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Sample records for relativistic qrpa description

  1. QRPA for description of states of multiphonon origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Adam; Šimkovic, Fedor; Macko, Miroslav

    2015-10-01

    We propose a novel extension of the standard quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) with a new form of phonon operator, which allows to describe also states of multiphonon origin. We denote this method as QRPA with non-linear phonon operator (nlQRPA) and apply it to the proton-neutron Lipkin model. We consider the simplest non-linear extension of a phonon operator where the RPA equation can be transformed into a standard form. That guarantees the orthonormality and completeness of the QRPA states of one-phonon and three-phonon origin. A rather good agreement is found both for energies and beta transition amplitudes with those obtained by a diagonalization of the schematic Hamiltonian. There is straightforward way to extend this approach also for a realistic nuclear structure calculations.

  2. Gamma-ray strength at low energies using relativistic QRPA with exact coupling to the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoutidis, I.; Goriely, S.

    2012-02-01

    Continuum-quasiparticle random-phase Approximation (CQRPA) within the relativistic point-coupling model with density-dependent coupling constants is applied to investigate collective excitations in spherical nuclei. In particular we study the impact of the exact continuum on the giant-dipole and pygmy resonance of several Sn isotopes as well as the radiative neutron capture rates of importance for astrophysical calculations.

  3. Description of the 2ννββ decay within a gauge restored of a fully renormalized pnQRPA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raduta, C. M.; Raduta, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    A many-body Hamiltonian involving the mean field for a projected spherical single particle basis, the pairing interactions for alike nucleons, the dipole-dipole proton-neutron interactions in the particle-hole (ph) channel and the ph dipole-pairing potential is treated by the projected gauge of fully renormalized proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (PGFRpnQRPA) approach. The resulting wavefunctions and energies for the mother and the daughter nuclei are used to calculate the 2νββ decay rate and the process half life. For illustration, the formalism is applied for the decays 100Mo→ 100Ru and 116Cd→ 116Sn. The results are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. The Ikeda sum rule is obeyed.

  4. Fluid dynamical description of relativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, J. R.; Strottman, D.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of both a conventional relativistic nuclear fluid dynamic model and a two fluid generalization that takes into account the interpenetration of the target and projectile upon contact, collisions between heavy nuclei moving at relativistic speeds are calculated. This is done by solving the relevant equations of motion numerically in three spatial dimensions by use of particle in cell finite difference computing techniques. The effect of incorporating a density isomer, or quasistable state, in the nuclear equation of state at three times normal nuclear density, and the effect of doubling the nuclear compressibility coefficient are studied. For the reaction 20Ne + 238U at a laboratory bombarding energy per nucleon of 393 MeV, the calculated distributions in energy and angle of outgoing charged particles are compared with recent experimental data both integrated over all impact parameters and for nearly central collisions.

  5. Relativistic mean field description of cluster radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, A.; Gambhir, Y. K.

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive investigations of the observed cluster radioactivity are carried out. First, the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory is employed for the calculations of the ground-state properties of relevant nuclei. The calculations reproduce the experiment well. The calculated RMF point densities are folded with the density-dependent M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction to obtain the cluster-daughter interaction potential. This, along with the calculated and experimental Q values, is used in the WKB approximation for estimating the half-lives of the parent nuclei against cluster decay. The calculations qualitatively agree with the experiment. Sensitive dependence of the half-lives on Q values is explicitly demonstrated.

  6. Coupling relativistic viscous hydrodynamics to Boltzmann descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Scott; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2010-10-15

    Models of relativistic heavy-ion collisions typically involve both a hydrodynamic module to describe the high-density liquidlike phase and a Boltzmann module to simulate the low-density breakup phase, which is gaslike. Coupling the prescriptions is more complicated for viscous prescriptions if one wants to maintain continuity of the entire stress-energy tensor and currents. Derivations for the viscosity for a gas are reviewed, which then lead to expressions for changes in the phase-space occupation based on simple relaxation-time pictures of viscosity. These expressions are shown to consistently reproduce the nonequilibrium components of the stress-energy tensor. An algorithm for generating a Monte Carlo sampling of particles with which to initiate the Boltzmann calculations is also presented.

  7. Relativistic mechanical-thermodynamical formalism—description of inelastic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.; Fernández, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a relativistic formalism inspired by the Minkowski four-vectors that also includes conservation laws such as the first law of thermodynamics. It remains close to the relativistic four-vector formalism developed for a single particle, but is also related to the classical treatment of problems that require both Newton's second law and the energy conservation law. We apply the developed formalism to inelastic collisions to better show how it works.

  8. Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov description of the halo nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, J.; Ring, P.

    1996-12-31

    Here the authors report the development of the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in coordinate space. Pairing correlations are taken into account by both density dependent force of zero range and finite range Gogny force. As a primary application the relativistic HB theory is used to describe the chain of Lithium isotopes reaching from {sup 6}Li to {sup 11}Li. In contrast to earlier investigations within a relativistic mean field theory and a density dependent Hartree Fock theory, where the halo in {sup 11}Li could only be reproduced by an artificial shift of the 1p{sub 1/2} level close to the continuum limit, the halo is now reproduced in a self-consistent way without further modifications using the scattering of Cooper pairs to the 2s{sub 1/2} level in the continuum. Excellent agreement with recent experimental data is observed.

  9. Valence space techniques and QRPA vibrational mass parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloncle, I.; Lechaftois, F.; Péru, S.

    2016-06-01

    The vibrational mass parameters entering the quadrupolar 5DCH Hamiltonian are commonly obtained neglecting beyond mean-field correlations and the dynamical mean-field rearrangement. The Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) framework would allow to avoid these disadvantages [1], if the computation time, when using density dependent force, was not prohibitive. Here, a significant time reduction is obtained by applying valence space (VS) techniques (energy cut-off and inert core) in QRPA calculations. The VS techniques allow to probe the physical content of the mass parameter. The QRPA mass parameter exhibit robustness toward VS limitations contrarily to the intrinsic QRPA outputs, that show deceptive appearance when an inert core is used. Excited states energy, and associated transition probabilities, should not be considered for optimizing the valence space limits.

  10. Relativistic Energy Density Functionals: beyond mean-field description of exotic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Vretenar, D.; Niksic, T.; Ring, P.; Lalazissis, G. A.

    2009-01-28

    The framework of relativistic energy density functionals is extended to include correlations related to the restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of collective variables. The generator coordinate method is used to perform configuration mixing of angular-momentum and particle-number projected relativistic wave functions. This approach enables a quantitative description of the evolution of shell-structure, deformation and shape coexistence phenomena in nuclei with soft potential energy surfaces, and singular properties of excitation spectra and transition rates at critical points of quantum shape phase transitions.

  11. A relativistic description of MOND using the Palatini formalism in an extended metric theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, E.; Mendoza, S.

    2016-10-01

    We construct a relativistic metric description of MOND using the Palatini formalism following the f(χ) = χb description of T. Bernal et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 71, 1794 (2011)). We show that in order to recover the non-relativistic MOND regime where, for circular orbits the Tully-Fisher law replaces Kepler's third law, the value of the parameter b = 3/2, which is coincident with the value found using the pure metric formalism of T. Bernal et al. Unlike this pure metric formalism, which yields fourth-order field equations, the Palatini approach yields second-order field equations, which is a desirable requirement from a theoretical perspective. Thus, the phenomenology associated to astrophysical phenomena with Tully-Fisher scalings can be accounted for using this proposal, without the need to introduce any non-baryonic dark matter particles.

  12. Computer code for double beta decay QRPA based calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero, C. A.; Mariano, A.; Krmpotić, F.; Samana, A. R.; Ferreira, V. dos Santos; Bertulani, C. A.

    2014-11-11

    The computer code developed by our group some years ago for the evaluation of nuclear matrix elements, within the QRPA and PQRPA nuclear structure models, involved in neutrino-nucleus reactions, muon capture and β{sup ±} processes, is extended to include also the nuclear double beta decay.

  13. On relativistic generalization of Perelman's W-entropy and thermodynamic description of gravitational fields and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchin, Vyacheslav; Vacaru, Olivia; Vacaru, Sergiu I.

    2017-03-01

    Using double 2+2 and 3+1 nonholonomic fibrations on Lorentz manifolds, we extend the concept of W-entropy for gravitational fields in general relativity (GR). Such F- and W-functionals were introduced in the Ricci flow theory of three dimensional (3-d) Riemannian metrics by Perelman (the entropy formula for the Ricci flow and its geometric applications. arXiv:math.DG/0211159). Non-relativistic 3-d Ricci flows are characterized by associated statistical thermodynamical values determined by W-entropy. Generalizations for geometric flows of 4-d pseudo-Riemannian metrics are considered for models with local thermodynamical equilibrium and separation of dissipative and non-dissipative processes in relativistic hydrodynamics. The approach is elaborated in the framework of classical field theories (relativistic continuum and hydrodynamic models) without an underlying kinetic description, which will be elaborated in other work. The 3+1 splitting allows us to provide a general relativistic definition of gravitational entropy in the Lyapunov-Perelman sense. It increases monotonically as structure forms in the Universe. We can formulate a thermodynamic description of exact solutions in GR depending, in general, on all spacetime coordinates. A corresponding 2+2 splitting with nonholonomic deformation of linear connection and frame structures is necessary for generating in very general form various classes of exact solutions of the Einstein and general relativistic geometric flow equations. Finally, we speculate on physical macrostates and microstate interpretations of the W-entropy in GR, geometric flow theories and possible connections to string theory (a second unsolved problem also contained in Perelman's work) in Polyakov's approach.

  14. Linking the hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a dissipative relativistic conformal theory

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, E.; Peralta-Ramos, J.

    2010-11-15

    We use the entropy production variational method to associate a one-particle distribution function to the assumed known energy-momentum and entropy currents describing a relativistic conformal fluid. Assuming a simple form for the collision operator we find this one-particle distribution function explicitly, and show that this method of linking the hydro and kinetic descriptions is a nontrivial generalization of Grad's ansatz. The resulting constitutive relations are the same as in the conformal dissipative type theories discussed by J. Peralta-Ramos and E. Calzetta [Phys. Rev. D 80, 126002 (2009)]. Our results may prove useful in the description of freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  15. On the usefulness of relativistic space-times for the description of the Earth's gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, Michael; Frutos, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The usefulness of relativistic space-times for the description of the Earth's gravitational field is investigated. A variety of exact vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations (Schwarzschild, Erez and Rosen, Gutsunayev and Manko, Hernández-Pastora and Martín, Kerr, Quevedo, and Mashhoon) are investigated in that respect. It is argued that because of their multipole structure and influences from external bodies, all these exact solutions are not really useful for the central problem. Then, approximate space-times resulting from an MPM or post-Newtonian approximation are considered. Only in the DSX formalism that is of the first post-Newtonian order, all aspects of the problem can be tackled: a relativistic description (a) of the Earth's gravity field in a well-defined geocentric reference system (GCRS), (b) of the motion of solar system bodies in a barycentric reference system (BCRS), and (c) of inertial and tidal terms in the geocentric metric describing the external gravitational field. A relativistic SLR theory is also discussed with respect to our central problem. Orders of magnitude of many effects related to the Earth's gravitational field and SLR are given. It is argued that a formalism with accuracies better than of the first post-Newtonian order is not yet available.

  16. Alternative gauge for the description of the light-matter interaction in a relativistic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellsson, Tor; Førre, Morten; Simonsen, Aleksander Skjerlie; Selstø, Sølve; Lindroth, Eva

    2017-08-01

    We present a generalized velocity gauge form of the relativistic laser-matter interaction. In comparison with the (equivalent) regular minimal coupling description, this form of light-matter interaction results in superior convergence properties for the numerical solution of the time-dependent Dirac equation. This applies both to the numerical treatment and, more importantly, to the multipole expansion of the laser field. The advantages of the alternative gauge is demonstrated in hydrogen by studies of the dynamics following the impact of superintense laser pulses of extreme ultraviolet wavelengths and subfemtosecond duration.

  17. Hamiltonian description of the topology of drift orbits of relativistic particles in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    de Rover, M.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Montvai, A.

    1996-12-01

    Using classical perturbation theory, a Hamiltonian description of the guiding center motion of relativistic electrons in a torus with an axially symmetric magnetic field is derived. The magnetic field itself generates concentric circular flux surfaces. This description enables us to assess the behavior of the drift orbits such that previously unknown details follow almost naturally due to the introduction of higher order terms in the description. The rotational transform of the orbit for a given particle is found to decrease when the particle energy increases and the radius of the particle orbit is almost constant during acceleration. As a consequence, the minor radius of a drift surface with a (fixed) rotational transform 1/{ital q}{sub {ital D}} is always smaller than the radius of the magnetic flux surface with {ital q}={ital q}{sub {ital D}} from which the particle started with zero energy. At a critical energy, the drift surface has collapsed to a point in the poloidal cross section. Above this critical energy there is no particle orbit with the commensurate rotational transform 1/{ital q}{sub {ital D}}. When the symmetry of the magnetic field is broken by harmonic perturbations with amplitudes that increase towards the plasma edge, the resonant magnetic surfaces and drift surfaces break up, and form chains of islands. The Hamiltonian description was set up in such a way that it allows the computation of the width of the drift islands. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Relativistic description of nuclear matrix elements in neutrinoless double-β decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, L. S.; Yao, J. M.; Ring, P.; Meng, J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: Neutrinoless double-β (0 ν β β ) decay is related to many fundamental concepts in nuclear and particle physics beyond the standard model. Currently there are many experiments searching for this weak process. An accurate knowledge of the nuclear matrix element for the 0 ν β β decay is essential for determining the effective neutrino mass once this process is eventually measured. Purpose: We report the first full relativistic description of the 0 ν β β decay matrix element based on a state-of-the-art nuclear structure model. Methods: We adopt the full relativistic transition operators which are derived with the charge-changing nucleonic currents composed of the vector coupling, axial-vector coupling, pseudoscalar coupling, and weak-magnetism coupling terms. The wave functions for the initial and final nuclei are determined by the multireference covariant density functional theory (MR-CDFT) based on the point-coupling functional PC-PK1. Correlations beyond the mean field are introduced by configuration mixing of both angular momentum and particle number projected quadrupole deformed mean-field wave functions. Results: The low-energy spectra and electric quadrupole transitions in 150Nd and its daughter nucleus 150Sm are well reproduced by the MR-CDFT calculations. The 0 ν β β decay matrix elements for both the 01+→01+ and 01+→02+ decays of 150Nd are evaluated. The effects of particle number projection, static and dynamic deformations, and the full relativistic structure of the transition operators on the matrix elements are studied in detail. Conclusions: The resulting 0 ν β β decay matrix element for the 01+→01+ transition is 5.60 , which gives the most optimistic prediction for the next generation of experiments searching for the 0 ν β β decay in 150Nd.

  19. Many-body correlations of QRPA in nuclear matrix elements of double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Terasaki, J.

    2015-10-28

    We present two new ideas on the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) approach for calculating nuclear matrix elements of double-beta decay. First, it is necessary to calculate overlaps of the QRPA states obtained on the basis of the ground states of different nuclei. We calculate this overlap using quasiboson vacua as the QRPA ground states. Second, we show that two-particle transfer paths are possible to use for the calculation under the closure approximation. A calculation is shown for {sup 150}Nd→{sup 150}Sm using these two new ideas, and their implication is discussed.

  20. QRPA Calculations for Spherical and Deformed Nuclei With the Gogny Force

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, S.

    2009-08-26

    Fully consistent axially-symmetric-deformed Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) calculations have been performed with the D1S Gogny force. Dipole responses have been calculated in Ne isotopes to study the existence of soft dipole modes in exotic nuclei. A comparison between QRPA and generator coordinate method with Gaussian overlap approximation results is done for low lying 2{sup +} states in N = 16 isotones and Ni isotopes.

  1. Covariant description of inelastic electron-deuteron scattering: predictions of the relativistic impulse approximation

    SciTech Connect

    J. Adam, Jr.; Franz Gross; Sabine Jeschonnek; Paul Ulmer; J.W. Van Orden

    2002-05-01

    Using the covariant spectator theory and the transversity formalism, the unpolarized, coincidence cross section for deuteron electrodisintegration, d(e, e'p)n, is studied. The relativistic kinematics are reviewed, and simple theoretical formulae for the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) are derived and discussed. Numerical predictions for the scattering in the high Q{sup 2} region obtained from the RIA and five other approximations are presented and compared. We concluded that measurements of the unpolarized coincidence cross section and the asymmetry A{sub phi}, to an accuracy that will distinguish between different theoretical models, is feasible over most of the wide kinematic range accessible at Jefferson Lab.

  2. Relativistic state-specific multireference coupled cluster theory description for bond-breaking energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Chaudhuri, Rajat K.; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2016-09-01

    A four-component (4c) relativistic state specific multireference coupled cluster (4c-SSMRCC) method has been developed and applied to compute the ground state spectroscopic constants of Ag2, Cu2, Au2, and I2. The reference functions used in these calculations are obtained using computationally inexpensive improved virtual orbital-complete active space configuration interaction scheme. Rigorous size-extensivity and insensitivity towards the intruder state problem make our method an interesting choice for the calculation of the dissociation energy surface. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first implementation of the SSMRCC within the relativistic framework. The overall agreement of our results, employing the smallest model space, with both theoretical and experimental reference values indicates that the 4c-SSMRCC method can be fruitfully used to describe electronic structures and associated properties of systems containing heavy elements. We observe a relativistic bond stabilization for the coinage metal dimers while the I-I bond is weakened by the relativistic effects.

  3. Introduction of a valence space in QRPA: Impact on vibrational mass parameters and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lechaftois, F. Péru, S.; Deloncle, I.

    2015-10-15

    For the first time, using a unique finite range interaction (D1M Gogny force), a fully coherent and time-feasible calculation of the Bohr Hamiltonian vibrational mass is envisioned in a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov + Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) framework. In order to reach handable computation time, we evaluate the feasibility of this method by considering the insertion of a valence space for QRPA. We validate our approach in the even-even tin isotopes comparing the convergence scheme of the mass parameter with those of built-in QRPA outputs: excited state energy and reduced transition probability. The seeming convergence of these intrinsic quantities is shown to be misleading and the difference with the theoretical expected value is quantified. This work is a primary step towards the systematic calculation of mass parameters.

  4. Breaking of relativistically intense longitudinal space charge waves: A description using Dawson sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sudip

    2014-02-01

    Spatio-temporal evolution of relativistically intense longitudinal space charge waves in a cold homogeneous plasma is studied analytically as well as numerically, as an initial value problem, using Dawson sheet model. It is found that, except for very special initial conditions which generates the well known longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin mode, for all other initial conditions, the waves break through a novel mechanism called phase mixing at an amplitude well below the Akhiezer-Polovin limit. An immediate consequence of this is, that Akhiezer-Polovin waves break when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. We demonstrate this by performing extensive numerical simulations. This result may be of direct relevance to ultrashort, ultraintense laser/beam pulse-plasma interaction experiments where relativistically intense waves are routinely excited.

  5. Breaking of relativistically intense longitudinal space charge waves: A description using Dawson sheet model

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Sudip

    2014-02-11

    Spatio-temporal evolution of relativistically intense longitudinal space charge waves in a cold homogeneous plasma is studied analytically as well as numerically, as an initial value problem, using Dawson sheet model. It is found that, except for very special initial conditions which generates the well known longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin mode, for all other initial conditions, the waves break through a novel mechanism called phase mixing at an amplitude well below the Akhiezer-Polovin limit. An immediate consequence of this is, that Akhiezer-Polovin waves break when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. We demonstrate this by performing extensive numerical simulations. This result may be of direct relevance to ultrashort, ultraintense laser/beam pulse-plasma interaction experiments where relativistically intense waves are routinely excited.

  6. Relativistic description of weak decays of B{sub s} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Faustov, R. N.; Galkin, V. O.

    2016-01-22

    The branching fractions of the semileptonic and rare B{sub s} decays are calculated in the framework of the QCD-motivated relativistic quark model. The form factors of the weak B{sub s} transitions are expressed through the overlap integrals of the initial and final meson wave functions in the whole accessible kinematical range. The momentum transfer dependence of the form factors is explicitly determined without additional model assumptions and extrapolations. The obtained results agree well with available experimental data.

  7. Metallic magnetism at finite temperatures studied by relativistic disordered moment description: Theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deák, A.; Simon, E.; Balogh, L.; Szunyogh, L.; dos Santos Dias, M.; Staunton, J. B.

    2014-06-01

    We develop a self-consistent relativistic disordered local moment (RDLM) scheme aimed at describing finite-temperature magnetism of itinerant metals from first principles. Our implementation in terms of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple-scattering theory and the coherent potential approximation allows us to relate the orientational distribution of the spins to the electronic structure, thus a self-consistent treatment of the distribution is possible. We present applications for bulk bcc Fe, L10-FePt, and FeRh ordered in the CsCl structure. The calculations for Fe show significant variation of the local moments with temperature, whereas according to the mean-field treatment of the spin fluctuations the Curie temperature is overestimated. The magnetic anisotropy of FePt alloys is found to depend strongly on intermixing between nominally Fe and Pt layers, and it shows a power-law behavior as a function of magnetization for a broad range of chemical disorder. In the case of FeRh we construct a lattice constant vs temperature phase diagram and determine the phase line of metamagnetic transitions based on self-consistent RDLM free-energy curves.

  8. Fully relativistic description of spin-orbit torques by means of linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, S.; Chadova, K.; Seemann, M.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.

    2016-08-01

    Symmetry and magnitude of spin-orbit torques (SOT), i.e., current-induced torques on the magnetization of systems lacking inversion symmetry, are investigated in a fully relativistic linear response framework based on the Kubo formalism. By applying all space-time symmetry operations contained in the magnetic point group of a solid to the relevant response coefficient, the torkance expressed as torque-current correlation function, restrictions to the shape of the direct and inverse response tensors are obtained. These are shown to apply to the corresponding thermal analogs as well, namely the direct and inverse thermal SOT in response to a temperature gradient or heat current. Using an implementation of the Kubo-Bastin formula for the torkance into a first-principles multiple-scattering Green function framework and accounting for disorder effects via the so-called coherent potential approximation, all contributions to the SOT in pure systems, dilute as well as concentrated alloys can be treated on equal footing. This way, material specific values for all torkance tensor elements in the fcc (111) trilayer alloy system Pt| FexCo1 -x|Cu are obtained over a wide concentration range and discussed in comparison to results for electrical and spin conductivity, as well as to previous work—in particular concerning symmetry with respect to magnetization reversal and the nature of the various contributions.

  9. Charge-exchange QRPA with the Gogny Force for Axially-symmetric Deformed Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, M.; Goriely, S.; Péru, S.

    2014-06-15

    In recent years fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) calculations using finite range Gogny force have been performed to study electromagnetic excitations of several axially-symmetric deformed nuclei up to the {sup 238}U. Here we present the extension of this approach to the charge-exchange nuclear excitations (pnQRPA). In particular we focus on the Isobaric Analog and Gamow-Teller resonances. A comparison of the predicted GT strength distribution with existing experimental data is presented. The role of nuclear deformation is shown. Special attention is paid to β-decay half-lives calculations for which experimental data exist and for specific isotone chains of relevance for the r-process nucleosynthesis.

  10. Relativistic description of pair production of doubly heavy baryons in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Martynenko, A. P.; Trunin, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Relativistic corrections in the pair production of S-wave doubly heavy diquarks in electron-positron annihilation were calculated on the basis of perturbative QCD and the quark model. The relativistic corrections to the wave functions for quark bound states were taken into account with the aid of the Breit potential in QCD. Relativistic effects change substantially the nonrelativistic cross sections for pair diquark production. The yield of pairs of (ccq) doubly heavy baryons at B factories was estimated.

  11. Development of the Hamiltonian molecular dynamics (HMD) model: A first-principles, relativistic description of nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapp, Edward Neal

    Simulation of energetic, colliding nuclear systems at energies between 100 AMeV and 5 AGeV has utility in fields as diverse as the design and construction of fundamental particle physics experiments, patient treatment by radiation exposure, and in the protection of astronaut crews from the risks of exposure to natural radiation sources during spaceflight. Descriptions of these colliding systems which are derived from theoretical principles are necessary in order to provide confidence in describing systems outside the scope of existing data, which is sparse. The system size and velocity dictate descriptions which include both special relativistic and quantum effects, and the currently incomplete state of understanding with respect to the basic processes at work within nuclear matter dictate that any description will exist at some level of approximation. Models commonly found in the literature employ approximations to theory which lead to simulation results which demonstrate departure from fundamental physical principles, most notably conservation of system energy. The HMD (Hamiltonian Molecular Dynamics) mode is developed as a phase-space description of colliding nuclear system on the level of hadrons, inclusive of the necessary quantum and relativistic elements. Evaluation of model simulations shows that the HMD model shows the necessary conservations throughout system simulation. HMD model predictions are compared to both the RQMD (Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics) and JQMD (Jaeri-Quantum Molecular Dynamics) codes, both commonly employed for the purpose of simulating nucleus-nucleus collisions. Comparison is also provided between all three codes and measurement. The HMD model is shown to perform well in light of both measurement and model calculation, while providing for a physically self-consistent description of the system throughout.

  12. Calculation of delayed-neutron energy spectra in a QRPA-Hauser-Feshbach model

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Moller, Peter; Wilson, William B

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical {beta}-delayed-neutron spectra are calculated based on the Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation (QRPA) and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Neutron emissions from an excited daughter nucleus after {beta} decay to the granddaughter residual are more accurately calculated than in previous evaluations, including all the microscopic nuclear structure information, such as a Gamow-Teller strength distribution and discrete states in the granddaughter. The calculated delayed-neutron spectra agree reasonably well with those evaluations in the ENDF decay library, which are based on experimental data. The model was adopted to generate the delayed-neutron spectra for all 271 precursors.

  13. Microscopic description of large-amplitude shape-mixing dynamics with local QRPA inertial functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Yoshida, Kenichi; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Sato, Koichi; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2011-05-06

    We introduce a microscopic approach to derive all the inertial functions in the five-dimensional quadrupole collective Hamiltonian. Local normal modes are evaluated on the constrained mean field in the quasiparticle random-phase approximation in order to derive the inertial functions. The collective Hamiltonians for neutron-rich Mg isotopes are determined with use of this approach, and the shape coexistence/mixing around the N = 20 region is analyzed.

  14. Relativistic linear restoring force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-09-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke’s law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: dp/dt or dp/dτ. Either formulation recovers Hooke’s law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we introduce a form of retardation appropriate for the description of a linear (in displacement) force arising from the interaction of a pair of particles with a relativistic field. The procedure is akin to replacing Coulomb’s law in electromagnetism with a retarded form (the first correction in the full relativistic case). This retardation leads to the expected oscillation, but with amplitude growth in both its relativistic and non-relativistic incarnations.

  15. Non-collapsing renormalized QRPA with proton-neutron pairing for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simkovic, F.; Schwieger, J.; Veselský, M.; Pantis, G.; Faessler, Amand

    1997-02-01

    Using the renormalized quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA), we calculate the light neutrino mass mediated mode of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ-decay) of 76Ge, 100Mo, 128Te and 130Te. Our results indicate that the simple quasiboson approximation is not good enough to study the 0νββ-decay, because its solutions collapse for physical values of gpp. We find that extension of the Hilbert space and inclusion of the Pauli principle in the QRPA with proton-neutron pairing, allows us to extend our calculations beyond the point of collapse, for physical values of the nuclear force strength. As a consequence one might be able to extract more accurate values on the effective neutrino mass by using the best available experimental limits on the half-life of 0νββ-decay.

  16. Screened real-space Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker description of the relativistic and magnetic properties of transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, L.; Beiden, S. V.; Temmerman, W. M.; Szotek, Z.; Stocks, G. M.; Gehring, G. A.

    2000-10-01

    The use of the relativistic and spin-polarized real-space Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method is limited to small systems (less than 100 atoms). This is due to the prohibitively large CPU times needed for the inversion of the KKR matrix. To study systems of more than a thousand atoms, we have implemented the concept of a screened reference medium, within the fully relativistic spin-polarized version of the real-space locally self-consistent multiple-scattering method (LSMS). The LSMS method makes use of a local interaction zone (LIZ) for solving the quantum mechanical problem, while the Poisson equation is solved in the whole space. The screened reference medium gives rise to sparse KKR matrices and using state-of-the-art sparse matrix technology a substantial reduction in the CPU times is obtained, enabling applications of the method to systems whose LIZ consists of more than a thousand atoms. The method is benchmarked by application to the elemental transition metals, the fcc (face-centred-cubic) Co and Ni, and the bcc (body-centred cubic) Fe, and compared to the results of the conventional k-space methods. The convergence in real space of the magnetic moments, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy and the orbital moment anisotropy is discussed in detail.

  17. Relativistic Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Over the past one hundred years, Brownian motion theory has contributed substantially to our understanding of various microscopic phenomena. Originally proposed as a phenomenological paradigm for atomistic matter interactions, the theory has since evolved into a broad and vivid research area, with an ever increasing number of applications in biology, chemistry, finance, and physics. The mathematical description of stochastic processes has led to new approaches in other fields, culminating in the path integral formulation of modern quantum theory. Stimulated by experimental progress in high energy physics and astrophysics, the unification of relativistic and stochastic concepts has re-attracted considerable interest during the past decade. Focusing on the framework of special relativity, we review, here, recent progress in the phenomenological description of relativistic diffusion processes. After a brief historical overview, we will summarize basic concepts from the Langevin theory of nonrelativistic Brownian motions and discuss relevant aspects of relativistic equilibrium thermostatistics. The introductory parts are followed by a detailed discussion of relativistic Langevin equations in phase space. We address the choice of time parameters, discretization rules, relativistic fluctuation-dissipation theorems, and Lorentz transformations of stochastic differential equations. The general theory is illustrated through analytical and numerical results for the diffusion of free relativistic Brownian particles. Subsequently, we discuss how Langevin-type equations can be obtained as approximations to microscopic models. The final part of the article is dedicated to relativistic diffusion processes in Minkowski spacetime. Since the velocities of relativistic particles are bounded by the speed of light, nontrivial relativistic Markov processes in spacetime do not exist; i.e., relativistic generalizations of the nonrelativistic diffusion equation and its Gaussian solutions

  18. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  19. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-15

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  20. Large-scale deformed QRPA calculations of the gamma-ray strength function based on a Gogny force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, M.; Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Péru, S.; Minato, F.

    2016-01-01

    The dipole excitations of nuclei play an important role in nuclear astrophysics processes in connection with the photoabsorption and the radiative neutron capture that take place in stellar environment. We present here the results of a large-scale axially-symmetric deformed QRPA calculation of the γ-ray strength function based on the finite-range Gogny force. The newly determined γ-ray strength is compared with experimental photoabsorption data for spherical as well as deformed nuclei. Predictions of γ-ray strength functions and Maxwellian-averaged neutron capture rates for Sn isotopes are also discussed.

  1. Relativistic Electron Wave Packets Carrying Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2017-03-01

    There are important differences between the nonrelativistic and relativistic description of electron beams. In the relativistic case the orbital angular momentum quantum number cannot be used to specify the wave functions and the structure of vortex lines in these two descriptions is completely different. We introduce analytic solutions of the Dirac equation in the form of exponential wave packets and we argue that they properly describe relativistic electron beams carrying angular momentum.

  2. Relativistic Electron Wave Packets Carrying Angular Momentum.

    PubMed

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2017-03-17

    There are important differences between the nonrelativistic and relativistic description of electron beams. In the relativistic case the orbital angular momentum quantum number cannot be used to specify the wave functions and the structure of vortex lines in these two descriptions is completely different. We introduce analytic solutions of the Dirac equation in the form of exponential wave packets and we argue that they properly describe relativistic electron beams carrying angular momentum.

  3. Electromagnetic dipole and Gamow-Teller responses of even and odd 90-94 40Zr isotopes in QRPA calculations with the D1M Gogny force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloncle, I.; Péru, S.; Martini, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present theoretical results on the dipole response in the proton spin-saturated 90-94Zr isotopes. The electric and magnetic dipole excitations are obtained in Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov plus Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) calculations performed with the D1M Gogny force. A pnQRPA charge exchange code is used to study the Gamow-Teller response. The results on the pygmy, the giant dipole resonances as well as those on the magnetic nuclear spin-flip excitation and the Gamow-Teller transitions are compared with available experimental or theoretical information. In our approach, the proton pairing plays a role in the phonon excitations, in particular in the M1 nuclear spin-flip resonance.

  4. Relativistic klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.

    1989-03-01

    Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Relativistic geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, J.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum metrology enables new applications in geodesy, including relativistic geodesy. The recent progress in optical atomic clocks and in long-distance frequency transfer by optical fiber together pave the way for using measurements of the gravitational frequency redshift for geodesy. The remote comparison of frequencies generated by calibrated clocks will allow for a purely relativistic determination of differences in gravitational potential and height between stations on Earth surface (chronometric leveling). The long-term perspective is to tie potential and height differences to atomic standards in order to overcome the weaknesses and inhomogeneity of height systems determined by classical spirit leveling. Complementarily, gravity measurements with atom interferometric setups, and satellite gravimetry with space borne laser interferometers allow for new sensitivities in the measurement of the Earth's gravity field.

  6. Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; Markovic, Dragoljub

    1997-06-01

    Preface; Prologue: Conference overview Bernard Carr; Part I. The Universe At Large and Very Large Redshifts: 2. The size and age of the Universe Gustav A. Tammann; 3. Active galaxies at large redshifts Malcolm S. Longair; 4. Observational cosmology with the cosmic microwave background George F. Smoot; 5. Future prospects in measuring the CMB power spectrum Philip M. Lubin; 6. Inflationary cosmology Michael S. Turner; 7. The signature of the Universe Bernard J. T. Jones; 8. Theory of large-scale structure Sergei F. Shandarin; 9. The origin of matter in the universe Lev A. Kofman; 10. New guises for cold-dark matter suspects Edward W. Kolb; Part II. Physics and Astrophysics Of Relativistic Compact Objects: 11. On the unification of gravitational and inertial forces Donald Lynden-Bell; 12. Internal structure of astrophysical black holes Werner Israel; 13. Black hole entropy: external facade and internal reality Valery Frolov; 14. Accretion disks around black holes Marek A. Abramowicz; 15. Black hole X-ray transients J. Craig Wheeler; 16. X-rays and gamma rays from active galactic nuclei Roland Svensson; 17. Gamma-ray bursts: a challenge to relativistic astrophysics Martin Rees; 18. Probing black holes and other exotic objects with gravitational waves Kip Thorne; Epilogue: the past and future of relativistic astrophysics Igor D. Novikov; I. D. Novikov's scientific papers and books.

  7. Nuclear matrix elements for 0νβ{sup −}β{sup −} decays: Comparative analysis of the QRPA, shell model and IBM predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Civitarese, Osvaldo; Suhonen, Jouni

    2013-12-30

    In this work we report on general properties of the nuclear matrix elements involved in the neutrinoless double β{sup −} decays (0νβ{sup −}β{sup −} decays) of several nuclei. A summary of the values of the NMEs calculated along the years by the Jyväskylä-La Plata collaboration is presented. These NMEs, calculated in the framework of the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), are compared with those of the other available calculations, like the Shell Model (ISM) and the interacting boson model (IBA-2)

  8. Phenomenological Relativistic Energy Density Functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Kartzikos, S.; Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    The framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals is applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of beta-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure is explored using the fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Recent applications of energy density functionals with explicit density dependence of the meson-nucleon couplings are presented.

  9. Relativistic causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Giovanni; Owen Weatherall, James

    2014-11-01

    Relativity theory is often taken to include, or to imply, a prohibition on superluminal propagation of causal processes. Yet, what exactly the prohibition on superluminal propagation amounts to and how one should deal with its possible violation have remained open philosophical problems, both in the context of the metaphysics of causation and the foundations of physics. In particular, recent work in philosophy of physics has focused on the causal structure of spacetime in relativity theory and on how this causal structure manifests itself in our most fundamental theories of matter. These topics were the subject of a workshop on "Relativistic Causality in Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity" that we organized (along with John Earman) at the Center for Philosophy of Science in Pittsburgh on April 5-7, 2013. The present Special Issue comprises contributions by speakers in that workshop as well as several other experts exploring different aspects of relativistic causality. We are grateful to the journal for hosting this Special Issue, to the journal's managing editor, Femke Kuiling, for her help and support in putting the issue together, and to the authors and the referees for their excellent work.

  10. Relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic entanglement in the rest-frame instant form of dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Alba, David; Crater, Horace W.; Lusanna, Luca

    2011-06-15

    A new formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics is proposed in the framework of the rest-frame instant form of dynamics, where the world-lines of the particles are parametrized in terms of the Fokker-Pryce center of inertia and of Wigner-covariant relative 3-coordinates inside the instantaneous Wigner 3-spaces, and where there is a decoupled (non-covariant and non-local) canonical relativistic center of mass. This approach: (a) allows us to make a consistent quantization in every inertial frame; (b) leads to a description of both bound and scattering states; (c) offers new insights on the relativistic localization problem; (d) leads to a non-relativistic limit with a Hamilton-Jacobi treatment of the Newton center of mass; (e) clarifies non-local aspects (spatial non-separability) of relativistic entanglement connected with Lorentz signature and not present in its non-relativistic treatment.

  11. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel

    2017-05-01

    We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the "conventional" magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell's equations in matter) to those in the "dual" version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).

  12. The Method of Unitary Clothing Transformations in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory: Recent Applications for the Description of Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering and Deuteron Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebeko, A.

    2013-12-01

    The clothing procedure, put forward in quantum field theory by Greenberg and Schweber, is applied for the description of nucleon-nucleon ( N- N) scattering below the pion production threshold and deuteron properties. We consider pseudoscalar ( π and η), vector ( ρ and ω) and scalar ( δ and σ) meson fields interacting with N and ones via the Yukawa-type couplings to introduce trial interactions between "bare" particles. The subsequent unitary clothing transformations (UCTs) are found to express the total Hamiltonian through new interaction operators that refer to particles with physical (observable) properties, the so-called clothed particles. The corresponding analytic expressions in momentum space are compared with the separate meson contributions to the one-boson-exchange potentials in the meson theory of nuclear forces. We will also show a worked example where the UCTs method is used in the framework of a gauge-independent field-theoretical treatment of electromagnetic interactions of deuterons (bound systems).

  13. Modulational instabilities in relativistic pair plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonça, J. T.

    2016-05-15

    We study the modulational instability of an intense photon beam in a relativistic pair plasma. We use the wave-kinetic description of the photon field and relativistic fluid equations for electrons and positrons. This allows us to consider the influence of the photon spectral distribution and photon recoil effects on the instability threshold and growth rates. The case of very low frequencies modulations, well below plasma frequency, is compared to that of high-frequency modulations corresponding to the plasmon decay instability.

  14. Analytic models of relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    We present not a literature review but a description, as detailed and consistent as possible, of two analytic models of disk accretion onto a rotating black hole: a standard relativistic disk and a twisted relativistic disk. Although one of these models is older than the other, both are of topical interest for black hole studies. The treatment is such that the reader with only a limited knowledge of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics, with little or no use of additional sources, can gain insight into many technical details lacking in the original papers.

  15. Volatility smile as relativistic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakushadze, Zura

    2017-06-01

    We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.

  16. Newtonian and relativistic cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

    2012-03-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is well known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the same equations as arise in relativistic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robinson-Walker cosmology, and it also is known that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies continues to hold in linearized perturbation theory in the marginally bound/spatially flat case. Nevertheless, it is far from obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. We investigate this issue in the light of a perturbative framework that we have recently developed [S. R. Green and R. M. Wald, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 83, 084020 (2011).10.1103/PhysRevD.83.084020], which allows for such nonlinearity at small scales. We propose a relatively straightforward dictionary—which is exact at the linearized level—that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into general relativistic dust cosmologies, and we use our “ordering scheme” to determine the degree to which the resulting metric and matter distribution solve Einstein’s equation. We find that, within our ordering scheme, Einstein’s equation fails to hold at “order 1” at small scales and at “order ɛ” at large scales. We then find the additional corrections to the metric and matter distribution needed to satisfy Einstein’s equation to these orders. While these corrections are of some interest in their own right, our main purpose in calculating them is that their smallness should provide a criterion for the validity of the original dictionary (as well as simplified versions of this dictionary). We expect that, in realistic Newtonian cosmologies, these additional corrections will be very small; if so, this should provide strong justification for the use of Newtonian simulations

  17. Spin dynamics in relativistic light-matter interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauke, Heiko; Ahrens, Sven; Keitel, Christoph H.; Grobe, Rainer

    2015-05-01

    Various spin effects are expected to become observable in light-matter interaction at relativistic intensities. Relativistic quantum mechanics equipped with a suitable relativistic spin operator forms the theoretical foundation for describing these effects. Various proposals for relativistic spin operators have been offered by different authors, which are presented in a unified way. As a result of the operators' mathematical properties only the Foldy-Wouthuysen operator and the Pryce operator qualify as possible proper relativistic spin operators. The ground states of highly charged hydrogen-like ions can be utilized to identify a legitimate relativistic spin operator experimentally. Subsequently, the Foldy-Wouthuysen spin operator is employed to study electron-spin precession in high-intensity standing light waves with elliptical polarization. For a correct theoretical description of the predicted electron-spin precession relativistic effects due to the spin angular momentum of the electromagnetic wave has to be taken into account even in the limit of low intensities.

