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Sample records for releasing peptide-2 ghrp-2

  1. Determination of growth hormone releasing peptides metabolites in human urine after nasal administration of GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-6, Hexarelin, and Ipamorelin.

    PubMed

    Semenistaya, Ekaterina; Zvereva, Irina; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Krotov, Grigory; Rodchenkov, Grigory

    2015-10-01

    Growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs) stimulate secretion of endogenous growth hormone and are listed on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. To develop an effective method for GHRPs anti-doping control we have investigated metabolites of GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-6, Hexarelin, and Ipamorelin in urine after nasal administration. Each compound was administrated to one volunteer. Samples were collected for 2 days after administration, processed by solid-phase extraction on weak cation exchange cartridges and analyzed by means of nano-liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. Six metabolites of GHRP-1 were identified. GHRP-1 in the parent form was not detected. GHRP-1 (2-4) free acid was detected in urine up to 27 h. GHRP-2, GHRP-2 free acid and GHRP-2 (1-3) free acid were detected in urine up to 47 h after administration. GHRP-6 was mostly excreted unchanged and detected in urine 23 h after administration, its metabolites were detectable for 12 h only. Hexarelin and Ipamorelin metabolized intensively and were excreted as a set of parent compounds with metabolites. Hexarelin (1-3) free acid and Ipamorelin (1-4) free acid were detected in urine samples after complete withdrawal of parent substances. GHRPs and their most prominent metabolites were included into routine ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry procedure. The method was fully validated, calibration curves of targeted analytes were obtained and excretion curves of GHRPs and their metabolites were plotted. Our results confirm that the detection window after GHRPs administration depends on individual metabolism, drug preparation form and the way of administration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. ACTH releasing activity of KP-102 (GHRP-2) in rats is mediated mainly by release of CRF.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Chiharu; Oki, Yutaka; Ukai, Kiyoharu; Okuno, Tadashi; Kurasaki, Shigeru; Ohyama, Tadashi; Doi, Naomi; Sasaki, Ken; Ase, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    KP-102 (GHRP-2: pralmorelin) is a synthetic growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP) that powerfully stimulates the release of GH by acting (i.v.) at both hypothalamic and pituitary sites. Intravenous (i.v.) administration of KP-102 also elicits slight but significant release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in both animals and humans, as is seen with other GHRPs. GHRPs are thought to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by releasing endogenous ACTH secretagogues such as arginine vasopressin (AVP) and/or corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), though neither AVP nor CRF has been shown clearly to be involved significantly in GHRP-evoked ACTH release. In the present study, we investigated the effects of KP-102 on ACTH release in conscious rats under improved experimental conditions that minimized the influence of stress. Administration of KP-102 i.v. increased plasma ACTH significantly, but did not stimulate ACTH release from rat primary pituitary cells. Administration of KP-102 together with either AVP or CRF elicited significantly greater increases in plasma ACTH levels than any of the agonists alone. Notably, the combination of KP-102 and AVP produced a much greater increase in ACTH than KP-102 plus CRF, indicating that KP-102 augments the effect of exogenous CRF only weakly. Conversely, a CRF antagonist markedly inhibited KP-102-induced ACTH release in conscious rats, whereas an AVP antagonist or anti-AVP antiserum did not. Taken together, these findings suggest that KP-102 acts via the hypothalamus to stimulate ACTH release in rats, and that these effects are mediated mainly by the release of CRF.

  3. Determination of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) and their major metabolites in human urine for doping controls by means of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Höppner, Sebastian; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Petrou, Michael; Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Thevis, Mario

    2011-08-01

    A family of small peptides has reached the focus of doping controls representing a comparably new strategy for cheating sportsmen. These growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) are orally active and induce an increased production of endogenous growth hormone (GH). While the established test for exogenous GH fails, the misuse of these prohibited substances remains unrecognized. The present study provides data for the efficient extraction of a variety of known drug candidates (GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-4, GHRP-5, GHRP-6, alexamorelin, ipamorelin, and hexarelin) from human urine with subsequent mass spectrometric detection after liquid chromatographic separation. The used method potentially enables the retrospective evaluation of the acquired data for unknown metabolites by means of a non-targeted approach with high-resolution/high-accuracy full-scan mass spectrometry with additional higher collision energy dissociation experiments. This is of great importance due to the currently unknown metabolism of most of the targets and, thus, the method is focused on the intact peptidic drugs. Only the already characterised major metabolite of GHRP-2 (D-Ala-D-2-naphthylAla-L-Ala, as well as its stable isotope-labelled analogue) was synthesised and implemented in the detection assay. Method validation for qualitative purpose was performed with respect to specificity, precision (<20%), intermediate precision (<20%), recovery (47-95%), limit of detection (0.2-1 ng/mL), linearity, ion suppression and stability. Two stable isotope-labelled internal standards were used (deuterium-labelled GHRP-4 and GHRP-2 metabolite). The proof-of-principle was obtained by the analysis of excretion study urine samples obtained from a single oral administration of 10 mg of GHRP-2. Here, the known metabolite was detectable over 20 h after administration while the intact drug was not observed.

  4. Absence of growth hormone (GH) secretion after the administration of either GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), GH-releasing peptide (GHRP-6), or GHRH plus GHRP-6 in children with neonatal pituitary stalk transection.

    PubMed

    Pombo, M; Barreiro, J; Peñalva, A; Peino, R; Dieguez, C; Casanueva, F F

    1995-11-01

    GH-releasing peptide (GHRP-6; His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) is a synthetic compound that releases GH in a specific and dose-related manner through mechanisms and a point of action that are mostly unknown, but different from those of GHRH. In man, GHRP-6 is more efficacious than GHRH, and a striking synergistic action occurs when both compounds are administered together. To explain such a synergistic effect, it has been postulated, but not proven, that GHRP-6 acts through a double mechanism, with actions exerted at the pituitary and the hypothalamic level. On the other hand, patients with the syndrome of GH deficiency due to perinatal pituitary stalk transection have any hypothalamic factor nonoperandi. The aim of the present study was 3-fold: 1) to further understand how relevant, if at all, the hypothalamic action of GHRP-6 is for GH regulation; 2) to evaluate whether GHRP-6 plus GHRH could be a suitable diagnostic tool in children with pituitary stalk transection; and 3) to compare these results with similar published studies performed in patients with hypothalamo-pituitary disconnection, who developed the disease as adults. Seven patients with GH deficiency and different degrees of panhypopituitarism due to perinatal pituitary stalk transection and 7 age- and sex-matched normal controls were studied. The subjects underwent 3 different tests on separate occasions, being challenged with GHRH (1 microgram/kg, iv), GHRP-6 (1 microgram/kg, iv), or GHRH plus GHRP-6. GH was analyzed as the area under the curve (mean +/- SE; micrograms per L/90 min). In normal subjects, GH secretion was 1029 +/- 202 after GHRH treatment, 1221 +/- 345 after GHRP-6, and 3542 +/- 650 after GHRH plus GHRP-6; the latter value was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the secretion elicited by GHRH or GHRP-6 alone. In the group of patients with perinatal pituitary stalk transection, the level of GH after GHRH treatment was 116 +/- 22 and was even more reduced (P < 0.05) after GHRP-6

  5. The growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing peptide (His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH2), GH-releasing hormone, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Alster, D K; Bowers, C Y; Jaffe, C A; Ho, P J; Barkan, A L

    1993-09-01

    In patients with acromegaly, GH-producing pituitary tumors release GH in response to specific stimuli such as GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and are also responsive to a variety of nonspecific stimuli, such as TRH or GnRH, and may exhibit paradoxical responses to glucose and dopamine. In healthy humans, the synthetic peptide GH-releasing peptide (GHRP) (His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) releases GH by a putative mechanism of action that is independent of GHRH. How these tumors respond to GHRP is not well characterized. We studied the GH responses to GHRH, GHRP, and TRH stimulation in 11 patients with active acromegaly. The peak GH responses to GHRP and GHRH were not correlated (r = 0.57; P = 0.066). In contrast, the peak GH responses to GHRP and TRH were highly correlated (r = 0.95; P < 0.001). In conclusion, in patients with acromegaly, the GH response to GHRP is qualitatively normal and does not appear to depend on GHRH.

  6. Synthesis of Mono-PEGylated Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 and Investigation of its Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Beihua; Zhou, Ziniu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an efficient synthetic route to the mono-PEGylated growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and its biological activity in vivo. The commercially available key PEGylating reagent, mPEG-NHS ester, was successfully utilized to the synthesis of mono-PEGylated GHRP-2, during which the PEGylation profiles of GHRP-2 were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The product was purified by cation exchange chromatography, and its biological activity was conducted in rats. The desired mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 as the major product was readily obtained in anhydrous aprotic solvent, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), when the molar ratio of mPEG-NHS ester to GHRP-2 was fixed to be 0.8:1. The products were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the biological activity for the products showed that the mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 gave a more stable activity than GHRP-2, suggesting that PEGylation led to the increase in the half-life of GHRP-2 in plasma without greatly impairing the biological activity. PEGylation of the GHRP-2 is a good choice for the development of the GHRP-2 applications.

  7. A high-throughput LC-MS/MS screen for GHRP in equine and human urine, featuring peptide derivatization for improved chromatography.

    PubMed

    Timms, Mark; Hall, Nikki; Levina, Vita; Vine, John; Steel, Rohan

    2014-10-01

    The growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs) hexarelin, ipamorelin, alexamorelin, GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-4, GHRP-5, and GHRP-6 are all synthetic met-enkephalin analogues that include unnatural D-amino acids. They were designed specifically for their ability to stimulate growth hormone release and may serve as performance enhancing drugs. To regulate the use of these peptides within the horse racing industry and by human athletes, a method is presented for the extraction, derivatization, and detection of GHRPs from equine and human urine. This method takes advantage of a highly specific solid-phase extraction combined with a novel derivatization method to improve the chromatography of basic peptides. The method was validated with respect to linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, specificity, limits of detection, limits of confirmation, ion suppression, and stability. As proof of principle, all eight GHRPs or their metabolites could be detected in urine collected from rats after intravenous administration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Different growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing peptide and GH-releasing hormone in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Dias, J C; Pimentel-Filho, F; Reis, A F; Lengyel, A M

    1996-04-01

    Altered GH responses to several pharmacological stimuli, including GHRH, have been found in hyperthyroidism. The mechanisms underlying these disturbances have not been fully elucidated. GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is a synthetic hexapeptide that specifically stimulates GH release both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of action of GHRP-6 is unknown, but it probably acts by inhibiting the effects of somatostatin on GH release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GHRP-6 on GH secretion in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 9) and in control subjects (n = 9). Each subject received GHRP-6 (1 microg/kg, iv), GHRH (100 microg, iv), and GHRP-6 plus GHRH on 3 separate days. GH peak values (mean +/- SE; micrograms per L) were significantly lower in hyperthyroid patients compared to those in control subjects after GHRH alone (9.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 27.0 +/- 5.2) and GHRP-6 plus GHRH (22.5 +/- 3.5 vs. 83.7 +/- 15.2); a lack of the normal synergistic effect of the association of both peptides was observed in thyrotoxicosis. However, a similar GH response was seen in both groups after isolated GHRP-6 injection (31.9 +/- 5.7 vs. 23.2 +/- 3.9). In summary, we have shown that hyperthyroid patients have a normal GH response to GHRP-6 together with a blunted GH responsiveness to GHRH. Our data suggest that thyroid hormones modulate GH release induced by these two peptides in a differential way.

  9. Effects of long-term treatment with growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in the GHRH knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Alba, Maria; Fintini, Danilo; Bowers, Cyril Y; Parlow, A F; Salvatori, Roberto

    2005-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretagogues (GHS) stimulate GH secretion in vivo in humans and in animals. They act on the ghrelin receptor, expressed in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary. It is unknown whether GHSs act predominantly by increasing the release of hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) or by acting directly on the somatotroph cells. We studied whether a potent GHS could stimulate growth in the absence of endogenous GHRH. To this end, we used GHRH knockout (GHRH-KO) mice. These animals have proportionate dwarfism due to severe GH deficiency (GHD) and pituitary hypoplasia due to reduced somatotroph cell mass. We treated male GHRH-KO mice for 6 wk (from week 1 to week 7 of age) with GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2, 10 microg s.c. twice a day). Chronic treatment with GHRP-2 failed to stimulate somatotroph cell proliferation and GH secretion and to promote longitudinal growth. GHRP-2-treated mice showed an increase in total body weight compared with placebo-treated animals, due to worsening of the body composition alterations typical of GHD animals. These data demonstrate that GHRP-2 failed to reverse the severe GHD caused by lack of GHRH.

  10. Parallel studies of His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH2 and human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor-44-NH2 in rat primary pituitary cell monolayer culture.

    PubMed

    Sartor, O; Bowers, C Y; Chang, D

    1985-03-01

    His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH2 (GH-RP-6) is a synthetic hexapeptide that specifically releases GH both in vivo and in vitro in pituitary incubates. In this study, for the first time, GH-RP-6 was studied in primary pituitary cell monolayer culture. Parallel studies were performed with human pancreatic GH-releasing factor-44 (hpGRF-44). Culture conditions optimal for GH-RP-6 were not optimal for hpGRF-44. Both peptides released GH in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In this assay system, the ED50 for GH-RP-6 was 9 nM, and the ED50 for hp-GRF-44 was 1.6 nM. Calcium-blocking agents inhibited the GH responses of both peptides as well as basal GH release. Pretreatment with GH-RP-6 decreased the subsequent response to both GH-RP-6 and hpGRF-44. hpGRF-44 down regulated itself but not GH-RP-6. Rat sera potentiated the GH response of hpGRF-44 but not that of GH-RP-6. GH-RP-6 and hpGRF-44 GH responses were additive. These results suggest that GH-RP-6 and hpGRF-44 stimulate GH release via different somatotroph receptors.

  11. Metabolism of growth hormone releasing peptides.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Delahaut, Philippe; Krug, Oliver; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-12-04

    New, potentially performance enhancing compounds have frequently been introduced to licit and illicit markets and rapidly distributed via worldwide operating Internet platforms. Developing fast analytical strategies to follow these new trends is one the most challenging issues for modern doping control analysis. Even if reference compounds for the active drugs are readily obtained, their unknown metabolism complicates effective testing strategies. Recently, a new class of small C-terminally amidated peptides comprising four to seven amino acid residues received considerable attention of sports drug testing authorities due to their ability to stimulate growth hormone release from the pituitary. The most promising candidates are the growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, hexarelin, alexamorelin, and ipamorelin. With the exemption of GHRP-2, the entity of these peptides represents nonapproved pharmaceuticals; however, via Internet providers, all compounds are readily available. To date, only limited information on the metabolism of these substances is available and merely one metabolite for GHRP-2 is established. Therefore, a comprehensive in vivo (po and iv administration in rats) and in vitro (with human serum and recombinant amidase) study was performed in order to generate information on urinary metabolites potentially useful for routine doping controls. The urine samples from the in vivo experiments were purified by mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction and analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation followed by high-resolution/high-accuracy mass spectrometry. Combining the high resolution power of a benchtop Orbitrap mass analyzer for the first metabolite screening and the speed of a quadrupole/time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instrument for identification, urinary metabolites were screened by means of a sensitive full scan analysis and subsequently confirmed by high-accuracy product ion scan experiments. Two

  12. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

    PubMed

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Muccioli, G; Camanni, F

    1997-05-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a natural GHRP-like ligand which, however, has not yet been found. The mechanisms underlying the GHRP effect are still unclear. At present, several data favor the hypothesis that GHRPs could act by counteracting somatostatinergic activity both at the pituitary and the hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that GHRPs act via an unknown hypothalamic factor (U factor) is still open. GHRP-6 was the first hexapeptide to be extensively studied in humans. More recently, a heptapeptide, GHRP-1, and two other hexapeptides, GHRP-2 and Hexarelin, have been synthesized and are now available for human studies. Moreover, non-peptidyl GHRP mimetics have been developed which act via GHRP receptors and their effects have been clearly demonstrated in animals and in humans in vivo. Among non-peptidyl GHRPs, MK-0677 seems the most interesting molecule. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is marked and dose-related after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHRPs is reproducible and undergoes partial desensitization, more during continuous infusion, less during intermittent administration: in fact, prolonged administration of GHRPs increases IGF-1 levels both in animals and in humans. The GH-releasing effect of GHRPs does not depend on sex but undergoes age-related variations. It increases from birth to puberty, persists at a similar level in adulthood and

  13. Regulation of His-dTrp-Ala-Trp-dPhe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6)-induced GH secretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mallo, F; Alvarez, C V; Benitez, L; Burguera, B; Coya, R; Casanueva, F F; Dieguez, C

    1993-01-01

    His-dTrp-Ala-Trp-dPhe,Lys-NH2(GHRP-6) is a synthetic compound that releases GH in a dose-response and specific manner in several species and that may well be related to an endogenous compound of similar structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo GH responses to GHRP-6 in pentobarbital anesthetized rats. Specifically and in order to avoid the influence of endogenous GHRH and somatostatin secretion we studied the GH responses to GHRP-6 in animals with surgical ablation of the hypothalamus, confirmed by histological assessment, as well as in hypophysectomyzed-transplanted rats bearing two hypophyses under the renal capsule. Since it has been previously reported that rats pretreated with GHRH (10 micrograms/kg i.p. every 12 h for 15 days) rather than saline-treated rats have greater GH responses to acutely administered GHRH, we compared the self-potentiating effect of chronic GH pretreatment with GHRP-6 (10 micrograms/kg i.p. every 12 h). Furthermore we also studied the influence of estrogens, glucocorticoids, free fatty acids (FFA) and bombesin on somatotroph responsiveness to GHRP-6 in intact rats. We found a greater GH response to GHRP-6 in rats that underwent a surgical ablation of the hypothalamus 36 h prior to the test than in sham-operated rats. A direct stimulatory effect of GHRP-6 on in vivo GH secretion was demonstrated by a clear GH response to GHRP-6 in hypophysectomyzed-transplanted rats. In addition, we found a similar response whether the animals were pretreated with GHRH or GHRP-6 over the previous 2 weeks. Finally, we found that both estrogen- and testosterone-treated rats have greater GH responses to GHRP-6 than untreated rats. On the other hand, chronic dexamethasone administration, acute elevation of circulating FFA levels and bombesin administration markedly inhibited GH responses to GHRP-6. In contrast to the effects exerted on GH responses to GHRP-6 estrogen administration led to a decrease in GH responses to GHRH while

  14. Combined nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics study of growth hormone releasing hexapeptide GHRP-6 and a cyclic analogue.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Oliva, Miguel; Santana, Héctor; Suardíaz, Reynier; Gavín, José A; Pérez, Carlos S

    2012-05-01

    The Growth Hormone Releasing Hexapeptide, GHRP-6 was the first of a family of synthetic peptides that enhance the release of the Growth Hormone by the pituitary gland in a dose-dependent manner. Since its discovery, it has been used as a benchmark and starting point in numerous researches aiming to obtain new drugs. Complete resonance assignment of GHRP-6 NMR spectra in both open and cyclic forms are reported, showing some differences to random coil chemical shifts. Connectivities observed in the ROESY spectra indicate spatial proximity between the aromatic residues side-chains in both molecules, as well as between residues DPhe5 and Lys6 sidechains. An ensemble of 10 structures was generated for each one of the molecules, showing RMSD values indicative of nonrandom structures. Molecular Dynamics simulations, both with and without explicit solvent, were carried out for GHRP-6 and its cyclic analogue. Conformational analysis performed on the trajectories showed a nonrandom structure with a well preserved backbone. The presence of geometrical patterns resembling those typical of π-π interactions in both peptides, suggest that this kind of interactions may be relevant for the biological activity of GHRP-6. Same conclusion can be drawn from the spatial proximity of residues DPhe5 and Lys6 sidechains. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    PubMed Central

    Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nascimento, Nancy; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Bartolini, Paolo; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/lit mice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising from mutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p<0.001). In comparison, an intermediate growth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a. PMID:22473409

  16. Do growth hormone-releasing peptides act as ghrelin secretagogues?

    PubMed

    Ahnfelt-Rønne, I; Nowak, J; Olsen, U B

    2001-02-01

    NN703 is an orally active and selective growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) that was derived from growth hormone-releasing peptide-1(GHRP-1) via ipamorelin by a peptidomimetic approach and has now entered into phase II clinical trials. When the disposition in rats of NN703 and GHRP-6 was studied using whole-body autoradiography following administration of an iv dose of radiolabeled material, we found that a substantial amount of these secretagogues accumulate in the glandular part of the stomach. Because this is the site of synthesis and secretion of ghrelin, the endogenous GHS, we investigated the effect of resection of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on growth hormone (GH) release induced by GHRP-6. This procedure significantly attenuated the GH secretion response by 60-70%. By contrast, the effect of GH-releasing hormone on GH release was not inhibited. The binding of GHRPs to the glandular part of the stomach and the blunted GH response to GHRP-6 following resection of the GI tract suggest a role for ghrelin as a mediator of part of the GH-releasing effect of GHRPs.

  17. Insulin and growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) have differential beneficial effects on cell turnover in the pituitary, hypothalamus and cerebellum of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Granado, Miriam; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Tuda, María; Frago, Laura M; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús

    2011-04-30

    Poorly controlled type1 diabetes is associated with hormonal imbalances and increased cell death in different tissues, including the pituitary, hypothalamus and cerebellum. In the pituitary, lactotrophs are the cell population with the greatest increase in cell death, whereas in the hypothalamus and cerebellum astrocytes are most highly affected. Insulin treatment can delay, but does not prevent, diabetic complications. As ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) secretagogues are reported to prevent apoptosis in different tissues, and to modulate glucose homeostasis, a combined hormonal treatment may be beneficial. Hence, we analyzed the effect of insulin and GH-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) on diabetes-induced apoptosis in the pituitary, hypothalamus and cerebellum of diabetic rats. Adult male Wistar rats were made diabetic by streptozotocin injection (65 mg/kg ip) and divided into four groups from diabetes onset: those receiving a daily sc injection of saline (1 ml/kg/day), GHRP-6 (150 μg/kg/day), insulin (1-8U/day) or insulin plus GHRP-6 for 8 weeks. Control non-diabetic rats received saline (1 ml/kg/day). Diabetes increased cell death in the pituitary, hypothalamus and cerebellum (P<0.05). In the pituitary, insulin treatment prevented diabetes-induced apoptosis (P<0.01), as well as the decline in prolactin and GH mRNA levels (P<0.05). In the hypothalamus, neither insulin nor GHRP-6 decreased diabetes-induced cell death. However, the combined treatment of insulin+GHRP-6 prevented the diabetes induced-decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels (P<0.05). In the cerebellum, although insulin treatment increased GFAP levels (P<0.01), only the combined treatment of insulin+ GHRP-6 decreased diabetes-induced apoptosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, insulin and GHRP-6 exert tissue specific effects in STZ-diabetic rats and act synergistically on some processes. Indeed, insulin treatment does not seem to be effective on preventing some of the diabetes-induced alterations

  18. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38–83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P < 0.05, R = 0.45), GH (P < 0.05, R = 0.47), IGF-1 (P < 0.05, R = 0.62) was significantly correlated in yaks colonies with lighter body weights. Trial 2, fifteen 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P < 0.05). Both GHRP-2 and CS administration significantly enhanced the myofiber diameter and area of skeletal muscle (P<0.05). GHRP-2 significantly enhanced the serum GH and IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05), and up-regulated GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA expression in the liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), enhanced the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKt and mTOR in the skeletal muscle (P<0.05). CS significantly reduced the serum SS levels and the hypothalamus SS mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and enhanced GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver (P < 0.05), decreased the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1

  19. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38-83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P < 0.05, R = 0.45), GH (P < 0.05, R = 0.47), IGF-1 (P < 0.05, R = 0.62) was significantly correlated in yaks colonies with lighter body weights. Trial 2, fifteen 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P < 0.05). Both GHRP-2 and CS administration significantly enhanced the myofiber diameter and area of skeletal muscle (P<0.05). GHRP-2 significantly enhanced the serum GH and IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05), and up-regulated GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA expression in the liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), enhanced the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKt and mTOR in the skeletal muscle (P<0.05). CS significantly reduced the serum SS levels and the hypothalamus SS mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and enhanced GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver (P < 0.05), decreased the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA (P < 0.05). Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1 secretion in yaks

  20. Simplifying and expanding the screening for peptides <2 kDa by direct urine injection, liquid chromatography, and ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Thieme, Detlef; Dellanna, Frank; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of low-molecular-mass peptides in doping controls has become a mandatory aspect in sports drug testing and, thus, the number of samples that has to be tested for these analytes has been steadily increasing. Several peptides <2 kDa with performance-enhancing properties are covered by the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency including Desmopressin, LH-RH, Buserelin, Triptorelin, Leuprolide, GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-3, GHRP-4, GHRP-5,GHRP-6, Alexamorelin, Ipamorelin, Hexarelin, ARA-290, AOD-9604, TB-500 and Anamorelin. With the presented method employing direct urine injection into a liquid chromatograph followed by ion-mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a facile, specific and sensitive assay for the aforementioned peptidic compounds is provided. The accomplished sensitivity allows for limits of detection between 50 and 500 pg/mL and thus covers the minimum required performance level of 2 ng/mL accordingly. The method is precise (imprecision <20%) and linear in the estimated working range between 0 and 10 ng/mL. The stability of the peptides in urine was tested, and -20°C was found to be the appropriate storage temperature for sports drug testing. Finally, proof-of-concept was shown by analysing elimination study urine samples collected from individuals having administered GHRP-6, GHRP-2, or LHRH. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Development and validation of a bioanalytical LC-MS method for the quantification of GHRP-6 in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Gil, Jeovanis; Cabrales, Ania; Reyes, Osvaldo; Morera, Vivian; Betancourt, Lázaro; Sánchez, Aniel; García, Gerardo; Moya, Galina; Padrón, Gabriel; Besada, Vladimir; González, Luis Javier

    2012-02-23

    Growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6, His-(DTrp)-Ala-Trp-(DPhe)-Lys-NH₂, MW=872.44 Da) is a potent growth hormone secretagogue that exhibits a cytoprotective effect, maintaining tissue viability during acute ischemia/reperfusion episodes in different organs like small bowel, liver and kidneys. In the present work a quantitative method to analyze GHRP-6 in human plasma was developed and fully validated following FDA guidelines. The method uses an internal standard (IS) of GHRP-6 with ¹³C-labeled Alanine for quantification. Sample processing includes a precipitation step with cold acetone to remove the most abundant plasma proteins, recovering the GHRP-6 peptide with a high yield. Quantification was achieved by LC-MS in positive full scan mode in a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The sensitivity of the method was evaluated, establishing the lower limit of quantification at 5 ng/mL and a range for the calibration curve from 5 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL. A dilution integrity test was performed to analyze samples at higher concentration of GHRP-6. The validation process involved five calibration curves and the analysis of quality control samples to determine accuracy and precision. The calibration curves showed R² higher than 0.988. The stability of the analyte and its internal standard (IS) was demonstrated in all conditions the samples would experience in a real time analyses. This method was applied to the quantification of GHRP-6 in plasma from nine healthy volunteers participating in a phase I clinical trial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of prohibited, small peptides in urine for sports drug testing by means of nano-liquid chromatography/benchtop quadrupole orbitrap tandem-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Krug, Oliver; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-10-12

    In the present study, a screening assay was developed comprising 11 prohibited peptides (<1.5 kDa) that are sufficiently purified from urine using weak cation exchange with subsequent determination of all substances by means of nanoUHPLC separation coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. These peptides included Gonadorelin (LH-RH), Desmopressin and 9 growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, Hexarelin, Alexamorelin, Ipamorelin and a GHRP-2 metabolite); however, the procedure is expandable to further target analytes or metabolites. The method was validated with a main focus on qualitative result interpretation considering the parameters specificity, linearity (0-500 pg/mL), recovery (45-95%), precision (<20% at 100 pg/mL), limits of detection (2-10 pg/mL), robustnesss and ion suppression. The proof-of-principle was shown by analysing excretion study urine samples for LHRH, Desmopressin and GHRP-2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bombesin-like peptides stimulate growth hormone secretion mediated by the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor in cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongqiong; Matsuda, Seinosuke; Thanthan, Sint; Yannaing, Swe; Kuwayama, Hideto

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of bombesin-like peptides (BLPs) on the secretion of growth hormone (GH) and to characterize the receptor subtypes mediating these effects in cattle. Four experiments were conducted: (1) six steers were randomly assigned to receive intravenous (IV) bolus injections of 0, 0.2, 1.0, 12.5 and 50.0 μg/kg neuromedin C (NMC); (2) seven pre-weaned calves were IV injected with 1.0 μg/kg NMC; (3) six steers were IV injected with 2.5μg/kg bovine gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), 1.0 μg/kg NMC combined with 20.0 μg/kg [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 (an antagonist for the GH secretagogue receptor type 1a [GHS-R1a]), 1.0 μg/kg NMC combined with 20.0 μg/kg N-acetyl-GRP(20-26)-OCH(2)CH(3) (N-GRP-EE, an antagonist for the GRP receptor), 20.0 μg/kg N-GRP-EE alone, 1.0 μg/kg neuromedin B (NMB); and (4) four rats were IV injected 1.0 μg/kg NMC. A serial blood sample was collected before and after injection. Plasma GH levels dose-dependently increased at 5 min after NMC injection and the minimal effective dose was 1.0 μg/kg. Plasma GH level was elevated by GRP, but not by NMB. The NMC-induced elevation of GH was completely blocked by N-GRP-EE. The administration of NMC elevated GH level in pre-weaned calves but not in rats. Ghrelin level was unaffected by any treatments; and [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 did not block the NMC-induced elevation of GH. The results indicate BLP-induced elevation of GH levels is mediated by the GRP receptor but not through a ghrelin/GHS-R1a pathway in cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastric mucosal damage in water immersion stress: mechanism and prevention with GHRP-6.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shu; Gao, Qian; Jiao, Qing; Hao, Wei; Gao, Xue; Cao, Ji-Min

    2012-06-28

    To investigate the mechanism of gastric mucosal demage induced by water immersion restraint stress (WRS) and its prevention by growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6). Male Wistar rats were subjected to conscious or unconscious (anesthetized) WRS, simple restraint (SR), free swimming (FS), non-water fluid immersion, immersion without water contact, or rats were placed in a cage surrounded by sand. To explore the sensitivity structures that influence the stress reaction besides skin stimuli, a group the rats had their eyes occluded. Cervical bilateral trunk vagotomy or atropine injection was performed in some rats to assess the parasympathetic role in mucosal damage. Gastric mucosal lesions, acid output and heart rate variability were measured. Plasma renin, endothelin-1 and thromboxane B2 and gastric heat shock protein 70 were also assayed. GHRP-6 was injected [intraperitoneal (IP) or intracerebroventricular (ICV)] 2 h before the onset of stress to observe its potential prevention of the mucosal lesion. WRS for 6 h induced serious gastric mucosal lesion [lesion area, WRS 81.8 ± 6.4 mm² vs normal control 0.0 ± 0.0 mm², P < 0.01], decreased the heart rate, and increased the heart rate variability and gastric acid secretion, suggesting an increase in vagal nerve-carrying stimuli. The mucosal injury was inversely correlated with water temperature (lesion area, WRS at 35 °C 56.4 ± 5.2 mm² vs WRS at 23 °C 81.8 ± 6.4 mm², P < 0.01) and was consciousness-dependent. The injury could not be prevented by eye occlusion, but could be prevented by avoiding contact of the rat body with the water by dressing it in an impermeable plastic suit. When water was replaced by vegetable oil or liquid paraffin, there were gastric lesions in the same grade of water immersion. When rat were placed in a cage surrounded by sand, there were no gastric lesions. All these data point to a remarkable importance of cutenuous information transmitted to the high neural center that by

  5. In vitro BMP-2 peptide release from thiolated chitosan based hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xujie; Yu, Bo; Huang, Qianli; Liu, Rui; Feng, Qingling; Cai, Qiang; Mi, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    Thiolated chitosan based thermo-sensitive hydrogel is a water soluble system and the existing thiol groups are beneficial for the delivery of cysteine-rich peptides. In the present study, a kind of thiolated chitosan, i.e. chitosan-4-thio-butylamidine (CS-TBA) conjugate was characterized and used to prepare CS-TBA/hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-glycerophosphate disodium (β-GP) thermo-sensitive hydrogel. The cysteine terminated peptide 24 (P24) containing residues 73-92 of the knuckle epitope of BMP-2 (N→C: KIPKASSVPTELSAISTLYLSGGC) was synthesized and characterized. The release behavior of P24 from CS-TBA based hydrogel was investigated in vitro. The thiol groups in CS-TBA may react with thiol groups in P24, thus decreases the P24 release rate and maintains the peptide release for a longer time compared with unmodified chitosan based hydrogel. Moreover, the bioactivity of P24 is preserved during release process. These results indicate that P24 loaded CS-TBA based thermosensitive hydrogel is a potential material for minimally invasive surgery of bone repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aging increases amyloid beta-peptide-induced 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha release from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Luigi; Michelotto, Barbara; Orlando, Giustino; Recinella, Lucia; Di Nisio, Chiara; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Vacca, Michele

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate whether amyloid beta-peptide-induced oxidative damage in the brain could be related to aging, we studied the release of 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2alpha, a stable marker of cellular oxidative stress, in brain synaptosomes from Wistar rats of different ages (3, 6, 12, 18 months old), both basally and after amyloid beta-peptide (1-40) perfusion. We found that basal release of 8-iso-PGF2alpha was not significantly different among all age groups of rats. Either phospholipase A2 activation induced by calcium ionophore A23187 (10 nM) or amyloid beta-peptide (5 microM) did not modify isoprostane release, when these substances were used alone. In contrast, amyloid beta-peptide (1-5 microM) preincubation caused a dose-dependent increase of A23187-stimulated 8-iso-PGF2alpha release in each age group, which was also strikingly correlated to aging of rats. Furthermore, ferric ammonium sulfate stimulates isoprostane production to levels comparable to those induced by amyloid beta-peptide. In conclusion, although 8-iso-PGF2alpha production from rat brain synaptosomes is independent from aging in the basal state, aging renders neurons more vulnerable to amyloid beta-peptide-induced oxidative toxicity.

  7. Leptin levels in protracted critical illness: effects of growth hormone-secretagogues and thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Van den Berghe, G; Wouters, P; Carlsson, L; Baxter, R C; Bouillon, R; Bowers, C Y

    1998-09-01

    Prolonged critical illness is characterized by feeding-resistant wasting of protein, whereas reesterification, instead of oxidation of fatty acids, allows fat stores to accrue and associate with a low-activity status of the somatotropic and thyrotropic axis, which seems to be partly of hypothalamic origin. To further unravel this paradoxical metabolic condition, and in search of potential therapeutic strategies, we measured serum concentrations of leptin; studied the relationship with body mass index, insulin, cortisol, thyroid hormones, and somatomedins; and documented the effects of hypothalamic releasing factors, in particular, GH-secretagogues and TRH. Twenty adults, critically ill for several weeks and supported with normocaloric, continuously administered parenteral and/or enteral feeding, were studied for 45 h. They had been randomized to receive one of three combinations of peptide infusions, in random order: TRH (one day) and placebo (other day); TRH + GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2 and GHRP-2; TRH + GHRH + GHRP-2 and GHRH + GHRP-2. Peptide infusions were started after a 1-microgram/kg bolus at 0900 h and infused (1 microgram/kg.h) until 0600 h the next morning. Serum concentrations of leptin, insulin, cortisol, T4, T3, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-binding protein-3 and the acid-labile subunit (ALS) were measured at 0900 h, 2100 h, and 0600 h on each of the 2 study days. Baseline leptin levels (mean +/- SEM: 12.4 +/- 2.1 micrograms/L) were independent of body mass index (25 +/- 1 kg/m2), insulin (18.6 +/- 2.9 microIU/mL), cortisol (504 +/- 43 mmol/L), and thyroid hormones (T4: 63 +/- 5 nmol/L, T3: 0.72 +/- 0.08 nmol/L) but correlated positively with circulating levels of IGF-I [86 +/- 6 micrograms/L, determination coefficient (R2) = 0.25] and ALS (7.2 +/- 0.6 mg/L, R2 = 0.32). Infusion of placebo or TRH had no effect on leptin. In contrast, GH-secretagogues elevated leptin levels within 12 h. Infusion of GHRP-2 alone induced a maximal leptin

  8. Ipamorelin, the first selective growth hormone secretagogue.

    PubMed

    Raun, K; Hansen, B S; Johansen, N L; Thøgersen, H; Madsen, K; Ankersen, M; Andersen, P H

    1998-11-01

    The development and pharmacology of a new potent growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, ipamorelin, is described. Ipamorelin is a pentapeptide (Aib-His-D-2-Nal-D-Phe-Lys-NH2), which displays high GH releasing potency and efficacy in vitro and in vivo. As an outcome of a major chemistry programme, ipamorelin was identified within a series of compounds lacking the central dipeptide Ala-Trp of growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP)-1. In vitro, ipamorelin released GH from primary rat pituitary cells with a potency and efficacy similar to GHRP-6 (ECs) = 1.3+/-0.4nmol/l and Emax = 85+/-5% vs 2.2+/-0.3nmol/l and 100%). A pharmacological profiling using GHRP and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists clearly demonstrated that ipamorelin, like GHRP-6, stimulates GH release via a GHRP-like receptor. In pentobarbital anaesthetised rats, ipamorelin released GH with a potency and efficacy comparable to GHRP-6 (ED50 = 80+/-42nmol/kg and Emax = 1545+/-250ng GH/ml vs 115+/-36nmol/kg and 1167+/-120ng GH/ml). In conscious swine, ipamorelin released GH with an ED50 = 2.3+/-0.03 nmol/kg and an Emax = 65+/-0.2 ng GH/ml plasma. Again, this was very similar to GHRP-6 (ED50 = 3.9+/-1.4 nmol/kg and Emax = 74+/-7ng GH/ml plasma). GHRP-2 displayed higher potency but lower efficacy (ED50 = 0.6 nmol/kg and Emax = 56+/-6 ng GH/ml plasma). The specificity for GH release was studied in swine. None of the GH secretagogues tested affected FSH, LH, PRL or TSH plasma levels. Administration of both GHRP-6 and GHRP-2 resulted in increased plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol. Very surprisingly, ipamorelin did not release ACTH or cortisol in levels significantly different from those observed following GHRH stimulation. This lack of effect on ACTH and cortisol plasma levels was evident even at doses more than 200-fold higher than the ED50 for GH release. In conclusion, ipamorelin is the first GHRP-receptor agonist with a selectivity for GH release similar to that displayed by GHRH. The

  9. A new series of highly potent growth hormone-releasing peptides derived from ipamorelin.

    PubMed

    Ankersen, M; Johansen, N L; Madsen, K; Hansen, B S; Raun, K; Nielsen, K K; Thogersen, H; Hansen, T K; Peschke, B; Lau, J; Lundt, B F; Andersen, P H

    1998-09-10

    A new series of GH secretagogues derived from ipamorelin is described. In an attempt to obtain oral bioavailability, by reducing the size and the number of potential hydrogen-bonding sites of the compounds, a strategy using the peptidomimetic fragment 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid and sequential backbone N-methylations was applied. Several compounds from this series release GH with high in vitro potency and efficacy in a rat pituitary cell assay and high in vivo potency and efficacy in anesthetized rats. The tetrapeptide NNC 26-0235 (3-(aminomethyl)benzoyl-D-2Nal-N-Me-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) shows, following iv administration, comparable in vivo potency to ipamorelin, GHRP-2, and GHRP-6 with an ED50 in swine at 2 nmol/kg. NNC 26-0235 demonstrated a 10% oral bioavailability in dogs, and NNC 26-0235 and ipamorelin were able to increase basal GH level by more than 10-fold after oral administration of a dose of 1.8 and 2.7 mg/kg, respectively. The tripeptide NNC 26-0323 (3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid-N-Me-D-2Nal-N-Me-D-Phe-ol) which showed moderate in vitro potency but lacked in vivo potency demonstrated a 20% oral bioavailability in rats.

  10. Analysis of new growth promoting black market products.

    PubMed

    Krug, Oliver; Thomas, Andreas; Malerød-Fjeld, Helle; Dehnes, Yvette; Laussmann, Tim; Feldmann, Ingo; Sickmann, Albert; Thevis, Mario

    2018-05-19

    Detecting agents allegedly or evidently promoting growth such as human growth hormone (GH) or growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) in doping controls has represented a pressing issue for sports drug testing laboratories. While GH is a recombinant protein with a molecular weight of 22 kDa, the GHRPs are short (3-6 amino acids long) peptides with GH releasing properties. The endogenously produced GH (22 kDa isoform) consists of 191 amino acids and has a monoisotopic molecular mass of 22,124 Da. Within this study, a slightly modified form of GH was discovered consisting of 192 amino acids carrying an additional alanine at the N-terminus, leading to a monoisotopic mass of 22,195 Da. This was confirmed by top-down and bottom-up experiments using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry. Additionally, three analogues of GHRPs were identified as Gly-GHRP-6, Gly-GHRP-2 and Gly-Ipamorelin, representing the corresponding GHRP extended by a N-terminal glycine residue. The structure of these peptides was characterised by means of high resolution (tandem) mass spectrometry, and for Gly-Ipamorelin and Gly-GHRP-2 their identity was additionally confirmed by custom synthesis. Further, established in-vitro experiments provided preliminary information considering the potential metabolism after administration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Synthesis of peptide thioacids at neutral pH using bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido peptide precursors.

    PubMed

    Pira, Silvain L; Boll, Emmanuelle; Melnyk, Oleg

    2013-10-18

    Reaction of bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido (SEA) peptides with triisopropylsilylthiol in water at neutral pH yields peptide thiocarboxylates. An alkylthioester derived from β-alanine was used to trap the released bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amine and displace the equilibrium toward the peptide thiocarboxylate.

  12. Processing of mammalian preprogastrin-releasing peptide.

    PubMed

    Reeve, J R; Cuttitta, F; Vigna, S R; Shively, J E; Walsh, J H

    1988-01-01

    The processing of preprogastrin-releasing peptide in mammalian tissues and in cultured cells takes place at discrete sites (Figure 6). Signal peptidase cleaves away the signal peptide from the amino terminus of gastrin-releasing peptide. An exopeptidase activity may remove dipeptides from the amino terminus. The amidation site (not shown in Fig. 6; see Fig. 2) has the same general sequence (Gly-Lys-Lys) seen for other amidated peptides. Cleavage after single basic residues yields gene-related products from Form I or II preproGRP. A unique non-basic cleavage yields a gene-related product from Form III preproGRP. The processing that occurs to form GRP, GRP, and GRP gene-related peptides is shown in Figure 7. ProGRP is cleaved by a series of enzymes to form GRP with an amidated carboxyl-terminal methionine (indicated by an asterisk in Fig. 7). GRP is cleaved to form the decapeptide GRP. The carboxyl-terminal flanking peptides of all three mRNA translation products are cleaved to form several gastrin-releasing peptide gene-related products. Knowledge of the processing of gastrin-releasing peptide and its gene-related products will allow synthesis of duplicates of the stored forms of these peptides, which can then be used for biological testing.

