differential cross section seems to be flatter than the calculated one. If the slope is reflecting the temperature in the system then the data are having apparently a higher temperature than the cascade would predict. This report suggests and discusses a picture of the reaction mechanism where the light projectile (e.g. Ne) gets stopped very early in the large target nucleus (e.g. Au or U) forming a small fireball at approximately half the beam rapidity, which decays inside the target nucleus, heating it up and causing thee whole system to expand. The expansion cools the system and big clusters can condense out if the total energy and thus entropy in the system is not too high to prevent it. Such a qualitative picture of a reaction mechanism emerges when we consider the information obtained about relativistic nuclear collisions from measurements of the remnants of a large target nucleus struck by a smaller projectile (Ne + Au) and relate it to the complementary information from earlier measurements of fast light reaction products. (WHK)

  9. Relativistic HD and MHD modelling for AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, R.; Porth, O.; Monceau-Baroux, R.; Walg, S.

    2013-12-01

    Relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provide a continuum fluid description for plasma dynamics characterized by shock-dominated flows approaching the speed of light. Significant progress in its numerical modelling emerged in the last two decades; we highlight selected examples of modern grid-adaptive, massively parallel simulations realized by our open-source software MPI-AMRVAC (Keppens et al 2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231 718). Hydrodynamical models quantify how energy transfer from active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets to their surrounding interstellar/intergalactic medium (ISM/IGM) gets mediated through shocks and various fluid instability mechanisms (Monceau-Baroux et al 2012 Astron. Astrophys. 545 A62). With jet parameters representative for Fanaroff-Riley type-II jets with finite opening angles, we can quantify the ISM volumes affected by jet injection and distinguish the roles of mixing versus shock-heating in cocoon regions. This provides insight in energy feedback by AGN jets, usually incorporated parametrically in cosmological evolution scenarios. We discuss recent axisymmetric studies up to full 3D simulations for precessing relativistic jets, where synthetic radio maps can confront observations. While relativistic hydrodynamic models allow one to better constrain dynamical parameters like the Lorentz factor and density contrast between jets and their surroundings, the role of magnetic fields in AGN jet dynamics and propagation characteristics needs full relativistic MHD treatments. Then, we can demonstrate the collimating properties of an overal helical magnetic field backbone and study differences between poloidal versus toroidal field dominated scenarios (Keppens et al 2008 Astron. Astrophys. 486 663). Full 3D simulations allow one to consider the fate of non-axisymmetric perturbations on relativistic jet propagation from rotating magnetospheres (Porth 2013 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 429 2482). Self-stabilization mechanisms related to the detailed

  10. Newtonian and Relativistic Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen; Wald, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the Friedmann equations, and also that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies holds in linearized perturbation theory. Nevertheless, it is not obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology with significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. We investigate this issue in light of a perturbative framework that we have recently developed. We propose a straightforward dictionary---exact at the linearized level---that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into GR dust cosmologies, and we use our ordering scheme to determine the degree to which the resulting metric and matter distribution solve Einstein's equation. We then find additional corrections needed to satisfy Einstein's equation to ``order 1'' at small scales and to ``order ɛ'' at large scales. We expect that, in realistic Newtonian cosmologies, these additional corrections will be very small; if so, this should provide strong justification for the use of Newtonian simulations to describe GR cosmologies.

  11. Relativistic Electron Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-03-01

    The desire to push recent experiments on electron vortices to higher energies leads to some theoretical difficulties. In particular the simple and very successful picture of phase vortices of vortex charge ℓ associated with ℓℏ units of orbital angular momentum per electron is challenged by the facts that (i) the spin and orbital angular momentum are not separately conserved for a Dirac electron, which suggests that the existence of a spin-orbit coupling will complicate matters, and (ii) that the velocity of a Dirac electron is not simply the gradient of a phase as it is in the Schrödinger theory suggesting that, perhaps, electron vortices might not exist at a fundamental level. We resolve these difficulties by showing that electron vortices do indeed exist in the relativistic theory and show that the charge of such a vortex is simply related to a conserved orbital part of the total angular momentum, closely related to the familiar situation for the orbital angular momentum of a photon.

  12. Relativistic Jets from Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloy, M. A.; Müller, E.; Ibáñez, J. M.; Martí, J. M.; MacFadyen, A.