  18. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  19. Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows is numerically examined under the fully special relativistic treatment. We first derive relativistic formal solutions for the relativistic radiative transfer equation in relativistic spherical flows. We then iteratively solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation, using an impact parameter method/tangent ray method, and obtain specific intensities in the inertial and comoving frames, as well as moment quantities, and the Eddington factor. We consider several cases; a scattering wind with a luminous central core, an isothermal wind without a core, a scattering accretion on to a luminous core, and an adiabatic accretion on to a dark core. In the typical wind case with a luminous core, the emergent intensity is enhanced at the center due to the Doppler boost, while it reduces at the outskirts due to the transverse Doppler effect. In contrast to the plane-parallel case, the behavior of the Eddington factor is rather complicated in each case, since the Eddington factor depends on the optical depth, the flow velocity, and other parameters.

  20. Relativistic atomic physics at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses the following proposed work for relativistic atomic physics at the Superconducting Super Collider: Beam diagnostics; atomic physics research; staffing; education; budget information; statement concerning matching funds; description and justification of major items of equipment; statement of current and pending support; and assurance of compliance.

  1. Self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation and its applications to charge-exchange excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Z. M.; Niu, Y. F.; Liang, H. Z.; Long, W. H.; Meng, J.

    2017-04-01

    The self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) approach is formulated in the canonical single-nucleon basis of the relativistic Hatree-Fock-Bogoliubov (RHFB) theory. This approach is applied to study the isobaric analog states (IASs) and Gamow-Teller resonances (GTRs) by taking Sn isotopes as examples. It is found that self-consistent treatment of the particle-particle residual interaction is essential to concentrate the IAS in a single peak for open-shell nuclei and the Coulomb exchange term is very important to predict the IAS energies. For the GTR, the isovector pairing can increase the calculated GTR energy, while the isoscalar pairing has an important influence on the low-lying tail of the Gamow-Teller transition.

  2. The relativistic geoid: redshift and acceleration potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Dennis; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Puetzfeld, Dirk; Hackmann, Eva; Perlick, Volker

    2017-04-01

    We construct a relativistic geoid based on a time-independent redshift potential, which foliates the spacetime into isochronometric surfaces. This relativistic potential coincides with the acceleration potential for isometric congruences. We show that the a- and u- geoid, defined in a post-Newtonian framework, coincide also in a more general setup. Known Newtonian and post-Newtonian results are recovered in the respective limits. Our approach offers a relativistic definition of the Earth's geoid as well as a description of the Earth itself (or observers on its surface) in terms of an isometric congruence. Being fully relativistic, this notion of a geoid can also be applied to other compact objects such as neutron stars. By definition, this relativistic geoid can be determined by a congruence of Killing observers equipped with standard clocks by comparing their frequencies as well as by measuring accelerations of objects that follow the congruence. The redshift potential gives the correct result also for frequency comparison through optical fiber links as long as the fiber is at rest w.r.t. the congruence. We give explicit expressions for the relativistic geoid in the Kerr spacetime and the Weyl class of spacetimes. To investigate the influence of higher order mass multipole moments we compare the results for the Schwarzschild case to those obtained for the Erez-Rosen and q-metric spacetimes.

  3. Relativistic covariance of Ohm's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, R.; Schober, G. A. H.

    2016-04-01

    The derivation of Lorentz-covariant generalizations of Ohm's law has been a long-term issue in theoretical physics with deep implications for the study of relativistic effects in optical and atomic physics. In this article, we propose an alternative route to this problem, which is motivated by the tremendous progress in first-principles materials physics in general and ab initio electronic structure theory in particular. We start from the most general, Lorentz-covariant first-order response law, which is written in terms of the fundamental response tensor χμ ν relating induced four-currents to external four-potentials. By showing the equivalence of this description to Ohm's law, we prove the validity of Ohm's law in every inertial frame. We further use the universal relation between χμ ν and the microscopic conductivity tensor σkℓ to derive a fully relativistic transformation law for the latter, which includes all effects of anisotropy and relativistic retardation. In the special case of a constant, scalar conductivity, this transformation law can be used to rederive a standard textbook generalization of Ohm's law.

  4. Relativistic decay widths of autoionization processes: The relativistic FanoADC-Stieltjes method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasshauer, Elke; Kolorenč, Přemysl; Pernpointner, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Electronic decay processes of ionized systems are, for example, the Auger decay or the Interatomic/ Intermolecular Coulombic Decay. In both processes, an energetically low lying vacancy is filled by an electron of an energetically higher lying orbital and a secondary electron is instantaneously emitted to the continuum. Whether or not such a process occurs depends both on the energetic accessibility and the corresponding lifetime compared to the lifetime of competing decay mechanisms. We present a realization of the non-relativistically established FanoADC-Stieltjes method for the description of autoionization decay widths including relativistic effects. This procedure, being based on the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC), was adapted to the relativistic framework and implemented into the relativistic quantum chemistry program package Dirac. It is, in contrast to other existing relativistic atomic codes, not limited to the description of autoionization lifetimes in spherically symmetric systems, but is instead also applicable to molecules and clusters. We employ this method to the Auger processes following the Kr3d-1, Xe4d-1, and Rn5d-1 ionization. Based on the results, we show a pronounced influence of mainly scalar-relativistic effects on the decay widths of autoionization processes.

  5. Relativistic decay widths of autoionization processes: the relativistic FanoADC-Stieltjes method.

    PubMed

    Fasshauer, Elke; Kolorenč, Přemysl; Pernpointner, Markus

    2015-04-14

    Electronic decay processes of ionized systems are, for example, the Auger decay or the Interatomic/ Intermolecular Coulombic Decay. In both processes, an energetically low lying vacancy is filled by an electron of an energetically higher lying orbital and a secondary electron is instantaneously emitted to the continuum. Whether or not such a process occurs depends both on the energetic accessibility and the corresponding lifetime compared to the lifetime of competing decay mechanisms. We present a realization of the non-relativistically established FanoADC-Stieltjes method for the description of autoionization decay widths including relativistic effects. This procedure, being based on the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC), was adapted to the relativistic framework and implemented into the relativistic quantum chemistry program package Dirac. It is, in contrast to other existing relativistic atomic codes, not limited to the description of autoionization lifetimes in spherically symmetric systems, but is instead also applicable to molecules and clusters. We employ this method to the Auger processes following the Kr3d(-1), Xe4d(-1), and Rn5d(-1) ionization. Based on the results, we show a pronounced influence of mainly scalar-relativistic effects on the decay widths of autoionization processes.

  6. Relativistic decay widths of autoionization processes: The relativistic FanoADC-Stieltjes method

    SciTech Connect

    Fasshauer, Elke; Kolorenč, Přemysl; Pernpointner, Markus

    2015-04-14

    Electronic decay processes of ionized systems are, for example, the Auger decay or the Interatomic/ Intermolecular Coulombic Decay. In both processes, an energetically low lying vacancy is filled by an electron of an energetically higher lying orbital and a secondary electron is instantaneously emitted to the continuum. Whether or not such a process occurs depends both on the energetic accessibility and the corresponding lifetime compared to the lifetime of competing decay mechanisms. We present a realization of the non-relativistically established FanoADC-Stieltjes method for the description of autoionization decay widths including relativistic effects. This procedure, being based on the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC), was adapted to the relativistic framework and implemented into the relativistic quantum chemistry program package Dirac. It is, in contrast to other existing relativistic atomic codes, not limited to the description of autoionization lifetimes in spherically symmetric systems, but is instead also applicable to molecules and clusters. We employ this method to the Auger processes following the Kr3d{sup −1}, Xe4d{sup −1}, and Rn5d{sup −1} ionization. Based on the results, we show a pronounced influence of mainly scalar-relativistic effects on the decay widths of autoionization processes.

  7. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  8. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gobbin, M.

    2014-10-01

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  9. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  10. Newtonian and Relativistic Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen; Wald, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the Friedmann equations, and also that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies holds in linearized perturbation theory. Nevertheless, it is not obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology with significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. We investigate this issue in light of a perturbative framework that we have recently developed. We propose a straightforward dictionary---exact at the linearized level---that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into GR dust cosmologies, and we use our ordering scheme to determine the degree to which the resulting metric and matter distribution solve Einstein's equation. We then find additional corrections needed to satisfy Einstein's equation to ``order 1'' at small scales and to ``order ɛ'' at large scales. We expect that, in realistic Newtonian cosmologies, these additional corrections will be very small; if so, this should provide strong justification for the use of Newtonian simulations to describe GR cosmologies.

  11. Bilocal model for the relativistic spinning particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, Trevor; Freidel, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    In this work we show that a relativistic spinning particle can be described at the classical and the quantum level as being composed of two physical constituents which are entangled and separated by a fixed distance. This bilocal model for spinning particles allows for a natural description of particle interactions as a local interaction at each of the constituents. This form of the interaction vertex provides a resolution to a long standing issue on the nature of relativistic interactions for spinning objects in the context of the worldline formalism. It also potentially brings a dynamical explanation for why massive fundamental objects are naturally of lowest spin. We analyze first a nonrelativistic system where spin is modeled as an entangled state of two particles with the entanglement encoded into a set of constraints. It is shown that these constraints can be made relativistic and that the resulting description is isomorphic to the usual description of the phase space of massive relativistic particles with the restriction that the quantum spin has to be an integer.

  12. Single electron relativistic clock interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushev, P. A.; Cole, J. H.; Sholokhov, D.; Kukharchyk, N.; Zych, M.

    2016-09-01

    Although time is one of the fundamental notions in physics, it does not have a unique description. In quantum theory time is a parameter ordering the succession of the probability amplitudes of a quantum system, while according to relativity theory each system experiences in general a different proper time, depending on the system's world line, due to time dilation. It is therefore of fundamental interest to test the notion of time in the regime where both quantum and relativistic effects play a role, for example, when different amplitudes of a single quantum clock experience different magnitudes of time dilation. Here we propose a realization of such an experiment with a single electron in a Penning trap. The clock can be implemented in the electronic spin precession and its time dilation then depends on the radial (cyclotron) state of the electron. We show that coherent manipulation and detection of the electron can be achieved already with present day technology. A single electron in a Penning trap is a technologically ready platform where the notion of time can be probed in a hitherto untested regime, where it requires a relativistic as well as quantum description.

  13. Non-relativistic leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Wörmann, Mirco E-mail: mwoermann@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2014-02-01

    In many phenomenologically interesting models of thermal leptogenesis the heavy neutrinos are non-relativistic when they decay and produce the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We propose a non-relativistic approximation for the corresponding rate equations in the non-resonant case, and a systematic way for computing relativistic corrections. We determine the leading order coefficients in these equations, and the first relativistic corrections. The non-relativistic approximation works remarkably well. It appears to be consistent with results obtained using a Boltzmann equation taking into account the momentum distribution of the heavy neutrinos, while being much simpler. We also compute radiative corrections to some of the coefficients in the rate equations. Their effect is of order 1% in the regime favored by neutrino oscillation data. We obtain the correct leading order lepton number washout rate in this regime, which leads to large ( ∼ 20%) effects compared to previous computations.

  14. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-12-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics.

  15. Relativistic Kinetic Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.

    2017-02-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  16. Hydrodynamic Lagrangian of relativistic superfluids with crystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletminskii, A. S.

    2009-09-01

    We propose a relativistic Lagrangian formulation of macroscopic dynamics of superfluid systems. The constructed Lagrangian provides the description of ordinary superfluids and superfluids with a crystalline ordering, where both phase and translational symmetries are simultaneously broken (e.g., supersolids or crystalline superfluids in neutron stars). The covariant conservation laws and equations of motion for the field variables associated with the broken symmetries are obtained. The connection to Khalatnikov-Lebedev relativistic hydrodynamic theory is discussed.

  17. Exact Solutions of Relativistic Bound State Problem for Spinless Bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated in detail the relativistic bound states of spin-zero bosons under the influence of Coulomb-plus-linear potentials with an arbitrary combination of scalar and vector couplings. Through an exact analytical solution of three-dimensional Klein-Gordon equation, closed form expressions were derived for energy eigenvalues and wave functions and some correlations between potential parameters were found. We also presented the relativistic description of bound states and nonrelativistic limit of the problem in some special cases.

  18. Limits of Strong Field Rescattering in the Relativistic Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiber, M.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Wu, J.; Luo, S. S.; Grugan, P.; Walker, B. C.

    2017-03-01

    Recollision for a laser driven atomic system is investigated in the relativistic regime via a strong field quantum description and Monte Carlo semiclassical approach. We find the relativistic recollision energy cutoff is independent of the ponderomotive potential Up , in contrast to the well-known 3.2 Up scaling. The relativistic recollision energy cutoff is determined by the ionization potential of the atomic system and achievable with non-negligible recollision flux before entering a "rescattering free" interaction. The ultimate energy cutoff is limited by the available intensities of short wavelength lasers and cannot exceed a few thousand Hartree, setting a boundary for recollision based attosecond physics.

  19. Relativistic effects on sixth group hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisani, L.; Clementi, E.

    1994-08-01

    Dirac-Fock (DF) and Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations have been performed for the ground state configuration of the H2O, H2S, H2Se, H2Te, and H2Po molecules. Equilibrium geometries, atomization energies, and molecular orbitals energies are evaluated with both methods, compared and discussed with the help of population analysis and atomic orbital energies. Particular attention has been given to a qualitative understanding of the relativistic effects. Molecular spin-orbits corrections appear to be essential to a description of some in the sixth group hydrides set. A description of the relativistic computer program is presented elsewhere [L. Pisani and E. Clementi, J. Comput. Chem. (in press)].

  20. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  1. Relativistic GLONASS and geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurova, E. M.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Karpik, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    GNSS technology is playing a major role in applications to civil, industrial and scientific areas. Nowadays, there are two fully functional GNSS: American GPS and Russian GLONASS. Their data processing algorithms have been historically based on the Newtonian theory of space and time with only a few relativistic effects taken into account as small corrections preventing the system from degradation on a fairly long time. Continuously growing accuracy of geodetic measurements and atomic clocks suggests reconsidering the overall approach to the GNSS theoretical model based on the Einstein theory of general relativity. This is essentially more challenging but fundamentally consistent theoretical approach to relativistic space geodesy. In this paper, we overview the basic principles of the relativistic GNSS model and explain the advantages of such a system for GLONASS and other positioning systems. Keywords: relativistic GLONASS, Einstein theory of general relativity.

  2. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  3. Relativistic Jets and Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Woosley, S. E.

    2001-05-01

    In order to study the relativistic jets from collapsars, we have developed a special relativistic multiple-dimensional hydrodynamics code similar to the GENESIS code (Aloy et al., ApJS, 122, 151). The code is based on the PPM interpolation algorithm and Marquina's Riemann solver. Using this code, we have simulated the propagation of axisymmetric jets along the rotational axis of collapsed rotating stars (collapsars). Using the progenitors of MacFadyen, Woosley, and Heger, a relativistic jet is injected at a given inner boundary radius. This radius, the opening angle of the jet, its Lorentz factor, and its total energy are parameters of the problem. A highly collimated, relativistic outflow is observed at the surface of the star several seconds later. We will discuss the hydrodynamical focusing of the jet, it's break out properties, time evolution, and sensitivity to the adopted parameters.

  4. Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, Franklin S.

    2006-01-01

    The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.

  5. Relativistic and non-relativistic solitons in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Satyendra Nath

    This thesis entitled as "Relativistic and Non-relativistic Solitons in Plasmas" is the embodiment of a number of investigations related to the formation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas under various physical situations. The whole work of the thesis is devoted to the studies of solitary waves in cold and warm collisionless magnetized or unmagnetized plasmas with or without relativistic effect. To analyze the formation of solitary waves in all our models of plasmas, we have employed two established methods namely - reductive perturbation method to deduce the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the solutions of which represent the important but near exact characteristic concepts of soliton-physics. Next, the pseudopotential method to deduce the energy integral with total nonlinearity in the coupling process for exact characteristic results of solitons has been incorporated. In Chapter 1, a brief description of plasma in nature and laboratory and its generation are outlined elegantly. The nonlinear differential equations to characterize solitary waves and the relevant but important methods of solutions have been mentioned in this chapter. The formation of solitary waves in unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas, and in relativistic plasmas has been described through mathematical entity. Applications of plasmas in different fields are also put forwarded briefly showing its importance. The study of plasmas as they naturally occur in the universe encompasses number of topics including sun's corona, solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, ionospheres, auroras, cosmic rays and radiation. The study of space weather to understand the universe, communications and the activities of weather satellites are some useful areas of space plasma physics. The surface cleaning, sterilization of food and medical appliances, killing of bacteria on various surfaces, destroying of viruses, fungi, spores and plasma coating in industrial instruments ( like computers) are some of the fields

  6. Relativistic effects in chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsimirskii, K.B.

    1995-11-01

    Relativistic effects become apparent when the velocity of the electron is arbitrarily close to the speed of light (137 au) without actually attaining it (in heavy atoms of elements at the end of Mendeleev`s Periodic Table). At the orbital level, the relativistic effect is apparent in the radial contraction of penetrating s and p shells, expansion of nonpenetrating d and f shells, and the spin-orbit splitting of p-,d-, and f-shells. The appearance of a relativistic effect is indicated in the variation in the electronic configurations of the atoms in the Periodic Table, the appearance of new types of closed electron shells (6s{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, 6p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, 7s{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, 5d{sub 3/2}{sup 4}), the stabilization of unstable oxidation states of heavy elements, the characteristic variation in the ionization enthalpies of heavy atoms, their electron affinity, hydration energies, redox potentials, and optical electronegativities. In the spectra of coordination compounds, a relativistic effect is observed when comparing the position of the charge transfer bands in analogous compounds, the parameters characterizing the ligand field strength (10Dq), the interatomic distances and angles in compounds of heavy elements. A relativistic effect is also apparent in the ability of heavy metals to form clusters and superclusters. Relativistic corrections also affect other properties of heavy metal compounds (force constants, dipole moments, biological activity, etc.).

  7. General relativistic ? orthonormal frame approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Elst, Henk; Uggla, Claes

    1997-09-01

    The dynamical equations of an extended 1 + 3 orthonormal frame approach to the relativistic description of spacetime geometries are explicitly presented and discussed in detail. In particular, the Bianchi identities for the Weyl curvature tensor occur in a fully expanded form, as they are given a central role in the extended formalism. It is shown how one can naturally introduce local coordinates, both in the 1 + 3 threading and the ADM 3 + 1 slicing context. By specializing the general 1 + 3 dynamical equations it is demonstrated how a number of problems of interest can be obtained. In particular, the simplest choices of spatial frames for spatially homogeneous cosmological models, locally rotationally symmetric spacetime geometries, cosmological models with an Abelian isometry group 0264-9381/14/9/021/img6 and `silent' dust cosmological models are discussed.

  8. SAMPEX Relativistic Microbursts Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Comess, M.; Smith, D. M.; Selesnick, R. S.; Sample, J. G.; Millan, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Relativistic (>1 MeV) electron microburst precipitation is thought to account for significant relativistic electron loss. We present the statistical and spectral analysis of relativistic microbursts observed by the Proton/Electron Telescope (PET) on board the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer(SAMPEX) satellite from 1992 to 2004. Spectrally we find that microbursts are well fit by an exponential energy distribution in the 0.5-4 MeV range with a spectral e-folding energy of E0 < 375 keV. We also discuss the comparison of morning microbursts with events at midnight, which were first identified as microbursts by O'Brien et al. (2004). Finally, we compare the loss-rates due to microbursts and non-microburst precipitation during storm times and averaged over all times.

  9. B1:. Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, John L.

    2002-09-01

    This review summarizes the parallel session on relativistic astrophysics at GR16. Much of the work reported here involved the structure and stability of neutron stars and the astrophysics of accretion disks around neutron stars and black holes. A large part of the recent work in relativistic astrophysics is tied to numerical investigations of binary coalescence and gravitational waves, but these topics demanded sessions of their own; gravitational waves in the present session were mentioned in connection with neutron-star instability and in a talk on coupling of gravitational waves to radio waves. Two talks involved relativistic stellar systems and cosmology. Finally, several authors outlined advances involving gravitational collapse, cosmic censorship, and baby universes.

  10. The special relativistic shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Kevin W.

    1986-01-01

    The shock-tube problem has served as a popular test for numerical hydrodynamics codes. The development of relativistic hydrodynamics codes has created a need for a similar test problem in relativistic hydrodynamics. The analytical solution to the special relativistic shock-tube problem is presented here. The relativistic shock-jump conditions and rarefaction solution which make up the shock tube are derived. The Newtonian limit of the calculations is given throughout.

  11. Hydrodynamic approaches in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derradi de Souza, R.; Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation to the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to be answered to clarify the physics of collective phenomena in the relativistic heavy ion collisions are pointed out.

  12. Relativistic calculations of induced polarization in 12C(e,e'p-->) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, J. I.; Sherif, H. S.

    1999-06-01

    Relativistic calculations of the induced proton polarization in quasifree electron scattering on 12C are presented. Good agreement with the experimental data of Woo et al. is obtained. The relativistic calculations yield a somewhat better description of the data than the nonrelativistic ones. Differences between the two approaches are more pronounced at larger missing momenta suggesting further experimental work in this region.

  13. Physical stress, mass, and energy for non-relativistic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M.

    2017-06-01

    For theories of relativistic matter fields there exist two possible definitions of the stress-energy tensor, one defined by a variation of the action with the coframes at fixed connection, and the other at fixed torsion. These two stress-energy tensors do not necessarily coincide and it is the latter that corresponds to the Cauchy stress measured in the lab. In this note we discuss the corresponding issue for non-relativistic matter theories. We point out that while the physical non-relativistic stress, momentum, and mass currents are defined by a variation of the action at fixed torsion, the energy current does not admit such a description and is naturally defined at fixed connection. Any attempt to define an energy current at fixed torsion results in an ambiguity which cannot be resolved from the background spacetime data or conservation laws. We also provide computations of these quantities for some simple non-relativistic actions.

  14. Causal dissipation for the relativistic dynamics of ideal gases.

    PubMed

    Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake

    2017-05-01

    We derive a general class of relativistic dissipation tensors by requiring that, combined with the relativistic Euler equations, they form a second-order system of partial differential equations which is symmetric hyperbolic in a second-order sense when written in the natural Godunov variables that make the Euler equations symmetric hyperbolic in the first-order sense. We show that this class contains a unique element representing a causal formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics which (i) is equivalent to the classical descriptions by Eckart and Landau to first order in the coefficients of viscosity and heat conduction and (ii) has its signal speeds bounded sharply by the speed of light. Based on these properties, we propose this system as a natural candidate for the relativistic counterpart of the classical Navier-Stokes equations.

  15. Causal dissipation for the relativistic dynamics of ideal gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake

    2017-05-01

    We derive a general class of relativistic dissipation tensors by requiring that, combined with the relativistic Euler equations, they form a second-order system of partial differential equations which is symmetric hyperbolic in a second-order sense when written in the natural Godunov variables that make the Euler equations symmetric hyperbolic in the first-order sense. We show that this class contains a unique element representing a causal formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics which (i) is equivalent to the classical descriptions by Eckart and Landau to first order in the coefficients of viscosity and heat conduction and (ii) has its signal speeds bounded sharply by the speed of light. Based on these properties, we propose this system as a natural candidate for the relativistic counterpart of the classical Navier-Stokes equations.

  16. The Relativistic Rocket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  17. Radiation from Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Sol, H.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Fishman, G. J.; Preece, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electron-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the presence of relativistic jets, instabilities such as the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability create collisionless shocks, which are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons in small-scale magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation, a case of diffusive synchrotron radiation, may be important to understand the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  18. Relativistic impulse dynamics.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Stanley M

    2011-08-01

    Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.

  19. The Relativistic Rocket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  20. Relativistic effects on plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad

    2014-07-15

    The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.

  1. Simulations of Dynamic Relativistic Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfrey, Kyle Patrick

    Neutron stars and black holes are generally surrounded by magnetospheres of highly conducting plasma in which the magnetic flux density is so high that hydrodynamic forces are irrelevant. In this vanishing-inertia—or ultra-relativistic—limit, magnetohydrodynamics becomes force-free electrodynamics, a system of equations comprising only the magnetic and electric fields, and in which the plasma response is effected by a nonlinear current density term. In this dissertation I describe a new pseudospectral simulation code, designed for studying the dynamic magnetospheres of compact objects. A detailed description of the code and several numerical test problems are given. I first apply the code to the aligned rotator problem, in which a star with a dipole magnetic field is set rotating about its magnetic axis. The solution evolves to a steady state, which is nearly ideal and dissipationless everywhere except in a current sheet, or magnetic field discontinuity, at the equator, into which electromagnetic energy flows and is dissipated. Magnetars are believed to have twisted magnetospheres, due to internal magnetic evolution which deforms the crust, dragging the footpoints of external magnetic field lines. This twisting may be able to explain both magnetars' persistent hard X-ray emission and their energetic bursts and flares. Using the new code, I simulate the evolution of relativistic magnetospheres subjected to slow twisting through large angles. The field lines expand outward, forming a strong current layer; eventually the configuration loses equilibrium and a dynamic rearrangement occurs, involving large-scale rapid magnetic reconnection and dissipation of the free energy of the twisted magnetic field. When the star is rotating, the magnetospheric twisting leads to a large increase in the stellar spin-down rate, which may take place on the long twisting timescale or in brief explosive events, depending on where the twisting is applied and the history of the system

  2. Self-consistent approach to beta decay and delayed neutron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzov, I. N.

    2016-11-01

    A brief overview of the recent self-consistent studies of nuclear beta decay is given including the relativistic quasi-particle random-phase approximation or QRPA and Finite Amplitude Method. The results of our self-consistent continuum QRPA model based on the density functional description of the ground states are presented. They are in a good agreement with the recent experimental beta-decay half-lives and delayed neutron emission branchings for the nuclei approaching (and beyond) the neutron closed shells N = 50 near 78Ni and N = 82 near 132Sn. A comparison with the recent calculations from relativistic QRPA model, Finite Amplitude Method and semi-microscopic finite-range droplet model is performed. An importance of the quasi-particle phonon coupling is stressed for the description of the beta decay and delayed multi-neutron emission rates. A strategy of extending our approach to the deformed nuclei and the open problems are discussed.

  3. Self-consistent approach to beta decay and delayed neutron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Borzov, I. N.

    2016-11-15

    A brief overview of the recent self-consistent studies of nuclear beta decay is given including the relativistic quasi-particle random-phase approximation or QRPA and Finite Amplitude Method. The results of our self-consistent continuum QRPA model based on the density functional description of the ground states are presented. They are in a good agreement with the recent experimental beta-decay half-lives and delayed neutron emission branchings for the nuclei approaching (and beyond) the neutron closed shells N = 50 near {sup 78}Ni and N = 82 near {sup 132}Sn. A comparison with the recent calculations from relativistic QRPA model, Finite Amplitude Method and semi-microscopic finite-range droplet model is performed. An importance of the quasi-particle phonon coupling is stressed for the description of the beta decay and delayed multi-neutron emission rates. A strategy of extending our approach to the deformed nuclei and the open problems are discussed.

  4. Relativistic electrons in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simnett, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning relativistic electrons, above 0.3 MeV, in interplanetary space, as measured by detectors on board satellites operating beyond the influence of the magnetosphere. The electrons have a galactic component, which at the lower energies is subject both to solar modulation and to spasmodic 'quiet time' increases and a direct solar component correlated with flare activity. The recent measurements have established the form of the differential energy spectrum of solar flare electrons. Electrons have been detected from flares behind the visible solar disk. Relativistic electrons do not appear to leave the sun at the time of the flash phase of the flare, although there are several signatures of electron acceleration at this time. The delay is interpreted as taking place during the transport of the electrons through the lower corona.

  5. Relativistic Pseudospin Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ginocchio, Joseph N.

    2011-05-06

    We show that the pseudospin symmetry that Akito Arima discovered many years ago (with collaborators) is a symmetry of the the Dirac Hamiltonian for which the sum of the scalar and vector potentials are a constant. In this paper we discuss some of the implications of this relativistic symmetry and the experimental data that support these predictions. In his original paper Akito also discussed pseudo-U(3) symmetry. We show that pseudo-U(3) symmetry is a symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian for which the sum of harmonic oscillator vector and scalar potentials are equal to a constant, and we give the generators of pseudo-U(3) symmetry. Going beyond the mean field we summarize new results on non relativistic shell model Hamiltonians that have pseudospin symmetry and pseudo-orbital angular momentum symmetry as a dynamical symmetries.

  6. Relativistic statistical arbitrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander; Freer, Cameron

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in high-frequency financial trading have made light propagation delays between geographically separated exchanges relevant. Here we show that there exist optimal locations from which to coordinate the statistical arbitrage of pairs of spacelike separated securities, and calculate a representative map of such locations on Earth. Furthermore, trading local securities along chains of such intermediate locations results in a novel econophysical effect, in which the relativistic propagation of tradable information is effectively slowed or stopped by arbitrage.

  7. Relativistic statistical arbitrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.

    2010-11-01

    Recent advances in high-frequency financial trading have made light propagation delays between geographically separated exchanges relevant. Here we show that there exist optimal locations from which to coordinate the statistical arbitrage of pairs of spacelike separated securities, and calculate a representative map of such locations on Earth. Furthermore, trading local securities along chains of such intermediate locations results in a novel econophysical effect, in which the relativistic propagation of tradable information is effectively slowed or stopped by arbitrage.

  8. Local relativistic exact decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Daoling; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-01

    We present a systematic hierarchy of approximations for local exact decoupling of four-component quantum chemical Hamiltonians based on the Dirac equation. Our ansatz reaches beyond the trivial local approximation that is based on a unitary transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal part of the Hamiltonian. Systematically, off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix blocks can be subjected to a unitary transformation to yield relativistically corrected matrix elements. The full hierarchy is investigated with respect to the accuracy reached for the electronic energy and for selected molecular properties on a balanced test molecule set that comprises molecules with heavy elements in different bonding situations. Our atomic (local) assembly of the unitary exact-decoupling transformation—called local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU)—provides an excellent local approximation for any relativistic exact-decoupling approach. Its order-N2 scaling can be further reduced to linear scaling by employing a neighboring-atomic-blocks approximation. Therefore, DLU is an efficient relativistic method well suited for relativistic calculations on large molecules. If a large molecule contains many light atoms (typically hydrogen atoms), the computational costs can be further reduced by employing a well-defined nonrelativistic approximation for these light atoms without significant loss of accuracy. We also demonstrate that the standard and straightforward transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal entries in the Hamiltonian—denoted diagonal local approximation to the Hamiltonian (DLH) in this paper—introduces an error that is on the order of the error of second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (i.e., DKH2) when compared with exact-decoupling results. Hence, the local DLH approximation would be pointless in an exact-decoupling framework, but can be efficiently employed in combination with the fast to evaluate DKH2 Hamiltonian in order to speed up calculations

  9. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  10. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like) galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s-1 at peak), rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds) and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ˜ 2 - 5), created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  11. Relativistic gravity gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-12-01

    In general relativity, relativistic gravity gradiometry involves the measurement of the relativistic tidal matrix, which is theoretically obtained from the projection of the Riemann curvature tensor onto the orthonormal tetrad frame of an observer. The observer's 4-velocity vector defines its local temporal axis and its local spatial frame is defined by a set of three orthonormal nonrotating gyro directions. The general tidal matrix for the timelike geodesics of Kerr spacetime has been calculated by Marck [Proc. R. Soc. A 385, 431 (1983)]. We are interested in the measured components of the curvature tensor along the inclined "circular" geodesic orbit of a test mass about a slowly rotating astronomical object of mass M and angular momentum J . Therefore, we specialize Marck's results to such a "circular" orbit that is tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the Kerr source. To linear order in J , we recover the gravitomagnetic beating phenomenon [B. Mashhoon and D. S. Theiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1542 (1982)], where the beat frequency is the frequency of geodetic precession. The beat effect shows up as a special long-period gravitomagnetic part of the relativistic tidal matrix; moreover, the effect's short-term manifestations are contained in certain post-Newtonian secular terms. The physical interpretation of this effect is briefly discussed.

  12. A relativistic gravity train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Edward

    2017-08-01

    A nonrelativistic particle released from rest at the edge of a ball of uniform charge density or mass density oscillates with simple harmonic motion. We consider the relativistic generalizations of these situations where the particle can attain speeds arbitrarily close to the speed of light; generalizing the electrostatic and gravitational cases requires special and general relativity, respectively. We find exact closed-form relations between the position, proper time, and coordinate time in both cases, and find that they are no longer harmonic, with oscillation periods that depend on the amplitude. In the highly relativistic limit of both cases, the particle spends almost all of its proper time near the turning points, but almost all of the coordinate time moving through the bulk of the ball. Buchdahl's theorem imposes nontrivial constraints on the general-relativistic case, as a ball of given density can only attain a finite maximum radius before collapsing into a black hole. This article is intended to be pedagogical, and should be accessible to those who have taken an undergraduate course in general relativity.

  13. Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klink, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.

  14. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Hadden, Samuel

    2012-02-01

    We derive a number of solutions for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: A system of highly nonlinear, relativistic, time-dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.

  15. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Hadden, Samuel

    2012-02-01

    We derive a number of solutions for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: A system of highly nonlinear, relativistic, time-dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.

  16. General relativistic screening in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Oliver; Paranjape, Aseem

    2016-10-01

    We revisit the issue of interpreting the results of large volume cosmological simulations in the context of large-scale general relativistic effects. We look for simple modifications to the nonlinear evolution of the gravitational potential ψ that lead on large scales to the correct, fully relativistic description of density perturbations in the Newtonian gauge. We note that the relativistic constraint equation for ψ can be cast as a diffusion equation, with a diffusion length scale determined by the expansion of the Universe. Exploiting the weak time evolution of ψ in all regimes of interest, this equation can be further accurately approximated as a Helmholtz equation, with an effective relativistic "screening" scale ℓ related to the Hubble radius. We demonstrate that it is thus possible to carry out N-body simulations in the Newtonian gauge by replacing Poisson's equation with this Helmholtz equation, involving a trivial change in the Green's function kernel. Our results also motivate a simple, approximate (but very accurate) gauge transformation—δN(k )≈δsim(k )×(k2+ℓ-2)/k2 —to convert the density field δsim of standard collisionless N -body simulations (initialized in the comoving synchronous gauge) into the Newtonian gauge density δN at arbitrary times. A similar conversion can also be written in terms of particle positions. Our results can be interpreted in terms of a Jeans stability criterion induced by the expansion of the Universe. The appearance of the screening scale ℓ in the evolution of ψ , in particular, leads to a natural resolution of the "Jeans swindle" in the presence of superhorizon modes.

  17. Unstable particles in non-relativistic quantum mechanics?

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Coronado, H.

    2011-10-14

    The Schroedinger equation is up-to-a-phase invariant under the Galilei group. This phase leads to the Bargmann's superselection rule, which forbids the existence of the superposition of states with different mass and implies that unstable particles cannot be described consistently in non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). In this paper we claim that Bargmann's rule neglects physical effects and that a proper description of non-relativistic quantum mechanics requires to take into account this phase through the Extended Galilei group and the definition of its action on spacetime coordinates.

  18. Relativistic Energy Density Functionals: Exotic modes of excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Vretenar, D.; Paar, N.; Marketin, T.

    2008-11-11

    The framework of relativistic energy density functionals has been applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of {beta}-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure have been investigated with the relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation. We present results for the evolution of low-lying dipole (pygmy) strength in neutron-rich nuclei, and charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross sections.

  19. Effective photon mass and exact translating quantum relativistic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Fernando Manrique, Marcos Antonio Albarracin

    2016-04-15

    Using a variation of the celebrated Volkov solution, the Klein-Gordon equation for a charged particle is reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations, exactly solvable in specific cases. The new quantum relativistic structures can reveal a localization in the radial direction perpendicular to the wave packet propagation, thanks to a non-vanishing scalar potential. The external electromagnetic field, the particle current density, and the charge density are determined. The stability analysis of the solutions is performed by means of numerical simulations. The results are useful for the description of a charged quantum test particle in the relativistic regime, provided spin effects are not decisive.

  20. Relativistic Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosler, Dominic

    In this Ph.D. thesis, I investigate the communication abilities of non-inertial observers and the precision to which they can measure parametrized states. I introduce relativistic quantum field theory with field quantisation, and the definition and transformations of mode functions in Minkowski, Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces. I introduce information theory by discussing the nature of information, defining the entropic information measures, and highlighting the differences between classical and quantum information. I review the field of relativistic quantum information. We investigate the communication abilities of an inertial observer to a relativistic observer hovering above a Schwarzschild black hole, using the Rindler approximation. We compare both classical communication and quantum entanglement generation of the state merging protocol, for both the single and dual rail encodings. We find that while classical communication remains finite right up to the horizon, the quantum entanglement generation tends to zero. We investigate the observers' abilities to precisely measure the parameter of a state that is communicated between Alice and Rob. This parameter was encoded to either the amplitudes of a single excitation state or the phase of a NOON state. With NOON states the dual rail encoding provided greater precision, which is different to the results for the other situations. The precision was maximum for a particular number of excitations in the NOON state. We calculated the bipartite communication for Alice-Rob and Alice-AntiRob beyond the single mode approximation. Rob and AntiRob are causally disconnected counter-accelerating observers. We found that Alice must choose in advance with whom, Rob or AntiRob she wants to create entanglement using a particular setup. She could communicate classically to both.

  1. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of a relativistic gas at the transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo

    2016-11-01

    The Jüttner distribution function for equilibrium relativistic fluids has two well-known limits, the non-relativistic limit at low temperatures and ultra-relativistic limit for high temperatures. Recently, the description of this transition in velocity space in the system, from a gaussian to a bimodal distribution was made by Mendoza et al. Physically, it is a transition between a regime where the relativistic energy is dominated by kinetic to another where the rest energy dominates. It has been found that the critical temperature at which the relativistic corrections becomes relevant, depends just on the dimension of the system, this allowed a description in terms of the theory of critical points (Montakhab et al.). In this contribution a review of the thermodynamic quantities that are only dependent on the ratio between temperature and critical temperature, and the dimension is made. We will also analyze the effects of critical temperature on dissipative processes in simple special relativistic fluids. Particularly, purely relativistic terms that are usually proportional to the number density gradient are studied. The transport coefficients can be written in terms of the transition temperature, this will allow us to identify the lower order relativistic effects just in terms of the dimension of the system.

  2. Modeling relativistic nuclear collisions.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderlik, C.; Magas, V.; Strottman, D.; Csernai, L. P.

    2001-01-01

    Modeling Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisioiis at RHIC and LHC energies using a Multi Module Model is presented. The first Module is the Effective String Rope Model for the calculation of the initial stages of the reaction; the output of this module is used as the initial state for the subsequent one-fluid hydrodynainical calculation module. It is shown that such an initial state leads to the creation of the third flow component. The hydrodynamical evolution of the energy density distribution is presented for RHIC energies. The final module describing the Freeze Out; and Hadronization is also discussed.

  3. The relativist stance.

    PubMed

    Rössler, O E; Matsuno, K

    1998-04-01

    The two mindsets of absolutism and relativism are juxtaposed, and the relational or relativist stance is vindicated. The only 'absolute' entity which undeniably exists, consciousness has the reality of a dream. The escape hatch from this prison is relational, as Descartes and Levinas found out: Unfalsified relational consistency implies exteriority. Exteriority implies infinite power which in turn makes compassion inevitable. Aside from ethics as a royal way to enlightenment, a new technology called 'deep technology' may be accessible. It changes the whole world in a demonstrable fashion by manipulation of the micro frame--that is, the observer-world interface.

  4. Relativistic quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, R. B.; Ralph, T. C.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past few years, a new field of high research intensity has emerged that blends together concepts from gravitational physics and quantum computing. Known as relativistic quantum information, or RQI, the field aims to understand the relationship between special and general relativity and quantum information. Since the original discoveries of Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect, it has been known that incorporating the concepts of quantum theory into relativistic settings can produce new and surprising effects. However it is only in recent years that it has become appreciated that the basic concepts involved in quantum information science undergo significant revision in relativistic settings, and that new phenomena arise when quantum entanglement is combined with relativity. A number of examples illustrate that point. Quantum teleportation fidelity is affected between observers in uniform relative acceleration. Entanglement is an observer-dependent property that is degraded from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Entanglement can also be extracted from the vacuum of relativistic quantum field theories, and used to distinguish peculiar motion from cosmological expansion. The new quantum information-theoretic framework of quantum channels in terms of completely positive maps and operator algebras now provides powerful tools for studying matters of causality and information flow in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. This focus issue provides a sample of the state of the art in research in RQI. Some of the articles in this issue review the subject while others provide interesting new results that will stimulate further research. What makes the subject all the more exciting is that it is beginning to enter the stage at which actual experiments can be contemplated, and some of the articles appearing in this issue discuss some of these exciting new developments. The subject of RQI pulls together concepts and ideas from

  5. Republication of: Relativistic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, H. P.

    2012-08-01

    This is a reprinting of the paper by Howard Percy Robertson, first published in 1933 in Rev. Mod. Phys., that is a very authoritative summary of relativistic cosmology at the stage at which it was up to 1933. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by George Ellis, and by Robertson's biography, compiled by Andrzej Krasinski from printed sources.