  13. Controlled release strategy of paclitaxel by conjugating to matrix metalloproteinases-2 sensitive peptide

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Changjiang; Yi, Xiulin; Kong, Dexin; Chen, Ligong; Min, Gong

    2016-01-01

    Peptide drug conjugates offer a novel strategy to achieve controlled drug release. This approach avoids the clinical obstacles of non-specific toxicity and overall drug resistance of conventional cytotoxic agents, such as paclitaxel. MMP2 plays important functions in tumour proliferation and metastasis. Herein, we conjugated the paclitaxel with a hexapeptide which is specific recognized by MMP2 protein. The conjugate is dissociated upon the MMP2 specific proteolysis at COOH terminal of hexapeptide, PVGLIG. The results clearly indicated that the PVGLIG-paclitaxel conjugate significantly enhanced the tumor specificity against HT-1080 and U87-MG tumour cells. Our finding suggested that the hexapeptide PVGLIG is capable to act as a controlled and sustained drug carrier of paclitaxel for the treatment against tumour proliferation and metastasis with high MMP2 expression. PMID:27447567

  14. Role of gastrin-releasing peptides in breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chunsheng; Zhao, Xiulan; Sun, Tao; Liu, Yanrong; Gu, Qiang; Sun, Baocun

    2012-12-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide, which is an unfolded protein response regulator and functions as a Ca(2+)-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, is a regulatory human peptide that elicits gastrin release and regulates gastric acid secretion and enteric motor function. It has been shown to exhibit mitogenic activity in small cell lung cancer and plays a role in a lot of other human cancers including tumors in colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, and prostate. This study investigated the gastrin-releasing peptide expression in breast cancer to demonstrate the role of this biomarker in breast cancer metastasis. Gastrin-releasing peptide was analyzed in breast cancer tissue microarray specimens, including 200 primary breast cancer specimens and the corresponding lymph nodes from the same patients, through immunohistochemistry. The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide on the invasion ability of MCF-7 cells was evaluated using transwell assays. Gastrin-releasing peptide was highly expressed in breast cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. Besides, among the patients with lymph node metastasis, the ones with higher expression of gastrin-releasing peptide had shorter survival time. Overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide significantly enhanced cell invasiveness. Conversely, a knockdown of gastrin-releasing peptide through the short hairpin RNA approach remarkably reduced MCF-7 cell invasion. Gastrin-releasing peptide expression may be associated with lymph node metastasis and may be used as an indicator of undesirable prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of ipamorelin and other peptidyl growth hormone secretagogues with emphasis on nasal absorption.

    PubMed

    Johansen, P B; Hansen, K T; Andersen, J V; Johansen, N L

    1998-11-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of three new peptidyl growth hormone secretagogues, ipamorelin (NNC 26-0161), NNC 26-0194 and NNC 26-0235, were compared with two well-known hexapeptides, GHRP-2 and GHRP-6, in the male rat following different routes of administration. 2. Following i.v. bolus injection, plasma concentrations of the peptides declined biexponentially. Ipamorelin differed markedly from the other peptides investigated, demonstrating a systemic plasma clearance 5-fold lower than that of GHRP-6. Ipamorelin was mainly excreted in the urine, whereas GHRP-6 was predominantly excreted in the bile. NNC 26-0194 and NNC 26-0235 also showed high biliary excretions. Ipamorelin and the two NNC peptides were moderately resistant towards metabolism as 60-80% of the administered dose could be recovered from bile and urine as intact peptide. 3. After intranasal application, the bioavailability of ipamorelin was estimated at approximately 20%. Higher bioavailabilities of approximately 50% were determined for NNC 26-0235, NNC 26-0194 and GHRP-2, whereas the nasal absorption of GHRP-6 was somewhat lower. Thus, the peptides could be easily transported across the nasal epithelium suggesting that the nasal route seems promising for systemic delivery of this family of peptidyl growth hormone secretagogues.

  16. Interactions of GRF(1-29)NH2 with plasma proteins and their effects on the release of the peptide from a PLAGA matrix.

    PubMed

    Mariette, B; Coudane, J; Vert, M

    2005-09-02

    The administration of the GRF(1-29)NH2 Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone analog is known as relevant of the concept of drug delivery system using a bioresorbable matrix. However, the release of this peptide from poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) matrices is affected by its insolubility at neutral in salted media and in plasma as well. In order to investigate the origin and the nature of the insolubility in these media in more details, the precipitates collected when the peptide was set in contact with saline, isotonic pH=7.4 phosphate buffer and plasma were analyzed by various techniques, namely weighting, gel chromatography, 1D- and 2D-immunoelectrophoresis, and dialysis to discern the soluble from the insoluble or aggregated fractions. It is shown that precipitation in protein-free salted media is due to a salting out phenomenon complemented by the neutralization of the solubilizing electrostatic charges in the isotonic buffer. In contrast, the precipitation in plasma is due to inter polyelectrolyte-type complexation that involved polyanionic proteins having a rather low isoelectric point like albumin, transferin, haptoglobulin and IgG immunoglobulins. When a rather large quantity of GRF(1-29)NH2 was entrapped in bioresorbable pellets working at a percolating regime after subcutaneous implantation in rats, the peptide was slowly released despite the complexation with plasma proteins. However only a very small part of the peptide was found in blood, this small part being still large enough to cause a detectable increase of the circulating growth hormone concentration. Attempts made to increase the solubility of the peptide in plasma were successful when the peptide was combined with arginine, an amino acid known to promote the poor hormonal activity of injected GRF(1-29)NH2 solutions under clinical conditions.

  17. Doping control analysis of seven bioactive peptides in horse plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Wai Him; Ho, Emmie N M; Lau, Ming Yip; Leung, Gary N W; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an ongoing focus for both human and equine doping control laboratories on developing detection methods to control the misuse of peptide therapeutics. Immunoaffinity purification is a common extraction method to isolate peptides from biological matrices and obtain sufficient detectability in subsequent instrumental analysis. However, monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies for immunoaffinity purification may not be commercially available, and even if available, such antibodies are usually very costly. In our study, a simple mixed-mode anion exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge was employed for the extraction of seven target peptides (GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-6, ipamorelin, hexarelin, CJC-1295, and N-acetylated LKKTETQ (active ingredient of TB-500)) and their in vitro metabolites from horse plasma. The final extract was subject to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and analysed with a hybrid high-resolution mass spectrometer. The limits of detection for all seven peptides were estimated to be less than 50 pg/mL. Method validation was performed with respect to specificity, precision, and recovery. The applicability of this multi-analyte method was demonstrated by the detection of N-acetylated LKKTETQ and its metabolite N-acetylated LK from plasma samples obtained after subcutaneous administration of TB-500 (10 mg N-acetylated LKKTETQ) to two thoroughbred geldings. This method could easily be modified to cover more bioactive peptides, such as dermorphin, β-casomorphin, and desmopressin. With the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry, the full-scan data acquired can also be re-processed retrospectively to search for peptides and their metabolites that have not been targeted at the time of analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of in vitro metabolites of all the studied peptides other than TB-500 in horses.

  18. The GH secretagogues ipamorelin and GH-releasing peptide-6 increase bone mineral content in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Svensson, J; Lall, S; Dickson, S L; Bengtsson, B A; Rømer, J; Ahnfelt-Rønne, I; Ohlsson, C; Jansson, J O

    2000-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is of importance for normal bone remodelling. A recent clinical study demonstrated that MK-677, a member of a class of GH secretagogues (GHSs), increases serum concentrations of biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the GHSs, ipamorelin (IPA) and GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), increase bone mineral content (BMC) in young adult female rats. Thirteen-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were given IPA (0.5 mg/kg per day; n=7), GHRP-6 (0.5 mg/kg per day; n=8), GH (3.5 mg/kg per day; n=7), or vehicle administered continuously s.c. via osmotic minipumps for 12 weeks. The animals were followed in vivo by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements every 4th week. After the animals were killed, femurs were analysed in vitro by mid-diaphyseal peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans. After this, excised femurs and vertebrae L6 were analysed by the use of Archimedes' principle and by determinations of ash weights. All treatments increased body weight and total tibial and vertebral BMC measured by DXA in vivo compared with vehicle-treated controls. However, total BMC corrected for the increase in body weight (total BMC:body weight ratio) was unaffected. Tibial area bone mineral density (BMD, BMC/area) was increased, but total and vertebral area BMDs were unchanged. The pQCT measurements in vitro revealed that the increase in the cortical BMC was due to an increased cross-sectional bone area, whereas the cortical volumetric BMD was unchanged. Femur and vertebra L6 volumes were increased but no effect was seen on the volumetric BMDs as measured by Archimedes' principle. Ash weight was increased by all treatments, but the mineral concentration was unchanged. We conclude that treatment of adult female rats with the GHSs ipamorelin and GHRP-6 increases BMC as measured by DXA in vivo. The results of in vitro measurements using pQCT and Archimedes' principle, in

  19. Bioactive peptides released during of digestion of processed milk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most of the proteins contained in milk consist of alpha-s1-, alpha-s2-, beta- and kappa-casein, and some of the peptides contained in these caseins may impart health benefits. To determine if processing affected release of peptides, samples of raw (R), homogenized (H), homogenized and pasteurized (...

  20. The chromatography-free release, isolation and purification of recombinant peptide for fibril self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, B M; Kaar, W; Yoo, I K; Lua, L H L; Falconer, R J; Middelberg, A P J

    2009-12-01

    One of the major expenses associated with recombinant peptide production is the use of chromatography in the isolation and purification stages of a bioprocess. Here we report a chromatography-free isolation and purification process for recombinant peptide expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Initial peptide release is by homogenization and then by enzymatic cleavage of the peptide-containing fusion protein, directly in the E. coli homogenate. Release is followed by selective solvent precipitation (SSP) to isolate and purify the peptide away from larger cell contaminants. Specifically, we expressed in E. coli the self-assembling beta-sheet forming peptide P(11)-2 in fusion to thioredoxin. Homogenate was heat treated (55 degrees C, 15 min) and then incubated with tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) to release P(11)-2 having a native N-terminus. SSP with ethanol at room temperature then removed contaminating proteins in an integrated isolation-purification step; it proved necessary to add 250 mM NaCl to homogenate to prevent P(11)-2 from partitioning to the precipitate. This process structure gave recombinant P(11)-2 peptide at 97% polypeptide purity and 40% overall yield, without a single chromatography step. Following buffer-exchange of the 97% pure product by bind-elute chromatography into defined chemical conditions, the resulting peptide was shown to be functionally active and able to form self-assembled fibrils. To the best of our knowledge, this manuscript reports the first published process for chromatography-free recombinant peptide release, isolation and purification. The process proved able to deliver functional recombinant peptide at high purity and potentially low cost, opening cost-sensitive materials applications for peptide-based materials.

  1. Synthetic Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs): A Historical Appraisal of the Evidences Supporting Their Cytoprotective Effects.

    PubMed

    Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Abreu-Cruz, Angel; Herrera, Diana García-Del Barco; Mendoza-Marí, Yssel; Rodríguez-Ulloa, Arielis; García-Ojalvo, Ariana; Falcón-Cama, Viviana; Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Beichen, Qu; Guillén-Nieto, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) constitute a group of small synthetic peptides that stimulate the growth hormone secretion and the downstream axis activity. Mounting evidences since the early 1980s delineated unexpected pharmacological cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties for the GHRPs. However, despite intense basic pharmacological research, alternatives to prevent cell and tissue demise before lethal insults have remained as an empty niche in the clinical armamentarium. Here, we have rigorously reviewed the investigational development of GHRPs and their clinical niching perspectives. PubMed/MEDLINE databases, including original research and review articles, were explored. The search design was date escalated from 1980 and included articles in English only. GHRPs bind to two different receptors (GHS-R1a and CD36), which redundantly or independently exert relevant biological effects. GHRPs' binding to CD36 activates prosurvival pathways such as PI-3K/AKT1, thus reducing cellular death. Furthermore, GHRPs decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) spillover, enhance the antioxidant defenses, and reduce inflammation. These cytoprotective abilities have been revealed in cardiac, neuronal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic cells, representing a comprehensive spectrum of protection of parenchymal organs. Antifibrotic effects have been attributed to some of the GHRPs by counteracting fibrogenic cytokines. In addition, GHRP family members have shown a potent myotropic effect by promoting anabolia and inhibiting catabolia. Finally, GHRPs exhibit a broad safety profile in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these fragmented lines incite to envision multiple pharmacological uses for GHRPs, especially as a myocardial reperfusion damage-attenuating candidate, this family of "drugable" peptides awaits for a definitive clinical niche.

  2. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channels are involved in spontaneous peptide hormone release from astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Mai; Harada, Kazuki; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2018-07-02

    Astrocytes, a large population of glial cells, detect neurotransmitters and respond by increasing intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and releasing chemical molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently discovered Ca 2+ influx through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels is reported to cause spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i increase in astrocytes. While several physiological functions of TRPA1-mediated spontaneous Ca 2+ signal have been revealed, relation with gliotransmitter release, especially peptide hormone exocytosis is largely unknown. We therefore explored the [Ca 2+ ] i and exocytosis dynamics in rat astrocyte cell line C6 cells and primary astrocytes. TRPA1-mediated spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i transients were observed in both C6 cells and primary astrocytes. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that Venus-tagged brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide Y were released spontaneously from astrocytes. Activation of TRPA1 channels enhanced the frequency of peptide hormone exocytosis, and inhibition of TRPA1 channels decreased the number of peptide hormone exocytosis. These results suggest that TRPA1-mediated spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i increase modulates the spontaneous release of peptide hormones from astrocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Canine bombesin-like gastrin releasing peptides stimulate gastrin release and acid secretion in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Bunnett, N W; Clark, B; Debas, H T; Del Milton, R C; Kovacs, T O; Orloff, M S; Pappas, T N; Reeve, J R; Rivier, J E; Walsh, J H

    1985-01-01

    The synthetic mammalian bombesin-like peptides, canine gastrin releasing peptide 27, 23 and 10, and porcine gastrin releasing peptide 27 were compared with amphibian bombesin 14 and 10 during intravenous infusions into six conscious dogs with chronic gastric cannulae. Gastrin and gastrin releasing peptide were measured in peripherally sampled venous blood by radioimmunoassay and gastric acid secretions were collected. All forms of gastrin releasing peptide stimulated gastrin release and gastric acid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The larger canine and porcine peptides were more potent than the decapeptide. Bombesin 14 was more potent than bombesin 10. A rise in the venous concentration of immunoreactive gastrin releasing peptide of only 20 fmol ml-1 stimulated gastrin release to about 50% of maximal. Gastrin releasing peptide 10 was cleared from the circulation three times faster than the larger forms and this may account for the apparent differences in potency. PMID:3839849

  4. Complex regulation of GH autofeedback under dual-peptide drive: studies under a pharmacological GH and sex steroid clamp

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Dana; Miles, John M.; Bowers, Cyril Y.

    2011-01-01

    To test the postulate that sex difference, sex steroids, and peptidyl secretagogues control GH autofeedback, 11 healthy postmenopausal women and 14 older men were each given 1) a single iv pulse of GH to enforce negative feedback and 2) continuous iv infusion of saline vs. combined GHRH/GHRP-2 to drive feedback escape during pharmacological estradiol (E2; women) or testosterone (T; men) supplementation vs. placebo in a double-blind, prospectively randomized crossover design. By three-way ANCOVA, sex difference, sex hormone treatment, peptide stimulation, and placebo/saline responses (covariate) controlled total (integrated) GH recovery during feedback (each P < 0.001). Both sex steroid milieu (P = 0.019) and dual-peptide stimulation (P < 0.001) determined nadir (maximally feedback-suppressed) GH concentrations. E2/T exposure elevated nadir GH concentrations during saline infusion (P = 0.003), whereas dual-peptide infusion did so independently of T/E2 and sex difference (P = 0.001). All three of sex difference (P = 0.001), sex steroid treatment (P = 0.005), and double-peptide stimulation (P < 0.001) augmented recovery of peak (maximally feedback-escaped) GH concentrations. Peak GH responses to dual-peptidyl agonists were greater in women than in men (P = 0.016). E2/T augmented peak GH recovery during saline infusion (P < 0.001). Approximate entropy analysis corroborated independent effects of sex steroid treatment (P = 0.012) and peptide infusion (P < 0.001) on GH regularity. In summary, sex difference, sex steroid supplementation, and combined peptide drive influence nadir, peak, and entropic measurements of GH release under controlled negative feedback. To the degree that the pharmacological sex steroid, GH, and dual-peptide clamps provide prephysiological regulatory insights, these outcomes suggest major determinants of pulsatile GH secretion in the feedback domain. PMID:21467302

  5. Role of the new growth hormone-releasing secretagogues in the diagnosis of some hypothalamopituitary pathologies.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, F F; Micic, D; Pombo, M; Leal, A; Bokser, L; Zugaza, J L; Dieguez, C

    1996-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin have a dominant role in regulating GH secretion. However, results of studies using the new class of GH secretogogues, particularly GHRP-6, indicate that there may also be other, as yet undefined, hypothalamic mechanisms involved. Studies in adults with hypothalamopituitary disconnection (functional pituitary stalk transection), show GHRP-6-mediated GH release to be completely blocked, indicating a main action at the hypothalamic rather than the pituitary level. The synergistic effect of GHRH plus GHRP-6 administration on GH release seen in normal adults (and virtually unaffected by age, obesity, or sex) is also absent in these patients, providing further support for this conclusion. Studies of the effects of GHRP-6 in children with GH deficiency due to perinatal pituitary stalk transection have produced similar findings. It is suggested that the combined GHRH plus GHRH-6 test should be a promising tool for diagnosing GH deficiency states in both children and adults, and may identify a subgroup of patients with GH deficiency caused by interruption of the hypothalamopituitary connection.

  6. Interactions and release of two palmitoyl peptides from phytantriol cubosomes.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Parinaz; Loh, Watson

    2017-08-01

    Phytantriol cubosomes loaded with two palmitoyl peptides (Palpepcubes), namely GHKcube and GQPRcube, were prepared using an ultrasonication protocol. The Palpepcubes dimensions were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses revealed that the bicontinuous cubic structure remained even at palmitoyl peptide contents as high as 5wt.%, with an increase in the cell parameter from approximately 6.5 to 7.2nm. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to elucidate the interactions between the blank cubosomes and the palmitoyl peptides, revealing an exothermic process of interaction. Moreover, the in vitro release of the palmitoyl peptides from the Palpepcubes was studied using a dialysis method coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) technique, in which a sustained release of up to a few days was observed. Finally, the stability of the aqueous solutions of the palmitoyl peptides and the Palpepcubes kept at room temperature and at low temperature (4°C) was studied by LC/MS method, indicating that incorporation into cubosomes increases the peptide stability significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Opposing intermolecular tuning of Ca2+ affinity for Calmodulin by its target peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Margaret

    We investigated the impact of bound calmodulin (CaM)-target compound structure on the affinity of calcium (Ca2+) by integrating coarse-grained models and all-atomistic simulations with non-equilibrium physics. We focused on binding between CaM and two specific targets, Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and neurogranin (Ng), as they both regulate CaM-dependent Ca2+ signaling pathways in neurons. It was shown experimentally that Ca2+/CaM binds to the CaMKII peptide with higher affinity than the Ng peptide. The binding of CaMKII peptide to CaM in return increases the Ca2+ affinity for CaM. However, this reciprocal relation was not observed in the Ng peptide, which binds to Ca2+-free CaM or Ca2+/CaM with similar binding affinity. Unlike CaM-CaMKII peptide that allowed structure determination by crystallography, the structural description of CaM-Ng peptide is unknown due to low binding affinity, therefore, we computationally generated an ensemble of CaM-Ng peptide structures by matching the changes in the chemical shifts of CaM upon Ng peptide binding from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. We computed the changes in Ca2+ affinity for CaM with and without binding targets in atomistic models using Jarzynski's equality. We discovered the molecular underpinnings of lowered affinity of Ca2+ for CaM in the presence of Ng by showing that the N-terminal acidic region of Ng peptide pries open the β-sheet structure between the Ca2+ binding loops particularly at C-domain of CaM, enabling Ca2+release. In contrast, CaMKII increases Ca2+ affinity for the C-domain of CaM by stabilizing the two Ca2+ binding loops.

  8. Structure-activity relationship for peptídic growth hormone secretagogues.

    PubMed

    Ferro, P; Krotov, G; Zvereva, I; Rodchenkov, G; Segura, J

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs) could be widely used by cheating athletes because they produce growth hormone (GH) secretion, so may generate an ergogenic effect in the body. Knowledge of the essential amino acids needed in GHRP structure for interaction with the target biological receptor GHSR1a, the absorption through different administration routes, and the maintenance of pharmacological activity of potential biotransformation products may help in the fight against their abuse in sport. Several GHRPs and truncated analogues with the common core Ala-Trp-(D-Phe)-Lys have been studied with a radio-competitive assay for the GHSR1a receptor against the radioactive natural ligand ghrelin. Relevant chemical modifications influencing the activity for positions 1, 2, 3, and 7 based on the structure aa-aa-aa-Ala-Trp-(D-Phe)-Lys have been obtained. To test in vivo the applicability of the activities observed, the receptor assay activity in samples from excretion studies performed after nasal administration of GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-6, Hexarelin, and Ipamorelin was confirmed. Overall results obtained allow to infer structure-activity information for those GHRPs and to detect GHSR1a binding (intact GHRPs plus active metabolites) in excreted urines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Milk bioactive peptides and beta-casomorphins induce mucus release in rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Trompette, Aurélien; Claustre, Jean; Caillon, Fabienne; Jourdan, Gérard; Chayvialle, Jean Alain; Plaisancié, Pascale

    2003-11-01

    Intestinal mucus is critically involved in the protection of the mucosa. An enzymatic casein hydrolysate and beta-casomorphin-7, a mu-opioid peptide generated in the intestine during bovine casein digestion, markedly induce mucus discharge. Because shorter mu-opioid peptides have been described, the effects of the opioid peptides in casein, beta-casomorphin-7, -6, -4, -4NH2 and -3, and of opioid neuropeptides met-enkephalin, dynorphin A and (D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,glycinol5)enkephalin (DAMGO) on intestinal mucus secretion were investigated. The experiments were conducted with isolated perfused rat jejunum. Mucus secretion under the influence of beta-casomorphins and opioid neuropeptides administered intraluminally or intra-arterially was evaluated using an ELISA for rat intestinal mucus. Luminal administration of beta-casomorphin-7 (1.2 x 10(-4) mol/L) provoked a mucus discharge (500% of controls) that was inhibited by naloxone, a specific opiate receptor antagonist. Luminal beta-casomorphin-6, -4 and -4NH2 did not modify basal mucus secretion, whereas intra-arterial administration of beta-casomorphin-4 (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a mucus discharge. In contrast, intra-arterial administration of the nonopioid peptide beta-casomorphin-3 did not release mucus. Among the opioid neuropeptides, intra-arterial infusion of Met-enkephalin or dynorphin-A did not provoke mucus secretion. In contrast, beta-endorphin (1.2 x 10(-8) to 1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a dose-dependent release of mucus (maximal response at 500% of controls). DAMGO (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L), a mu-receptor agonist, also evoked a potent mucus discharge. Our findings suggest that mu-opioid neuropeptides, as well as beta-casomorphins after absorption, modulate intestinal mucus discharge. Milk opioid-derived peptides may thus be involved in defense against noxious agents and could have dietary and health applications.

  10. Release of neuropeptide FF (FLFQPQRF-NH2) from rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Jhamandas, K; Yang, H Y

    1992-10-02

    Neuropeptide FF (FLFQPQRF-NH2), originally isolated from bovine brain, is an FMRF-NH2-like peptide with morphine-modulating activity. Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) is highly localized in the dorsal spinal cords where there are also specific NPFF binding sites. Furthermore, there have been studies indicating that NPFF may participate in the regulation of pain threshold in the spinal cord. However, whether NPFF can be released from the spinal cord is not known. The present experiments, using an in vitro superfusion of an isolated whole rat spinal cord, demonstrated that high concentrations of KCl or substance P caused a release of NPFF immunoreactive material (IR) from the spinal cord into the perfusion medium in a calcium-dependent manner. Substance P (1-11) also produced a detectable release of NPFF-IR in vivo although the response was quite variable. The released NPFF-IR was analyzed by an HPLC study and found to consist of NPFF and other minor immunoreactive peptides. Further studies with substance P-related peptides showed that the in vitro release of NPFF-IR could also be induced by substance P (1-7) but not by [pGlu5,Me-Phe8,Sar9]-substance P (5-11) or substance K. These results suggest that the specific substance P receptor (SP-N), which is recognized by both substance P (1-11) and substance P (1-7) rather than the tachykinin receptor, is involved in NPFF secretion from the spinal cord. In view of the role of substance P (1-11) and substance P (1-7) in sensory transmission, the results of this study further support the role of NPFF in the modulation of antinociception in the spinal cord.

  11. A novel selective VPAC2 agonist peptide-conjugated chitosan modified selenium nanoparticles with enhanced anti-type 2 diabetes synergy effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shao-Jun; Wang, De-Hua; Li, Yan-Wei; Han, Lei; Xiao, Xing; Ma, Min; Wan, David Chi-Cheong; Hong, An; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    A novel neuroendocrine peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), was found to have an important role in carbohydrate or lipid metabolism and was susceptible to dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation. It can not only mediate glucose-dependent insulin secretion and lower blood glucose by activating VPAC2 receptor, but also raise blood glucose by promoting glucagon production by VPAC1 receptor activation. Therefore, its therapeutic application is restricted by the exceedingly short-acting half-life and the stimulatory function for glycogenolysis. Herein, we generated novel peptide-conjugated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs; named as SCD), comprising a 32-amino acid PACAP-derived peptide DBAYL that selectively binds to VPAC2, and chitosan-modified SeNPs (SeNPs-CTS, SC) as slow-release carrier. The circulating half-life of SCD is 14.12 h in mice, which is 168.4-and 7.1-fold longer than wild PACAP (~5 min) and DBAYL (~1.98 h), respectively. SCD (10 nmol/L) significantly promotes INS-1 cell proliferation, glucose uptake, insulin secretion, insulin receptor expression and also obviously reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in H 2 O 2 -injured INS-1 cells. Furthermore, the biological effects of SCD are stronger than Exendin-4 (a clinically approved drug through its insulinotropic effect), DBAYL, SeNPs or SC. A single injection of SCD (20 nmol/kg) into db/db mice with type 2 diabetes leads to enhanced insulin secretion and sustained hypoglycemic effect, and the effectiveness and duration of SCD in enhancing insulin secretion and reducing blood glucose levels are much stronger than Exendin-4, SeNPs or SC. In db/db mice, chronic administration of SCD by daily injection for 12 weeks markedly improved glucose and lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and the structures of pancreatic and adipose tissue. The results indicate that SC can play a role as a carrier for the slow release of bioactive peptides and SCD could be a hopeful therapeutic against

  12. A novel selective VPAC2 agonist peptide-conjugated chitosan modified selenium nanoparticles with enhanced anti-type 2 diabetes synergy effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shao-Jun; Wang, De-Hua; Li, Yan-Wei; Han, Lei; Xiao, Xing; Ma, Min; Wan, David Chi-Cheong; Hong, An; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    A novel neuroendocrine peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), was found to have an important role in carbohydrate or lipid metabolism and was susceptible to dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation. It can not only mediate glucose-dependent insulin secretion and lower blood glucose by activating VPAC2 receptor, but also raise blood glucose by promoting glucagon production by VPAC1 receptor activation. Therefore, its therapeutic application is restricted by the exceedingly short-acting half-life and the stimulatory function for glycogenolysis. Herein, we generated novel peptide-conjugated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs; named as SCD), comprising a 32-amino acid PACAP-derived peptide DBAYL that selectively binds to VPAC2, and chitosan-modified SeNPs (SeNPs-CTS, SC) as slow-release carrier. The circulating half-life of SCD is 14.12 h in mice, which is 168.4-and 7.1-fold longer than wild PACAP (~5 min) and DBAYL (~1.98 h), respectively. SCD (10 nmol/L) significantly promotes INS-1 cell proliferation, glucose uptake, insulin secretion, insulin receptor expression and also obviously reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in H2O2-injured INS-1 cells. Furthermore, the biological effects of SCD are stronger than Exendin-4 (a clinically approved drug through its insulinotropic effect), DBAYL, SeNPs or SC. A single injection of SCD (20 nmol/kg) into db/db mice with type 2 diabetes leads to enhanced insulin secretion and sustained hypoglycemic effect, and the effectiveness and duration of SCD in enhancing insulin secretion and reducing blood glucose levels are much stronger than Exendin-4, SeNPs or SC. In db/db mice, chronic administration of SCD by daily injection for 12 weeks markedly improved glucose and lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and the structures of pancreatic and adipose tissue. The results indicate that SC can play a role as a carrier for the slow release of bioactive peptides and SCD could be a hopeful therapeutic against

  13. Potent and long-acting corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 2 selective peptide competitive antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rivier, J; Gulyas, J; Kirby, D; Low, W; Perrin, M H; Kunitake, K; DiGruccio, M; Vaughan, J; Reubi, J C; Waser, B; Koerber, S C; Martinez, V; Wang, L; Taché, Y; Vale, W

    2002-10-10

    We present evidence that members of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family assume distinct structures when interacting with the CRF(1) and CRF(2) receptors. Predictive methods, physicochemical measurements, and structure-activity relationship studies have suggested that CRF, its family members, and competitive antagonists such as astressin [cyclo(30-33)[DPhe(12),Nle(21),Glu(30),Lys(33),Nle(38)]hCRF((12-41))] assume an alpha-helical conformation when interacting with their receptors. We had shown that alpha-helical CRF((9-41)) and sauvagine showed some selectivity for CRF receptors other than that responsible for ACTH secretion(1) and later for CRF2.(2) More recently, we suggested the possibility of a helix-turn-helix motif around a turn encompassing residues 30-33(3) that would confer high affinity for both CRF(1) and CRF(2)(2,4) in agonists and antagonists of all members of the CRF family.(3) On the other hand, the substitutions that conferred ca. 100-fold CRF(2) selectivity to the antagonist antisauvagine-30 [[DPhe(11),His(12)]sauvagine((11-40))] did not confer such property to the corresponding N-terminally extended agonists. We find here that a Glu(32)-Lys(35) side chain to side chain covalent lactam constraint in hCRF and the corresponding Glu(31)-Lys(34) side chain to side chain covalent lactam constraint in sauvagine yield potent ligands that are selective for CRF(2). Additionally, we introduced deletions and substitutions known to increase duration of action to yield antagonists such as cyclo(31-34)[DPhe(11),His(12),C(alpha)MeLeu(13,39),Nle(17),Glu(31),Lys(34)]Ac-sauvagine((8-40)) (astressin(2)-B) with CRF(2) selectivities greater than 100-fold. CRF receptor autoradiography was performed in rat tissue known to express CRF(2) and CRF(1) in order to confirm that astressin(2)-B could indeed bind to established CRF(2) but not CRF(1) receptor-expressing tissues. Extended duration of action of astressin(2)-B vs that of antisauvagine-30 is demonstrated in

  14. Peptides released by ameboid microglia regulate astroglial proliferation

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Peptides that stimulate astroglial proliferation are produced in traumatized adult rat brain by 10 d after injury. These same peptides are released by ameboid microglia activated in vitro. Our findings suggest that astroglial scarring is regulated in part by the release of factors from ameboid microglia near the site of brain injury. PMID:4066764

  15. Controlled release of TGF-beta 1 from RADA self-assembling peptide hydrogel scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ao; Chen, Shuo; He, Bin; Zhao, Weikang; Chen, Xiaojun; Jiang, Dianming

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive mediators, cytokines, and chemokines have an important role in regulating and optimizing the synergistic action of materials, cells, and cellular microenvironments for tissue engineering. RADA self-assembling peptide hydrogels have been proved to have an excellent ability to promote cell proliferation, wound healing, tissue repair, and drug delivery. Here, we report that D-RADA16 and L-RADA16-RGD self-assembling peptides can form stable second structure and hydrogel scaffolds, affording the slow release of growth factor (transforming growth factor cytokine-beta 1 [TGF-beta 1]). In vitro tests demonstrated that the plateau release amount can be obtained till 72 hours. Moreover, L-RADA16, D-RADA16, and L-RADA16-RGD self-assembling peptide hydrogels containing TGF-beta 1 were used for 3D cell culture of bone mesenchymal stem cells of rats for 2 weeks. The results revealed that these three RADA16 peptide hydrogels had a significantly favorable influence on proliferation of bone mesenchymal stem cells and hold some promise in slow and sustained release of growth factor. PMID:27703332

  16. Improvement of autism spectrum disorder symptoms in three children by using gastrin-releasing peptide.

    PubMed

    Becker, Michele Michelin; Bosa, Cleonice; Oliveira-Freitas, Vera Lorentz; Goldim, José Roberto; Ohlweiler, Lygia; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, tolerability and potential therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in three children with autistic spectrum disorder. Case series study with the intravenous administration of gastrin-releasing peptide in the dose of 160pmol/kg for four consecutive days. To evaluate the results, parental impressions the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale. Each child underwent a new peptide cycle after two weeks. The children were followed for four weeks after the end of the infusions. The gastrin-releasing peptide was well tolerated and no child had adverse effects. Two children had improved social interaction, with a slight improvement in joint attention and the interaction initiatives. Two showed reduction of stereotypes and improvement in verbal language. One child lost his compulsion to bathe, an effect that lasted two weeks after each infusion cycle. Average reduction in CARS score was 2.8 points. CGI was "minimally better" in two children and "much better" in one. This study suggests that the gastrin-releasing peptide is safe and may be effective in improving key symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, but its results should be interpreted with caution. Controlled clinical trials-randomized, double-blinded, and with more children-are needed to better evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in autism. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction modulates gliotransmitter release from striatal astrocyte processes.

    PubMed

    Cervetto, Chiara; Venturini, Arianna; Passalacqua, Mario; Guidolin, Diego; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Esquela, Dasiel O; Cortelli, Pietro; Woods, Amina; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela; Agnati, Luigi F

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes. Confocal analysis showed that A2A and D2 receptors were co-expressed on the same astrocyte processes. Evidence for A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions was obtained by measuring the release of the gliotransmitter glutamate: D2 receptors inhibited the glutamate release, while activation of A2A receptors, per se ineffective, abolished the effect of D2 receptor activation. The synthetic D2 peptide VLRRRRKRVN corresponding to the receptor region involved in electrostatic interaction underlying A2A-D2 heteromerization abolished the ability of the A2A receptor to antagonize the D2 receptor-mediated effect. Together, the findings are consistent with heteromerization of native striatal astrocytic A2A-D2 receptors that via allosteric receptor-receptor interactions could play a role in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission. These new findings suggest possible new pathogenic mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Twin-screw extruded lipid implants containing TRP2 peptide for tumour therapy.

    PubMed

    Even, Marie-Paule; Bobbala, Sharan; Gibson, Blake; Hook, Sarah; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Much effort has been put in the development of specific anti-tumour immunotherapies over the last few years, and several studies report on the use of liposomal carriers for tumour-associated antigens. In this work, the use of lipid implants, prepared using two different extruders, was investigated for sustained delivery in tumour therapy. The implants consisted of cholesterol, soybean lecithin, Dynasan 114, trehalose, ovalbumin (OVA) or a TRP2 peptide, and Quil-A. Implants were first produced on a Haake Minilab extruder, and then a scale-down to minimal quantities of material on a small scale ZE mini extruder was performed. All formulations were characterised in terms of extrudability, implant properties and in vitro release behaviour of the model antigen ovalbumin. The type of extruder used to produce the implants had a major influence on implant properties and the release behaviour, demonstrating that extrusion parameters and lipid formulations have to be individually adapted to each extrusion device. Subsequently, lipid implants containing TRP-2 peptide were extruded on the ZE mini extruder and investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo study showed that mice having received TRP2 loaded implants had delayed tumour growth for 3days compared to groups having received no TRP2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyclic Peptidic Mimetics of Apollo Peptides Targeting Telomeric Repeat Binding Factor 2 (TRF2) and Apollo Interaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xia; Liu, Liu; Chen, Yong; Yang, Yuting; Yang, Chao-Yie; Guo, Tianyue; Lei, Ming; Sun, Haiying; Wang, Shaomeng

    2018-05-10

    Telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) is a telomere-associated protein that plays an important role in the formation of the 3' single strand DNA overhang and the "T loop", two structures critical for the stability of the telomeres. Apollo is a 5'-exonuclease recruited by TRF2 to the telomere and contributes to the formation of the 3' single strand DNA overhang. Knocking down of Apollo can induce DNA damage response similar to that caused by the knocking down of TRF2. In this Letter, we report the design and synthesis of a class of cyclic peptidic mimetics of the TRFH binding motif of Apollo (Apollo TBM ). We found conformational control of the C terminal residues of Apollo TBM can effectively improve the binding affinity. We have obtained a crystal structure of a cyclic peptidic Apollo peptide mimetic ( 34 ) complexed with TRF2, which provides valuable guidance to the future design of TRF2 inhibitors.

  20. Fast conventional Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis with HCTU.

    PubMed

    Hood, Christina A; Fuentes, German; Patel, Hirendra; Page, Karen; Menakuru, Mahendra; Park, Jae H

    2008-01-01

    1H-Benzotriazolium 1-[bis(dimethyl-amino)methylene]-5-chloro-hexafluorophosphate (1-),3-oxide (HCTU) is a nontoxic, nonirritating and noncorrosive coupling reagent. Seven biologically active peptides (GHRP-6, (65-74)ACP, oxytocin, G-LHRH, C-peptide, hAmylin(1-37), and beta-amyloid(1-42)) were synthesized with reaction times reduced to deprotection times of 3 min or less and coupling times of 5 min or less using HCTU as the coupling reagent. Expensive coupling reagents or special techniques were not used. Total peptide synthesis times were dramatically reduced by as much as 42.5 h (1.8 days) without reducing the crude peptide purities. It was shown that HCTU can be used as an affordable, efficient coupling reagent for fast Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis.

  1. Variability of hydrolysis of β-, αs1-, and αs2-caseins by 10 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and resulting bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Miclo, Laurent; Roux, Emeline; Genay, Magali; Brusseaux, Emilie; Poirson, Chantal; Jameh, Nawara; Perrin, Clarisse; Dary, Annie

    2012-01-18

    Milk proteins contain numerous potential bioactive peptides, which may be released by digestive proteases or by the proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria during food processing. The capacity of Streptococcus thermophilus to generate peptides, especially bioactive peptides, from bovine caseins was investigated. Strains expressing various levels of the cell envelope proteinase, PrtS, were incubated with α(s1)-, α(s2)-, or β-casein. Analysis of the supernatants by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the β-casein was preferentially hydrolyzed, followed by α(s2)-casein and then α(s1)-casein. Numbers and types of peptides released were strain-dependent. Hydrolysis appeared to be linked with the accessibility of different casein regions by protease. Analysis of bonds hydrolyzed in the region 1-23 of α(s1)-casein suggests that PrtS is at least in part responsible for the peptide production. Finally, among the generated peptides, 13 peptides from β-casein, 5 from α(s2)-casein, and 2 from α(s1)-casein have been reported as bioactive, 15 of them being angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

  2. Diversity in peptide recognition by the SH2 domain of SH2B1.

    PubMed

    McKercher, Marissa A; Guan, Xiaoyang; Tan, Zhongping; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2018-02-01

    SH2B1 is a multidomain protein that serves as a key adaptor to regulate numerous cellular events, such as insulin, leptin, and growth hormone signaling pathways. Many of these protein-protein interactions are mediated by the SH2 domain of SH2B1, which recognizes ligands containing a phosphorylated tyrosine (pY), including peptides derived from janus kinase 2, insulin receptor, and insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2. Specificity for the SH2 domain of SH2B1 is conferred in these ligands either by a hydrophobic or an acidic side chain at the +3 position C-terminal to the pY. This specificity for chemically disparate species suggests that SH2B1 relies on distinct thermodynamic or structural mechanisms to bind to peptides. Using binding and structural strategies, we have identified unique thermodynamic signatures for each peptide binding mode, and several SH2B1 residues, including K575 and R578, that play distinct roles in peptide binding. The high-resolution structure of the SH2 domain of SH2B1 further reveals conformationally plastic protein loops that may contribute to the ability of the protein to recognize dissimilar ligands. Together, numerous hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, in addition to backbone conformational flexibility, permit the recognition of diverse peptides by SH2B1. An understanding of this expanded peptide recognition will allow for the identification of novel physiologically relevant SH2B1/peptide interactions, which can contribute to the design of obesity and diabetes pharmaceuticals to target the ligand-binding interface of SH2B1 with high specificity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anhydrous polymer-based coating with sustainable controlled release functionality for facile, efficacious impregnation, and delivery of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kaiyang; Saravanan, Rathi; Chong, Kelvin K L; Goh, Sharon H M; Chua, Ray R Y; Tambyah, Paul A; Chang, Matthew W; Kline, Kimberly A; Leong, Susanna S J

    2018-04-17

    Anhydrous polymers are actively explored as alternative materials to overcome limitations of conventional hydrogel-based antibacterial coating. However, the requirement for strong organic solvent in polymerization reactions often necessitates extra protection steps for encapsulation of target biomolecules, lowering encapsulation efficiency, and increasing process complexity. This study reports a novel coating strategy that allows direct solvation and encapsulation of antimicrobial peptides (HHC36) into anhydrous polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer-based dual layer coating. A thin 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) film is layered onto the peptide-impregnated PCL as a diffusion barrier, to modulate and enhance release kinetics. The impregnated peptides are eventually released in a controlled fashion. The use of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), as polymerization and solvation medium, induces the impregnated peptides to adopt highly stable turned conformation, conserving peptide integrity, and functionality during both encapsulation and subsequent release processes. The dual layer coating showed sustained antibacterial functionality, lasting for 14 days. In vivo assessment using an experimental mouse wounding model demonstrated good biocompatibility and significant antimicrobial efficacy of the coating under physiological conditions. The coating was translated onto silicone urinary catheters and showed promising antibacterial efficacy, even outperforming commercial silver-based Dover cather. This anhydrous polymer-based platform holds immense potential as an effective antibacterial coating to prevent clinical device-associated infections. The simplicity of the coating process enhances its industrial viability. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Neuroactive Peptides as Putative Mediators of Antiepileptic Ketogenic Diets

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Carmela; Marchiò, Maddalena; Timofeeva, Elena; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Various ketogenic diet (KD) therapies, including classic KD, medium chain triglyceride administration, low glycemic index treatment, and a modified Atkins diet, have been suggested as useful in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy. A common goal of these approaches is to achieve an adequate decrease in the plasma glucose level combined with ketogenesis, in order to mimic the metabolic state of fasting. Although several metabolic hypotheses have been advanced to explain the anticonvulsant effect of KDs, including changes in the plasma levels of ketone bodies, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and brain pH, direct modulation of neurotransmitter release, especially purinergic (i.e., adenosine) and γ-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission, was also postulated. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are potent modulators of synaptic activity, and their levels are regulated by metabolic states. This is the case for neuroactive peptides such as neuropeptide Y, galanin, cholecystokinin, and peptide hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, and growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs). In particular, the GHRP ghrelin and its related peptide des-acyl ghrelin are well-known controllers of energy homeostasis, food intake, and lipid metabolism. Notably, ghrelin has also been shown to regulate the neuronal excitability and epileptic activation of neuronal networks. Several lines of evidence suggest that GHRPs are upregulated in response to starvation and, particularly, in patients affected by anorexia and cachexia, all conditions in which also ketone bodies are upregulated. Moreover, starvation and anorexia nervosa are accompanied by changes in other peptide hormones such as adiponectin, which has received less attention. Adipocytokines such as adiponectin have also been involved in modulating epileptic activity. Thus, neuroactive peptides whose plasma levels and activity change in the presence of ketogenesis might be potential candidates for elucidating the neurohormonal

  5. Inhibition of serotonin release by bombesin-like peptides in rat hypothalamus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saporito, M S; Warwick, R O

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the activity of bombesin (BN), neuromedin-C (NM-C) and neuromedin-B (NM-B) on serotonin (5-HT) release and reuptake in rat hypothalamus (HYP) in vitro. BN and NM-C but not NM-B (all 1 microM) decreased K+ evoked 3H-5-HT release from superfused HYP slices by 25%. Bacitracin (BCN, 2 micrograms/ml), a nonspecific peptidase inhibitor, reversed the inhibitory effect of BN on K+ evoked 3H-5-HT release. Phosphoramidon (PAN, 10 microM) an endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, abolished the inhibitory effect of BN, but not NM-C, on K+ evoked 3H-5-HT release. The peptidyl dipeptidase A inhibitor enalaprilat (ENP, 10 microM), enhanced both BN and NM-C inhibition of 3H-5-HT release. Bestatin (BST, 10 microM) had no effect on BN or NM-C inhibitory activity on 3H-5-HT release. Neither BN, NM-C nor NM-B affected reuptake of 3H-5-HT into HYP synaptosomes alone or in combination with any of the peptidase inhibitors, nor did these peptides alter the ability of fluoxetine to inhibit 3H-5-HT uptake. These data suggest: a) that BN-like peptides may alter neurotransmission in the HYP by acting presynaptically on the 5-HT release mechanism; b) a similarity in the structural requirements for the BN induced inhibition of 5-HT release and BN evoked thermoregulatory disturbances; and c) that peptidases may selectively augment or reduce pharmacologic activity of BN-like peptides upon CNS administration.