    2000-03-01

    Using a collapsar progenitor model of MacFadyen & Woosley, we have simulated the propagation of an axisymmetric jet through a collapsing rotating massive star with the GENESIS multidimensional relativistic hydrodynamic code. The jet forms as a consequence of an assumed (constant or variable) energy deposition in the range of 1050-1051 ergs s-1 within a 30 deg cone around the rotation axis. The jet flow is strongly beamed (approximately less than a few degrees), spatially inhomogeneous, and time dependent. The jet reaches the surface of the stellar progenitor (R*=2.98x1010 cm) intact. At breakout, the maximum Lorentz factor of the jet flow is 33. After breakout, the jet accelerates into the circumstellar medium, whose density is assumed to decrease exponentially and then become constant, ρext=10-5 g cm-3. Outside the star, the flow begins to expand laterally also (v~c), but the beam remains very well collimated. At a distance of 2.54 R*, where the simulation ends, the Lorentz factor has increased to 44.

  13. Relativistic Newtonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Mendel Steiner, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    A new Relativistic Newtonian Dynamics (RND) for motion under a conservative force capable to describe non-classical behavior in astronomy is proposed. The rotor experiments using Mössbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, described in the paper, indicate the influence of non-gravitational acceleration or potential energy on time. Similarly, the observed precession of Mercury and the periastron advance of binaries can be explained by the influence of gravitational potential energy on spacetime. The proposed RND incorporates the influence of potential energy on spacetime in Newton’s dynamics. The effect of this influence on time intervals, space increments and velocities is described explicitly by the use of the concept of escape trajectory. For an attracting conservative static potential we derived the RND energy conservation and the dynamics equation for motion of objects with non-zero mass and for massless particles. These equations are subsequently simplified for motion under a central force. Without the need to curve spacetime, this model predicts accurately the four non-classical observations in astronomy used to test the General Relativity.

  14. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter.

  15. Relativistic harmonics for turbulent wakefield diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2017-06-01

    The propagation properties of relativistic harmonics excited in a plasma with an intense laser pulse is investigated theoretically and numerically. Focusing on the frequency separation, a cold electron fluid model in two spatial dimension is discussed to obtain the harmonic amplitude. The theoretical predictions are verified by performing particle-in-cell simulations in two spatial dimensions. When the laser amplitude is large, the strong ponderomotive force expels the electrons, creating a large amplitude density structures associated with the wakefield. The harmonics propagate obliquely with respect to the laser propagation direction, which is well represented by the structure of the high density layer resulting from the transverse poderomotive force. We also discuss a possible experimental setup to observe the density structures relevant to wakefield.

  16. Signatures of Dissipation Processes in Magnetically Dominated Regions in Astrophysical Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui

    Modern observations have shown that disk-jet-lobe systems driven by supermassive black holes play an important feedback role in cosmic structure evolution, as well as in explaining cosmic magnetic fields and energetic cosmic rays. Highly collimated bi-polar jets can traverse tremendous distances, and energy carried by jets is further converted to accelerate particles to extraordinary energies, likely via both magnetic reconnection and shocks. These particles then radiate from radio to tens of TeV, including polarized signatures that are yielding intriguing constraints on jet properties. This proposal presents a systematic and integrated study of relativistic jets, utilizing our state-of-the-art three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (LA-COMPASS), particle-in-cell (VPIC), polarized radiation transport (3DPol) codes, as well as analytic tools. The proposed studies focus on the energy dissipation processes along three fronts: (1) the stability of relativistic jets, emphasizing the role of current-driven instabilities and their nonlinear saturation; (2) the particle acceleration processes through magnetic field dissipation with varying degrees of magnetic dominance, especially the role of relativistic turbulence and current sheet reconnection in jets; (3) the transport of temporal and spatial dependent polarized radiation as cooling of the relativistic plasmas. More importantly, we plan to integrate the studies of magnetic fields, particles and radiation evolution so that we derive physical constraints on the jets and their emission regions. We will provide useful predictions for the multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions and light curves of AGN jets, especially the polarized emission evolution. These results will be guided by and compared with available observations of AGN jets. The outcome from the proposed studies will be of direct relevance to a wide range of NASA missions, such as Fermi, Chandra and HST, in terms of interpreting the data from

  17. Nonlinear dynamics from the relativistic Boltzmann equation in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazow, D.; Denicol, G. S.; Heinz, U.; Martinez, M.; Noronha, J.