  6. Relativistic quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, Jedrzej

    Special relativity states that information cannot travel faster than the speed of light, which means that communication between agents occupying distinct locations incurs some minimal delay. Alternatively, we can see it as temporary communication constraints between distinct agents and such constraints turn out to be useful for cryptographic purposes. In relativistic cryptography we consider protocols in which interactions occur at distinct locations at well-defined times and we investigate why such a setting allows to implement primitives which would not be possible otherwise. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  7. Ultrabaric relativistic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, G.; Weiss, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ultrabaric superfluid solutions are obtained for Einstein's equations to examine the possibility of the existence of superluminal sound speeds. The discussion is restricted only by requiring the energy-momentum tensor and the equation of state of matter to be represented by full relativistic equations. Only a few universes are known to satisfy the conditions, and those exhibit tension and are inflationary. Superluminal sound velocities are shown, therefore, to be possible for the interior Schwarzchild metric, which has been used to explain the red shift of quasars, and the Stephiani solution (1967). The latter indicates repeated transitions between superluminal and subliminal sound velocities in the hyperbaric superfluid of the early universe.

  8. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  9. A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Andreas F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…

  10. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  11. A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Andreas F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…

  12. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauser, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  13. Relativistic Continuum Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grineviciute, Janina; Halderson, Dean

    2011-04-01

    The R-matrix formalism of Lane and Thomas has been extended to the relativistic case so that the many-coupled channels problem may be solved for systems in which binary breakup channels satisfy a relative Dirac equation. The formalism was previously applied to the relativistic impulse approximation RIA and now we applied it to Quantum Hadrodynamics QHD in the continuum Tamm-Dancoff approximation TDA with the classical meson fields replaced by one-meson exchange potentials. None of the published QHD parameters provide a decent fit to the 15 N + p elastic cross section. The deficiency is also evident in inability of the QHD parameters with the one meson exchange potentials to reproduce the QHD single particle energies. Results with alternate parameters sets are presented. A. M. Lane and R. G. Thomas, R-Matrix Theory of Nuclear Reactions, Reviews of Modern Physics, 30 (1958) 257

  14. Robust relativistic bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.

  15. Relativistic harmonic oscillator revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, Itzhak

    2009-02-15

    The familiar Fock space commonly used to describe the relativistic harmonic oscillator, for example, as part of string theory, is insufficient to describe all the states of the relativistic oscillator. We find that there are three different vacua leading to three disconnected Fock sectors, all constructed with the same creation-annihilation operators. These have different spacetime geometric properties as well as different algebraic symmetry properties or different quantum numbers. Two of these Fock spaces include negative norm ghosts (as in string theory), while the third one is completely free of ghosts. We discuss a gauge symmetry in a worldline theory approach that supplies appropriate constraints to remove all the ghosts from all Fock sectors of the single oscillator. The resulting ghost-free quantum spectrum in d+1 dimensions is then classified in unitary representations of the Lorentz group SO(d,1). Moreover, all states of the single oscillator put together make up a single infinite dimensional unitary representation of a hidden global symmetry SU(d,1), whose Casimir eigenvalues are computed. Possible applications of these new results in string theory and other areas of physics and mathematics are briefly mentioned.

  16. Bremsstrahlung spectra from atoms and ions at low relativistic energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N. B.; Pratt, R. H.

    1999-09-01

    Analytic expressions for bremsstrahlung spectra from neutral atoms and ions, including the polarizational bremsstrahlung contribution in a stripped atom approximation, are developed for electron scattering at energies of 10-2000 keV. A modified Elwert factor and a simple higher Born correction are used for the Coulomb spectrum, with ordinary bremsstrahlung screening effects in ions and atoms adequately characterized in the non-relativistic Born approximation. In parallel with the development of this analytic description, new numerical results are obtained for ordinary bremsstrahlung from ions and from bare nuclei, appreciably extending the available data set which can be used to study dependences on element, ionicity, energy and the fraction of incident energy radiated. The accuracy of predictions with the analytic expressions is then determined by comparison with the full numerical relativistic partial-wave results for ordinary bremsstrahlung and with non-relativistic numerical results in the Born approximation or in partial waves for the polarizational amplitude.

  17. The relation between relativistic and non-relativistic continuum thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellstede, G. O.; von Borzeszkowski, H.-H.; Chrobok, T.; Muschik, W.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the relativistic theory of irreversible processes with the aim to answer the following questions: (1) Under which conditions is this theory a relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic theory of irreversible processes (in particular, this implies to ask for the conditions under which the first law of thermodynamics can be recovered from the relativistic conservation law of total energy), and (2) how do the relativistic corrections look like? To this end, we perform a low-energy approximation for the balance equations underlying the theory, i.e., for the balances of the particle number, the energy-momentum and the entropy. It is shown that, going up to the 3rd order in the expansion series of the balances, the non-relativistic theory can be derived when one assumes that the 4-current of the particle flow is purely convective and the product of the 3-dimensional acceleration and velocity is equal to zero. Afterwards, the higher-order terms are discussed. Since our discussion mainly makes use of those balance equations that lie on the basis of most versions of continuum thermodynamics, the results do not only refer to early TIP presented by Eckart (Phys Rev 58:919, 1940) and Landau and Lifshitz (Fluid mechanics. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1940), but also to its extended and/or general-relativistic versions.

  18. Relativistic effects in photon-induced near field electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Tae; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2012-11-26

    Electrons and photons, when interacting via a nanostructure, produce a new way of imaging in space and time, termed photon-induced near field electron microscopy or PINEM [Barwick et al. Nature 2009, 462, 902]. The phenomenon was described by considering the evanescent field produced by the nanostructure, but quantification of the experimental results was achieved by solving the Schrödinger equation for the interaction of the three bodies. The question remained, is the nonrelativistic formulation sufficient for this description? Here, relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum mechanical formulations are compared for electron-photon interaction mediated by nanostructures, and it is shown that there is an exact equivalence for the two formulations. The nonrelativistic formulation was found to be valid in the relativistic regime when using in the former formulation the relativistically corrected velocity (and the corresponding values of momentum and energy). In the PINEM experiment, 200 keV electrons were utilized, giving the experimental (relativistically corrected) velocity to be 0.7c(v without relativistic correction is 0.885c). When this value (0.7c), together with those of the corresponding momentum (p(c) = mv) and energy (E(c) = (1/2)mv(2)), is used in the first order solution of the Schrödinger formulation, an exact equivalence is obtained.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Relativistic Fireballs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piran, Tsvi; Shemi, Amotz; Narayan, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Many models of gamma-ray bursts involve a fireball, which is an optically thick concentration of radiation energy with a high ratio of energy density to rest mass. We examine analytically and numerically the evolution of a relativistic fireball. We show that, after an early rearrangement phase, most of the matter and energy in the fireball is concentrated within a narrow shell. The shell propagates at nearly the speed of light, with a frozen radial profile, and according to a simple set of scaling laws. The spectrum of the escaping radiation is harder at early times and softer later on. Depending on the initial energy-to-mass ratio, the final outcome of a fireball is either photons with roughly the initial temperature or ultrarelativistic baryons. In the latter case, the energy could be converted back to gamma-rays via interaction with surrounding material.

  20. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumberg, Victor A.

    2010-08-01

    Relativistic celestial mechanics (RCM) refers to a science to study the motion of celestial bodies within the framework of general relativity theory (GRT) by Einstein. Being a straightforward successor of Newtonian celestial mechanics RCM embraces all aspects of motion of celestial bodies including (1) physics of motion, i.e. investigation of the physical nature of all effects influencing the motion of celestial bodies and formulation of a physical model for a specific problem; (2) mathematics of motion, i.e. investigation of the mathematical characteristics of the solutions of the differential equations of motion of celestial bodies; (3) computation of motion, i.e. the actual determination of the quantitative characteristics of motion; (4) astronomy of motion, i.e. application of mathematical solution of a problem to a specific celestial body, comparison with the results of observations, determination of initial values and parameters of motion, and checking the physical and mathematical models employed for a given problem.

  1. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1985-06-01

    This paper constructs a relativistic theory of gravitation based on the special principle of relativity and the principle of geometrization. The gravitational field is regarded as a physical field in the spirit of Faraday and Maxwell, possessing energy, momentum, and spin 2 and 0. The source of the gravitational field is the total conserved energy momentum tensor of the matter and the gravitational field in Minkowski space. Conservation laws hold rigorously for the energy, momentum, and angular momentum of the matter and the gravitational field. The theory explains all the existing gravitational experiments. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemann space has a field origin in the theory, arising as an effective force space through the action of the gravitational field on the matter.

  2. Photodetachment of relativistic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, J.B.; Gram, P.A.M.; Hamm, M.E.; Hamm, R.W.; Bryant, H.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Clark, D.A.; Frost, C.A.; Smith, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    A series of fundamental laser ion beam experiments has been made feasible by the high-quality, relativistic (..beta.. = 0.842) H/sup -/ ion beam available at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The relatavistic Doppler shift of the light from an ordinary ultraviolet laser provides what is, in effect, a continuously tunable vacuum-ultraviolet laser in the rest frame of the moving ions. The Lorentz transformation of a modest laboratory magnetic field provides an electric field of several megavolts/centimeter. The latest results of photo-detachment work with H/sup -/ beams and our spectroscopic work with H/sup 0/ beams are presented. Plans for future work are discussed.

  3. Processes in relativistic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of a Boltzmann distribution in particle kinetic energies is investigated for a plasma with theta = KTe/mc-squared much greater than unity, where m is the electron mass. It is shown that thermalization of the electron gas by binary collisions is not sufficiently effective to maintain the equilibrium distribution when other processes that perturb the equilibrium are taken into account. Electron-positron pair production in electron-electron and electron-ion collisions, and perturbations of a Boltzmann distribution by nonthermal processes are evaluated. Thermalization by means of other mechanisms, such as interaction with plasma waves is discussed, and the opacity of a relativistic plasma is computed for Compton scattering, pair production in the fields of electrons and ions, inverse bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron self-absorption.

  4. Relativistic Light Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David

    2017-06-01

    One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot, we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ˜10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.

  5. Some problems in relativistic thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Veitsman, E. V.

    2007-11-15

    The relativistic equations of state for ideal and real gases, as well as for various interface regions, have been derived. These dependences help to eliminate some controversies in the relativistic thermodynamics based on the special theory of relativity. It is shown, in particular, that the temperature of system whose velocity tends to the velocity of light in vacuum varies in accordance with the Ott law T = T{sub 0}/{radical}1 - v{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. Relativistic dependences for heat and mass transfer, for Ohm's law, and for a viscous flow of a liquid have also been derived.

  6. Towards Understanding the Physics of Collisionless Relativistic Shocks. Relativistic Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Guy; Bykov, Andrei; Ellison, Don; Lemoine, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Relativistic astrophysical collisionless shocks represent outstanding dissipation agents of the huge power of relativistic outflows produced by accreting black holes, core collapsed supernovae and other objects into multi-messenger radiation (cosmic rays, neutrinos, electromagnetic radiation). This article provides a theoretical discussion of the fundamental physical ingredients of these extreme phenomena. In the context of weakly magnetized shocks, in particular, it is shown how the filamentation type instabilities, which develop in the precursor of pair dominated or electron-ion shocks, provide the seeds for the scattering of high energy particles as well as the agent which preheats and slows down the incoming precursor plasma. This analytical discussion is completed with a mesoscopic, non-linear model of particle acceleration in relativistic shocks based on Monte Carlo techniques. This Monte Carlo model uses a semi-phenomenological description of particle scattering which allows it to calculate the back-reaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure on length and momentum scales which are currently beyond the range of microscopic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations.

  7. Mixing of relativistic ideal gases with relative relativistic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Narvaez, R. E.; Ares de Parga, A. M.; Ares de Parga, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Redefined Relativistic Thermodynamics is tested by means of mixing two ideal gases at different temperatures and distinct velocities. The conservation of the 4-vector energy-momentum leads to a tremendous increment of the temperature. This phenomenon can be used in order to describe the heating of a cold clump with shocked jets material. A prediction for improving the ignition of a Tokamak is proposed. The compatibility of the Redefined Relativistic Thermodynamics with the Thermodynamical Field Theory is analyzed.

  8. The mechanics of relativistic space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirov, U. N.

    The relativistic mechanics of an artificial space body with a variable rest mass is presented in a systematic manner. In particular, attention is given to the principles of Lobachevskii geometry, Riemann geometry, and relativity; general Lorentz transformations and relativistic kinematics; the principal theorems of the relativistic mechanics of a space vehicle in spherically symmetric gravitational fields; and the relativistic motion of a space vehicle with jet propulsion. Possible applications of relativistic mechanics are examined.

  9. Generalized quantum similarity in atomic systems: A quantifier of relativistic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, A. L.; Angulo, J. C.; Antolín, J.; López-Rosa, S.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum similarity between Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Fock electron densities reveals the depth of relativistic effects on the core and valence regions in atomic systems. The results emphasize the relevance of differences in the outermost subshells, as pointed out in recent studies by means of Shannon-like functionals. In this work, a generalized similarity functional allows us to go far beyond the Shannon-based analyses. The numerical results for systems throughout the Periodic Table show that discrepancies between the relativistic and non-relativistic descriptions are patently governed by shell-filling patterns.

  10. Relativistic Lagrangian displacement field and tensor perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampf, Cornelius; Wiegand, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the purely spatial Lagrangian coordinate transformation from the Lagrangian to the basic Eulerian frame. We demonstrate three techniques for extracting the relativistic displacement field from a given solution in the Lagrangian frame. These techniques are (a) from defining a local set of Eulerian coordinates embedded into the Lagrangian frame; (b) from performing a specific gauge transformation; and (c) from a fully nonperturbative approach based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) split. The latter approach shows that this decomposition is not tied to a specific perturbative formulation for the solution of the Einstein equations. Rather, it can be defined at the level of the nonperturbative coordinate change from the Lagrangian to the Eulerian description. Studying such different techniques is useful because it allows us to compare and develop further the various approximation techniques available in the Lagrangian formulation. We find that one has to solve the gravitational wave equation in the relativistic analysis, otherwise the corresponding Newtonian limit will necessarily contain spurious nonpropagating tensor artifacts at second order in the Eulerian frame. We also derive the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor in the Lagrangian frame, and find that it is not only excited by gravitational waves but also by tensor perturbations which are induced through the nonlinear frame dragging. We apply our findings to calculate for the first time the relativistic displacement field, up to second order, for a Λ CDM Universe in the presence of a local primordial non-Gaussian component. Finally, we also comment on recent claims about whether mass conservation in the Lagrangian frame is violated.

  11. Relativistic Electron Beams Above Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, Martin; Roussel-Dupre, Robert; Symbalisty, Eugene; Chanrion, Olivier; van der Velde, Oscar; Soula, Serge; Odzimek, Anna; Bennett, Alec; Whitley, Toby; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that lightning discharges generate upward-directed relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. This extends the phenomenon of relativistic runaway breakdown believed to occur inside thunderclouds to the atmosphere above thunderclouds. This marks a profound advance in our understanding of the atmosphere because we now know it acts as a giant, natural, particle accelerator. The accelerated electrons can reach significant relativistic energies of some MeV during their passage from the troposphere, through the middle atmosphere, into near-Earth space. These relativistic electron beams constitute a current above thunderclouds and effectively transfer energy from the troposphere to the middle atmosphere. This coupling process thereby forms a novel element of the global atmospheric electric circuit which links tropospheric thunderclouds to the atmosphere above. This contribution describes the radio remote sensing of upward electron beams to determine their occurrence frequency and to characterise their physical properites.

  12. Relativistic Transformation of Solid Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Rederives the relativistic transformations of light intensity from compact sources (stars) to show where and how the transformation of a solid angle contributes. Discusses astrophysical and other applications of the transformations. (Author/CS)

  13. Superposition as a Relativistic Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ord, G. N.

    2017-07-01

    By associating a binary signal with the relativistic worldline of a particle, a binary form of the phase of non-relativistic wavefunctions is naturally produced by time dilation. An analog of superposition also appears as a Lorentz filtering process, removing paths that are relativistically inequivalent. In a model that includes a stochastic component, the free-particle Schrödinger equation emerges from a completely relativistic context in which its origin and function is known. The result establishes the fact that the phase of wavefunctions in Schrödinger's equation and the attendant superposition principle may both be considered remnants of time dilation. This strongly argues that quantum mechanics has its origins in special relativity.

  14. Relativistic effects in atom gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2017-01-01

    Atom interferometry is currently developing rapidly, which is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. Thus, it is extremely significant to develop a general relativistic model for atom interferometers. In this paper, we mainly present an analytical derivation process and first give a complete vectorial expression for the relativistic interferometric phase shift in an atom interferometer. The dynamics of the interferometer are studied, where both the atoms and the light are treated relativistically. Then, an appropriate coordinate transformation for the light is performed crucially to simplify the calculation. In addition, the Bordé A B C D matrix combined with quantum mechanics and the "perturbation" approach are applied to make a methodical calculation for the total phase shift. Finally, we derive the relativistic phase shift kept up to a sensitivity of the acceleration ˜1 0-14 m/s 2 for a 10 -m -long atom interferometer.

  15. Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.

  16. High order harmonics from relativistic electron spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Kando, Masaki; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Gallegos, Pablo; Ahmed, Hamad; Ragozin, Eugene N.; Faenov, Anatoly Ya; Pikuz, Tatiana A.; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Sagisaka, Akito; Koga, James K.; Coury, Mireille; Green, James; Foster, Peta; Brenner, Ceri; Dromey, Brendan; Symes, Dan R.; Mori, Michiaki; Kawase, Keigo; Kameshima, Takashi; Fukuda, Yuji; Chen, Liming; Daito, Izuru; Ogura, Koichi; Hayashi, Yukio; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Okada, Hajime; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Imazono, Takashi; Kondo, Kiminori; Kimura, Toyoaki; Tajima, Toshiki; Daido, Hiroyuki; Rajeev, Pattathil; McKenna, Paul; Borghesi, Marco; Neely, David; Kato, Yoshiaki; Bulanov, Sergei V.

    2014-09-01

    A new regime of relativistic high-order harmonic generation has been discovered (Pirozhkov 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 135004). Multi-terawatt relativistic-irradiance (>1018 W cm-2) femtosecond (˜30-50 fs) lasers focused to underdense (few × 1019 cm-3) plasma formed in gas jet targets produce comb-like spectra with hundreds of even and odd harmonic orders reaching the photon energy of 360 eV, including the ‘water window’ spectral range. Harmonics are generated either by linearly or circularly polarized pulses from the J-KAREN (KPSI, JAEA) and Astra Gemini (CLF, RAL, UK) lasers. The photon number scalability has been demonstrated with a 120 TW laser, producing 40 μJ sr-1 per harmonic at 120 eV. The experimental results are explained using particle-in-cell simulations and catastrophe theory. A new mechanism of harmonic generation by sharp, structurally stable, oscillating electron spikes at the joint of the boundaries of the wake and bow waves excited by a laser pulse is introduced. In this paper, detailed descriptions of the experiments, simulations and model are provided and new features are shown, including data obtained with a two-channel spectrograph, harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser pulses and angular distribution.

  17. Relativistic Electron Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-03-01

    The desire to push recent experiments on electron vortices to higher energies leads to some theoretical difficulties. In particular the simple and very successful picture of phase vortices of vortex charge ℓ associated with ℓℏ units of orbital angular momentum per electron is challenged by the facts that (i) the spin and orbital angular momentum are not separately conserved for a Dirac electron, which suggests that the existence of a spin-orbit coupling will complicate matters, and (ii) that the velocity of a Dirac electron is not simply the gradient of a phase as it is in the Schrödinger theory suggesting that, perhaps, electron vortices might not exist at a fundamental level. We resolve these difficulties by showing that electron vortices do indeed exist in the relativistic theory and show that the charge of such a vortex is simply related to a conserved orbital part of the total angular momentum, closely related to the familiar situation for the orbital angular momentum of a photon.

  18. Relativistic Jets from Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloy, M. A.; Müller, E.; Ibáñez, J. M.; Martí, J. M.; MacFadyen, A.

    2000-03-01

    Using a collapsar progenitor model of MacFadyen & Woosley, we have simulated the propagation of an axisymmetric jet through a collapsing rotating massive star with the GENESIS multidimensional relativistic hydrodynamic code. The jet forms as a consequence of an assumed (constant or variable) energy deposition in the range of 1050-1051 ergs s-1 within a 30 deg cone around the rotation axis. The jet flow is strongly beamed (approximately less than a few degrees), spatially inhomogeneous, and time dependent. The jet reaches the surface of the stellar progenitor (R*=2.98x1010 cm) intact. At breakout, the maximum Lorentz factor of the jet flow is 33. After breakout, the jet accelerates into the circumstellar medium, whose density is assumed to decrease exponentially and then become constant, ρext=10-5 g cm-3. Outside the star, the flow begins to expand laterally also (v~c), but the beam remains very well collimated. At a distance of 2.54 R*, where the simulation ends, the Lorentz factor has increased to 44.

  19. Relativistic Newtonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Mendel Steiner, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    A new Relativistic Newtonian Dynamics (RND) for motion under a conservative force capable to describe non-classical behavior in astronomy is proposed. The rotor experiments using Mössbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, described in the paper, indicate the influence of non-gravitational acceleration or potential energy on time. Similarly, the observed precession of Mercury and the periastron advance of binaries can be explained by the influence of gravitational potential energy on spacetime. The proposed RND incorporates the influence of potential energy on spacetime in Newton’s dynamics. The effect of this influence on time intervals, space increments and velocities is described explicitly by the use of the concept of escape trajectory. For an attracting conservative static potential we derived the RND energy conservation and the dynamics equation for motion of objects with non-zero mass and for massless particles. These equations are subsequently simplified for motion under a central force. Without the need to curve spacetime, this model predicts accurately the four non-classical observations in astronomy used to test the General Relativity.

  20. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter.

  1. Refining a relativistic, hydrodynamic solver: Admitting ultra-relativistic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, J. P.; Hughes, P. A.

    2009-09-01

    We have undertaken the simulation of hydrodynamic flows with bulk Lorentz factors in the range 102-106. We discuss the application of an existing relativistic, hydrodynamic primitive variable recovery algorithm to a study of pulsar winds, and, in particular, the refinement made to admit such ultra-relativistic flows. We show that an iterative quartic root finder breaks down for Lorentz factors above 102 and employ an analytic root finder as a solution. We find that the former, which is known to be robust for Lorentz factors up to at least 50, offers a 24% speed advantage. We demonstrate the existence of a simple diagnostic allowing for a hybrid primitives recovery algorithm that includes an automatic, real-time toggle between the iterative and analytical methods. We further determine the accuracy of the iterative and hybrid algorithms for a comprehensive selection of input parameters and demonstrate the latter’s capability to elucidate the internal structure of ultra-relativistic plasmas. In particular, we discuss simulations showing that the interaction of a light, ultra-relativistic pulsar wind with a slow, dense ambient medium can give rise to asymmetry reminiscent of the Guitar nebula leading to the formation of a relativistic backflow harboring a series of internal shockwaves. The shockwaves provide thermalized energy that is available for the continued inflation of the PWN bubble. In turn, the bubble enhances the asymmetry, thereby providing positive feedback to the backflow.

  2. Holographic View of Non-relativistic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Koushik

    Motivated by the AdS/CFT correspondence for relativistic CFTs, it seems natural to generalize it to non-relativistic CFTs. Such a dual description could provide insight into strong coupling phenomena observed in condensed matter systems. Scale invariance can be realized in non-relativistic theories in many ways. One freedom is the relative scale dimension of time and space, called the dynamical exponent z. In this thesis, we will mainly focus on the case where z = 2, however gravity duals for other values of z have also been found. In the first part of the thesis, we study NRCFTs that are Galilean invariant. Discrete light cone quantization (DLCQ) of N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory is an example of such a system with z = 2 scaling symmetry. A more realistic example of a system with the same set of symmetries is a system of cold fermions at unitarity. These non-relativistic systems respect a symmetry algebra known as the Schrodinger algebra. We propose a gravity dual that realizes the symmetries of the Schrodinger algebra as isometries. An unusual feature of this duality is that the bulk geometry has two extra dimensions than the CFT, instead of the usual one. The additional direction is a compact direction and shift symmetry along this direction corresponds to the particle number transformation. This solution can be embedded into string theory by performing a set of operations (known as the Null-Melvin twist) on AdS 5 x S5 solution of type IIB supergravity. This method also provides a way of finding a black hole solution which has asymptotic Schrodinger symmetries. The field theory dual of these gravity solutions happens to be a modified version of DLCQ N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. The thermodynamics of these theories is very different from that of cold atoms. This happens to be a consequence of realizing the entire Schrodinger group as isometries of the spacetime. We give an example of a holographic realization in which the particle number symmetry is realized as

  3. Relativistic dynamical collapse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearle, Philip

    2015-05-01

    A model is discussed where all operators are constructed from a quantum scalar field whose energy spectrum takes on all real values. The Schrödinger picture wave function depends upon space and time coordinates for each particle, as well as an inexorably increasing evolution parameter s which labels a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces. The model is constructed to be manifestly Lorentz invariant in the interaction picture. Free particle states and interactions are discussed in this framework. Then, the formalism of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) theory of dynamical collapse is applied. The collapse-generating operator is chosen to be the particle number space-time density. Unlike previous relativistically invariant models, the vacuum state is not excited. The collapse dynamics depends upon two parameters, a parameter Λ which represents the collapse rate/volume and a scale factor ℓ. A common example of collapse dynamics, involving a clump of matter in a superposition of two locations, is analyzed. The collapse rate is shown to be identical to that of nonrelativistic CSL when the GRW-CSL choice of ℓ=a =1 0-5 cm , is made, along with Λ =λ /a3 (GRW-CSL choice λ =1 0-16s-1). The collapse rate is also satisfactory with the choice ℓ as the size of the Universe, with Λ =λ /ℓa2. Because the collapse narrows wave functions in space and time, it increases a particle's momentum and energy, altering its mass. It is shown that, with ℓ=a , the change of mass of a nucleon is unacceptably large but, when ℓ is the size of the Universe, the change of mass over the age of the Universe is acceptably small.

  4. Integrable nonlinear relativistic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Yaron

    This work focuses on three nonlinear relativistic equations: the symmetric Chiral field equation, Einstein's field equation for metrics with two commuting Killing vectors and Einstein's field equation for diagonal metrics that depend on three variables. The symmetric Chiral field equation is studied using the Zakharov-Mikhailov transform, with which its infinitely many local conservation laws are derived and its solitons on diagonal backgrounds are studied. It is also proven that it is equivalent to a novel equation that poses a fascinating similarity to the Sinh-Gordon equation. For the 1+1 Einstein equation the Belinski-Zakharov transformation is explored. It is used to derive explicit formula for N gravitational solitons on arbitrary diagonal background. In particular, the method is used to derive gravitational solitons on the Einstein-Rosen background. The similarities and differences between the attributes of the solitons of the symmetric Chiral field equation and those of the 1+1 Einstein equation are emphasized, and their origin is pointed out. For the 1+2 Einstein equation, new equations describing diagonal metrics are derived and their compatibility is proven. Different gravitational waves are studied that naturally extend the class of Bondi-Pirani-Robinson waves. It is further shown that the Bondi-Pirani-Robinson waves are stable with respect to perturbations of the spacetime. Their stability is closely related to the stability of the Schwarzschild black hole and the relation between the two allows to conjecture about the stability of a wide range of gravitational phenomena. Lastly, a new set of equations that describe weak gravitational waves is derived. This new system of equations is closely and fundamentally connected with the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and can be properly called the nonlinear Schrodinger-Einstein equations. A few preliminary solutions are constructed.

  5. Relativistic breakdown in planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, J. R.

    2007-04-15

    In 2003, a new electrical breakdown mechanism involving the production of runaway avalanches by positive feedback from runaway positrons and energetic photons was introduced. This mechanism, which shall be referred to as 'relativistic feedback', allows runaway discharges in gases to become self-sustaining, dramatically increasing the flux of runaway electrons, the accompanying high-energy radiation, and resulting ionization. Using detailed Monte Carlo calculations, properties of relativistic feedback are investigated. It is found that once relativistic feedback fully commences, electrical breakdown will occur and the ambient electric field, extending over cubic kilometers, will be discharged in as little as 2x10{sup -5} s. Furthermore, it is found that the flux of energetic electrons and x rays generated by this mechanism can exceed the flux generated by the standard relativistic runaway electron model by a factor of 10{sup 13}, making relativistic feedback a good candidate for explaining terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and other high-energy phenomena observed in the Earth's atmosphere.

  6. Particle Acceleration at Relativistic and Ultra-Relativistic Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, A.

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using diffusive shock acceleration at relativistic and ultra-relativistic shock waves. High upstream flow gamma factors are used, Γ=(1-uup2/c2)-0.5, which are relevant to models of ultra-relativistic particle shock acceleration in the central engines and relativistic jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) fireballs. Numerical investigations are carried out on acceleration properties in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic flow regime (Γ ˜ 10-1000) concerning angular distributions, acceleration time scales, particle energy gain versus number of crossings and spectral shapes. We perform calculations for both parallel and oblique sub-luminal and super-luminal shocks. For parallel and oblique sub-luminal shocks, the spectra depend on whether or not the scattering is represented by pitch angle diffusion or by large angle scattering. The large angle case exhibits a distinctive structure in the basic power-law spectrum not nearly so obvious for small angle scattering. However, both cases yield a significant 'speed-up' of acceleration rate when compared with the conventional, non-relativistic expression, tacc=[c/(uup-udown)] (λup/uup+λdown/udown). An energization by a factor Γ2 for the first crossing cycle and a large energy gains for subsequent crossings as well as the high 'speed-up' factors found, are important in supporting past works, especially the models developed by Vietri and Waxman on ultra-high energy cosmic ray, neutrino and gamma-ray production in GRB. For oblique super-luminal shocks, we calculate the energy gain and spectral shape for a number of different inclinations. For this case the acceleration of particles is 'pictured' by a shock drift mechanism. We use high gamma flows with Lorentz factors in the range 10-40 which are relevant to ultra-relativistic shocks in AGN accretion disks and jets. In all investigations we closely follow the particle's trajectory along the magnetic field

  7. The relativistic impulse approximation for the exclusive electrodisintegration of the deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S. G. Burov, V. V.; Rogochaya, E. P.; Goy, A. A.

    2007-12-15

    The electrodisintegration of the deuteron in the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter approach with a separable kernel of the nucleon-nucleon interaction is considered. This conception keeps the covariance of a description of the process. The reaction is investigated within the relativistic plane-wave impulse approximation. When the photon-neutron interaction is neglected, the factorization of the cross section into photon-proton and spectator parts is demonstrated. The calculations performed for the cases both with and without the photon-neutron interaction show that the neutron plays an important role. The comparison of the results of relativistic and nonrelativistic descriptions is presented.

  8. Polyanalytic relativistic second Bargmann transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Mouayn, Zouhaïr

    2015-05-15

    We construct coherent states through special superpositions of eigenstates of the relativistic isotonic oscillator. In each superposition, the coefficients are chosen to be L{sup 2}-eigenfunctions of a σ-weight Maass Laplacian on the Poincaré disk, which are associated with the eigenvalue 4m(σ−1−m), m∈Z{sub +}∩[0,(σ−1)/2]. For each nonzero m, the associated coherent states transform constitutes the m-true-polyanalytic extension of a relativistic version of the second Bargmann transform, whose integral kernel is expressed in terms of a special Appel-Kampé de Fériet’s hypergeometric function. The obtained results could be used to extend the known semi-classical analysis of quantum dynamics of the relativistic isotonic oscillator.

  9. Relativistic Calculation on Pion Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Masahiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Liu, Liang-Gang; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Sakamoto, Katsuaki; Kouno, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Akira

    2001-04-01

    The critical density of neutral pion condensation is investigated by using a new set of Landau-Migdal parameters, which are derived from a recent experimental data on the quenching factor of Gamow-Teller giant resonance. The particle-hole and delta-hole polarizations of the pion selfenergy are calculated based on the relativistic framework and compared with several nonrelativistic formulae. It is shown that the relativistic calculation gives higher critical densities than those of the nonrelativistic calculations. It is confirmed in the relativistic calculation that "universality assumption" leads to so-called "wall" in the critical density and the wall disappears in the present calculation based on the findings of the experiment of Wakasa et al. on the quenching of the Gamow Teller strength.

  10. Large amplitude relativistic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Timothy

    2010-05-15

    Relativistic, longitudinal plasma oscillations are studied for the case of a simple water bag distribution of electrons having cylindrical symmetry in momentum space with the axis of the cylinder parallel to the velocity of wave propagation. The plasma is required to obey the relativistic Vlasov-Poisson equations, and solutions are sought in the wave frame. An exact solution for the plasma density as a function of the electrostatic field is derived. The maximum electric field is presented in terms of an integral over the known density. It is shown that when the perpendicular momentum is neglected, the maximum electric field approaches infinity as the wave phase velocity approaches the speed of light. It is also shown that for any nonzero perpendicular momentum, the maximum electric field will remain finite as the wave phase velocity approaches the speed of light. The relationship to previously published solutions is discussed as is some recent controversy regarding the proper modeling of large amplitude relativistic plasma waves.

  11. Non-Relativistic Superstring Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2007-12-14

    We construct a supersymmetric version of the 'critical' non-relativistic bosonic string theory [1] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc CFT which is the super partner of the {beta}{gamma} CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of Type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are non-chiral. We further consider 'noncritical' generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical non-relativistic string theory and the lightlike Linear Dilaton theory.

  12. Quantum Tunneling Time: Relativistic Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dai-Yu; Wang, Towe; Xue, Xun

    2013-11-01

    Several years ago, in quantum mechanics, Davies proposed a method to calculate particle's traveling time with the phase difference of wave function. The method is convenient for calculating the sojourn time inside a potential step and the tunneling time through a potential hill. We extend Davies' non-relativistic calculation to relativistic quantum mechanics, with and without particle-antiparticle creation, using Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac Equation, for different forms of energy-momentum relation. The extension is successful only when the particle and antiparticle creation/annihilation effect is negligible.

  13. Relativistic solutions to directed energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip M.; Zhang, Qicheng

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyses the nature and feasibility of using directed energy to propel probes through space at relativistic speeds. Possible mission scenarios are considered by varying the spacecraft mass, thickness of the sail and power of the directed energy array. We calculate that gram-scaled probes are capable of achieving relativistic speeds and reaching Alpha Centauri well within a human lifetime. A major drawback is the diffraction of the beam which reduces the incident power on the sail resulting in a terminal velocity for the probes. Various notions of efficiency are discussed and we conclude that directed energy propulsion provides a viable direction for future space exploration.

  14. Special Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2016-12-01

    Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.

  15. Relativistic (Dirac equation) effects in microscopic elastic scattering calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, M. V.; Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1985-04-01

    A simple relativistic extension of the first-order multiple scattering mechanism for the optical potential is employed within the context of a Dirac equation description of elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering. A formulation of this problem in terms of a momentum-space integral equation displaying an identifiable nonrelativistic sector is described and applied. Extensive calculations are presented for proton scattering from 40Ca and 16O at energies between 100 and 500 MeV. Effects arising from the relativistic description of the propagation of the projectile are isolated and are shown to be responsible for most of the departures from typical nonrelativistic (Schrödinger) results. Off-shell and nonlocal effects are included and these, together with uncertainties in the nuclear densities, are shown not to compromise the characteristic improvement of forward angle spin observable predictions provided by the relativistic approach. The sensitivity to ambiguities in the Lorentz scalar and vector composition of the optical potential is displayed and discussed.

  16. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  17. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  18. Logical inference approach to relativistic quantum mechanics: Derivation of the Klein–Gordon equation

    SciTech Connect

    Donker, H.C.; Katsnelson, M.I.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

    2016-09-15

    The logical inference approach to quantum theory, proposed earlier De Raedt et al. (2014), is considered in a relativistic setting. It is shown that the Klein–Gordon equation for a massive, charged, and spinless particle derives from the combination of the requirements that the space–time data collected by probing the particle is obtained from the most robust experiment and that on average, the classical relativistic equation of motion of a particle holds. - Highlights: • Logical inference applied to relativistic, massive, charged, and spinless particle experiments leads to the Klein–Gordon equation. • The relativistic Hamilton–Jacobi is scrutinized by employing a field description for the four-velocity. • Logical inference allows analysis of experiments with uncertainty in detection events and experimental conditions.

  19. Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-12-07

    Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li{sub 3} molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.

  20. Relativistic HD and MHD modelling for AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, R.; Porth, O.; Monceau-Baroux, R.; Walg, S.

    2013-12-01

    Relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provide a continuum fluid description for plasma dynamics characterized by shock-dominated flows approaching the speed of light. Significant progress in its numerical modelling emerged in the last two decades; we highlight selected examples of modern grid-adaptive, massively parallel simulations realized by our open-source software MPI-AMRVAC (Keppens et al 2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231 718). Hydrodynamical models quantify how energy transfer from active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets to their surrounding interstellar/intergalactic medium (ISM/IGM) gets mediated through shocks and various fluid instability mechanisms (Monceau-Baroux et al 2012 Astron. Astrophys. 545 A62). With jet parameters representative for Fanaroff-Riley type-II jets with finite opening angles, we can quantify the ISM volumes affected by jet injection and distinguish the roles of mixing versus shock-heating in cocoon regions. This provides insight in energy feedback by AGN jets, usually incorporated parametrically in cosmological evolution scenarios. We discuss recent axisymmetric studies up to full 3D simulations for precessing relativistic jets, where synthetic radio maps can confront observations. While relativistic hydrodynamic models allow one to better constrain dynamical parameters like the Lorentz factor and density contrast between jets and their surroundings, the role of magnetic fields in AGN jet dynamics and propagation characteristics needs full relativistic MHD treatments. Then, we can demonstrate the collimating properties of an overal helical magnetic field backbone and study differences between poloidal versus toroidal field dominated scenarios (Keppens et al 2008 Astron. Astrophys. 486 663). Full 3D simulations allow one to consider the fate of non-axisymmetric perturbations on relativistic jet propagation from rotating magnetospheres (Porth 2013 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 429 2482). Self-stabilization mechanisms related to the detailed

  1. Microscopic Processes in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Fredricksen, J.; Sol, H.; Niemiec, J.; Lyubarsky, Y.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the collisionless relativistic shock particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  2. Proper-time relativistic dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tepper L.; Zachary, W. W.; Lindesay, James

    1993-01-01

    Proper-time relativistic single-particle classical Hamiltonian mechanics is formulated using a transformation from observer time to system proper time which is a canonical contact transformation on extended phase space. It is shown that interaction induces a change in the symmetry structure of the system which can be analyzed in terms of a Lie-isotopic deformation of the algebra of observables.

  3. Relativistic resonance and decay phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Hai V.

    2015-04-01

    The exact relation τ = ℏ/Γ between the width Γ of a resonance and the lifetime τ for the decay of this resonance could not be obtained in standard quantum theory based on the Hilbert space or Schwartz space axiom in non-relativistic physics as well as in the relativistic regime. In order to obtain the exact relation, one has to modify the Hilbert space axiom or the Schwartz space axiom and choose new boundary conditions based on the Hardy space axioms in which the space of the states and the space of the observables are described by two different Hardy spaces. As consequences of the new Hardy space axioms, one obtains, instead of the symmetric time evolution for the states and the observables, asymmetrical time evolutions for the states and observables which are described by two semi-groups. A relativistic resonance obeying the exponential time evolution can be described by a relativistic Gamow vector, which is defined as superposition of the exact out-plane wave states with a Breit-Wigner energy distribution of the width Γ.

  4. Manipulating relativistic electrons with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, Victor

    2016-09-01

    The motion control of relativistic electrons with lasers allows for an efficient and elegant way to map the space with ultra-intense electric-field components, which, in turn, permits a unique improvement of the electron beam parameters. This perspective addresses the recent laser plasma accelerator experiments related to the phase space engineering of electron beams in a plasma medium performed at LOA.

  5. Action Principle for Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avignon, Eric; Morrison, Philip; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    A covariant action principle for ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in terms of natural Eulerian field variables is given. This is done by generalizing the covariant Poisson bracket theory of Marsden et al., which uses a noncanonical bracket to implement constrained variations of an action functional. Various implications and extensions of this action principle are also discussed.