  6. Peptide profiling of bovine kefir reveals 236 unique peptides released from caseins during its production by starter culture or kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Jennifer; Aşçı Arslan, Ayşe; Fedorova, Maria; Hoffmann, Ralf; Küçükçetin, Ahmet; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2015-03-18

    Kefir has a long tradition in human nutrition due to its presupposed health promoting effects. To investigate the potential contribution of bioactive peptides to the physiological effects of kefir, comprehensive analysis of the peptide profile was performed by nano-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS coupled to nano-ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, 257 peptides were identified, mainly released from β-casein, followed by αS1-, κ-, and αS2-casein. Most (236) peptides were uniquely detected in kefir, but not in raw milk indicating that the fermentation step does not only increase the proteolytic activity 1.7- to 2.4-fold compared to unfermented milk, but also alters the composition of the peptide fraction. The influence of the microflora was determined by analyzing kefir produced from traditional kefir grains or commercial starter culture. Kefir from starter culture featured 230 peptide sequences and showed a significantly, 1.4-fold higher proteolytic activity than kefir from kefir grains with 127 peptides. A match of 97 peptides in both varieties indicates the presence of a typical kefir peptide profile that is not influenced by the individual composition of the microflora. Sixteen of the newly identified peptides were previously described as bioactive, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory, antimicrobial, immunomodulating, opioid, mineral binding, antioxidant, and antithrombotic effects. The present study describes a comprehensive peptide profile of kefir comprising 257 sequences. The peptide list was used to identify 16 bioactive peptides with ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, mineral binding, antimicrobial, immunomodulating and opioid activity in kefir. Furthermore, it was shown that a majority of the kefir peptides were not endogenously present in the raw material milk, but were released from milk caseins by proteases of the microbiota and are therefore specific for the product. Consequently, the proteolytic activity and the

  7. Alpha-helical destabilization of the Bcl-2-BH4-domain peptide abolishes its ability to inhibit the IP3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Giovanni; Decrock, Elke; Nuyts, Koen; Wagner, Larry E; Luyten, Tomas; Strelkov, Sergei V; Missiaen, Ludwig; De Borggraeve, Wim M; Leybaert, Luc; Yule, David I; De Smedt, Humbert; Parys, Jan B; Bultynck, Geert

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein is the founding member and namesake of the Bcl-2-protein family. It has recently been demonstrated that Bcl-2, apart from its anti-apoptotic role at mitochondrial membranes, can also directly interact with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), the primary Ca(2+)-release channel in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Bcl-2 can thereby reduce pro-apoptotic IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release from the ER. Moreover, the Bcl-2 homology domain 4 (Bcl-2-BH4) has been identified as essential and sufficient for this IP3R-mediated anti-apoptotic activity. In the present study, we investigated whether the reported inhibitory effect of a Bcl-2-BH4 peptide on the IP 3R1 was related to the distinctive α-helical conformation of the BH4 domain peptide. We therefore designed a peptide with two glycine "hinges" replacing residues I14 and V15, of the wild-type Bcl-2-BH4 domain (Bcl-2-BH4-IV/GG). By comparing the structural and functional properties of the Bcl-2-BH4-IV/GG peptide with its native counterpart, we found that the variant contained reduced α-helicity, neither bound nor inhibited the IP 3R1 channel, and in turn lost its anti-apoptotic effect. Similar results were obtained with other substitutions in Bcl-2-BH4 that destabilized the α-helix with concomitant loss of IP3R inhibition. These results provide new insights for the further development of Bcl-2-BH4-derived peptides as specific inhibitors of the IP3R with significant pharmacological implications.

  8. Effects on Hedonic Feeding, Energy Expenditure and Balance of the Non-opioid Peptide DYN-A2-17.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, B; Barrientos, T; Gac, L; Teske, J A; Perez-Leighton, C E

    2018-02-10

    The dynorphin (DYN) peptide family includes opioid and non-opioid peptides, yet the physiological role of the non-opioid DYN peptides remains poorly understood. Recent evidence shows that administering the non-opioid peptide DYN-A 2-17 into the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) simultaneously increased short-term intake of standard rodent chow and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). The present studies aimed to expand upon the mechanisms and role of DYN-A 2-17 on food intake and energy expenditure. Injection of DYN-A 2-17 in PVN increased SPA, energy expenditure and wheel running in the absence of food. Repeated DYN-A 2-17 injection in PVN increased short-term chow intake, but this effect habituated over time and failed to alter cumulative food intake, body weight or adiposity. Pre-treatment with a CRF receptor antagonist into PVN blocked the effects of DYN-A 2-17 on food intake while injection of DYN-A 2-17 in PVN increased plasma ACTH. Finally, as DYN peptides are co-released with orexin peptides, we compared the effects of DYN-A 2-17 to orexin-A and the opioid peptide DYN-A 1-13 on food choice and intake in PVN when palatable snacks and chow were available. DYN-A 1-13 selectively increased intake of palatable snacks. DYN-A 2-17 and orexin-A decreased palatable snack intake while orexin-A also increased chow intake. These findings demonstrate that the non-opioid peptide DYN-A 2-17 acutely regulates physical activity, energy expenditure and food intake without long-term effects on energy balance. These data also propose different roles of opioid, non-opioid DYN and orexin peptides on food choice and intake when palatable and non-palatable food options are available. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and Relative Quantification of Bioactive Peptides Sequentially Released during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion of Commercial Kefir.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yufang; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2017-03-08

    Health-promoting effects of kefir may be partially caused by bioactive peptides. To evaluate their formation or degradation during gastrointestinal digestion, we monitored changes of the peptide profile in a model of (1) oral, (2) gastric, and (3) small intestinal digestion of kefir. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy analyses revealed clearly different profiles between digests 2/3 and kefir/digest 1. Subsequent ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry identified 92 peptides in total (25, 25, 43, and 30, partly overlapping in kefir and digests 1, 2, and 3, respectively), including 16 peptides with ascribed bioactivity. Relative quantification in scheduled multiple reaction monitoring mode showed that many bioactive peptides were released by simulated digestion. Most prominently, the concentration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor β-casein 203-209 increased approximately 10 000-fold after combined oral, gastric, and intestinal digestion. Thus, physiological digestive processes may promote bioactive peptide formation from proteins and oligopeptides in kefir. Furthermore, bioactive peptides present in certain compartments of the gastrointestinal tract may exert local physiological effects.

  10. Characterization of the Structure and Membrane Interaction of the Antimicrobial Peptides Aurein 2.2 and 2.3 from Australian Southern Bell Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yeang-Ling; Cheng, John T.-J.; Hale, John; Pan, Jinhe; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Straus, Suzana K.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and membrane interaction of the antimicrobial peptide aurein 2.2 (GLFDIVKKVVGALGSL-CONH2), aurein 2.3 (GLFDIVKKVVGAIGSL-CONH2), both from Litoria aurea, and a carboxy C-terminal analog of aurein 2.3 (GLFDIVKKVVGAIGSL-COOH) were studied to determine which features of this class of peptides are key to activity. Circular dichroism and solution-state NMR data indicate that all three peptides adopt an α-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol or lipids such as 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and a 1:1 mixture of DMPC and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DMPG). Oriented circular dichroism was used to determine the orientation of the peptides in lipid bilayers over a range of concentrations (peptide/lipid molar ratios (P/L) = 1:15–1:120) in DMPC and 1:1 DMPC/DMPG, in the liquid crystalline state. The results demonstrate that in DMPC all three peptides are surface adsorbed over a range of low peptide concentrations but insert into the bilayers at high peptide concentrations. This finding is corroborated by 31P-solid-state NMR data of the three peptides in DMPC, which shows that at high peptide concentrations the peptides perturb the membrane. Oriented circular dichroism data of the aurein peptides in 1:1 DMPC/DMPG, on the other hand, show that the peptides with amidated C-termini readily insert into the membrane bilayers over the concentration range studied (P/L = 1:15–1:120), whereas the aurein 2.3 peptide with a carboxy C-terminus inserts at a threshold concentration of P/L* between 1:80 and 1:120. Overall, the data presented here suggest that all three peptides studied interact with phosphatidylcholine membranes in a manner which is similar to aurein 1.2 and citropin 1.1, as reported in the literature, with no correlation to the reported activity. On the other hand, both aurein 2.2 and aurein 2.3 behave similarly in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol (PC/PG) membranes, whereas aurein 2

  11. Characterization of the structure and membrane interaction of the antimicrobial peptides aurein 2.2 and 2.3 from Australian southern bell frogs.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yeang-Ling; Cheng, John T-J; Hale, John; Pan, Jinhe; Hancock, Robert E W; Straus, Suzana K

    2007-04-15

    The structure and membrane interaction of the antimicrobial peptide aurein 2.2 (GLFDIVKKVVGALGSL-CONH(2)), aurein 2.3 (GLFDIVKKVVGAIGSL-CONH(2)), both from Litoria aurea, and a carboxy C-terminal analog of aurein 2.3 (GLFDIVKKVVGAIGSL-COOH) were studied to determine which features of this class of peptides are key to activity. Circular dichroism and solution-state NMR data indicate that all three peptides adopt an alpha-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol or lipids such as 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and a 1:1 mixture of DMPC and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DMPG). Oriented circular dichroism was used to determine the orientation of the peptides in lipid bilayers over a range of concentrations (peptide/lipid molar ratios (P/L) = 1:15-1:120) in DMPC and 1:1 DMPC/DMPG, in the liquid crystalline state. The results demonstrate that in DMPC all three peptides are surface adsorbed over a range of low peptide concentrations but insert into the bilayers at high peptide concentrations. This finding is corroborated by (31)P-solid-state NMR data of the three peptides in DMPC, which shows that at high peptide concentrations the peptides perturb the membrane. Oriented circular dichroism data of the aurein peptides in 1:1 DMPC/DMPG, on the other hand, show that the peptides with amidated C-termini readily insert into the membrane bilayers over the concentration range studied (P/L = 1:15-1:120), whereas the aurein 2.3 peptide with a carboxy C-terminus inserts at a threshold concentration of P/L* between 1:80 and 1:120. Overall, the data presented here suggest that all three peptides studied interact with phosphatidylcholine membranes in a manner which is similar to aurein 1.2 and citropin 1.1, as reported in the literature, with no correlation to the reported activity. On the other hand, both aurein 2.2 and aurein 2.3 behave similarly in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol (PC/PG) membranes, whereas aurein

  12. In Vivo Imaging of the Stability and Sustained Cargo Release of an Injectable Amphipathic Peptide-Based Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Oyen, Edith; Martin, Charlotte; Caveliers, Vicky; Madder, Annemieke; Van Mele, Bruno; Hoogenboom, Richard; Hernot, Sophie; Ballet, Steven

    2017-03-13

    Hydrogels are promising materials for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and controlled drug release. In the past two decades, the peptide hydrogel subclass has attracted an increasing level of interest from the scientific community because of its numerous advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and, most importantly, injectability. Here, we report on a hydrogel consisting of the amphipathic hexapeptide H-FEFQFK-NH 2 , which has previously shown promising in vivo properties in terms of releasing morphine. In this study, the release of a small molecule, a peptide, and a protein cargo as representatives of the three major drug classes is directly visualized by in vivo fluorescence and nuclear imaging. In addition, the in vivo stability of the peptide hydrogel system is investigated through the use of a radiolabeled hydrogelator sequence. Although it is shown that the hydrogel remains present for several days, the largest decrease in volume takes place within the first 12 h of subcutaneous injection, which is also the time frame wherein the cargos are released. Compared to the situation in which the cargos are injected in solution, a prolonged release profile is observed up to 12 h, showing the potential of our hydrogel system as a scaffold for controlled drug delivery. Importantly, this study elucidates the release mechanism of the peptide hydrogel system that seems to be based on erosion of the hydrogel providing a generally applicable controlled release platform for small molecule, peptide, and protein drugs.

  13. Analysis of gastrin-releasing peptide gene and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor gene in patients with agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katrin; Görgens, Heike; Bräuer, David; Einsle, Franziska; Noack, Barbara; von Kannen, Stephanie; Grossmann, Maria; Hoyer, Jürgen; Strobel, Alexander; Köllner, Volker; Weidner, Kerstin; Ziegler, Andreas; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Schackert, Hans K

    2014-10-01

    A gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) knock-out mouse model provided evidence that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its neural circuitry operate as a negative feedback-loop regulating fear, suggesting a novel candidate mechanism contributing to individual differences in fear-conditioning and associated psychiatric disorders such as agoraphobia with/without panic disorder. Studies in humans, however, provided inconclusive evidence on the association of GRP and GRPR variations in agoraphobia with/without panic disorder. Based on these findings, we investigated whether GRP and GRPR variants are associated with agoraphobia. Mental disorders were assessed via the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) in 95 patients with agoraphobia with/without panic disorder and 119 controls without any mental disorders. A complete sequence analysis of GRP and GRPR was performed in all participants. We found no association of 16 GRP and 7 GRPR variants with agoraphobia with/without panic disorder.

  14. Plant proteases for bioactive peptides release: A review.

    PubMed

    Mazorra-Manzano, M A; Ramírez-Suarez, J C; Yada, R Y

    2017-04-10

    Proteins are a potential source of health-promoting biomolecules with medical, nutraceutical, and food applications. Nowadays, bioactive peptides production, its isolation, characterization, and strategies for its delivery to target sites are a matter of intensive research. In vitro and in vivo studies regarding the bioactivity of peptides has generated strong evidence of their health benefits. Dairy proteins are considered the richest source of bioactive peptides, however proteins from animal and vegetable origin also have been shown to be important sources. Enzymatic hydrolysis has been the process most commonly used for bioactive peptide production. Most commercial enzymatic preparations frequently used are from animal (e.g., trypsin and pepsin) and microbial (e.g., Alcalase® and Neutrase®) sources. Although the use of plant proteases is still relatively limited to papain and bromelain from papaya and pineapple, respectively, the application of new plant proteases is increasing. This review presents the latest knowledge in the use and diversity of plant proteases for bioactive peptides release from food proteins including both available commercial plant proteases as well as new potential plant sources. Furthermore, the properties of peptides released by plant proteases and health benefits associated in the control of disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and cancer are reviewed.

  15. Role of gastrin-releasing peptide in pepsinogen secretion from the isolated perfused rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Skak-Nielsen, T; Holst, J J; Christensen, J D; Fjalland, B

    1988-10-01

    We studied the effects of the neuropeptide gastrin-releasing peptide on pepsinogen secretion using an isolated perfused rat stomach with intact vagal innervation. Following electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves, the pepsin output to the luminal effluent increased from 94 +/- 7 to 182 +/- 24 units pepsin/min and the release of immunoreactive gastrin-releasing peptide to the venous effluent increased from 0.059 +/- 0.014 to 0.138 +/- 0.028 pmol/min. Infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide at 10(-8) M significantly increased pepsin output (from 87 +/- 17 to 129 +/- 22 units pepsin/min) and simultaneous infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide and carbachol at 10(-8) and 10(-6) M, respectively, resulted in an increase to almost 4 times the basal values. Atropine reduced but did not abolish the pepsin response to vagal stimulation and to infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide. Our results suggest that gastrin-releasing peptide participates in the vagal control of pepsinogen secretion.

  16. Osteogenic properties of a short BMP-2 chimera peptide.

    PubMed

    Falcigno, Lucia; D'Auria, Gabriella; Calvanese, Luisa; Marasco, Daniela; Iacobelli, Roberta; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina L; Brun, Paola; Danesin, Roberta; Pasqualin, Matteo; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Dettin, Monica

    2015-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in bone and cartilage formation. For these properties, BMPs are employed in the field of tissue engineering to induce bone regeneration in damaged tissues. To overcome drawbacks due to the use of entire proteins, synthetic peptides derived from their parent BMPs have come out as promising molecules for biomaterial design. On the structural ground of the experimental BMP-2 receptor complexes reported in the literature, we designed three peptides, reproducing the BMP-2 region responsible for the binding to the type II receptor, ActRIIB. These peptides were characterized by NMR, and the structural features of the peptide-receptor binding interface were highlighted by docking experiments. Peptide-receptor binding affinities were analyzed by means of ELISA and surface plasmon resonance techniques. Furthermore, cellular assays were performed to assess their osteoinductive properties. A chimera peptide, obtained by combining the sequence portions 73-92 and 30-34 of BMP-2, shows the best affinity for ActRIIB in the series and represents a good starting point for the design of new compounds able to reproduce osteogenic properties of the parent BMP-2. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles for cancerous cells intracellular drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Mengfei; Yuan, Zhefan; Wu, Dan; Chen, Jia-da; Feng, Jie

    2016-10-01

    A novel type of stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles (MPPM) was fabricated for cancerous cells intracellular drug release. Deca-lysine sequence (K10), a type of cell-penetrating peptide, was synthesized and terminated with azido-glycine. Then a new kind of molecule, alkyne modified doxorubicin (DOX) connecting through disulfide bond (DOX-SS-alkyne), was synthesized. After coupling via Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry reaction, reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug was obtained. Due to the amphiphilic property of the prodrug, it can assemble to form micelles. To prevent the nanocarriers from unspecific cellular uptake, the prodrug micelles were subsequently modified with 2,3-dimethyl maleic anhydride to obtain MPPM with a negatively charged outer shell. In vitro studies showed that MPPM could be shielded from cells under psychological environment. However, when arriving at mild acidic tumor site, the cell-penetrating capacity of MPPM would be activated by charge reversal of the micelles via hydrolysis of acid-labile β-carboxylic amides and regeneration of K10, which enabled efficient internalization of MPPM by tumor cells as well as following glutathione- and protease-induced drug release inside the cancerous cells. Furthermore, since the guide peptide sequences can be accurately designed and synthesized, it can be easily changed for various functions, such as targeting peptide, apoptotic peptide, even aptamers, only need to be terminated with azido-glycine. This method can be used as a template for reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug for cancer therapy.

  18. The anti-inflammatory effect of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide 19-2.5 in a murine sepsis model: a prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasing rates of multi-resistant bacteria are a major problem in the treatment of critically ill patients. Furthermore, conventional antibiotics lead to the release of bacterial derived membrane parts initiating pro-inflammatory cascades with potential harm to the patient. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) may kill bacteria without releasing pro-inflammatory factors. Thus, we compared three newly developed synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides (SALPs) with a broader range of efficacy to suppress cytokine release in plasma and CD14 mRNA expression in organ tissue in a murine, polymicrobial sepsis model. Methods A randomized, experimental trial was conducted in an animal research facility. Male NMRI mice (n = 90; 8- to 12-weeks old) were randomized to the following six groups: (i) sham operation and parenteral vehicle (NaCl 0.9%) administration (sham); (ii) cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and vehicle infusion (sepsis-control), (iii) CLP and polymyxin B infusion (polyB), or (iv to vi) CLP and infusion of three different synthetic antimicrobial peptides Peptide 19-2.5 (Pep2.5), Peptide 19-4 (Pep4) or Peptide 19-8 (Pep8). All animals underwent arterial and venous catheterization for hemodynamic monitoring 48 hours prior to CLP or sham-operation. Physical appearance and behavior (activity), plasma cytokine levels, and CD14 mRNA expression in heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney tissue were determined 24 hours after CLP or sham operation. Results Only Pep2.5 significantly enhanced the activity after CLP, whereas none of the therapeutic regimens elevated the mean arterial pressure or heart rate. The strongly elevated IL-6, IL-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein serum levels in septic animals were significantly reduced after Pep2.5 administration (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, Pep2.5 significantly reduced the sepsis-induced CD14 mRNA expression in heart (P = 0.003), lung (P = 0.008), and spleen tissue (P = 0.009) but

  19. Verification of 2A peptide cleavage.

    PubMed

    Szymczak-Workman, Andrea L; Vignali, Kate M; Vignali, Dario A A

    2012-02-01

    The need for reliable, multicistronic vectors for multigene delivery is at the forefront of biomedical technology. It is now possible to express multiple proteins from a single open reading frame (ORF) using 2A peptide-linked multicistronic vectors. These small sequences, when cloned between genes, allow for efficient, stoichiometric production of discrete protein products within a single vector through a novel "cleavage" event within the 2A peptide sequence. The easiest and most effective way to assess 2A cleavage is to perform transient transfection of 293T cells (human embryonic kidney cells) followed by western blot analysis, as described in this protocol. 293T cells are easy to grow and can be efficiently transfected with a variety of vectors. Cleavage can be assessed by detection with antibodies against the target proteins or anti-2A serum.

  20. [In vitro release of [5Met]- and [5Leu]-enkephalins from the rat brain crude synaptosomal (P2) fraction: Ca2+-dependency of K+-stimulation and effects of various drugs].

    PubMed

    Koida, M; Takahashi, M; Takenaga, K

    1983-01-01

    The rat brain P2 fraction was suspended in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 20 microM bacitracin and incubated at 37 degrees C for 10 min under an atmosphere of 95% O2-5% CO2. Incubation was terminated by centrifugation at 4 degrees C and 10,000 X g for 10 min. The supernatant was designated as the S1 fraction, and from the pellet, the S2 to S4 fractions were collected by repeated suspension, incubation, and centrifugation. The radioimmunoassays of each S fraction revealed the spontaneous release of [5Met]- and [5Leu]-enkephalins at the ratio of 2 to 1. The peptide contents gradually decreased from S1 to S4, but the release tended to become constant in S3 and S4. Thus, the effects of some ions and drugs on the release were compared at the stage of obtaining the S3 fraction. The release of both peptides were significantly stimulated in 50 mM KCl buffer, and the stimulatory effect appears to be dependent on Ca2+ concentration. Veratrine and A23187 were also effective stimulants of the release. On the other hand, neither spontaneous nor K+-stimulated release of enkephalins was affected by morphine (1 microM), naloxone (1 microM), kyotorphin (1 or 10 microM), and Li+ (50 mM). Similar results were obtained with the release of 3H-noradrenaline taken up in vitro by the P2 fraction. The usability of the P2 fraction as an in vitro model for the study of stimulus-coupled release of enkephalins was discussed with some limitations found herein.

  1. IL-1β Stimulates COX-2 Dependent PGE2 Synthesis and CGRP Release in Rat Trigeminal Ganglia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neeb, Lars; Hellen, Peter; Boehnke, Carsten; Hoffmann, Jan; Schuh-Hofer, Sigrid; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Reuter, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Objective Pro-inflammatory cytokines like Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine and inflammatory pain. The trigeminal ganglion and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are crucial components in the pathophysiology of primary headaches. 5-HT1B/D receptor agonists, which reduce CGRP release, and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors can abort trigeminally mediated pain. However, the cellular source of COX and the interplay between COX and CGRP within the trigeminal ganglion have not been clearly identified. Methods and Results 1. We used primary cultured rat trigeminal ganglia cells to assess whether IL-1β can induce the expression of COX-2 and which cells express COX-2. Stimulation with IL-1β caused a dose and time dependent induction of COX-2 but not COX-1 mRNA. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of COX-2 protein in neuronal and glial cells. 2. Functional significance was demonstrated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release 4 hours after stimulation with IL-1β, which could be aborted by a selective COX-2 (parecoxib) and a non-selective COX-inhibitor (indomethacin). 3. Induction of CGRP release, indicating functional neuronal activation, was seen 1 hour after PGE2 and 24 hours after IL-1β stimulation. Immunohistochemistry showed trigeminal neurons as the source of CGRP. IL-1β induced CGRP release was blocked by parecoxib and indomethacin, but the 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan had no effect. Conclusion We identified a COX-2 dependent pathway of cytokine induced CGRP release in trigeminal ganglia neurons that is not affected by 5-HT1B/D receptor activation. Activation of neuronal and glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion by IL-β leads to an elevated expression of COX-2 in these cells. Newly synthesized PGE2 (by COX-2) in turn activates trigeminal neurons to release CGRP. These findings support a glia-neuron interaction in the trigeminal ganglion and demonstrate a sequential link between COX-2 and CGRP. The

  2. Effect of noncovalent interaction on the self-assembly of a designed peptide and its potential use as a carrier for controlled bFGF release

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanfei; Zhang, Ling; Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Peptide self-assembly is one of the promising bottom-up approaches for creating synthetic supermolecular architectures. Noncovalent interactions such as hydrophobic packing, electrostatic interaction, and polypeptide chain entropy (ΔSC) are the most relevant factors that affect the folding and self-assembly of peptides and the stability of supermolecular structures. The GVGV tetrapeptide is an abundant repeat in elastin, an extracellular matrix protein. In this study, four GVGV-containing peptides were designed with the aim of understanding the effects of these weak interactions on peptide self-assembly. Transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering measurements, and rheometry assays were used to study the structural features of the peptides. Because self-assembling peptides with different amino acid sequences may significantly affect protein release, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was used as a model molecule and encapsulated within the P2 (RLDLGVGVRLDLGVGV) hydrogel to study the release kinetics. The results showed that the balance among hydrophobic effects, electrostatic interactions, and chain entropy determined the molecular state and self-assembly of the peptide. Moreover, encapsulation of bFGF within the P2 hydrogel allowed its sustained release without causing changes in the secondary structure. The release profiles could be tuned by adjusting the P2 hydrogel concentration. Cell Counting Kit-8 and Western blot assays demonstrated that the encapsulated and released bFGFs were biologically active and capable of promoting the proliferation of murine fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells, most likely due to the activation of downstream signaling pathways. PMID:28176898

  3. Design and construction of 2A peptide-linked multicistronic vectors.

    PubMed

    Szymczak-Workman, Andrea L; Vignali, Kate M; Vignali, Dario A A

    2012-02-01

    The need for reliable, multicistronic vectors for multigene delivery is at the forefront of biomedical technology. This article describes the design and construction of 2A peptide-linked multicistronic vectors, which can be used to express multiple proteins from a single open reading frame (ORF). The small 2A peptide sequences, when cloned between genes, allow for efficient, stoichiometric production of discrete protein products within a single vector through a novel "cleavage" event within the 2A peptide sequence. Expression of more than two genes using conventional approaches has several limitations, most notably imbalanced protein expression and large size. The use of 2A peptide sequences alleviates these concerns. They are small (18-22 amino acids) and have divergent amino-terminal sequences, which minimizes the chance for homologous recombination and allows for multiple, different 2A peptide sequences to be used within a single vector. Importantly, separation of genes placed between 2A peptide sequences is nearly 100%, which allows for stoichiometric and concordant expression of the genes, regardless of the order of placement within the vector.

  4. Some Commonly Used Brominated Flame Retardants Cause Ca2+-ATPase Inhibition, Beta-Amyloid Peptide Release and Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mousa, Fawaz; Michelangeli, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are chemicals commonly used to reduce the flammability of consumer products and are considered pollutants since they have become widely dispersed throughout the environment and have also been shown to bio-accumulate within animals and man. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of some of the most commonly used groups of BFRs on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The results showed that of the BFRs tested, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) and decabromodiphenyl ether (DBPE), all are cytotoxic at low micromolar concentrations (LC50 being 2.7±0.7µM, 15±4µM and 28±7µM, respectively). They induced cell death, at least in part, by apoptosis through activation of caspases. They also increased intracellular [Ca2+] levels and reactive-oxygen-species within these neuronal cells. Furthermore, these BFRs also caused rapid depolarization of the mitochondria and cytochrome c release in these neuronal cells. Elevated intracellular [Ca2+] levels appear to occur through a mechanism involving microsomal Ca2+-ATPase inhibition and this maybe responsible for Ca2+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, µM levels of these BFRs caused β-amyloid peptide (Aβ-42) processing and release from these cells with a few hours of exposure. These results therefore shows that these pollutants are both neurotoxic and amyloidogenic in-vitro. PMID:22485137

  5. Quantifying Ca2+ release and inactivation of Ca2+ release in fast- and slow-twitch muscles.

    PubMed

    Barclay, C J

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the Ca(2+) release underlying twitch contractions of mammalian fast- and slow-twitch muscle and to comprehensively describe the transient inactivation of Ca(2+) release following a stimulus. Experiments were performed using bundles of fibres from mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles. Ca(2+) release was quantified from the amount of ATP used to remove Ca(2+) from the myoplasm following stimulation. ATP turnover by crossbridges was blocked pharmacologically (N-benzyl-p-toluenesulphonamide for EDL, blebbistatin for soleus) and muscle heat production was used as an index of Ca(2+) pump ATP turnover. At 20°C, Ca(2+) release in response to a single stimulus was 34 and 84 μmol (kg muscle)(-1) for soleus and EDL, respectively, and increased with temperature (30°C: soleus, 61 μmol kg(-1); EDL, 168 μmol kg(-1)). Delivery of another stimulus within 100 ms of the first produced a smaller Ca(2+) release. The maximum magnitude of the decrease in Ca(2+) release was greater in EDL than soleus. Ca(2+) release recovered with an exponential time course which was faster in EDL (mean time constant at 20°C, 32.1 ms) than soleus (65.6 ms) and faster at 30°C than at 20°C. The amounts of Ca(2+) released and crossbridge cycles performed are consistent with a scheme in which Ca(2+) binding to troponin-C allowed an average of ∼1.7 crossbridge cycles in the two muscles.

  6. Quantifying Ca2+ release and inactivation of Ca2+ release in fast- and slow-twitch muscles

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, C J

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the Ca2+ release underlying twitch contractions of mammalian fast- and slow-twitch muscle and to comprehensively describe the transient inactivation of Ca2+ release following a stimulus. Experiments were performed using bundles of fibres from mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles. Ca2+ release was quantified from the amount of ATP used to remove Ca2+ from the myoplasm following stimulation. ATP turnover by crossbridges was blocked pharmacologically (N-benzyl-p-toluenesulphonamide for EDL, blebbistatin for soleus) and muscle heat production was used as an index of Ca2+ pump ATP turnover. At 20°C, Ca2+ release in response to a single stimulus was 34 and 84 μmol (kg muscle)−1 for soleus and EDL, respectively, and increased with temperature (30°C: soleus, 61 μmol kg−1; EDL, 168 μmol kg−1). Delivery of another stimulus within 100 ms of the first produced a smaller Ca2+ release. The maximum magnitude of the decrease in Ca2+ release was greater in EDL than soleus. Ca2+ release recovered with an exponential time course which was faster in EDL (mean time constant at 20°C, 32.1 ms) than soleus (65.6 ms) and faster at 30°C than at 20°C. The amounts of Ca2+ released and crossbridge cycles performed are consistent with a scheme in which Ca2+ binding to troponin-C allowed an average of ∼1.7 crossbridge cycles in the two muscles. PMID:23027818

  7. Conformational change of Sos-derived proline-rich peptide upon binding Grb2 N-terminal SH3 domain probed by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Kenji; Okamura, Hideyasu

    2013-10-01

    Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) is a small adapter protein composed of a single SH2 domain flanked by two SH3 domains. The N-terminal SH3 (nSH3) domain of Grb2 binds a proline-rich region present in the guanine nucleotide releasing factor, son of sevenless (Sos). Using NMR relaxation dispersion and chemical shift analysis methods, we investigated the conformational change of the Sos-derived proline-rich peptide during the transition between the free and Grb2 nSH3-bound states. The chemical shift analysis revealed that the peptide does not present a fully random conformation but has a relatively rigid structure. The relaxation dispersion analysis detected conformational exchange of several residues of the peptide upon binding to Grb2 nSH3.

  8. Evaluation of peptides release using a natural rubber latex biomembrane as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Miranda, M C R; Borges, F A; Barros, N R; Santos Filho, N A; Mendonça, R J; Herculano, R D; Cilli, E M

    2018-05-01

    The biomembrane natural (NRL-Natural Rubber Latex), manipulated from the latex obtained from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, has shown great potential for application in biomedicine and biomaterials. Reflecting the biocompatibility and low bounce rate of this material, NRL has been used as a physical barrier to infectious agents and for the controlled release of drugs and extracts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation and release of peptides using a latex biomembrane carrier. After incorporation, the release of material from the membrane was observed using spectrophotometry. Analyses using HPLC and mass spectroscopy did not confirm the release of the antimicrobial peptide [W 6 ]Hylin a1 after 24 h. In addition, analysis of the release solution showed new compounds, indicating the degradation of the peptide by enzymes contained in the latex. Additionally, the release of a peptide with a shorter sequence (Ac-WAAAA) was evaluated, and degradation was not observed. These results showed that the use of NRL as solid matrices as delivery systems of peptide are sequence dependent and could to be evaluated for each sequence.

  9. Opposing Intermolecular Tuning of Ca2+ Affinity for Calmodulin by Neurogranin and CaMKII Peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengzhi; Tripathi, Swarnendu; Trinh, Hoa; Cheung, Margaret S

    2017-03-28

    We investigated the impact of bound calmodulin (CaM)-target compound structure on the affinity of calcium (Ca 2+ ) by integrating coarse-grained models and all-atomistic simulations with nonequilibrium physics. We focused on binding between CaM and two specific targets, Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and neurogranin (Ng), as they both regulate CaM-dependent Ca 2+ signaling pathways in neurons. It was shown experimentally that Ca 2+ /CaM (holoCaM) binds to the CaMKII peptide with overwhelmingly higher affinity than Ca 2+ -free CaM (apoCaM); the binding of CaMKII peptide to CaM in return increases the Ca 2+ affinity for CaM. However, this reciprocal relation was not observed in the Ng peptide (Ng 13-49 ), which binds to apoCaM or holoCaM with binding affinities of the same order of magnitude. Unlike the holoCaM-CaMKII peptide, whose structure can be determined by crystallography, the structural description of the apoCaM-Ng 13-49 is unknown due to low binding affinity, therefore we computationally generated an ensemble of apoCaM-Ng 13-49 structures by matching the changes in the chemical shifts of CaM upon Ng 13-49 binding from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Next, we computed the changes in Ca 2+ affinity for CaM with and without binding targets in atomistic models using Jarzynski's equality. We discovered the molecular underpinnings of lowered affinity of Ca 2+ for CaM in the presence of Ng 13-49 by showing that the N-terminal acidic region of Ng peptide pries open the β-sheet structure between the Ca 2+ binding loops particularly at C-domain of CaM, enabling Ca 2+ release. In contrast, CaMKII peptide increases Ca 2+ affinity for the C-domain of CaM by stabilizing the two Ca 2+ binding loops. We speculate that the distinctive structural difference in the bound complexes of apoCaM-Ng 13-49 and holoCaM-CaMKII delineates the importance of CaM's progressive mechanism of target binding on its Ca 2+ binding affinities. Copyright © 2017

  10. A rationally designed peptide IA-2-P2 against type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lili; Lu, Shiping; Huang, Dongcheng; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Kunfeng; Cao, Rongyue; Zong, Li; Jin, Liang; Wu, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have investigated the potential of type 1 diabetes mellitus-related autoantigens, such as heat shock protein 60, to induce immunological tolerance or to suppress the immune response. A functional 24-residue peptide derived from heat shock protein 60 (P277) has shown anti-type 1 diabetes mellitus potential in experimental animals and in clinical studies, but it also carries a potential atherogenic effect. In this study, we have modified P277 to retain an anti-type 1 diabetes mellitus effect and minimize the atherogenic potential by replacing the P277 B epitope with another diabetes-associated autoantigen, insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2), to create the fusion peptide IA-2-P2. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice, the IA-2-P2 peptide displayed similar anti-diabetic effects to the control P277 peptide. Also, the IA-2-P2 peptide did not show atherogenic activity in a rabbit model. Our findings indicate the potential of IA-2-P2 as a promising vaccine against type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Zein nanoparticle as a novel BMP6 derived peptide carrier for enhanced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, Mahvash; Hasannia, Sadegh; Faghihi, Shahab; Mashayekhi, Farhad; Homazadeh, Homayoun; Mostofi, Seyed Behrooz

    2018-01-26

    Zein nanoparticles as a carrier system for BMP6-derived peptide were prepared by liquid-liquid phase separation procedure and characterized with SEM, DLS, FTIR and thermogravimetric methods. After peptide encapsulation, nanoparticle size increased from 236.3 ± 92.2 nm to 379.4 ± 116.8 nm. The encapsulation efficiency of peptide was 72.6% and the release of peptide from Zein nanoparticles was partly sustained in trypsin containing phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) for up to 14 days. Peptide-loaded nanoparticles showed similar cell viability compared with blank ones. ALP activity of C2C12 cells treated with peptide-loaded nanoparticles (500 µg/mL) was evaluated 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after culture. In peptide-loaded nanoparticles, ALP activity was significantly higher (p < .05) compared with other groups at day 14. Alizarin Red S staining showed, C2C12 cells behind peptide-loaded nanoparticles had significantly (p < .05) higher calcium deposition at day 21. The results of RT-qPCR show that the BMP-6 peptide activated expression of RUNX2 as a transcription factor. In turn, RUNX2 regulates SPP1 and BGLAP gene expression, as osteogenic marker genes. The results confirm that the peptide-loaded Zein nanoparticles, as osteoinductive material, may be used to repair small area of bone defects, with low load bearing.

  12. Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Chicken Cathelicidin-2 Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Albert; van Eldik, Mandy; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Hanne L. M.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Bikker, Floris J.; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2016-01-01

    Host Defence Peptides and derived peptides are promising classes of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory lead compounds. For this purpose we examined whether chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2)-derived peptides modulate the function and inflammatory response of avian immune cells. Using a chicken macrophage cell line (HD11) we found that full-length CATH-2 dose-dependently induced transcription of chemokines CXCLi2/IL-8, MCP-3 and CCLi4/RANTES, but not of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In addition, CATH-2 efficiently inhibited IL-1β and nitric oxide production by HD11 cells induced by different sources of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). N-terminal truncated CATH-2 derived peptides maintained the capacity to selectively induce chemokine transcription, but despite their high LPS affinity several analogs lacked LPS-neutralizing capacity. Substitution of phenylalanine residues by tryptophan introduced endotoxin neutralization capacity in inactive truncated CATH-2 derived peptides. In contrast, amino acid substitution of phenylalanine by tyrosine abrogated endotoxin neutralization activity of CATH-2 analogs. These findings support a pivotal role for aromatic residues in peptide-mediated endotoxin neutralization by CATH-2 analogs and were shown to be independent of LPS affinity. The capacity to modulate chemokine production and dampen endotoxin-induced pro-inflammatory responses in chicken immune cells implicates that small CATH-2 based peptides could serve as leads for the design of CATH-2 based immunomodulatory anti-infectives. PMID:26848845

  13. Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Chicken Cathelicidin-2 Derived Peptides.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Albert; van Eldik, Mandy; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Hanne L M; de Zoete, Marcel R; Bikker, Floris J; Haagsman, Henk P

    2016-01-01

    Host Defence Peptides and derived peptides are promising classes of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory lead compounds. For this purpose we examined whether chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2)-derived peptides modulate the function and inflammatory response of avian immune cells. Using a chicken macrophage cell line (HD11) we found that full-length CATH-2 dose-dependently induced transcription of chemokines CXCLi2/IL-8, MCP-3 and CCLi4/RANTES, but not of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In addition, CATH-2 efficiently inhibited IL-1β and nitric oxide production by HD11 cells induced by different sources of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). N-terminal truncated CATH-2 derived peptides maintained the capacity to selectively induce chemokine transcription, but despite their high LPS affinity several analogs lacked LPS-neutralizing capacity. Substitution of phenylalanine residues by tryptophan introduced endotoxin neutralization capacity in inactive truncated CATH-2 derived peptides. In contrast, amino acid substitution of phenylalanine by tyrosine abrogated endotoxin neutralization activity of CATH-2 analogs. These findings support a pivotal role for aromatic residues in peptide-mediated endotoxin neutralization by CATH-2 analogs and were shown to be independent of LPS affinity. The capacity to modulate chemokine production and dampen endotoxin-induced pro-inflammatory responses in chicken immune cells implicates that small CATH-2 based peptides could serve as leads for the design of CATH-2 based immunomodulatory anti-infectives.

  14. A role for hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in extinction of aversive memory.

    PubMed

    Luft, Tatiana; Flores, Debora G; Vianna, Monica R M; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Roesler, Rafael; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2006-06-26

    Although the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor has been implicated in memory consolidation, previous studies have not examined whether it is involved in extinction. Here we show that gastrin-releasing peptide receptor blockade in the hippocampus disrupts extinction of aversive memory. Male rats were trained in inhibitory avoidance conditioning and then returned repeatedly to the training context without shock on a daily basis for 3 days. Infusion of a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist or the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin into the dorsal hippocampus immediately after the first extinction session blocked extinction. These drugs did not affect performance in subsequent sessions when the first extinction session (1 day after training) was omitted. The results indicate that hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptors are involved in memory extinction.

  15. Design of peptide substrates for nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence assays of proteases: 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene as a noninvasive fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-01-15

    Fluorescence protease assays were investigated with peptide substrates containing a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as a fluorescent amino acid. The special characteristic of the fluorophore Dbo is its exceedingly long fluorescence lifetime (ca. 300 ns in water under air), which allows the use of nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection to efficiently suppress shorter-lived background emission. In addition, the natural amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine can be employed as intramolecular fluorescence quenchers, which facilitates substrate design. Fourteen synthetic peptide substrates (composed of 2-19 amino acids) and five enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase A, leucine aminopeptidase, and chymotrypsin) were investigated and, in all 28 examined combinations, enzymatic activity was detected by monitoring the increase in steady state fluorescence with time and determining the reaction rates as kcat/Km values, which ranged from 0.2 to 80x10(6) M-1 min-1. The results suggest an excellent compatibility of the very small and hydrophilic fluorescent probe Dbo with solid-phase peptide synthesis and the investigated proteases. For all 14 peptides the fluorescence lifetimes before and after enzymatic cleavage were measured and Nano-TRF measurements were performed in 384-well microplates. The fluorescence lifetimes of the different peptides provide the basis for the rational design of Dbo-based fluorescent substrates for protease assays. Measurements in Nano-TRF mode revealed, in addition to efficient suppression of background fluorescence, an increased differentiation between cleaved and uncleaved substrate. The Dbo-based assays can be adapted for high-throughput screening.

  16. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallelmore » with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.« less

  17. Designing photoswitchable peptides using the AsLOV2 domain.

    PubMed

    Lungu, Oana I; Hallett, Ryan A; Choi, Eun Jung; Aiken, Mary J; Hahn, Klaus M; Kuhlman, Brian

    2012-04-20

    Photocontrol of functional peptides is a powerful tool for spatial and temporal control of cell signaling events. We show that the genetically encoded light-sensitive LOV2 domain of Avena Sativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2) can be used to reversibly photomodulate the affinity of peptides for their binding partners. Sequence analysis and molecular modeling were used to embed two peptides into the Jα helix of the AsLOV2 domain while maintaining AsLOV2 structure in the dark but allowing for binding to effector proteins when the Jα helix unfolds in the light. Caged versions of the ipaA and SsrA peptides, LOV-ipaA and LOV-SsrA, bind their targets with 49- and 8-fold enhanced affinity in the light, respectively. These switches can be used as general tools for light-dependent colocalization, which we demonstrate with photo-activable gene transcription in yeast. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influences of Histidine-1 and Azaphenylalanine-4 on the Affinity, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiangiogenic Activities of Azapeptide Cluster of Differentiation 36 Receptor Modulators.