    2016-12-01

    The dissipative dynamics of an expanding massless gas with constant cross section in a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe is studied. The mathematical problem of solving the full nonlinear relativistic Boltzmann equation is recast into an infinite set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the moments of the one-particle distribution function. Momentum-space resolution is determined by the number of nonhydrodynamic modes included in the moment hierarchy, i.e., by the truncation order. We show that in the FLRW spacetime the nonhydrodynamic modes decouple completely from the hydrodynamic degrees of freedom. This results in the system flowing as an ideal fluid while at the same time producing entropy. The solutions to the nonlinear Boltzmann equation exhibit transient tails of the distribution function with nontrivial momentum dependence. The evolution of this tail is not correctly captured by the relaxation time approximation nor by the linearized Boltzmann equation. However, the latter probes additional high-momentum details unresolved by the relaxation time approximation. While the expansion of the FLRW spacetime is slow enough for the system to move towards (and not away from) local thermal equilibrium, it is not sufficiently slow for the system to actually ever reach complete local equilibrium. Equilibration is fastest in the relaxation time approximation, followed, in turn, by kinetic evolution with a linearized and a fully nonlinear Boltzmann collision term.

  18. Dissipation element analysis of a turbulent non-premixed jet flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauding, Michael; Dietzsch, Felix; Goebbert, Jens Henrik; Thévenin, Dominique; Abdelsamie, Abouelmagd; Hasse, Christian

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present work is to examine the interaction between turbulent mixing and chemistry by employing the method of dissipation elements in a non-premixed turbulent jet flame. The method of dissipation elements [L. Wang and N. Peters, J. Fluid Mech. 554, 457-475 (2006)] is used to perform a space-filling decomposition of the turbulent jet flow into different regimes conditioned on their location with respect to the reaction zone. Based on the non-local structure of dissipation elements, this decomposition allows us to discern whether points away from stoichiometry are connected through a diffusive layer with the reaction zone. In a next step, a regime based statistical analysis of dissipation elements is carried out by means of data obtained from a direct numerical simulation. Turbulent mixing and chemical reactions depend strongly on the mixture fraction gradient. From a budget between strain and dissipation, the mechanism for the formation and destruction of mean gradients along dissipation elements is inspected. This budget reveals that large gradients in the mixture fraction field occur at a small but finite length scale. Finally, the inner structure of dissipation elements is examined by computing statistics along gradient trajectories of the mixture fraction field. Thereby, the method of dissipation elements provides a statistical characterization of flamelets and novel insight into the interaction between chemistry and turbulence.

  19. Determining the Macroscopic Properties of Relativistic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardee, P. E.

    2004-08-01

    The resolved relativistic jets contain structures whose observed proper motions are typically assumed to indicate the jet flow speed. In addition to structures moving with the flow, various normal mode structures such as pinching or helical and elliptical twisting can be produced by ejection events or twisting perturbations to the jet flow. The normal mode structures associated with relativistic jets, as revealed by numerical simulation, theoretical calculation, and suggested by observation, move more slowly than the jet speed. The pattern speed is related to the jet speed by the sound speed in the jet and in the surrounding medium. In the event that normal mode structures are observed, and where proper motions of pattern and flow speed are available or can be estimated, it is possible to determine the sound speed in the jet and surrounding medium. Where spatial development of normal mode structures is observed, it is possible to make inferences as to the heating rate/macroscopic viscosity of the jet fluid. Ultimately it may prove possible to separate the microscopic energization of the synchrotron radiating particles from the macroscopic heating of the jet fluid. Here I present the relevant properties of useful normal mode structures and illustrate the use of this technique. Various aspects of the work presented here have involved collaboration with I. Agudo (Max-Planck, Bonn), M.A. Aloy (Max-Planck, Garching), J. Eilek (NM Tech), J.L. Gómez (U. Valencia), P. Hughes (U. Michigan), A. Lobanov (Max-Planck, Bonn), J.M. Martí (U. Valencia), & C. Walker (NRAO).