  6. Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykov, Andrei; Gehrels, Neil; Krawczynski, Henric; Lemoine, Martin; Pelletier, Guy; Pohl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this review we confront the current theoretical understanding of particle acceleration at relativistic outflows with recent observational results on various source classes thought to involve such outflows, e.g. gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and pulsar wind nebulae. We highlight the possible contributions of these sources to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  7. Microscopic Processes in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Fredricksen, J.; Sol, H.; Niemiec, J.; Lyubarsky, Y.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the collisionless relativistic shock particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  8. Relativistic Optimized Link by KLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, C.

    The KLT is a way of optimizing the signal processing of a given noisy signal by projecting the noisy signal itself onto the set of orthonormal basis functions spanned by the eigenfunctions of the autocorrelation of the noisy signal. Thus, the key problem in computing the KLT of a noisy signal is the computation of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the autocorrelation of the noisy signal. For the special case of the Brownian motion (i.e. the basic Gaussian noisy signal) it can be proved that the KLT eigenfunctions are just sines, i.e. the KLT is the same as the FT. Let us now bring relativity into the KLT picture (this paper is confined to special relativity; general relativity can be KLT-studied also, but the calculations are, of course, even more difficult). Also, only rectilinear motions will be considered here. So, if one considers a source in relativistic motion, then the noisy signal undergoes a time-rescaling that depends on the type of relativistic motion. In past work this author has demostrated that the eigenfunctions of the time-rescaled, relativistic Brownian motion are Bessel functions of the first kind, and their eigenvalues are the zeros of such Bessel functions. In addition, it is stated (without proofs) that explicit formulae for the KLT signal processing can be found for the particularly important cases of the noisy signals received on Earth from a relativistic spacecraft whose motion is either: 1) uniform; or 2) uniformly accelerated.

  9. Analytic asymptotic solution to spherical relativistic shock breakout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalinewich, Almog; Sari, Re'em

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relativistic breakout of a shock wave from the surface of a star. In this process, each fluid shell is endowed with some kinetic and thermal energy by the shock, and then continues to accelerate adiabatically by converting thermal energy into kinetic energy. This problem has been previously studied for a mildly relativistic breakout, where the acceleration ends close to the surface of the star. The current work focuses on the case where the acceleration ends at distances much greater than the radius of the star. We derive an analytic description for the hydrodynamic evolution of the ejecta in this regime and validate it using a numerical simulation. We also provide predictions for the expected light curves and spectra from such an explosion. The relevance to astrophysical explosions is discussed, and it is shown that such events require more energy than is currently believed to result from astrophysical explosions.

  10. Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.

    1987-01-01

    High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.

  11. Fast Lattice Boltzmann Solver for Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Boghosian, B. M.; Succi, S.

    2010-07-02

    A lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically validated through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic fluids. In order to illustrate its capability to handle complex geometries, the scheme is also applied to the case of a three-dimensional relativistic shock wave, generated by a supernova explosion, impacting on a massive interstellar cloud. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the proven advantages of lattice Boltzmann methods, namely, computational efficiency and easy handling of complex geometries, to the context of (mildly) relativistic fluid dynamics at large, from quark-gluon plasmas up to supernovae with relativistic outflows.

  12. Fourth workshop on Experiments and Detectors for a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatyga, M. (Editor); Moskowitz, B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    We present a description of an experiment which can be used to search for effects of strong electromagnetic fields on the production of e(sup +) e(sup -) pairs in the elastic scattering of two heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A very brief discussion of other possible studies of electromagnetic phenomena at RHIC is also presented.

  13. Relativistic rocket: Dream and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semyonov, Oleg G.

    2014-06-01

    The dream of interstellar flights persists since the first pioneers in astronautics and has never died. Many concepts of thruster capable to propel a rocket to the stars have been proposed and the most suitable among them are thought to be photon propulsion and propulsion by the products of proton-antiproton annihilation in magnetic nozzle. This article addresses both concepts allowing for cross-section of annihilation among other issues in order to show their vulnerability and to indicate the problems. The concept of relativistic matter propulsion is substantiated and discussed. The latter is argued to be the most straightforward way to build-up a relativistic rocket firstly because it is based on the existing technology of ion generators and accelerators and secondly because it can be stepped up in efflux power starting from interplanetary spacecrafts powered by nuclear reactors to interstellar starships powered by annihilation reactors. The problems imposed by thermodynamics and heat disposal are accentuated.

  14. Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.

    2017-08-01

    Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.

  15. Thermodynamic and relativistic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonov, A. A.; Plotnikov, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamic uncertainty relation (UR) was verified experimentally. The experiments have shown the validity of the quantum analogue of the zeroth law of stochastic thermodynamics in the form of the saturated Schrödinger UR. We have also proposed a new type of UR for the relativistic mechanics. These relations allow us to consider macroscopic phenomena within the limits of the ratio of the uncertainty relations for different physical quantities.

  16. Relativistic tunneling through opaque barriers

    SciTech Connect

    De Leo, Stefano; Leonardi, Vinicius

    2011-02-15

    We propose an analytical study of relativistic tunneling through opaque barriers. We obtain a closed formula for the phase time. This formula is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations and corrects the standard formula obtained by the stationary phase method. An important result is found when the upper limit of the incoming energy distribution coincides with the upper limit of the tunneling zone. In this case, the phase time is proportional to the barrier width.

  17. Relativistic optics of nondispersive media

    SciTech Connect

    Miron, R.; Zet, G.

    1995-09-01

    The relativistic optics of the nondispersive media endowed with the metric g{sub ij}(x) and with a nonlinear connection is studied. The d-connection relates the conformal and projective properties of the space-time. A post-Newtonian estimation for the metric g{sub ij} is also given. It is shown that the solar system tests impose a constraint on a combination of the post-Newtonian parameters describing the model.

  18. Relativistic opacities for astrophysical applications

    DOE PAGES

    Fontes, Christopher John; Fryer, Christopher Lee; Hungerford, Aimee L.; ...

    2015-06-29

    Here, we report on the use of the Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes to generate radiative opacities for the modeling of astrophysically relevant plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. The atomic structure calculations are carried out in fine-structure detail, including full configuration interaction. Three example applications are considered: iron opacities at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, nickel opacities for the modeling of stellar envelopes, and samarium opacities for the modeling of light curves produced by neutron star mergers. In the first two examples, comparisons are made between opacities that are generatedmore » with the fully and semi-relativistic capabilities in the Los Alamos suite of codes. As expected for these highly charged, iron-peak ions, the two methods produce reasonably similar results, providing confidence that the numerical methods have been correctly implemented. However, discrepancies greater than 10% are observed for nickel and investigated in detail. In the final application, the relativistic capability is used in a preliminary investigation of the complicated absorption spectrum associated with cold lanthanide elements.« less

  19. Relativistic opacities for astrophysical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fontes, Christopher John; Fryer, Christopher Lee; Hungerford, Aimee L.; Hakel, Peter; Colgan, James Patrick; Kilcrease, David Parker; Sherrill, Manalo Edgar

    2015-06-29

    Here, we report on the use of the Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes to generate radiative opacities for the modeling of astrophysically relevant plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. The atomic structure calculations are carried out in fine-structure detail, including full configuration interaction. Three example applications are considered: iron opacities at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, nickel opacities for the modeling of stellar envelopes, and samarium opacities for the modeling of light curves produced by neutron star mergers. In the first two examples, comparisons are made between opacities that are generated with the fully and semi-relativistic capabilities in the Los Alamos suite of codes. As expected for these highly charged, iron-peak ions, the two methods produce reasonably similar results, providing confidence that the numerical methods have been correctly implemented. However, discrepancies greater than 10% are observed for nickel and investigated in detail. In the final application, the relativistic capability is used in a preliminary investigation of the complicated absorption spectrum associated with cold lanthanide elements.

  20. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters.

    PubMed

    Benacquista, Matthew J; Downing, Jonathan M B

    2013-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10(4)-10(6) stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  1. Relativistic opacities for astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, C. J.; Fryer, C. L.; Hungerford, A. L.; Hakel, P.; Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the use of the Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes to generate radiative opacities for the modeling of astrophysically relevant plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. The atomic structure calculations are carried out in fine-structure detail, including full configuration interaction. Three example applications are considered: iron opacities at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, nickel opacities for the modeling of stellar envelopes, and samarium opacities for the modeling of light curves produced by neutron star mergers. In the first two examples, comparisons are made between opacities that are generated with the fully and semi-relativistic capabilities in the Los Alamos suite of codes. As expected for these highly charged, iron-peak ions, the two methods produce reasonably similar results, providing confidence that the numerical methods have been correctly implemented. However, discrepancies greater than 10% are observed for nickel and investigated in detail. In the final application, the relativistic capability is used in a preliminary investigation of the complicated absorption spectrum associated with cold lanthanide elements.

  2. Double-sided Relativistic Magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonov, A. V.; Krastelev, E. G.

    1997-05-01

    A new scheme of a symmetricaly powered relativistic magnetron and several methods of localised electron flow forming in an interaction region are proposed to increase an efficiency of relativistic magnetrons. As will be shown, a very important reason is the effect of nonsymmetric feeding of power from one side of a magnetron, which is typical for experiments. One-sided powering leads to the axial drift of electrons, to the transformation of transverse velocities of electrons to longitudinal one and to the generation of a parasitic e-beam which does not take part in energy exchange between electrons and waves at all. A special driver was designed for double-sided powering of relativistic magnetrons. The proposed system is compact, rigid and capable of reliable operation at high repetition rates, which is advantageous for many applications. Several smooth-bore magnetrons were tested by means of computer simulations using PIC code KARAT. The results showed a dramatical difference between the dynamics of electron flow for one- and two-sided power feeding of a structure under test. Design of a driver and computer simulation results are presented.

  3. Relativistic Tennis Using Flying Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Ma, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2008-06-24

    Upon reflection from a relativistic mirror, the electromagnetic pulse frequency is upshifted and the duration is shortened by the factor proportional to the relativistic gamma-factor squared due to the double Doppler effect. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the relativistic 'flying mirror', which is a wake wave near the breaking threshold created by a strong driver pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Experimentally, the wake wave is created by a 2 TW, 76 fs Ti:S laser pulse from the JLITE-X laser system in helium plasma with the electron density of {approx_equal}4-6x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. The reflected signal is observed with a grazing-incidence spectrograph in 24 shots. The wavelength of the reflected radiation ranges from 7 to 14 nm, the corresponding frequency upshifting factors are {approx}55-115, and the gamma-factors are y = 4-6. The reflected signal contains at least 3x10{sup 7} photons/sr. This effect can be used to generate coherent high-frequency ultrashort pulses that inherit temporal shape and polarization from the original (low-frequency) ones. Apart from this, the reflected radiation contains important information about the wake wave itself, e.g. location, size, phase velocity, etc.

  4. Quantised vortices and mutual friction in relativistic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, N.; Wells, S.; Vickers, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the detailed dynamics of an array of quantised superfluid vortices in the framework of general relativity, as required for quantitative modelling of realistic neutron star cores. Our model builds on the variational approach to relativistic (multi-) fluid dynamics, where the vorticity plays a central role. The description provides a natural extension of, and a better insight into, existing Newtonian models. In particular, we account for the mutual friction associated with scattering of a second ‘normal’ component in the mixture off of the superfluid vortices. This is an important step which facilitates the connection with the involved microphysics.

  5. Relativistic (covariant) kinetic theory of linear plasma waves and instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2006-06-19

    The fundamental kinetic description is of vital importance in high-energy astrophysics and fusion plasmas where wave phenomena evolve on scales small comparing with binary collision scales. A rigorous relativistic analysis is required even for nonrelativistic plasma temperatures for which the classical theory yielded unphysical results: e.g. collisonless damping of superluminal waves (phase velocity exceeds the speed of light). The existing nonrelativistic approaches are now improved by covariantly correct dispersion theory. As an important application, the Weibel instability has been recently investigated and confirmed as the source of primordial magnetic field in the intergalactic medium.

  6. Rapid hydrodynamic expansion in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, Piotr; Wyskiel, Iwona

    2009-04-15

    Hydrodynamic expansion of the hot fireball created in relativistic Au-Au collisions at {radical}(s)=200 GeV in 3+1-dimensions is studied. We obtain a simultaneous, satisfactory description of the transverse momentum spectra, elliptic flow, and pion correlation radii for different collision centralities and different rapidities. Early initial time of the evolution is required to reproduce the interferometry data, which provide a strong indication of the early onset of collectivity. We can also constrain the shape of the initial energy density in the beam direction, with a relatively high initial energy density at the center of the fireball.

  7. Curved non-relativistic spacetimes, Newtonian gravitation and massive matter

    SciTech Connect

    Geracie, Michael Prabhu, Kartik Roberts, Matthew M.

    2015-10-15

    There is significant recent work on coupling matter to Newton-Cartan spacetimes with the aim of investigating certain condensed matter phenomena. To this end, one needs to have a completely general spacetime consistent with local non-relativistic symmetries which supports massive matter fields. In particular, one cannot impose a priori restrictions on the geometric data if one wants to analyze matter response to a perturbed geometry. In this paper, we construct such a Bargmann spacetime in complete generality without any prior restrictions on the fields specifying the geometry. The resulting spacetime structure includes the familiar Newton-Cartan structure with an additional gauge field which couples to mass. We illustrate the matter coupling with a few examples. The general spacetime we construct also includes as a special case the covariant description of Newtonian gravity, which has been thoroughly investigated in previous works. We also show how our Bargmann spacetimes arise from a suitable non-relativistic limit of Lorentzian spacetimes. In a companion paper [M. Geracie et al., e-print http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.02680 ], we use this Bargmann spacetime structure to investigate the details of matter couplings, including the Noether-Ward identities, and transport phenomena and thermodynamics of non-relativistic fluids.

  8. MHD Equation of State with Relativistic Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhigang; Däppen, Werner; Zejda, Ladislav

    2001-01-01

    The Mihalas-Däppen-Hummer (MHD) equation of state does not include the effect of relativistic partially degenerate electrons, although nonrelativistic partial degeneracy is taken into account. The discovery of a relativistic correction in helioseismology forces us to perform an appropriate upgrade of the MHD equation of state. We have adopted the method of J. M. Aparicio to evaluate the relativistic Fermi-Dirac functions. Our calculations confirm the validity of the approximation used, which works well for the weakly relativistic electrons under solar-center conditions. However, our results will also provide reliable thermodynamic quantities in the stronger relativistic regime as found in more massive stars. Since a particular feature of the original MHD papers was an explicit list of the adopted free energy and its first- and second-order analytical derivatives, we give the corresponding relativistic quantities in the Appendix.

  9. Relativistic high harmonics and (sub-)attosecond pulses: relativistic spikes and relativistic mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukhov, A.; Baeva, T.; An der Brügge, D.; Münster, S.

    2009-11-01

    Using particle-in-cell simulations, we study high harmonic generation from overdense plasmas in the relativistic regime. Different incidence angles as well as different laser polarizations are considered and scalings are recovered. It is shown that the theory of relativistic spikes and the BGP power-law spectra [Phys. Rev. E 74, 046404 (2006)] describes well the normal incidence and s-polarized obliquely incident laser pulses. In the case of p-polarized laser pulses, exceptions from the BGP theory can appear when the quasi-static vector potential build-up at the plasma boundary becomes equal to that of the laser. In this case, the spectrum flattens significantly and has a lower cutoff.

  10. Relativistic Navigation: A Theoretical Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    1996-01-01

    We present a theoretical foundation for relativistic astronomical measurements in curved space-time. In particular, we discuss a new iterative approach for describing the dynamics of an isolated astronomical N-body system in metric theories of gravity. To do this, we generalize the Fock-Chandrasekhar method of the weak-field and slow-motion approximation (WFSMA) and develop a theory of relativistic reference frames (RF's) for a gravitationally bounded many-extended-body problem. In any proper RF constructed in the immediate vicinity of an arbitrary body, the N-body solutions of the gravitational field equations are formally presented as a sum of the Riemann-flat inertial space-time, the gravitational field generated by the body itself, the unperturbed solutions for each body in the system transformed to the coordinates of this proper RF, and the gravitational interaction term. We develop the basic concept of a general WFSMA theory of the celestial RF's applicable to a wide class of metric theories of gravity and an arbitrary model of matter distribution. We apply the proposed method to general relativity. Celestial bodies are described using a perfect fluid model; as such, they possess any number of internal mass and current multipole moments that explicitly characterize their internal structures. The obtained relativistic corrections to the geodetic equations of motion arise because of a coupling of the bodies' multiple moments to the surrounding gravitational field. The resulting relativistic transformations between the different RF's extend the Poincare group to the motion of deformable self-gravitating bodies. Within the present accuracy of astronomical measurements we discuss the properties of the Fermi-normal-like proper RF that is defined in the immediate vicinity of the extended compact bodies. We further generalize the proposed approximation method and include two Eddington parameters (gamma, Beta). This generalized approach was used to derive the

  11. Descriptive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications.

  12. A relativistic correction to semiclassical charmonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J.

    1995-09-01

    It is shown that the relativistic linear potentials, introduced by the author within the particle à la Wheeler-Feynman direct-interaction (AAD) theory, applied to the semiclassically quantized charmonium, yield energy spectrum comparable to that of some known models. Using the expansion of the relativistic linear AAD potentials in powers ofc -1, the charmonium spectrum, given as a rule by Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization of circular orbits, is extended up to the second order of relativistic corrections.

  13. Relativistic radiation transport in dispersive media

    SciTech Connect

    Kichenassamy, S.; Krikorian, R.A.

    1985-10-15

    A general-relativistic radiative transfer equation in an isotropic, weakly absorbing, nonmagnetized dispersive medium is derived using the kinetic-theoretical approach and the relativistic Hamiltonian theory of geometrical optics in those media. It yields the generally accepted classical equation in the special-relativistic approximation and in stationary conditions. The influence of the gravitational field and of space-time variations of the refractive index n on the radiation distribution is made explicit in the case of spherical symmetry.

  14. Mesoscopic Superposition States in Relativistic Landau Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.

    2007-09-21

    We show that a linear superposition of mesoscopic states in relativistic Landau levels can be built when an external magnetic field couples to a relativistic spin 1/2 charged particle. Under suitable initial conditions, the associated Dirac equation produces unitarily superpositions of coherent states involving the particle orbital quanta in a well-defined mesoscopic regime. We demonstrate that these mesoscopic superpositions have a purely relativistic origin and disappear in the nonrelativistic limit.

  15. Effect of Chaos on Relativistic Quantum Tunneling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Effect of chaos on relativistic quantum tunneling This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article...of chaos on relativistic quantum tunneling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...tunneling dynamics even in the relativistic quantum regime. Similar phenomena have been observed in graphene. A physical theory is developed to

  16. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-04-15

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  17. Do non-relativistic neutrinos oscillate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Evgeny

    2017-07-01

    We study the question of whether oscillations between non-relativistic neutrinos or between relativistic and non-relativistic neutrinos are possible. The issues of neutrino production and propagation coherence and their impact on the above question are discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that no neutrino oscillations can occur when neutrinos that are non-relativistic in the laboratory frame are involved, except in a strongly mass-degenerate case. We also discuss how this analysis depends on the choice of the Lorentz frame. Our results are for the most part in agreement with Hinchliffe's rule.

  18. Dissipation in relativistic pair-plasma reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji

    2007-11-15

    An investigation into the relativistic dissipation in magnetic reconnection is presented. The investigated system consists of an electron-positron plasma. A relativistic generalization of Ohm's law is derived. A set of numerical simulations is analyzed, composed of runs with and without guide magnetic field, and of runs with different species temperatures. The calculations indicate that the thermal inertia-based dissipation process survives in relativistic plasmas. For antiparallel reconnection, it is found that the pressure tensor divergence remains the sole contributor to the reconnection electric field, whereas relativistic guide field reconnection exhibits a similarly important role of the bulk inertia terms.

  19. Dissipation in Relativistic Pair-Plasma Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    We present an investigation of the relativistic dissipation in magnetic reconnection. The investigated system consists of an electron-positron plasma. A relativistic generalization of Ohm's law is derived. We analyze a set of numerical simulations, composed of runs with and without guide magnetic field, and of runs with different species temperatures. The calculations indicate that the thermal inertia-based dissipation process survives in relativistic plasmas. For anti-parallel reconnection, it is found that the pressure tensor divergence remains the sole contributor to the reconnection electric field, whereas relativistic guide field reconnection exhibits a similarly important role of the bulk inertia terms.

  20. Relativistic Bernstein waves in a degenerate plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Muddasir; Hussain, Azhar; Murtaza, G.

    2011-09-15

    Bernstein mode for a relativistic degenerate electron plasma is investigated. Using relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations, a general expression for the conductivity tensor is derived and then employing Fermi-Dirac distribution function a generalized dispersion relation for the Bernstein mode is obtained. Two limiting cases, i.e., non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic are discussed. The dispersion relations obtained are also graphically presented for some specific values of the parameters depicting how the propagation characteristics of Bernstein waves as well as the Upper Hybrid oscillations are modified with the increase in plasma number density.

  1. What is the relativistic spin operator?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauke, Heiko; Ahrens, Sven; Keitel, Christoph H.; Grobe, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Although the spin is regarded as a fundamental property of the electron, there is no universally accepted spin operator within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics. We investigate the properties of different proposals for a relativistic spin operator. It is shown that most candidates are lacking essential features of proper angular momentum operators, leading to spurious zitterbewegung (quivering motion) or violation of the angular momentum algebra. Only the Foldy-Wouthuysen operator and the Pryce operator qualify as proper relativistic spin operators. We demonstrate that ground states of highly charged hydrogen-like ions can be utilized to identify a legitimate relativistic spin operator experimentally.

  2. Relabeling symmetry in relativistic fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazura, Yohei; Yoshida, Zensho; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2014-10-01

    The conservation of the recently formulated relativistic canonical helicity is derived from Noether's theorem with the fluid elements' relabeling symmetry. Upon Eulerianizing the Noether current, the purely spatial volume integral on the Lagrangian coordinates is mapped to a space-time mixed three-dimensional integral on the four-dimensional Eulerian coordinates. The relativistic conservation law in the Eulerian coordinates is no longer represented by any divergence-free current. We have also formulated a relativistic action principle of MHD on the Lagrangian coordinates, and have derived the relativistic MHD cross helicity. Work supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows 241010.

  3. A nonlinear relativistic nuclear model for protoneutronstars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeira, M.; Vasconcellos, C. A. Z.; Dillig, M.

    2003-08-01

    In the last few decades, studies on the internal structure, composition, dynamics and evolution of protoneutron stars, neutron stars, pulsars, hybrid and strange stars became central topics for theoretical and experimental research. Since the observation of the first pulsar in 1967, whose characteristic observational features allowed its identification as a rotating neutron star, nuclear models have been widely employed in the description of the holly graal of modern physics, the equation of state of dense matter. As under the pull of gravity the energy density in the core of these compact stars is thought to approach or even exceed more than 6 times the density of ordinary nuclear matter, predictions on the structure of the stars depend sensitively on the equation of state provided by model calculations. Combined with the equations of the general relativity metric, predictions on the mass, radius, crust extent and moment of inertia of the stars are then susceptible to the comparison to observation. In this work, a theoretical modeling for protoneutron stars (nuclear matter at finite temperature) is studied in the framework of an effective many-body relativistic mean field theory and the Sommerfeld approximation which contains the fundamental baryon octet and leptonic degrees of freedom, sigma, omega, rho and delta mesons, chemical equilibrium and charge neutrality. Our predictions include the determination of the mass of protoneutron stars, the mass-radius relation, relative population, gravitational redshift among other properties.

  4. Entropy production in relativistic jet boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2015-01-01

    Hot relativistic jets, passing through a background medium with a pressure gradient p ∝ r-η where 2 < η ≤ 8/3, develop a shocked boundary layer containing a significant fraction of the jet power. In previous work, we developed a self-similar description of the boundary layer assuming isentropic flow, but we found that such models respect global energy conservation only for the special case η = 8/3. Here, we demonstrate that models with η < 8/3 can be made self-consistent if we relax the assumption of constant specific entropy. Instead, the entropy must increase with increasing r along the boundary layer, presumably due to multiple shocks driven into the flow as it gradually collimates. The increase in specific entropy slows the acceleration rate of the flow and provides a source of internal energy that could be channelled into radiation. We suggest that this process may be important for determining the radiative characteristics of tidal disruption events and gamma-ray bursts from collapsars.

  5. Orientable Objects in Relativistic Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitman, D. M.; Shelepin, A. L.

    2017-03-01

    An approach to the quantum description of the orientation of relativistic particles, generalizing the approach to nonrelativistic objects possessing orientation (in particular, a rotator) is proposed, based on the self-consistent use of two reference frames. The realization of such an approach is connected with the introduction of wave functions f (x, z) on the Poincaré group M(3,1), which depend on the coordinates x μ of the Minkowski space M(3,1)/Spin(3,1) and orientational variables assigned by the elements z {β/α} of the matrix Z ∈Spin(3,1).The field f (x, z) is the generating function for ordinary spin-tensor fields and admits a number of symmetries. Besides the Lorentz transformations (corresponding to the action of the Poincaré group from the left and interpretable as external symmetries), transformations of a reference frame associated with an orientable object (corresponding to the action of the Poincaré group from the right and interpretable as internal symmetries) are applicable to orientable objects. In addition to the six quantum numbers assigned by the Casimir operators and the left generators, quantum numbers arise here that are assigned by the right generators and are associated with internal symmetries. The assumption that the internal symmetries of the theory of orientable objects are local leads to gauge theories describing the electroweak and gravitational interactions.

  6. Relativistic Plasma Polarizer: Impact of Temperature Anisotropy on Relativistic Transparency.

    PubMed

    Stark, David J; Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy; Arefiev, Alexey V; Toncian, Toma; Hazeltine, R D; Mahajan, S M

    2015-07-10

    3D particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that the enhanced transparency of a relativistically hot plasma is sensitive to how the energy is partitioned between different degrees of freedom. For an anisotropic electron distribution, propagation characteristics, like the critical density, will depend on the polarization of the electromagnetic wave. Despite the onset of the Weibel instability in such plasmas, the anisotropy can persist long enough to affect laser propagation. This plasma can then function as a polarizer or a wave plate to dramatically alter the pulse polarization.

  7. Relativistic Corrections to the Bohr Model of the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, David W.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a simple means for extending the Bohr model to include relativistic corrections using a derivation similar to that for the non-relativistic case, except that the relativistic expressions for mass and kinetic energy are employed. (Author/GS)

  8. Relativistic Plasma Polarizer: Impact of Temperature Anisotropy on Relativistic Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Stark, David J.; Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Toncian, Toma; Mahajan, S. M.

    2015-11-01

    3D particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that the enhanced transparency of a relativistically hot plasma is sensitive to how the energy is partitioned between different degrees of freedom. We consider here the simplest problem: the propagation of a low amplitude pulse through a preformed relativistically hot anisotropic electron plasma to explore its intrinsic dielectric properties. We find that: 1) the critical density for propagation depends strongly on the pulse polarization, 2) two plasmas with the same density and average energy per electron can exhibit profoundly different responses to electromagnetic pulses, 3) the anisotropy-driven Weibel instability develops as expected; the timescales of the growth and back reaction (on anisotropy), however, are long enough that sufficient anisotropy persists for the entire duration of the simulation. This plasma can then function as a polarizer or a wave plate to dramatically alter the pulse polarization. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-FG02-04ER54742 and DE-AC05-06OR23100 (D. J. S.) and NNSA Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512.

  9. Relativistic Sommerfeld Low Temperature Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenço, O.; Dutra, M.; Delfino, A.; Sá Martins, J. S.

    We derive a relativistic Sommerfeld expansion for thermodynamic quantities in many-body fermionic systems. The expansion is used to generate the equation of state of the Walecka model and its isotherms. We find that these results are in good agreement with numerical calculations, even when the expansion is truncated at its lowest order, in the low temperature regime, defined by T/xf ≪ 1. Although the interesting region near the liquid-gas phase transition is excluded by this criterion, the expansion may still find usefulness in the study of very cold nuclear matter systems, such as neutron stars.

  10. Relativistic shock spectra: A prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1994-01-01

    I argue that particles heated by relativistic shocks should assume an equilibrium energy distribution. This leads to a synchrotron spectrum F(sub nu) varies as nu(sup 1/3) up to approximately the critical frequency nu(sub 0) of an electron with the mean electron energy. Application to gamma ray bursts (GRB's) implies that a burst with 10(exp -5) erg/(sq cm s) of soft gamma-rays and h(nu(sub 0)) = 300 KeV should be about 18th magnitude in visible light and a few micro-Jy at 1 GHz (less if self-absorbed).

  11. A relativistically covariant random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaguer, J.; Larralde, H.

    2007-08-01

    In this work we present and analyze an extremely simple relativistically covariant random walk model. In our approach, the probability density and the flow of probability arise naturally as the components of a four-vector and they are related to one another via a tensorial constitutive equation. We show that the system can be described in terms of an underlying invariant space time random walk parameterized by the number of sojourns. Finally, we obtain explicit expressions for the moments of the covariant random walk as well as for the underlying invariant random walk.

  12. Action principle for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avignon, Eric; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

    2015-04-01

    A covariant action principle for ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in terms of natural Eulerian field variables is given. This is done by generalizing the covariant Poisson bracket theory of Marsden et al. [Ann. Phys. 169, 29 (1986)], which uses a noncanonical bracket to effect constrained variations of an action functional. Various implications and extensions of this action principle are also discussed. Two significant byproducts of this formalism are the introduction of a new divergence-free 4-vector variable for the magnetic field, and a new Lie-dragged form for the theory.

  13. Einstein Toolkit for Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    The Einstein Toolkit is a collection of software components and tools for simulating and analyzing general relativistic astrophysical systems. Such systems include gravitational wave space-times, collisions of compact objects such as black holes or neutron stars, accretion onto compact objects, core collapse supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts. The Einstein Toolkit builds on numerous software efforts in the numerical relativity community including CactusEinstein, Whisky, and Carpet. The Einstein Toolkit currently uses the Cactus Framework as the underlying computational infrastructure that provides large-scale parallelization, general computational components, and a model for collaborative, portable code development.

  14. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  15. On the relativistic anisotropic configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojai, F.; Kohandel, M.; Stepanian, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study anisotropic spherical polytropes within the framework of general relativity. Using the anisotropic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations, we explore the relativistic anisotropic Lane-Emden equations. We find how the anisotropic pressure affects the boundary conditions of these equations. Also we argue that the behavior of physical quantities near the center of star changes in the presence of anisotropy. For constant density, a class of exact solution is derived with the aid of a new ansatz and its physical properties are discussed.

  16. Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-31

    The negative ion of H is one of the simplest 3-body atomic systems. The techniques we have developed for experimental study of atoms moving near speed of light have been productive. This proposal request continuing support for experimental studies of the H{sup -} system, principally at the 800 MeV linear accelerator (LAMPF) at Los Alamos. Four experiments are currently planned: photodetachment of H{sup -} near threshold in electric field, interaction of relativistic H{sup -} ions with matter, high excitations and double charge escape in H{sup -}, and multiphoton detachment of electrons from H{sup -}.

  17. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Simple waves in relativistic fluids.

    PubMed

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2010-11-01

    We consider the Riemann problem for relativistic flows of polytropic fluids and find relations for the flow characteristics. Evolution of physical quantities takes especially simple form for the case of cold magnetized plasmas. We find exact explicit analytical solutions for one-dimensional expansion of magnetized plasma into vacuum, valid for arbitrary magnetization. We also consider expansion into cold unmagnetized external medium both for stationary initial conditions and for initially moving plasma, as well as reflection of rarefaction wave from a wall. We also find self-similar structure of three-dimensional magnetized outflows into vacuum, valid close to the plasma-vacuum interface.

  19. Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.

  20. Relativistic hydrodynamics of cosmological sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, P. ); McKinney, J. )

    1999-09-01

    We have extended previous numerical calculations of Newtonian cosmological sheets to include self-consistent interactions with the background metric by solving the complete Einstein field equations together with the relativistic perfect fluid hydrodynamics equations. The initial data are parametrized and constructed using the gauge invariant perturbation formalism to specify the free conformal variables for the constraints. Numerical evolutions of initially horizon scale fluctuations are compared with results from perturbation theory and the Zel[close quote]dovich solution for a range of gravitational field strengths, and we discuss the nonlinear hydrodynamic, optical, and geometric characteristics of the sheet structures. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  1. Compton Effect with Non-Relativistic Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    In deducing the change of wavelength of x-rays scattered by atomic electrons, one normally makes use of relativistic kinematics for electrons. However, recoiling energies of the electrons are of the order of a few keV which is less than 0.2% of their rest energies. Hence the authors may ask whether relativistic formulae are really necessary. In…

  2. Apparatus to measure relativistic mass increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetzelschwab, John W.

    2003-09-01

    An apparatus that uses readily available material to measure the relativistic mass increase of beta particles from a radioactive 204Tl source is described. Although the most accurate analysis uses curve fitting or a Kurie plot, students may just use the raw data and a simple calculation to verify the relativistic mass increase.

  3. Compton Effect with Non-Relativistic Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    In deducing the change of wavelength of x-rays scattered by atomic electrons, one normally makes use of relativistic kinematics for electrons. However, recoiling energies of the electrons are of the order of a few keV which is less than 0.2% of their rest energies. Hence the authors may ask whether relativistic formulae are really necessary. In…

  4. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's…

  5. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's…

  6. Nonlinear, relativistic Langmuir waves in astrophysical magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.

    1987-01-01

    Large amplitude, electrostatic plasma waves are relevant to physical processes occurring in the astrophysical magnetospheres wherein charged particles are accelerated to relativistic energies by strong waves emitted by pulsars, quasars, or radio galaxies. The nonlinear, relativistic theory of traveling Langmuir waves in a cold plasma is reviewed. The cases of streaming electron plasma, electronic plasma, and two-streams are discussed.

  7. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  8. Are relativistic jets monoparametric engines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georganopoulos, M.; Meyer, E. T.; Fossati, G.; Lister, M. L.

    We adopt as a working hypothesis that relativistic jets are essentially mono-parametric entities, and that their physical properties are a function of a single physical parameter, the same way the physical properties of main sequence stars are mainly a function of the star mass. We propose that the physical parameter is the jet kinetic power, and we use as a proxy for this quantity the low frequency extended radio luminosity (LFERL), an orientation insensitive quantity. We discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for the collective properties of relativistic jets and we show that a blazar sequence should spontaneously emerge on the peak frequency vs luminosity plot as the locus of those sources that are well aligned to the observer's line of sight. We also show that the sources of the same LFERL should form tracks that start from a location on the blazar sequence and move to lower luminosities and peak frequencies in a way that encodes information about the emitting plasma energetics and kinematics and velocity gradients, as well as about the inverse Compton (IC) emission seed photons. We are currently working on collecting the observations that will allow us to put this idea to the test.

  9. Ultra-relativistic double explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2017-04-01

    We consider fluid dynamics of relativistic double explosion—when a point explosion with energy E1 is followed by a second explosion with energy E2 after time td (the second explosion could be in a form of a long lasting wind). The primary explosion creates a self-similar relativistic blast wave propagating with Lorentz factor Γ1(t ) . A sufficiently strong second explosion, with total energy E2≥10-2E1 , creates a fast second shock in the external fluid previously shocked by the primary shock. At times longer than the interval between the explosions td, yet short compared with the time when the second shock catches up the primary shock at ˜tdΓ12 , the structure of the second shock is approximately self-similar. The self-similar structure of the second shock exists for the case of constant external density (in this case Γ2∝t-7 /3 ), but not for the wind environment. At early times, the Lorentz factor of the second shock may exceed that of the primary shock and may boost the synchrotron emission of locally accelerated electrons into the Fermi Large Area Telescope range.

  10. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  11. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  12. Electron Correlation in 4-Component Relativistic Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, Luuk; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The full 4-component Dirac-Coulomb equation can nowadays be used in molecular calculations, The first step in solving this relativistic many-electron equation usually consists of solving the closed or open-shell Diarc-Fock equations. Like in non-relativistic calculations the outcome does not account for the effects of electron correlation. This can in principle be remedied by developing relativistic variants of electron correlation methods like Configuration Interaction or Coupled Cluster. In this talk the differences and similarities of such relativistic approaches as compared to non-relativistic methods will be reviewed. Results of Configuration Interaction calculations on the PtH molecule and on the MeF(sub 6, sup 2-) (Me= Co, Rh, Ir) complexes will be presented to give an impression of the kind of results that currently can be obtained.

  13. Electron Correlation in 4-Component Relativistic Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, Luuk; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The full 4-component Dirac-Coulomb equation can nowadays be used in molecular calculations, The first step in solving this relativistic many-electron equation usually consists of solving the closed or open-shell Diarc-Fock equations. Like in non-relativistic calculations the outcome does not account for the effects of electron correlation. This can in principle be remedied by developing relativistic variants of electron correlation methods like Configuration Interaction or Coupled Cluster. In this talk the differences and similarities of such relativistic approaches as compared to non-relativistic methods will be reviewed. Results of Configuration Interaction calculations on the PtH molecule and on the MeF(sub 6, sup 2-) (Me= Co, Rh, Ir) complexes will be presented to give an impression of the kind of results that currently can be obtained.

  14. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenitani, S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to study energetic plasma phenomena by using particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations, we need to deal with relativistic velocity distributions in these simulations. However, numerical algorithms to deal with relativistic distributions are not well known. In this contribution, we overview basic algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in PIC and Monte-Carlo simulations. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are newly proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are 􏰅50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  15. Nonuniform Currents and Spins of Relativistic Electron Vortices in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kruining, Koen; Hayrapetyan, Armen G.; Götte, Jörg B.

    2017-07-01

    We present a relativistic description of electron vortex beams in a homogeneous magnetic field. Including spin from the beginning reveals that spin-polarized electron vortex beams have a complicated azimuthal current structure, containing small rings of counterrotating current between rings of stronger corotating current. Contrary to many other problems in relativistic quantum mechanics, there exists a set of vortex beams with exactly zero spin-orbit mixing in the highly relativistic and nonparaxial regime. The well-defined phase structure of these beams is analogous to simpler scalar vortex beams, owing to the protection by the Zeeman effect. For states that do show spin-orbit mixing, the spin polarization across the beam is nonuniform rendering the spin and orbital degrees of freedom inherently inseparable.

  16. [Descriptive statistics].

    PubMed

    Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that gives recommendations on how to summarize clearly and simply research data in tables, figures, charts, or graphs. Before performing a descriptive analysis it is paramount to summarize its goal or goals, and to identify the measurement scales of the different variables recorded in the study. Tables or charts aim to provide timely information on the results of an investigation. The graphs show trends and can be histograms, pie charts, "box and whiskers" plots, line graphs, or scatter plots. Images serve as examples to reinforce concepts or facts. The choice of a chart, graph, or image must be based on the study objectives. Usually it is not recommended to use more than seven in an article, also depending on its length.

  17. Detailed description of exclusive muon capture rates using realistic two-body forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaka, P. G.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2015-07-01

    Starting from state-by-state calculations of exclusive rates of the ordinary muon capture, we evaluated total μ- capture rates for a set of light- and medium-weight nuclear isotopes. We employed a version of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (p n -QRPA, for short) which uses as realistic nuclear forces the Bonn C-D one-boson exchange potential. Special attention was paid on the percentage contribution to the total μ- capture rate of specific low-spin multipolarities resulting by summing over the corresponding multipole transitions. The nuclear method used offers the possibility of estimating separately the individual contributions to the total and partial rates of the polar-vector and axial-vector components of the weak-interaction Hamiltonian for each accessible final state of the daughter nucleus. One of our main goals is to provide a reliable description of the charge-changing transitions matrix elements entering the description of other similar semileptonic nuclear processes like the charged-current neutrino-nucleus reactions, the electron capture on nuclei, the single β±-decay mode, etc., which play important role in currently interesting laboratory and astrophysical applications like the neutrino detection through lepton-nucleus interaction probes and neutrino nucleosynthesis. Such results can also be useful in various ongoing muon capture experiments at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Fermilab, Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, and Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University.

  18. Relativistic effects in Lyman-α forest

    SciTech Connect

    Iršič, Vid; Dio, Enea Di; Viel, Matteo E-mail: enea.didio@oats.inaf.it

    2016-02-01

    We present the calculation of the Lyman-alpha (Lyman-α) transmitted flux fluctuations with full relativistic corrections to the first order. Even though several studies exist on relativistic effects in galaxy clustering, this is the first study to extend the formalism to a different tracer of underlying matter at unique redshift range (z=2−5). Furthermore, we show a comprehensive application of our calculations to the Quasar-Lyman-α cross-correlation function. Our results indicate that the signal of relativistic effects are sizeable at Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale mainly due to the large differences in density bias factors of our tracers. We construct an observable, the anti-symmetric part of the cross-correlation function, that is dominated by the relativistic signal and offers a new way to measure the relativistic terms at relatively small scales. The analysis shows that relativistic effects are important when considering cross-correlations between tracers with very different biases, and should be included in the data analysis of the current and future surveys. Moreover, the idea presented in this paper is highly complementary to other techniques and observables trying to isolate the effect of the relativistic corrections and thus test the validity of the theory of gravity beyond the Newtonian regime.