    PubMed

    Chignen Possi, Kelvine; Mulumba, Mukandila; Omri, Samy; Garcia-Ramos, Yesica; Tahiri, Houda; Chemtob, Sylvain; Ong, Huy; Lubell, William D

    2017-11-22

    Azapeptide analogues of growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) exhibit promising affinity, selectivity, and modulator activity on the cluster of differentiation 36 receptor (CD36). For example, [A 1 , azaF 4 ]- and [azaY 4 ]-GHRP-6 (1a and 2b) were previously shown to bind selectively to CD36 and exhibited respectively significant antiangiogenic and slight angiogenic activities in a microvascular sprouting assay using choroid explants. The influences of the 1- and 4-position residues on the affinity, anti-inflammatory, and antiangiogenic activity of these azapeptides have now been studied in detail by the synthesis and analysis of a set of 25 analogues featuring Ala 1 or His 1 and a variety of aromatic side chains at the aza-amino acid residue in the 4-position. Although their binding affinities differed only by a factor of 17, the analogues exhibited significant differences in ability to modulate production of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages and choroidal neovascularization.

  19. Impact of human milk pasteurization on the kinetics of peptide release during in vitro dynamic term newborn digestion.

    PubMed

    Deglaire, Amélie; De Oliveira, Samira C; Jardin, Julien; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Emily, Mathieu; Ménard, Olivia; Bourlieu, Claire; Dupont, Didier

    2016-07-01

    Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30 min) ensures sanitary quality of donor's human milk but also denatures beneficial proteins. Understanding whether this further impacts the kinetics of peptide release during gastrointestinal digestion of human milk was the aim of the present paper. Mature raw (RHM) or pasteurized (PHM) human milk were digested (RHM, n = 2; PHM, n = 3) by an in vitro dynamic system (term stage). Label-free quantitative peptidomics was performed on milk and digesta (ten time points). Ascending hierarchical clustering was conducted on "Pasteurization × Digestion time" interaction coefficients. Preproteolysis occurred in human milk (159 unique peptides; RHM: 91, PHM: 151), mostly on β-casein (88% of the endogenous peptides). The predicted cleavage number increased with pasteurization, potentially through plasmin activation (plasmin cleavages: RHM, 53; PHM, 76). During digestion, eight clusters resumed 1054 peptides from RHM and PHM, originating for 49% of them from β-casein. For seven clusters (57% of peptides), the kinetics of peptide release differed between RHM and PHM. The parent protein was significantly linked to the clustering (p-value = 1.4 E-09), with β-casein and lactoferrin associated to clusters in an opposite manner. Pasteurization impacted selectively gastric and intestinal kinetics of peptide release in term newborns, which may have further nutritional consequences. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. 28 CFR 2.83 - Release planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release planning. 2.83 Section 2.83... Release planning. (a) All grants of parole shall be conditioned on the development of a suitable release... parole date for purposes of release planning for up to 120 days without a hearing. If efforts to...

  1. Lipopolysaccharide induces amyloid formation of antimicrobial peptide HAL-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiarong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Wei; Sun, Hongbin; Wang, Junfeng

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the important component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contributes to the integrity of the outer membrane and protects the cell against bactericidal agents, including antimicrobial peptides. However, the mechanisms of interaction between antimicrobial peptides and LPS are not clearly understood. Halictines-2 (HAL-2), one of the novel antimicrobial peptides, was isolated from the venom of the eusocial bee Halictus sexcinctus. HAL-2 has exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and even against cancer cells. Here, we studied the interactions between HAL-2 and LPS to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of HAL-2 in vitro. Our results show that HAL-2 adopts a significant degree of β-strand structure in the presence of LPS. LPS is capable of inducing HAL-2 amyloid formation, which may play a vital role in its antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral self-nanoemulsifying peptide drug delivery systems: impact of lipase on drug release.

    PubMed

    Mahjub, Reza; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza; Bernkop Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to evaluate the impact of lipases on the release behaviour of a peptide drug from oral self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems. Octreotide was ion paired with the anionic surfactants deoxycholate, decanoate, oleate and dodecylsulphate. The lipophilic character of these complexes was characterised by determining the n-octanol/buffer pH 7.4 partition coefficient. In the following the most hydrophilic complex was incorporated in a likely lipase degradable self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) formulation containing a triglyceride (olive oil; Pharm.Eur.) and in a likely not lipase degradable SNEDDS containing lipids and surfactants without any ester bonds. After 1:100 dilutions in artificial intestinal fluid (AIF), the lipid droplets were characterised regarding size distribution. With these SNEDDS, drug release studies were performed in AIF with and without lipase. Results showed that the most hydrophobic complex can be formed with deoxycholate in an octreotide:anionic surfactant ratio of 1:5. Even 73.1 ± 8.1% of it could be quantified in the n-octanol phase. SNEDDS containing octreotide | olive oil | cremophor EL | propylene glycol (2|57|38|3) and octreotide | liquid paraffin | Brij 35 | propylene glycol | ethanol (2|66.5|25|5|1.5) showed after dilution in AIF, a mean droplet size of 232 ± 53 nm and 235 ± 50 nm, respectively. Drug release studies showed a sustained release of octreotide out of these formulations for at least 24 h, whereas > 80% of the drug was released within 2 h in the presence of lipase in the case of the triglyceride containing SNEEDS. In contrast the release profile from ester-free SNEDDS was not significantly altered (p < 0.05) due to the addition of lipase providing evidence for the stability of this formulation towards lipases. According to these results, SNEDDS could be identified as a useful tool for sustained oral peptide delivery taking an enzymatic degradation by

  3. Corticotropin-releasing factor peptide antagonists: design, characterization and potential clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Rivier, Jean E; Rivier, Catherine L

    2014-04-01

    Elusive for more than half a century, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was finally isolated and characterized in 1981 from ovine hypothalami and shortly thereafter, from rat brains. Thirty years later, much has been learned about the function and localization of CRF and related family members (Urocortins 1, 2 and 3) and their 2 receptors, CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) and CRF receptor type 2 (CRFR2). Here, we report the stepwise development of peptide CRF agonists and antagonists, which led to the CRFR1 agonist Stressin1; the long-acting antagonists Astressin2-B which is specific for CRFR2; and Astressin B, which binds to both CRFR1 and CRFR2.This analog has potential for the treatment of CRF-dependent diseases in the periphery, such as irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of the mammalian neuropeptide, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), on gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormone secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Wood, S M; Jung, R T; Webster, J D; Ghatei, M A; Adrian, T E; Yanaihara, N; Yanaihara, C; Bloom, S R

    1983-10-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide, a newly isolated mammalian peptide similar in its structure and actions to the amphibian peptide, bombesin, has recently been localized to nerves in the brain, gut and pancreas. The present study investigates its effects on gut and pancreatic peptides in man. Intravenous infusion of 0.7 and 2.9 pmol min-1 kg-1 produced significant elevation of plasma gastrin, cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity and neurotensin. It was found also to potentiate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Its specific location in nerve fibres in the proximal gut and pancreas and its selective effect on gastroenteropancreatic peptides may favour its role as a physiological regulatory neuropeptide.

  5. Paradoxical effects of gastrin releasing peptide on gastrin release and gastric secretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Takagi, A; Moriga, M; Narusawa, H; Uchino, H; Aono, M

    1986-12-01

    The effects of gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) on gastrin release and gastric secretion were studied in anesthetized rats. Intravenous infusion of GRP (1-16 micrograms/kg/hr) caused a dose-dependent increase in serum gastrin level, however, it had no effect on basal gastric secretion in the lumen-perfused stomach preparation. Furthermore, GRP inhibited gastric secretion stimulated by pentagastrin or histamine dose-dependently, but not by carbachol. Simultaneous infusion of GRP and a beta adrenergic blocking agent, propranolol, an inhibitor of somatostatin release, did not alter the inhibitory effect of GRP on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of GRP on gastric secretion in a stimulated condition is mediated via peptide hormones coreleased by GRP, and not via beta-adrenergic pathways.

  6. Msb2 Shedding Protects Candida albicans against Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski-Schneider, Eva; Swidergall, Marc; Cottier, Fabien; Tielker, Denis; Román, Elvira; Pla, Jesus; Ernst, Joachim F.

    2012-01-01

    Msb2 is a sensor protein in the plasma membrane of fungi. In the human fungal pathogen C. albicans Msb2 signals via the Cek1 MAP kinase pathway to maintain cell wall integrity and allow filamentous growth. Msb2 doubly epitope-tagged in its large extracellular and small cytoplasmic domain was efficiently cleaved during liquid and surface growth and the extracellular domain was almost quantitatively released into the growth medium. Msb2 cleavage was independent of proteases Sap9, Sap10 and Kex2. Secreted Msb2 was highly O-glycosylated by protein mannosyltransferases including Pmt1 resulting in an apparent molecular mass of >400 kDa. Deletion analyses revealed that the transmembrane region is required for Msb2 function, while the large N-terminal and the small cytoplasmic region function to downregulate Msb2 signaling or, respectively, allow its induction by tunicamycin. Purified extracellular Msb2 domain protected fungal and bacterial cells effectively from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) histatin-5 and LL-37. AMP inactivation was not due to degradation but depended on the quantity and length of the Msb2 glycofragment. C. albicans msb2 mutants were supersensitive to LL-37 but not histatin-5, suggesting that secreted rather than cell-associated Msb2 determines AMP protection. Thus, in addition to its sensor function Msb2 has a second activity because shedding of its glycofragment generates AMP quorum resistance. PMID:22319443

  7. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide and Glucose Metabolism Following Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pendharkar, Sayali A; Drury, Marie; Walia, Monika; Korc, Murray; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-08-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a pluripotent peptide that has been implicated in both gastrointestinal inflammatory states and classical chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) after pancreatitis, an exemplar inflammatory disease involving the gastrointestinal tract, is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones as well as cytokines. While GRP is involved in secretion of many of them, it is not known whether GRP has a role in AGM. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between GRP and AGM following pancreatitis. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure GRP, blood glucose, insulin, amylin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, cholecystokinin, gastric-inhibitory peptide (GIP), gastrin, ghrelin, glicentin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and 2, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY (PYY), secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interleukin-6. Modified Poisson regression analysis and linear regression analyses were conducted. Four statistical models were used to adjust for demographic, metabolic, and pancreatitis-related risk factors. A total of 83 individuals after an episode of pancreatitis were recruited. GRP was significantly associated with AGM, consistently in all four models (P -trend < 0.05), and fasting blood glucose contributed 17% to the variance of GRP. Further, GRP was significantly associated with glucagon (P < 0.003), MCP-1 (P < 0.025), and TNF-α (P < 0.025) - consistently in all four models. GRP was also significantly associated with PP and PYY in three models (P < 0.030 for both), and with GIP and glicentin in one model (P = 0.001 and 0.024, respectively). Associations between GRP and other pancreatic and gut hormones were not significant. GRP is significantly increased in patients with AGM after pancreatitis and is associated with increased levels of pro

  8. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide and Glucose Metabolism Following Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pendharkar, Sayali A.; Drury, Marie; Walia, Monika; Korc, Murray; Petrov, Maxim S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a pluripotent peptide that has been implicated in both gastrointestinal inflammatory states and classical chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) after pancreatitis, an exemplar inflammatory disease involving the gastrointestinal tract, is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones as well as cytokines. While GRP is involved in secretion of many of them, it is not known whether GRP has a role in AGM. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between GRP and AGM following pancreatitis. Methods Fasting blood samples were collected to measure GRP, blood glucose, insulin, amylin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, cholecystokinin, gastric-inhibitory peptide (GIP), gastrin, ghrelin, glicentin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and 2, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY (PYY), secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interleukin-6. Modified Poisson regression analysis and linear regression analyses were conducted. Four statistical models were used to adjust for demographic, metabolic, and pancreatitis-related risk factors. Results A total of 83 individuals after an episode of pancreatitis were recruited. GRP was significantly associated with AGM, consistently in all four models (P -trend < 0.05), and fasting blood glucose contributed 17% to the variance of GRP. Further, GRP was significantly associated with glucagon (P < 0.003), MCP-1 (P < 0.025), and TNF-α (P < 0.025) - consistently in all four models. GRP was also significantly associated with PP and PYY in three models (P < 0.030 for both), and with GIP and glicentin in one model (P = 0.001 and 0.024, respectively). Associations between GRP and other pancreatic and gut hormones were not significant. Conclusion GRP is significantly increased in patients with AGM after pancreatitis and is

  9. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  10. Drug Release Kinetics, Cell Uptake, and Tumor Toxicity of Hybrid VVVVVVKK Peptide-Assembled Polylactide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Esmaiel; Yang, Xiaoming; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; He, Xuezhong

    2013-01-01

    An exciting approach to tumor delivery is encapsulation of the drug in self-assembled polymer-peptide nanoparticles. The objective of this work was to synthesize a conjugate of low molecular weight polylactide (LMW PLA) and V6K2 peptide, and investigate self-assembly, drug release kinetics, cell uptake and toxicity, drug pharmacokinetics, and tumor cell invasion with Doxorubicin (DOX) or paclitaxel (PTX). The results for PLA-V6K2 self-assembled NPs were compared with those of polyethylene glycol stabilized PLA (PLA-EG) NPs. The size of PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs were 100±20 and 130±50 nm, respectively, with polydispersity index of 1.04 and 1.14. The encapsulation efficiency of DOX in PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs was 44±9% and 55±5%, respectively, and that of PTX was >90 for both NP types. The release of DOX and PTX from PLA-V6K2 was slower than that of PLA-EG and the release rate was relatively constant with time. Based on molecular dynamic simulation, the less hydrophobic DOX was distributed in the lactide core as well as the peptide shell while the hydrophobic PTX was localized mainly to the lactide core. PLA-V6K2 NPs had significantly higher cell uptake by 4T1 mouse breast carcinoma cells compared to PLA-EG NPs, which was attributed to the electrostatic interactions between the peptide and negatively charged moieties on the cell membrane. PLA-V6K2 NPs showed no toxicity to marrow stromal cells. DOX loaded PLA-V6K2 NPs showed higher toxicity to 4T1 cells and the DNA damage response and apoptosis was delayed compared to the free DOX. DOX or PTX encapsulated in PLA-V6K2 NPs significantly reduced invasion of 4T1 cells compared to those cells treated with the drug in PLA-EG NPs. Invasion of 4T1 cells treated with DOX in PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs was 5±1% and 30±5%, respectively, and that of PTX was 11±2% and 40±7%. The AUC of DOX in PLA-V6K2 NPs was 67% and 21% higher than those of free DOX and PLA-EG NPs, respectively. DOX loaded PLA-V6K2 NPs injected in C3He

  11. A gastrin releasing peptide from the porcine nonantral gastric tissue.

    PubMed

    McDonald, T J; Nilsson, G; Vagne, M; Ghatei, M; Bloom, S R; Mutt, V

    1978-09-01

    This paper presents evidence for the existence in extracts from porcine non-antral gastric tissue of a peptide capable of causing substantial rises of plasma immunoreactive gastrin levels in a dose dependent manner and of stimulation of gastric acid and pepsin secretion. Obtained data show that the peptide is basic and that its gastrin releasing properties are at least partially resistant to atropinisation and beta-receptor blockade. Antrectomy almost eliminates the rise in plasma IRGa when the peptide is administered. The possible relationship of this peptide to amphibian bombesin is discussed.

  12. A gastrin releasing peptide from the porcine nonantral gastric tissue.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, T J; Nilsson, G; Vagne, M; Ghatei, M; Bloom, S R; Mutt, V

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents evidence for the existence in extracts from porcine non-antral gastric tissue of a peptide capable of causing substantial rises of plasma immunoreactive gastrin levels in a dose dependent manner and of stimulation of gastric acid and pepsin secretion. Obtained data show that the peptide is basic and that its gastrin releasing properties are at least partially resistant to atropinisation and beta-receptor blockade. Antrectomy almost eliminates the rise in plasma IRGa when the peptide is administered. The possible relationship of this peptide to amphibian bombesin is discussed. PMID:361511

  13. Tidbits for the synthesis of bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido (SEA) polystyrene resin, SEA peptides and peptide thioesters.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Nathalie; Raibaut, Laurent; Blanpain, Annick; Desmet, Rémi; Dheur, Julien; Mhidia, Reda; Boll, Emmanuelle; Drobecq, Hervé; Pira, Silvain L; Melnyk, Oleg

    2014-02-01

    Protein total chemical synthesis enables the atom-by-atom control of the protein structure and therefore has a great potential for studying protein function. Native chemical ligation of C-terminal peptide thioesters with N-terminal cysteinyl peptides and related methodologies are central to the field of protein total synthesis. Consequently, methods enabling the facile synthesis of peptide thioesters using Fmoc-SPPS are of great value. Herein, we provide a detailed protocol for the preparation of bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amino polystyrene resin as a starting point for the synthesis of C-terminal bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido peptides and of peptide thioesters derived from 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Directed evolution of FLS2 towards novel flagellin peptide recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Helft, Laura; Thompson, Mikayla; Bent, Andrew F.

    Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are molecules, or domains within molecules, that are conserved across microbial taxa and can be recognized by a plant or animal immune system. Although MAMP receptors have evolved to recognize conserved epitopes, the MAMPs in some microbial species or strains have diverged sufficiently to render them unrecognizable by some host immune systems. In this study, we carried out in vitro evolution of the Arabidopsis thaliana flagellin receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2) to isolate derivatives that recognize one or more flagellin peptides from bacteria for which the wildtype Arabidopsis FLS2 confers little or no response. A targeted approachmore » generated amino acid variation at FLS2 residues in a region previously implicated in flagellin recognition. The primary screen tested for elevated response to the canonical flagellin peptide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, flg22. From this pool, we then identified five alleles of FLS2 that confer modest (quantitatively partial) recognition of an Erwinia amylovora flagellin peptide. Use of this Erwinia-based flagellin peptide to stimulate Arabidopsis plants expressing the resulting FLS2 alleles did not lead to a detectable reduction of virulent P. syringae pv. tomato growth. However, combination of two identified mutations into a single allele further increased FLS2-mediated responses to the E. amylovora flagellin peptide. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate the potential to raise the sensitivity of MAMP receptors toward particular targets.« less

  15. Directed evolution of FLS2 towards novel flagellin peptide recognition

    DOE PAGES

    Helft, Laura; Thompson, Mikayla; Bent, Andrew F.

    2016-06-06

    Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are molecules, or domains within molecules, that are conserved across microbial taxa and can be recognized by a plant or animal immune system. Although MAMP receptors have evolved to recognize conserved epitopes, the MAMPs in some microbial species or strains have diverged sufficiently to render them unrecognizable by some host immune systems. In this study, we carried out in vitro evolution of the Arabidopsis thaliana flagellin receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2) to isolate derivatives that recognize one or more flagellin peptides from bacteria for which the wildtype Arabidopsis FLS2 confers little or no response. A targeted approachmore » generated amino acid variation at FLS2 residues in a region previously implicated in flagellin recognition. The primary screen tested for elevated response to the canonical flagellin peptide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, flg22. From this pool, we then identified five alleles of FLS2 that confer modest (quantitatively partial) recognition of an Erwinia amylovora flagellin peptide. Use of this Erwinia-based flagellin peptide to stimulate Arabidopsis plants expressing the resulting FLS2 alleles did not lead to a detectable reduction of virulent P. syringae pv. tomato growth. However, combination of two identified mutations into a single allele further increased FLS2-mediated responses to the E. amylovora flagellin peptide. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate the potential to raise the sensitivity of MAMP receptors toward particular targets.« less

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of a human prothrombin fragment-2-derived peptide, NSA9, in EOC2 microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kim, Soung Soo

    2008-04-11

    Pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), and several cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, and IL-6) are responsible for central nervous system (CNS) injuries that include ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and neural death. Inhibition of these pro-inflammatory mediators would be an effective therapy to reduce the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of a human prothrombin fragment-2-derived peptide, NSA9 (NSAVQLVEN), on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated brain microglia. NSA9 significantly inhibited the release of NO, PGE{sub 2}, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore,more » NSA9 reduced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein, which control the production of NO and PGE{sub 2}, respectively. Moreover, NSA9 suppressed the LPS-induced nuclear translocation and activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). These results suggest that NSA9 strongly inhibits the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia through the modulation of NF-{kappa}B activity.« less

  17. Increased mast cell expression of PAR-2 in skin inflammatory diseases and release of IL-8 upon PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo Filipe da Silva; Nilsson, Gunnar; Harvima, Ilkka Tapani

    2010-02-01

    Mast cells are increasingly present in the lesional skin of chronic skin inflammatory diseases including psoriasis and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). It has previously been shown that proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is expressed by mast cells, and tryptase is a potent activator of this receptor. In this study, skin biopsies from both healthy-looking and lesional skin of patients with psoriasis and superficial spreading BCC were collected and the expression of PAR-2 immunoreactivity in tryptase-positive mast cells was analysed. PAR-2 expression was confirmed in vitro in different mast cell populations. Cord-blood derived mast cells (CBMC) were stimulated with a PAR-2 activating peptide, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2). Consequently, IL-8 and histamine production was analysed in the supernatants. We observed a significant increase in the percentage of mast cells expressing PAR-2 in the lesional skin of psoriasis and BCC patients compared with the healthy-looking skin. HMC-1.2, LAD-2 and CBMC mast cells all expressed PAR-2 both intracellularly and on the cell surface. CBMC activation with the PAR-2 activating peptide resulted in an increased secretion of IL-8, but no histamine release was observed. Furthermore, both PAR-2 and IL-8 were co-localized to the same tryptase-positive mast cells in the lesional BCC skin. These results show that mast cells express increased levels of PAR-2 in chronic skin inflammation. Also, mast cells can be activated by a PAR-2 agonist to secrete IL-8, a chemokine which can contribute to the progress of inflammation.

  18. Bioactive peptides released from in vitro digestion of human milk with or without pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk (HM) serves as the best alternative for breast-feeding when availability of mother's milk is limited. Pasteurization is also applied to mother's own milk for very low birth weight infants, who are vulnerable to microbial infection. Whether pasteurization affects protein digestibility and therefore modulates the profile of bioactive peptides released from HM proteins by gastrointestinal digestion, has not been examined to date. HM with and without pasteurization (62.5 °C for 30 min) were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, followed by peptidomic analysis to compare the formation of bioactive peptides. Some of the bioactive peptides, such as caseinophosphopeptide homologues, a possible opioid peptide (or propeptide), and an antibacterial peptide, were present in undigested HM and showed resistance to in vitro digestion, suggesting that these peptides are likely to exert their bioactivities in the gastrointestinal lumen, or be stably transported to target organs. In vitro digestion of HM released a large variety of bioactive peptides such as angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory, antioxidative, and immunomodulatory peptides. Bioactive peptides were released largely in the same manner with and without pasteurization. Provision of pasteurized HM may be as beneficial as breast-feeding in terms of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides.

  19. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and somatostatin releases correlated with the area under the lafutidine concentration-time curve in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, K; Shimatani, T; Azuma, Y; Inoue, M; Morikawa, N

    2006-08-01

    To examine the effects of the histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist, lafutidine, at clinical dosage (10 mg tablet after a standardized meal) on plasma levels of the gastrointestinal peptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin and gastrin. Six healthy male volunteers ate a standardized meal, and received either lafutidine orally at a dose of 10 mg or water only (control). Blood samples were taken before and up to 4 h after the drug administration. Plasma lafutidine concentrations were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic analysis of lafutidine was performed using one-compartmental model. The levels of immunoreactive substances of plasma CGRP, somatostatin and gastrin were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and the amount of peptide release was calculated by the trapezoidal method. Lafutidine significantly increased plasma CGRP levels at 1, 1.5, 2.5 and 4 h and the total amount of CGRP release (192 +/- 14.0 pg.h/mL) compared with the control group (128 +/- 21.5 pg.h/mL). Lafutidine significantly increased the plasma somatostatin levels at 1 and 1.5 h, and the total amount of somatostatin released (107 +/- 18.2 pg.h/mL) compared with the control (78.4 +/- 7.70 pg.h/mL). The area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 4 h after administration correlated well with the Delta-CGRP and Delta-somatostatin release but not with total amount of gastrin released. However, plasma gastrin levels were significantly elevated at 1.5 h after drug administration. Lafutidine at clinical dosage increases plasma CGRP and the somatostatin. The amounts released correlated with the AUC of lafutidine in humans. These results suggest that the increased release of CGRP and somatostatin may contribute to its gastroprotective and anti-acid secretory effect.

  20. Invertebrate Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Related Peptides and Their Receptors: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Tsubasa; Shiraishi, Akira; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Shin; Aoyama, Masato; Satake, Honoo

    2017-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) play pivotal roles in reproductive functions via the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad axis, namely, HPG axis in vertebrates. GnRHs and their receptors (GnRHRs) are likely to be conserved in invertebrate deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. All vertebrate and urochordate GnRHs are composed of 10 amino acids, whereas protostome, echinoderm, and amphioxus GnRH-like peptides are 11- or 12-residue peptide containing two amino acids after an N-terminal pyro-Glu. In urochordates, Halocynthia roretzi GnRH gene encodes two GnRH peptide sequences, whereas two GnRH genes encode three different GnRH peptides in Ciona intestinalis. These findings indicate the species-specific diversification of GnRHs. Intriguingly, the major signaling pathway for GnRHRs is intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in chordates, echinoderms, and protostomes, whereas Ciona GnRHRs (Ci-GnRHRs) are endowed with multiple GnRHergic cAMP production pathways in a ligand-selective manner. Moreover, the ligand-specific modulation of signal transduction via heterodimerization among Ci-GnRHR paralogs suggests the species-specific development of fine-tuning of gonadal functions in ascidians. Echinoderm GnRH-like peptides show high sequence differences compared to those of protostome counterparts, leading to the difficulty in classification of peptides and receptors. These findings also show both the diversity and conservation of GnRH signaling systems in invertebrates. The lack of the HPG axis in invertebrates indicates that biological functions of GnRHs are not release of gonadotropins in current invertebrates and common ancestors of vertebrates and invertebrates. To date, authentic or putative GnRHRs have been characterized from various echinoderms and protostomes as well as chordates and the mRNAs have been found to be distributed not only reproductive organs but also other tissues. Collectively, these findings further support the notion that invertebrate GnRHs have

  1. Release of bioactive peptides from polyurethane films in vitro and in vivo: Effect of polymer composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Woodruff, Trent M; Clark, Richard J; Martin, Darren J; Minchin, Rodney F

    2016-09-01

    Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are widely used in biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility. Their role as matrices for the delivery of small molecule therapeutics has been widely reported. However, very little is known about the release of bioactive peptides from this class of polymers. Here, we report the release of linear and cyclic peptides from TPUs with different hard and soft segments. Solvent casting of the TPU at room temperature mixed with the different peptides resulted in reproducible efflux profiles with no evidence of drug degradation. Peptide release was dependent on the size as well as the composition of the TPU. Tecoflex 80A (T80A) showed more extensive release than ElastEon 5-325, which correlated with a degree of hydration. It was also shown that the composition of the medium influenced the rate and extent of peptide efflux. Blending the different TPUs allowed for better control of peptide efflux, especially the initial burst effect. Peptide-loaded TPU prolonged the plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cyclic peptide PMX53, which normally has a plasma half-life of less than 30min. Using a blend of T80A and E5-325, therapeutic plasma levels of PMX53 were observed up to 9days following a single intraperitoneal implantation of the drug-loaded film. PMX53 released from the blended TPUs significantly inhibited B16-F10 melanoma tumor growth in mice demonstrating its bioactivity in vivo. This study provides important findings for TPU-based therapeutic peptide delivery that could improve the pharmacological utility of peptides as therapeutics. Therapeutic peptides can be highly specific and potent pharmacological agents, but are poorly absorbed and rapidly degraded in the body. This can be overcome by using a matrix that protects the peptide in vivo and promotes its slow release so that a therapeutic effect can be achieved over days or weeks. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are a versatile family of polymers that are biocompatible

  2. MMP2-cleavage of DMP1 generates a bioactive peptide promoting differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cell.

    PubMed

    Chaussain, Catherine; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Huet, Eric; Floris, Caroline; Ravindran, Sriram; Hao, Jianjun; Menashi, Suzanne; George, Anne

    2009-11-12

    Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) plays a regulatory role in dentin mineralization and can also function as a signaling molecule. MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) is a predominant protease in the dentin matrix that plays a prominent role in tooth formation and a potential role during the carious process. The possibility that MMP-2 can cleave DMP1 to release biologically active peptides was investigated in this study. DMP1, both in the recombinant form and in its native state within the dentin matrix, was shown to be a substrate for MMP-2. Proteolytic processing of DMP1 by MMP-2 produced two major peptides, one that contains the C-terminal region of the protein known to carry both the ASARM (aspartic acid and serine rich domain) domain involved in biomineralization and the DNA binding site of DMP1. In vitro experiments with recombinant N- and C-terminal polypeptides mimicking the MMP-2 cleavage products of DMP1 demonstrated an effect of the C-polypeptide on the differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells to a putative odontoblast phenotype. In vivo implantation of this peptide in a rat injured pulp model induced a rapid formation of a homogeneous dentin bridge covered by a palisade of orientated cells expressing dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and DMP1, attesting an efficient repair process. These data suggest that a peptide generated through the proteolytic processing of DMP1 by MMP-2 can regulate the differentiation of mesenchymal cells during dentinogenesis and thus sustain reparative dentin formation in pathological situations such as carious decay. In addition, these data open a new therapeutic possibility of using this peptide to regenerate dentin after an injury.

  3. Chitosan nanoparticles for the linear release of model cationic Peptide.

    PubMed

    Piras, Anna Maria; Sandreschi, Stefania; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna; Chiellini, Federica

    2015-07-01

    The present study is focused on the development of a model drug delivery system (DDS) based on Chitosan (CS) nanoparticles using Renin substrate I (RSI) as model agent. RSI shares the main chemical-physical features of several biologically active antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). AMPs have a great therapeutic potential that is hampered by their lability in the biological fluids and as such they are perfect candidates for DDS. The development studies of quality DDS loaded with AMPs would require highly sensitive and specific quantification assays. The use of RSI allowed for the fine-tuning and optimization of the formulation parameters to promote the hydrophobic interactions between CS and the cationic peptide, favour the loading of the active ingredient and enhance the release properties of the carrier. RSI was encapsulated in chitosan NPs by mean of ionic gelation and a chromogenic enzymatic essay was carried out for the release kinetics evaluation. The developed formulations displayed almost 100% of encapsulation efficacy, low burst percentages, and a linear release of the model peptide. A release model was created showing a direct dependence on both the amount of RSI and NPs radius. Although CS has always been formulated with negatively charged active agents (e.g. oligonucleotides or anionic proteins), the use of ionotropic gelation in presence of a small cationic active agent promoted the formation of "core-shell" NPs. The described model, with tuneable linear release rates, appears eligible for further exploitation such as the loading of therapeutically active AMPs.

  4. Dynamics at a Peptide-TiO2 Anatase (101) Interface.

    PubMed

    Polimeni, Marco; Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C; Arcangeli, Caterina

    2017-09-28

    The interface between biological matter and inorganic materials is a widely investigated research topic due to possible applications in biomedicine and nanotechnology. In this context, the molecular level adsorption mechanism that drives specific recognition between small peptide sequences and inorganic surfaces represents an important topic likely to provide much information useful for designing bioderived materials. Here, we investigate the dynamics at the interface between a Ti-binding peptide sequence (AMRKLPDAPGMHC) and a TiO 2 anatase surface by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the simulations the adsorption mechanism is characterized by diffusion of the peptide from the bulk water phase toward the TiO 2 surface, followed by the anchoring of the peptide to the surface. The anchoring is mediated by the interfacial water layers by means of the charged groups of the side chains of the peptide. The peptide samples anchored and dissociated states from the surface and its conformation is not affected by the surface when anchored.

  5. Solid-phase extraction of small biologically active peptides on cartridges and microelution 96-well plates from human urine.

    PubMed

    Semenistaya, Ekaterina; Zvereva, Irina; Krotov, Grigory; Rodchenkov, Grigory

    2016-09-01

    Currently liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis after solid-phase extraction (SPE) on weak cation-exchange cartridges is a method of choice for anti-doping analysis of small bioactive peptides such as growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs), desmoporessin, LHRH, and TB-500 short fragment. Dilution of urine samples with phosphate buffer for pH adjustment and SPE on weak cation exchange microelution plates was tested as a means to increase throughput of this analysis. Dilution using 200 mM phosphate buffer provides good buffering capacity without affecting the peptides recoveries. SPE on microelution plates was performed on Waters Positive Pressure-96 Processor with subsequent evaporation of eluates in nitrogen flow. Though the use of smaller sample volume decreases the pre-concentration factor and increases the limits of detection of 5 out of 17 detected peptides, the recovery, linearity, and reproducibility of the microelution extraction were comparable with cartridge SPE. The effectiveness of protocols was confirmed by analysis of urine samples containing ipamorelin, and GHRP-6 and its metabolites. SPE after urine sample dilution with buffer can be used for faster sample preparation. The use of microelution plates decreases consumption of solvents and allows processing of up to 96 samples simultaneously. Cartridge SPE with manual рН adjustment remains the best option for confirmation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Probing the origin of structural stability of single and double stapled p53 peptide analogs bound to MDM2.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zuojun; Streu, Kristina; Krilov, Goran; Mohanty, Udayan

    2014-06-01

    The stabilization of secondary structure is believed to play an important role in the peptide-protein binding interaction. In this study, the α-helical conformation and structural stability of single and double stapled all-hydrocarbon cross-linked p53 peptides when bound and unbound to MDM2 are investigated. We determined the effects of the peptide sequence, the stereochemistry of the cross-linker, the conformation of the double bond in the alkene bridge, and the length of the bridge, to the relative stability of the α-helix structure. The binding affinity calculations by WaterMap provided over one hundred hydration sites in the MDM2 binding pocket where water density is greater than twice that of the bulk, and the relative value of free energy released by displacing these hydration sites. In agreement with the experimental data, potentials of mean force obtained by weighted histogram analysis methods indicated the order of peptides from lowest to highest binding affinity. Our study provides a comprehensive rationalization of the relationship between peptide stapling strategy, the secondary structural stability, and the binding affinity of p53/MDM2 complex. We hope our efforts can help to further the development of a new generation p53/MDM2 inhibitors that can reactivate the function of p53 as tumor suppressor gene. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Metabolic and stress-related roles of prolactin-releasing peptide.

    PubMed

    Onaka, Tatsushi; Takayanagi, Yuki; Leng, Gareth

    2010-05-01

    In the modern world, improvements in human health can be offset by unhealthy lifestyle factors, including the deleterious consequences of stress and obesity. For energy homeostasis, humoral factors and neural afferents from the gastrointestinal tract, in combination with long-term nutritional signals, communicate information to the brain to regulate energy intake and expenditure. Energy homeostasis and stress interact with each other, and stress affects both food intake and energy expenditure. Prolactin-releasing peptide, synthesized in discrete neuronal populations in the hypothalamus and brainstem, plays an important role in integrating these responses. This review describes how prolactin-releasing peptide neurons receive information concerning both internal metabolic states and environmental conditions, and play a key role in energy homeostasis and stress responses. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Setting accelerated dissolution test for PLGA microspheres containing peptide, investigation of critical parameters affecting drug release rate and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tomic, I; Vidis-Millward, A; Mueller-Zsigmondy, M; Cardot, J-M

    2016-05-30

    The objective of this study was development of accelerated in vitro release method for peptide loaded PLGA microspheres using flow-through apparatus and assessment of the effect of dissolution parameters (pH, temperature, medium composition) on drug release rate and mechanism. Accelerated release conditions were set as pH 2 and 45°C, in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) 0.02M. When the pH was changed from 2 to 4, diffusion controlled phases (burst and lag) were not affected, while release rate during erosion phase decreased two-fold due to slower ester bonds hydrolyses. Decreasing temperature from 45°C to 40°C, release rate showed three-fold deceleration without significant change in release mechanism. Effect of medium composition on drug release was tested in PBS 0.01M (200 mOsm/kg) and PBS 0.01M with glucose (380 mOsm/kg). Buffer concentration significantly affected drug release rate and mechanism due to the change in osmotic pressure, while ionic strength did not have any effect on peptide release. Furthermore, dialysis sac and sample-and-separate techniques were used, in order to evaluate significance of dissolution technique choice on the release process. After fitting obtained data to different mathematical models, flow-through method was confirmed as the most appropriate for accelerated in vitro dissolution testing for a given formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Peptides mimicking viral proteins of porcine circovirus type 2 were profiled by the spectrum of mouse anti-PCV2 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ling-Chu; Yang, Cheng-Yao; Cheng, Ivan-Chen

    2017-05-15

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogenicity of specific peptides, and seeking the potential candidate of PCV2 peptide-based vaccine. It's initiating from peptides reacting with PCV2-infected pig sera and peptide-immunized mouse sera. The data showed that the sera from PCV2-infected pigs could react with the N-terminal (C1), middle region (C2), and C-terminal peptide (C3) of PCV2 capsid protein (CP), ORF3 protein (N1), ORF6 protein (N2) and ORF9 protein (N3). This study demonstrated that anti-PCV2 mouse antisera could be generated by specific synthetic peptides (C3 and N2) and recognized PCV2 viral protein. We found that the tertiary or linear form C-terminal sequence (C3) of PCV2 capsid peptide only appeared a local distribution in the nucleus of PCV2-infected PK cells, virus-like particles of PCV2 major appeared a local distribution in the cytoplasm, and ORF 6 protein of PCV2 were shown unusually in cytoplasm. Furthermore, most residues of the C1 and the C3 were presented on the surface of PCV2 CP, in the view of 3-D structure of the CP. Our data demonstrated that PCV2-infected pigs had higher OD 405 value of anti-C3 IgG on Day 1, Month 3 and Month 6 than in Month 1. These pigs had higher anti-C3 IgM level in Month 3 and Month 6 than on Day 1 (P < 0.01). We demonstrated that the key peptide (C3) mimic the C-terminal of PCV2 capsid protein which were capable of inducing antibodies. The specific antibody against the C3 were confirmed as the serological marker in PCV2-infected pigs.

  10. Enhancing bioactive peptide release and identification using targeted enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2018-06-01

    Milk proteins have been extensively studied for their ability to yield a range of bioactive peptides following enzymatic hydrolysis/digestion. However, many hurdles still exist regarding the widespread utilization of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides as health enhancing agents for humans. These mostly arise from the fact that most milk protein-derived bioactive peptides are not highly potent. In addition, they may be degraded during gastrointestinal digestion and/or have a low intestinal permeability. The targeted release of bioactive peptides during the enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins may allow the generation of particularly potent bioactive hydrolysates and peptides. Therefore, the development of milk protein hydrolysates capable of improving human health requires, in the first instance, optimized targeted release of specific bioactive peptides. The targeted hydrolysis of milk proteins has been aided by a range of in silico tools. These include peptide cutters and predictive modeling linking bioactivity to peptide structure [i.e., molecular docking, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR)], or hydrolysis parameters [design of experiments (DOE)]. Different targeted enzymatic release strategies employed during the generation of milk protein hydrolysates are reviewed herein and their limitations are outlined. In addition, specific examples are provided to demonstrate how in silico tools may help in the identification and discovery of potent milk protein-derived peptides. It is anticipated that the development of novel strategies employing a range of in silico tools may help in the generation of milk protein hydrolysates containing potent and bioavailable peptides, which in turn may be used to validate their health promoting effects in humans. Graphical abstract The targeted enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins may allow the generation of highly potent and bioavailable bioactive peptides.

  11. Antifungal mechanism of an antimicrobial peptide, HP (2--20), derived from N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein L1 against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Gun; Park, Yoonkyung; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Hyung Keun; Kim, Pyoung Il; Choi, Bo Hwa; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2002-03-08

    The antifungal activity and mechanism of HP (2-20), a peptide derived from the N-terminus sequence of Helicobacter pylori Ribosomal Protein L1 were investigated. HP (2--20) displayed a strong antifungal activity against various fungi, and the antifungal activity was inhibited by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. In order to investigate the antifungal mechanism(s) of HP (2-20), fluorescence activated flow cytometry was performed. As determined by propidium iodide staining, Candida albicans treated with HP (2-20) showed a higher fluorescence intensity than untreated cells and was similar to melittin-treated cells. The effect on fungal cell membranes was examined by investigating the change in membrane dynamics of C. albicans using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as a membrane probe and by testing the membrane disrupting activity using liposome (PC/PS; 3:1, w/w) and by treating protoplasts of C. albicans with the peptide. The action of peptide against fungal cell membrane was further examined by the potassium-release test, and HP (2-20) was able to increase the amount of K(+) released from the cells. The result suggests that HP (2-20) may exert its antifungal activity by disrupting the structure of cell membrane via pore formation or directly interacts with the lipid bilayers in a salt-dependent manner.

  12. Pancreatic Beta Cells Synthesize Neuropeptide Y and Can Rapidly Release Peptide Co-Transmitters

    PubMed Central

    Whim, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Background In addition to polypeptide hormones, pancreatic endocrine cells synthesize a variety of bioactive molecules including classical transmitters and neuropeptides. While these co-transmitters are thought to play a role in regulating hormone release little is known about how their secretion is regulated. Here I investigate the synthesis and release of neuropeptide Y from pancreatic beta cells. Methodology/Principal Findings NPY appears to be an authentic co-transmitter in neonatal, but not adult, beta cells because (1) early in mouse post-natal development, many beta cells are NPY-immunoreactive whereas no staining is observed in beta cells from NPY knockout mice; (2) GFP-expressing islet cells from an NPY(GFP) transgenic mouse are insulin-ir; (3) single cell RT-PCR experiments confirm that the NPY(GFP) cells contain insulin mRNA, a marker of beta cells. The NPY-immunoreactivity previously reported in alpha and delta cells is therefore likely to be due to the presence of NPY-related peptides. INS-1 cells, a beta cell line, are also NPY-ir and contain NPY mRNA. Using the FMRFamide tagging technique, NPY secretion was monitored from INS-1 beta cells with high temporal resolution. Peptide release was evoked by brief depolarizations and was potentiated by activators of adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A. Following a transient depolarization, NPY-containing dense core granules fused with the cell membrane and discharged their contents within a few milliseconds. Conclusions These results indicate that after birth, NPY expression in pancreatic islets is restricted to neonatal beta cells. The presence of NPY suggests that peptide co-transmitters could mediate rapid paracrine or autocrine signaling within the endocrine pancreas. The FMRFamide tagging technique may be useful in studying the release of other putative islet co-transmitters in real time. PMID:21559341

  13. Distinct functions of opioid-related peptides and gastrin-releasing peptide in regulating itch and pain in the spinal cord of primates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeseung; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2015-06-29

    How neuropeptides in the primate spinal cord regulate itch and pain is largely unknown. Here we elucidate the sensory functions of spinal opioid-related peptides and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in awake, behaving monkeys. Following intrathecal administration, β-endorphin (10-100 nmol) and GRP (1-10 nmol) dose-dependently elicit the same degree of robust itch scratching, which can be inhibited by mu-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor and GRP receptor (BB2) antagonists, respectively. Unlike β-endorphin, which produces itch and attenuates inflammatory pain, GRP only elicits itch without affecting pain. In contrast, enkephalins (100-1000 nmol) and nociceptin-orphanin FQ (3-30 nmol) only inhibit pain without eliciting itch. More intriguingly, dynorphin A(1-17) (10-100 nmol) dose-dependently attenuates both β-endorphin- and GRP-elicited robust scratching without affecting pain processing. The anti-itch effects of dynorphin A can be reversed by a kappa-opioid peptide (KOP) receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. These nonhuman primate behavioral models with spinal delivery of ligands advance our understanding of distinct functions of neuropeptides for modulating itch and pain. In particular, we demonstrate causal links for itch-eliciting effects by β-endorphin-MOP receptor and GRP-BB2 receptor systems and itch-inhibiting effects by the dynorphin A-KOP receptor system. These studies will facilitate transforming discoveries of novel ligand-receptor systems into future therapies as antipruritics and/or analgesics in humans.