  20. Viscosity and dissipative hydrodynamics from effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Polonyi, Janos

    2015-05-01

    With the goal of deriving dissipative hydrodynamics from an action, we study classical actions for open systems, which follow from the generic structure of effective actions in the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time-path (CTP) formalism with two time axes and a doubling of degrees of freedom. The central structural feature of such effective actions is the coupling between degrees of freedom on the two time axes. This reflects the fact that from an effective field theory point of view, dissipation is the loss of energy of the low-energy hydrodynamical degrees of freedom to the integrated-out, UV degrees of freedom of the environment. The dynamics of only the hydrodynamical modes may therefore not possess a conserved stress-energy tensor. After a general discussion of the CTP effective actions, we use the variational principle to derive the energy-momentum balance equation for a dissipative fluid from an effective Goldstone action of the long-range hydrodynamical modes. Despite the absence of conserved energy and momentum, we show that we can construct the first-order dissipative stress-energy tensor and derive the Navier-Stokes equations near hydrodynamical equilibrium. The shear viscosity is shown to vanish in the classical theory under consideration, while the bulk viscosity is determined by the form of the effective action. We also discuss the thermodynamics of the system and analyze the entropy production.

  1. Influence of media characteristics on energy dissipation in filter backwashing.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mustafa; Sabah, Eyup; Gulsen, Hakki; Celik, Mehmet S

    2003-09-15

    Effective cleaning of granular filters during backwashing processes needs maximum turbulence and maximum shear in the fluid particle field. The energy dissipation in a backwashed filter as a particulate fluidized bed arises due to the suspending and random motions of particles and turbulent fluctuations in the bed. Size, density, and sphericity of the filter materials greatly influence the fluidization behavior of the media. In this study, a new model is proposed for predicting the energy dissipation parameters namely the hydrodynamic shear stress (tau(a)), the velocity gradient (G(a)), the turbulence dissipation coefficient (C(a)), and the turbulence parameter (C(a)0.5/Re) in backwashing of filters for different types of filter materials (sand, anthracite, and glass ball). The hydrodynamic shear stress is the dominant mechanism of filter cleaning and appears to increase with increasing the density and size of the filter media particles. Using the basic set of data, a step by step procedure is developed to compute the velocity gradient G(a), the turbulence dissipation coefficient C(a), the hydrodynamic shear stress tau(a), and the turbulent parameter (C(a)0.5/ Re).

  2. Refining a relativistic, hydrodynamic solver: Admitting ultra-relativistic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, J. P.; Hughes, P. A.

    2009-09-01

    We have undertaken the simulation of hydrodynamic flows with bulk Lorentz factors in the range 102-106. We discuss the application of an existing relativistic, hydrodynamic primitive variable recovery algorithm to a study of pulsar winds, and, in particular, the refinement made to admit such ultra-relativistic flows. We show that an iterative quartic root finder breaks down for Lorentz factors above 102 and employ an analytic root finder as a solution. We find that the former, which is known to be robust for Lorentz factors up to at least 50, offers a 24% speed advantage. We demonstrate the existence of a simple diagnostic allowing for a hybrid primitives recovery algorithm that includes an automatic, real-time toggle between the iterative and analytical methods. We further determine the accuracy of the iterative and hybrid algorithms for a comprehensive selection of input parameters and demonstrate the latter’s capability to elucidate the internal structure of ultra-relativistic plasmas. In particular, we discuss simulations showing that the interaction of a light, ultra-relativistic pulsar wind with a slow, dense ambient medium can give rise to asymmetry reminiscent of the Guitar nebula leading to the formation of a relativistic backflow harboring a series of internal shockwaves. The shockwaves provide thermalized energy that is available for the continued inflation of the PWN bubble. In turn, the bubble enhances the asymmetry, thereby providing positive feedback to the backflow.

  3. Magnetar giant flares and afterglows as relativistic magnetized explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2006-04-01