  19. Diagnosing particle acceleration in relativistic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.; Liang, Edison P.; Summerlin, Errol J.; Fu, Wen; Smith, Ian A.; Roustazadeh, Parisa

    2015-03-01

    The high-energy emission from blazars and other relativistic jet sources indicates that electrons are accelerated to ultra-relativistic (GeV - TeV) energies in these systems. This paper summarizes recent results from numerical studies of two fundamentally different particle acceleration mechanisms potentially at work in relativistic jets: Magnetic-field generation and relativistic particle acceleration in relativistic shear layers, which are likely to be present in relativistic jets, is studied via Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations. Diffusive shock acceleration at relativistic shocks is investigated using Monte-Carlo simulations. The resulting magnetic-field configurations and thermal + non-thermal particle distributions are then used to predict multi-wavelength radiative (synchrotron + Compton) signatures of both acceleration scenarios. In particular, we address how anisotropic shear-layer acceleration may be able to circumvent the well-known Lorentz-factor crisis, and how the self-consistent evaluation of thermal + non-thermal particle populations in diffusive shock acceleration simulations provides tests of the bulk Comptonization model for the Big Blue Bump observed in the SEDs of several blazars.

  20. Generalized Ohm's law for relativistic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandus, A.; Tsagas, C. G.

    2008-04-01

    We generalize the relativistic expression of Ohm's law by studying a multifluid system of charged species using the 1 + 3 covariant formulation of general relativistic electrodynamics. This is done by providing a fully relativistic, fully non-linear propagation equation for the spatial component of the electric 4-current. Our analysis proceeds along the lines of the non-relativistic studies and extends previous relativistic work on cold plasmas. Exploiting the compactness and transparency of the covariant formalism, we provide a direct comparison with the standard Newtonian versions of Ohm's law and identify the relativistic corrections in an unambiguous way. The generalized expression of Ohm's law is initially given relative to an arbitrary observer and for a multicomponent relativistic charged medium. Then, the law is written with respect to the Eckart frame and for a hot two-fluid plasma with zero total charge. Finally, we apply our analysis to a cold proton-electron plasma and recover the well-known magnetohydrodynamic expressions. In every step, we discuss the approximations made and identify familiar effects, like the Biermann battery and the Hall effect.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic production of relativistic jets.

    PubMed

    Meier, D L; Koide, S; Uchida, Y

    2001-01-05

    A number of astronomical systems have been discovered that generate collimated flows of plasma with velocities close to the speed of light. In all cases, the central object is probably a neutron star or black hole and is either accreting material from other stars or is in the initial violent stages of formation. Supercomputer simulations of the production of relativistic jets have been based on a magnetohydrodynamic model, in which differential rotation in the system creates a magnetic coil that simultaneously expels and pinches some of the infalling material. The model may explain the basic features of observed jets, including their speed and amount of collimation, and some of the details in the behavior and statistics of different jet-producing sources.

  2. GRIM: General Relativistic Implicit Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Mani; Foucart, Francois; Gammie, Charles F.

    2017-02-01

    GRIM (General Relativistic Implicit Magnetohydrodynamics) evolves a covariant extended magnetohydrodynamics model derived by treating non-ideal effects as a perturbation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Non-ideal effects are modeled through heat conduction along magnetic field lines and a difference between the pressure parallel and perpendicular to the field lines. The model relies on an effective collisionality in the disc from wave-particle scattering and velocity-space (mirror and firehose) instabilities. GRIM, which runs on CPUs as well as on GPUs, combines time evolution and primitive variable inversion needed for conservative schemes into a single step using only the residuals of the governing equations as inputs. This enables the code to be physics agnostic as well as flexible regarding time-stepping schemes.

  3. Relativistic entanglement and Bell's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Doyeol; Moon, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Hwang, Sung Woo

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Lorentz transformation of entangled Bell states seen by a moving observer is studied. The calculated Bell observable for four joint measurements turns out to give a universal value, ++-=(2/{radical}(2-{beta}{sup 2}))(1+{radical}(1-{beta}{sup 2})), where a,b are the relativistic spin observables derived from the Pauli-Lubanski pseudovector and {beta}=(v/c). We found that the degree of violation of the Bell's inequality is decreasing with increasing velocity of the observer and Bell's inequality is satisfied in the ultrarelativistic limit where the boost speed reaches the speed of light.

  4. Baryon Loaded Relativistic Blast Waves in Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak

    2011-03-01

    We provide a new analytic blast wave solution which generalizes the Blandford-McKee solution to arbitrary ejecta masses and Lorentz factors. Until recently relativistic supernovae have been discovered only through their association with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The blast waves of such explosions are well described by the Blandford-McKee (in the ultra-relativistic regime) and Sedov-Taylor (in the non-relativistic regime) solutions during their afterglows, as the ejecta mass is negligible in comparison to the swept-up mass. The recent discovery of the relativistic supernova SN 2009bb, without a detected GRB, opens up the possibility of highly baryon loaded, mildly relativistic outflows which remains in nearly free-expansion phase during the radio afterglow. In this work, we consider a massive, relativistic shell, launched by a Central Engine Driven EXplosion (CEDEX), decelerating adiabatically due to its collision with the pre-explosion circumstellar wind profile of the progenitor. We compute the synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons in the shock amplified magnetic field. This models the radio emission from the circumstellar interaction of a CEDEX. We show that this model explains the observed radio evolution of the prototypical SN 2009bb and demonstrate that SN 2009bb had a highly baryon loaded, mildly relativistic outflow. We discuss the effect of baryon loading on the dynamics and observational manifestations of a CEDEX. In particular, our predicted angular size of SN 2009bb is consistent with very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) upper limits on day 85, but is presently resolvable on VLBI angular scales, since the relativistic ejecta is still in the nearly free-expansion phase.

  5. Localization scheme for relativistic spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupka, J.; Hanrath, M.; Dolg, M.

    2011-12-01

    A new method to determine localized complex-valued one-electron functions in the occupied space is presented. The approach allows the calculation of localized orbitals regardless of their structure and of the entries in the spinor coefficient matrix, i.e., one-, two-, and four-component Kramers-restricted or unrestricted one-electron functions with real or complex expansion coefficients. The method is applicable to localization schemes that maximize (or minimize) a functional of the occupied spinors and that use a localization operator for which a matrix representation is available. The approach relies on the approximate joint diagonalization (AJD) of several Hermitian (symmetric) matrices which is utilized in electronic signal processing. The use of AJD in this approach has the advantage that it allows a reformulation of the localization criterion on an iterative 2 × 2 pair rotating basis in an analytical closed form which has not yet been described in the literature for multi-component (complex-valued) spinors. For the one-component case, the approach delivers the same Foster-Boys or Pipek-Mezey localized orbitals that one obtains from standard quantum chemical software, whereas in the multi-component case complex-valued spinors satisfying the selected localization criterion are obtained. These localized spinors allow the formulation of local correlation methods in a multi-component relativistic framework, which was not yet available. As an example, several heavy and super-heavy element systems are calculated using a Kramers-restricted self-consistent field and relativistic two-component pseudopotentials in order to investigate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on localization.

  6. Benchmark calculations of metal carbonyl cations: relativistic vs. electron correlation effects.

    PubMed

    Matito, Eduard; Salvador, Pedro; Styszyński, Jacek

    2013-12-14

    In this paper we present benchmark results for isoelectronic metal carbonyl complexes of the groups 11 and 12 of the periodic table. The focus is on the geometry, vibrational frequencies, bond dissociation energy and chemical bonding. The description of these complexes requires a good balance between electron correlation and relativistic effects. Our results demonstrate that the combination of the effective core potential and the MP2 method gives quantitative results for the first- and the second-row transition metal complexes and only qualitative agreement for the third-row complexes. In order to obtain quantitative results for the whole series the use of four-component or X2C methods is mandatory. The fourth-row transition metal carbonyl complexes from groups 11 and 12 have been studied for the first time. The metal-carbon bond strength pattern along the group is shown to be highly dependent on the correct description of the relativistic effects. Finally, the relativistic effects on the bonding are studied by means of electron density difference maps, the analysis of the bond critical points of the electron density and the mechanism for σ-donation and π-backdonation. Our analysis indicates that the fourth-row complexes exhibit a strong covalent character induced by relativistic effects.

  7. Nuclei at extreme conditions. A relativistic study

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, Anatoli

    2014-11-14

    The major goals of the current project were further development of covariant density functional theory (CDFT), better understanding of its features, its application to different nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics phenomena and training of graduate and undergraduate students. The investigations have proceeded in a number of directions which are discussed in detail in the part “Accomplishments” of this report. We have studied the role of isovector and isoscalar proton-neutron pairings in rotating nuclei; based on available experimental data it was concluded that there are no evidences for the existence of isoscalar proton-neutron pairing. Generalized theoretical approach has been developed for pycnonuclear reaction rates in the crust of neutron stars and interior of white dwarfs. Using this approach, extensive database for considerable number of pycnonuclear reactions involving stable and neutron-rich light nuclei has been created; it can be used in future for the study of various nuclear burning phenomena in different environments. Time-odd mean fields and their manifestations in terminating states, non-rotating and rotating nuclei have been studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory. Contrary to non-relativistic density functional theories these fields, which are important for a proper description of nuclear systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, are uniquely defined in the CDFT framework. Hyperdeformed nuclear shapes (with semi-axis ratio 2.5:1 and larger) have been studied in the Z = 40-58 part of nuclear chart. We strongly believe that such shapes could be studied experimentally in the future with full scale GRETA detector.

  8. Thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem in relativistic Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Koide, T; Kodama, T

    2011-06-01

    We extend the stochastic energetics to a relativistic system. The thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem are discussed for a relativistic Brownian particle and the first and the second law of thermodynamics in this formalism are derived. The relation between the relativistic equipartition relation and the rate of heat transfer is discussed in the relativistic case together with the nature of the noise term.

  9. The relativistic Black-Scholes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzetrzelewski, Maciej

    2017-02-01

    The Black-Scholes equation, after a certain coordinate transformation, is equivalent to the heat equation. On the other hand the relativistic extension of the latter, the telegraphers equation, can be derived from the Euclidean version of the Dirac equation. Therefore, the relativistic extension of the Black-Scholes model follows from relativistic quantum mechanics quite naturally. We investigate this particular model for the case of European vanilla options. Due to the notion of locality incorporated in this way, one finds that the volatility frown-like effect appears when comparing to the original Black-Scholes model.

  10. Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.

    1988-09-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Relativistic corrections to a generalized sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinky, H.; Leung, P. T.

    2006-09-01

    Relativistic corrections to a previously established generalized sum rule are obtained using the Foldy-Wouthysen transformation. This sum rule derived previously by Wang [Phys. Rev. A 60, 262 (1999)] for a nonrelativistic system contains both the well-known Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn and Bethe sum rules, for which relativistic corrections have been obtained in the literature. Our results for the generalized formula will be applied to recover several results obtained previously in the literature, as well as to another sum rule whose relativistic corrections will be obtained.

  12. Relativistic rotation curve for cosmological structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Mansouri, Reza

    2014-08-01

    Using a general relativistic exact model for spherical structures in a cosmological background, we have put forward an algorithm to calculate the test particle geodesics within such cosmological structures in order to obtain the velocity profile of stars or galaxies. The rotation curve thus obtained is based on a density profile and is independent of any mass definition which is not unique in general relativity. It is then shown that this general relativistic rotation curves for a toy model and a NFW density profile are almost identical to the corresponding Newtonian one, although the general relativistic masses may be quite different.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  14. Electronic structure of FeTiSb using relativistic and scalar-relativistic approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Sahariya, Jagrati; Mund, H. S.

    2016-05-06

    Electronic and magnetic properties of FeTiSb have been reported. The calculations are performed using spin polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker scheme based on Green’s function method. Within SPR-KKR a fully relativistic and scalar-relativistic approaches have been used to investigate electronic structure of FeTiSb. Energy bands, total and partial density of states, atom specific magnetic moment along with total moment of FeTiSb alloys are presented.

  15. The Wigner function in the relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, K. Rembieliński, J.

    2016-12-15

    A detailed study is presented of the relativistic Wigner function for a quantum spinless particle evolving in time according to the Salpeter equation. - Highlights: • We study the Wigner function for a quantum spinless relativistic particle. • We discuss the relativistic Wigner function introduced by Zavialov and Malokostov. • We introduce relativistic Wigner function based on the standard definition. • We find analytic expressions for relativistic Wigner functions.

  16. Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic plane-parallel flows: Behavior of the Eddington factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Relativistic radiative transfer in a relativistic plane-parallel flow which is accelerated from its base, like an accretion disk wind, is numerically examined under a fully special-relativistic treatment. We first derive relativistic formal solutions. We then iteratively solve the relativistic transfer equation for several cases such as radiative equilibrium or local thermodynamic equilibrium, and obtain specific intensities in the inertial and comoving frames, as well as moment quantities and the Eddington factor. Moment quantities are rather different in each case, but the behavior of the Eddington factor for the plane-parallel case is quite similar in all cases. The Eddington factor generally depends on the flow velocity v as well as the optical depth τ. In the case of relativistic plane-parallel flows, in an optically thin regime of τ ≲ 1, it is slightly larger than 1/3 at very slow speed, it becomes smaller than 1/3 at mildly relativistic speed, and it again increases up to unity in the highly relativistic case. At highly relativistic speed, on the other hand, it becomes larger than 1/3 even in an optically thick regime. We find the Eddington approximation is fairly good, except for τ ≲ 1 or v/c ≳ 0.9, although the moment formalism under the Eddington approximation has some defects at v/c=1/√{3}.

  17. Relativistic theory of radiofrequency current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Balescu, R.; Metens, T. )

    1991-05-01

    A fully relativistic kinetic theory of rf current drive in a tokamak is developed for both the lower hybrid and the electron cyclotron mechanisms. The problem is treated as a generalization of the classical transport equations, in which the thermodynamic forces are modified by the addition of a rf-source term. In the limit of weak rf amplitude and neglecting toroidal effects (such as particle trapping), explicit analytical expressions are obtained for the rf-generated current, the dissipated power, and the current drive efficiency. These expressions are fully relativistic and are valid over the whole admissible range of frequencies and for all electron temperatures. The relation between efficiency and parallel relativistic transport coefficients is exhibited. The most important relativistic effect is a dramatic broadening of the frequency range over which the rf-generated current is significantly different from zero.

  18. Trace anomaly for non-relativistic fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzzi, Roberto; Baiguera, Stefano; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    We study the coupling of a 2 + 1 dimensional non-relativistic spin 1/2 fermion to a curved Newton-Cartan geometry, using null reduction from an extra-dimensional relativistic Dirac action in curved spacetime. We analyze Weyl invariance in detail: we show that at the classical level it is preserved in an arbitrary curved background, whereas at the quantum level it is broken by anomalies. We compute the trace anomaly using the Heat Kernel method and we show that the anomaly coefficients a, c are proportional to the relativistic ones for a Dirac fermion in 3 + 1 dimensions. As for the previously studied scalar case, these coefficents are proportional to 1/ m, where m is the non-relativistic mass of the particle.

  19. Magnetoresistance in relativistic hydrodynamics without anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Andrew; Karch, Andreas; Lucas, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    We present expressions for the magnetoconductivity and the magnetoresistance of a strongly interacting metal in 3 + 1 dimensions, derivable from relativistic hydrodynamics. Such an approach is suitable for ultraclean metals with emergent Lorentz invariance. When this relativistic fluid contains chiral anomalies, it is known to exhibit longitudinal negative magnetoresistance. We show that similar effects can arise in non-anomalous relativistic fluids due to the distinctive gradient expansion. In contrast with a Galilean-invariant fluid, the resistivity tensor of a dirty relativistic fluid exhibits similar angular dependence to negative magnetoresistance, even when the constitutive relations and momentum relaxation rate are isotropic. We further account for the effect of magnetic field-dependent corrections to the gradient expansion and the effects of long-wavelength impurities on magnetoresistance. We note that the holographic D3/D7 system exhibits negative magnetoresistance.

  20. Relativistic Langevin equation for runaway electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, J. A.; Martin-Solis, J. R.; Sanchez, R.

    2016-10-01

    The Langevin approach to the kinetics of a collisional plasma is developed for relativistic electrons such as runaway electrons in tokamak plasmas. In this work, we consider Coulomb collisions between very fast, relativistic electrons and a relatively cool, thermal background plasma. The model is developed using the stochastic equivalence of the Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations. The resulting Langevin model equation for relativistic electrons is an stochastic differential equation, amenable to numerical simulations by means of Monte-Carlo type codes. Results of the simulations will be presented and compared with the non-relativistic Langevin equation for RE electrons used in the past. Supported by MINECO (Spain), Projects ENE2012-31753, ENE2015-66444-R.

  1. Coherent states for the relativistic harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldaya, Victor; Guerrero, J.

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have obtained, on the basis of a group approach to quantization, a Bargmann-Fock-like realization of the Relativistic Harmonic Oscillator as well as a generalized Bargmann transform relating fock wave functions and a set of relativistic Hermite polynomials. Nevertheless, the relativistic creation and annihilation operators satisfy typical relativistic commutation relations of the Lie product (vector-z, vector-z(sup dagger)) approximately equals Energy (an SL(2,R) algebra). Here we find higher-order polarization operators on the SL(2,R) group, providing canonical creation and annihilation operators satisfying the Lie product (vector-a, vector-a(sup dagger)) = identity vector 1, the eigenstates of which are 'true' coherent states.

  2. Thermal Properties of Degenerate Relativistic Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homorodean, Laurean

    We present the concentration-temperature phase diagram, characteristic functions, thermal equation of state and heat capacity at constant volume for degenerate ideal gases of relativistic fermions and bosons. The nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits of these laws are also discussed.

  3. Hot relativistic winds and the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimura, F. S.; Kennel, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts to formulate a self-consistent model of pulsar magnetospheres which links the particle source near the pulsar to the outflowing relativistic wind and couples the wind to the surrounding nebula are reviewed. The use of a relativistic MHD wind is recommended to account for global photon emission and the invisibility of the method of plasma transport. Consideration of a magnetic monopole relativistic wind due to an axially symmetric aligned rotator is combined with calculations of the initial velocity of the wind to show that the flow velocity in such a model will never exceed Mach 1. Extending the solution to the case of a hot relativistic wind at supersonic speeds is noted to yield results consistent with observations of the Crab Nebula

  4. Pseudospectral approach to relativistic molecular theory.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2004-08-22

    The efficient relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) and Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) methods are proposed by an application of the pseudospectral (PS) approach. The present PS-DHF/DKS method is a relativistic extension of the PS-HF/KS method of Friesner, though we aim at higher numerical accuracy by elimination of superfluous arbitrariness. The relativistic PS-DHF/DKS method is implemented into our REL4D programs. Several PS applications to molecular systems show that the relativistic PS-DHF/DKS approach is more efficient than the traditional approach without a loss of accuracy. The present PS-DKS method successfully assigns and predicts the photoelectron spectra of hexacarbonyl complexes of tungsten and seaborgium theoretically.

  5. Entropic formulation of relativistic continuum mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    An entropic formulation of relativistic continuum mechanics is developed in the Landau-Lifshitz frame. We introduce two spatial scales, one being the small scale representing the linear size of each material particle and the other the large scale representing the linear size of a large system which consists of material particles and is to linearly regress to the equilibrium. We propose a local functional which is expected to represent the total entropy of the larger system and require the entropy functional to be maximized in the process of linear regression. We show that Onsager's original idea on linear regression can then be realized explicitly as current conservations with dissipative currents in the desired form. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this formulation by showing that one can treat a wide class of relativistic continuum materials, including standard relativistic viscous fluids and relativistic viscoelastic materials.

  6. Time Operator in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani, Sina

    2017-07-01

    It is first shown that the Dirac’s equation in a relativistic frame could be modified to allow discrete time, in agreement to a recently published upper bound. Next, an exact self-adjoint 4 × 4 relativistic time operator for spin-1/2 particles is found and the time eigenstates for the non-relativistic case are obtained and discussed. Results confirm the quantum mechanical speculation that particles can indeed occupy negative energy levels with vanishingly small but non-zero probablity, contrary to the general expectation from classical physics. Hence, Wolfgang Pauli’s objection regarding the existence of a self-adjoint time operator is fully resolved. It is shown that using the time operator, a bosonic field referred here to as energons may be created, whose number state representations in non-relativistic momentum space can be explicitly found.

  7. ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC NUCLEI: A NEW FRONTIER

    SciTech Connect

    MCLERRAN,L.

    1999-10-29

    The collisions of ultra-relativistic nuclei provide a window on the behavior of strong interactions at asymptotically high energies. They also will allow the authors to study the bulk properties of hadronic matter at very high densities.

  8. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2009-09-01

    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's speed-independent. This paper explores the history of "relativistic mass," emphasizing Einstein's public role and private thoughts. We show how the concept of speed-dependent mass mistakenly evolved out of a tangle of ideas despite Einstein's prescient reluctance. Along the way there will be previously unrevealed surprises (e.g., Einstein never derived the expression for "relativistic mass," and privately disapproved of it).

  9. Relativistic projection and boost of solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Wilets, L.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the relativistic projection and boost of solitons: The center of mass problem; momentum eigenstates; variation after projection; and the nucleon as a composite. (LSP).

  10. Relativistic projection and boost of solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Wilets, L.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics on the relativistic projection and boost of solitons: The center of mass problem; momentum eigenstates; variation after projection; and the nucleon as a composite. (LSP).

  11. Relativistic uranium beams - the Bevalac experience

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.

    1983-03-01

    This paper will address areas where relativistic heavy ion accelerators differ from proton facilities. Salient areas are: (1) the specialized injectors for heavy ions; ion sources, structures for very low charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) ions, and stripper optimization; (2) special requirements for the synchrotron ring; ultrahigh vacuum, flexible controls and instrumentation. These areas are discussed in the context of the Bevalac, as well as our idea for a next-generation relativistic heavy ion accelerator.

  12. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2017-03-01

    Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The "relativistic" filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  13. BL Lac objects and relativistic beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M.

    1986-01-01

    General arguments for relativistic beaming in BL Lac objects are reviewed. These include overproduction of X-rays and fast time variability. Comments are made about the relationship of the X-ray continuum to that at lower frequencies, and observational evidence for and against continuum radiation being relativistically beamed is discussed. Finally, there is discussion of the influence of geometrical effects on predictions for time variability as a function of frequency in the context of inhomogeneous synchrotron self-Compton jet models.

  14. Relativistic klystron research at SLAC and LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Schwarz, H.D.; Takeuchi, Y.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Barletta, W.A.; Birx, D.L.; Boyd, J.K.; Houck, T.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We are developing relativistic klystrons as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications such as large linear electron-positron colliders and compact accelerators. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here briefly on our experiments so far. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Recording of relativistic particles in thin scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstukhin, I A.; Somov, Alexander S.; Somov, S. V.; Bolozdynya, A. I.

    2014-11-01

    Results of investigating an assembly of thin scintillators and silicon photomultipliers for registering relativistic particles with the minimum ionization are presented. A high efficiency of registering relativistic particles using an Ej-212 plastic scintillator, BSF-91A wavelength-shifting fiber (Saint-Gobain), and a silicon photomultiplier (Hamamtsu) is shown. The measurement results are used for creating a scintillation hodoscope of the magnetic spectrometer for registering γ quanta in the GlueX experiment.

  16. On Lorentz invariants in relativistic magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shu-Di; Wang, Xiao-Gang

    2016-08-15

    Lorentz invariants whose nonrelativistic correspondences play important roles in magnetic reconnection are discussed in this paper. Particularly, the relativistic invariant of the magnetic reconnection rate is defined and investigated in a covariant two-fluid model. Certain Lorentz covariant representations for energy conversion and magnetic structures in reconnection processes are also investigated. Furthermore, relativistic measures for topological features of reconnection sites, particularly magnetic nulls and separatrices, are analyzed.

  17. Mass versus relativistic and rest masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okun, L. B.

    2009-05-01

    The concept of relativistic mass, which increases with velocity, is not compatible with the standard language of relativity theory and impedes the understanding and learning of the theory by beginners. The same difficulty occurs with the term rest mass. To get rid of relativistic mass and rest mass it is appropriate to replace the equation E =mc2 by the true Einstein's equation E0=mc2, where E0 is the rest energy and m is the mass.

  18. Relativistic DNLS and Kaup-Newell Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashaev, Oktay K.; Lee, Jyh-Hao

    2017-07-01

    By the recursion operator of the Kaup-Newell hierarchy we construct the relativistic derivative NLS (RDNLS) equation and the corresponding Lax pair. In the nonrelativistic limit c → ∞ it reduces to DNLS equation and preserves integrability at any order of relativistic corrections. The compact explicit representation of the linear problem for this equation becomes possible due to notions of the q-calculus with two bases, one of which is the recursion operator, and another one is the spectral parameter.

  19. On the convexity of relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, José M.; Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Martí, José M.; Miralles, Juan A.

    2013-03-01

    The relativistic hydrodynamic system of equations for a perfect fluid obeying a causal equation of state is hyperbolic (Anile 1989 Relativistic Fluids and Magneto-Fluids (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this report, we derive the conditions for this system to be convex in terms of the fundamental derivative of the equation of state (Menikoff and Plohr1989 Rev. Mod. Phys. 61 75). The classical limit is recovered. Communicated by L Rezzolla

  20. Relativistically modulational instability by strong Langmuir waves

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Li, X. Q.

    2012-09-15

    Based on the set of nonlinear coupling equations, which has considered the relativistic effects of electrons, modulational instability by strong Langmuir waves has been investigated in this paper. Both the characteristic scale and maximum growth rate of the Langmuir field will enhance with the increase in the electron relativistic effect. The numerical results indicate that longitudinal perturbations induce greater instability than transverse perturbations do, which will lead to collapse and formation of the pancake-like structure.

  1. Comment on "Observer dependence of quantum states in relativistic quantum field theories"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, I.

    1984-04-01

    In response to Malin's recent paper it is suggested that the important aspect of timing in relativistic descriptions of position determinations is the timing with which a pure state is converted to a mixture, rather than the timing of the mixture's reduction to a new pure state; this suggestion removes some of the subjectivism that Malin finds in quantum states. It is suggested also that viewing quantum mechanics as a branch of psychology raises more questions than it answers.

  2. Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov Theory With Density Dependent Meson Couplings in Axial Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ebran, J.-P.; Khan, E.; Arteaga, D. Pena; Grasso, M.; Vretenar, D.

    2009-08-26

    Most nuclei on the nuclear chart are deformed, and the development of new RIB facilities allows the study of exotic nuclei near the drip lines where a successful theoretical description requires both realistic pairing and deformation approaches. Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model taking into account axial deformation and pairing correlations is introduced. Preliminary illustrative results with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings in axial symmetry will be discussed.

  3. Convexity and symmetrization in relativistic theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, T.

    1990-09-01

    There is a strong motivation for the desire to have symmetric hyperbolic field equations in thermodynamics, because they guarantee well-posedness of Cauchy problems. A generic quasi-linear first order system of balance laws — in the non-relativistic case — can be shown to be symmetric hyperbolic, if the entropy density is concave with respect to the variables. In relativistic thermodynamics this is not so. This paper shows that there exists a scalar quantity in relativistic thermodynamics whose concavity guarantees a symmetric hyperbolic system. But that quantity — we call it —bar h — is not the entropy, although it is closely related to it. It is formed by contracting the entropy flux vector — ha with a privileged time-like congruencebar ξ _α . It is also shown that the convexity of h plus the requirement that all speeds be smaller than the speed of light c provide symmetric hyperbolic field equations for all choices of the direction of time. At this level of generality the physical meaning of —h is unknown. However, in many circumstances it is equal to the entropy. This is so, of course, in the non-relativistic limit but also in the non-dissipative relativistic fluid and even in relativistic extended thermodynamics for a non-degenerate gas.

  4. Relabeling symmetry in relativistic fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazura, Yohei; Yoshida, Zensho; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2014-11-01

    The conservation of the recently formulated relativistic canonical helicity (Yoshida et al 2014 J. Math. Phys. 55 043101) is derived from Noether's theorem by constructing an action principle on the relativistic Lagrangian coordinates (we obtain general cross helicities that include the helicity of the canonical vorticity). The conservation law is, then, explained by the relabeling symmetry pertinent to the Lagrangian label of fluid elements. Upon Eulerianizing the Noether current, the purely spatial volume integral on the Lagrangian coordinates is mapped to a space-time mixed three-dimensional integral on the four-dimensional Eulerian coordinates. The relativistic conservation law in the Eulerian coordinates is no longer represented by any divergence-free current; hence, it is not adequate to regard the relativistic helicity (represented by the Eulerian variables) as a Noether charge, and this stands the reason why the ‘conventional helicity’ is no longer a constant of motion. We have also formulated a relativistic action principle of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on the Lagrangian coordinates, and have derived the relativistic MHD cross helicity.

  5. Numerical magneto-hydrodynamics for relativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inghirami, Gabriele; Del Zanna, Luca; Beraudo, Andrea; Moghaddam, Mohsen Haddadi; Becattini, Francesco; Bleicher, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    We present an improved version of the ECHO-QGP numerical code, which self-consistently includes for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields within the framework of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD). We discuss results of its application in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma. After reviewing the relevant covariant 3+1 formalisms, we illustrate the implementation of the evolution equations in the code and show the results of several tests aimed at assessing the accuracy and robustness of the implementation. After providing some estimates of the magnetic fields arising in non-central high-energy nuclear collisions, we perform full RMHD simulations of the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in the presence of electromagnetic fields and discuss the results. In our ideal RMHD setup we find that the magnetic field developing in non-central collisions does not significantly modify the elliptic flow of the final hadrons. However, since there are uncertainties in the description of the pre-equilibrium phase and also in the properties of the medium, a more extensive survey of the possible initial conditions as well as the inclusion of dissipative effects are indeed necessary to validate this preliminary result.

  6. Relativistic Dipole Matrix Element Zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    There is a special class of relativistic high energy dipole matrix element zeros (RZ), whose positions with respect to photon energy ω , only depend on the bound state l quantum number according to ω^0=mc^2/(l_b+1) (independent of primary quantum number n, nuclear charge Z, central potential V and dipole retardation). These RZ only occur in (n,l_b,j_b)arrow (ɛ , l_b+1,j_b) transitions such as ns_1/2arrow ɛ p_1/2; np_3/2arrow ɛ d_3/2: nd_5/2arrow ɛ f_5/2 etc. The nonrelativistic limit of these matrix elements can be established explicitly in the Coulomb case. Within the general matrix element formalism (such as that in [1]); when |κ | is substituted for γ in analytic expressions for matrix elements, the zeros remain, but ω^0 now becomes dependent on n and Z. When the reduction to nonrelativistic form is completed by application of the low energy approximation ω mc^2 mc^2, the zeros disappear. This nonzero behavior was noted in nonrelativistic dipole Coulomb matrix elements by Fano and Cooper [2] and later proven by Oh and Pratt[3]. (J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 40), 3054 (1989 (U. Fano and J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40), 441 (1968). (D. Oh and R. H. Pratt, Phys. Rev. A 34), 2486 (1986); 37, 1524 (1988); 45, 1583 (1992).

  7. Causal Categories: Relativistically Interacting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coecke, Bob; Lal, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a causal category. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study the consequences of these methods for the general framework of categorical quantum mechanics.

  8. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  9. Detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cissoko, M. )

    1992-02-15

    This paper is concerned with an algebraic study of the equations of detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics taking into account the pressure and the energy of thermal radiation. A new approach to shock and detonation wavefronts is outlined. The fluid under consideration is assumed to be perfect (nonviscous and nonconducting) and to obey the following equation of state: {ital p}=({gamma}{minus}1){rho} where {ital p}, {rho}, and {gamma} are the pressure, the total energy density, and the adiabatic index, respectively. The solutions of the equations of detonation waves are reduced to the problem of finding physically acceptable roots of a quadratic polynomial {Pi}({ital X}) where {ital X} is the ratio {tau}/{tau}{sub 0} of dynamical volumes behind and ahead of the detonation wave. The existence and the locations of zeros of this polynomial allow it to be shown that if the equation of state of the burnt fluid is known then the variables characterizing the unburnt fluid obey well-defined physical relations.

  10. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  11. Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Blanford, Glenn DelFosse

    1998-01-01

    An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 < p < 9 GeV/c) antiprotons and a jet of molecular hydrogen gas. Since the neutral antihydrogen does not bend in the antiproton source magnets, the detectors could be located far from the interaction point on a beamline tangent to the storage ring. The detection of the antihydrogen is accomplished by ionizing the atoms far from the interaction point. The positron is deflected by a magnetic spectrometer and detected, as are the back to back photons resulting from its annihilation. The antiproton travels a distance long enough for its momentum and time of flight to be measured accurately. A statistically significant sample of 101 antihydrogen atoms has been observed. A measurement of the cross section for {bar H}{sup 0} production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e{sup +} e{sup -} pair creation near a nucleus with the e{sup +} being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure.

  12. Towards the island of stability with relativistic energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Prassa, V.; Niksic, T.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Vretenar, D.

    2012-10-20

    Relativistic energy density functionals (REDF) provide a complete and accurate, global description of nuclear structure phenomena. Modern semi-empirical functionals, adjusted to the nuclear matter equation of state and to empirical masses of deformed nuclei, are applied to studies of shapes of superheavy nuclei. The theoretical framework is tested in a comparison to empirical masses, quadrupole deformations, and energy barriers of actinide nuclei. The model is used in a self-consistent mean-field calculation of spherical, axial and triaxial shapes of superheavy nuclei, alpha-decay energies and lifetimes. The effect of explicit treatment of collective correlations is analyzed in calculations that consistently use a collective Hamiltonian model based on REDFs.

  13. The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original ``Big Bang.`` The collider rings will consist of 1740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing and test results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful.

  14. Relativistic Particle-In-Cell Simulations of Particle Accleration in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Highly accelerated particles are observed in astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic electron-ion and electron-positron jets injected into a stationary medium show that efficient acceleration occurs downstream in the jet. In collisionless relativistic shocks particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities, e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-stream instabilities, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly non-uniform, small-scale magnetic fields. The instability depends on strength and direction of the magnetic field. Particles in relativistic jets may be accelerated in a complicated dynamics of relativistic jets with magnetic field. We present results of our recent PIC simulations.

  15. Relativistic Particle-In-Cell Simulations of Particle Accleration in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Highly accelerated particles are observed in astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic electron-ion and electron-positron jets injected into a stationary medium show that efficient acceleration occurs downstream in the jet. In collisionless relativistic shocks particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities, e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-stream instabilities, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly non-uniform, small-scale magnetic fields. The instability depends on strength and direction of the magnetic field. Particles in relativistic jets may be accelerated in a complicated dynamics of relativistic jets with magnetic field. We present results of our recent PIC simulations.

  16. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  17. Current operators in relativistic few-body systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coester, F.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1995-08-01

    The interpretation of experiments that explore hadron structure with electromagnetic probes requires both a nonperturbative representation of the hadron states and a compatible representation of the current-density operator. Intuitive interpretations depend strongly on the {open_quotes}impulse approximation{close_quotes}, that is, the use of one-body currents. One-body currents, however, cannot satisfy essentially the constraints imposed by the dynamics. In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics the problem of constructing dynamically required interaction currents is well understood and has been solved. Since Galilei transformations are kinematic, only time-translation covariance and current conservation impose dynamical constraints on current operators. These constraints can be satisfied by the well-known construction of so-called {open_quotes}minimal{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}model-independent{close_quotes} currents. Descriptions of hadron structure and of nuclear effects probed at high energies require a relativistic description. In relativistic few-body dynamics, one-body currents are covariant only under the kinematic subgroup of the Poincare group. Full Poincare covariance and current conservation implies dynamically determined interaction currents. The separation of the current operator into impulse current and interaction current depends on the {open_quotes}form of dynamics{close_quotes}, that is on the choice of the kinematic subgroup. The choice of the light-front kinematics has unique advantages not available with other forms of dynamics: (1) a relevant subgroup of the translations is kinematic, (2) initial and final states are related by kinematic Lorentz transformations, (3) the contributions of the individual constituents are related kinematically to the total current. These features were exploited successfully in calculations of deuteron form factors and quark-model form factors of hadrons.

  18. Diskoseismology: Probing relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Michael Allen

    1992-08-01

    Helioseismology has provided a wealth of information about the structure of the solar atmosphere. Little is known, however, about the structure of accretion disks that are thought to exist around black holes and neutron stars. In this thesis we present calculations of modes that are trapped in thin Keplerian accretion disks. We hope to use observations of thes modes to elucidate the structure of the inner relativistic regions of accretion disks. Our calculations assume that the thin disk is terminated by an innermost stable orbit, as would occur around a slowly rotating black hole or weakly magnetized compact neutron star. The dominant relativistic effects, which allow modes to be trapped within the inner region of the disk, are approximated via a modified Newtonian potential. Using the Lagrangian formulation of Friedman and Schutz, we develop a general formalism for investigating the adiabatic oscillations of arbitrary unperturbed disk models. First we consider the special case of acoustic waves in disks with isothermal atmospheres. Next we describe the Lagrangian perturbation vectors in terms of the derivatives of a scalar potential, as has been done by Ipser and Lindblom. Using this potential, we derive a single partial differential equation governing the oscillations of a disk. The eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of a variety of disk models are found to fall into two main classes which are analogous to the p-modes and g-modes in the sun. Specifically we use the potential formalism to compute the g-modes for disks with isothermal atmospheres. Physical arguments show that both the p-modes and g-modes belong to the same family of modes as the p-modes and g-modes in the sun, just viewed in a different parameter regime. With the aid of the Lagrangian formalism we consider possible growth or damping mechanisms and compute the (assumed) relatively small rates of growth or damping of the modes. Specifically, we consider gravitational radiation reaction and

  19. Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2014-01-14

    Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad’s moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick’s law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad’s distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.

  20. Imbalanced relativistic force-free magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jungyeon; Lazarian, A.

    2014-01-01

    When magnetic energy density is much larger than that of matter, as in pulsar/black hole magnetospheres, the medium becomes force-free and we need relativity to describe it. As in non-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Alfvénic MHD turbulence in the relativistic limit can be described by interactions of counter-traveling wave packets. In this paper, we numerically study strong imbalanced MHD turbulence in such environments. Here, imbalanced turbulence means the waves traveling in one direction (dominant waves) have higher amplitudes than the opposite-traveling waves (sub-dominant waves). We find that (1) spectrum of the dominant waves is steeper than that of sub-dominant waves, (2) the anisotropy of the dominant waves is weaker than that of sub-dominant waves, and (3) the dependence of the ratio of magnetic energy densities of dominant and sub-dominant waves on the ratio of energy injection rates is steeper than quadratic (i.e., b{sub +}{sup 2}/b{sub −}{sup 2}∝(ϵ{sub +}/ϵ{sub −}){sup n} with n > 2). These results are consistent with those obtained for imbalanced non-relativistic Alfvénic turbulence. This corresponds well to the earlier reported similarity of the relativistic and non-relativistic balanced magnetic turbulence.

  1. Relativistic Tennis with Photons: Frequency Up-Shifting, Light Intensification and Ion Acceleration with Flying Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Rosanov, N. N.; Zhidkov, A. G.

    2011-01-04

    We formulate the Flying Mirror Concept for relativistic interaction of ultra-intense electromagnetic waves with plasmas, present its theoretical description and the results of computer simulations and laboratory experiments. In collisionless plasmas, the relativistic flying mirrors are thin and dense electron or electron-ion layers accelerated by the high intensity electromagnetic waves up to velocity close to the speed of light in vacuum; in nonlinear-media and in nonlinear vacuum they are the ionization fronts and the refraction index modulations induced by a strong electromagnetic wave. The reflection of the electromagnetic wave at the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency change due to the double Doppler effect. In the co-propagating configuration, in the radiation pressure dominant regime, the energy of the electromagnetic wave is transferred to the ion energy providing a highly efficient acceleration mechanism. In the counter-propagation configuration the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the gamma-factor squared. If the relativistic mirror performs an oscillatory motion as in the case of the electron motion at the plasma-vacuum interface, the reflected light spectrum is enriched with high order harmonics.

  2. Radiation-Dominated Relativistic Current Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroschek, C. H.; Hoshino, M.

    2009-08-01

    Relativistic current sheets (RCSs) feature plasma instabilities considered as the potential key to magnetic energy dissipation in Poynting-flux-dominated plasma flows. Kinetic plasma simulations show that the physical nature of RCS evolution changes in the presence of radiation losses: In the ultrarelativistic regime (i.e., magnetization parameter σ=104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density), the combined effect of nonlinear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the relativistic tearing mode. In contrast to previous studies of the RCS with σ˜1, the relativistic tearing mode then prevails over the drift kink mode. The ultrarelativistic RCS shows a typical life cycle from radiation-induced collapse towards a radiation-quiescent phase with topology analogous to that introduced by Sweet and Parker.