  14. Molecular basis and quantitative assessment of TRF1 and TRF2 protein interactions with TIN2 and Apollo peptides.

    PubMed

    Kalathiya, Umesh; Padariya, Monikaben; Baginski, Maciej

    2017-03-01

    Shelterin is a six-protein complex (TRF1, TRF2, POT1, RAP1, TIN2, and TPP1) that also functions in smaller subsets in regulation and protection of human telomeres. Two closely related proteins, TRF1 and TRF2, make high-affinity contact directly with double-stranded telomeric DNA and serve as a molecular platform. Protein TIN2 binds to TRF1 and TRF2 dimer-forming domains, whereas Apollo makes interaction only with TRF2. To elucidate the molecular basis of these interactions, we employed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of TRF1 TRFH -TIN2 TBM and TRF2 TRFH -TIN2 TBM /Apollo TBM complexes and of the isolated proteins. MD enabled a structural and dynamical comparison of protein-peptide complexes including H-bond interactions and interfacial residues that may regulate TRF protein binding to the given peptides, especially focusing on interactions described in crystallographic data. Residues with a selective function in both TRF1 TRFH and TRF2 TRFH and forming a stable hydrogen bond network with TIN2 TBM or Apollo TBM peptides were traced. Our study revealed that TIN2 TBM forms a well-defined binding mode with TRF1 TRFH as compared to TRF2 TRFH , and that the binding pocket of TIN2 TBM is deeper for TRF2 TRFH protein than Apollo TBM . The MD data provide a basis for the reinterpretation of mutational data obtained in crystallographic work for the TRF proteins. Together, the previously determined X-ray structure and our MD provide a detailed view of the TRF-peptide binding mode and the structure of TRF1/2 binding pockets. Particular TRF-peptide interactions are very specific for the formation of each protein-peptide complex, identifying TRF proteins as potential targets for the design of inhibitors/drugs modulating telomere machinery for anticancer therapy.

  15. Gastrin-releasing peptide in human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, J N; Lundgren, J D; Goff, J; Peden, D; Merida, M; Shelhamer, J; Kaliner, M

    1990-04-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), the 27 amino acid mammalian form of bombesin, was studied in human inferior turbinate nasal mucosa. The GRP content of the mucosa measured by radioimmunoassay was 0.60 +/- 0.25 pmol/g tissue (n = 9 patients; mean +/- SEM). GRP-immunoreactive nerves detected by the immunogold method of indirect immunohistochemistry were found predominantly in small muscular arteries, arterioles, venous sinusoids, and between submucosal gland acini. 125I-GRP binding sites determined by autoradiography were exclusively and specifically localized to nasal epithelium and submucosal glands. There was no binding to vessels. The effects of GRP on submucosal gland product release were studied in short-term explant culture. GRP (10 microM) significantly stimulated the release of the serous cell-specific product lactoferrin, and [3H]glucosamine-labeled glycoconjugates which are products of epithelial goblet cells and submucosal gland cells. These observations indicate that GRP released from nerve fibers probably acts on glandular GRP receptors to induce glycoconjugate release from submucosal glands and epithelium and lactoferrin release from serous cells, but that GRP would probably not affect vascular permeability.

  16. Functional Peptidomics: Stimulus- and Time-of-Day-Specific Peptide Release in the Mammalian Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Norman; Ren, Shifang; Hatcher, Nathan; Burgoon, Penny W; Mitchell, Jennifer W; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Gillette, Martha U

    2018-06-20

    Daily oscillations of brain and body states are under complex temporal modulation by environmental light and the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock. To better understand mediators of differential temporal modulation, we characterize neuropeptide releasate profiles by nonselective capture of secreted neuropeptides in an optic nerve horizontal SCN brain slice model. Releasates are collected following electrophysiological stimulation of the optic nerve/retinohypothalamic tract under conditions that alter the phase of the SCN activity state. Secreted neuropeptides are identified by intact mass via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We found time-of-day-specific suites of peptides released downstream of optic nerve stimulation. Peptide release was modified differentially with respect to time-of-day by stimulus parameters and by inhibitors of glutamatergic or PACAPergic neurotransmission. The results suggest that SCN physiology is modulated by differential peptide release of both known and unexpected peptides that communicate time-of-day-specific photic signals via previously unreported neuropeptide signatures.

  17. Peptidoglycan Branched Stem Peptides Contribute to Streptococcus pneumoniae Virulence by Inhibiting Pneumolysin Release

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Neil G.; Narciso, Ana R.; Filipe, Sergio R.; Camilli, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) colonizes the human nasopharynx and is a significant pathogen worldwide. Pneumolysin (Ply) is a multi-functional, extracellular virulence factor produced by this organism that is critical for pathogenesis. Despite the absence of any apparent secretion or cell surface attachment motifs, Ply localizes to the cell envelope of actively growing cells. We sought to characterize the consequences of this surface localization. Through functional assays with whole cells and subcellular fractions, we determined that Ply activity and its release into the extracellular environment are inhibited by peptidoglycan (PG) structure. The ability of PG to inhibit Ply release was dependent on the stem peptide composition of this macromolecule, which was manipulated by mutation of the murMN operon that encodes proteins responsible for branched stem peptide synthesis. Additionally, removal of choline-binding proteins from the cell surface significantly reduced Ply release to levels observed in a mutant with a high proportion of branched stem peptides suggesting a link between this structural feature and surface-associated choline-binding proteins involved in PG metabolism. Of clinical relevance, we also demonstrate that a hyperactive, mosaic murMN allele associated with penicillin resistance causes decreased Ply release with concomitant increases in the amount of branched stem peptides. Finally, using a murMN deletion mutant, we observed that increased Ply release is detrimental to virulence during a murine model of pneumonia. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for branched stem peptides in pneumococcal pathogenesis and demonstrate the importance of controlled Ply release during infection. These results highlight the importance of PG composition in pathogenesis and may have broad implications for the diverse PG structures observed in other bacterial pathogens. PMID:26114646

  18. Peptidoglycan Branched Stem Peptides Contribute to Streptococcus pneumoniae Virulence by Inhibiting Pneumolysin Release.

    PubMed

    Greene, Neil G; Narciso, Ana R; Filipe, Sergio R; Camilli, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) colonizes the human nasopharynx and is a significant pathogen worldwide. Pneumolysin (Ply) is a multi-functional, extracellular virulence factor produced by this organism that is critical for pathogenesis. Despite the absence of any apparent secretion or cell surface attachment motifs, Ply localizes to the cell envelope of actively growing cells. We sought to characterize the consequences of this surface localization. Through functional assays with whole cells and subcellular fractions, we determined that Ply activity and its release into the extracellular environment are inhibited by peptidoglycan (PG) structure. The ability of PG to inhibit Ply release was dependent on the stem peptide composition of this macromolecule, which was manipulated by mutation of the murMN operon that encodes proteins responsible for branched stem peptide synthesis. Additionally, removal of choline-binding proteins from the cell surface significantly reduced Ply release to levels observed in a mutant with a high proportion of branched stem peptides suggesting a link between this structural feature and surface-associated choline-binding proteins involved in PG metabolism. Of clinical relevance, we also demonstrate that a hyperactive, mosaic murMN allele associated with penicillin resistance causes decreased Ply release with concomitant increases in the amount of branched stem peptides. Finally, using a murMN deletion mutant, we observed that increased Ply release is detrimental to virulence during a murine model of pneumonia. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for branched stem peptides in pneumococcal pathogenesis and demonstrate the importance of controlled Ply release during infection. These results highlight the importance of PG composition in pathogenesis and may have broad implications for the diverse PG structures observed in other bacterial pathogens.

  19. Anti-dengue virus serotype 2 activity and mode of action of a novel peptide.

    PubMed

    Chew, M-F; Tham, H-W; Rajik, M; Sharifah, S H

    2015-10-01

    To identify a novel antiviral peptide against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) by screening a phage display peptide library and to evaluate its in vitro antiviral activity and mode of action. A phage display peptide library was biopanned against purified DENV-2 and resulted in the identification and selection of a peptide (peptide gg-ww) for further investigation. ELISA was performed, and peptide gg-ww was shown to possess the highest binding affinity against DENV-2. Thus, peptide gg-ww was synthesized for cytotoxicity and antiviral assays. Virus plaque reduction assay, real-time PCR and immunofluorescence assay were used to investigate the inhibitory effect of peptide gg-ww on DENV-2 infection in Vero cells. Three different assays (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatments assays) were performed to investigate the peptide's mode of action. Results indicated that peptide gg-ww possessed strong antiviral activity with a ~96% inhibition rate, which was achieved at 250 μmol l(-1) . Viral replication was inhibited during a simultaneous treatment assay, indicating that the entry of the virus was impeded by this peptide. Peptide gg-ww displayed antiviral action against DENV-2 by targeting an early stage of viral replication (i.e. during viral entry). Peptide gg-ww may represent a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of DENV infections and is a potential candidate to be developed as a peptide drug. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Fall in C-Peptide During First 2 Years From Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Carla J.; Beam, Craig A.; Boulware, David; Gitelman, Stephen E.; Gottlieb, Peter A.; Herold, Kevan C.; Lachin, John M.; McGee, Paula; Palmer, Jerry P.; Pescovitz, Mark D.; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Skyler, Jay S.; Sosenko, Jay M.

    2012-01-01

    Interpretation of clinical trials to alter the decline in β-cell function after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes depends on a robust understanding of the natural history of disease. Combining data from the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet studies, we describe the natural history of β-cell function from shortly after diagnosis through 2 years post study randomization, assess the degree of variability between patients, and investigate factors that may be related to C-peptide preservation or loss. We found that 93% of individuals have detectable C-peptide 2 years from diagnosis. In 11% of subjects, there was no significant fall from baseline by 2 years. There was a biphasic decline in C-peptide; the C-peptide slope was −0.0245 pmol/mL/month (95% CI −0.0271 to −0.0215) through the first 12 months and −0.0079 (−0.0113 to −0.0050) from 12 to 24 months (P < 0.001). This pattern of fall in C-peptide over time has implications for understanding trial results in which effects of therapy are most pronounced early and raises the possibility that there are time-dependent differences in pathophysiology. The robust data on the C-peptide obtained under clinical trial conditions should be used in planning and interpretation of clinical trials. PMID:22688329

  1. Biomining of MoS2 with Peptide-based Smart Biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Cetinel, Sibel; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Aminpour, Maral; Bhomkar, Prasanna; Wang, Feng; Borujeny, Elham Rafie; Sharma, Kumakshi; Nayebi, Niloofar; Montemagno, Carlo

    2018-02-20

    Biomining of valuable metals using a target specific approach promises increased purification yields and decreased cost. Target specificity can be implemented with proteins/peptides, the biological molecules, responsible from various structural and functional pathways in living organisms by virtue of their specific recognition abilities towards both organic and inorganic materials. Phage display libraries are used to identify peptide biomolecules capable of specifically recognizing and binding organic/inorganic materials of interest with high affinities. Using combinatorial approaches, these molecular recognition elements can be converted into smart hybrid biomaterials and harnessed for biotechnological applications. Herein, we used a commercially available phage-display library to identify peptides with specific binding affinity to molybdenite (MoS 2 ) and used them to decorate magnetic NPs. These peptide-coupled NPs could capture MoS 2 under a variety of environmental conditions. The same batch of NPs could be re-used multiple times to harvest MoS 2 , clearly suggesting that this hybrid material was robust and recyclable. The advantages of this smart hybrid biomaterial with respect to its MoS 2 -binding specificity, robust performance under environmentally challenging conditions and its recyclability suggests its potential application in harvesting MoS 2 from tailing ponds and downstream mining processes.

  2. A small peptide promotes EphA2 kinase-dependent signaling by stabilizing EphA2 dimers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Pasquale, Elena B; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-09-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is known to promote cancer cell malignancy in the absence of activation by ephrin ligands. This behavior depends on high EphA2 phosphorylation on Ser897 and low tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting in increased cell migration and invasiveness. We have previously shown that EphA2 forms dimers in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, and that dimerization of unliganded EphA2 can decrease EphA2 Ser897 phosphorylation. We have also identified a small peptide called YSA, which binds EphA2 and competes with the naturally occurring ephrin ligands. Here, we investigate the effect of YSA on EphA2 dimer stability and EphA2 function using quantitative FRET techniques, Western blotting, and cell motility assays. We find that the YSA peptide stabilizes the EphA2 dimer, increases EphA2 Tyr phosphorylation, and decreases both Ser897 phosphorylation and cell migration. The experiments demonstrate that the small peptide ligand YSA reduces EphA2 Ser897 pro-tumorigenic signaling by stabilizing the EphA2 dimer. This work is a proof-of-principle demonstration that EphA2 homointeractions in the plasma membrane can be pharmacologically modulated to decrease the pro-tumorigenic signaling of the receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Omega-conotoxin- and nifedipine-insensitive voltage-operated calcium channels mediate K(+)-induced release of pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone-connecting peptides Ps4 and Ps5 from perifused rat hypothalamic slices.

    PubMed

    Valentijn, K; Tranchand Bunel, D; Vaudry, H

    1992-07-01

    The rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) precursor (prepro-TRH) contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence linked together by intervening sequences. Recently, we have shown that the connecting peptides prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and prepro-TRH-(178-199) (Ps5) are released from rat hypothalamic neurones in response to elevated potassium concentrations, in a calcium-dependent manner. In the present study, the role of voltage-operated calcium channels in potassium-induced release of Ps4 and Ps5 was investigated, using a perifusion system for rat hypothalamic slices. The release of Ps4 and Ps5 stimulated by potassium (70 mM) was blocked by the inorganic ions Co2+ (2.6 mM) and Ni2+ (5 mM). In contrast, the stimulatory effect of KCl was insensitive to Cd2+ (100 microM). The dihydropyridine antagonist nifedipine (10 microM) had no effect on K(+)-evoked release of Ps4 and Ps5. Furthermore, the response to KCl was not affected by nifedipine (10 microM) in combination with diltiazem (1 microM), a benzothiazepine which increases the affinity of dihydropyridine antagonists for their receptor. The dihydropyridine agonist BAY K 8644, at concentrations as high as 1 mM, did not stimulate the basal secretion of Ps4 and Ps5. In addition, BAY K 8644 had no potentiating effect on K(+)-induced release of Ps4 and Ps5. The marine cone snail toxin omega-conotoxin, a blocker of both L- and N-type calcium channels had no effect on the release of Ps4 and Ps5 stimulated by potassium. Similarly, the omega-conopeptide SNX-111, a selective blocker of N-type calcium channels, did not inhibit the stimulatory effect of potassium. The release of Ps4 and Ps5 evoked by high K+ was insensitive to the non-selective calcium channel blocker verapamil (20 microM). Amiloride (1 microM), a putative blocker of T-type calcium channels, did not affect KCl-induced secretion of the two connecting peptides. Taken together, these results indicate that two connecting peptides derived from the pro-TRH, Ps

  4. Adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages reduces neuropathic pain via opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Pannell, Maria; Labuz, Dominika; Celik, Melih Ö; Keye, Jacqueline; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta; Machelska, Halina

    2016-10-07

    During the inflammation which occurs following nerve damage, macrophages are recruited to the site of injury. Phenotypic diversity is a hallmark of the macrophage lineage and includes pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 populations. Our aim in this study was to investigate the ability of polarized M0, M1, and M2 macrophages to secrete opioid peptides and to examine their relative contribution to the modulation of neuropathic pain. Mouse bone marrow-derived cells were cultured as unstimulated M0 macrophages or were stimulated into an M1 phenotype using lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ or into an M2 phenotype using interleukin-4. The macrophage phenotypes were verified using flow cytometry for surface marker analysis and cytokine bead array for cytokine profile assessment. Opioid peptide levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay. As a model of neuropathic pain, a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was employed. Polarized M0, M1, and M2 macrophages (5 × 10 5 cells) were injected perineurally twice, on days 14 and 15 following CCI or sham surgery. Mechanical and heat sensitivity were measured using the von Frey and Hargreaves tests, respectively. To track the injected macrophages, we also transferred fluorescently stained polarized cells and analyzed the surface marker profile of endogenous and injected cells in the nerves ex vivo. Compared to M0 and M1 cells, M2 macrophages contained and released higher amounts of opioid peptides, including Met-enkephalin, dynorphin A (1-17), and β-endorphin. M2 cells transferred perineurally at the nerve injury site reduced mechanical, but not heat hypersensitivity following the second injection. The analgesic effect was reversed by the perineurally applied opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide. M2 cells did not affect sensitivity following sham surgery. Neither M0 nor M1 cells altered mechanical and heat sensitivity in CCI or sham-operated animals. Tracing the

  5. Bombesin-like peptides stimulate somatostatin release from rat fundic D cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, K; Herrmuth, H; Mueller, J; Coy, D H; Wong, H C; Walsh, J H; Classen, M; Schusdziarra, V; Schepp, W

    1997-09-01

    In several species, bombesin-like neuropeptides stimulate somatostatin release in in vitro preparations of gastric mucosa. We sought to determine if this response is due to a direct effect on fundic D cells. Rat fundic mucosal cells were isolated by pronase E (1% D cells). D cells were separated by counterflow elutriation and subsequent density-gradient centrifugation (Nycodenz) (15% D cells) and grown in primary culture for 48 h (46% D cells). Cultured cells were double stained with affinity-purified rabbit-anti-gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor antibody and mouse monoclonal antibody to human somatostatin. After incubation with rhodamine-labeled anti-rabbit and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled anti-mouse antibodies, reactions were visualized by fluorescence microscopy. All cells positive for somatostatin had GRP receptors, whereas all non-D cells showed no expression in this G cell-free culture system. Somatostatin release from cultured cells was stimulated by sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8; EC50 3 X 10(-10) M) and epinephrine (EC50 4 X 10(-8) M), which are established stimuli for canine fundic D cells. Bombesin (EC50 6 X 10(-11) M), its mammalian analog GRP-27, and neuromedin C (GRP-10) (EC50 1 X 10(-10) M, for both) were almost equally potent stimuli of somatostatin release, eliciting maximal response at 10(-9) M (400-550% above basal). Neuromedin B was less potent and effective (maximal response at 10(-8) M, 230% above basal). [D-Phe6]bombesin-(6-13)-OMe, a specific bombesin receptor antagonist, inhibited bombesin-stimulated somatostatin release in a competitive manner (IC50 9 X 10(-8) M). Potentiating interactions were observed between bombesin and dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (DBcAMP) or epinephrine, but not between bombesin and CCK-8. We conclude that bombesin-like peptides directly stimulate somatostatin release by interacting with specific receptors on rat fundic D cells. Bombesin-like peptides appear to induce Ca(2

  6. Effect of quantifying peptide release on ruminal protein degradation determined using the inhibitor in vitro system.

    PubMed

    Colombini, S; Broderick, G A; Clayton, M K

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this work was to compare use of an o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) colorimetric assay (OPA-C), which responds to both free AA and peptides, with an OPA fluorimetric assay (OPA-F), which is insensitive to peptides, to quantify rates of ruminal protein degradation in the inhibitor in vitro system using Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. Four protein concentrates (expeller-extracted soybean meal, ESBM; 2 solvent-extracted soybean meals, SSBM1 and SSBM2; and casein) were incubated in a ruminal in vitro system treated with hydrazine and chloramphenicol to inhibit microbial uptake of protein degradation products. Proteins were weighed to give a range of N concentrations (from 0.15 to 3 mg of N/mL of inoculum) and incubated with 10 mL of ruminal inoculum and 5 mL of buffer; fermentations were stopped after 2 h by adding trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Proteins were analyzed for buffer-soluble N and buffer extracts were treated with TCA to determine N degraded at t=0 (FD0). The TCA supernatants were analyzed for ammonia (phenol-hypochlorite assay), total AA (TAA; OPA-F), and TAA plus oligopeptides (OPA-C) by flow injection analysis. Velocity of protein degradation was computed from extent of release of 1) ammonia plus free TAA or 2) ammonia plus free TAA and peptides. Rate of degradation (kd) was quantified using nonlinear regression of the integrated Michaelis-Menten equation. The parameters Km (Michaelis constant) and kd (Vmax/Km), where Vmax=maximum velocity, were estimated directly; kd values were adjusted (Akd) for the fraction FD0 using the equation Akd=kd-FD0/2. The OPA-C assay yielded faster degradation rates due to the contribution of peptides to the fraction degraded (overall mean=0.280/h by OPA-C and 0.219/h by OPA-F). Degradation rates for SSBM samples (0.231/h and 0.181/h) and ESBM (0.086/h) obtained by the OPA-C assay were more rapid than rates reported by the National Research Council (NRC). Both assays indicated that the 2 SSBM differed in rumen

  7. Mice deficient for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-2 display anxiety-like behaviour and are hypersensitive to stress.

    PubMed

    Bale, T L; Contarino, A; Smith, G W; Chan, R; Gold, L H; Sawchenko, P E; Koob, G F; Vale, W W; Lee, K F

    2000-04-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh) is a critical coordinator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In response to stress, Crh released from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus activates Crh receptors on anterior pituitary corticotropes, resulting in release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth) into the bloodstream. Acth in turn activates Acth receptors in the adrenal cortex to increase synthesis and release of glucocorticoids. The receptors for Crh, Crhr1 and Crhr2, are found throughout the central nervous system and periphery. Crh has a higher affinity for Crhr1 than for Crhr2, and urocortin (Ucn), a Crh-related peptide, is thought to be the endogenous ligand for Crhr2 because it binds with almost 40-fold higher affinity than does Crh. Crhr1 and Crhr2 share approximately 71% amino acid sequence similarity and are distinct in their localization within the brain and peripheral tissues. We generated mice deficient for Crhr2 to determine the physiological role of this receptor. Crhr2-mutant mice are hypersensitive to stress and display increased anxiety-like behaviour. Mutant mice have normal basal feeding and weight gain, but decreased food intake following food deprivation. Intravenous Ucn produces no effect on mean arterial pressure in the mutant mice.

  8. Secretion modification region-derived peptide blocks exosome release and mediates cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Bo; Gonzalez, Ruben R; Lillard, James; Bond, Vincent C

    2017-02-14

    Discovery and development of a novel anticancer PEG-SMR-Clu peptide to prevent breast cancer metastasis. How breast cancer cells and primary mammary epithelial cells interact and communicate with each other to promote tumorigenesis and how to prevent tumor metastasis has long been a concern of researchers. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing proteins and RNA. These factors can influence tumor development by directly targeting cancer cells and tumor stroma. In this study, we determined the effects of a peptide as an inhibitor of exosome secretion on breast tumors. We developed a peptide derived from the Secretion Modification Region (SMR) of HIV-1 Nef protein that was modified with PEG on the N-terminus and with a Clusterin (Clu)-binding peptide on the C-terminus. Attachment of PEG to the SMR peptide, termed PEGylation, offers improved water solubility and stability as well as reduced clearance through the kidneys, leading to a longer circulation time. The 12-mer Clu-binding peptide plays multiple roles in tumor development and metastasis. The Clu peptide can be detected by antibody in vivo, thus it has the potential to be used to monitor tumor status and treatment efficacy in animal studies and eventually in cancer patients. PEG-SMRwt-Clu and PEG-SMRwt peptides inhibited the growth of both of MCF-7 (estrogen responsive, ER+) and MDA-MD-231 (estrogen non-responsive, ER-) human breast cancer cells in a dose and time-dependent manner, without inducing cytotoxic effects. The SMRwt peptide, combined with paclitaxel, induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells but did not promote apoptosis. PEG-SMRwt-Clu peptide treatment blocked exosome release from both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect was blocked by knockdown of the chaperone protein mortalin by either antibody or siRNA. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells were treated with PEG-SMR-Clu peptide alone and in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin. Cell proliferation and viabilty

  9. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides in young women classified as restrained or unrestrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Hilterscheid, Esther; Laessle, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Basal release of GUT peptides has been found to be altered in restrained eaters. Stress-induced secretion, however, has not yet been described, but could be a biological basis of overeating that exposes restrained eaters to a higher risk of becoming obese. The aim of the present study was to compare restrained and unrestrained eaters with respect to stress-induced release of the GUT peptides ghrelin and PYY. 46 young women were studied. Blood sampling for peptides was done before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. Ghrelin secretion after stress was significantly elevated in the restrained eaters, whereas no significant differences were detected for PYY. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides can be interpreted as a cause as well as a consequence of restrained eating.

  10. Identities of P2 and P3 Residues of H-2Kb-Bound Peptides Determine Mouse Ly49C Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Elsa A.; Kane, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Ly49 receptors can be peptide selective in their recognition of MHC-I-peptide complexes, affording them a level of discrimination beyond detecting the presence or absence of specific MHC-I allele products. Despite this ability, little is understood regarding the properties that enable some peptides, when bound to MHC-I molecules, to support Ly49 recognition, but not others. Using RMA-S target cells expressing MHC-I molecules loaded with individual peptides and effector cells expressing the ectodomain of the inhibitory Ly49C receptor, we found that two adjacent amino acid residues, P2 and P3, both buried in the peptide binding groove of H-2Kb, determine mouse Ly49C specificity. If both are aliphatic residues, this is supportive. Whereas, small amino acids at P2 and aromatic amino acids at the P3 auxiliary anchor residue are detrimental to Ly49C recognition. These results resemble those with a rat Ly49 where the identity of a peptide anchor residue determines recognition, suggesting that dependence on specific peptide residues buried in the MHC-I peptide-binding groove may be fundamental to Ly49 peptide selectivity and recognition. PMID:26147851

  11. Hydrolysis of substance P in the presence of the osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2: release of free amino acids.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Antonella; Marini, Mario; Roda, L Giorgio; Tarantino, Umberto; Valenti, Angela

    2011-12-01

    The possible hydrolysis of substance P (Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met) in presence of the osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2 was measured by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass detection. The results obtained indicate that a very rapid disappearance of the intact undecapeptide was associated to a slower appearance of seven of its eight component amino acids. These results can be interpreted as indicating that an extremely fast hydrolysis of substance P by endopeptidases, which released peptidic by-products, was followed by a noticeably slower secondary degradation which released free amino acids. In decreasing quantitative importance, these phenomena appear to originate by the hydrolysis of the Pro(4)-Gln(5) bond, followed by C-terminal sequential degradation of the Arg(1)-Pro(4) tetrapeptide; by the hydrolysis of or Phe(7)-Phe(8) bond (or, possibly, of Gln(6)-Phe(7)) leading to release of free Phe and Gln; by hydrolysis of the Gly(9)-Leu(10) bond with subsequent release of Met and Leu. Results obtained appear to be compatible with the expression by SaOS-2 cells of enzymes already known to catalyze substance P hydrolysis, together with an apparent low efficiency of aminopeptidases. Because of the activity of C-terminal fragments on NK1 receptors, the delay between primary hydrolysis of substance P and secondary hydrolysis of its peptidic fragments indicated by the data shown implies a possible persistence of substance P physiological effects even after degradation of the intact peptide.

  12. Sugarcane vinasse CO2 gasification and release of ash-forming matters in CO2 and N2 atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Dirbeba, Meheretu Jaleta; Brink, Anders; DeMartini, Nikolai; Lindberg, Daniel; Hupa, Mikko

    2016-10-01

    Gasification of sugarcane vinasse in CO2 and the release of ash-forming matters in CO2 and N2 atmospheres were investigated using a differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyzer (DSC-TGA) at temperatures between 600 and 800°C. The results showed that pyrolysis is the main mechanism for the release of the organics from vinasse. Release of ash-forming matters in the vinasse is the main cause for vinasse char weight losses in the TGA above 700°C. The losses are higher in N2 than in CO2, and increase considerably with temperature. CO2 gasification also consumes the carbon in the vinasse chars while suppressing alkali release. Alkali release was also significant due to volatilization of KCl and reduction of alkali sulfate and carbonate by carbon. The DSC measured thermal events during heating up in N2 atmosphere that correspond to predicted melting temperatures of alkali salts in the char. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioaccessible peptides released by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fermented goat milks.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Jauregi, Paula; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Olalla-Herrera, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Amigo, Lourdes; Miralles, Beatriz

    2018-06-01

    In this study, ultrafiltered goat milks fermented with the classical starter bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus or with the classical starter plus the Lactobacillus plantarum C4 probiotic strain were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and/or high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap (HPLC-IT-MS/MS). Partial overlapping of the identified sequences with regard to fermentation culture was observed. Evaluation of the cleavage specificity suggested a lower proteolytic activity of the probiotic strain. Some of the potentially identified peptides had been previously reported as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial and might account for the in vitro activity previously reported for these fermented milks. Simulated digestion of the products was conducted in the presence of a dialysis membrane to retrieve the bioaccessible peptide fraction. Some sequences with reported physiological activity resisted digestion but were found in the non-dialyzable fraction. However, new forms released by digestion, such as the antioxidant α s1 -casein 144 YFYPQL 149 , the antihypertensive α s2 -casein 90 YQKFPQY 96 , and the antibacterial α s2 -casein 165 LKKISQ 170 , were found in the dialyzable fraction of both fermented milks. Moreover, in the fermented milk including the probiotic strain, the k-casein dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV) 51 INNQFLPYPY 60 as well as additional ACE inhibitory or antioxidant sequences could be identified. With the aim of anticipating further biological outcomes, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was applied to the bioaccessible fragments and led to potential ACE inhibitory sequences being proposed. Graphical abstract Ultrafiltered goat milks were fermented with the classical starter bacteria (St) and with St plus the

  14. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding human gastrin-releasing peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Spindel, E R; Chin, W W; Price, J; Rees, L H; Besser, G M; Habener, J F

    1984-01-01

    We have prepared and cloned cDNAs derived from poly(A)+ RNA from a human pulmonary carcinoid tumor rich in immunoreactivity to gastrin-releasing peptide, a peptide closely related in structure to amphibian bombesin. Mixtures of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides corresponding to amphibian bombesin were used as hybridization probes to screen a cDNA library prepared from the tumor RNA. Sequencing of the recombinant plasmids shows that human gastrin-releasing peptide (hGRP) mRNA encodes a precursor of 148 amino acids containing a typical signal sequence, hGRP consisting of 27 or 28 amino acids, and a carboxyl-terminal extension peptide. hGRP is flanked at its carboxyl terminus by two basic amino acids, following a glycine used for amidation of the carboxyl-terminal methionine. RNA blot analyses of tumor RNA show a major mRNA of 900 bases and a minor mRNA of 850 bases. Blot hybridization analyses using human genomic DNA are consistent with a single hGRP-encoding gene. The presence of two mRNAs encoding the hGRP precursor protein in the face of a single hGRP gene raises the possibility of alternative processing of the single RNA transcript. Images PMID:6207529

  15. Different binding motifs of the celiac disease-associated HLA molecules DQ2.5, DQ2.2, and DQ7.5 revealed by relative quantitative proteomics of endogenous peptide repertoires.

    PubMed

    Bergseng, Elin; Dørum, Siri; Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Nielsen, Morten; Nygård, Ståle; Buus, Søren; de Souza, Gustavo A; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2015-02-01

    Celiac disease is caused by intolerance to cereal gluten proteins, and HLA-DQ molecules are involved in the disease pathogenesis by presentation of gluten peptides to CD4(+) T cells. The α- or β-chain sharing HLA molecules DQ2.5, DQ2.2, and DQ7.5 display different risks for the disease. It was recently demonstrated that T cells of DQ2.5 and DQ2.2 patients recognize distinct sets of gluten epitopes, suggesting that these two DQ2 variants select different peptides for display. To explore whether this is the case, we performed a comprehensive comparison of the endogenous self-peptides bound to HLA-DQ molecules of B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. Peptides were eluted from affinity-purified HLA molecules of nine cell lines and subjected to quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry and MaxQuant software analysis. Altogether, 12,712 endogenous peptides were identified at very different relative abundances. Hierarchical clustering of normalized quantitative data demonstrated significant differences in repertoires of peptides between the three DQ variant molecules. The neural network-based method, NNAlign, was used to identify peptide-binding motifs. The binding motifs of DQ2.5 and DQ7.5 concurred with previously established binding motifs. The binding motif of DQ2.2 was strikingly different from that of DQ2.5 with position P3 being a major anchor having a preference for threonine and serine. This is notable as three recently identified epitopes of gluten recognized by T cells of DQ2.2 celiac patients harbor serine at position P3. This study demonstrates that relative quantitative comparison of endogenous peptides sampled from our protein metabolism by HLA molecules provides clues to understand HLA association with disease.

  16. Chicken cathelicidin-2-derived peptides with enhanced immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities against biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Molhoek, E Margo; van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Dijk-Knijnenburg, Helma; Mars-Groenendijk, Roos H; Boele, Linda C L; Kaman-van Zanten, Wendy E; Haagsman, Henk P; Bikker, Floris J

    2010-09-01

    Host defence peptides (HDPs) are considered to be excellent candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Recently, it was demonstrated that the peptide C1-15, an N-terminal segment of chicken HDP cathelicidin-2, exhibits potent antibacterial activity while lacking cytotoxicity towards eukaryotic cells. In the present study, we report that C1-15 is active against bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis that may potentially be used by bioterrorists. Substitution of single and multiple phenylalanine (Phe) residues to tryptophan (Trp) in C1-15 resulted in variants with improved antibacterial activity against B. anthracis and Y. pestis as well as decreased salt sensitivity. In addition, these peptides exhibited enhanced neutralisation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The antibacterial and LPS-neutralising activities of these C1-15-derived peptides are exerted at concentrations far below the concentrations that are toxic to human PBMCs. Taken together, we show that Phe-->Trp substitutions in C1-15 variants enhances the antibacterial and LPS-neutralising activities against pathogenic bacteria, including those that may potentially be used as biological warfare agents. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated lung cancer cells progression by gold nanoparticle-aptamer-assisted delivery of peptides containing transmembrane-juxtamembrane 1/2 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daehwan; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Boeun

    The delivery of biologically functional peptides into mammalian cells can be a direct and effective method for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a collagen-induced receptor tyrosine kinase recently identified as a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. In this study, we report that peptides containing the functional domain of DDR2 can be efficiently delivered into lung malignant cancer cells via a gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system. Peptide delivery resulted in the abrogation of DDR2 activation triggered by collagen. Moreover, the peptide delivered by the AuNP-Apt system inhibited cancer cell proliferation andmore » invasion mediated by DDR2 activation. Thus, these results suggest that peptide loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates can be used for the development of peptide-based biomedical applications for the treatment of DDR2-positive cancer. - Highlights: • TM-JM1/2 peptides are efficiently delivered into cells by AuNP-Apt-conjugates. • TM-JM1/2 peptides loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates inhibit DDR2 activation. • Inhibition of DDR2 activation by TM-JM1/2 peptides decreases tumor progression.« less

  18. Dye-release assay for investigation of antimicrobial peptide activity in a competitive lipid environment.

    PubMed

    Sani, Marc-Antoine; Gagne, Eve; Gehman, John D; Whitwell, Thomas C; Separovic, Frances

    2014-09-01

    A dye-release method for investigating the effect of a competitive lipid environment on the activity of two membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides (AMP), maculatin 1.1 and aurein 1.2, is presented. The results support the general conclusion that AMP have greater affinity for negatively charged membranes, for example bacterial membranes, than for the neutral membrane surface found in eukaryotic cells, but only within a competitive lipid environment. Indeed, in a single-model membrane environment, both peptides were more potent against neutral vesicles than against charged vesicles. The approach was also used to investigate the effect of pre-incubating the peptides in a neutral lipid environment then introducing charged lipid vesicles. Maculatin was shown to migrate from the neutral lipid bilayers, where pores had already formed, to the charged membrane bilayers. This result was also observed for charged-to-charged bilayers but, interestingly, not for neutral-to-neutral lipid interfaces. Aurein was able to migrate from either lipid environment, indicating weaker binding to lipid membranes, and a different molecular mechanism for lysis of lipid bilayers. Competitive lipid environments could be used to assess other critical conditions that modulate the activity of membrane peptides or proteins.

  19. Using genome-wide measurements for computational prediction of SH2peptide interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Zeba; Mirny, Leonid A.

    2009-01-01

    Peptide-recognition modules (PRMs) are used throughout biology to mediate protein–protein interactions, and many PRMs are members of large protein domain families. Recent genome-wide measurements describe networks of peptide–PRM interactions. In these networks, very similar PRMs recognize distinct sets of peptides, raising the question of how peptide-recognition specificity is achieved using similar protein domains. The analysis of individual protein complex structures often gives answers that are not easily applicable to other members of the same PRM family. Bioinformatics-based approaches, one the other hand, may be difficult to interpret physically. Here we integrate structural information with a large, quantitative data set of SH2 domain–peptide interactions to study the physical origin of domain–peptide specificity. We develop an energy model, inspired by protein folding, based on interactions between the amino-acid positions in the domain and peptide. We use this model to successfully predict which SH2 domains and peptides interact and uncover the positions in each that are important for specificity. The energy model is general enough that it can be applied to other members of the SH2 family or to new peptides, and the cross-validation results suggest that these energy calculations will be useful for predicting binding interactions. It can also be adapted to study other PRM families, predict optimal peptides for a given SH2 domain, or study other biological interactions, e.g. protein–DNA interactions. PMID:19502496

  20. Bioactive peptides released by in vitro digestion of standard and hydrolyzed infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Hydrolyzed infant formulas serve as appropriate nutritional sources for infants afflicted with cow's milk allergy, and milk proteins in hydrolyzed formulas are industrially hydrolyzed extensively or partially. To investigate whether industrial hydrolysis may modulate the digestive trajectory of milk proteins, thereby releasing different profiles of bioactive peptides compared with standard formulas, both standard and hydrolyzed formulas were subjected to in vitro digestion and formation of bioactive peptides were compared. One standard, one extensively hydrolyzed, and one partially hydrolyzed infant formula were digested in vitro with pepsin and pancreatin, taking into account the higher gastric pH of infants, and the digesta were subjected to peptidomic analysis. The standard formula released a larger variety of bioactive peptides than from the hydrolyzed formulas, indicating that industrial hydrolysis of milk proteins may generally attenuate their indigenous bioactivities such as antibacterial, immuno-regulatory, and anti-oxidative activities. Conversely, industrial hydrolysis may facilitate the formation of bioactive peptides from hydrophobic proteins/regions such as β-LG and the "strategic zone" of β-CN, which encrypt bioactive peptides including a dipeptidyl dipeptidase-4-inhibitory, hypocholesterolemic, and opioid peptides. Infants fed hydrolyzed infant formulas may be influenced by milk protein-derived bioactive peptides in a manner different from those fed standard formula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterizing SH2 Domain Specificity and Network Interactions Using SPOT Peptide Arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bernard A

    2017-01-01

    Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains are protein interaction modules that recognize and bind tyrosine phosphorylated ligands. Their ability to distinguish binding to over thousands of potential phosphotyrosine (pTyr) ligands within the cell is critical for the fidelity of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. Within humans there are over a hundred SH2 domains with more than several thousand potential ligands across many cell types and cell states. Therefore, defining the specificity of individual SH2 domains is critical for predicting and identifying their physiological ligands. Here, in this chapter, I describe the broad use of SPOT peptide arrays for examining SH2 domain specificity. An orientated peptide array library (OPAL) approach can uncover both favorable and non-favorable residues, thus providing an in-depth analysis to SH2 specificity. Moreover, I discuss the application of SPOT arrays for paneling SH2 ligand binding with physiological peptides.

  2. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca(2+)-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery.

    PubMed

    Valente, Pierluigi; Castroflorio, Enrico; Rossi, Pia; Fadda, Manuela; Sterlini, Bruno; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giovedì, Silvia; Onofri, Franco; Mura, Elisa; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C; Marte, Antonella; Orlando, Marta; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-04-05

    Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca(2+) sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca(2+)-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca2+-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Pierluigi; Castroflorio, Enrico; Rossi, Pia; Fadda, Manuela; Sterlini, Bruno; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giovedì, Silvia; Onofri, Franco; Mura, Elisa; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C.; Marte, Antonella; Orlando, Marta; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca2+ sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca2+-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release. PMID:27052163

  4. Antifungal nanofibers made by controlled release of sea animal derived peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Juliane F. C.; Carrijo, Jéssica; Freitas, Camila G.; Paul, Arghya; Alcaraz, Jarib; Lacorte, Cristiano C.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Andrade, César A.; Falcão, Rosana; Santos, Nuno C.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Otero-González, Anselmo J.; Khademhosseini, Ali; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2015-03-01

    Candida albicans is a common human-pathogenic fungal species with the ability to cause several diseases including surface infections. Despite the clear difficulties of Candida control, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as an alternative strategy for fungal control. In this report, different concentrations of antifungal Cm-p1 (Cencritchis muricatus peptide 1) were electrospun into nanofibers for drug delivery. The nanofibers were characterized by mass spectrometry confirming the presence of the peptide on the scaffold. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy were used to measure the diameters, showing that Cm-p1 affects fiber morphology as well as the diameter and scaffold thickness. The Cm-p1 release behavior from the nanofibers demonstrated peptide release from 30 min to three days, leading to effective yeast control in the first 24 hours. Moreover, the biocompatibility of the fibers were evaluated through a MTS assay as well as ROS production by using a HUVEC model, showing that the fibers do not affect cell viability and only nanofibers containing 10% Cm-p1-PVA improved ROS generation. In addition, the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α by the HUVECs was also slightly modified by the 10% Cm-p1-PVA nanofibers. In conclusion, the electrospinning technique applied here allowed for the manufacture of biodegradable biomimetic nanofibrous extracellular membranes with the ability to control fungal infection.Candida albicans is a common human-pathogenic fungal species with the ability to cause several diseases including surface infections. Despite the clear difficulties of Candida control, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as an alternative strategy for fungal control. In this report, different concentrations of antifungal Cm-p1 (Cencritchis muricatus peptide 1) were electrospun into nanofibers for drug delivery. The nanofibers were characterized by mass spectrometry confirming the presence of the peptide on the

  5. 2-Aminobenzamide and 2-Aminobenzoic Acid as New MALDI Matrices Inducing Radical Mediated In-Source Decay of Peptides and Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smargiasso, Nicolas; Quinton, Loic; de Pauw, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    One of the mechanisms leading to MALDI in-source decay (MALDI ISD) is the transfer of hydrogen radicals to analytes upon laser irradiation. Analytes such as peptides or proteins may undergo ISD and this method can therefore be exploited for top-down sequencing. When performed on peptides, radical-induced ISD results in production of c- and z-ions, as also found in ETD and ECD activation. Here, we describe two new compounds which, when used as MALDI matrices, are able to efficiently induce ISD of peptides and proteins: 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid. In-source reduction of the disulfide bridge containing peptide Calcitonin further confirmed the radicalar mechanism of the ISD process. ISD of peptides led, in addition to c- and z-ions, to the generation of a-, x-, and y-ions both in positive and in negative ion modes. Finally, good sequence coverage was obtained for the sequencing of myoglobin (17 kDa protein), confirming the effectiveness of both 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid as MALDI ISD matrices.