    We propose that giant flares on soft γ-ray repeaters produce relativistic, strongly magnetized, weakly baryon-loaded magnetic clouds, somewhat analogous to solar coronal mass ejection (CME) events. The flares are driven by unwinding of the internal non-potential magnetic field which leads to a slow build-up of magnetic energy outside of the neutron star. For large magnetospheric currents, corresponding to a large twist of the external magnetic field, the magnetosphere becomes dynamically unstable on the Alfvén crossing time-scale of the inner magnetosphere, tA~RNS/c~ 30μs. The dynamic instability leads to the formation of dissipative current sheets through the development of a tearing mode. The released magnetic energy results in the formation of a strongly magnetized, pair-loaded, quasi-spherically expanding flux rope, topologically connected by the magnetic field to the neutron star during the prompt flare emission. The expansion reaches large Lorentz factors, Γ~ 10-20, at distances r~ 1-2 × 107cm, where a leptophotonic load is lost. Beyond this radius plasma is strongly dominated by the magnetic field, though some baryon loading, with M<Relativistic bulk motion of the expanding magnetic cloud, directed at an angle θ~ 135° to the line of sight (away from the observer), results in a strongly non-spherical forward shock with observed non-relativistic apparent expansion and bulk motion velocities βapp~ cot θ/2 ~ 0.4 at times of the first radio observations, approximately one week after the burst. An interaction with a shell of wind-shocked interstellar medium (ISM) and then with the unshocked ISM leads to a deceleration, to non-relativistic velocities approximately one month after the flare.

  4. Dissipation by a crystallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorosz, Sven; Voigtmann, Thomas; Schilling, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    We discuss crystallization as a non-equilibrium process. In a system of hard spheres under compression at a constant rate, we quantify the amount of heat that is dissipated during the crystallization process. We interpret the dissipation as arising from the resistance of the system against phase transformation. An intrinsic compression rate is identified that separates a quasi-static regime from one of rapidly driven crystallization. In the latter regime the system crystallizes more easily, because new relaxation channels are opened, at the cost of forming a higher fraction of non-equilibrium crystal structures. We rationalize the change in the crystallization mechanism by analogy with shear thinning, in terms of a kinetic competition between near-equilibrium relaxation and external driving.

  5. Dynamics of strongly dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. P.

    1994-06-01

    The attractors in two-dimensional (2D) phase space of the strongly dissipative Hénon map are reduced to those of an effectively 1D map. From the grammar for this effectively 1D map we can generate all of the unstable periodic orbits, which are exactly consistent with those from the 2D map obtained directly both with a Newton procedure and the techniques of Biham and Wenzel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 819 (1989)]. This idea provides a method to give a very precise and not too cumbersome estimate of the characteristic quantities of strange attractors of strongly dissipative systems. It is also helpful to understand many observations on high-dimensional systems both experimentally and numerically.

  6. Dissipative ring solitons with vorticity.

    PubMed

    Soto-Crespo, J M; Akhmediev, N; Mejia-Cortés, C; Devine, N

    2009-03-16

    We study dissipative ring solitons with vorticity in the frame of the (2+1)-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. In dissipative media, radially symmetric ring structures with any vorticity m can be stable in a finite range of parameters. Beyond the region of stability, the solitons lose the radial symmetry but may remain stable, keeping the same value of the topological charge. We have found bifurcations into solitons with n-fold bending symmetry, with n independent on m. Solitons without circular symmetry can also display (m + 1)-fold modulation behaviour. A sequence of bifurcations can transform the ring soliton into a pulsating or chaotic state which keeps the same value of the topological charge as the original ring.

  7. Cascade replication of dissipative solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Tuz, Vladimir R.

    2017-07-01

    We report a new effect of a cascade replication of dissipative solitons from a single one. It is discussed in the framework of a common model based on the one-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in which an additional linear term is introduced to account the perturbation from a particular potential of externally applied force. The effect is demonstrated on the light beams propagating through a planar waveguide. The waveguide consists of a nonlinear layer able to guide dissipative solitons and a magneto-optic substrate. In the waveguide an externally applied force is considered to be an inhomogeneous magnetic field which is induced by modulated electric currents flowing along a set of conducting wires adjusted on the top of the waveguide.

  8. Doublon lifetimes in dissipative environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Miguel; Platero, Gloria; Kohler, Sigmund

    2017-07-01

    We study the dissipative decay of states with a doubly occupied site in a two-electron Hubbard model, known as doublons. For the environment, we consider charge and current noise, which are modeled as a bosonic heat bath that couples to the on-site energies and the tunnel couplings, respectively. It turns out that the dissipative decay depends qualitatively on the type of environment, as for charge noise, the lifetime grows with the electron-electron interaction. For current noise, by contrast, doublons become increasingly unstable with larger interaction. Numerical studies within a Bloch-Redfield approach are complemented by analytical estimates for the decay rates. For typical quantum dot parameters, we predict doublon lifetimes up to 50 ns.

  9. SPHS: smoothed particle hydrodynamics with a higher order dissipation switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.; Hayfield, T.