  3. Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar.

    PubMed

    Breton, Rene P; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lyutikov, Maxim; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ferdman, Robert D; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea

    2008-07-04

    The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B consists of two neutron stars in a highly relativistic orbit that displays a roughly 30-second eclipse when pulsar A passes behind pulsar B. Describing this eclipse of pulsar A as due to absorption occurring in the magnetosphere of pulsar B, we successfully used a simple geometric model to characterize the observed changing eclipse morphology and to measure the relativistic precession of pulsar B's spin axis around the total orbital angular momentum. This provides a test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. Our measured relativistic spin precession rate of 4.77 degrees (-0 degrees .65)(+0 degrees .66) per year (68% confidence level) is consistent with that predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 13%.

  4. Relativistic dynamics, Green function and pseudodifferential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

    2016-06-01

    The central role played by pseudodifferential operators in relativistic dynamics is known very well. In this work, operators like the Schrodinger one (e.g., square root) are treated from the point of view of the non-local pseudodifferential Green functions. Starting from the explicit construction of the Green (semigroup) theoretical kernel, a theorem linking the integrability conditions and their dependence on the spacetime dimensions is given. Relativistic wave equations with arbitrary spin and the causality problem are discussed with the algebraic interpretation of the radical operator and their relation with coherent and squeezed states. Also we perform by means of pure theoretical procedures (based in physical concepts and symmetry) the relativistic position operator which satisfies the conditions of integrability: it is a non-local, Lorentz invariant and does not have the same problems as the "local"position operator proposed by Newton and Wigner. Physical examples, as zitterbewegung and rogue waves, are presented and deeply analyzed in this theoretical framework.

  5. Exact quantisation of the relativistic Hopfield model

    SciTech Connect

    Belgiorno, F.; Cacciatori, S.L.; Dalla Piazza, F.; Doronzo, M.

    2016-11-15

    We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, which entails the interaction of the quantum electromagnetic field with the matter dipole fields, represented by a mesoscopic polarisation field. A full quantisation of the model is provided in a covariant gauge, with the aim of maintaining explicit relativistic covariance. Breaking of the Lorentz invariance due to the intrinsic presence in the model of a preferred reference frame is also taken into account. Relativistic covariance forces us to deal with the unphysical (scalar and longitudinal) components of the fields, furthermore it introduces, in a more tricky form, the well-known dipole ghost of standard QED in a covariant gauge. In order to correctly dispose of this contribution, we implement a generalised Lautrup trick. Furthermore, causality and the relation of the model with the Wightman axioms are also discussed.

  6. Anisotropic Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Shear Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Markus; Liang, Edison P.; Fu, Wen

    2017-08-01

    We present results of Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic shear layers as relevant to the relativistic jets of acive galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. We study the self-generation of electro-magnetic fields and particle acceleration for various different plasma compositions (electron-ion vs. electron-positron pair vs. hybrid). Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution of accelerated particles. We find that electron-ion shear layers lead to highly anisotropic particle distributions in the frame of the fast-moving inner spine. The beaming pattern of the highest-energy particles is much narrower than the characteristic beaming angle of 1/Gamma resulting from relativistic aberration of a co-moving isotropic distribution. This may pose a possible solution to the Lorentz-Factor crisis in blazars and explain very hard X-ray / soft gamma-ray spectra of some gamma-ray bursts.

  7. Nonlinear relativistic plasma resonance: Renormalization group approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelskii, I. I.; Kovalev, V. F.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2017-02-01

    An analytical solution to the nonlinear set of equations describing the electron dynamics and electric field structure in the vicinity of the critical density in a nonuniform plasma is constructed using the renormalization group approach with allowance for relativistic effects of electron motion. It is demonstrated that the obtained solution describes two regimes of plasma oscillations in the vicinity of the plasma resonance— stationary and nonstationary. For the stationary regime, the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of the resonantly enhanced electric field are investigated in detail and the effect of the relativistic nonlinearity on the spatial localization of the energy of the plasma relativistic field is considered. The applicability limits of the obtained solution, which are determined by the conditions of plasma wave breaking in the vicinity of the resonance, are established and analyzed in detail for typical laser and plasma parameters. The applicability limits of the earlier developed nonrelativistic theories are refined.

  8. Relativistic neutrons in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Rudak, Bronislaw

    1989-01-01

    The acceleration of protons to relativistic energies in active galactic nuclei leads to the creation of relativistic neutrons which escape from the central engine. The neutrons decay at distances of up to 1-100 pc, depositing their energies and momenta in situ. Energy deposition by decaying neutrons may inhibit spherical accretion and drive a wind, which could be responsible for the velocity fields in emission-line regions and the outflow of broad absorption line systems. Enhanced pressure in the neutron decay region may also help to confine emission line clouds. A fraction of the relativistic proton energy is radiated in gamma-rays with energies which may be as large as about 100,000 GeV.

  9. Relativistic mirrors in laser plasmas (analytical methods)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh; Kando, M.; Koga, J.

    2016-10-01

    Relativistic flying mirrors in plasmas are realized as thin dense electron (or electron-ion) layers accelerated by high-intensity electromagnetic waves to velocities close to the speed of light in vacuum. The reflection of an electromagnetic wave from the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency changing. In a counter-propagation configuration, the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the Lorentz factor squared. This scientific area promises the development of sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses in the attosecond range. The expected intensity will reach the level at which the effects predicted by nonlinear quantum electrodynamics start to play a key role. We present an overview of theoretical methods used to describe relativistic flying, accelerating, oscillating mirrors emerging in intense laser-plasma interactions.

  10. Baryon properties in the relativistic quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, D.; Faustov, R. N.; Galkin, V. O.

    2017-09-01

    Properties of heavy and strange baryons are investigated in the framework of the relativistic quark-diquark picture. It is based on the relativistic quark model of hadrons, which was previously successfully applied for the calculation of meson properties. It is assumed that two quarks in a baryon form a diquark and baryon is considered as the bound quark-diquark system. The relativistic effects and diquark internal structure are consistently taken into account. Calculations are performed up to rather high orbital and radial excitations of heavy and strange baryons. On this basis the Regge trajectories are constructed. The rates of semileptonic decays of heavy baryons are calculated. The obtained results agree well with available experimental data.

  11. Relativistic quantum information and time machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, Timothy C.; Downes, Tony G.

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic quantum information combines the informational approach to understanding and using quantum mechanical systems - quantum information - with the relativistic view of the Universe. In this introductory review we examine key results to emerge from this new field of research in physics and discuss future directions. A particularly active area recently has been the question of what happens when quantum systems interact with general relativistic closed timelike curves - effectively time machines. We discuss two different approaches that have been suggested for modelling such situations. It is argued that the approach based on matching the density operator of the quantum state between the future and past most consistently avoids the paradoxes usually associated with time travel.

  12. Relativistic Approach to One Nucleon Knockout Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meucci, Andrea; Giusti, Carlotta; Pacati, Franco Davide

    2003-04-01

    We develop a fully relativistic distorted wave impulse approximation model for electron- and photon-induced one proton knockout reactions. The relativistic mean field for the bound state and the Pauli reduction for the scattering state are used, including a fully relativistic electromagnetic current operator. Results for 16O(e, e'p) cross section and structure functions are shown in various kinematic conditions and compared with nonrelativistic calculations. Nuclear transparency calculations in a Q2 range between 0.3 and 1.8 (GeV/c)2 are presented. Results for 16O(γ,p) differential cross sections are displayed in an energy range between 60 and 150 MeV including two-body seagull contribution in the nuclear current.

  13. Energetic particle transport in relativistic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion is given of pitch angle dependent and diffusive transport equations for cosmic rays applicable for both special relativistic and general relativistic flows, derived from the relativistic Boltzmann equation. As an example of particle transport in a curved spacetime we give a pitch angle dependent transport equation appropriate for radial accretion onto a Schwarzschild black hole. The roles of fluid shear, acceleration and compression on the energy changes of particles in the diffusive transport equations are emphasized. Also discussed are special flows (e.g. rigidly rotating flows) associated with a Killing vector for which a constant of the motion of the particles can be identified, and for which simplified transport equations can be constructed.

  14. Anomalous magnetic viscosity in relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fujun; Liu, Sanqiu; Li, Xiaoqing

    2013-07-01

    It has been proved that the self-generated magnetic fields by transverse plasmons in the relativistic regime are modulationally unstable, leading to a self-similar collapse of the magnetic flux tubes and resulting in local magnetic structures; highly spatially intermittent flux is responsible for generating the anomalous viscosity. We derive the anomalous magnetic viscosity coefficient, in accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes, pulsars and quasars, where the plasmas are relativistic, in order to help clarify the nature of viscosity in the theory of accretion disks. The results indicate that, the magnetic viscosity is modified by the relativistic effects of plasmas, and its' strength would be 1015 stronger than the molecular viscosity, which may be helpful in explaining the observations.

  15. RESISTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF RELATIVISTIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex

    2010-06-20

    Resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations are applied to investigate the system evolution of relativistic magnetic reconnection. A time-split Harten-Lan-van Leer method is employed. Under a localized resistivity, the system exhibits a fast reconnection jet with an Alfvenic Lorentz factor inside a narrow Petschek-type exhaust. Various shock structures are resolved in and around the plasmoid such as the post-plasmoid vertical shocks and the 'diamond-chain' structure due to multiple shock reflections. Under a uniform resistivity, Sweet-Parker-type reconnection slowly evolves. Under a current-dependent resistivity, plasmoids are repeatedly formed in an elongated current sheet. It is concluded that the resistivity model is of critical importance for RRMHD modeling of relativistic magnetic reconnection.

  16. Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations are applied to investigate the system evolution of relativistic magnetic reconnection. A time-split Harten-Lan-van Leer method is employed. Under a localized resistivity, the system exhibits a fast reconnection jet with an Alfv enic Lorentz factor inside a narrow Petschek-type exhaust. Various shock structures are resolved in and around the plasmoid such as the post-plasmoid vertical shocks and the "diamond-chain" structure due to multiple shock reflections. Under a uniform resistivity, Sweet-Parker-type reconnection slowly evolves. Under a current-dependent resistivity, plasmoids are repeatedly formed in an elongated current sheet. It is concluded that the resistivity model is of critical importance for RRMHD modeling of relativistic magnetic reconnection.

  17. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-François; Schenke, Björn; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.

  18. Exact quantisation of the relativistic Hopfield model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgiorno, F.; Cacciatori, S. L.; Dalla Piazza, F.; Doronzo, M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, which entails the interaction of the quantum electromagnetic field with the matter dipole fields, represented by a mesoscopic polarisation field. A full quantisation of the model is provided in a covariant gauge, with the aim of maintaining explicit relativistic covariance. Breaking of the Lorentz invariance due to the intrinsic presence in the model of a preferred reference frame is also taken into account. Relativistic covariance forces us to deal with the unphysical (scalar and longitudinal) components of the fields, furthermore it introduces, in a more tricky form, the well-known dipole ghost of standard QED in a covariant gauge. In order to correctly dispose of this contribution, we implement a generalised Lautrup trick. Furthermore, causality and the relation of the model with the Wightman axioms are also discussed.

  19. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    1977-01-01

    The general-relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. Also, a general-relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented.

  20. Properties of compressible elastica from relativistic analogy.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Oz; Diamant, Haim

    2016-01-21

    Kirchhoff's kinetic analogy relates the deformation of an incompressible elastic rod to the classical dynamics of rigid body rotation. We extend the analogy to compressible filaments and find that the extension is similar to the introduction of relativistic effects into the dynamical system. The extended analogy reveals a surprising symmetry in the deformations of compressible elastica. In addition, we use known results for the buckling of compressible elastica to derive the explicit solution for the motion of a relativistic nonlinear pendulum. We discuss cases where the extended Kirchhoff analogy may be useful for the study of other soft matter systems.

  1. Relativistic Plasmas in Low Density Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnick, Lawrence

    2009-12-18

    We have been developing techniques over the last several years to identify and study relativistic plasmas in low density environments. These relativistic plasmas may be the best or only available indicators of diffuse baryons in portions of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium outside of rich galaxy clusters. Studying such faint radio synchrotron sources requires removal of confusion from both background radio galaxies and the foreground Milky Way. In these proceedings, we briefly summarize the techniques we are developing and some of our initial results. Our discoveries likely represent the ''tip of the iceberg'' to be exploited by the nascent generation of radio telescopes.

  2. Weakly relativistic dispersion of Bernstein waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Weakly relativistic effects on the dispersion of Bernstein waves are investigated for waves propagating nearly perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Maxwellian plasma. Attention is focused on those large-wave-vector branches that are either weakly damped or join continuously onto weakly damped branches since these are the modes of most interest in applications. The transition between dispersion at perpendicular and oblique propagation is examined and major weakly relativistic effects can dominate even in low-temperature plasmas. A number of simple analytic criteria are obtained which delimit the ranges of harmonic number and propagation angle within which various types of weakly damped Bernstein modes can exist.

  3. Relativistic Brownian motion on a graphene chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pototsky, A.; Marchesoni, F.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Hänggi, P.; Savel'ev, S. E.

    2012-10-01

    Relativistic Brownian motion can be inexpensively demonstrated on a graphene chip. The interplay of stochastic and relativistic dynamics, governing the transport of charge carrier in graphene, induces noise-controlled effects such as (i) a stochastic effective mass, detectable as a suppression of the particle mobility with increasing the temperature; (ii) transverse harmonic mixing, whereby electron transport can be controlled by two orthogonal, commensurate ac drives; (iii) a transverse ratchet effect, measurable as a net current orthogonal to an ac drive on an asymmetric substrate, and (iv) chaotic stochastic resonance. Such properties can be of practical applications in the emerging graphene technology.

  4. Can Bohmian mechanics be made relativistic?

    PubMed

    Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward; Zanghì, Nino

    2014-02-08

    In relativistic space-time, Bohmian theories can be formulated by introducing a privileged foliation of space-time. The introduction of such a foliation-as extra absolute space-time structure-would seem to imply a clear violation of Lorentz invariance, and thus a conflict with fundamental relativity. Here, we consider the possibility that, instead of positing it as extra structure, the required foliation could be covariantly determined by the wave function. We argue that this allows for the formulation of Bohmian theories that seem to qualify as fundamentally Lorentz invariant. We conclude with some discussion of whether or not they might also qualify as fundamentally relativistic.

  5. Can Bohmian mechanics be made relativistic?

    PubMed Central

    Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward; Zanghì, Nino

    2014-01-01

    In relativistic space–time, Bohmian theories can be formulated by introducing a privileged foliation of space–time. The introduction of such a foliation—as extra absolute space–time structure—would seem to imply a clear violation of Lorentz invariance, and thus a conflict with fundamental relativity. Here, we consider the possibility that, instead of positing it as extra structure, the required foliation could be covariantly determined by the wave function. We argue that this allows for the formulation of Bohmian theories that seem to qualify as fundamentally Lorentz invariant. We conclude with some discussion of whether or not they might also qualify as fundamentally relativistic. PMID:24511259

  6. Weakly relativistic dispersion of Bernstein waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Weakly relativistic effects on the dispersion of Bernstein waves are investigated for waves propagating nearly perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Maxwellian plasma. Attention is focused on those large-wave-vector branches that are either weakly damped or join continuously onto weakly damped branches since these are the modes of most interest in applications. The transition between dispersion at perpendicular and oblique propagation is examined and major weakly relativistic effects can dominate even in low-temperature plasmas. A number of simple analytic criteria are obtained which delimit the ranges of harmonic number and propagation angle within which various types of weakly damped Bernstein modes can exist.

  7. Recent progress in relativistic klystron research

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Aalberts, D.P.; Boyd, J.K.; Houck, T.; Ryne, R.D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US

    1989-08-01

    Experimental work is now under way by collaborators at LLNL, SLAC, and LBL to investigate relativistic klystrons as a possible rf power source for future high-gradient accelerators. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high-power rf pulse shortening and have achieved peak rf power levels of 290 MW. We have used the rf from a relativistic klystron to power a short, 11.4-GHz high-gradient accelerator. The measured momentum spectrum of the accelerated electron beam corresponds to an accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Relativistic klystron research for high gradient accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.

    1988-06-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron--positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our first klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Electronic Broadening operator for relativistic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Meftah, M. T.; Naam, A.

    2008-10-22

    In this work we review some aspects of the semiclassical dipole impact approximation for isolated ion lines in relativistic plasma. Mainly we focuss our work on the collision operator for relativistic electrons. In this case, the electron trajectory around a positive charge in the plasma differs drastically from those known earlier as hyperbolic. The effect of this difference on the collision operator is discussed with respect the various plasma conditions. Some theoretical and practical aspects of lines -shape calculations are discussed. Detailed calculations are performed for the collision operator in the semiclassical (dipole) impact approximation.

  10. Relativistic astrophysics with resonant multiple inspirals

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Naoki; Muto, Takayuki

    2010-05-15

    We show that a massive black hole binary might resonantly trap a small third body (e.g. a neutron star) down to a stage when the binary becomes relativistic due to its orbital decay by gravitational radiation. The final fate of the third body would be quite interesting for relativistic astrophysics. For example, the parent binary could expel the third body with a velocity more than 10% of the speed of light. We also discuss the implications of this three-body system for direct gravitational wave observation.

  11. Nonaxisymmetric oscillations of differentially rotating relativistic stars

    SciTech Connect

    Passamonti, Andrea; Stavridis, Adamantios; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2008-01-15

    Nonaxisymmetric oscillations of differentially rotating stars are studied using both slow rotation and Cowling approximation. The equilibrium stellar models are relativistic polytropes where differential rotation is described by the relativistic j-constant rotation law. The oscillation spectrum is studied versus three main parameters: the stellar compactness M/R, the degree of differential rotation A, and the number of maximum couplings l{sub max}. It is shown that the rotational splitting of the nonaxisymmetric modes are strongly enhanced by increasing the compactness of the star and the degree of differential rotation. Finally, we investigate the relation between the fundamental quadrupole mode and the corotation band of differentially rotating stars.

  12. Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection around rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asenjo, Felipe; Comisso, Luca

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the classical Sweet-Parker and Petschek models have been extended in the special relativistic regime, both for MHD plasmas and two-fluid electron-positron plasmas. Nevertheless, there could be situations, like in the vicinity of black holes, where also general relativistic effects can become important. Here, we calculate analytically the reconnection rate and other relevant quantities in a magnetic reconnection process around a rotating black hole. A striking result is that the black hole rotation is capable to produce an enhancement of the rate at which magnetic reconnection proceeds. This work is supported by Fondecyt-Chile, Grant No. 11140025.

  13. GENERAL RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS ON NONLINEAR POWER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Donghui; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Noh, Hyerim; Hwang, Jai-chan E-mail: jgong@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: jchan@knu.ac.kr

    2011-01-20

    The nonlinear nature of Einstein's equation introduces genuine relativistic higher order corrections to the usual Newtonian fluid equations describing the evolution of cosmological perturbations. We study the effect of such novel nonlinearities on the next-to-leading order matter and velocity power spectra for the case of a pressureless, irrotational fluid in a flat Friedmann background. We find that pure general relativistic corrections are negligibly small over all scales. Our result guarantees that, in the current paradigm of standard cosmology, one can safely use Newtonian cosmology even in nonlinear regimes.

  14. Towards universal quantum computation through relativistic motion

    PubMed Central

    Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Kok, Pieter; Johansson, Göran; Delsing, Per; Fuentes, Ivette

    2016-01-01

    We show how to use relativistic motion to generate continuous variable Gaussian cluster states within cavity modes. Our results can be demonstrated experimentally using superconducting circuits where tuneable boundary conditions correspond to mirrors moving with velocities close to the speed of light. In particular, we propose the generation of a quadripartite square cluster state as a first example that can be readily implemented in the laboratory. Since cluster states are universal resources for universal one-way quantum computation, our results pave the way for relativistic quantum computation schemes. PMID:26860584

  15. Classical Simulation of Relativistic Zitterbewegung in Photonic Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dreisow, Felix; Heinrich, Matthias; Keil, Robert; Tuennermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan; Longhi, Stefano; Szameit, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    We present the first experimental realization of an optical analog for relativistic quantum mechanics by simulating the Zitterbewegung (trembling motion) of a free Dirac electron in an optical superlattice. Our photonic setting enables a direct visualization of Zitterbewegung as a spatial oscillatory motion of an optical beam. Direct measurements of the wave packet expectation values in superlattices with tuned miniband gaps clearly show the transition from weak-relativistic to relativistic and far-relativistic regimes.

  16. Relativistic effects on the motion of asteroids and comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahid-Saless, Bahman; Yeomans, Donald K.

    1994-01-01

    We study the effects arising from relativistic perturbations on the motion of asteroids and comets and show that for a number of such objects, inclusion of relativistic contributions in the equations of motion gives rise to significant improvements in the orbital solutions. Furthermore we argue that ignoring relativistic corrections to the equations of motion, while using masses derived from relativistic ephemerides yields incorrect solutions corresponding to an inconsistent, non-Newtonian, nonrelativistic model.

  17. Comparing Tsallis and Boltzmann temperatures from relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider heavy-ion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.-Q.; Liu, F.-H.

    2016-03-01

    The transverse momentum spectra of charged particles produced in Au + Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider and in Pb + Pb collisions at the large hadron collider with different centrality intervals are described by the multisource thermal model which is based on different statistic distributions for a singular source. Each source in the present work is described by the Tsallis distribution and the Boltzmann distribution, respectively. Then, the interacting system is described by the (two-component) Tsallis distribution and the (two-component) Boltzmann distribution, respectively. The results calculated by the two distributions are in agreement with the experimental data of the Solenoidal Tracker At Relativistic heavy ion collider, Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment, and A Large Ion Collider Experiment Collaborations. The effective temperature parameters extracted from the two distributions on the descriptions of heavy-ion data at the relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider are obtained to show a linear correlation.

  18. A two-fluid model for relativistic heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    López-Monsalvo, César S.

    2014-01-14

    Three years ago it was presented in these proceedings the relativistic dynamics of a multi-fluid system together with various applications to a set of topical problems [1]. In this talk, I will start from such dynamics and present a covariant formulation of relativistic thermodynamics which provides us with a causal constitutive equation for the propagation of heat in a relativistic setting.

  19. Chandra Discovers Relativistic Pinball Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    across the shock front, like they're in a relativistic pinball machine," said team member Glenn Allen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge. "The magnetic fields are like the bumpers, and the shock is like a flipper." In their analysis of the huge data set, the team was able to separate the X-rays coming from the accelerating electrons from those coming from the heated stellar debris. The data imply that some of these electrons are accelerated at a rate close to the maximum predicted by theory. Cosmic rays are composed of electrons, protons, and ions, of which only glow from electrons is detectable in X-rays. Protons and ions, which constitute the bulk of cosmic rays, are expected to behave similarly to the electrons. "It's exciting to see regions where the glow produced by cosmic rays actually outshines the 10-million-degree gas heated by the supernova's shock waves," said John Houck, also of MIT. "This helps us understand not only how cosmic rays are accelerated, but also how supernova remnants evolve." As the total energy of the cosmic rays behind the shock wave increases, the magnetic field behind the shock is modified, along with the character of the shock wave itself. Researching the conditions in the shocks helps astronomers trace the changes of the supernova remnant with time, and ultimately better understand the original supernova explosion. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center, Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  20. Coherent bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons in antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kunashenko, Yu.P.

    1988-08-01

    The coherent bremsstrahlung (CB) of relativistic electrons in antiferromagnetic crystals is studied theoretically. It is shown that the internal magnetic field of an antiferromagnet has a negligible effect on CB. The complete CB spectrum is calculated for hematite, ..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  1. A Quantum Relativistic Prisoner's Dilemma Cellular Automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Carvalho, Márcio; Situ, Haozhen

    2016-10-01

    The effect of variable entangling on the dynamics of a spatial quantum relativistic formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. The game is assessed in fair and unfair contests.

  2. Global existence proof for relativistic Boltzmann equation

    SciTech Connect

    Dudynski, M. ); Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L. )

    1992-02-01

    The existence and causality of solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation in L[sup 1] and in L[sub loc][sup 1] are proved. The solutions are shown to satisfy physically natural a priori bounds, time-independent in L[sup 1]. The results rely upon new techniques developed for the nonrelativistic Boltzmann equation by DiPerna and Lions.

  3. Instabilities in a Relativistic Viscous Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona-Galindo, M. G.; Klapp, J.; Vazquez, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Las ecuaciones hidrodinamicas de un fluido imperfecto relativista son resueltas, y los modos hidrodinamicos son analizados con el prop6sito de estabiecer correlaciones con las estructuras cosmol6gicas. ABSTRACT The hydrodynamical equations of a relativistic imperfect fluid are solved, and the hydrodynamical modes are analysed with the aim to establish correlations with cosmological structures. Ke, words: COSMOLOGY - HYDRODYNAMICS - RELATIVITY

  4. Asymptotic theory of relativistic, magnetized jets

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2011-01-15

    The structure of a relativistically hot, strongly magnetized jet is investigated at large distances from the source. Asymptotic equations are derived describing collimation and acceleration of the externally confined jet. Conditions are found for the transformation of the thermal energy into the fluid kinetic energy or into the Poynting flux. Simple scalings are presented for the jet collimation angle and Lorentz factors.

  5. Stable discrete representation of relativistically drifting plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchen, M.; Lehe, R.; Godfrey, B. B.; Dornmair, I.; Jalas, S.; Peters, K.; Vay, J.-L.; Maier, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.

  6. Asymptotic theory of relativistic, magnetized jets.

    PubMed

    Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The structure of a relativistically hot, strongly magnetized jet is investigated at large distances from the source. Asymptotic equations are derived describing collimation and acceleration of the externally confined jet. Conditions are found for the transformation of the thermal energy into the fluid kinetic energy or into the Poynting flux. Simple scalings are presented for the jet collimation angle and Lorentz factors.

  7. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS: A THEORETICAL OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    KHARZEEV,D.

    2004-03-28

    This is a mini-review of recent theoretical work in the field of relativistic heavy ion physics. The following topics are discussed initial conditions and the Color Glass Condensate; approach to thermalization and the hydrodynamic evolution; hard probes and the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Some of the unsolved problems and potentially promising directions for future research are listed as well.

  8. Relativistic quantum corrections to laser wakefield acceleration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Ji, Peiyong

    2010-03-01

    The influence of quantum effects on the interaction of intense laser fields with plasmas is investigated by using a hydrodynamic model based on the framework of the relativistic quantum theory. Starting from the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, the hydrodynamic equations for relativistic quantum plasmas are derived. Based on the relativistic quantum hydrodynamic equations and Poisson equation, the perturbations of electron number densities and the electric field of the laser wakefield containing quantum effects are deduced. It is found that the corrections generated by the quantum effects to the perturbations of electron number densities and the accelerating field of the laser wakefield cannot be neglected. Quantum effects will suppress laser wakefields, which is a classical manifestation of quantum decoherence effects, however, the contribution of quantum effects for the laser wakefield correction will been partially counteracted by the relativistic effects. The analysis also reveals that quantum effects enlarge the effective frequencies of plasmas, and the quantum behavior appears a screening effect for plasma electrons.

  9. Relativistic quantum corrections to laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong

    2010-03-15

    The influence of quantum effects on the interaction of intense laser fields with plasmas is investigated by using a hydrodynamic model based on the framework of the relativistic quantum theory. Starting from the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, the hydrodynamic equations for relativistic quantum plasmas are derived. Based on the relativistic quantum hydrodynamic equations and Poisson equation, the perturbations of electron number densities and the electric field of the laser wakefield containing quantum effects are deduced. It is found that the corrections generated by the quantum effects to the perturbations of electron number densities and the accelerating field of the laser wakefield cannot be neglected. Quantum effects will suppress laser wakefields, which is a classical manifestation of quantum decoherence effects, however, the contribution of quantum effects for the laser wakefield correction will been partially counteracted by the relativistic effects. The analysis also reveals that quantum effects enlarge the effective frequencies of plasmas, and the quantum behavior appears a screening effect for plasma electrons.

  10. Relativistic equations with fractional and pseudodifferential operators

    SciTech Connect

    Babusci, D.; Dattoli, G.; Quattromini, M.

    2011-06-15

    In this paper we use different techniques from the fractional and pseudo-operators calculus to solve partial differential equations involving operators with noninteger exponents. We apply the method to equations resembling generalizations of the heat equations and discuss the possibility of extending the procedure to the relativistic Schroedinger and Dirac equations.

  11. Impact of early stage non-equilibrium dynamics on photon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, L.; Ruggieri, M.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.

    2017-04-01

    In this study we discuss our results on the spectrum of photons emitted from the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies. Simulating the space-time evolution of the fireball by solving the relativistic Boltzmann transport equation and including two-particle scattering processes with photon emission allows us to make a first step in the description of thermal photons from the QGP as well as of those produced in the pre-equilibrium stage. Indeed, we consider not only a standard Glauber initial condition but also a model in which quarks and gluons are produced in the very early stage through the Schwinger mechanism by the decay of an initial color-electric field. In the latter approach relativistic kinetic equations are coupled in a self-consistent way to field equations. We aim at spotting the impact of early stage non-equilibrium dynamics on the photon production.

  12. General relativistic versus Newtonian: A universality in spherically symmetric radiation hydrodynamics for quasistatic transonic accretion flows

    SciTech Connect

    Malec, Edward; Rembiasz, Tomasz

    2010-12-15

    We compare Newtonian and general relativistic descriptions of the stationary accretion of self-gravitating fluids onto compact bodies. Spherical symmetry and thin gas approximation are assumed. Luminosity depends, among other factors, on the temperature and the contribution of gas to the total mass, in both--general relativistic (L{sub GR}) and Newtonian (L{sub N})--models. We discover a remarkable universal behavior for transonic flows: the ratio of respective luminosities L{sub GR}/L{sub N} is independent of the fractional mass of the gas and depends on asymptotic temperature. It is close to 1 in the regime of low asymptotic temperatures and can grow several times at high temperatures. These conclusions are valid for a wide range of polytropic equations of state.

  13. Gaussian Basis Set and Planewave Relativistic Spin-Orbit Methods in NWChem.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Patrick; Govind, Niranjan; Bylaska, Eric J; de Jong, W A

    2009-03-10

    Relativistic spin-orbit density functional theory (DFT) methods have been implemented in the molecular Gaussian DFT and pseudopotential planewave DFT modules of the NWChem electronic-structure program. The Gaussian basis set implementation is based upon the zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) while the planewave implementation uses spin-orbit pseudopotentials that are directly generated from the atomic Dirac-Kohn-Sham wave functions or atomic ZORA-Kohn-Sham wave functions. Compared to solving the full Dirac equation these methods are computationally efficient but robust enough for a realistic description of relativistic effects such as spin-orbit splitting, molecular orbital hybridization, and core effects. Both methods have been applied to a variety of small molecules, including I2, IF, HI, Br2, Bi2, AuH, and Au2, using various exchange-correlation functionals. Our results are in good agreement with experiment and previously reported calculations.

  14. Relativistic calculation of the pion loop correlation energy in nuclear matter in a theory including confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Massot, E.; Chanfray, G.

    2009-07-15

    We present a relativistic calculation of the saturation properties of nuclear matter which contains the correlation energy. Pion loops are incorporated on top of a relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) approach based on a chiral theory. It includes the effect of nucleon structure through its response to the background chiral invariant scalar field. All the parameters which enter the RHF calculation are fixed or strongly constrained by hadron phenomenology or lattice data. The new input for the correlation energy is the Landau-Migdal parameter g{sup '} governing the short-range part of the spin-isospin interaction. We find that the inclusion of the correlation energy improves the description of the saturation properties of nuclear matter.

  15. Study of quantum spin correlations of relativistic electron pairs - Testing nonlocality of relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, K.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J.; Caban, P.; Rembieliński, J.; Włodarczyk, M.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.

    2013-11-07

    The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass.

  16. Study of quantum spin correlations of relativistic electron pairs - Testing nonlocality of relativistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodek, K.; Caban, P.; Ciborowski, J.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.; Rembieliński, J.; Rozpedzik, D.; Włodarczyk, M.; Zejma, J.

    2013-11-01

    The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass.

  17. Nonlinear magnetosonic waves in dense plasmas with non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Rehman, Aman-ur-

    2014-11-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic waves in the perpendicular direction to the ambient magnetic field is studied in dense plasmas for non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure. The sources of nonlinearities are the divergence of the ions and electrons fluxes, Lorentz forces on ions and electrons fluids and the plasma current density in the system. The Korteweg-de Vries equation for magnetosonic waves propagating in the perpendicular direction of the magnetic field is derived by employing reductive perturbation method for non-relativistic as well as ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases in dense plasmas. The plots of the magnetosonic wave solitons are also shown using numerical values of the plasma parameters such a plasma density and magnetic field intensity of the white dwarfs from literature. The dependence of plasma density and magnetic field intensity on the magnetosonic wave propagation is also pointed out in dense plasmas for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases.

  18. Heavy quarkonia description from a generalized screened potential model

    SciTech Connect

    González, P.

    2016-01-22

    The spectral effect of open flavor meson-meson thresholds in heavy quarkonia is analyzed by using a Non Relativistic Quark Model. The proposed form of the effective quark-antiquark potential, based on lattice indications, incorporates implicitly screening effects from meson-meson configurations. The application of the model to heavy quarkonia provides a resonable description of unconventional J{sup ++} charmonium states and a definite prediction for unconventional J{sup ++} states in bottomonium.

  19. Relativistic rotation-vibrational energies for the Cs2 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chun-Sheng; Jia, Yue

    2017-01-01

    We present bound state solutions of the Dirac equation with the improved Rosen-Morse potential energy model. In the non-relativistic limit, the relativistic energy equation becomes the non-relativistic rotation-vibrational energy expression of the diatomic molecule. We find that the relativistic effect of the relative motion of the ions produces an obvious decrease in the vibrational energies for the 33Σg + state of the Cs2 molecule. It is observed that the behavior of the relativistic rotation-vibrational energies in larger rotational quantum numbers remains similar to that of the system with zero rotational quantum number.

  20. Crystallization and collapse in relativistically degenerate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, it is shown that a mass density limit exists beyond which the relativistically degenerate matter would crystallize. The mass density limit, found here, is quite analogous to the mass limit predicted by Chandrasekhar for a type of compact stars called white dwarfs (MCh≃1.43 Solar Mass). In this study, the old problem of white dwarf core collapse, which has been previously investigated by Chandrasekhar using hydrostatic stability criteria, is revisited in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamics model by inspection of the charge screening at atomic scales in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime taking into account the relativistic Fermi-Dirac statistics and electron interaction features such as the quantum statistical pressure, Coulomb attraction, electron exchange-correlation, and quantum recoil effects. It is revealed that the existence of ion correlation and crystallization of matter in the relativistically degenerate plasma puts a critical mass density limit on white dwarf core region. It is shown that a white dwarf star with a core mass density beyond this critical limit can undergo the spontaneous core collapse (SCC). The SCC phenomenon, which is dominantly caused by the electron quantum recoil effect (interference and localization of the electron wave function), leads to a new exotic state of matter. In such exotic state, the relativistic electron degeneracy can lead the white dwarf crystallized core to undergo the nuclear fusion and an ultimate supernova by means of the volume reduction (due to the enhanced compressibility) and huge energy release (due to the increase in cohesive energy), under the stars huge inward gravitational pressure. Moreover, it is found that the SCC phenomenon is significantly affected by the core composition (it is more probable for heavier plasmas). The critical mass density found here is consistent with the values calculated for core density of typical white dwarf stars.

  1. Crystallization and collapse in relativistically degenerate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, it is shown that a mass density limit exists beyond which the relativistically degenerate matter would crystallize. The mass density limit, found here, is quite analogous to the mass limit predicted by Chandrasekhar for a type of compact stars called white dwarfs (M{sub Ch} Asymptotically-Equal-To 1.43 Solar Mass). In this study, the old problem of white dwarf core collapse, which has been previously investigated by Chandrasekhar using hydrostatic stability criteria, is revisited in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamics model by inspection of the charge screening at atomic scales in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime taking into account the relativistic Fermi-Dirac statistics and electron interaction features such as the quantum statistical pressure, Coulomb attraction, electron exchange-correlation, and quantum recoil effects. It is revealed that the existence of ion correlation and crystallization of matter in the relativistically degenerate plasma puts a critical mass density limit on white dwarf core region. It is shown that a white dwarf star with a core mass density beyond this critical limit can undergo the spontaneous core collapse (SCC). The SCC phenomenon, which is dominantly caused by the electron quantum recoil effect (interference and localization of the electron wave function), leads to a new exotic state of matter. In such exotic state, the relativistic electron degeneracy can lead the white dwarf crystallized core to undergo the nuclear fusion and an ultimate supernova by means of the volume reduction (due to the enhanced compressibility) and huge energy release (due to the increase in cohesive energy), under the stars huge inward gravitational pressure. Moreover, it is found that the SCC phenomenon is significantly affected by the core composition (it is more probable for heavier plasmas). The critical mass density found here is consistent with the values calculated for core density of typical white dwarf stars.

  2. Advanced relativistic VLBI model for geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, Michael; Kopeikin, Sergei; Han, Wen-Biao

    2017-07-01

    Our present relativistic part of the geodetic VLBI model for Earthbound antennas is a consensus model which is considered as a standard for processing high-precision VLBI observations. It was created as a compromise between a variety of relativistic VLBI models proposed by different authors as documented in the IERS Conventions 2010. The accuracy of the consensus model is in the picosecond range for the group delay but this is not sufficient for current geodetic purposes. This paper provides a fully documented derivation of a new relativistic model having an accuracy substantially higher than one picosecond and based upon a well accepted formalism of relativistic celestial mechanics, astrometry and geodesy. Our new model fully confirms the consensus model at the picosecond level and in several respects goes to a great extent beyond it. More specifically, terms related to the acceleration of the geocenter are considered and kept in the model, the gravitational time-delay due to a massive body (planet, Sun, etc.) with arbitrary mass and spin-multipole moments is derived taking into account the motion of the body, and a new formalism for the time-delay problem of radio sources located at finite distance from VLBI stations is presented. Thus, the paper presents a substantially elaborated theoretical justification of the consensus model and its significant extension that allows researchers to make concrete estimates of the magnitude of residual terms of this model for any conceivable configuration of the source of light, massive bodies, and VLBI stations. The largest terms in the relativistic time delay which can affect the current VLBI observations are from the quadrupole and the angular momentum of the gravitating bodies that are known from the literature. These terms should be included in the new geodetic VLBI model for improving its consistency.

  3. Advanced relativistic VLBI model for geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, Michael; Kopeikin, Sergei; Han, Wen-Biao

    2016-10-01

    Our present relativistic part of the geodetic VLBI model for Earthbound antennas is a consensus model which is considered as a standard for processing high-precision VLBI observations. It was created as a compromise between a variety of relativistic VLBI models proposed by different authors as documented in the IERS Conventions 2010. The accuracy of the consensus model is in the picosecond range for the group delay but this is not sufficient for current geodetic purposes. This paper provides a fully documented derivation of a new relativistic model having an accuracy substantially higher than one picosecond and based upon a well accepted formalism of relativistic celestial mechanics, astrometry and geodesy. Our new model fully confirms the consensus model at the picosecond level and in several respects goes to a great extent beyond it. More specifically, terms related to the acceleration of the geocenter are considered and kept in the model, the gravitational time-delay due to a massive body (planet, Sun, etc.) with arbitrary mass and spin-multipole moments is derived taking into account the motion of the body, and a new formalism for the time-delay problem of radio sources located at finite distance from VLBI stations is presented. Thus, the paper presents a substantially elaborated theoretical justification of the consensus model and its significant extension that allows researchers to make concrete estimates of the magnitude of residual terms of this model for any conceivable configuration of the source of light, massive bodies, and VLBI stations. The largest terms in the relativistic time delay which can affect the current VLBI observations are from the quadrupole and the angular momentum of the gravitating bodies that are known from the literature. These terms should be included in the new geodetic VLBI model for improving its consistency.