  6. 2-Aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid as new MALDI matrices inducing radical mediated in-source decay of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Smargiasso, Nicolas; Quinton, Loic; De Pauw, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    One of the mechanisms leading to MALDI in-source decay (MALDI ISD) is the transfer of hydrogen radicals to analytes upon laser irradiation. Analytes such as peptides or proteins may undergo ISD and this method can therefore be exploited for top-down sequencing. When performed on peptides, radical-induced ISD results in production of c- and z-ions, as also found in ETD and ECD activation. Here, we describe two new compounds which, when used as MALDI matrices, are able to efficiently induce ISD of peptides and proteins: 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid. In-source reduction of the disulfide bridge containing peptide Calcitonin further confirmed the radicalar mechanism of the ISD process. ISD of peptides led, in addition to c- and z-ions, to the generation of a-, x-, and y-ions both in positive and in negative ion modes. Finally, good sequence coverage was obtained for the sequencing of myoglobin (17 kDa protein), confirming the effectiveness of both 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid as MALDI ISD matrices.

  7. MCNP Version 6.2 Release Notes

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, Christopher John; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Solomon, C. J.

    Monte Carlo N-Particle or MCNP ® is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. This MCNP Version 6.2 follows the MCNP6.1.1 beta version and has been released in order to provide the radiation transport community with the latest feature developments and bug fixes for MCNP. Since the last release of MCNP major work has been conducted to improve the code base, add features, and provide tools to facilitate ease of use of MCNP version 6.2 as well as the analysis of results. These release notes serve as a general guidemore » for the new/improved physics, source, data, tallies, unstructured mesh, code enhancements and tools. For more detailed information on each of the topics, please refer to the appropriate references or the user manual which can be found at http://mcnp.lanl.gov. This release of MCNP version 6.2 contains 39 new features in addition to 172 bug fixes and code enhancements. There are still some 33 known issues the user should familiarize themselves with (see Appendix).« less

  8. Identification and validation of FGFR2 peptide for detection of early Barrett's neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; He, Lei; Pang, Zhijun; Appelman, Henry D.; Kuick, Rork; Beer, David G.; Li, Meng; Wang, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rising rapidly, and early detection within the precursor state of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is challenged by flat premalignant lesions that are difficult detect with conventional endoscopic surveillance. Overexpression of cell surface fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is an early event in progression of BE to EAC, and is a promising imaging target. We used phage display to identify the peptide SRRPASFRTARE that binds specifically to the extracellular domain of FGFR2. We labeled this peptide with a near-infrared fluorophore Cy5.5, and validated the specific binding to FGFR2 overexpressed in cells in vitro. We found high affinity kd = 68 nM and rapid binding k = 0.16 min−1 (6.2 min). In human esophageal specimens, we found significantly greater peptide binding to high-grade dysplasia (HGD) versus either BE or normal squamous epithelium, and good correlation with anti-FGFR2 antibody. We also observed significantly greater peptide binding to excised specimens of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cancer compared to normal mucosa. These results demonstrate potential for this FGFR2 peptide to be used as a clinical imaging agent to guide tissue biopsy and improve methods for early detection of EAC and potentially other epithelial-derived cancers. PMID:29152066

  9. Gastrin-releasing peptide stimulates glycoconjugate release from feline trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, J.D.; Baraniuk, J.N.; Ostrowski, N.L.

    1990-02-01

    The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on respiratory glycoconjugate (RGC) secretion was investigated in a feline tracheal organ culture model. RGC secretion was stimulated by GRP in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M (range 15-38% increase above control) with a peak effect within 0.5-1 h of incubation. GRP-(14-27), the receptor binding portion of GRP, and the related molecule, bombesin, also stimulated RGC secretion by approximately 20% above control. Acetyl-GRP-(20-27) stimulated RGC release by 10%, whereas GRP-(1-16) was inactive. Autoradiographic studies with 125I-GRP revealed that specific binding was restricted to the submucosal glands and the surface epithelium.more » A specific radioimmunoassay showed the content of GRP in feline trachea after extraction with ethanol-acetic acid to be 156 +/- 91 fmol/g wet wt. Indirect immunohistochemistry indicated that ganglion cells located just outside the cartilage contained GRP-immunoreactive materials. GRP is a novel mucus secretagogue that may participate in regulating airway mucosal gland secretion.« less

  10. Vibrational Spectra of Cryogenic Peptide Ions Using H_2 Predissociation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavitt, Christopher M.; Wolk, Arron B.; Kamrath, Michael Z.; Garand, Etienne; Johnson, Mark A.; van Stipdonk, Michael J.

    2011-06-01

    H_2 predissociation spectroscopy was used to collect the vibrational spectra of the model protonated peptides, GlyGly, GlySar, SarGly and SarSar (Gly=glycine and Sar=sarcosine). H_2 molecules were condensed onto protonated peptide ions in a quadrupole ion trap cooled to approximately 10 K. The resulting spectra yielded clearly resolved vibrational transitions throughout the mid IR region, 600-4200 Cm-1, with linewidths of approximately 6 Cm-1. Protonation nominally occurred on the amino terminus giving rise to an intramolecular H-bond between the protonated amine and the neighboring amide oxygen. The sarcosine containing peptides incorporate a methyl group onto either the amino group or the amide nitrogen causing the peptide backbone to adopt a different structure, resulting in the shifts in the amide I and II bands and the N-H stretches.

  11. Comparative effect of chronic bombesin, gastrin-releasing peptide and caerulein on the rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Damgé, C; Hajri, A; Lhoste, E; Aprahamian, M

    1988-02-01

    This study was designed to compare, on a molar basis, the effect of chronic bombesin, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and caerulein on pancreatic growth in the rat. These 3 peptides were administered s.c. 3 times daily for 4 days at the following concentrations: 0.036, 0.36, 3.6 and 7.2 nmol/kg of body weight. Bombesin and GRP induced pancreatic growth in a dose-dependent manner from 3.6 nmol/kg. This growth was characterized by an increase in pancreatic weight, its protein and RNA contents but not in DNA content suggesting cellular hypertrophy. Caerulein exerted a biphasic effect on pancreatic growth, inducing cellular hypertrophy at low doses since 0.36 nmol/kg and atrophy with the highest dose (7.2 nmol/kg). Bombesin and caerulein (until 3.6 nmol/kg) increased the pancreatic content in chymotrypsin more than in amylase. The 7.2 nmol/kg caerulein treatment depressed all enzyme activities while the same dose of GRP increased pancreatic lipase content. It is concluded that (1) bombesin and GRP are equipotent trophic factors for the pancreas; (2) caerulein is the most potent factor and exerts a biphasic effect on pancreatic growth; (3) pancreatic growth and synthesis and/or secretion of enzymes are not regulated through the same mechanism.

  12. A mesoporous nanocontainer gated by a stimuli-responsive peptide for selective triggering of intracellular drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeonghun; Oh, Eun-Taex; Yoon, Haerry; Kim, Hyunmi; Park, Heon Joo; Kim, Chulhee

    2016-04-01

    Mesoporous silica nanocontainers (MSNs) with biologically responsive gatekeepers have great potential for effective delivery of cargo molecules to the desired sites. For that purpose, peptides could be effective candidates as gatekeepers because of their bioresponsiveness and targeting capability. Taking advantage of the zinc finger domain peptide (CXXC), we designed a biocompatible all-peptide gatekeeper (WCGKC) with on-off gatekeeping capability through stimulus-responsive conformational conversion and the steric bulkiness of the tryptophan unit. The turn structure induced by an intramolecular disulfide bond of the peptide gatekeeper (WCGKC-SS) completely inhibited the release of the entrapped doxorubicin (DOX). However, upon reduction of the disulfide bond by glutathione (GSH), the peptide conformation was converted to a random structure, which opened the orifice of the mesopore leading to the release of DOX. The amine moiety of the lysine of the peptide gatekeeper was PEGylated to enhance dispersion stability and biocompatibility of the nanocontainer. Furthermore, the MSNs with the peptide gatekeeper (PEG-WCGKC-SS-Si) selectively released the entrapped DOX in A549 human lung cancer cells in a controlled manner triggered by intracellular GSH, but not in CCD normal lung cells containing a low intracellular GSH level. In A549 cells, DOX-loaded PEG-WCGKC-SS-Si exhibited about 10-times higher cytotoxicity induced by apoptosis than that in CCD cells.Mesoporous silica nanocontainers (MSNs) with biologically responsive gatekeepers have great potential for effective delivery of cargo molecules to the desired sites. For that purpose, peptides could be effective candidates as gatekeepers because of their bioresponsiveness and targeting capability. Taking advantage of the zinc finger domain peptide (CXXC), we designed a biocompatible all-peptide gatekeeper (WCGKC) with on-off gatekeeping capability through stimulus-responsive conformational conversion and the steric

  13. Regulation of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum by the serine hydrolase ABHD2.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bogeon; Lee, HeeJung; Powell, Roger; Reisdorph, Nichole; Ewing, Heather; Gelb, Michael H; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Leslie, Christina C

    2017-09-02

    The serine hydrolase inhibitors pyrrophenone and KT195 inhibit cell death induced by A23187 and H 2 O 2 by blocking the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial calcium uptake. The effect of pyrrophenone and KT195 on these processes is not due to inhibition of their known targets, cytosolic phospholipase A 2 and α/β-hydrolase domain-containing (ABHD) 6, respectively, but represent off-target effects. To identify targets of KT195, fibroblasts were treated with KT195-alkyne to covalently label protein targets followed by click chemistry with biotin azide, enrichment on streptavidin beads and tryptic peptide analysis by mass spectrometry. Although several serine hydrolases were identified, α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 2 (ABHD2) was the only target in which both KT195 and pyrrophenone competed for binding to KT195-alkyne. ABHD2 is a serine hydrolase with a predicted transmembrane domain consistent with its pull-down from the membrane proteome. Subcellular fractionation showed localization of ABHD2 to the endoplasmic reticulum but not to mitochondria or mitochondrial-associated membranes. Knockdown of ABHD2 with shRNA attenuated calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial calcium uptake and cell death in fibroblasts stimulated with A23187. The results describe a novel mechanism for regulating calcium transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria that involves the serine hydrolase ABHD2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Importance of Residue 13 and the C-Terminus for the Structure and Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptide Aurein 2.2

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, John T.J.; Hale, John D.; Kindrachuk, Jason; Jessen, Havard; Elliott, Melissa; Hancock, Robert E.W.; Straus, Suzana K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on aurein 2.2 and 2.3 in DMPC/DMPG and POPC/POPG membranes have shown that bilayer thickness and phosphatidylglycerol content have a significant impact on the interaction of these peptides with membrane bilayers. Further examination with the DiSC35 assay has indicated that aurein 2.2 induces greater membrane leakage than aurein 2.3 in Staphylococcus aureus C622. The only difference between these peptides is a Leu to Ile mutation at residue 13. To better understand the importance of this residue, the structure and activity of the L13A, L13F, and L13V mutants were investigated. In addition, we investigated a number of peptides with truncations at the C-terminus to determine whether the C-terminus, which contains residue 13, is crucial for antimicrobial activity. Solution circular dichroism results demonstrated that the L13F mutation and the truncation of the C-terminus by six residues resulted in decreased helical content, whereas the L13A or L13V mutation and the truncation of the C-terminus by three residues showed little to no effect on the structure. Oriented circular dichroism results demonstrated that only an extensive C-terminal truncation reduced the ability of the peptide to insert into lipid bilayers. 31P NMR spectroscopy showed that all peptides disorder the headgroups. The implications of these results in terms of antimicrobial activity and the ability of these peptides to induce leakage in S. aureus are discussed. The results suggest that the presence of the 13th residue in aurein 2.2 is important for structure and activity, but the exact nature of residue 13 is less important as long as it is a hydrophobic residue. PMID:21044590

  15. Biological properties of prolactin-releasing peptide analogs with a modified aromatic ring of a C-terminal phenylalanine amide.

    PubMed

    Maletínská, Lenka; Spolcová, Andrea; Maixnerová, Jana; Blechová, Miroslava; Zelezná, Blanka

    2011-09-01

    Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP)-induced secretion of prolactin is not currently considered a primary function of PrRP, but the development of late-onset obesity in both PrRP and PrRP receptor knock-out mice indicates the unique anorexigenic properties of PrRP. In our recent study, we showed comparable potencies of peptides PrRP31 and PrRP20 in binding, intracellular signaling and prolactin release in pituitary RC-4B/C cells, and anorexigenic effect after central administration in fasted mice. In the present study, eight analogs of PrRP20 with C-terminal Phe amide modified with a bulky side chain or a halogenated aromatic ring revealed high binding potency, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK1/2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and prolactin release in RC-4B/C cells. In particular, [PheNO(2)(31)]PrRP20, [1-Nal(31)]PrRP20, [2-Nal(31)]PrRP20 and [Tyr(31)]PrRP20 showed not only in vitro effects comparable or higher than those of PrRP20, but also a very significant and long-lasting anorexigenic effect after central administration in fasted mice. The design of potent and long-lasting PrRP analogs with selective anorexigenic properties promises to contribute to the study of food intake disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction of the Antimicrobial Peptide Aurein 1.2 and Charged Lipid Bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo

    Aurein 1.2 is a potent antimicrobial peptide secreted by frog Litoria aurea. As a short membrane-active peptide with only 13 amino acids in sequence, it has been found to be residing on the surface of lipid bilayer and permeabilizing bacterial membranes at high concentration. However, the detail at the molecular level is largely unknown. Here in this study, we investigated the action of Aurein 1.2 in charged lipid bilayers composed of DMPC/DMPG. Oriented Circular Dichroism results showed that the peptide was on the surface of lipid bilayer regardless of the charged lipid ratio. Only at a very high peptide-to-lipid ratiomore » (~1/10), the peptide became perpendicular to the bilayer, however no pore was detected by neutron in-plane scattering. To further understand how it interacted with charged lipid bilayers, we employed Small Angle Neutron Scattering to probe lipid distribution across bilayer leaflets in lipid vesicles. The results showed that Aurein 1.2 interacted strongly with negatively charged DMPG, causing strong asymmetry in lipid bilayer. At high concentration, while the vesicles were intact, we found additional structure feature on the bilayer. Finally, our study provides a glimpse into how Aurein 1.2 disturbs anionic lipid-containing membranes without pore formation.« less

  17. Interaction of the Antimicrobial Peptide Aurein 1.2 and Charged Lipid Bilayer

    DOE PAGES

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo

    2017-06-16

    Aurein 1.2 is a potent antimicrobial peptide secreted by frog Litoria aurea. As a short membrane-active peptide with only 13 amino acids in sequence, it has been found to be residing on the surface of lipid bilayer and permeabilizing bacterial membranes at high concentration. However, the detail at the molecular level is largely unknown. Here in this study, we investigated the action of Aurein 1.2 in charged lipid bilayers composed of DMPC/DMPG. Oriented Circular Dichroism results showed that the peptide was on the surface of lipid bilayer regardless of the charged lipid ratio. Only at a very high peptide-to-lipid ratiomore » (~1/10), the peptide became perpendicular to the bilayer, however no pore was detected by neutron in-plane scattering. To further understand how it interacted with charged lipid bilayers, we employed Small Angle Neutron Scattering to probe lipid distribution across bilayer leaflets in lipid vesicles. The results showed that Aurein 1.2 interacted strongly with negatively charged DMPG, causing strong asymmetry in lipid bilayer. At high concentration, while the vesicles were intact, we found additional structure feature on the bilayer. Finally, our study provides a glimpse into how Aurein 1.2 disturbs anionic lipid-containing membranes without pore formation.« less

  18. Stretch-induced Ca2+ independent ATP release in hippocampal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yingfei; Teng, Sasa; Zheng, Lianghong; Sun, Suhua; Li, Jie; Guo, Ning; Li, Mingli; Wang, Li; Zhu, Feipeng; Wang, Changhe; Rao, Zhiren; Zhou, Zhuan

    2018-02-28

    Similar to neurons, astrocytes actively participate in synaptic transmission via releasing gliotransmitters. The Ca 2+ -dependent release of gliotransmitters includes glutamate and ATP. Following an 'on-cell-like' mechanical stimulus to a single astrocyte, Ca 2+ independent single, large, non-quantal, ATP release occurs. Astrocytic ATP release is inhibited by either selective antagonist treatment or genetic knockdown of P2X7 receptor channels. Our work suggests that ATP can be released from astrocytes via two independent pathways in hippocampal astrocytes; in addition to the known Ca 2+ -dependent vesicular release, larger non-quantal ATP release depends on P2X7 channels following mechanical stretch. Astrocytic ATP release is essential for brain functions such as synaptic long-term potentiation for learning and memory. However, whether and how ATP is released via exocytosis remains hotly debated. All previous studies of non-vesicular ATP release have used indirect assays. By contrast, two recent studies report vesicular ATP release using more direct assays. In the present study, using patch clamped 'ATP-sniffer cells', we re-investigated astrocytic ATP release at single-vesicle resolution in hippocampal astrocytes. Following an 'on-cell-like' mechanical stimulus of a single astrocyte, a Ca 2+ independent single large non-quantal ATP release occurred, in contrast to the Ca 2+ -dependent multiple small quantal ATP release in a chromaffin cell. The mechanical stimulation-induced ATP release from an astrocyte was inhibited by either exposure to a selective antagonist or genetic knockdown of P2X7 receptor channels. Functional P2X7 channels were expressed in astrocytes in hippocampal brain slices. Thus, in addition to small quantal ATP release, larger non-quantal ATP release depends on P2X7 channels in astrocytes. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  19. Lactobacillus buchneri S-layer as carrier for an Ara h 2-derived peptide for peanut allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Anzengruber, Julia; Bublin, Merima; Bönisch, Eva; Janesch, Bettina; Tscheppe, Angelika; Braun, Matthias L; Varga, Eva-Maria; Hafner, Christine; Breiteneder, Heimo; Schäffer, Christina

    2017-05-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated severe hypersensitivity disorder. The lack of a treatment of this potentially fatal allergy has led to intensive research on vaccine development. Here, we describe the design and initial characterization of a carrier-bound peptide derived from the most potent peanut allergen, Ara h 2, as a candidate vaccine. Based on the adjuvant capability of bacterial surface (S-) layers, a fusion protein of the S-layer protein SlpB from Lactobacillus buchneri CD034 and the Ara h 2-derived peptide AH3a42 was produced. This peptide comprised immunodominant B-cell epitopes as well as one T cell epitope. The fusion protein SlpB-AH3a42 was expressed in E. coli, purified, and tested for its IgE binding capacity as well as for its ability to activate sensitized rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells. The capacity of Ara h 2-specific IgG rabbit-antibodies raised against SlpB-AH3a42 or Ara h 2 to inhibit IgE-binding was determined by ELISA inhibition assays using sera of peanut allergic patients sensitized to Ara h 2. IgE specific to the SlpB-AH3a42 fusion protein was detected in 69% (25 of 36) of the sera. Despite the recognition by IgE, the SlpB-AH3a42 fusion protein was unable to induce β-hexosaminidase release from sensitized RBL cells at concentrations up to 100ng per ml. The inhibition of IgE-binding to the natural allergen observed after pre-incubation of the 20 sera with rabbit anti-SlpB-AH3a42 IgG was more than 30% for four sera, more than 20% for eight sera, and below 10% for eight sera. In comparison, anti-Ara h 2 rabbit IgG antibodies inhibited binding to Ara h 2 by 48% ±13.5%. Our data provide evidence for the feasibility of this novel approach towards the development of a peanut allergen peptide-based carrier-bound vaccine. Our experiments further indicate that more than one allergen-peptide will be needed to induce a broader protection of patients allergic to Ara h 2. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  20. The nature of peptide interactions with acid end-group PLGAs and facile aqueous-based microencapsulation of therapeutic peptides.

    PubMed

    Sophocleous, Andreas M; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H; Mazzara, J Maxwell; Tong, Ling; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Olsen, Karl F; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2013-12-28

    An important poorly understood phenomenon in controlled-release depots involves the strong interaction between common cationic peptides and low Mw free acid end-group poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) (PLGAs) used to achieve continuous peptide release kinetics. The kinetics of peptide sorption to PLGA was examined by incubating peptide solutions of 0.2-4mM octreotide or leuprolide acetate salts in a 0.1M HEPES buffer, pH7.4, with polymer particles or films at 4-37°C for 24h. The extent of absorption/loading of peptides in PLGA particles/films was assayed by two-phase extraction and amino acid analysis. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and laser scanning confocal imaging, and microtome sectioning techniques were used to examine peptide penetration into the polymer phase. The release of sorbed peptide from leuprolide-PLGA particles was evaluated both in vitro (PBST+0.02% sodium azide, 37°C) and in vivo (male Sprague-Dawley rats). We found that when the PLGA-COOH chains are sufficiently mobilized, therapeutic peptides not only bind at the surface, a common belief to date, but also can be internalized and distributed throughout the polymer phase at physiological temperature forming a salt with low-molecular weight PLGA-COOH. Importantly, absorption of leuprolide into low MW PLGA-COOH particles yielded ~17 wt.% leuprolide loading in the polymer (i.e., ~70% of PLGA-COOH acids occupied), and the absorbed peptide was released from the polymer for >2 weeks in a controlled fashion in vitro and as indicated by sustained testosterone suppression in male Sprague-Dawley rats. This new approach, which bypasses the traditional encapsulation method and associated production cost, opens up the potential for facile production of low-cost controlled-release injectable depots for leuprolide and related peptides. © 2013.

  1. The nature of peptide interactions with acid end-group PLGAs and facile aqueous-based microencapsulation of therapeutic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sophocleous, Andreas M.; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Mazzara, J. Maxwell; Tong, Ling; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Olsen, Karl F.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    An important poorly understood phenomenon in controlled-release depots involves the strong interaction between common cationic peptides and low Mw free acid end-group poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) (PLGAs) used to achieve continuous peptide release kinetics. The kinetics of peptide sorption to PLGA was examined by incubating peptide solutions of 0.2-4 mM octreotide or leuprolide acetate salts in 0.1 M HEPES buffer, pH 7.4, with polymer particles or films at 4-37 °C for 24 h. The extent of absorption/loading of peptides in PLGA particles/films was assayed by two-phase extraction and amino acid analysis. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and laser scanning confocal imaging techniques were used to examine peptide penetration in the polymer phase. The release of sorbed peptide from leuprolide-PLGA particles was evaluated both in vitro (PBST + 0.02% sodium azide, 37 °C) and in vivo (male Sprague-Dawley rats). We found that when the PLGA-COOH chains are sufficiently mobilized, therapeutic peptides not only bind at the surface, a common belief to date, but can also internalized and distributed throughout the polymer phase at physiological temperature forming a salt with low-molecular weight PLGA-COOH. Importantly, absorption of leuprolide into low MW PLGA-COOH particles yielded ~17 wt% leuprolide loading in the polymer (i.e., ~70% of PLGA-COOH acids occupied), and the absorbed peptide was released from the polymer for > 2 weeks in a controlled fashion in vitro and as indicated by sustained testosterone suppression in male Sprague-Dawley rats. This new approach, which bypasses the traditional encapsulation method and associated production cost, opens up the potential for facile production of low-cost controlled-release injectable depots for leuprolide and related peptides. PMID:24021356

  2. Semi-supervised prediction of SH2-peptide interactions from imbalanced high-throughput data.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Kousik; Costa, Fabrizio; Huber, Michael; Reth, Michael; Backofen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are the largest family of the peptide-recognition modules (PRMs) that bind to phosphotyrosine containing peptides. Knowledge about binding partners of SH2-domains is key for a deeper understanding of different cellular processes. Given the high binding specificity of SH2, in-silico ligand peptide prediction is of great interest. Currently however, only a few approaches have been published for the prediction of SH2-peptide interactions. Their main shortcomings range from limited coverage, to restrictive modeling assumptions (they are mainly based on position specific scoring matrices and do not take into consideration complex amino acids inter-dependencies) and high computational complexity. We propose a simple yet effective machine learning approach for a large set of known human SH2 domains. We used comprehensive data from micro-array and peptide-array experiments on 51 human SH2 domains. In order to deal with the high data imbalance problem and the high signal-to-noise ration, we casted the problem in a semi-supervised setting. We report competitive predictive performance w.r.t. state-of-the-art. Specifically we obtain 0.83 AUC ROC and 0.93 AUC PR in comparison to 0.71 AUC ROC and 0.87 AUC PR previously achieved by the position specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) based SMALI approach. Our work provides three main contributions. First, we showed that better models can be obtained when the information on the non-interacting peptides (negative examples) is also used. Second, we improve performance when considering high order correlations between the ligand positions employing regularization techniques to effectively avoid overfitting issues. Third, we developed an approach to tackle the data imbalance problem using a semi-supervised strategy. Finally, we performed a genome-wide prediction of human SH2-peptide binding, uncovering several findings of biological relevance. We make our models and genome-wide predictions, for all the 51 SH2

  3. Structural Basis for Antigenic Peptide Recognition and Processing by Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Aminopeptidase 2.

    PubMed

    Mpakali, Anastasia; Giastas, Petros; Mathioudakis, Nikolas; Mavridis, Irene M; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2015-10-23

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidases process antigenic peptide precursors to generate epitopes for presentation by MHC class I molecules and help shape the antigenic peptide repertoire and cytotoxic T-cell responses. To perform this function, ER aminopeptidases have to recognize and process a vast variety of peptide sequences. To understand how these enzymes recognize substrates, we determined crystal structures of ER aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) in complex with a substrate analogue and a peptidic product to 2.5 and 2.7 Å, respectively, and compared them to the apo-form structure determined to 3.0 Å. The peptides were found within the internal cavity of the enzyme with no direct access to the outside solvent. The substrate analogue extends away from the catalytic center toward the distal end of the internal cavity, making interactions with several shallow pockets along the path. A similar configuration was evident for the peptidic product, although decreasing electron density toward its C terminus indicated progressive disorder. Enzymatic analysis confirmed that visualized interactions can either positively or negatively impact in vitro trimming rates. Opportunistic side-chain interactions and lack of deep specificity pockets support a limited-selectivity model for antigenic peptide processing by ERAP2. In contrast to proposed models for the homologous ERAP1, no specific recognition of the peptide C terminus by ERAP2 was evident, consistent with functional differences in length selection and self-activation between these two enzymes. Our results suggest that ERAP2 selects substrates by sequestering them in its internal cavity and allowing opportunistic interactions to determine trimming rates, thus combining substrate permissiveness with sequence bias. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ release from the SR of feline ventricular myocytes is explained by Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release.

    PubMed

    Piacentino, V; Dipla, K; Gaughan, J P; Houser, S R

    2000-03-15

    1. Direct voltage-gated (voltage-dependent Ca2+ release, VDCR) and Ca2+ influx-gated (Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, CICR) sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release were studied in feline ventricular myocytes. The voltage-contraction relationship predicted by the VDCR hypothesis is sigmoidal with large contractions at potentials near the Ca2+ equilibrium potential (ECa). The relationship predicted by the CICR hypothesis is bell-shaped with no contraction at ECa. 2. The voltage dependence of contraction was measured in ventricular myocytes at physiological temperature (37 C), resting membrane potential and physiological [K+]. Experiments were performed with cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in the pipette or in the presence of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (isoprenaline; ISO). 3. The voltage-contraction relationship was bell-shaped in Na+-free solutions (to eliminate the Na+ current and Na+-Ca2+ exchange, NCX) but the relationship was broader than the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L)-voltage relationship. 4. Contractions induced with voltage steps from normal resting potentials to -40 mV are thought to represent VDCR rather than CICR. We found that cAMP and ISO shifted the voltage dependence of ICa,L activation to more negative potentials so that ICa,L was always present with steps to -40 mV. ICa,L at -40 mV inactivated when the holding potential was decreased (VŁ = -57.8 +/- 0.49 mV). 5. ISO increased inward current, SR Ca2+ load and contraction in physiological [Na+] and a broad bell-shaped voltage-contraction relationship was observed. Inhibition of reverse-mode NCX, decreasing ICa,L and decreasing SR Ca2+ loading all decreased contractions at strongly positive potentials near ECa. 6. The voltage-contraction relationship in 200 microM cadmium (Cd2+) was bell-shaped, supporting a role of ICa,L rather than VDCR. 7. All results could be accounted for by the CICR hypothesis, and many results exclude the VDCR hypothesis.

  5. Expression of gastrin-releasing peptide by excitatory interneurons in the mouse superficial dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J

    2014-12-11

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor have been shown to play an important role in the sensation of itch. However, although GRP immunoreactivity has been detected in the spinal dorsal horn, there is debate about whether this originates from primary afferents or local excitatory interneurons. We therefore examined the relation of GRP immunoreactivity to that seen with antibodies that label primary afferent or excitatory interneuron terminals. We tested the specificity of the GRP antibody by preincubating with peptides with which it could potentially cross-react. We also examined tissue from a mouse line in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is expressed under control of the GRP promoter. GRP immunoreactivity was seen in both primary afferent and non-primary glutamatergic axon terminals in the superficial dorsal horn. However, immunostaining was blocked by pre-incubation of the antibody with substance P, which is present at high levels in many nociceptive primary afferents. EGFP+ cells in the GRP-EGFP mouse did not express Pax2, and their axons contained the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), indicating that they are excitatory interneurons. In most cases, their axons were also GRP-immunoreactive. Multiple-labelling immunocytochemical studies indicated that these cells did not express either of the preprotachykinin peptides, and that they generally lacked protein kinase Cγ, which is expressed by a subset of the excitatory interneurons in this region. These results show that GRP is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory interneurons in laminae I-II that are likely to be involved in the itch pathway. They also suggest that the GRP immunoreactivity seen in primary afferents in previous studies may have resulted from cross-reaction of the GRP antibody with substance P or the closely related peptide neurokinin A.

  6. The destiny of Ca(2+) released by mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Kim, Bongju; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) is known to regulate diverse cellular functions, for example energy production and cell death, by modulating mitochondrial dehydrogenases, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, and opening mitochondrial permeability transition pores. In addition to the action of Ca(2+) within mitochondria, Ca(2+) released from mitochondria is also important in a variety of cellular functions. In the last 5 years, the molecules responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics have been identified: a mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), a mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCLX), and a candidate for a mitochondrial H(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (Letm1). In this review, we focus on the mitochondrial Ca(2+) release system, and discuss its physiological and pathophysiological significance. Accumulating evidence suggests that the mitochondrial Ca(2+) release system is not only crucial in maintaining mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis but also participates in the Ca(2+) crosstalk between mitochondria and the plasma membrane and between mitochondria and the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  7. A novel accelerated in vitro release method to evaluate the release of thymopentin from PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiangyang; Li, Zhiping; Zhang, Ling; Chi, Qiang; Yang, Yanfang; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Yang; Mei, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    A novel accelerated method of good correlations with "real-time" release to evaluate in vitro thymopentin release from poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere was developed. Thymopentin-loaded microspheres were made from three types of PLGA, and peptide release was studied in various conditions. Incomplete release of peptide (<60%) from microspheres was found in accelerated testing with two typical release media. This problem was circumvented by adding organic solvents to the release media and varying the temperature in the media heating process. Release media containing three kinds of organic solvents at 50 °C were tested, respectively, and hydro-alcoholic solution was selected for further study. After the surfactant concentration (0.06%, W/V) and ethanol concentration (20%, V/V) were fixed, a gradient heating program, consisting of three stages and each stage with a different temperature, was introduced to enhance the correlations between the short- and long-term release. After adjusting the heating time of each stage, a good correlation (R(2) = 9896, formulation 8 K; R(2) = 0.9898, formulation 13 K; R(2) = 0.9886, formulation 28 K) between accelerated and "real-time" release was obtained. By optimizing the conditions as ethanol concentration and temperature gradients, this accelerated method may be appropriate for similar peptide formulations that not well correlate with "real-time" release.

  8. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-2 responds to nutrient intake but not glucose provision in milk-fed calves.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Morrison, S Y; Hosseinni, A; Loor, J J; Drackley, J K; Ipharraguerre, I R

    2016-07-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a peptide released by the lower gut that has potent trophic and restorative effects on the intestinal epithelium. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of feeding rate and either metabolizable or nonmetabolizable glucose supplementation on GLP-2 concentrations in plasma and intestinal development in Holstein calves. In the first experiment, 48 newborn calves were assigned to 12 treatments (n=4) corresponding to the factorial combination of 4 milk feeding amounts [1.75, 1.32, 0.88, and 0.44% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM)] and 3 oral supplementation treatments (nonsupplemented, glucose-supplemented, and 3-O-methyl glucose-supplemented). In the second experiment 30 newborn calves (n=10) were fed milk at a fixed rate of 1.75% of BW as DM and assigned to the same glucose supplementation treatments used in experiment 1 to investigate effects on intestinal development. In the first experiment, we found a saturating response of plasma GLP-2 to increasing feeding levels. The feeding rate at which 50% of the maximal GLP-2 release occurred was estimated to be 0.53% of BW as DM or 30.3% of the maximum feeding rate (1.75% of BW as DM), whereas maximal secretion was estimated to be about 98.6 pmol/L. In turn, feeding 75, 50, or 25% of the maximal feeding rate (i.e., 1.75% BW as DM) resulted in plasma GLP-2 concentrations 87, 72, and 49% of that in fully fed calves, respectively. Neither metabolizable nor nonmetabolizable glucose supplementation affected GLP-2 secretion and no interaction with feed intake level was detected. In the second experiment, no effect of glucose supplementation was observed on intestinal growth, mucosal cell proliferation, or expression of genes related to the actions of GLP-2. Nonetheless, we observed that a pool of genes of the GLP-2 signaling pathway was more abundantly and coordinately regulated in the colon than in the ileum of these animals, indicating an opportunity for dietary induction

  9. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ release from the SR of feline ventricular myocytes is explained by Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Piacentino, Valentino; Dipla, Konstantina; Gaughan, John P; Houser, Steven R

    2000-01-01

    Direct voltage-gated (voltage-dependent Ca2+ release, VDCR) and Ca2+ influx-gated (Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, CICR) sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release were studied in feline ventricular myocytes. The voltage-contraction relationship predicted by the VDCR hypothesis is sigmoidal with large contractions at potentials near the Ca2+ equilibrium potential (ECa). The relationship predicted by the CICR hypothesis is bell-shaped with no contraction at ECa. The voltage dependence of contraction was measured in ventricular myocytes at physiological temperature (37 °C), resting membrane potential and physiological [K+]. Experiments were performed with cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) in the pipette or in the presence of the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (isoprenaline; ISO). The voltage-contraction relationship was bell-shaped in Na+-free solutions (to eliminate the Na+ current and Na+-Ca2+ exchange, NCX) but the relationship was broader than the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L)-voltage relationship. Contractions induced with voltage steps from normal resting potentials to -40 mV are thought to represent VDCR rather than CICR. We found that cAMP and ISO shifted the voltage dependence of ICa,L activation to more negative potentials so that ICa,L was always present with steps to -40 mV. ICa,L at -40 mV inactivated when the holding potential was decreased (V½ =−57·8 ± 0·49 mV). ISO increased inward current, SR Ca2+ load and contraction in physiological [Na+] and a broad bell-shaped voltage-contraction relationship was observed. Inhibition of reverse-mode NCX, decreasing ICa,L and decreasing SR Ca2+ loading all decreased contractions at strongly positive potentials near ECa. The voltage-contraction relationship in 200 μM cadmium (Cd2+) was bell-shaped, supporting a role of ICa,L rather than VDCR. All results could be accounted for by the CICR hypothesis, and many results exclude the VDCR hypothesis. PMID:10718736

  10. Ca2+-mediated ascorbate release from coronary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kim A; Samson, Sue E; Best, Kelly; Mallhi, Kanwaldeep K; Szewczyk, Magdalena; Wilson, John X; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Grover, Ashok K

    2006-01-01

    1.--The addition of Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 or ATP to freshly isolated or cultured pig coronary artery endothelial cells (PCEC) potentiated the release of ascorbate (Asc). Cultured PCEC were used to characterize the Ca(2+)-mediated release. An increase in Ca(2+)-mediated Asc release was observed from PCEC preincubated with Asc, Asc-2-phosphate or dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA). 2.--The effects of various ATP analogs and inhibition by suramin were consistent with the ATP-induced release being mediated by P2Y2-like receptors. 3.--ATP-stimulated Asc release was Ca(2+)-mediated because (a) ATP analogs that increased Asc release also elevated cytosolic [Ca(2+)], (b) Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 and cyclopiazonic acid stimulated the Asc release, (c) removing extracellular Ca(2+) and chelating intracellular Ca(2+)inhibited the ATP-induced release, and (d) inositol-selective phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 also inhibited this release. 4.--Accumulation of Asc by PCEC was examined at Asc concentrations of 10 microM (Na(+)-Asc symporter not saturated) and 5 mM (Na(+)-Asc symporter saturated). At 10 microM Asc, A23187 and ATP caused an inhibition of Asc accumulation but at 5 mM Asc, both the agents caused a stimulation. Substituting gluconate for chloride did not affect the basal Asc uptake but it abolished the effects of A23187. 5.--PCEC but not pig coronary artery smooth muscle cells show a Ca(2+)- mediated Asc release pathway that may be activated by agents such as ATP.

  11. Short-term effects of beta-amyloid25-35 peptide aggregates on transmitter release in neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Tomàs, Josep

    2008-03-01

    The beta-amyloid (AB) peptide25-35 contains the functional domain of the AB precursor protein that is both required for neurotrophic effects in normal neural tissues and is involved in the neurotoxic effects in Alzheimer disease. We demonstrated the presence of the amyloid precursor protein/AB peptide in intramuscular axons, presynaptic motor nerve terminals, terminal and myelinating Schwann cells, and the postsynaptic and subsarcolemmal region in the Levator auris longus muscle of adult rats by immunocytochemistry. Using intracellular recording, we investigated possible short-term functional effects of the AB fragment (0.1-10 micromol/L) on acetylcholine release in adult and newborn motor end plates. We found no change in evoked, spontaneous transmitter release or resting membrane potential of the muscle cells. A previous block of the presynaptic muscarinic receptor subtypes and a previous block or stimulation of protein kinase C revealed no masked effect of the peptide on the regulation of transmitter release. The aggregated form of AB peptide25-35, however, interfered acutely with acetylcholine release (quantal content reduction) when synaptic activity was maintained by electric stimulation. The possible relevance of this inhibition of neurotransmission by AB peptide25-35 to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer remains to be determined.

  12. Ca2+-induced Ca2+ Release Phenomena in Mammalian Sympathetic Neurons Are Critically Dependent on the Rate of Rise of Trigger Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Cruz, Arturo; Escobar, Ariel L.; Jiménez, Nicolás

    1997-01-01

    The role of ryanodine-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores present in nonmuscular cells is not yet completely understood. Here we examine the physiological parameters determining the dynamics of caffeine-induced Ca2+ release in individual fura-2–loaded sympathetic neurons. Two ryanodine-sensitive release components were distinguished: an early, transient release (TR) and a delayed, persistent release (PR). The TR component shows refractoriness, depends on the filling status of the store, and requires caffeine concentrations ≥10 mM. Furthermore, it is selectively suppressed by tetracaine and intracellular BAPTA, which interfere with Ca2+-mediated feedback loops, suggesting that it constitutes a Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release phenomenon. The dynamics of release is markedly affected when Sr2+ substitutes for Ca2+, indicating that Sr2+ release may operate with lower feedback gain than Ca2+ release. Our data indicate that when the initial release occurs at an adequately fast rate, Ca2+ triggers further release, producing a regenerative response, which is interrupted by depletion of releasable Ca2+ and Ca2+-dependent inactivation. A compartmentalized linear diffusion model can reproduce caffeine responses: When the Ca2+ reservoir is full, the rapid initial Ca2+ rise determines a faster occupation of the ryanodine receptor Ca2+ activation site giving rise to a regenerative release. With the store only partially loaded, the slower initial Ca2+ rise allows the inactivating site of the release channel to become occupied nearly as quickly as the activating site, thereby suppressing the initial fast release. The PR component is less dependent on the store's Ca2+ content. This study suggests that transmembrane Ca2+ influx in rat sympathetic neurons does not evoke widespread amplification by CICR because of its inability to raise [Ca2+] near the Ca2+ release channels sufficiently fast to overcome their Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Conversely, caffeine-induced Ca2+ release can

  13. Resveratrol inhibits proteinase-activated receptor-2-induced release of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 from human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ani, Bahjat

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that (i) activation of the proinflammatory receptor, proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) caused the release of an important biomarker in preeclampsia, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1, also known as sFlt-1) from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and (ii) that the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, resveratrol, is capable of inhibiting the proinflammatory cytokine-induced sVEGFR-1 release from human placenta. Based on these findings and because PAR-2 is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines, we sought to determine whether resveratrol can inhibit PAR-2-induced sVEGFR-1 release. PAR-2 expressing cells, HUVECs and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) transfected with a human VEGFR-1 promoter-luciferase reporter construct were incubated with PAR-2-activating peptide and/or resveratrol. Cell supernatants were assayed for sVEGFR-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and VEGFR-1 promoter-luciferase assay was performed on the harvested cell lysates. Preincubation of HEK-293 cells with resveratrol significantly inhibited PAR-2-induced VEGFR-1 promoter activity without affecting cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. The addition of resveratrol also blocked PAR-2-mediated sVEGFR-1 release from HUVECs. The present study demonstrates that resveratrol suppressed both VEGFR-1 promoter activity and sVEGFR-1 protein release induced by PAR-2 activation, which further endorses our recent findings of a potential therapeutic role for resveratrol in preeclampsia. PMID:26933402

  14. Immunization with a novel chimeric peptide representing B and T cell epitopes from HER2 extracellular domain (HER2 ECD) for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Manijeh; Keyhanfar, Mehrnaz; Jafarian, Abbas; Mohabatkar, Hassan; Rabbani, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Because of direct stimulating immune system against disease, vaccination or active immunotherapy is preferable compared to passive immunotherapy. For this purpose, a newly designed chimeric peptide containing epitopes for both B and T cells from HER2 ECD subdomain III was proposed. To evaluate the effects of the active immunization, a discontinuous B cell epitope peptide was selected based on average antigenicity by bioinformatics analysis. The selected peptide was collinearly synthesized as a chimera with a T helper epitope from the protein sequence of measles virus fusion (208-302) using the GPSL linker. Three mice were immunized with the chimeric peptide. Reactive antibodies with HER2 protein in ELISA and immunofluorescence assays with no cross-reactivity were generated. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the anti-peptide sera had inhibitory effects on proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells. Hence, the newly designed, discontinuous chimeric peptide representing B and T cell epitopes from subdomain III of HER2-ECD can form the basis for future vaccines design, where these data can be applied for monoclonal antibody production targeting the distinct epitope of HER2 receptor compared to the two broadly used anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, Herceptin and pertuzumab.