    2012-06-01

    We present a novel implementation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics that uses the spatial derivative of the velocity divergence as a higher order dissipation switch. Our switch - which is second order accurate - detects flow convergence before it occurs. If particle trajectories are going to cross, we switch on the usual SPH artificial viscosity, as well as conservative dissipation in all advected fluid quantities (e.g. the entropy). The viscosity and dissipation terms (that are numerical errors) are designed to ensure that all fluid quantities remain single valued as particles approach one another, to respect conservation laws, and to vanish on a given physical scale as the resolution is increased. SPHS alleviates a number of known problems with 'classic' SPH, successfully resolving mixing, and recovering numerical convergence with increasing resolution. An additional key advantage is that - treating the particle mass similarly to the entropy - we are able to use multimass particles, giving significantly improved control over the refinement strategy. We present a wide range of code tests including the Sod shock tube, Sedov-Taylor blast wave, Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability, the 'blob test' and some convergence tests. Our method performs well on all tests, giving good agreement with analytic expectations.

  10. Dissipative effects in nonlinear Klein-Gordon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plastino, A. R.; Tsallis, C.

    2016-03-01

    We consider dissipation in a recently proposed nonlinear Klein-Gordon dynamics that admits exact time-dependent solutions of the power-law form e_qi(kx-wt) , involving the q-exponential function naturally arising within the nonextensive thermostatistics (e_qz \\equiv [1+(1-q)z]1/(1-q) , with e_1^z=ez ). These basic solutions behave like free particles, complying, for all values of q, with the de Broglie-Einstein relations p=\\hbar k , E=\\hbar ω and satisfying a dispersion law corresponding to the relativistic energy-momentum relation E2 = c^2p2 + m^2c4 . The dissipative effects explored here are described by an evolution equation that can be regarded as a nonlinear generalization of the celebrated telegraph equation, unifying within one single theoretical framework the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and the power-law diffusion (porous-media) equation. The associated dynamics exhibits physically appealing traveling solutions of the q-plane wave form with a complex frequency ω and a q-Gaussian square modulus profile.

  11. From Particles to Fluid Dynamics for Flocking Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscani, G.

    2010-04-01

    We study the dynamics of groups of undistinguished agents, which, while interacting according to their relative positions, dissipate energy. These models are developed to mimic the collective motion of groups of living individuals such as bird flocks, fish schools or bacteria colonies. According to the Cucker and Smale model,7 binary interactions between agents are modelled by dissipative collisions in which the coefficient of restitution depends on their relative distance. Under the assumption of weak dissipation, it is shown that the consequent dynamics can be described at a fluid dynamic level by the Euler equation for compressible fluids, in which the equations for momentum and energy present a dissipative correction.

  12. Relativistic dynamical collapse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearle, Philip

    2015-05-01

    A model is discussed where all operators are constructed from a quantum scalar field whose energy spectrum takes on all real values. The Schrödinger picture wave function depends upon space and time coordinates for each particle, as well as an inexorably increasing evolution parameter s which labels a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces. The model is constructed to be manifestly Lorentz invariant in the interaction picture. Free particle states and interactions are discussed in this framework. Then, the formalism of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) theory of dynamical collapse is applied. The collapse-generating operator is chosen to be the particle number space-time density. Unlike previous relativistically invariant models, the vacuum state is not excited. The collapse dynamics depends upon two parameters, a parameter Λ which represents the collapse rate/volume and a scale factor ℓ. A common example of collapse dynamics, involving a clump of matter in a superposition of two locations, is analyzed. The collapse rate is shown to be identical to that of nonrelativistic CSL when the GRW-CSL choice of ℓ=a =1 0-5 cm , is made, along with Λ =λ /a3 (GRW-CSL choice λ =1 0-16s-1). The collapse rate is also satisfactory with the choice ℓ as the size of the Universe, with Λ =λ /ℓa2. Because the collapse narrows wave functions in space and time, it increases a particle's momentum and energy, altering its mass. It is shown that, with ℓ=a , the change of mass of a nucleon is unacceptably large but, when ℓ is the size of the Universe, the change of mass over the age of the Universe is acceptably small.