  4. Relativistic Treatments of the Nucleon-Nucleon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beachey, David Joseph

    The relativistically minimalist Breit equation is used to study the two-nucleon system. Generally, the equation is noncovariant and its realm of applicability is limited. It is not a field-theoretical equation but, at low energy, it was thought to be a promising candidate to explore the scheme of repulsive vector and attractive scalar interactions as the dominant ingredient of the two -nucleon interaction. In the ^1S_0 singlet case, the equation does indeed seem viable. Dynamically sound interactions and a reasonable fit of the scattering data arise. In a specific application, the discrepancy between the ^1S_0 isovector scattering lengths of the p-p and n -n interactions is explored. This novel charge -symmetry-breaking (CSB) mechanism enlarges the discrepancy between the two lengths, implying a still larger correction is required by other documented (CSB) mechanisms. An all-encompassing model of the ^3S _1-^3D_1 state is, on the other hand, not achieved. Models which best fit the experimental deuteron and elastic scattering data, are unphysical. The vector coupling is driven strongly negative and a dominant interference mechanism arises involving the entirely phenomenological short range OPEP. It was hoped that this parametrized short range OPEP would remain benign while the scalar/vector interference scheme took a lead role. Instead the constraint of avoiding Klein paradox difficulties defeats this picture and achieves the short-range repulsion in the N-N force by ramping up the phenomenological OPEP. It is finally argued that the Breit framework almost certainly does not lend itself to an adequate description of the N-N system. It does, however, point to novel relativistic elements which may ultimately resolve celebrated outstanding problems such as the a_ {t}-r_{m} discrepancy. The triplet scattering length a_ {t} and deuteron matter-radius r _{m} are tightly correlated and resistant to simultaneous fitting in conventional models. The p-wave amplitudes of the

  5. A 3+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamic code for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Iu.; Huovinen, P.; Bleicher, M.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the details of 3+1 dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic code for the simulations of quark-gluon/hadron matter expansion in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The code solves the equations of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics in the Israel-Stewart framework. With the help of ideal-viscous splitting, we keep the ability to solve the equations of ideal hydrodynamics in the limit of zero viscosities using a Godunov-type algorithm. Milne coordinates are used to treat the predominant expansion in longitudinal (beam) direction effectively. The results are successfully tested against known analytical relativistic inviscid and viscous solutions, as well as against existing 2+1D relativistic viscous code. Catalogue identifier: AETZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 825 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 92 750 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: any with a C++ compiler and the CERN ROOT libraries. Operating system: tested on GNU/Linux Ubuntu 12.04 x64 (gcc 4.6.3), GNU/Linux Ubuntu 13.10 (gcc 4.8.2), Red Hat Linux 6 (gcc 4.4.7). RAM: scales with the number of cells in hydrodynamic grid; 1900 Mbytes for 3D 160×160×100 grid. Classification: 1.5, 4.3, 12. External routines: CERN ROOT (http://root.cern.ch), Gnuplot (http://www.gnuplot.info/) for plotting the results. Nature of problem: relativistic hydrodynamical description of the 3-dimensional quark-gluon/hadron matter expansion in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Solution method: finite volume Godunov-type method. Running time: scales with the number of hydrodynamic cells; typical running times on Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-3770 CPU @ 3.40 GHz, single thread mode, 160

  6. RANKINE-HUGONIOT RELATIONS IN RELATIVISTIC COMBUSTION WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yang; Law, Chung K.

    2012-12-01

    As a foundational element describing relativistic reacting waves of relevance to astrophysical phenomena, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations classifying the various propagation modes of detonation and deflagration are analyzed in the relativistic regime, with the results properly degenerating to the non-relativistic and highly relativistic limits. The existence of negative-pressure downstream flows is noted for relativistic shocks, which could be of interest in the understanding of the nature of dark energy. Entropy analysis for relativistic shock waves is also performed for relativistic fluids with different equations of state (EoS), denoting the existence of rarefaction shocks in fluids with adiabatic index {Gamma} < 1 in their EoS. The analysis further shows that weak detonations and strong deflagrations, which are rare phenomena in terrestrial environments, are expected to exist more commonly in astrophysical systems because of the various endothermic reactions present therein. Additional topics of relevance to astrophysical phenomena are also discussed.

  7. Theoretical study of the nuclear spin-molecular rotation coupling for relativistic electrons and non-relativistic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Aucar, Ignacio A; Gómez, Sergio S; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C; Giribet, Claudia G

    2012-05-28

    A theoretical study of the relation between the relativistic formulation of the nuclear magnetic shielding and spin-rotation tensors is presented. To this end a theoretical expression of the relativistic spin-rotation tensor is formulated, considering a molecular Hamiltonian of relativistic electrons and non-relativistic nuclei. Molecular rotation effects are introduced considering the terms of the Born-Oppenheimer decomposition, which couple the electrons and nuclei dynamics. The loss of the simple relation linking both spectral parameters in the non-relativistic formulation is further analyzed carrying out a perturbative expansion of relativistic effects by means of the linear response within the elimination of the small component approach. It is concluded that relativistic effects on the spin-rotation tensor are less important than those of the nuclear magnetic shielding tensor.

  8. Relativistic hydrodynamics from the projection operator method.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yuki; Hidaka, Yoshimasa

    2013-02-01

    We study relativistic hydrodynamics in the linear regime, based on Mori's projection operator method. In relativistic hydrodynamics, it is considered that an ambiguity about the fluid velocity occurs from the choice of a local rest frame: the Landau and Eckart frames. We find that the difference of the frames is not the choice of the local rest frame, but rather that of dynamic variables in the linear regime. We derive hydrodynamic equations in both frames by the projection operator method. We show that the natural derivation gives the linearized Landau equation. Also we find that, even for the Eckart frame, the slow dynamics is actually described by the dynamic variables for the Landau frame.

  9. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-C

    2016-06-22

    Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball lightning, such as the occurrence site, relation to the lightning channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for lightning protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.

  10. Non-linear resonance in relativistic preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Bret; Zhai, Yunxiao E-mail: zhaiya@plu.edu

    2014-04-01

    Inflation in the early Universe can be followed by a brief period of preheating, resulting in rapid and non-equilibrium particle production through the dynamics of parametric resonance. However, the parametric resonance effect is very sensitive to the linearity of the reheating sector. Additional self-interactions in the reheating sector, such as non-canonical kinetic terms like the DBI Lagrangian, may enhance or frustrate the parametric resonance effect of preheating. In the case of a DBI reheating sector, preheating is described by parametric resonance of a damped relativistic harmonic oscillator. In this paper, we illustrate how the non-linear terms in the relativistic oscillator shut down the parametric resonance effect. This limits the effectiveness of preheating when there are non-linear self-interactions.

  11. Double relativistic electron-accelerating mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Aleksandr A; Platonov, Konstantin Yu

    2013-05-31

    A numerical simulation of the interaction of a laser pulse with ultrathin targets has revealed a possibility of generating thin dense relativistic electron layers. The maximum kinetic energy of the electron mirror can be gained using an optimal combination of the target thickness and the laser pulse intensity and duration. It is proposed to use an additional (second) laser target, located at an optimal distance from the first target to cut off the laser pulse from the electron layer when the latter gains a maximum kinetic energy. This relativistic electron mirror can be used for efficient generation of 'hard' coherent radiation via counter reflection of an additional (probe) laser pulse from the mirror. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  12. Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric

    2009-10-15

    In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

  13. Exact Damping for Relativistic Plasma Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, D. G.

    2000-10-01

    The damping coefficient for a relativistic plasma may be reduced to a single integral with no approximations through use of the Newberger sum rules when k_z=0. Expanding the integral in a series, the leading term agrees with the leading term of the weak relativistic function F_7/2(z), but the remaining terms are not alike. The single expansion parameter is proportional to λ z, indicating that the result may NOT be accurately expressed as a series involving products of Bessel functions of argument λ times functions F_q(z). Expressions for the imaginary parts of all dielectric tensor elements will be presented. The real parts of the tensor elements are not as simple, but because the elements are analytic, they must likewise be modified.

  14. Relativistic klystrons for high-gradient accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G.A.; Aalberts, D.P.; Boyd, J.K.; Deis, G.A.; Houck, T.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Ryne, R.D.; Yu, S.S. ); Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W. ); Haimson, J.; Mecklen

    1990-09-05

    Experimental work is being performed by collaborators at LLNL, SLAC, and LBL to investigate relativistic klystrons as a possible rf power source for future high-gradient accelerators. We have learned how to overcome or previously reported problem of high power rf pulse shortening and have achieved peak rf power levels of 330 MW using an 11.4-GHz high-gain tube with multiple output structures. In these experiments the rf pulse is of the same duration as the beam current pulse. In addition, experiments have been performed on two short sections of a high-gradient accelerator using the rf power from a relativistic klystron. An average accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m has been achieved with 80-MW of rf power.

  15. Modeling relativistic plasmas with PIC using VORPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieter, Chet; Cary, John R.

    2002-11-01

    VORPAL, a fully object-oriented, dimension-free plasma simulation code, now has a fully developed PIC model. This PIC model has been applied to studies of Laser Wake Field Acceleration, including the nonlinear structure of the wake field generated in the colliding pulse injection scheme and in the development of a new injection scheme that reduces timing requirements. (See Giacone et al. and Cary et al. at this conference). Since the PIC model was developed using VORPAL's object oriented architecture, it works in any dimension and with both serial and parallel runs. Several different update methods are available, including both relativistic and non-relativistic Boris push and an electrostatic update as well.

  16. Relativistic electrons and whistlers in Jupiter's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1976-01-01

    The path-integrated gain of parallel propagating whistlers driven unstable by an anisotropic distribution of relativistic electrons in the stable trapping region of Jupiter's inner magnetosphere was computed. The requirement that a gain of 3 e-foldings of power balance the power lost by imperfect reflection along the flux tube sets a stably-trapped flux of electrons which is close to the non-relativistic result. Comparison with measurements shows that observed fluxes are near the stably-trapped limit, which suggests that whistler wave intensities may be high enough to cause significant diffusion of electrons accounting for the observed reduction of phase space densities. A crude estimate of the wave intensity necessary to diffuse electrons on a radial diffusion time scale yields a lower limit for the magnetic field fluctuation intensity.

  17. Relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G.A.; Houck, T.L. )

    1994-10-01

    Relativistic klystrons (RKs) are being developed as an RF power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. In a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA), the drive beam passes through a large number of RF output structures. High conversion efficiency of electron beam energy to RF energy is achieved in this concept by reacceleration of the modulated drive beam between output structures. The authors have conducted experiments studying the RF power extracted from various RK structures driven by modulated induction accelerator current pulses; the studies include work on improving the transport dynamics of the drive beam. They have started a demonstration in which the modulated induction beam current is reaccelerated by passage through subsequent induction accelerator cells.

  18. Relativistic quantum dynamics on a double cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, F. A.; Silva, Edilberto O.; Lima, Jonas R. F.; Filgueiras, C.; Moraes, F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we study the relativistic quantum problem of a particle constrained to a double cone surface. For this purpose, we build the Dirac equation in a curved space using the tetrads formalism. Two cases are analysed. First, we consider a free particle on the conical surface, and then we add an uniform magnetic field. In the first case, the exact energy spectrum is obtained and its non-relativistic limit compared to previously published results. In the second case, the spectrum is also exactly obtained and a detailed analysis considering all possible combinations of signs of the quantum numbers reveals the occurrence of highly degenerate zero energy modes. The results obtained here can be applied, for instance, in the investigation of the electronic and transport properties of condensed matter systems that can be described by an effective Dirac equation, such as graphene and topological insulators.

  19. Test of Relativistic Eigenfunctions for Pseudospin Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginocchio, Joseph N.

    2001-10-01

    Pseudospin symmetry has been shown to be a relativistic symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian [1] and the generators of this symmetry have been determined [2]. Although the measured energy splittings between pseudospin doublets are small, the eigenfunctions of the doublets have been examined only recently [3]. We show to what extent the pseudospin partners of realistic relativistic mean field eigenfunctions [4] are themselves eigenfunctions of the same Dirac Hamiltonian. 1) J. N. Ginocchio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 436 (1997). 2) J. N. Ginocchio and A. Leviatan, Phys. Lett. B 425, 1 (1998). 3) J. N. Ginocchio and A. Leviatan, to be published in Phys. Rev. Lett. (2001). 4) J. N. Ginocchio and D. G. Madland, Phys. Rev. C 57, 1167 (1998).

  20. Oscillations of rapidly rotating relativistic stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertig, Erich; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2008-09-15

    Nonaxisymmetric oscillations of rapidly rotating relativistic stars are studied using the Cowling approximation. The oscillation spectra have been estimated by Fourier transforming the evolution equations describing the perturbations. This is the first study of its kind and provides information on the effect of fast rotation on the oscillation spectra while it offers the possibility of studying the complete problem by including space-time perturbations. Our study includes both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations and provides limits for the onset of the secular bar mode rotational instability. We also present approximate formulas for the dependence of the oscillation spectrum from rotation. The results suggest that it is possible to extract the relativistic star's parameters from the observed gravitational wave spectrum.

  1. Ultraintense lasers: relativistic nonlinear optics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourou, Gérard A.

    Traditional optics and nonlinear optics are related to laser-matter interaction with eV characteristic energy. Recent progresses in ultrahigh intensity makes it possible to drive electrons with relativistic energy opening up the field of relativistic nonlinear optics. In the last decade, lasers have undergone orders-of-magnitude jumps in peak power, with the invention of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and the refinements of femtosecond techniques. Modern CPA lasers can produce intensities greater than 10 21 W/cm 2, one million times greater than previously possible. These ultraintense lasers give researchers a tool to produce unprecedented pressures (terabars), magnetic fields (gigagauss), temperatures (10 10 K), and accelerations (10 25 g) with applications in fusion energy, nuclear physics (fast ignition), high-energy physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. They promote the optics field from the eV to the GeV.

  2. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball lightning, such as the occurrence site, relation to the lightning channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for lightning protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics. PMID:27328835

  3. 25th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Frank M.; van Eldik, Christopher; Hofmann, Werner

    The 25th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics (TEXAS 2010) was held in Heidelberg, Germany, during December, 6-10, 2010. More than 350 astrophysicists attended a very interesting meeting, designed to exchange ideas and results, and to discuss future directions in Relativistic Astrophysics. A wide range of scientific results were discussed in about 100 oral and about 200 poster contributions during nine parallel afternoon sessions and one highlight evening session. Further information, including the full program, can be found on the conference webpage: http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/texas2010/. The papers published here in these proceedings represent the contributions accepted for the parallel sessions and the main poster session at TEXAS 2010.

  4. Graphical evaluation of relativistic matrix elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    A graphical representation of angular momentum was used to evaluate relativistic matrix elements between antisymmetrized states of many particle configurations having any number of open shells. The antisymmetrized matrix element was expanded as a sum of semisymmetrized matrix elements. The diagram representing a semisymmetrized matrix element was composed of four diagram blocks; the bra block, the ket block, the spectator block, and the interaction block. The first three blocks indicate the couplings of the two interacting configurations while the last depends on the interaction and is the replaceable component. Interaction blocks for relativistic operators and commonly used potentials were summarized in ready to use forms. A simple step by step procedure was prescribed generally for calculating antisymmetrized matrix elements of one and two particle operators.

  5. Dudley's dilemma: Magnetic moments in relativistic theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, J. A.

    1986-10-01

    In 1975 L. Dudley Miller showed how the basic phenomenology of the major shell and spin-orbit splittings constrained the relativistic scalar/vector structure model to values of the potentials incompatible with the observed magnetic moments of nuclei one nucleon away from closed shell [1]. In this talk the resolution of this problem is presented from three different perspectives. First a self-consistent Landau-Migdal approach is used to define the single particle isoscalar current in infinite nuclear matter. The constraint of self-consistency provides a vector suppression factor to the single particle current which returns the current to its nonrelativistic form and resolves the problem. The same suppression factor is shown to follow as well from either a consideration of gauge invariance or (equivalently) the relativistic random phase approximation. Local density approximation calculations of isoscalar magnetic moments of nuclei one nucleon away from closed shell recover the Schmidt values, thus resolving this longstanding problem.

  6. Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krushelnick, Karl; Raymond, Anthony; Dong, Cf; McKelvey, A.; Zulick, C.; Alexander, N.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Campbell, Pt; Chen, H.; Chvykov, V.; Del Rio, E.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Fox, W.; Hou, Bx; Maksimchuk, A.; Mileham, C.; Nees, J.; Nilson, Pm; Stoekl, C.; Thomas, Agr; Wei, Ms; Yanovsky, V.; Willingale, L.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process involving an exchange of magnetic energy to plasma kinetic energy through changes in the magnetic field topology. Here we present experimental measurements using the OMEGA EP laser at LLE and the HERCULES laser at the University of Michigan as well as numerical modeling which indicate that relativistic magnetic reconnection can be driven by short-pulse, high-intensity lasers that produce a relativistic plasma along with very strong magnetic fields. Evidence of magnetic reconnection was identified by the plasma's X-ray emission patterns, changes to the electron energy spectrum, and by measuring the time over which reconnection occurs. Funded by DOE Award No. DE-NA0002727.

  7. Finite nucleus effects on relativistic energy corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.; Faegri, Knut, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of using a finite nucleus model in quantum-chemical calculations is examined. Relativistic corrections from the first order Foldy-Wouthuysen terms are affected indirectly by the change in wavefunction, but also directly as a result of revised expressions for the Darwin and spin-orbit terms due to the change in nuclear potential. A calculation for the Rn atom indicates that the mass-velocity and Darwin corrections are much more sensitive to the finite nucleus than the non-relativistic total energy, but that the total contribution for these two terms is quite stable provided the revised form of the Darwin term is used. The spin-orbit interaction is not greatly affected by the choice of nuclear model.

  8. General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Jet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Y.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Koide, S.; Fishman, G. J.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed 3-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of jet formation from an accretion disk with/without initial perturbation around a rotating black hole. We input a sinusoidal perturbation (m = 5 mode) in the rotation velocity of the accretion disk. The simulation results show the formation of a relativistic jet from the accretion disk. Although the initial perturbation becomes weakened by the coupling among different modes, it survives and triggers lower modes. As a result, complex non-axisymmetric density structure develops in the disk and the jet. Newtonian MHD simulations of jet formation with a non-axisymmetric mode show the growth of the m = 2 mode but GRMHD simulations cannot see the clear growth of the m = 2 mode.

  9. Relativistic Astrophysics in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C.

    2014-07-01

    X-ray spectroscopy and timing with XMM-Newton have given us an unprecedented view of general relativistic physics in the immediate vicinity of accreting supermassive black holes. In addition to firmly establishing the existence of black holes and allowing us to constrain their spin, we are now detecting reverberation effects from the innermost disk that will ultimately allow us to map the location of the enigmatic X-ray source. In this review talk, I shall begin by describing current status of black hole spin measurements and the tantalizing evidence for a mass dependence to the spin distribution. Building on from the previous talk, I shall then describe the general relativistic modeling of the detected reverberation delays as a means to map out the geometry of both the X-ray source and the inner accretion disk. I shall conclude by discussing the promise of ATHENA for these studies.

  10. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball lightning, such as the occurrence site, relation to the lightning channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for lightning protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.

  11. Weibel instability in relativistic quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Brodin, G.

    2015-08-01

    Generation of quasi-static magnetic fields, due to the Weibel instability is studied in a relativistic quantum plasma. This instability is induced by a temperature anisotropy. The dispersion relation and growth rates for low frequency electromagnetic perturbations are derived using a wave-kinetic equation which describes the evolution of the electron Wigner quasi-distribution. The influence of parallel kinetic effects is discussed in detail.

  12. Relativistic timescale analysis suggests lunar theory revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.

    1995-01-01

    The SI second of the atomic clock was calibrated to match the Ephemeris Time (ET) second in a mutual four year effort between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The ephemeris time is 'clocked' by observing the elapsed time it takes the Moon to cross two positions (usually occultation of stars relative to a position on Earth) and dividing that time span into the predicted seconds according to the lunar equations of motion. The last revision of the equations of motion was the Improved Lunar Ephemeris (ILE), which was based on E. W. Brown's lunar theory. Brown classically derived the lunar equations from a purely Newtonian gravity with no relativistic compensations. However, ET is very theory dependent and is affected by relativity, which was not included in the ILE. To investigate the relativistic effects, a new, noninertial metric for a gravitated, translationally accelerated and rotating reference frame has three sets of contributions, namely (1) Earth's velocity, (2) the static solar gravity field and (3) the centripetal acceleration from Earth's orbit. This last term can be characterized as a pseudogravitational acceleration. This metric predicts a time dilation calculated to be -0.787481 seconds in one year. The effect of this dilation would make the ET timescale run slower than had been originally determined. Interestingly, this value is within 2 percent of the average leap second insertion rate, which is the result of the divergence between International Atomic Time (TAI) and Earth's rotational time called Universal Time (UT or UTI). Because the predictions themselves are significant, regardless of the comparison to TAI and UT, the authors will be rederiving the lunar ephemeris model in the manner of Brown with the relativistic time dilation effects from the new metric to determine a revised, relativistic ephemeris timescale that could be used to determine UT free of leap second adjustments.

  13. Variational thermodynamics of relativistic thin disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C.; Lopez-Monsalvo, Cesar S.; Quevedo, Hernando

    2015-12-01

    We present a relativistic model describing a thin disk system composed of two fluids. The system is surrounded by a halo in the presence of a non-trivial electromagnetic field. We show that the model is compatible with the variational multifluid thermodynamics formalism, allowing us to determine all the thermodynamic variables associated with the matter content of the disk. The asymptotic behavior of these quantities indicates that the single fluid interpretation should be abandoned in favor of a two-fluid model.

  14. An extended relativistic quantum oscillator for ? particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedjadi, Y.; Ait-Tahar, S.; Barrett, R. C.

    1998-04-01

    We introduce the extended Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) oscillator obtained by combining two relativistic quantum oscillator models. In a study analogous to Kukulin, Loyola and Moshinsky's work on extended Dirac oscillators, we investigate whether this extended version has oscillator shells controllably independent from the spin-orbit coupling. This extended DKP oscillator is found to be exactly solvable for natural parity states. We calculate and discuss both the natural- and unnatural-parity eigenspectra of its spin-1 representation.

  15. Experimental tests of relativistic gravitation theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental tests were studied for determining the potential uses of future deep space missions in studies of relativistic gravity. The extensions to the parametrized post-Newtonian framework to take explicit account of the solar system's center of mass relative to the mean rest frame of the Universe is reported. Discoveries reported include the Machian effects of motion relative to the universal rest frame. Summaries of the JPL research are included.

  16. Photonic realization of the relativistic Dirac oscillator.

    PubMed

    Longhi, S

    2010-04-15

    A photonic realization of the Dirac oscillator (DO), i.e., of the relativistic extension of the quantum harmonic oscillator, is proposed for light propagation in fiber Bragg gratings. Transmission spectra clearly show the existence of electron and positron bound states of the DO, corresponding to resonance modes above and below the Bragg frequency, as well as the asymmetry of the energy spectrum for electron and positron branches.

  17. Spectral Methods in General Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, David

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I discuss the use of spectral methods in improving the accuracy of a General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) computer code. I introduce SpecCosmo, a GRMHD code developed as a Cactus arrangement at UHCL, and show simulation results using both Fourier spectral methods and finite differencing. This work demonstrates the use of spectral methods with the FFTW 3.3 Fast Fourier Transform package integrated with the Cactus Framework to perform spectral differencing using MPI.

  18. Femtoscopy in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa, M; Pratt, S; Soltz, R A; Wiedemann, U

    2005-07-29

    Analyses of two-particle correlations have provided the chief means for determining spatio-temporal characteristics of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss the theoretical formalism behind these studies and the experimental methods used in carrying them out. Recent results from RHIC are put into context in a systematic review of correlation measurements performed over the past two decades. The current understanding of these results are discussed in terms of model comparisons and overall trends.

  19. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Relativistic thermodynamics with an invariant energy scale

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sudipta; Ghosh, Subir; Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2009-12-15

    A particular framework for quantum gravity is the doubly special relativity (DSR) formalism that introduces a new observer independent scale, the Planck energy. Our aim in this paper is to study the effects of this energy upper bound in relativistic thermodynamics. We have explicitly computed the modified equation of state for an ideal fluid in the DSR framework. In deriving our result we exploited the scheme of treating DSR as a nonlinear representation of the Lorentz group in special relativity.

  1. Relativistic quantum teleportation with superconducting circuits.

    PubMed

    Friis, N; Lee, A R; Truong, K; Sabín, C; Solano, E; Johansson, G; Fuentes, I

    2013-03-15

    We study the effects of relativistic motion on quantum teleportation and propose a realizable experiment where our results can be tested. We compute bounds on the optimal fidelity of teleportation when one of the observers undergoes nonuniform motion for a finite time. The upper bound to the optimal fidelity is degraded due to the observer's motion. However, we discuss how this degradation can be corrected. These effects are observable for experimental parameters that are within reach of cutting-edge superconducting technology.

  2. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Rhic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foelsche, H.; Hahn, H.; Harrison, M.; Ozaki, S.; Rhoades-Brown, M. J.

    1993-03-01

    The scope of the first relativistic energy heavy ion collider, RHIC, is discussed. Particular attention is paid to those novel features of a heavy ion collider that are distinct from the more usual proton machines. These features are derived from the experimental requirements of operation with a variety of ion species over a wide energy range as well as the increased demands on available ion sources and injector complexes. Storage of heavy ion beams for many hours is severely impacted by intrabeam scattering.

  3. Millimeter Wave Generation by Relativistic Electron Beams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Perturbations as the Possible Environmental Impact of the Conceptualized Solar Power Satellite (SPS)" which will appear in the December issue of The...Conceptualized Solar Power Satellite (SPS)," J. Geophys. Res., 89(A-12), 11043-11047, 1984. 5. S.P. Kuo and B.R. Cheo, "Relativistic Adiabatic Invariants of...the Conceptualized Solar Power Satellite The results of this study conclude that the earth’s magnetic field can be significantly perturbed locally by

  4. Renormalization group for non-relativistic fermions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, R

    2011-07-13

    A brief introduction is given to the renormalization group for non-relativistic fermions at finite density. It is shown that Landau's theory of the Fermi liquid arises as a fixed point (with the Landau parameters as marginal couplings) and its instabilities as relevant perturbations. Applications to related areas, nuclear matter, quark matter and quantum dots, are briefly discussed. The focus will be on explaining the main ideas to people in related fields, rather than addressing the experts.

  5. Diffusion processes in general relativistic radiating spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, W.; Herrera, L.; Santos, N.O.; Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro )

    1989-09-01

    The influence of diffusion processes on the dynamics of general relativistic radiating spheres is systematically studied by means of two examples. Differences between the streaming-out limit and the diffusion limit are exhibited, for both models, through the evolution curves of dynamical variables. In particular it is shown the Bondi mass decreases, for both models, in the diffusion limit as compared with its value at the streaming-out regime. 15 refs.

  6. Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.

    2009-12-15

    Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.

  7. Screening parameters for the relativistic hydrogenic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzini, Fernando; Di Rocco, Héctor O.

    2015-12-01

    We present a Relativistic Screened Hydrogenic Model (RSHM) where the screening parameters depend on the variables (n , l , j) and the parameters (Z , N) . These screening parameters were derived theoretically in a neat form with no use of experimental values nor numerical values from self-consistent codes. The results of the model compare favorably with those obtained by using more sophisticated approaches. For the interested reader, a copy of our code can be requested from the corresponding author.

  8. Parametrized relativistic dynamical framework for neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchi, John R.

    2017-05-01

    Mass state transitions are a key feature of parametrized relativistic dynamics (PRD). PRD is a manifestly covariant quantum theory with invariant evolution parameter. The theory has been applied to neutrino flavor oscillations between two mass states. It is generalized to transitions between three mass states and applied to the survival of electron neutrinos. The analysis shows that significant differences exist between theoretical results of the conventional model and the PRD model.

  9. Interferometric Measurement of Acceleration at Relativistic Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Pierre; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    We show that an interferometer moving at a relativistic speed relative to a point source of light offers a sensitive probe of acceleration. Such an accelerometer contains no moving parts, and is thus more robust than conventional “mass-on-a-spring” accelerometers. In an interstellar mission to Alpha Centauri, such an accelerometer could be used to measure the masses of exoplanets and their host stars as well as test theories of modified gravity.

  10. General Relativistic Effects in Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Savas; Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-03-17

    Atom interferometry is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. We begin by explaining the non-relativistic calculation of the phase shift in an atom interferometer and deriving its range of validity. From this we develop a method for calculating the phase shift in general relativity. This formalism is then used to find the relativistic effects in an atom interferometer in a weak gravitational field for application to laboratory tests of general relativity. The potentially testable relativistic effects include the non-linear three-graviton coupling, the gravity of kinetic energy, and the falling of light. We propose experiments, one currently under construction, that could provide a test of the principle of equivalence to 1 part in 10{sup 15} (300 times better than the present limit), and general relativity at the 10% level, with many potential future improvements. We also consider applications to other metrics including the Lense-Thirring effect, the expansion of the universe, and preferred frame and location effects.

  11. Particle Acceleration and Emission in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.; Hardee, P. E.; Richardson, G. A.; Preece, R. D.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    Shock wave acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that this instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  12. Relativistic effects in local inertial frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Neil; Bertotti, Bruno

    1986-01-01

    The concept of a generalized Fermi frame is introduced with the aim of describing the relativistic effects due to a third, distant body (such as the sun) upon the motion of an earth satellite. This extends Fermi's construction of a local inertial frame to the case in which there are local gravitating masses. This is done in the slow-motion, weak-field approximation by splitting the metric into an external part and a local part; Fermi's construction of local inertial coordinates defined with respect to the external metric is then used to transform the complete metric. The results show that the main relativistic effects on an earth satellite are due to the nonlinear correction in the earth's own Schwarzschild field. There are much smaller relativistic corrections in the tidal field of the sun, and an earth-sun interaction term. The spatial axes of the local frame also undergo geodetic precession. Particular care must be taken with respect to the definition of the time coordinate in the generalized Fermi frame in order that the unit of time be consistent with readings of reasonable physical clocks on earth's surface. Also discussed more rigorously is the generalized Fermi frame for a system of two bodies revolving in circular orbits around a common barycenter.

  13. Secondary antiproton production in relativistic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.; Ramaty, R.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility is investigated that the reported excess low energy antiproton component of the cosmic radiation results from proton-proton (p-p) interactions in relativistic plasmas. Because of both target and projectile motion in such plasmas, the antiproton production threshold in the frame of the plasma is much lower than the threshold of antiproton production in cosmic ray interactions with ambient matter. The spectrum of the resultant antiprotons therefore extends to much lower energy than in the cosmic ray case. The antiproton spectrum is calculated for relativistic thermal plasmas and the spectrum is estimated for relativistic nonthermal plasmas. As possible production sites, matter accreting onto compact objects located in the galaxy is considered. Possible overproduction of gamma rays from associated neutral pion production can be avoided if the site is optically thick to the photons but not to the antiprotons. A possible scenario involves a sufficiently large photon density that the neutral pion gamma rays are absorbed by photon-photon pair production. Escape of the antiprotons to the interstellar medium can be mediated by antineutron production.

  14. Relativistic Radiation Hydrodynamical Accretion-Disk Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun; Akizuki, Chizuru

    2007-10-01

    Accretion-disk winds blowing off perpendicular to a luminous disk are examined within the framework of fully special relativistic radiation hydrodynamics. The wind is assumed to be steady, vertical, and isothermal. Using a velocity-dependent variable Eddington factor, we can solve the rigorous equations of relativistic radiative hydrodynamics, and can obtain radiatively driven winds accelerated up to relativistic speeds. For less-luminous cases, disk winds are transonic types passing through saddle-type critical points, and the final speeds of the winds increase as the disk flux and/or the isothermal sound speed increase. For luminous cases, on the other hand, disk winds are always supersonic, since the critical points disappear due to the characteristic nature of the disk gravitational fields. The boundary between the transonic and supersonic types is located at around hat{F}c ˜ 0.1(ɛ + p) / (ρc2) / γc, where hat{F}c is the radiative flux at the critical point normalized by the local Eddington luminosity, (ɛ + p) / (ρc2) is the enthalpy of the gas divided by the rest-mass energy, and γc is the Lorentz factor of the wind velocity at the critical point. In transonic winds, the final speed becomes 0.4-0.8c for typical parameters, while it can reach ˜ c in supersonic winds.

  15. General relativistic neutrino transport using spectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, Bruno; Penner, Andrew Jason; Novak, Jérôme; Bonazzola, Silvano

    2014-02-01

    We present a new code, Lorene's Ghost (for Lorene's gravitational handling of spectral transport) developed to treat the problem of neutrino transport in supernovae with the use of spectral methods. First, we derive the expression for the nonrelativistic Liouville operator in doubly spherical coordinates (r, θ, ϕ, ɛ, Θ, Φ), and further its general relativistic counterpart. We use the 3 + 1 formalism with the conformally flat approximation for the spatial metric, to express the Liouville operator in the Eulerian frame. Our formulation does not use any approximations when dealing with the angular arguments (θ, ϕ, Θ, Φ), and is fully energy-dependent. This approach is implemented in a spherical shell, using either Chebyshev polynomials or Fourier series as decomposition bases. It is here restricted to simplified collision terms (isoenergetic scattering) and to the case of a static fluid. We finish this paper by presenting test results using basic configurations, including general relativistic ones in the Schwarzschild metric, in order to demonstrate the convergence properties, the conservation of particle number and correct treatment of some general relativistic effects of our code. The use of spectral methods enables to run our test cases in a six-dimensional setting on a single processor.

  16. Cosmological measurements with general relativistic galaxy correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Montanari, Francesco; Bertacca, Daniele; Doré, Olivier; Durrer, Ruth

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called ``relativistic effects'', and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms, especially lensing convergence, introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring the matter content of the Universe and primordial non-Gaussianity parameters. The analysis suggests a possible substantial systematic error in cosmological parameter constraints. Therefore, we argue that radial correlations and integrated relativistic terms need to be taken into account when forecasting the constraining power of future large-scale number counts of galaxy surveys.

  17. Relativistically strong electromagnetic radiation in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. V. E-mail: bulanov.sergei@jaea.go.jp; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Kondo, K.

    2016-03-15

    Physical processes in a plasma under the action of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves generated by high-power lasers have been briefly reviewed. These processes are of interest in view of the development of new methods for acceleration of charged particles, creation of sources of bright hard electromagnetic radiation, and investigation of macroscopic quantum-electrodynamical processes. Attention is focused on nonlinear waves in a laser plasma for the creation of compact electron accelerators. The acceleration of plasma bunches by the radiation pressure of light is the most efficient regime of ion acceleration. Coherent hard electromagnetic radiation in the relativistic plasma is generated in the form of higher harmonics and/or electromagnetic pulses, which are compressed and intensified after reflection from relativistic mirrors created by nonlinear waves. In the limit of extremely strong electromagnetic waves, radiation friction, which accompanies the conversion of radiation from the optical range to the gamma range, fundamentally changes the behavior of the plasma. This process is accompanied by the production of electron–positron pairs, which is described within quantum electrodynamics theory.

  18. Substructures in Simulations of Relativistic Jet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphael de Oliveira; Oliveira, Samuel Rocha de

    2017-02-01

    We present a set of simulations of relativistic jets from accretion disk initial setup with numerical solutions of a system of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) partial differential equations in a fixed black hole (BH) spacetime which is able to show substructures formations inside the jet as well as lobe formation on the jet head. For this, we used a central scheme of finite volume method without dimensional split and with no Riemann solvers namely the Nessyahu-Tadmor method. Thus, we were able to obtain stable numerical solutions with spurious oscillations under control and with no excessive numerical dissipation. Therefore, we developed some setups for initial conditions capable of simulating the formation of relativistic jets from the accretion disk falling onto central black hole until its ejection, both immersed in a magnetosphere. In our simulations, we were able to observe some substructure of a jet created from an accretion initial disk, namely, jet head, knots, cocoon, and lobe. Also, we present an explanation for cocoon formation and lobe formation. Each initial scenario was determined by ratio between disk density and magnetosphere density, showing that this relation is very important for the shape of the jet and its substructures.

  19. Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, W. J.

    1995-05-31

    This report describes an on-going research initiative for the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR): investigating the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, i.e. collisions between massive nuclei which have been accelerated to kinetic energies so large that the rest mass of the ions is a negligible fraction of their total mass-energy. This progress report is being submitted in conjunction with a 3-year grant-renewal proposal, containing additional materials. Three main categories drive the UALRGultra-relativistic heavy ion research. (1) investigations of multi-particle Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlations in the CERN and RHIC energy domains strongly influence the URHI experimental effort, (2) participation in the NA49 Experiment to study 33 TeV (160 GeV/nucleon) Pb on Pb collisions using the SPS facili& at CERN, and (3) participation in the STAR collaboration which is developing a major detector for use with the STAR Experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), being built at BNL.

  20. Special relativistic visualization by local ray tracing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Grottel, Sebastian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Special relativistic visualization offers the possibility of experiencing the optical effects of traveling near the speed of light, including apparent geometric distortions as well as Doppler and searchlight effects. Early high-quality computer graphics images of relativistic scenes were created using offline, computationally expensive CPU-side 4D ray tracing. Alternate approaches such as image-based rendering and polygon-distortion methods are able to achieve interactivity, but exhibit inferior visual quality due to sampling artifacts. In this paper, we introduce a hybrid rendering technique based on polygon distortion and local ray tracing that facilitates interactive high-quality visualization of multiple objects moving at relativistic speeds in arbitrary directions. The method starts by calculating tight image-space footprints for the apparent triangles of the 3D scene objects. The final image is generated using a single image-space ray tracing step incorporating Doppler and searchlight effects. Our implementation uses GPU shader programming and hardware texture filtering to achieve high rendering speed.

  1. Substructures in Simulations of Relativistic Jet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphael de Oliveira; Oliveira, Samuel Rocha de

    2017-04-01

    We present a set of simulations of relativistic jets from accretion disk initial setup with numerical solutions of a system of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) partial differential equations in a fixed black hole (BH) spacetime which is able to show substructures formations inside the jet as well as lobe formation on the jet head. For this, we used a central scheme of finite volume method without dimensional split and with no Riemann solvers namely the Nessyahu-Tadmor method. Thus, we were able to obtain stable numerical solutions with spurious oscillations under control and with no excessive numerical dissipation. Therefore, we developed some setups for initial conditions capable of simulating the formation of relativistic jets from the accretion disk falling onto central black hole until its ejection, both immersed in a magnetosphere. In our simulations, we were able to observe some substructure of a jet created from an accretion initial disk, namely, jet head, knots, cocoon, and lobe. Also, we present an explanation for cocoon formation and lobe formation. Each initial scenario was determined by ratio between disk density and magnetosphere density, showing that this relation is very important for the shape of the jet and its substructures.

  2. Relativistic dynamics, Green function and pseudodifferential operators

    SciTech Connect

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

    2016-06-15

    The central role played by pseudodifferential operators in relativistic dynamics is known very well. In this work, operators like the Schrodinger one (e.g., square root) are treated from the point of view of the non-local pseudodifferential Green functions. Starting from the explicit construction of the Green (semigroup) theoretical kernel, a theorem linking the integrability conditions and their dependence on the spacetime dimensions is given. Relativistic wave equations with arbitrary spin and the causality problem are discussed with the algebraic interpretation of the radical operator and their relation with coherent and squeezed states. Also we perform by means of pure theoretical procedures (based in physical concepts and symmetry) the relativistic position operator which satisfies the conditions of integrability: it is a non-local, Lorentz invariant and does not have the same problems as the “local”position operator proposed by Newton and Wigner. Physical examples, as zitterbewegung and rogue waves, are presented and deeply analyzed in this theoretical framework.

  3. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  4. Introduction and guide to LLNL's relativistic 3-D nuclear hydrodynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Zingman, J.A.; McAbee, T.L.; Alonso, C.T.; Wilson, J.R.

    1987-11-01

    We have constructed a relativistic hydrodynamic model to investigate Bevalac and higher energy, heavy-ion collisions. The basis of the model is a finite-difference solution to covariant hydrodynamics, which will be described in the rest of this paper. This paper also contains: a brief review of the equations and numerical methods we have employed in the solution to the hydrodynamic equations, a detailed description of several of the most important subroutines, and a numerical test on the code. 30 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Radiation of non-relativistic particle on a conducting sphere and a string of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shul'ga, N. F.; Syshchenko, V. V.; Larikova, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    The radiation resulting from the uniform motion of a charged particle by (or through) metal sphere is considered. The simple but rigorous description of the radiation process is developed for the case of non-relativistic particle and perfectly conducting sphere by the way of the method of images known from electrostatics. The spectral-angular and spectral densities of the diffraction and transition radiation on the single sphere are computed. The Smith-Purcell radiation caused by motion of the particle parallel to the periodic string of spheres is also considered.

  6. Self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation with vacuum polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, A.; Toki, H.; Tamenaga, S.; Horikawa, Y.; Yadav, H.L.

    2005-09-01

    We present a theoretical formulation for the description of nuclear excitations within the framework of a relativistic random-phase approximation whereby the vacuum polarization arising from nucleon-antinucleon fields is duly accounted for. The vacuum contribution to the Lagrangian is explicitly described as extra new terms of interacting mesons by means of the derivative expansion of the effective action. It is shown that the self-consistent calculation yields zero eigenvalue for the spurious isoscalar-dipole state and also conserves the vector-current density.

  7. Relativistically parametrized extended Hueckel calculations. 11. Energy bands for elemental tellurium and polonium

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, L.L.