  15. Adenosine triphosphate induces P2Y2 activation and interleukin-8 release in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2017-07-01

    Immune-mediated mucosal inflammation characterized by the release of interleukin (IL)-8 is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. ATP released by human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs) mediates the release of cytokines through P2 nucleotide receptors that are present on various cells, including HEECs. This study characterized and identified human esophageal epithelial P2 receptors that are responsible for ATP-mediated release of IL-8 by using a human esophageal stratified squamous epithelial model. Primary HEECs were cultured with the use of an air-liquid interface (ALI) system. The ATP analogue adenosine 5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate (ATP-γ-S) was added to the basolateral compartment, and IL-8 release was measured. Involvement of the P2Y2 receptor was assessed with the use of selective and non-selective receptor antagonists and a P2Y2 receptor agonist. Expression of the P2Y2 receptor was assessed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Adenosine triphosphate-γ-S induced IL-8 release through the P2Y2 receptor. A P2Y2 receptor antagonist but not a P2X3 receptor antagonist or a P2Y1 receptor antagonist blocked ATP-γ-S-mediated IL-8 release. Conversely, a P2Y2 receptor agonist induced IL-8 release. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the P2Y2 receptor showed strong expression of the P2Y2 receptor on ALI-cultured HEECs and in human esophagus. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase but not of protein kinase C blocked the ATP-mediated release of IL-8. ATP-γ-S induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and a P2Y2 receptor antagonist blocked this phosphorylation. Interleukin-8 release after purinergic stimulation in ALI-cultured HEECs is mediated through P2Y2 receptor activation. ATP-induced IL-8 release maybe involved in the pathogenesis of refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Controlled release of functional proteins through designer self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Koutsopoulos, Sotirios; Unsworth, Larry D.; Nagai, Yusuke; Zhang, Shuguang

    2009-01-01

    The release kinetics for a variety of proteins of a wide range of molecular mass, hydrodynamic radii, and isoelectric points through a nanofiber hydrogel scaffold consisting of designer self-assembling peptides were studied by using single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In contrast to classical diffusion experiments, the single-molecule approach allowed for the direct determination of diffusion coefficients for lysozyme, trypsin inhibitor, BSA, and IgG both inside the hydrogel and after being released into the solution. The results of the FCS analyses and the calculated pristine in-gel diffusion coefficients were compared with the values obtained from the Stokes–Einstein equation, Fickian diffusion models, and the literature. The release kinetics suggested that protein diffusion through nanofiber hydrogels depended primarily on the size of the protein. Protein diffusivities decreased, with increasing hydrogel nanofiber density providing a means of controlling the release kinetics. Secondary and tertiary structure analyses and biological assays of the released proteins showed that encapsulation and release did not affect the protein conformation and functionality. Our results show that this biocompatible and injectable designer self-assembling peptide hydrogel system may be useful as a carrier for therapeutic proteins for sustained release applications. PMID:19273853

  17. SH2 Domains Recognize Contextual Peptide Sequence Information to Determine Selectivity*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bernard A.; Jablonowski, Karl; Shah, Eshana E.; Engelmann, Brett W.; Jones, Richard B.; Nash, Piers D.

    2010-01-01

    Selective ligand recognition by modular protein interaction domains is a primary determinant of specificity in signaling pathways. Src homology 2 (SH2) domains fulfill this capacity immediately downstream of tyrosine kinases, acting to recruit their host polypeptides to ligand proteins harboring phosphorylated tyrosine residues. The degree to which SH2 domains are selective and the mechanisms underlying selectivity are fundamental to understanding phosphotyrosine signaling networks. An examination of interactions between 50 SH2 domains and a set of 192 phosphotyrosine peptides corresponding to physiological motifs within FGF, insulin, and IGF-1 receptor pathways indicates that individual SH2 domains have distinct recognition properties and exhibit a remarkable degree of selectivity beyond that predicted by previously described binding motifs. The underlying basis for such selectivity is the ability of SH2 domains to recognize both permissive amino acid residues that enhance binding and non-permissive amino acid residues that oppose binding in the vicinity of the essential phosphotyrosine. Neighboring positions affect one another so local sequence context matters to SH2 domains. This complex linguistics allows SH2 domains to distinguish subtle differences in peptide ligands. This newly appreciated contextual dependence substantially increases the accessible information content embedded in the peptide ligands that can be effectively integrated to determine binding. This concept may serve more broadly as a paradigm for subtle recognition of physiological ligands by protein interaction domains. PMID:20627867

  18. Detergent enhances binding of a secreted HLA-A2 molecule to solid phase peptides.

    PubMed

    Tussey, L G; Frelinger, J A

    1991-11-01

    We have constructed a secreted analogue (sA2) of the human class I molecule HLA-A2. sA2 was affinity purified both in the presence and absence of detergent and the effects of detergent on the magnitude and specificity of A2 binding to solid phase peptides tested. sA2 purified in the presence of detergent and detergent-solubilized A2 are shown to function comparably in the binding of the synthetic peptide M.Y + 57-68, a known T-cell epitope derived from the influenza A matrix protein. The molecules binding to M.Y + 57-68 typically represent 8% to 10% of the added protein. In contrast, less than 1% of sA2 protein purified in the absence of detergent binds M.Y + 57-68. This reduced binding is not due to a change in the affinity of sA2 for M.Y + 57-68. Addition of detergent at various stages of the purification and iodination procedures indicates that the longer the sA2 molecules are exposed to detergent the better they bind. However, the concentration of detergent during the actual binding assay does not appear to be critical. We also find that while the sA2-detergent and the sA2-no detergent molecules differ in the extent to which they bind various peptides, they do not differ in their patterns of binding. We conclude that detergent probably does not influence the specificity of class I/peptide binding but does increase the number of sA2 molecules that can participate in the binding of peptide either by generating and stabilizing "empty" sA2 molecules or by stabilizing a structure that is more amenable to binding peptide.

  19. The Sam-Sam interaction between Ship2 and the EphA2 receptor: design and analysis of peptide inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Di Natale, Concetta; Pirone, Luciano; Iannitti, Roberta; Marasco, Daniela; Pedone, Emilia Maria; Palumbo, Rosanna; Leone, Marilisa

    2017-12-12

    The lipid phosphatase Ship2 represents a drug discovery target for the treatment of different diseases, including cancer. Its C-terminal sterile alpha motif domain (Ship2-Sam) associates with the Sam domain from the EphA2 receptor (EphA2-Sam). This interaction is expected to mainly induce pro-oncogenic effects in cells therefore, inhibition of the Ship2-Sam/EphA2-Sam complex may represent an innovative route to discover anti-cancer therapeutics. In the present work, we designed and analyzed several peptide sequences encompassing the interaction interface of EphA2-Sam for Ship2-Sam. Peptide conformational analyses and interaction assays with Ship2-Sam conducted through diverse techniques (CD, NMR, SPR and MST), identified a positively charged penta-amino acid native motif in EphA2-Sam, that once repeated three times in tandem, binds Ship2-Sam. NMR experiments show that the peptide targets the negatively charged binding site of Ship2-Sam for EphA2-Sam. Preliminary in vitro cell-based assays indicate that -at 50 µM concentration- it induces necrosis of PC-3 prostate cancer cells with more cytotoxic effect on cancer cells than on normal dermal fibroblasts. This work represents a pioneering study that opens further opportunities for the development of inhibitors of the Ship2-Sam/EphA2-Sam complex for therapeutic applications.

  20. Orally active growth hormone secretagogues: state of the art and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Camanni, F

    1998-04-01

    Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) are synthetic, non-natural peptidyl and nonpeptidyl molecules with potent stimulatory effect on somatotrope secretion. They have no structural homology with growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and act via a specific receptor, which has now been cloned and is present at both the pituitary and hypothalamic level. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a still unknown natural GHS-like ligand. Several data favour the hypothesis that GHS could counteract somatostatinergic activity at both the pituitary and hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that they act via an unknown hypothalamic factor remains open. GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is the first hexapeptide studied extensively in humans. More recently, peptidyl superanalogues GHRP-1, GHRP-2 and hexarelin, and nonpeptidyl mimetics, such as the spiroindoline derivative MK-677, have been synthesized and their effects have been studied in humans. The GH-releasing activity of GHS is marked, dose related and reproducible after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHS is partially desensitized but prolonged, intermittent oral administration increases insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. The GH-releasing effect of GHS undergoes age-related variations; it increases from birth to puberty, remains similar in adulthood and decreases with ageing. The effect of GHS on GH release is synergistic with that of GHRH, while it is only partially refractory to inhibitory influences, which nearly abolish the effect of GHRH. GHS maintain their GH-releasing activity in some somatotrope hypersecretory states such as acromegaly, anorexia nervosa, hyperthyroidism and critical illness. The GH response to GHS has been reported clear although reduced in GH deficiency, obesity and hypothyroidism, while it is strongly reduced in patients with pituitary stalk disconnection or Cushing

  1. Kinetics, Ca2+ dependence, and biophysical properties of integrin-mediated mechanical modulation of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. M.; Grinnell, A. D.

    1997-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals is strongly modulated by change in muscle length. Over the physiological range, there is an approximately 10% increase in spontaneous and evoked release per 1% muscle stretch. Because many muscle fibers do not receive suprathreshold synaptic inputs at rest length, this stretch-induced enhancement of release constitutes a strong peripheral amplifier of the spinal stretch reflex. The stretch modulation of release is inhibited by peptides that block integrin binding of natural ligands. The modulation varies linearly with length, with a delay of no more than approximately 1-2 msec and is maintained constant at the new length. Moreover, the stretch modulation persists in a zero Ca2+ Ringer and, hence, is not dependent on Ca2+ influx through stretch activated channels. Eliminating transmembrane Ca2+ gradients and buffering intraterminal Ca2+ to approximately normal resting levels does not eliminate the modulation, suggesting that it is not the result of release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Finally, changes in temperature have no detectable effect on the kinetics of stretch-induced changes in endplate potential (EPP) amplitude or miniature EPP (mEPP) frequency. We conclude, therefore, that stretch does not act via second messenger pathways or a chemical modification of molecules involved in the release pathway. Instead, there is direct mechanical modulation of release. We postulate that tension on integrins in the presynaptic membrane is transduced mechanically into changes in the position or conformation of one or more molecules involved in neurotransmitter release, altering sensitivity to Ca2+ or the equilibrium for a critical reaction leading to vesicle fusion.

  2. Modifications to the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 2A Peptide: Influence on Polyprotein Processing and Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Jonas; Belsham, Graham J

    2018-04-15

    the 2A/2B junction, termed StopGo, is mediated by the short 2A peptide through a nonproteolytic mechanism which leads to release of the nascent protein and continued translation of the downstream sequence. Improved understanding of this process will not only give a better insight into how this peptide influences the FMDV replication cycle but may also assist the application of this sequence in biotechnology for the production of multiple proteins from a single mRNA. Our data show that single amino acid substitutions in the 2A peptide can have a major influence on viral protein synthesis, virus viability, and polyprotein processing. They also indicate that efficient "cleavage" at the 2A/2B junction is required for optimal virus replication. However, maximal StopGo activity is not essential for the viability of FMDV. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. A short synthetic peptide fragment of human C2ORF40 has therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chaoyang; Zhang, Pengju; Jiang, Anli

    C2ORF40 encodes a secreted protein which is cleaved to generate soluble peptides by proteolytic processing and this process is believed to be necessary for C2ORF40 to exert cell type specific biological activity. Here, we reported a short mimic peptide of human C2ORF40 acts potential therapeutic efficacy in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We synthesized a short peptide of human C2ORF40, named C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment and assessed its biological function on cancer cell growth, migration and tumorigenesis. Cell growth assay showed that C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment significantly suppressed cell proliferation of breast and lung cancer cells. Moreover,more » C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we showed that this peptide suppressed tumorigenesis in breast tumor xenograft model. Cell cycle assay indicated that the C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment suppressed the growth of tumor cells through inducing mitotic phase arrest. In conclusion, our results firstly suggested that this short synthetic peptide of human C2ORF40 may be a candidate tumor therapeutic agent.« less

  4. Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) suppresses premature calcium release in mouse eggs

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Miranda L.; Lowther, Katie M.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; McDonough, Caitlin E.; Lee, Katherine N.; Evsikov, Alexei V.; Uliasz, Tracy F.; Chidiac, Peter; Williams, Carmen J.; Mehlmann, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    During oocyte maturation, capacity and sensitivity of Ca2+ signaling machinery increases dramatically, preparing the metaphase II (MII)-arrested egg for fertilization. Upon sperm-egg fusion, Ca2+ release from IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum stores results in cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations that drive egg activation and initiate early embryo development. Premature Ca2+ release can cause parthenogenetic activation prior to fertilization; thus, preventing inappropriate Ca2+ signaling is crucial for ensuring robust MII arrest. Here, we show that regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) suppresses Ca2+ release in MII eggs. Rgs2 mRNA was recruited for translation during oocyte maturation, resulting in ∼20-fold more RGS2 protein in MII eggs than in fully grown immature oocytes. Rgs2-siRNA-injected oocytes matured to MII; however, they had increased sensitivity to low pH and acetylcholine (ACh), which caused inappropriate Ca2+ release and premature egg activation. When matured in vitro, RGS2-depleted eggs underwent spontaneous Ca2+ increases that were sufficient to cause premature zona pellucida conversion. Rgs2−/− females had reduced litter sizes, and their eggs had increased sensitivity to low pH and ACh. Rgs2−/− eggs also underwent premature zona pellucida conversion in vivo. These findings indicate that RGS2 functions as a brake to suppress premature Ca2+ release in eggs that are poised on the brink of development. PMID:26160904

  5. Structural and functional characterization of peptide-{beta}{sub 2}m fused HLA-A2/MART1{sub 27-35} complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Chuanlai; Chang Chienchung; Zhang Jianqiong

    The uses of soluble HLA class I/peptide complexes to monitor antigen reactive T cells are often hampered by their low-yield and high-cost production. As an alternative strategy, the peptide-{beta}{sub 2}m fused, 2-component (2C) HLA class I/peptide complex has been developed, but its application is limited due to the lack of the comparison of its structural and functional characteristics with those of its conventional 3-component (3C) counterpart. In this study, we have demonstrated that the 2C and 3C HLA-A2/MART1{sub 27-35} complexes have a similar chromatographical profile and comparable stability, but the former has 2.5 times higher yield and significantly higher bindingmore » ability with HLA-A2/MART1{sub 27-35} complex-specific receptors than the latter. Furthermore, the 2C complex has a comparable ability to stimulate specific CTL proliferation, but appears to be more effective in eliciting the cytotoxicity of antigen-specific CTL, as compared to its 3C counterpart.« less

  6. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides EeCentrocins 1, 2 and EeStrongylocin 2 from the Edible Sea Urchin Echinus esculentus Have 6-Br-Trp Post-Translational Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Solstad, Runar Gjerp; Li, Chun; Isaksson, Johan; Johansen, Jostein; Svenson, Johan; Stensvåg, Klara; Haug, Tor

    2016-01-01

    The global problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics has resulted in an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents. Natural antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates for drug development. Echinoderms, which rely on innate immunity factors in the defence against harmful microorganisms, are sources of novel antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to isolate and characterise antimicrobial peptides from the Edible sea urchin Echinus esculentus. Using bioassay-guided purification and cDNA cloning, three antimicrobial peptides were characterised from the haemocytes of the sea urchin; two heterodimeric peptides and a cysteine-rich peptide. The peptides were named EeCentrocin 1 and 2 and EeStrongylocin 2, respectively, due to their apparent homology to the published centrocins and strongylocins isolated from the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. The two centrocin-like peptides EeCentrocin 1 and 2 are intramolecularly connected via a disulphide bond to form a heterodimeric structure, containing a cationic heavy chain of 30 and 32 amino acids and a light chain of 13 amino acids. Additionally, the light chain of EeCentrocin 2 seems to be N-terminally blocked by a pyroglutamic acid residue. The heavy chains of EeCentrocins 1 and 2 were synthesised and shown to be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the natural peptides. EeStrongylocin 2 contains 6 cysteines engaged in 3 disulphide bonds. A fourth peptide (Ee4635) was also discovered but not fully characterised. Using mass spectrometric and NMR analyses, EeCentrocins 1 and 2, EeStrongylocin 2 and Ee4635 were all shown to contain post-translationally brominated Trp residues in the 6 position of the indole ring. PMID:27007817

  7. Genome-Wide Prediction and Validation of Peptides That Bind Human Prosurvival Bcl-2 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    DeBartolo, Joe; Taipale, Mikko; Keating, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death is regulated by interactions between pro-apoptotic and prosurvival members of the Bcl-2 family. Pro-apoptotic family members contain a weakly conserved BH3 motif that can adopt an alpha-helical structure and bind to a groove on prosurvival partners Bcl-xL, Bcl-w, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1. Peptides corresponding to roughly 13 reported BH3 motifs have been verified to bind in this manner. Due to their short lengths and low sequence conservation, BH3 motifs are not detected using standard sequence-based bioinformatics approaches. Thus, it is possible that many additional proteins harbor BH3-like sequences that can mediate interactions with the Bcl-2 family. In this work, we used structure-based and data-based Bcl-2 interaction models to find new BH3-like peptides in the human proteome. We used peptide SPOT arrays to test candidate peptides for interaction with one or more of the prosurvival proteins Bcl-xL, Bcl-w, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1. For the 36 most promising array candidates, we quantified binding to all five human receptors using direct and competition binding assays in solution. All 36 peptides showed evidence of interaction with at least one prosurvival protein, and 22 peptides bound at least one prosurvival protein with a dissociation constant between 1 and 500 nM; many peptides had specificity profiles not previously observed. We also screened the full-length parent proteins of a subset of array-tested peptides for binding to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Finally, we used the peptide binding data, in conjunction with previously reported interactions, to assess the affinity and specificity prediction performance of different models. PMID:24967846

  8. Engineering RNA phage MS2 virus-like particles for peptide display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Sheldon Keith

    Phage display is a powerful and versatile technology that enables the selection of novel binding functions from large populations of randomly generated peptide sequences. Random sequences are genetically fused to a viral structural protein to produce complex peptide libraries. From a sufficiently complex library, phage bearing peptides with practically any desired binding activity can be physically isolated by affinity selection, and, since each particle carries in its genome the genetic information for its own replication, the selectants can be amplified by infection of bacteria. For certain applications however, existing phage display platforms have limitations. One such area is in the field of vaccine development, where the goal is to identify relevant epitopes by affinity-selection against an antibody target, and then to utilize them as immunogens to elicit a desired antibody response. Today, affinity selection is usually conducted using display on filamentous phages like M13. This technology provides an efficient means for epitope identification, but, because filamentous phages do not display peptides in the high-density, multivalent arrays the immune system prefers to recognize, they generally make poor immunogens and are typically useless as vaccines. This makes it necessary to confer immunogenicity by conjugating synthetic versions of the peptides to more immunogenic carriers. Unfortunately, when introduced into these new structural environments, the epitopes often fail to elicit relevant antibody responses. Thus, it would be advantageous to combine the epitope selection and immunogen functions into a single platform where the structural constraints present during affinity selection can be preserved during immunization. This dissertation describes efforts to develop a peptide display system based on the virus-like particles (VLPs) of bacteriophage MS2. Phage display technologies rely on (1) the identification of a site in a viral structural protein that is

  9. Release of colicin E2 from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, A P; Rosenbusch, J P

    1981-07-01

    Treatment of Escherichia coli K-12(ColE2.P9) with 500 ng of mitomycin C per ml resulted in rapid and almost synchronous colicin E2 production. Colicin accumulated outside the cytoplasmic membrane, most probably in the periplasmic space. Colicin release occurred during a period in which the turbidity of the culture declined markedly. Periplasmic alkaline phosphatase was released during the same period, but cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase release was delayed.

  10. Cn-AMP2 from green coconut water is an anionic anticancer peptide.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Saurabh; Dennison, Sarah R; Mura, Manuela; Lea, Robert W; Snape, Timothy J; Harris, Frederick

    2014-12-01

    Globally, death due to cancers is likely to rise to over 20 million by 2030, which has created an urgent need for novel approaches to anticancer therapies such as the development of host defence peptides. Cn-AMP2 (TESYFVFSVGM), an anionic host defence peptide from green coconut water of the plant Cocos nucifera, showed anti-proliferative activity against the 1321N1 and U87MG human glioma cell lines with IC50 values of 1.25 and 1.85 mM, respectively. The membrane interactive form of the peptide was found to be an extended conformation, which primarily included β-type structures (levels > 45%) and random coil architecture (levels > 45%). On the basis of these and other data, it is suggested that the short anionic N-terminal sequence (TES) of Cn-AMP2 interacts with positively charged moieties in the cancer cell membrane. Concomitantly, the long hydrophobic C-terminal sequence (YFVFSVGM) of the peptide penetrates the membrane core region, thereby driving the translocation of Cn-AMP2 across the cancer cell membrane to attack intracellular targets and induce anti-proliferative mechanisms. This work is the first to demonstrate that anionic host defence peptides have activity against human glioblastoma, which potentially provides an untapped source of lead compounds for development as novel agents in the treatment of these and other cancers. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. TRPV2 is activated by cannabidiol and mediates CGRP release in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ning; Neeper, Michael P; Liu, Yi; Hutchinson, Tasha L; Lubin, Mary Lou; Flores, Christopher M

    2008-06-11

    Transient receptor potential V2 (TRPV2) has been proposed to be a high-threshold thermosensor. However, further elucidation of the channel properties and physiological role of TRPV2 have been hindered by the lack of selective pharmacological tools as well as by the species-dependent differences in the activation of this channel. In the present study, we have used cell-based calcium mobilization and electrophysiological assays to identify and characterize several novel cannabinoid TRPV2 agonists. Among these, cannabidiol was found to be the most robust and potent (EC(50) = 3.7 microM), followed by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (EC(50) = 14 microM) and cannabinol (EC(50) = 77.7 microM). We also demonstrated that cannabidiol evoked a concentration-dependent release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in a cannabinoid receptor- and TRPV1-independent manner. Moreover, the cannabidiol-evoked CGRP release depended on extracellular calcium and was blocked by the nonselective TRP channel blocker, ruthenium red. We further provide evidence through the use of small interfering RNA knockdown and repetitive stimulation studies, to show that cannabidiol-evoked CGRP release is mediated, at least in part, by TRPV2. Together, these data suggest not only that TRPV2 may comprise a mechanism whereby cannabidiol exerts its clinically beneficial effects in vivo, but also that TRPV2 may constitute a viable, new drug target.

  12. Release of free amino acids upon oxidation of peptides and proteins by hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fobang; Lai, Senchao; Tong, Haijie; Lakey, Pascale S J; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Weller, Michael G; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kampf, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxyl radical-induced oxidation of proteins and peptides can lead to the cleavage of the peptide, leading to a release of fragments. Here, we used high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and pre-column online ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) derivatization-based amino acid analysis by HPLC with diode array detection and fluorescence detection to identify and quantify free amino acids released upon oxidation of proteins and peptides by hydroxyl radicals. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin (OVA) as model proteins, and synthetic tripeptides (comprised of varying compositions of the amino acids Gly, Ala, Ser, and Met) were used for reactions with hydroxyl radicals, which were generated by the Fenton reaction of iron ions and hydrogen peroxide. The molar yields of free glycine, aspartic acid, asparagine, and alanine per peptide or protein varied between 4 and 55%. For protein oxidation reactions, the molar yields of Gly (∼32-55% for BSA, ∼10-21% for OVA) were substantially higher than those for the other identified amino acids (∼5-12% for BSA, ∼4-6% for OVA). Upon oxidation of tripeptides with Gly in C-terminal, mid-chain, or N-terminal positions, Gly was preferentially released when it was located at the C-terminal site. Overall, we observe evidence for a site-selective formation of free amino acids in the OH radical-induced oxidation of peptides and proteins, which may be due to a reaction pathway involving nitrogen-centered radicals.

  13. MHC2NNZ: A novel peptide binding prediction approach for HLA DQ molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiang; Zeng, Xu; Lu, Dongfang; Liu, Zhixiang; Wang, Jiao

    2017-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecule plays a crucial role in immunology. Computational prediction of MHC-II binding peptides can help researchers understand the mechanism of immune systems and design vaccines. Most of the prediction algorithms for MHC-II to date have made large efforts in human leukocyte antigen (HLA, the name of MHC in Human) molecules encoded in the DR locus. However, HLA DQ molecules are equally important and have only been made less progress because it is more difficult to handle them experimentally. In this study, we propose an artificial neural network-based approach called MHC2NNZ to predict peptides binding to HLA DQ molecules. Unlike previous artificial neural network-based methods, MHC2NNZ not only considers sequence similarity features but also captures the chemical and physical properties, and a novel method incorporating these properties is proposed to represent peptide flanking regions (PFR). Furthermore, MHC2NNZ improves the prediction accuracy by combining with amino acid preference at more specific positions of the peptides binding core. By evaluating on 3549 peptides binding to six most frequent HLA DQ molecules, MHC2NNZ is demonstrated to outperform other state-of-the-art MHC-II prediction methods.

  14. Superoxide anion radical-triggered Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channel.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, M; Okabe, E

    1998-03-01

    The ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channel (RyRC) constitutes the Ca2+-release pathway in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of cardiac muscle. A direct mechanical and a Ca2+-triggered mechanism (Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release) have been proposed to explain the in situ activation of Ca2+ release in cardiac muscle. A variety of chemical oxidants have been shown to activate RyRC; however, the role of modification induced by oxygen-derived free radicals in pathological states of the muscle remains to be elucidated. It has been hypothesized that oxygen-derived free radicals initiate Ca2+-mediated functional changes in or damage to cardiac muscle by acting on the SR and promoting an increase in Ca2+ release. We confirmed that superoxide anion radical (O2-) generated from hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction decreases calmodulin content and increases 45Ca2+ efflux from the heavy fraction of canine cardiac SR vesicles; hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase also decreases Ca2+ free within the intravesicular space of the SR with no effect on Ca2+-ATPase activity. Current fluctuations through single Ca2+-release channels have been monitored after incorporation into planar phospholipid bilayers. We demonstrate that activation of the channel by O2- is dependent of the presence of calmodulin and identified calmodulin as a functional mediator of O2--triggered Ca2+ release through the RyRC. For the first time, we show that O2- stimulates Ca2+ release from heavy SR vesicles and suggest the importance of accessory proteins such as calmodulin in modulating the effect of O2-. The decreased calmodulin content induced by oxygen-derived free radicals, especially O2-, is a likely mechanism of accumulation of cytosolic Ca2+ (due to increased Ca2+ release from SR) after reperfusion of the ischemic heart.

  15. A systematic molecular dynamics approach to the study of peptide Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction inhibitors and its application to p62 peptides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-Chen; Yuan, Zhen-Wei; Jiang, Yong-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Yun; You, Qi-Dong; Jiang, Zheng-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) as drug targets have been gaining growing interest, though developing drug-like small molecule PPI inhibitors remains challenging. Peptide PPI inhibitors, which can provide informative data on the PPI interface, are good starting points to develop small molecule modulators. Computational methods combining molecular dynamics simulations and binding energy calculations could give both the structural and the energetic perspective of peptide PPI inhibitors. Herein, we set up a computational workflow to investigate Keap1-Nrf2 peptide PPI inhibitors and predict the activity of novel sequences. Furthermore, we applied this method to investigate p62 peptides as PPI inhibitors of Keap1-Nrf2 and explored the activity change induced by the phosphorylation of serine. Our results showed that because of the unfavorable solvation effects, the binding affinity of the phosphorylated p62 peptide is lower than the Nrf2 ETGE peptide. Our research results not only provide a useful method to investigate the Keap1-Nrf2 peptide inhibitors, but also give a good example to show how to incorporate computational methods into the study of peptide PPI inhibitors. Besides, applying this method to p62 peptides provides a detailed explanation for the expression of cytoprotective Nrf2 targets induced by p62 phosphorylation, which may benefit the further study of the crosstalk between the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway and p62-mediated selective autophagy.

  16. Design of specific peptide inhibitors of phospholipase A2: structure of a complex formed between Russell's viper phospholipase A2 and a designed peptide Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser (LAIYS).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikas; Jasti, Jayasankar; Kaur, Punit; Dey, Sharmistha; Srinivasan, A; Betzel, Ch; Singh, T P

    2002-10-01

    Phospholipase A(2) (EC 3.1.1.4) is a key enzyme of the cascade mechanism involved in the production of proinflammatory compounds known as eicosanoids. The binding of phospholipase A(2) to membrane surfaces and the hydrolysis of phospholipids are thought to involve the formation of a hydrophobic channel into which a single substrate molecule diffuses before cleavage. In order to regulate the production of proinflammatory compounds, a specific peptide inhibitor of PLA(2), Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser, has been designed. Phospholipase A(2) from Daboia russelli pulchella (DPLA(2)) and peptide Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser (LAIYS) have been co-crystallized. The structure of the complex has been determined and refined to 2.0 A resolution. The structure contains two crystallographically independent molecules of DPLA(2), with one molecule of peptide specifically bound to one of them. The overall conformations of the two molecules are essentially similar except in three regions; namely, the calcium-binding loop including Trp31 (residues 25-34), the beta-wing consisting of two antiparallel beta-strands (residues 74-85) and the C-terminal region (residues 119-133). Of these, the most striking difference pertains to the orientation of Trp31 in the two molecules. The conformation of Trp31 in molecule A was suitable to allow the binding of peptide LAIYS, while that in molecule B prevented the entry of the ligand into the hydrophobic channel. The structure of the complex clearly showed that the OH group of Tyr of the inhibitor formed hydrogen bonds with both His48 N(delta1) and Asp49 O(delta1), while O(gamma)H of Ser was involved in a hydrogen bond with Trp31. Other peptide backbone atoms interact with protein through water molecules, while Leu, Ala and Ile form strong hydrophobic interactions with the residues of the hydrophobic channel.

  17. Effect of SiO2 coating layer morphology on TiH2 gas release characteristic.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhimao; Fang, Jixiang; Ding, Bingjun

    2005-10-15

    In this study, a uniform and compact SiO2 film-coating layer was prepared on the surface of TiH2 particles by sol-gel method using inexpensive raw materials. The preparation process of SiO2-coated TiH2 particles and the effect of the coating layer morphology on the gas release characteristic were investigated in detail. When the pH value of TiH2 suspending solution is about 4.0 and the concentration of silicic acid is more than 0.5 mol/L, the coating layer shows a SiO2 particle-coating morphology. While a homogeneous and dense film-coating layer can be obtained when the solution pH value and concentration of silicic acid are about 4.0 and 0.5 mol/L. The results of gas release at 700 degrees C show that TiH2 particles coated with silicon dioxide layers can efficiently delay the starting time of gas release of TiH2 powders to 60-100 s. Comparing the particle-coating layer, the SiO2 film-coating layer has a better delaying effect on gas release of TiH2 particles.

  18. Clicked bis-PEG-peptide conjugates for studying calmodulin-Kv7.2 channel binding.

    PubMed

    Bonache, M Angeles; Alaimo, Alessandro; Malo, Covadonga; Millet, Oscar; Villarroel, Alvaro; González-Muñiz, Rosario

    2014-11-28

    The recombinant Kv7.2 calmodulin (CaM) binding site (Q2AB CaMBD) shows a high tendency to aggregate, thus complicating biochemical and structural studies. To facilitate these studies we have conceived bis-PEG-peptide CaMBD-mimetics linking helices A and B in single, easy to handle molecules. Short PEG chains were selected as spacers between the two peptide molecules, and a Cu(i)-catalyzed cycloaddition (CuAAC) protocol was used to assemble the final bis-PEG-peptide conjugate, by the convenient functionalization of PEG arms with azide and alkyne groups. The resulting conjugates, with a certain helical character in TFE solutions (CD), showed nanomolar affinity in a fluorescence CaM binding in vitro assay, higher than just the sum of the precursor PEG-peptide affinities, thus validating our design. The approach to these first described examples of Kv7.2 CaMBD-mimetics could pave the way to chimeric conjugates merging helices A and B from different Kv7 subunits.

  19. 48 CFR 49.105-2 - Release of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of excess funds. 49.105-2 Section 49.105-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.105-2 Release of excess funds. (a) The...

  20. Determination of antioxidant activity of bioactive peptide fractions obtained from yogurt.

    PubMed

    Aloğlu, H Sanlıdere; Oner, Z

    2011-11-01

    In this study, physicochemical and microbiological properties of traditional and commercial yogurt samples were determined during 4 wk of storage. Proteolytic activity, which occurs during the storage period of yogurt samples, was also determined. Peptide fractions obtained from yogurts were investigated and the effect of proteolysis on peptide release during storage was determined. The antioxidant activities of peptides released from yogurt water-soluble extracts (WSE) and from HPLC fractions were determined by 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The antioxidant activity of WSE from traditional yogurt was greater than that of WSE from commercial yogurts. In analysis by the ABTS method, mean values increased from 7.697 to 8.739 mM Trolox/g in commercial yogurts, and from 10.115 to 13.182 mM Trolox/g in traditional yogurts during storage. Antioxidant activities of peptides released from HPLC fractions of selected yogurt samples increased 10 to 200 times. In all yogurt samples, the greatest antioxidant activity was shown in the F2 fraction. After further fractionation of yogurt samples, the fractions coded as F2.2, F2.3, F4.3, and F4.4 had the highest antioxidant activity values. Total antioxidant activity of yogurts was low but after purification of peptides by fractionation in HPLC, peptide fractions with high antioxidant activity were obtained. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence of NK1 and NK2 Tachykinin Receptors and their Involvement in Histamine Release in a Murine Mast Cell Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    either human p ~ulmo(nary,. Delectaible in the absence of estrmcclular CaCI’. i’Potent 4.23ug/105 cells, or rat peritoneal mast cells. bousbesin...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Abstract-Binding of )kH substance P (SP) and histamine release were examined using a cloned mouse mast cell line SP binding...the cells with the NK2 antagonist peptide A reduced NKA-induced histamine release ID.Arg’,D.Phe’,D-Trp 0 3 .Leu t )nsu b s tance P , a putative SP

  2. Chimeric peptides as modulators of CK2-dependent signaling: Mechanism of action and off-target effects.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Sofia; Sandre, Michele; Cozza, Giorgio; Ottaviani, Daniele; Marin, Oriano; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Ruzzene, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a tetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic (α/α') and two regulatory (β) subunits. It has a global prosurvival function, especially in cancer, and represents an attractive therapeutic target. Most CK2 inhibitors available so far are ATP-competitive compounds; however, the possibility to block only the phosphorylation of few substrates has been recently explored, and a compound composed of a Tat cell-penetrating peptide and an active cyclic peptide, selected for its ability to bind to the CK2 substrate E7 protein of human papilloma virus, has been developed [Perea et al., Cancer Res. 2004; 64:7127-7129]. By using a similar chimeric peptide (CK2 modulatory chimeric peptide, CK2-MCP), we performed a study to dissect its molecular mechanism of action and the signaling pathways that it affects in cells. We found that it directly interacts with CK2 itself, counteracting the regulatory and stabilizing functions of the β subunit. Cell treatment with CK2-MCP induces a rapid decrease of the amount of CK2 subunits, as well as of other signaling proteins. Concomitant cell death is observed, more pronounced in tumor cells and not accompanied by apoptotic events. CK2 relocalizes to lysosomes, whose proteases are activated, while the proteasome machinery is inhibited. Several sequence variants of the chimeric peptide have been also synthesized, and their effects compared to those of the parental peptide. Intriguingly, the Tat moiety is essential not only for cell penetration but also for the in vitro efficacy of the peptide. We conclude that this class of chimeric peptides, in addition to altering some properties of CK2 holoenzyme, affects several other cellular targets, causing profound perturbations of cell biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 28 CFR 2.86 - Release on parole; rescission for misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release on parole; rescission for misconduct. 2.86 Section 2.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... Parolees § 2.86 Release on parole; rescission for misconduct. (a) When a parole effective date has been set...

  4. 28 CFR 2.86 - Release on parole; rescission for misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release on parole; rescission for misconduct. 2.86 Section 2.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... Parolees § 2.86 Release on parole; rescission for misconduct. (a) When a parole effective date has been set...

  5. 28 CFR 2.86 - Release on parole; rescission for misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release on parole; rescission for misconduct. 2.86 Section 2.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... Parolees § 2.86 Release on parole; rescission for misconduct. (a) When a parole effective date has been set...

  6. 28 CFR 2.86 - Release on parole; rescission for misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release on parole; rescission for misconduct. 2.86 Section 2.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... Parolees § 2.86 Release on parole; rescission for misconduct. (a) When a parole effective date has been set...

  7. 28 CFR 2.86 - Release on parole; rescission for misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release on parole; rescission for misconduct. 2.86 Section 2.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... Parolees § 2.86 Release on parole; rescission for misconduct. (a) When a parole effective date has been set...

  8. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 induces cell death and DAMP release by mitochondria distortion in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Yang, Nannan; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2015-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring molecules found in most species, in which they play a significant role in the first line defense against intruding pathogens, and several HDPs have been shown to possess anticancer activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on the HDP bovine lactoferricin revealed a de novo design of a nonamer peptide LTX-315, with oncolytic properties. In the present study, we investigated the oncolytic activity of LTX-315 in human melanoma cells (A375). LTX-315 induced a rapid plasma membrane disruption and cell death within 2 hours. At a low concentration, fluorescence-labeled LTX-315 was internalized and accumulated in cytoplasmic vacuoles in close proximity to the mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to depolarize as a consequence of LTX-315 treatment and at ultrastructural level, the mitochondria morphology was significantly altered. Release of danger signals (DAMPs) such as ATP, Cytochrome C and HMGB1 into the cell supernatant of cultured cells was evident minutes after peptide treatment. The oncolytic effect of LTX-315 involving perturbation of both the cell membrane and the mitochondria with subsequent release of DAMPs may highlight the ability of LTX-315 to induce complete regression and long-term protective immune responses as previously reported in experimental animal models. PMID:26472184

  9. gamma. -Preprotachykinin-(72-92)-peptide amide: An endogenous preprotachykinin I gene-derived peptide that preferentially binds to neurokinin-2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, T.V.; Takeda, Y.; Krause, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of N-terminally extended forms of neurokinin A has recently been reported in the mammalian brain. Among them, gamma-preprotachykinin-(72-92)-peptide amide (gamma-PPT-(72-92)-NH2), a peptide derived by posttranslational processing of gamma-preprotachykinin, is most prominent. We report here that this peptide most likely acts on neurokinin-2 receptor sites since neurokinin A (a putative neurokinin-2 agonist) and gamma-PPT-(72-92)-NH2 are potent competitors of 125I-labeled gamma-PPT-(72-92)-NH2 binding whereas selective neurokinin-1 and -3 agonists are not. Moreover, the distribution of 125I-labeled gamma-PPT-(72-92)-NH2 and 125I-labeled neurokinin A binding sites are very similar in rat brain. On the other hand, 125I-labeled Bolton-Hunter-substance P (a neurokinin-1 ligand) and 125I-labeledmore » Bolton-Hunter-eledoisin (a neurokinin-3 ligand) binding sites are differentially located in this tissue. Thus, it appears that gamma-PPT-(72-92)-NH2 binds to neurokinin-2 receptors and should be considered as a putative endogenous ligand for this receptor class.« less

  10. Cardiovascular actions of the ghrelin gene-derived peptides and growth hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Granata, Riccarda; Isgaard, Jörgen; Alloatti, Giuseppe; Ghigo, Ezio

    2011-05-01

    In 1976, small peptide growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) were discovered and found to promote growth hormone (GH) release from the pituitary. The GHS receptor (GHS-R) was subsequently cloned, and its endogenous ligand ghrelin was later isolated from the stomach. Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide, whose acylation is essential for binding to GHS-R type 1a and for the endocrine functions, including stimulation of GH secretion and subsequent food intake. Unacylated ghrelin, the other ghrelin form, although devoid of GHS-R binding is an active peptide, sharing many peripheral effects with acylated ghrelin (AG). The ghrelin system is broadly expressed in myocardial tissues, where it exerts different functions. Indeed, ghrelin inhibits cardiomyocyte and endothelial cell apoptosis, and improves left ventricular (LV) function during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. In rats with heart failure (HF), ghrelin improves LV dysfunction and attenuates the development of cardiac cachexia. Similarly, ghrelin exerts vasodilatory effects in humans, improves cardiac function and decreases systemic vascular resistance in patients with chronic HF. Obestatin is a recently identified ghrelin gene peptide. The physiological role of obestatin and its binding to the putative GPR39 receptor are still unclear, although protective effects have been demonstrated in the pancreas and heart. Similarly to AG, the hypothalamic peptide growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulates GH release from the pituitary, through binding to the GHRH-receptor. Besides its proliferative effects in different cell types, at the cardiovascular level GHRH inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and reduces infarct size in both isolated rat heart after I/R and in vivo after myocardial infarction. Therefore, both ghrelin and GHRH exert cardioprotective effects, which make them candidate targets for therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular dysfunctions.

  11. Further studies on the structural requirements for mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide-mediated histamine release.

    PubMed

    Buku, A; Price, J A

    2001-12-01

    Mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide was modified in its two disulfide bridges and in the two arginine residues in order to measure the ability of these analogs to induce histamine release from mast cells in vitro. Analogs prepared were [Ala(3,15)]MCD, [Ala(5,19)]MCD, [Orn(16)]MCD, and [Orn(7,16)]MCD. Their histamine-releasing activity was determined spectrofluorometrically with peritoneal mast cells. The monocyclic analogs in which the cysteine residues were replaced pairwise with alanine residues showed three-to ten-fold diminished histamine-releasing activity respectively, compared with the parent MCD peptide. Substantial increases in activity were observed where arginine residues were replaced by ornithines. The ornithine-mono substituted analog showed an almost six-fold increase and the ornithine-doubly substituted analog three-fold increase in histamine-releasing activity compared with the parent MCD peptide. The structural changes associated with these activities were followed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Changes in the shape and ellipticity of the CD spectra reflected a role for the disulfide bonds and the two arginine residues in the overall conformation and biological activity of the molecule.

  12. Controlled release of paclitaxel from a self-assembling peptide hydrogel formed in situ and antitumor study in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingping; Zhang, Lanlan; Yang, Zehong; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Background A nanoscale injectable in situ-forming hydrogel drug delivery system was developed in this study. The system was based on a self-assembling peptide RADA16 solution, which can spontaneously form a hydrogel rapidly under physiological conditions. We used the RADA16 hydrogel for the controlled release of paclitaxel (PTX), a hydrophobic antitumor drug. Methods The RADA16-PTX suspension was prepared simply by magnetic stirring, followed by atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism analysis, dynamic light scattering, rheological analysis, an in vitro release assay, and a cell viability test. Results The results indicated that RADA16 and PTX can interact with each other and that the amphiphilic peptide was able to stabilize hydrophobic drugs in aqueous solution. The particle size of PTX was markedly decreased in the RADA16 solution compared with its size in water. The RADA16-PTX suspension could form a hydrogel in culture medium, and the elasticity of the hydrogel showed a positive correlation with peptide concentration. In vitro release measurements indicated that hydrogels with a higher peptide concentration had a longer half-release time. The RADA16-PTX hydrogel could effectively inhibit the growth of the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-435S, in vitro, and hydrogels with higher peptide concentrations were more effective at inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. The RADA16-PTX hydrogel was effective at controlling the release of PTX and inhibiting tumor cell growth in vitro. Conclusion Self-assembling peptide hydrogels may work well as a system for drug delivery. PMID:22114478

  13. Enhancement of anti-tumor activity of hybrid peptide in conjugation with carboxymethyl dextran via disulfide linkers.

    PubMed

    Gaowa, Arong; Horibe, Tomohisa; Kohno, Masayuki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-05-01

    To improve the anti-tumor activity of EGFR2R-lytic hybrid peptide, we prepared peptide-modified dextran conjugates with the disulfide bonds between thiolated carboxymethyl dextran (CMD-Cys) and cysteine-conjugated peptide (EGFR2R-lytic-Cys). In vitro release studies showed that the peptide was released from the CMD-s-s-peptide conjugate in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of glutathione (GSH, 2μM-2mM). The CMD-s-s-peptide conjugate exhibited a similar cytotoxic activity with free peptide alone against human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells in vitro. Furthermore, it was shown that the CMD-s-s-peptide conjugates were highly accumulated in tumor tissue in a mouse xenograft model using BxPC-3 cells, and the anti-tumor activity of the conjugate was more effective than that of the free peptide. In addition, the plasma concentrations of peptide were moderately increased and the elimination half-life of the peptide was prolonged after intravenous injection of CMD-s-s-peptide conjugates. These results demonstrated that the conjugate based on thiolated CMD polymer would be potentially useful carriers for the sustained release of the hybrid peptide in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence that morphine and opioid peptides do not share a common pathway with adenosine in inhibiting acetylcholine release from isolated intestine.