  13. Integrable nonlinear relativistic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Yaron

    This work focuses on three nonlinear relativistic equations: the symmetric Chiral field equation, Einstein's field equation for metrics with two commuting Killing vectors and Einstein's field equation for diagonal metrics that depend on three variables. The symmetric Chiral field equation is studied using the Zakharov-Mikhailov transform, with which its infinitely many local conservation laws are derived and its solitons on diagonal backgrounds are studied. It is also proven that it is equivalent to a novel equation that poses a fascinating similarity to the Sinh-Gordon equation. For the 1+1 Einstein equation the Belinski-Zakharov transformation is explored. It is used to derive explicit formula for N gravitational solitons on arbitrary diagonal background. In particular, the method is used to derive gravitational solitons on the Einstein-Rosen background. The similarities and differences between the attributes of the solitons of the symmetric Chiral field equation and those of the 1+1 Einstein equation are emphasized, and their origin is pointed out. For the 1+2 Einstein equation, new equations describing diagonal metrics are derived and their compatibility is proven. Different gravitational waves are studied that naturally extend the class of Bondi-Pirani-Robinson waves. It is further shown that the Bondi-Pirani-Robinson waves are stable with respect to perturbations of the spacetime. Their stability is closely related to the stability of the Schwarzschild black hole and the relation between the two allows to conjecture about the stability of a wide range of gravitational phenomena. Lastly, a new set of equations that describe weak gravitational waves is derived. This new system of equations is closely and fundamentally connected with the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and can be properly called the nonlinear Schrodinger-Einstein equations. A few preliminary solutions are constructed.

  14. Charge-Dissipative Electrical Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, John R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    Electrical cables that dissipate spurious static electric charges, in addition to performing their main functions of conducting signals, have been developed. These cables are intended for use in trapped-ion or ionizing-radiation environments, in which electric charges tend to accumulate within, and on the surfaces of, dielectric layers of cables. If the charging rate exceeds the dissipation rate, charges can accumulate in excessive amounts, giving rise to high-current discharges that can damage electronic circuitry and/or systems connected to it. The basic idea of design and operation of charge-dissipative electrical cables is to drain spurious charges to ground by use of lossy (slightly electrically conductive) dielectric layers, possibly in conjunction with drain wires and/or drain shields (see figure). In typical cases, the drain wires and/or drain shields could be electrically grounded via the connector assemblies at the ends of the cables, in any of the conventional techniques for grounding signal conductors and signal shields. In some cases, signal shields could double as drain shields.

  15. Relativistic helicity and link in Minkowski space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Z.; Kawazura, Y.; Yokoyama, T.

    2014-04-15

    A relativistic helicity has been formulated in the four-dimensional Minkowski space-time. Whereas the relativistic distortion of space-time violates the conservation of the conventional helicity, the newly defined relativistic helicity conserves in a barotropic fluid or plasma, dictating a fundamental topological constraint. The relation between the helicity and the vortex-line topology has been delineated by analyzing the linking number of vortex filaments which are singular differential forms representing the pure states of Banach algebra. While the dimension of space-time is four, vortex filaments link, because vorticities are primarily 2-forms and the corresponding 2-chains link in four dimension; the relativistic helicity measures the linking number of vortex filaments that are proper-time cross-sections of the vorticity 2-chains. A thermodynamic force yields an additional term in the vorticity, by which the vortex filaments on a reference-time plane are no longer pure states. However, the vortex filaments on a proper-time plane remain to be pure states, if the thermodynamic force is exact (barotropic), thus, the linking number of vortex filaments conserves.

  16. Relativistic helicity and link in Minkowski space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Z.; Kawazura, Y.; Yokoyama, T.

    2014-04-15

    A relativistic helicity has been formulated in the four-dimensional Minkowski space-time. Whereas the relativistic distortion of space-time violates the conservation of the conventional helicity, the newly defined relativistic helicity conserves in a barotropic fluid or plasma, dictating a fundamental topological constraint. The relation between the helicity and the vortex-line topology has been delineated by analyzing the linking number of vortex filaments which are singular differential forms representing the pure states of Banach algebra. While the dimension of space-time is four, vortex filaments link, because vorticities are primarily 2-forms and the corresponding 2-chains link in four dimension; the relativistic helicity measures the linking number of vortex filaments that are proper-time cross-sections of the vorticity 2-chains. A thermodynamic force yields an additional term in the vorticity, by which the vortex filaments on a reference-time plane are no longer pure states. However, the vortex filaments on a proper-time plane remain to be pure states, if the thermodynamic force is exact (barotropic), thus, the linking number of vortex filaments conserves.