    1987-06-17

    An extension of the REX relativistically parametrized extended Hueckel LCAO molecular orbital method to periodic solids is outlined. The method provides a simple and systematic approach to the description of the spin-orbit splitting of energy bands. The method is illustrated with results for the main-group elements tellurium and polonium, with trigonal-helical and simple-cubic structures, respectively. The helical structure of tellurium is described as a distortion of a simple-cubic structure, with the distortion being quenched in the case of polonium by its very large spin-orbit coupling. 36 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  8. Dynamical Instabilities in Relativistic Mean-Field Models and Inner Edge of the Compact Star Crust

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Alexandre; Brito, Lucilia; Providencia, Constanca

    2010-04-26

    We take a dynamical spinodal approach to study the effects of different nuclear relativistic models on the instability zone of nuclear matter in beta equilibrium under the conditions expected to be found in the crust of neutron stars. In particular, we probe the predictive power of those models in the description of the inner edge of the crust. Pressure and the liquid-gas phase densities are evaluated and compared to the most recent 'pasta' phase results obtained with a Thomas-Fermi approach for the pasta phases. The collective response from n, p matter is also briefly commented.

  9. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer and General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Accretion and Outflows of Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerst, Steven V.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Wu, Kinwah

    2007-01-01

    We have calculated the emission from relativistic flows in black hole systems using a fully general relativistic radiative transfer, with flow structures obtained by general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We consider thermal free-free emission and thermal synchrotron emission. Bright filament-like features are found protruding (visually) from the accretion disk surface, which are enhancements of synchrotron emission when the magnetic field is roughly aligned with the line-of-sight in the co-moving frame. The features move back and forth as the accretion flow evolves, but their visibility and morphology are robust. We propose that variations and location drifts of the features are responsible for certain X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in black-hole X-ray binaries.

  10. Relativistic effects on the bonding and properties of the hydrides of platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.

    1993-01-01

    The ground state of PtH2 and several low-lying states of PtH(+) and PtH have been studied at the all-electron self-consistent-field level of theory to examine the importance of relativistic effects. The results of calculations based on Dirac-Hartree-Fock theory, nonrelativistic theory, and the spin-free no-pair relativistic approximation of Hess are compared to separate the effects of the spin-free terms and the spin-orbit terms of the Hamiltonian on the relativistic corrections to the molecular properties. Comparison is also made between first-order perturbation theory including the one-electron spin-free terms and the method of Hess to determine the size of effects beyond first order. It is found that the spin-orbit interaction significantly affects the properties and energetics of these molecules because of the participation of the Pt 5d orbitals in the bonding, and that effects beyond first order in perturbation theory are large. Any treatment of Pt compounds will have to include both the spin-free and spin-orbit interactions for an accurate description.

  11. Predicting Pt-195 NMR chemical shift using new relativistic all-electron basis set.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, D; Guerra, C Fonseca; de Oliveira, M A L; Ramalho, T C; Dos Santos, H F

    2016-10-05

    Predicting NMR properties is a valuable tool to assist the experimentalists in the characterization of molecular structure. For heavy metals, such as Pt-195, only a few computational protocols are available. In the present contribution, all-electron Gaussian basis sets, suitable to calculate the Pt-195 NMR chemical shift, are presented for Pt and all elements commonly found as Pt-ligands. The new basis sets identified as NMR-DKH were partially contracted as a triple-zeta doubly polarized scheme with all coefficients obtained from a Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) second-order scalar relativistic calculation. The Pt-195 chemical shift was predicted through empirical models fitted to reproduce experimental data for a set of 183 Pt(II) complexes which NMR sign ranges from -1000 to -6000 ppm. Furthermore, the models were validated using a new set of 75 Pt(II) complexes, not included in the descriptive set. The models were constructed using non-relativistic Hamiltonian at density functional theory (DFT-PBEPBE) level with NMR-DKH basis set for all atoms. For the best model, the mean absolute deviation (MAD) and the mean relative deviation (MRD) were 150 ppm and 6%, respectively, for the validation set (75 Pt-complexes) and 168 ppm (MAD) and 5% (MRD) for all 258 Pt(II) complexes. These results were comparable with relativistic DFT calculation, 200 ppm (MAD) and 6% (MRD). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Relativistic effects on the bonding and properties of the hydrides of platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.

    1993-01-01

    The ground state of PtH2 and several low-lying states of PtH(+) and PtH have been studied at the all-electron self-consistent-field level of theory to examine the importance of relativistic effects. The results of calculations based on Dirac-Hartree-Fock theory, nonrelativistic theory, and the spin-free no-pair relativistic approximation of Hess are compared to separate the effects of the spin-free terms and the spin-orbit terms of the Hamiltonian on the relativistic corrections to the molecular properties. Comparison is also made between first-order perturbation theory including the one-electron spin-free terms and the method of Hess to determine the size of effects beyond first order. It is found that the spin-orbit interaction significantly affects the properties and energetics of these molecules because of the participation of the Pt 5d orbitals in the bonding, and that effects beyond first order in perturbation theory are large. Any treatment of Pt compounds will have to include both the spin-free and spin-orbit interactions for an accurate description.

  13. Analytic theory for betatron radiation from relativistic electrons in ion plasma channels with magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. C.; Jiang, T. F.

    2010-11-15

    We analytically solve the relativistic equation of motion for an electron in ion plasma channels and calculate the corresponding trajectory as well as the synchrotron radiation. The relativistic effect on a trajectory is strong, i.e., many high-order harmonic terms in the trajectory, when the ratio of the initial transverse velocity (v{sub x0}) to the longitudinal velocity (v{sub z0}) of the electron injected to ion plasma channels is high. Interestingly, these high-order harmonic terms result in a quite broad and intense radiation spectrum, especially at an oblique angle, in contrast to an earlier understanding. As the initial velocity ratio (v{sub x0}:v{sub z0}) decreases, the relativistic effect becomes weak; only the first and second harmonic terms remain in the transverse and longitudinal trajectories, respectively, which coincides with the result of Esarey et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 056505 (2002)]. Our formalism also allows the description of electron's trajectory in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Critical magnetic fields for cyclotron motions are figured out and compared with semiclassical results. The cyclotron motion leads to more high-order harmonic terms than the trajectory without magnetic fields and causes an immensely broad spectrum with vastly large radiation amplitude for high initial velocity ratios (v{sub x0}:v{sub z0}). The radiation from hard x-ray to gamma-ray regions can be generated with a broad radiation angle, thus available for applications.

  14. Tidal disruptions by rotating black holes: relativistic hydrodynamics with Newtonian codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejeda, Emilio; Gafton, Emanuel; Rosswog, Stephan; Miller, John C.

    2017-08-01

    We propose an approximate approach for studying the relativistic regime of stellar tidal disruptions by rotating massive black holes. It combines an exact relativistic description of the hydrodynamical evolution of a test fluid in a fixed curved space-time with a Newtonian treatment of the fluid's self-gravity. Explicit expressions for the equations of motion are derived for Kerr space-time using two different coordinate systems. We implement the new methodology within an existing Newtonian smoothed particle hydrodynamics code and show that including the additional physics involves very little extra computational cost. We carefully explore the validity of the novel approach by first testing its ability to recover geodesic motion, and then by comparing the outcome of tidal disruption simulations against previous relativistic studies. We further compare simulations in Boyer-Lindquist and Kerr-Schild coordinates and conclude that our approach allows accurate simulation even of tidal disruption events where the star penetrates deeply inside the tidal radius of a rotating black hole. Finally, we use the new method to study the effect of the black hole spin on the morphology and fallback rate of the debris streams resulting from tidal disruptions, finding that while the spin has little effect on the fallback rate, it does imprint heavily on the stream morphology, and can even be a determining factor in the survival or disruption of the star itself. Our methodology is discussed in detail as a reference for future astrophysical applications.

  15. Nuclear response theory for spin-isospin excitations in a relativistic quasiparticle-phonon coupling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Caroline; Litvinova, Elena

    2016-07-01

    A new theoretical approach to spin-isospin excitations in open-shell nuclei is presented. The developed method is based on the relativistic meson-exchange nuclear Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics and extends the response theory for superfluid nuclear systems beyond relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in the proton-neutron channel (pn-RQRPA). The coupling between quasiparticle degrees of freedom and collective vibrations (phonons) introduces a time-dependent effective interaction, in addition to the exchange of pion and ρ -meson taken into account without retardation. The time-dependent contributions are treated in the resonant time-blocking approximation, in analogy to the previously developed relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the neutral (non-isospin-flip) channel. The new method is called proton-neutron RQTBA (pn-RQTBA) and is applied to the Gamow-Teller resonance in a chain of neutron-rich nickel isotopes 68-78Ni . A strong fragmentation of the resonance along with quenching of the strength, as compared to pn-RQRPA, is obtained. Based on the calculated strength distribution, beta-decay half-lives of the considered isotopes are computed and compared to pn-RQRPA half-lives and to experimental data. It is shown that a considerable improvement of the half-life description is obtained in pn-RQTBA because of the spreading effects, which bring the lifetimes to a very good quantitative agreement with data.

  16. Phase transition in hot Λ hypernuclei within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinniu; Zhang, Zhaowen; Bao, Shishao; Shen, Hong

    2016-11-01

    A self-consistent description for hot Λ hypernuclei in hypothetical big boxes is developed within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi approximation in order to investigate directly the liquid-gas phase coexistence in strangeness finite nuclear systems. We use the relativistic mean-field model for nuclear interactions. The temperature dependence of Λ hyperon density, Λ hyperon radius, excitation energies, specific heat, and the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei from O16Lambda; to Pb208Lambda; in phase transition region are calculated by using the subtraction procedure in order to separate the hypernucleus from the surrounding baryon gas. The Λ central density is very sensitive to the temperature. The radii of Λ hyperon at high temperature become very large. In the relativistic Thomas-Fermi approximation with the subtraction procedure, the properties of hypernuclei are independent of the size of the box in which the calculation is performed. The level density parameters of hypernuclei in the present work are confirmed to be almost constant at low temperature. It is also found that the single-Λ binding energies of Λ hypernuclei are largely reduced with increasing temperature.

  17. Calculation of relativistic nucleon-nucleon potentials in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadizadeh, M. R.; Radin, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have applied a three-dimensional approach for the calculation of the relativistic nucleon-nucleon potential. The quadratic operator relation between the non-relativistic and the relativistic nucleon-nucleon interactions is formulated as a function of relative two-nucleon momentum vectors, which leads to a three-dimensional integral equation. The integral equation is solved by the iteration method, and the matrix elements of the relativistic potential are calculated from non-relativistic ones. The spin-independent Malfliet-Tjon potential is employed in the numerical calculations, and the numerical tests indicate that the two-nucleon observables calculated by the relativistic potential are preserved with high accuracy.

  18. Extended Galilean symmetries of non-relativistic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlle, Carles; Gomis, Joaquim; Not, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    We consider two non-relativistic strings and their Galilean symmetries. These strings are obtained as the two possible non-relativistic (NR) limits of a relativistic string. One of them is non-vibrating and represents a continuum of non-relativistic massless particles, and the other one is a non-relativistic vibrating string. For both cases we write the generator of the most general point transformation and impose the condition of Noether symmetry. As a result we obtain two sets of non-relativistic Killing equations for the vector fields that generate the symmetry transformations. Solving these equations shows that NR strings exhibit two extended, infinite dimensional space-time symmetries which contain, as a subset, the Galilean symmetries. For each case, we compute the associated conserved charges and discuss the existence of non-central extensions.

  19. Relativistic transport theory for a two-temperature magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Metens, T.; Balescu, R. )

    1990-09-01

    The relativistic kinetic theory of linear transport is worked out within the framework of a new moment method. A complete analytical study of the transport in a two-temperature inhomogeneous magnetized fusion plasma is given. The transport relations and coefficients are derived from the kinetic equation with the full relativistic Beliaev--Budker collision operator and the impact of relativistic effects on the confinement are investigated.

  20. Relativistic corrections in K-shell ionization cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, C.V.

    1984-03-01

    Relativistic effects on a modified version of Rutherford's scattering cross section are considered up to first-order in the Born approximation for relativistic velocities in the binary-encounter approximation (BEA). The predicted cross sections with protons as projectile are lower than the previous theoretical values at low energies and are seen to be in better agreement with measurements. An approximate relativistic correction factor which accounts for orbital electrons only is compared with exact Dirac corrections, within the BEA model.

  1. Relativistic Corrections to the Properties of the Alkali Fluorides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.; Partridge, Harry

    1993-01-01

    Relativistic corrections to the bond lengths, dissociation energies and harmonic frequencies of KF, RbF and CsF have been obtained at the self-consistent field level by dissociating to ions. The relativistic corrections to the bond lengths, harmonic frequencies and dissociation energies to the ions are very small, due to the ionic nature of these molecules and the similarity of the relativistic and nonrelativistic ionic radii.

  2. A fast numerical integrator for relativistic charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we report on a fast second-order numerical integrator to solve the Lorentz force equations of a relativistic charged particle in electromagnetic fields. This numerical integrator shows less numerical error than the popular Boris algorithm in tracking the relativistic particle subject to electric and magnetic space-charge fields and requires less number of operations than another recently proposed relativistic integrator.

  3. SCALING OF THE ANOMALOUS BOOST IN RELATIVISTIC JET BOUNDARY LAYER

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the one-dimensional interaction of a relativistic jet and an external medium. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations show an anomalous boost of the jet fluid in the boundary layer, as previously reported. We describe the boost mechanism using an ideal relativistic fluid and magnetohydrodynamic theory. The kinetic model is also examined for further understanding. Simple scaling laws for the maximum Lorentz factor are derived, and verified by the simulations.

  4. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor

    SciTech Connect

    Aucar, I. Agustín Gomez, Sergio S.; Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C.

    2014-11-21

    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH{sup +} (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH{sup +} systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found.

  5. Relativistic ionization of hydrogen by linearly polarized light.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D; Reiss, H

    1998-03-30

    Relativistic ionization of hydrogen by intense, linearly polarized light is treated by the Strong Field Approximation (SFA). Both bound and ionized states are described by the Dirac equation, with spin effects fully included. The applied laser field is also treated relativistically. There is no recourse to the dipole approximation nor to large-component, small-component approximations. Examples are calculated for the long-pulse limit of a uniformly distributed laser field. A prediction is verified that relativistic effects will appear with linear polarization of the laser at lower intensities than with circular polarization. Strong-field atomic stabilization is found to be enhanced by relativistic effects.

  6. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor.

    PubMed

    Aucar, I Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S; Giribet, Claudia G; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C

    2014-11-21

    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH(+) (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH(+) systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found.

  7. Relativistic blast waves in two dimensions. I - The adiabatic case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate solutions are presented for the dynamical evolution of strong adiabatic relativistic blast waves which result from a point explosion in an ambient gas in which the density varies both with distance from the explosion center and with polar angle in axisymmetry. Solutions are analytical or quasi-analytical for the extreme relativistic case and numerical for the arbitrarily relativistic case. Some general properties of nonplanar relativistic shocks are also discussed, including the incoherence of spherical ultrarelativistic blast-wave fronts on angular scales greater than the reciprocal of the shock Lorentz factor, as well as the conditions for producing blast-wave acceleration.

  8. Relativistic nonlinear plasma waves in a magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Pellat, R.

    1975-01-01

    Five relativistic plane nonlinear waves were investigated: circularly polarized waves and electrostatic plasma oscillations propagating parallel to the magnetic field, relativistic Alfven waves, linearly polarized transverse waves propagating in zero magnetic field, and the relativistic analog of the extraordinary mode propagating at an arbitrary angle to the magnetic field. When the ions are driven relativistic, they behave like electrons, and the assumption of an 'electron-positron' plasma leads to equations which have the form of a one-dimensional potential well. The solutions indicate that a large-amplitude superluminous wave determines the average plasma properties.

  9. RELATIVISTIC TWO-FLUID SIMULATIONS OF GUIDE FIELD MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex

    2009-11-01

    The nonlinear evolution of relativistic magnetic reconnection in sheared magnetic configuration (with a guide field) is investigated by using two-dimensional relativistic two-fluid simulations. Relativistic guide field reconnection features the charge separation and the guide field compression in and around the outflow channel. As the guide field increases, the composition of the outgoing energy changes from enthalpy-dominated to Poynting-dominated. The inertial effects of the two-fluid model play an important role to sustain magnetic reconnection. Implications for the single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic approach and the physics models of relativistic reconnection are briefly addressed.

  10. Hot QCD equations of state and relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Vinod; Kumar, Ravindra; Ravishankar, V.

    2007-11-01

    We study two recently proposed equations of state obtained from high-temperature QCD and show how they can be adapted to use them for making predictions for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The method involves extracting equilibrium distribution functions for quarks and gluons from the equation of state (EOS), which in turn will allow a determination of the transport and other bulk properties of the quark gluon-plasma. Simultaneously, the method also yields a quasiparticle description of interacting quarks and gluons. The first EOS is perturbative in the QCD coupling constant and has contributions of O(g5). The second EOS is an improvement over the first, with contributions up to O[g6ln(1/g)]; it incorporates the nonperturbative hard thermal contributions. The interaction effects are shown to be captured entirely by the effective chemical potentials for the gluons and the quarks, in both cases. The chemical potential is seen to be highly sensitive to the EOS. As an application, we determine the screening lengths, which are, indeed, the most important diagnostics for QGP. The screening lengths are seen to behave drastically differently depending on the EOS considered and therefore yield a way to distinguish the two equations of state in heavy ion collisions.

  11. Energy dependence of resonance production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Feng-Lan; Song, Jun; Wang, Rui-Qin; Zhang, Mao-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The production of the hadronic resonances K*0(892), ϕ(1020), Σ*(1385), and Ξ*(1530) in central AA collisions at , 200, and 2760 GeV is systematically studied. The direct production of these resonances at system hadronization is described by the quark combination model and the effects of hadron multiple-scattering stage are dealt with by a ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics model (UrQMD). We study the contribution of these two production sources to final observation and compare the final spectra with the available experimental data. The p T spectra of K*0(892) calculated directly by quark combination model are explicitly higher than the data at low p T ≲ 1.5 GeV, and taking into account the modification of rescattering effects, the resulting final spectra well agree with the data at all three collision energies. The rescattering effect on ϕ(1020) production is weak and including it can slightly improve our description at low p T on the basis of overall agreement with the data. We also predict the p T spectra of Σ*(1385) and Ξ*(1530), to be tested by the future experimental data. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575100, 11305076, 11505104)

  12. Relativistic, perpendicular shocks in electron-positron plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallant, Yves A.; Hoshino, Masahiro; Langdon, A. B.; Arons, Jonathan; Max, Claire E.

    1992-01-01

    One-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulations are used to examine the mechanical structure and thermalization properties of collisionless relativistic shock waves in electron-positron plasmas. Shocks propagating perpendicularly to the magnetic field direction are considered. It is shown that these shock waves exist, and that they are completely parameterized by the ratio of the upstream Poynting flux to the upstream kinetic energy flux. The way in which the Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions are modified by the presence of wave fluctuations is shown, and they are used to provide a macroscopic description of these collisionless shock flows. The results of a 2D simulation that demonstrates the generality of these results beyond the assumption of the 1D case are discussed. It is suggested that the thermalization mechanism is the formation of a synchrotron maser by the coherently reflected particles in the shock front. Because the downstream medium is thermalized, it is argued that perpendicular shocks in pure electron-positron plasmas are not candidates as nonthermal particle accelerators.

  13. A relativistic theory of few-nucleon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Stadler

    2010-12-01

    This talk provides an overview of recent results for two- and three-nucleon systems obtained within the framework of the covariant spectator theory (CST). The main features of two recently published models for the neutron–proton interaction, that fit the 2007 world data base containing several thousands of neutron-proton scattering data below 350 MeV with χ 2/N data ≈ 1, are presented. These one-boson-exchange models, called WJC-1 and WJC-2, have a considerably smaller number of adjustable parameters than are present in realistic nonrelativistic potentials. When applied to the three-nucleon bound state, the correct binding energy is obtained without additional three-body forces. First calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of helium-3 and the triton in complete impulse approximation also give very reasonable results. One can conclude that the CST yields a very efficient description of few-nucleon systems, in which the relativistic formulation of the dynamics is an essential element.

  14. Coupling of (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei with photons

    SciTech Connect

    Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.

    2013-11-15

    The coupling of photons with (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei is presented in two particular circumstances: very high electromagnetic fields and very short photon pulses. We consider a typical situation where the (bare) nuclei (fully stripped of electrons) are accelerated to energies ≃ 1 TeV per nucleon (according to the state of the art at LHC, for instance) and photon sources like petawatt lasers ≃ 1 eV-radiation (envisaged by ELI-NP project, for instance), or free-electron laser ≃ 10 keV-radiation, or synchrotron sources, etc. In these circumstances the nuclear scale energy can be attained, with very high field intensities. In particular, we analyze the nuclear transitions induced by the radiation, including both one- and two-photon proceses, as well as the polarization-driven transitions which may lead to giant dipole resonances. The nuclear (electrical) polarization concept is introduced. It is shown that the perturbation theory for photo-nuclear reactions is applicable, although the field intensity is high, since the corresponding interaction energy is low and the interaction time (pulse duration) is short. It is also shown that the description of the giant nuclear dipole resonance requires the dynamics of the nuclear electrical polarization degrees of freedom.

  15. Coupling of (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei with photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.

    2013-11-01

    The coupling of photons with (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei is presented in two particular circumstances: very high electromagnetic fields and very short photon pulses. We consider a typical situation where the (bare) nuclei (fully stripped of electrons) are accelerated to energies ≃ 1 TeV per nucleon (according to the state of the art at LHC, for instance) and photon sources like petawatt lasers ≃ 1 eV-radiation (envisaged by ELI-NP project, for instance), or free-electron laser ≃ 10 keV-radiation, or synchrotron sources, etc. In these circumstances the nuclear scale energy can be attained, with very high field intensities. In particular, we analyze the nuclear transitions induced by the radiation, including both one- and two-photon proceses, as well as the polarization-driven transitions which may lead to giant dipole resonances. The nuclear (electrical) polarization concept is introduced. It is shown that the perturbation theory for photo-nuclear reactions is applicable, although the field intensity is high, since the corresponding interaction energy is low and the interaction time (pulse duration) is short. It is also shown that the description of the giant nuclear dipole resonance requires the dynamics of the nuclear electrical polarization degrees of freedom.

  16. Charged relativistic fluids and non-linear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereli, T.; Tucker, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic fields in Maxwell's theory satisfy linear equations in the classical vacuum. This is modified in classical non-linear electrodynamic theories. To date there has been little experimental evidence that any of these modified theories are tenable. However with the advent of high-intensity lasers and powerful laboratory magnetic fields this situation may be changing. We argue that an approach involving the self-consistent relativistic motion of a smooth fluid-like distribution of matter (composed of a large number of charged or neutral particles) in an electromagnetic field offers a viable theoretical framework in which to explore the experimental consequences of non-linear electrodynamics. We construct such a model based on the theory of Born and Infeld and suggest that a simple laboratory experiment involving the propagation of light in a static magnetic field could be used to place bounds on the fundamental coupling in that theory. Such a framework has many applications including a new description of the motion of particles in modern accelerators and plasmas as well as phenomena in astrophysical contexts such as in the environment of magnetars, quasars and gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Relativistic space-time positioning: principles and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, Angelo

    2013-11-01

    Starting from the description of space- time as a curved four-dimensional manifold, null Gaussian coordinates systems as appropriate for relativistic positioning will be discussed. Different approaches and strategies will be reviewed, implementing the null coordinates with both continuous and pulsating electromagnetic signals. In particular, methods based on purely local measurements of proper time intervals between pulses will be expounded and the various possible sources of uncertainty will be analyzed. As sources of pulses both artificial and natural emitters will be considered. The latter will concentrate on either radio- or X ray-emitting pulsars, discussing advantages and drawbacks. As for artificial emitters, various solutions will be presented, from satellites orbiting the Earth to broadcasting devices carried both by spacecrafts and celestial bodies of the solar system. In general the accuracy of the positioning is expected to be limited, besides the instabilities and drift of the sources, by the precision of the local clock, but in any case in long journeys systematic cumulated errors will tend to become dominant. The problem can be kept under control properly using a high level of redundancy in the procedure for the calculation of the coordinates of the receiver and by mixing a number of different and complementary strategies. Finally various possibilities for doing fundamental physics experiments by means of space-time topography techniques will shortly be presented and discussed.

  18. Isotropic Landau levels of relativistic and non-relativistic fermions in 3D flat space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Wu, Congjun

    2012-02-01

    The usual Landau level quantization, as demonstrated in the 2D quantum Hall effect, is crucially based on the planar structure. In this talk, we explore its 3D counterpart possessing the full 3D rotational symmetry as well as the time reversal symmetry. We construct the Landau level Hamiltonians in 3 and higher dimensional flat space for both relativistic and non-relativistic fermions. The 3D cases with integer fillings are Z2 topological insulators. The non-relativistic version describes spin-1/2 fermions coupling to the Aharonov-Casher SU(2) gauge field. This system exhibits flat Landau levels in which the orbital angular momentum and the spin are coupled with a fixed helicity. Each filled Landau level contributes one 2D helical Dirac Fermi surface at an open boundary, which demonstrates the Z2 topological nature. A natural generalization to Dirac fermions is found as a square root problem of the above non-relativistic version, which can also be viewed as the Dirac equation defined on the phase space. All these Landau level problems can be generalized to arbitrary high dimensions systematically. [4pt] [1] Yi Li and Congjun Wu, arXiv:1103.5422.[0pt] [2] Yi Li, Ken Intriligator, Yue Yu and Congjun Wu, arXiv:1108.5650.

  19. Relativistic hadrons and the origin of relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, John; Kazanas, D.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the hydrodynamic origin of relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Specifically, we propose that the presence of a population of relativistic hadrons in the AGN 'central engine' and the associated neutron production suffices to produce outflows which under rather general conditions could be relativistic. The main such condition is that the size of the neutron production region be larger than the neutron flight path tau(sub n) approximately 3 x 10(exp 13) cm. This condition guarantees that the mean energy per particle in the proton fluid, resulting from the decay of the neutrons outside their production region, be greater than the proton rest mass. The expansion of this fluid can then lead naturally to a relativistic outflow by conversion of its internal energy to directed motion. We follow the development of such flows by solving the mass, energy as well as the kinetic equation for the proton gas in steady state, taking into account the source terms due to compute accurately the adiabatic index of the expanding gas, and in conjunction with Bernoulli's equation the detailed evolution of the bulk Lorentz factor. We further examine the role of large-scale magnetic fields in confining these outflows to produce the jets observed at larger scales.

  20. Relativistic hadrons and the origin of relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, John; Kazanas, D.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the hydrodynamic origin of relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Specifically, we propose that the presence of a population of relativistic hadrons in the AGN 'central engine' and the associated neutron production suffices to produce outflows which under rather general conditions could be relativistic. The main such condition is that the size of the neutron production region be larger than the neutron flight path tau(sub n) approximately 3 x 10(exp 13) cm. This condition guarantees that the mean energy per particle in the proton fluid, resulting from the decay of the neutrons outside their production region, be greater than the proton rest mass. The expansion of this fluid can then lead naturally to a relativistic outflow by conversion of its internal energy to directed motion. We follow the development of such flows by solving the mass, energy as well as the kinetic equation for the proton gas in steady state, taking into account the source terms due to compute accurately the adiabatic index of the expanding gas, and in conjunction with Bernoulli's equation the detailed evolution of the bulk Lorentz factor. We further examine the role of large-scale magnetic fields in confining these outflows to produce the jets observed at larger scales.

  1. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.

  2. String Mechanism for Relativistic Jet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyadechkin, S. A.; Semenov, V. S.; Punsly, B.; Biernat, H. K.

    Here we present our latest studies of relativistic jet formation in the vicinity of a rotating black hole where the reconnection process has been taken into account. In order to simplify the problem, we use Lagrangian formalism and develop a method which enables us to consider a magnetized plasma as a set of magnetic flux tubes [5,6]. Within the limits of the Lagrangian approach, we perform numerical simulations of the flux tube (nonlinear string) behavior which clearly demonstrates the process of relativistic jet formation in the form of outgoing torsional nonlinear aves. It turns out that the jet is produced deep inside the ergosphere where the flux tube takes away spinning energy from the black hole due to the nonlocal Penrose process [2]. This is similar to the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism to some extent [8], however, the string mechanism is essentially time dependent. It is shown that the leading part of the accreting tube gains negative energy and therefore has to stay in the ergosphere forever. Simultaneously, another part of the tube propagates along the spinning axis away from the hole with nearly the speed of light. As a result, the tube is continuously stretching and our mechanism is essentially time dependent. Obviously, such process cannot last infinitely long and we have to take into account the reconnection process. Due to reconnection, the topology of the flux tube is changed and it gives rise to a plasmoid creation which propagates along spin axis of the hole with relativistic speed carrying off the energy and angular momentum away from the black hole.

  3. Relativistic hydrodynamic jets in the intracluster medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunwoo

    2017-08-01

    We have performed the first three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of extragalactic jets of pure leptonic and baryonic plasma compositions propagating into a hydrostatic intracluster medium (ICM) environment. The numerical simulations use a general equation of state for a multicomponent relativistic gas, which closely reproduces the Synge equation of state for a relativistic perfect gas. We find that morphological and dynamical differences between leptonic and baryonic jets are much less evident than those between hot and cold jets. In all these models, the jets first propagate with essentially constant velocities within the core radius of the ICM and then accelerate progressively so as to increase the jet advance velocity by a factor of between 1.2 and 1.6 at the end of simulations, depending upon the models. The temporal evolution of the average cavity pressure is not consistent with that expected by the extended theoretical model even if the average cavity pressure decreases as a function of time with a power law. Our simulations produce synthetic radio images that are dominated by bright hot spots and appear similar to observations of the extended radio galaxies with collimated radio jets. These bright radio lobes would be visible as dark regions in X-ray images and are morphologically similar to observed X-ray cavities in the ICM. This supports the expectation that the bow shock surrounding the head of the jet is important mechanism for producing X-ray cavities in the ICM. Although there are quantitative differences among the models, the total radio and X-ray intensity curves show qualitatively similar trends in all of them.

  4. Inverse Compton Scattering in Mildly Relativistic Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Birkinshaw, M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of inverse Compton scattering in mildly relativistic static and moving plasmas with low optical depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and calculated the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the cosmic background radiation. Our semi-analytic method is based on a separation of photon diffusion in frequency and real space. We use Monte Carlo simulation to derive the intensity and frequency of the scattered photons for a monochromatic incoming radiation. The outgoing spectrum is determined by integrating over the spectrum of the incoming radiation using the intensity to determine the correct weight. This method makes it possible to study the emerging radiation as a function of frequency and direction. As a first application we have studied the effects of finite optical depth and gas infall on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (not possible with the extended Kompaneets equation) and discuss the parameter range in which the Boltzmann equation and its expansions can be used. For high temperature clusters (k(sub B)T(sub e) greater than or approximately equal to 15 keV) relativistic corrections based on a fifth order expansion of the extended Kompaneets equation seriously underestimate the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect at high frequencies. The contribution from plasma infall is less important for reasonable velocities. We give a convenient analytical expression for the dependence of the cross-over frequency on temperature, optical depth, and gas infall speed. Optical depth effects are often more important than relativistic corrections, and should be taken into account for high-precision work, but are smaller than the typical kinematic effect from cluster radial velocities.

  5. Three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic subcycle solitons.

    PubMed

    Esirkepov, Timur; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Bulanov, Sergei V; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2002-12-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relativistic electromagnetic subcycle solitons were observed in 3D particle-in-cell simulations of an intense short-laser-pulse propagation in an underdense plasma. Their structure resembles that of an oscillating electric dipole with a poloidal electric field and a toroidal magnetic field that oscillate in phase with the electron density with frequency below the Langmuir frequency. On the ion time scale, the soliton undergoes a Coulomb explosion of its core, resulting in ion acceleration, and then evolves into a slowly expanding quasineutral cavity.

  6. Leibnizian relationalism for general relativistic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassallo, Antonio; Esfeld, Michael

    2016-08-01

    An ontology of Leibnizian relationalism, consisting in distance relations among sparse matter points and their change only, is well recognized as a serious option in the context of classical mechanics. In this paper, we investigate how this ontology fares when it comes to general relativistic physics. Using a Humean strategy, we regard the gravitational field as a means to represent the overall change in the distance relations among point particles in a way that achieves the best combination of being simple and being informative.

  7. Relativistic Random Phase Approximation At Finite Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Y. F.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2009-08-26

    The fully self-consistent finite temperature relativistic random phase approximation (FTRRPA) has been established in the single-nucleon basis of the temperature dependent Dirac-Hartree model (FTDH) based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings. Illustrative calculations in the FTRRPA framework show the evolution of multipole responses of {sup 132}Sn with temperature. With increased temperature, in both monopole and dipole strength distributions additional transitions appear in the low energy region due to the new opened particle-particle and hole-hole transition channels.

  8. Analytic solutions of the relativistic Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka; Martinez, Mauricio; Xiao, Bo-Wen

    2015-04-01

    We present new analytic solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation. We first obtain spherically expanding solutions which are the kinetic counterparts of the exact solutions of the Israel-Stewart equation in the literature. This allows us to compare the solutions of the kinetic and hydrodynamic equations at an analytical level. We then derive a novel boost-invariant solution of the Boltzmann equation which has an unconventional dependence on the proper time. The existence of such a solution is also suggested in second-order hydrodynamics and fluid-gravity correspondence.

  9. Dynamical friction in a relativistic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, O. J.; Rose, S. J.

    2014-05-01

    The work of Spitzer on dynamical friction in a plasma [L. Spitzer, Jr., Physics of Fully Ionized Gases, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1962), Chap. 5] is extended to relativistic systems. We derive the force of dynamical friction, diffusion tensor, and test particle relaxation rates for a Maxwellian background in the same form as Trubnikov [B. A. Trubnikov, in Reviews of Plasma Physics, edited by M. A. Leontovich (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 105], enabling high-temperature laboratory and astrophysical plasmas to be modeled in a consistent manner.

  10. Imperfect relativistic mirrors in the quantum regime

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonça, J. T.; Serbeto, A.; Galvão, R. M. O.

    2014-05-15

    The collective backscattering of intense laser radiation by energetic electron beams is considered in the relativistic quantum regime. Exact solutions for the radiation field are obtained, for arbitrary electron pulse shapes and laser intensities. The electron beams act as imperfect nonlinear mirrors on the incident laser radiation. This collective backscattering process can lead to the development of new sources of ultra-short pulse radiation in the gamma-ray domain. Numerical examples show that, for plausible experimental conditions, intense pulses of gamma-rays, due to the double Doppler shift of the harmonics of the incident laser radiation, can be produced using the available technology, with durations less than 1 as.

  11. Relativistic thermal plasmas - Pair processes and equilibria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    The work of Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Zel'dovich and Sunyaev (1971) is extended and generalized, through the inclusion of pair-producing photon processes and effects due to the finite size of the plasma, in an investigation of the equilibria of relativistic thermal plasmas which takes into account electron-positron creation and annihilation and photons produced within the plasma. It is shown that the bridge between an effectively thin plasma and an effectively thick plasma occurs in the transrelativistic region, where the dimensionless temperature value is between 0.1 and 1.0 and the temperature remains in this region over a great luminosity range.

  12. Relativistic thermal plasmas - Pair processes and equilibria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    The work of Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Zel'dovich and Sunyaev (1971) is extended and generalized, through the inclusion of pair-producing photon processes and effects due to the finite size of the plasma, in an investigation of the equilibria of relativistic thermal plasmas which takes into account electron-positron creation and annihilation and photons produced within the plasma. It is shown that the bridge between an effectively thin plasma and an effectively thick plasma occurs in the transrelativistic region, where the dimensionless temperature value is between 0.1 and 1.0 and the temperature remains in this region over a great luminosity range.

  13. Dynamical phase trajectories for relativistic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Arsene, I. C.; Bravina, L. V.; Cassing, W.; Ivanov, Yu. B.; Russkikh, V. N.; Larionov, A.; Randrup, J.; Toneev, V. D.; Zeeb, G.; Zschiesche, D.

    2007-03-15

    Central collisions of gold nuclei are simulated by several existing models and the central net baryon density {rho} and the energy density {epsilon} are extracted at successive times for beam kinetic energies of 5-40 GeV/nucleon. The resulting trajectories in the ({rho},{epsilon}) phase plane are discussed from the perspective of experimentally exploring the expected first-order hadronization phase transition with the planned FAIR at GSI or in a low-energy campaign at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  14. New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton Singh, Ksh; Pradhan, Narendra; Pant, Neeraj

    2017-08-01

    A new exact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropic massive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two compact stars, namely, XTE J1739-289 (strange star 1.51M_{⊙}, 10.9 km) and PSR J1614-2230 (neutron star 1.97M_{⊙}, 14 km). The solution also satisfies all energy conditions with the compactness parameter lying within the Buchdahl limit.

  15. Relativistic Magnetron Priming Experiments and Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-29

    THEORY Grant/Contract Number: FA9550-05-1-0087 Personnel Supported Faculty: R.M. Gilgenbach and Y.Y. Lau Graduate Students and Postdocs: Brad ... Hoff , PhD, (Now Employed at AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM) Wilkin Tang, PhD, (Now Employed at AFRL, Kirtland AFB. NM) Will White, PhD, (Now Employed at...Relativistic Magnetron B.W. Hoff , R.M. Gilgenbach, N.M. Jordan, Y.Y. Lau, E. Cruz, D. French, M.R. Gomez, J.C. Zier., T.A. Spencera), D. Priceb) Plasma

  16. Microengineering Laser Plasma Interactions at Relativistic Intensities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Ji, L L; Audesirk, H; George, K M; Snyder, J; Krygier, A; Poole, P; Willis, C; Daskalova, R; Chowdhury, E; Lewis, N S; Schumacher, D W; Pukhov, A; Freeman, R R; Akli, K U

    2016-02-26

    We report on the first successful proof-of-principle experiment to manipulate laser-matter interactions on microscales using highly ordered Si microwire arrays. The interaction of a high-contrast short-pulse laser with a flat target via periodic Si microwires yields a substantial enhancement in both the total and cutoff energies of the produced electron beam. The self-generated electric and magnetic fields behave as an electromagnetic lens that confines and guides electrons between the microwires as they acquire relativistic energies via direct laser acceleration.

  17. An X-band overmoded relativistic klystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Renzhen; Chen, Changhua; Deng, Yuqun; Li, Jiawei; Bai, Xianchen

    2014-11-01

    An X-band overmoded relativistic klystron is proposed, the operation mode of which is the TM02 mode. The drift tube could not cut off the TM01 mode; isolating the buncher cavity from the input cavity is achieved by introducing a sectional RF lossy material. Microwaves are extracted from the modulated electron beam using a cylindrical waveguide, rather than a coaxial waveguide; thereby, the output structure is significantly simplified. Particle-in-cell simulations show that microwaves with power of 1.28 GW and frequency of 9.30 GHz can be obtained, corresponding to an efficiency of 32% and relative bandwidth of about 8%.

  18. Microengineering Laser Plasma Interactions at Relativistic Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, S.; Ji, L. L.; Audesirk, H.; George, K. M.; Snyder, J.; Krygier, A.; Poole, P.; Willis, C.; Daskalova, R.; Chowdhury, E.; Lewis, N. S.; Schumacher, D. W.; Pukhov, A.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K. U.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the first successful proof-of-principle experiment to manipulate laser-matter interactions on microscales using highly ordered Si microwire arrays. The interaction of a high-contrast short-pulse laser with a flat target via periodic Si microwires yields a substantial enhancement in both the total and cutoff energies of the produced electron beam. The self-generated electric and magnetic fields behave as an electromagnetic lens that confines and guides electrons between the microwires as they acquire relativistic energies via direct laser acceleration.

  19. Relativistic thermal plasmas - Effects of magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araki, S.; Lightman, A. P.

    1983-01-01

    Processes and equilibria in finite, relativistic, thermal plasmas are investigated, taking into account electron-positron creation and annihilation, photon production by internal processes, and photon production by a magnetic field. Inclusion of the latter extends previous work on such plasmas. The basic relations for thermal, Comptonized synchrotron emission are analyzed, including emission and absorption without Comptonization, Comptonized thermal synchrotron emission, and the Comptonized synchrotron and bremsstrahlung luminosities. Pair equilibria are calculated, including approximations and dimensionless parameters, the pair balance equation, maximum temperatures and field strengths, and individual models and cooling curves.

  20. Relativistic wind termination - Jets and synchronotron nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    An idealized model describing the termination of a relativistic wind owing to its interaction with surrounding nonrelativistic matter, such as the interaction of a pulsar wind with the supernova remnant shell is examined. It is assumed that the large-scale electric and magnetic fields out to the termination distance are controlled by the wind source, in contrast to previous work treating the wind as an isotropic MHD flow. Two effects are found: forced synchrotron radiation from the bulk of the injected particles, and formation of oppositely directed jets of ultrarelativistic particles.