  17. Relativistic breakdown in planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, J. R.

    2007-04-15

    In 2003, a new electrical breakdown mechanism involving the production of runaway avalanches by positive feedback from runaway positrons and energetic photons was introduced. This mechanism, which shall be referred to as 'relativistic feedback', allows runaway discharges in gases to become self-sustaining, dramatically increasing the flux of runaway electrons, the accompanying high-energy radiation, and resulting ionization. Using detailed Monte Carlo calculations, properties of relativistic feedback are investigated. It is found that once relativistic feedback fully commences, electrical breakdown will occur and the ambient electric field, extending over cubic kilometers, will be discharged in as little as 2x10{sup -5} s. Furthermore, it is found that the flux of energetic electrons and x rays generated by this mechanism can exceed the flux generated by the standard relativistic runaway electron model by a factor of 10{sup 13}, making relativistic feedback a good candidate for explaining terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and other high-energy phenomena observed in the Earth's atmosphere.

  18. Quantum dissipation and CP violation in MINOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, R. L. N.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.

    2014-03-01

    We use the open quantum systems framework to analyze the MINOS data and perform this analysis considering two different dissipative models. In the first model, the dissipative parameter describes the decoherence effect and in the second, the dissipative parameter describes other dissipative effects including decoherence. With the second model it is possible to study CP violation since we consider Majorana neutrinos. The analysis from the muon neutrino and antineutrino beam assigns different values to all the parameters of the models, but is consistent between them. Assuming that neutrinos are equivalent to antineutrinos, the global analysis presents a nonvanishing Majorana CP phase depending on the energetic parametrization of the dissipative parameter.

  19. Temperature dependent dissipation in magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, R.; Naik, A.; Thakur, J. S.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Lawes, G.

    2014-05-01

    We parameterized the temperature dependent magnetic dissipation of iron oxide nanoparticles fixed in a frozen aqueous solution in an ac magnetic field. The magnetic power dissipated can be modeled by considering only Neel relaxation. This dissipation increased monotonically with temperature, increasing by approximately 50% between -40 °C and -10 °C. These experimental results provide quantitative confirmation for the Neel model of magnetic dissipative heating for nanoparticles rigidly confined in a solid matrix. We also find substantial temperature dependence in the magnetic dissipation of nanoparticles suspended in a liquid, which has important consequences for potential applications of magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia.

  20. Power Dissipation in the Subtectorial Space of the Mammalian Cochlea Is Modulated by Inner Hair Cell Stereocilia

    PubMed Central

    Prodanovic, Srdjan; Gracewski, Sheryl; Nam, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The stereocilia bundle is the mechano-transduction apparatus of the inner ear. In the mammalian cochlea, the stereocilia bundles are situated in the subtectorial space (STS)—a micrometer-thick space between two flat surfaces vibrating relative to each other. Because microstructures vibrating in fluid are subject to high-viscous friction, previous studies considered the STS as the primary place of energy dissipation in the cochlea. Although there have been extensive studies on how metabolic energy is used to compensate the dissipation, much less attention has been paid to the mechanism of energy dissipation. Using a computational model, we investigated the power dissipation in the STS. The model simulates fluid flow around the inner hair cell (IHC) stereocilia bundle. The power dissipation in the STS because of the presence IHC stereocilia increased as the stimulating frequency decreased. Along the axis of the stimulating frequency, there were two asymptotic values of power dissipation. At high frequencies, the power dissipation was determined by the shear friction between the two flat surfaces of the STS. At low frequencies, the power dissipation was dominated by the viscous friction around the IHC stereocilia bundle—the IHC stereocilia increased the STS power dissipation by 50- to 100-fold. There exists a characteristic frequency for STS power dissipation, CFSTS, defined as the frequency where power dissipation drops to one-half of the low frequency value. The IHC stereocilia stiffness and the gap size between the IHC stereocilia and the tectorial membrane determine the characteristic frequency. In addition to the generally assumed shear flow, nonshear STS flow patterns were simulated. Different flow patterns have little effect on the CFSTS. When the mechano-transduction of the IHC was tuned near the vibrating frequency, the active motility of the IHC stereocilia bundle reduced the power dissipation in the STS. PMID:25650916