    PubMed

    Vizi, E S; Somogyi, G T; Magyar, K

    1981-12-01

    1 The release of acetylcholine from guinea-pig ileal isolated longitudinal muscle strip with intact Auerbach's plexus was measured by bioassay and by a radioisotope technique. 2 Normorphine (5 x 10(-7)M) and D-Met2, Pro5-enkephalinamide (D-Met, Pro-EA) reduced the release of acetylcholine. Theophylline, an adenosine antagonist, failed to prevent the inhibitory effect of normorphine or D-Met, Pro-EA. 3 Theophylline (1.7 x 10(-4)M) by itself enhanced the twitch responses to field stimulation (0.1 Hz) but did not prevent the inhibitory effect of normorphine and D-Met, Pro-EA. 4 From the results it can be concluded that morphine and opioid peptides do not share a common pathway with adenosine in inhibiting acetylcholine release from axon terminals of Auerbach's plexus.

  15. Subpopulation of store-operated Ca2+ channels regulate Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in non-excitable cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jian; Li, Qin; Chen, Jin; Muallem, Shmuel

    2004-05-14

    Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) is a well characterized activity in skeletal and cardiac muscles mediated by the ryanodine receptors. The present study demonstrates CICR in the non-excitable parotid acinar cells, which resembles the mechanism described in cardiac myocytes. Partial depletion of internal Ca2+ stores leads to a minimal activation of Ca2+ influx. Ca2+ influx through this pathway results in an explosive mobilization of Ca2+ from the majority of the stores by CICR. Thus, stimulation of parotid acinar cells in Ca2+ -free medium with 0.5 microm carbachol releases approximately 5% of the Ca2+ mobilizable by 1 mm carbachol. Addition of external Ca2+ induced the same Ca2+ release observed in maximally stimulated cells. Similar results were obtained by a short treatment with 2.5-10 microm cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase pump. The Ca2+ release induced by the addition of external Ca2+ was largely independent of IP(3)Rs because it was reduced by only approximately 30% by the inhibition of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors with caffeine or heparin. Measurements of Ca2+ -activated outward current and [Ca2+](i) suggested that most CICR triggered by Ca2+ influx occurred away from the plasma membrane. Measurement of the response to several concentrations of cyclopiazonic acid revealed that Ca2+ influx that regulates CICR is associated with a selective portion of the internal Ca2+ pool. The minimal activation of Ca2+ influx by partial store depletion was confirmed by the measurement of Mn2+ influx. Inhibition of Ca2+ influx with SKF96365 or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate prevented activation of CICR observed on addition of external Ca2+. These findings provide evidence for activation of CICR by Ca2+ influx in non-excitable cells, demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for Ca2+ influx in triggering CICR, and indicate that CICR in non-excitable cells resembles CICR in cardiac myocytes with the exception that in

  16. Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, in the treatment of cardiopulmonary-associated cachexia.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Noritoshi; Kojima, Masakazu; Kangawa, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide, isolated from the stomach, which has been identified as an endogenous ligand for GH secretagogue receptor. The discovery of ghrelin indicates that the release of GH from the pituitary might be regulated not only by hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone, but also by ghrelin derived from the stomach. This peptide also stimulates food intake and induces adiposity through GH-independent mechanisms. In addition, ghrelin acts directly on the central nervous system to decrease sympathetic nerve activity. Thus, ghrelin plays important roles for maintaining GH release and energy homeostasis. Repeated administration of ghrelin improves body composition, muscle wasting, functional capacity, and sympathetic augmentation in cachectic patients with heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These results suggest that ghrelin has anti-cachectic effects through GH-dependent and independent mechanisms. Thus, administration of ghrelin may be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiopulmonary-associated cachexia.

  17. iAMP-2L: a two-level multi-label classifier for identifying antimicrobial peptides and their functional types.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xuan; Wang, Pu; Lin, Wei-Zhong; Jia, Jian-Hua; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2013-05-15

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response and are found among all classes of life. According to their special functions, AMPs are generally classified into ten categories: Antibacterial Peptides, Anticancer/tumor Peptides, Antifungal Peptides, Anti-HIV Peptides, Antiviral Peptides, Antiparasital Peptides, Anti-protist Peptides, AMPs with Chemotactic Activity, Insecticidal Peptides, and Spermicidal Peptides. Given a query peptide, how can we identify whether it is an AMP or non-AMP? If it is, can we identify which functional type or types it belong to? Particularly, how can we deal with the multi-type problem since an AMP may belong to two or more functional types? To address these problems, which are obviously very important to both basic research and drug development, a multi-label classifier was developed based on the pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) and fuzzy K-nearest neighbor (FKNN) algorithm, where the components of PseAAC were featured by incorporating five physicochemical properties. The novel classifier is called iAMP-2L, where "2L" means that it is a 2-level predictor. The 1st-level is to answer the 1st question above, while the 2nd-level is to answer the 2nd and 3rd questions that are beyond the reach of any existing methods in this area. For the conveniences of users, a user-friendly web-server for iAMP-2L was established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iAMP-2L. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pan-STARRS Data Release 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather

    2018-01-01

    On December 19, 2016, Pan-STARRS released the stacked images, mean attributes catalogs, and static sky catalogs for the 3pi survey, in 5 filters (g,r,i,z,y), covering 3/4 of the sky, everything north of -30 in declination. This set of data is called Data Release 1 (DR1), and it is available to all at http://panstarrs.stsci.edu. It contains more than 10 billion objects, 3 billion of those objects have stack photometry. We give an update on the progress of the forthcoming Data Release (DR2) database, which will provide time domain catalogs and single exposures for the 3pi survey. This includes 3pi data taken between 2010 and 2014, covering approximately 60 epochs per patch of sky, and includes measurements detected in the single exposures as well as forced photometry measurements (photometry measured on single exposures using the positions from sources detected in the stacks). We also provide informations on futures releases (DR3 and beyond), which will contain the rest of the 3pi database (specifically, the data products related to difference imaging), as well as the data products for the Medium Deep (MD) survey.

  19. Human gastrin-releasing peptide gene is located on chromosome 18.

    PubMed

    Naylor, S L; Sakaguchi, A Y; Spindel, E; Chin, W W

    1987-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), a bombesin-like peptide, increases plasma levels of gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon, gastric inhibitory peptide, and insulin. GRP is produced in large quantities by small-cell lung cancer and acts as a growth factor for these cells. To determine if chromosomal changes in small-cell lung cancer are related to the expression of GRP, we chromosomally mapped the gene using human-mouse somatic cell hybrids. Twenty hybrids, characterized for human chromosomes, were analyzed by Southern filter hybridization of DNA digested with EcoRI. Human DNA cut with EcoRI yields a major band of 6.8 kb and a minor band of 11.3 kb. The 6.8 kb band segregated concordantly with chromosome 18 and the marker peptidase A. The chromosome 3 abnormalities seen in small-cell lung cancer do not correlate with the chromosomal location of GRP, suggesting that the elevated expression of this gene may be due to mechanisms other than chromosomal rearrangement.

  20. Carvedilol inhibits cADPR- and IP3-induced Ca2+ release.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Anthony J; Bampali, Konstantina; Ruas, Margarida; Factor, Cailley; Back, Thomas G; Chen, S R Wayne; Galione, Antony

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous Ca 2+ waves, also termed store-overload-induced Ca 2+ release (SOICR), in cardiac cells can trigger ventricular arrhythmias especially in failing hearts. SOICR occurs when RyRs are activated by an increase in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) luminal Ca 2+ . Carvedilol is one of the most effective drugs for preventing arrhythmias in patients with heart failure. Furthermore, carvedilol analogues with minimal β-blocking activity also block SOICR showing that SOICR-inhibiting activity is distinct from that for β-block. We show here that carvedilol is a potent inhibitor of cADPR-induced Ca 2+ release in sea urchin egg homogenate. In addition, the carvedilol analog VK-II-86 with minimal β-blocking activity also suppresses cADPR-induced Ca 2+ release. Carvedilol appeared to be a non-competitive antagonist of cADPR and could also suppress Ca 2+ release by caffeine. These results are consistent with cADPR releasing Ca 2+ in sea urchin eggs by sensitizing RyRs to Ca 2+ involving a luminal Ca 2+ activation mechanism. In addition to action on the RyR, we also observed inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 )-induced Ca 2+ release by carvedilol suggesting a common mechanism between these evolutionarily related and conserved Ca 2+ release channels.

  1. Identification of novel selective V2 receptor non-peptide agonists.

    PubMed

    Del Tredici, Andria L; Vanover, Kim E; Knapp, Anne E; Bertozzi, Sine M; Nash, Norman R; Burstein, Ethan S; Lameh, Jelveh; Currier, Erika A; Davis, Robert E; Brann, Mark R; Mohell, Nina; Olsson, Roger; Piu, Fabrice

    2008-10-30

    Peptides with agonist activity at the vasopressin V(2) receptor are used clinically to treat fluid homeostasis disorders such as polyuria and central diabetes insipidus. Of these peptides, the most commonly used is desmopressin, which displays poor bioavailability as well as potent activity at the V(1b) receptor, with possible stress-related adverse effects. Thus, there is a strong need for the development of small molecule chemistries with selective V(2) receptor agonist activity. Using the functional cell-based assay Receptor Selection and Amplification Technology (R-SAT((R))), a screening effort identified three small molecule chemotypes (AC-94544, AC-88324, and AC-110484) with selective agonist activity at the V(2) receptor. One of these compounds, AC-94544, displayed over 180-fold selectivity at the V(2) receptor compared to related vasopressin and oxytocin receptors and no activity at 28 other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). All three compounds also showed partial agonist activity at the V(2) receptor in a cAMP accumulation assay. In addition, in a rat model of central diabetes insipidus, AC-94544 was able to significantly reduce urine output in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, AC-94544, AC-88324, and AC-110484 represent novel opportunities for the treatment of disorders associated with V(2) receptor agonist deficiency.

  2. Insecticidal peptides from the theraposid spider Brachypelma albiceps: an NMR-based model of Ba2.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Gerardo; Bernard, Cedric; Clement, Herlinda; Villegas, Elba; Bosmans, Frank; Tytgat, Jan; Possani, Lourival D; Darbon, Herve; Alagón, Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Soluble venom and purified fractions of the theraposid spider Brachypelma albiceps were screened for insecticidal peptides based on toxicity to crickets. Two insecticidal peptides, named Ba1 and Ba2, were obtained after the soluble venom was separated by high performance liquid chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. The two insecticidal peptides contain 39 amino acid residues and three disulfide bonds, and based on their amino acid sequence, they are highly identical to the insecticidal peptides from the theraposid spiders Aphonopelma sp. from the USA and Haplopelma huwenum from China indicating a relationship among these genera. Although Ba1 and Ba2 were not able to modify currents in insect and vertebrate cloned voltage-gated sodium ion channels, they have noteworthy insecticidal activities compared to classical arachnid insecticidal toxins indicating that they might target unknown receptors in insect species. The most abundant insecticidal peptide Ba2 was submitted to NMR spectroscopy to determine its 3-D structure; a remarkable characteristic of Ba2 is a cluster of basic residues, which might be important for receptor recognition.

  3. Attenuated Ca(2+) release in a mouse model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A.

    PubMed

    DiFranco, Marino; Kramerova, Irina; Vergara, Julio L; Spencer, Melissa Jan

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in CAPN3 cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), a progressive muscle wasting disease. CAPN3 is a non-lysosomal, Ca-dependent, muscle-specific proteinase. Ablation of CAPN3 (calpain-3 knockout (C3KO) mice) leads to reduced ryanodine receptor (RyR1) expression and abnormal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ca-CaMKII)-mediated signaling. We previously reported that Ca(2+) release measured by fura2-FF imaging in response to single action potential stimulation was reduced in old C3KO mice; however, the use of field stimulation prevented investigation of the mechanisms underlying this impairment. Furthermore, our prior studies were conducted on older animals, whose muscles showed advanced muscular dystrophy, which prevented us from establishing whether impaired Ca(2+) handling is an early feature of disease. In the current study, we sought to overcome these matters by studying single fibers isolated from young wild-type (WT) and C3KO mice using a low affinity calcium dye and high intracellular ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-n,n,n',n'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) to measure Ca(2+) fluxes. Muscles were subjected to both current and voltage clamp conditions. Standard and confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to study Ca(2+) release in single fibers enzymatically isolated from hind limb muscles of wild-type and C3KO mice. Two microelectrode amplifier and experiments were performed under current or voltage clamp conditions. Calcium concentration changes were detected with an impermeant low affinity dye in the presence of high EGTA intracellular concentrations, and fluxes were calculated with a single compartment model. Standard Western blotting analysis was used to measure the concentration of RyR1 and the α subunit of the dihydropyridine (αDHPR) receptors. Data are presented as mean ± SEM and compared with the Student's test with significance set at p < 0.05. We found that the peak value of Ca(2+) fluxes elicited by

  4. Intracellular Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx during regulatory volume decrease in IMCD cells.

    PubMed

    Tinel, H; Wehner, F; Sauer, H

    1994-07-01

    Volume changes and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells under hypotonic stress were monitored by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy and fura 2 fluorescence, respectively. Reduction of extracellular osmolality from 600 to 300 mosmol/kgH2O by omission of sucrose led to an increase in cell volume within 1 min to 135 +/- 3% (n = 9), followed by a partial regulatory volume decrease (RVD) to 109 +/- 2% (n = 9) within the ensuring 5 min. In parallel, [Ca2+]i rose from 145 +/- 9 to 433 +/- 16 nmol/l (n = 9) and thereafter reached a lower steady state of 259 +/- 9 nmol/l. Under low-Ca2+ conditions (10 nmol/l) RVD was not impeded and reduction of osmolality evoked only a transient increase of [Ca2+]i by 182 +/- 22 nmol/l (n = 6). Preincubation with 100 mumol/l 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzoate hydrochloride (TMB-8) or 20 mmol/l caffeine, both effective inhibitors of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, in low Ca2+ as well as in high Ca2+, inhibited the Ca2+ response and abolished RVD. The temporal relationship between Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ entry was analyzed by determining fura 2 quenching, using Mn2+ as a substitute for external Ca2+. Intracellular Ca2+ release preceded Mn2+ influx by 17 +/- 3 s (n = 10). Mn2+ influx persisted during the whole period of exposure to hypotonicity, indicating that there is no time-dependent Ca2+ channel inactivation. Preincubation with TMB-8 or caffeine reduced Mn2+ influx to the control level, indicating that activation of Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane occurs via intracellular Ca2+ release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Identification of Ser153 in ICL2 of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor as a phosphorylation-independent site for inhibition of Gq coupling.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Sharon; Cheifetz, Maya N; Fridkin, Mati; Pawson, Adam J; Millar, Robert P; Naor, Zvi

    2005-08-12

    Type I gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor (GnRHR) is unique among mammalian G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in lacking a C-terminal tail, which is involved in desensitization in GPCRs. Therefore, we searched for inhibitory sites in the intracellular loops (ICLs) of the GnRHR. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the three ICLs were inserted into permeabilized alphaT3-1 gonadotrope cells, and GnRH-induced inositol phosphate (InsP) formation was determined. GnRH-induced InsP production was potentiated by ICL2 > ICL3 but not by the ICL1 peptides, suggesting they are acting as decoy peptides. We examined the effects of six peptides in which only one of the Ser or Thr residues was substituted with Ala or Glu. Only substitution of Ser153 with Ala or Glu ablated the potentiating effect upon GnRH-induced InsP elevation. ERK activation was enhanced, and the rate of GnRH-induced InsP formation was about 6.5-fold higher in the first 10 min in COS-1 cells that were transfected with mutants of the GnRHR in which the ICL2 Ser/Thr residues (Ser151, Ser153, and Thr142) or only Ser153 was mutated to Ala as compared with the wild type GnRHR. The data indicate that ICL2 harbors an inhibitory domain, such that exogenous ICL2 peptide serves as a decoy for the inhibitory site (Ser153) of the GnRHR, thus enabling further activation. GnRH does not induce receptor phosphorylation in alphaT3-1 cells. Because the phosphomimetic ICL2-S153E peptide did not mimic the stimulatory effect of the ICL2 peptide, the inhibitory effect of Ser153 operates through a phosphorylation-independent mechanism.

  6. Mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis during Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release in gastric myocytes from Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Robert M; Mix, T Christian H; Tuft, Richard A; Walsh, John V; Fay, Fredric S

    2000-01-01

    The Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator rhod-2 was used to monitor mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]m) in gastric smooth muscle cells from Bufo marinus. In some studies, fura-2 was used in combination with rhod-2, allowing simultaneous measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and [Ca2+]m, respectively. During a short train of depolarizations, which causes Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium, there was an increase in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m. The half-time (t½) to peak for the increase in [Ca2+]m was considerably longer than the t½ to peak for the increase in [Ca2+]i. [Ca2+]m remained elevated for tens of seconds after [Ca2+]i had returned to its resting value. Stimulation with caffeine, which causes release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), also produced increases in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m. The values of t½ to peak for the increase in [Ca2+] in both cytoplasm and mitochondria were similar; however, [Ca2+]i returned to baseline values much faster than [Ca2+]m. Using a wide-field digital imaging microscope, changes in [Ca2+]m were monitored within individual mitochondria in situ, during stimulation of Ca2+ influx or Ca2+ release from the SR. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake during depolarizing stimulation caused depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The mitochondrial membrane potential recovered considerably faster than the recovery of [Ca2+]m. This study shows that Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium and Ca2+ release from the SR are capable of increasing [Ca2+]m in smooth muscle cells. The efflux of Ca2+ from the mitochondria is a slow process and appears to be dependent upon the amount of Ca2+ in the SR. PMID:10713963

  7. Designing peptide inhibitor of insulin receptor to induce diabetes mellitus type 2 in animal model Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Permatasari, Galuh W; Utomo, Didik H; Widodo

    2016-10-01

    A designing peptide as agent for inducing diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) in an animal model is challenging. The computational approach provides a sophisticated tool to design a functional peptide that may block the insulin receptor activity. The peptide that able to inhibit the binding between insulin and insulin receptor is a warrant for inducing T2DM. Therefore, we designed a potential peptide inhibitor of insulin receptor as an agent to generate T2DM animal model by bioinformatics approach. The peptide has been developed based on the structure of insulin receptor binding site of insulin and then modified it to obtain the best properties of half life, hydrophobicity, antigenicity, and stability binding into insulin receptor. The results showed that the modified peptide has characteristics 100h half-life, high-affinity -95.1±20, and high stability 28.17 in complex with the insulin receptor. Moreover, the modified peptide has molecular weight 4420.8g/Mol and has no antigenic regions. Based on the molecular dynamic simulation, the complex of modified peptide-insulin receptor is more stable than the commercial insulin receptor blocker. This study suggested that the modified peptide has the promising performance to block the insulin receptor activity that potentially induce diabetes mellitus type 2 in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptide 19-2.5 Interacts with Heparanase and Heparan Sulfate in Murine and Human Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lukas; De Santis, Rebecca; Koczera, Patrick; Simons, Nadine; Haase, Hajo; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains from their proteoglycans. Thereby, heparanase liberates highly potent circulating heparan sulfate-fragments (HS-fragments) and triggers the fatal and excessive inflammatory response in sepsis. As a potential anti-inflammatory agent for sepsis therapy, peptide 19-2.5 belongs to the class of synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides; however, its activity is not restricted to Gram-negative bacterial infection. We hypothesized that peptide 19-2.5 interacts with heparanase and/or HS, thereby reducing the levels of circulating HS-fragments in murine and human sepsis. Our data indicate that the treatment of septic mice with peptide 19-2.5 compared to untreated control animals lowers levels of plasma heparanase and circulating HS-fragments and reduces heparanase activity. Additionally, mRNA levels of heparanase in heart, liver, lung, kidney and spleen are downregulated in septic mice treated with peptide 19-2.5 compared to untreated control animals. In humans, plasma heparanase level and activity are elevated in septic shock. The ex vivo addition of peptide 19-2.5 to plasma of septic shock patients decreases heparanase activity but not heparanase level. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed a strong exothermic reaction between peptide 19-2.5 and heparanase and HS-fragments. However, a saturation character has been identified only in the peptide 19-2.5 and HS interaction. In conclusion, the findings of our current study indicate that peptide 19-2.5 interacts with heparanase, which is elevated in murine and human sepsis and consecutively attenuates the generation of circulating HS-fragments in systemic inflammation. Thus, peptide 19-2.5 seems to be a potential anti-inflammatory agent in sepsis.

  9. Production of monoclonal antibodies recognising the peptide core of MUC2 intestinal mucin.

    PubMed

    Durrant, L G; Jacobs, E; Price, M R

    1994-01-01

    A peptide based on the tandem repeat sequence of MUC2 mucin was used to produce a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The fine specificity of these antibodies and their implications for MUC2 expression are presented. Three of the MAbs, 996/1, 996/7 and 995/25, were specific to the MUC2p and failed to bind to peptides based on the MUC1,3,4 tandem repeat sequences whereas three others, 994/152, 994/91 and 996/36, cross reacted with the MUC2p and the MUC3 tandem repeat peptide but not the MUC1 and MUC4 peptides. An antigen, affinity purified from a colorectal tumour on one of the MUC2p-specific MAbs, 996/1, was shown to be a high molecular weight polydisperse, mucin-like antigen. Two of the MAbs, 996/1 and 994/152, recognised MUC2 in tissue sections, although the fine specificity varied between the two MAbs, with 994/152 strongly staining gastric, ileum and kidney epithelia, and MAb 996/1 intensely staining colon, liver and prostate tissues. These antibodies also stained a colorectal cell line, and MAb 994/152 also stained a gastric and an ovarian cell line. Six of the MAbs were used to stain colorectal tumour and adjacent 'normal' colonic mucosa sections. All six stained normal mucosa, but only two of the MAbs, 996/1 and 994/91, stained tumour tissue. The staining probably reflects exposure of cryptic epitopes due to varying levels of glycosylation in different tissues. These anti-MUC2p MAbs may help in determining the normal role of MUC2 mucin and how it is subverted in malignancy.

  10. Photolysis of Caged Ca2+ But Not Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling Triggers Astrocytic Glutamate Release

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan A.; Xu, Qiwu; Goldman, Siri; Peng, Weiguo; Huang, Jason H.; Takano, Takahiro; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes in hippocampal slices can dynamically regulate synaptic transmission in a process mediated by increases in intracellular Ca2+. However, it is debated whether astrocytic Ca2+ signals result in release of glutamate. We here compared astrocytic Ca2+ signaling triggered by agonist exposure versus photolysis side by side. Using transgenic mice in which astrocytes selectively express the MrgA1 receptor, we found that receptor-mediated astrocytic Ca2+ signaling consistently triggered neuronal hyperpolarization and decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). In contrast, photolysis of caged Ca2+ (o-nitrophenyl–EGTA) in astrocytes led to neuronal depolarization and increased the frequency of mEPSCs through a metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated pathway. Analysis of transgenic mice in which astrocytic vesicular release is suppressed (dominant-negative SNARE mice) and pharmacological manipulations suggested that glutamate is primarily released by opening of anion channels rather than exocytosis. Combined, these studies show that photolysis but not by agonists induced astrocytic Ca2+ signaling triggers glutamate release. PMID:24174673

  11. Role of different types of Ca2+ channels and a reticulum-like Ca2+ pump in neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Fossier, P; Baux, G; Tauc, L

    1993-01-01

    The factors controlling the Ca2+ concentration directly responsible for triggering acetylcholine (ACh) release were investigated at an identified neuro-neuronal synapse of the Aplysia buccal ganglion. The types of presynaptic voltage-gated Ca2+ channels associated with transmitter release were determined by using selective blockers such as nifedipine, omega-conotoxin and a partially purified extract from the venom of a funnel web spider (FTx). L-type, N-type and P-type Ca2+ channels are present in the presynaptic neuron. The influx of Ca2+ through both N- and P-types induces the release of ACh whereas Ca2+ flowing through L-type channels modulates the duration of the presynaptic action potential by controlling the Ca(2+)-dependent K+ current. tBuBHQ, a blocker of the reticulum Ca2+ pump, induces a potentiation of evoked release without modifying the presynaptic Ca2+ influx. This seems to indicate that a part of the Ca2+ entering the presynaptic terminal through N- and P-type Ca2+ channels is sequestered in a presynaptic reticulum-like Ca2+ buffer preventing these ions from contributing to ACh release. To exert its control, this Ca2+ buffer must be located close to both the presynaptic Ca2+ channels and the transmitter release mechanism.

  12. An interleukin 13 receptor α 2–specific peptide homes to human Glioblastoma multiforme xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hetal; Gibo, Denise M.; Garg, Shivank; Kridel, Steven; Debinski, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin 13 receptor α 2 (IL-13Rα2) is a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)–associated plasma membrane receptor, a brain tumor of dismal prognosis. Here, we isolated peptide ligands for IL-13Rα2 with use of a cyclic disulphide-constrained heptapeptide phages display library and 2 in vitro biopanning schemes with GBM cells that do (G26-H2 and SnB19-pcDNA cells) or do not (G26-V2 and SnB19-asIL-13Rα2 cells) over-express IL-13Rα2. We identified 3 peptide phages that bind to IL-13Rα2 in cellular and protein assays. One of the 3 peptide phages, termed Pep-1, bound to IL-13Rα2 with the highest specificity, surprisingly, also in a reducing environment. Pep-1 was thus synthesized and further analyzed in both linear and disulphide-constrained forms. The linear peptide bound to IL-13Rα2 more avidly than did the disulphide-constrained form and was efficiently internalized by IL-13Rα2–expressing GBM cells. The native ligand, IL-13, did not compete for the Pep-1 binding to the receptor and vice versa in any of the assays, indicating that the peptide might be binding to a site on the receptor different from the native ligand. Furthermore, we demonstrated by noninvasive near infrared fluorescence imaging in nude mice that Pep-1 binds and homes to both subcutaneous and orthotopic human GBM xenografts expressing IL-13Rα2 when injected by an intravenous route. Thus, we identified a linear heptapeptide specific for the IL-13Rα2 that is capable of crossing the blood-brain tumor barrier and homing to tumors. Pep-1 can be further developed for various applications in cancer and/or inflammatory diseases. PMID:21946118

  13. Computational Studies of Difference in Binding Modes of Peptide and Non-Peptide Inhibitors to MDM2/MDMX Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Dinglin; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Guohui

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of p53-MDM2/MDMX interaction is considered to be a promising strategy for anticancer drug design to activate wild-type p53 in tumors. We carry out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the binding mechanisms of peptide and non-peptide inhibitors to MDM2/MDMX. The rank of binding free energies calculated by molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) method agrees with one of the experimental values. The results suggest that van der Waals energy drives two kinds of inhibitors to MDM2/MDMX. We also find that the peptide inhibitors can produce more interaction contacts with MDM2/MDMX than the non-peptide inhibitors. Binding mode predictions based on the inhibitor-residue interactions show that the π–π, CH–π and CH–CH interactions dominated by shape complimentarity, govern the binding of the inhibitors in the hydrophobic cleft of MDM2/MDMX. Our studies confirm the residue Tyr99 in MDMX can generate a steric clash with the inhibitors due to energy and structure. This finding may theoretically provide help to develop potent dual-specific or MDMX inhibitors. PMID:22408446

  14. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of ipamorelin, a growth hormone releasing peptide, in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gobburu, J V; Agersø, H; Jusko, W J; Ynddal, L

    1999-09-01

    To examine the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of ipamorelin, a growth hormone (GH) releasing peptide, in healthy volunteers. A trial was conducted with a dose escalation design comprising 5 different infusion rates (4.21, 14.02, 42.13, 84.27 and 140.45 nmol/kg over 15 minutes) with eight healthy male subjects at each dose level. Concentrations of ipamorelin and growth hormone were measured. The PK parameters showed dose-proportionality, with a short terminal half-life of 2 hours, a clearance of 0.078 L/h/kg and a volume of distribution at steady-state of 0.22 L/kg. The time course of GH stimulation by ipamorelin showed a single episode of GH release with a peak at 0.67 hours and an exponential decline to negligible GH concentration at all doses. The ipamorelin-GH concentration relationship was characterized using an indirect response model and population fitting. The model employed a zero-order GH release rate over a finite duration of time to describe the episodic release of GH. Ipamorelin induces the release of GH at all dose levels with the concentration (SC50) required for half-maximal GH stimulation of 214 nmol/L and a maximal GH production rate of 694 mIU/L/h. The inter-individual variability of the PD parameters was larger than that of the PK parameters. The proposed PK/PD model provides a useful characterization of ipamorelin disposition and GH responses across a range of doses.

  15. P2X7 receptor-stimulation causes fever via PGE2 and IL-1β release.

    PubMed

    Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Gomez, Ana I; Machado, Francisco; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important lipid mediators involved in the development of inflammatory associated pain and fever. PGE2 is a well-established endogenous pyrogen activated by proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) expressed by inflammatory cells are stimulated by the danger signal extracellular ATP to activate the inflammasome and release IL-1β. Here we show that P2X7R activation is required for the release of PGE2 and other autacoids independent of inflammasome activation, with an ATP EC(50) for PGE2 and IL-1β release of 1.58 and 1.23 mM, respectively. Furthermore, lack of P2X7R or specific antagonism of P2X7R decreased the febrile response in mice triggered after intraperitoneal LPS or IL-1β inoculation. Accordingly, LPS inoculation caused intraperitoneal ATP accumulation. Therefore, P2X7R antagonists emerge as novel therapeutics for the treatment for acute inflammation, pain and fever, with wider anti-inflammatory activity than currently used cyclooxygenase inhibitors.-Barberà-Cremades, M., Baroja-Mazo, A., Gomez, A. I., Machado, F., Di Virgilio, F., Pelegrín, P. P2X7 receptor-stimulation causes fever via PGE2 and IL-1β release.

  16. 32 CFR 811.2 - Release of visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 811.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.2 Release of visual... Security and Policy Review Program. (b) The Secretary of the Air Force for Legislative Liaison (SAF/LL...

  17. Virtual screening of commercial cyclic peptides as NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitor of dengue virus serotype 2 through molecular docking simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, M. A. F.; Aini, R. N.; Tambunan, U. S. F.

    2017-04-01

    A disease caused by dengue virus infection has become one of the major health problems in the world, particularly in Asia, Africa, and South America. This disease has become endemic in more than 100 countries, and approximately 100 million cases occur each year with 2.5 billion people or 40% of the world population at risk of having this virus infection. Therefore, we need an antiviral drug that can inhibit the activity of the enzymes that involved in the virus replication in the body. Lately, the peptide-based drug design has been developed and proved to have interesting pharmacological properties. This study uses commercially cyclic peptides that have already marketed. The purpose of this study is to screen the commercial cyclic peptides that can be used as an inhibitor of the NS2B-NS3 protease of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) through molecular docking simulations. Inhibition of NS3 protease enzyme can lead to enzymatic inhibition activity so the formed polyprotein from the translation of RNA cannot be cut into pieces and remain in the long strand form. Consequently, proteins that are vital for the sustainability of dengue virus replication cannot be formed. This research resulted in [alpha]-ANF (1-28), rat, Brain Natriuretic Peptide, porcine, Atrial Natriuretic Factor (3-28) (human) and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (126-150) (rat) as the best drug candidate for inhibiting the NS2B-NS3 protease of DENV-2.

  18. BRI2 (ITM2b) Inhibits Aβ Deposition in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungsu; Miller, Victor M.; Levites, Yona; West, Karen Jansen; Zwizinski, Craig W.; Moore, Brenda D.; Troendle, Fredrick J.; Bann, Maralyssa; Verbeeck, Christophe; Price, Robert W.; Smithson, Lisa; Sonoda, Leilani; Wagg, Kayleigh; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan; Zou, Fanggeng; Younkin, Steven G.; Graff-Radford, Neill; Dickson, Dennis; Rosenberry, Terrone; Golde, Todd E.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of the biologic effects of mutations in the BRI2 (ITM2b) and the amyloid β precursor protein (APP) genes support the hypothesis that cerebral accumulation of amyloidogenic peptides in familial British and familial Danish dementias and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with neurodegeneration. We have used somatic brain transgenic technology to express the BRI2 and BRI2-Aβ1-40 transgenes in amyloid β protein precursor (APP) mouse models. Expression of BRI2-Aβ1-40 mimics the suppressive effect previously observed using conventional transgenic methods, further validating the somatic brain transgenic methodology. Unexpectedly, we also find that expression of wild type human BRI2 reduces cerebral Aβ deposition in an AD mouse model. Additional data indicate that the 23 amino acid peptide, Bri23, released from BRI2 by normal processing is present in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), inhibits Aβ aggregation in vitro, and mediates its anti-amyloidogenic effect in vivo. These studies demonstrate that BRI2 is a novel mediator of Aβ deposition in vivo. PMID:18524908

  19. Analysis of Qa-1bPeptide Binding Specificity and the Capacity of Cd94/Nkg2a to Discriminate between Qa-1–Peptide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Jennifer R.; Vance, Russell E.; Pohl, Jan; Martin, Amy M.; Raulet, David H.; Jensen, Peter E.

    2000-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class Ib protein, Qa-1b, serves as a ligand for murine CD94/NKG2A natural killer (NK) cell inhibitory receptors. The Qa-1b peptide-binding site is predominantly occupied by a single nonameric peptide, Qa-1 determinant modifier (Qdm), derived from the leader sequence of H-2D and L molecules. Five anchor residues were identified in this study by measuring the peptide-binding affinities of substituted Qdm peptides in experiments with purified recombinant Qa-1b. A candidate peptide-binding motif was determined by sequence analysis of peptides eluted from Qa-1 that had been folded in the presence of random peptide libraries or pools of Qdm derivatives randomized at specific anchor positions. The results indicate that Qa-1b can bind a diverse repertoire of peptides but that Qdm has an optimal primary structure for binding Qa-1b. Flow cytometry experiments with Qa-1b tetramers and NK target cell lysis assays demonstrated that CD94/NKG2A discriminates between Qa-1b complexes containing peptides with substitutions at nonanchor positions P4, P5, or P8. Our findings suggest that it may be difficult for viruses to generate decoy peptides that mimic Qdm and raise the possibility that competitive replacement of Qdm with other peptides may provide a novel mechanism for activation of NK cells. PMID:10974028

  20. (99m)Tc-labeled SWL specific peptide for targeting EphA2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Lan, Xiaoli; Wu, Tao; Lang, Juntao; Jin, Xueyan; Sun, Xun; Wen, Qiong; An, Rui

    2014-07-01

    EphA2, one member of the Eph receptor family, is widely expressed in multiple aggressive cancers. SWL, a small peptide identified by phage display, has high binding affinity to EphA2, suggesting that it could be exploited for targeted molecular imaging. Therefore, a novel peptide-based probe, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL, was developed and its potential to specifically target EphA2-positive tumors was investigated. The SWL peptide was labeled with hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC), followed by (99m)Tc labeling. Immunofluorescence staining was carried out to detect the expression of EphA2 in A549 lung cancer cells and OCM-1 melanoma cells. Saturation binding experiments were performed by incubating A549 cells with increasing concentrations of radiolabeled peptide in vitro. To test the probe in vivo, nude mice bearing either A549 or OCM-1 derived tumors were established, injected with (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL, and subjected to SPECT imaging. Mice injected with excess unlabeled SWL were used as a specific control. Ex vivo γ-counting of dissected tissues from the mice was also performed to evaluate biodistribution. Immunofluorescence staining showed that A549 cells intensively expressed EphA2, while OCM-1 cells had little expression. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL displayed high binding affinity with A549 cells (KD=2.6±0.7nM). From the SPECT images and the results of the biodistribution study, significantly higher uptake of the tracer was seen in A549 tumors (1.44±0.12 %ID/g) than in OCM-1 tumors (0.43±0.20 %ID/g) at 1h after injection. Pre-injection with excess unlabeled peptide in A549-bearing nude mice, significantly reduced tumor uptake of the radiolabeled probe (0.58±0.20 %ID/g) was seen. These data suggest that (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL specifically targets EphA2 in tumors. The expression of EphA2 can be noninvasively investigated using (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL by SPECT imaging. The in vitro and in vivo characteristics of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL make it a promising probe for EphA2-positive tumor imaging

  1. In vitro effect of short peptides on expression of interleukin-2 gene in splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Kazakova, T B; Barabanova, S V; Khavinson, V Kh; Glushikhina, M S; Parkhomenko, E P; Malinin, V V; Korneva, E A

    2002-06-01

    Synthetic peptides Vilon (Lys-Glu), Epithalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly), and Cortagen (Ala-Glu-Asp-Pro) in vitro activated interleukin-2 mRNA synthesis in splenocytes from CBA mice in the absence of specific inductors. The intensity of interleukin-2 mRNA synthesis in splenocytes depended on the type, concentration, and duration of treatment with the peptides. Vilon and Epithalon were most potent, while Cortagen produced a less pronounced effect on interleukin-2 mRNA synthesis.

  2. Effect of Mg2+ on the control of Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle fibres of the toad.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, G D; Stephenson, D G

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of myoplasmic Mg2+ on Ca2+ release was examined in mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres, in which the normal voltage-sensor control of Ca2+ release is preserved. The voltage sensors could be activated by depolarizing the transverse tubular (T-) system by lowering the [K+] in the bathing solution. 2. Fibres spontaneously contracted when the free [Mg2+] was decreased from 1 to 0.05 mM, with no depolarization or change of total ATP, [Ca2+] or pH (pCa 6.7, 50 microM-EGTA). After such a 'low-Mg2+ response' the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was depleted of Ca2+ and neither depolarization nor caffeine (2 mM) could induce a response, unless the [Mg2+] was raised and the SR reloaded with Ca2+. Exposure to 0.05 mM-Mg2+ at low [Ca2+] (2 mM-free EGTA, pCa greater than 8.7) also induced Ca2+ release and depleted the SR. 3. The response to low [Mg2+] was unaffected by inactivation of the voltage sensors, but was completely blocked by 2 microM-Ruthenium Red indicating that it involved Ca2+ efflux through the normal Ca2+ release channels. 4. In the absence of ATP (and creatine phosphate), complete removal of Mg2+ (i.e. no added Mg2+ with 1 mM-EDTA) did not induce Ca2+ release. Depolarization in the absence of Mg2+ and ATP also did not induce Ca2+ release. 5. Depolarization in 10 mM-Mg2+ (pCa 6.7, 50 microM-EGTA, 8 mM-total ATP) did not produce any response. In the presence of 1 mM-EGTA to chelate most of the released Ca2+, depolarizations in 10 mM-Mg2+ did not noticeably deplete the SR of Ca2+, whereas a single depolarization in 1 mM-Mg2+ (and 1 mM-EGTA) resulted in marked depletion. Depolarization in the presence of D600 and 10 mM-Mg2+ produced use-dependent 'paralysis', indicating that depolarization in 10 mM-Mg2+ did indeed activate the voltage sensors. 6. Depolarization in the presence of 10 mM-Mg2+ and 25 microM-ryanodine neither interfered with the normal voltage control of Ca2+ release nor caused depletion of the Ca2+ in the SR even after returning to 1 m

  3. Biocompatible nanoparticles sensing the matrix metallo-proteinase 2 for the on-demand release of anticancer drugs in 3D tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Marco; Guarnieri, Daniela; Biondi, Marco; Belli, Valentina; Profeta, Martina; Raiola, Luca; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-11-01

    The balance between dose-dependent tolerability, effectiveness and toxicity of systemically administered antitumor drugs is extremely delicate. This issue highlights the striking need for targeted release of chemotherapeutic drugs within tumors. In this work, a smart strategy of drug targeting to tumors relying upon biodegradable/biocompatible nanoparticles releasing cytotoxic drugs after sensing physiological variations intrinsic to the very nature of tumor tissues is exploited. Here, the well-known over-expression of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP2) enzyme in tumors has been chosen as a trigger for the release of a cytotoxic drug. Nanoparticles made up of a biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)--block--polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymer (namely PELGA), blended with a tumor-activated prodrug (TAP) composed of a MMP2-sensitive peptide bound to doxorubicin (Dox) and to PLGA chain have been produced. The obtained devices are able to release Dox specifically upon MMP2 cleavage of the TAP. More interestingly, they can sense the differences in the expression levels of endogenous MMP2 protein, thus modulating drug penetration within a three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid matrix, accordingly. Therefore, the proposed nanoparticles hold promise as a useful tool for in vivo investigations aimed at an improved therapeutic efficacy of the conjugated drug payload. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurochemical evidence that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) 55-102 peptide modulates the dopaminergic reward system by decreasing the dopamine release in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Rakovska, Angelina; Baranyi, Maria; Windisch, Katalin; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Gagov, Hristo; Kalfin, Reni

    2017-09-01

    CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system. Thus in the present study, we examined the effect of CART (55-102) peptide on the basal, electrical field stimulation-evoked (EFS-evoked) (30V, 2Hz, 120 shocks) and returning basal dopamine (DA) release and on the release of the DA metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetaldehyde (DOPAL), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) as well as on norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine-o-quinone (Daq) in isolated mouse nucleus accumbens, in a preparation, in which any CART peptide effects on the dendrites or soma of ventral tegmental projection neurons have been excluded. We further extended our study to assess the effect of CART (55-102) peptide on basal cocaine-induced release of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAL, DOPAC, HVA, DOPET and 3-MT as well as on NE and Daq. To analyze the amount of [ 3 H]dopamine, dopamine metabolites, Daq and NE in the nucleus accumbens superfusate, a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with electrochemical, UV and radiochemical detections was used. CART (55-102) peptide, 0.1μM, added alone, exerted: (i) a significant decrease in the basal and EFS-evoked levels of extracellular dopamine (ii) a significant increase in the EFS-evoked and returning basal levels of the dopamine metabolites DOPAC and HVA, major products of dopamine degradation and (iii) a significant decrease in the returning basal

  5. Alnus peptides modify membrane porosity and induce the release of nitrogen-rich metabolites from nitrogen-fixing Frankia.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Boubakri, Hasna; Hay, Anne E; Poly, Franck; François, Philippe; Hocher, Valerie; Mergaert, Peter; Balmand, Severine; Rey, Marjolaine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Normand, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Actinorhizal plant growth in pioneer ecosystems depends on the symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia cells that are housed in special root organs called nodules. Nitrogen fixation occurs in differentiated Frankia cells known as vesicles. Vesicles lack a pathway for assimilating ammonia beyond the glutamine stage and are supposed to transfer reduced nitrogen to the plant host cells. However, a mechanism for the transfer of nitrogen-fixation products to the plant cells remains elusive. Here, new elements for this metabolic exchange are described. We show that Alnus glutinosa nodules express defensin-like peptides, and one of these, Ag5, was found to target Frankia vesicles. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that Ag5 induces drastic physiological changes in Frankia, including an increased permeability of vesicle membranes. A significant release of nitrogen-containing metabolites, mainly glutamine and glutamate, was found in N2-fixing cultures treated with Ag5. This work demonstrates that the Ag5 peptide is central for Frankia physiology in nodules and uncovers a novel cellular function for this large and widespread defensin peptide family.

  6. Modeling of Fission Gas Release in UO2

    SciTech Connect

    MH Krohn

    2006-01-23

    A two-stage gas release model was examined to determine if it could provide a physically realistic and accurate model for fission gas release under Prometheus conditions. The single-stage Booth model [1], which is often used to calculate fission gas release, is considered to be oversimplified and not representative of the mechanisms that occur during fission gas release. Two-stage gas release models require saturation at the grain boundaries before gas is release, leading to a time delay in release of gases generated in the fuel. Two versions of a two-stage model developed by Forsberg and Massih [2] were implemented using Mathcadmore » [3]. The original Forsbers and Massih model [2] and a modified version of the Forsberg and Massih model that is used in a commercially available fuel performance code (FRAPCON-3) [4] were examined. After an examination of these models, it is apparent that without further development and validation neither of these models should be used to calculate fission gas release under Prometheus-type conditions. There is too much uncertainty in the input parameters used in the models. In addition. the data used to tune the modified Forsberg and Massih model (FRAPCON-3) was collected under commercial reactor conditions, which will have higher fission rates relative to Prometheus conditions [4].« less

  7. Use of the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin for microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ieronymaki, Matthaia; Androutsou, Maria Eleni; Pantelia, Anna; Friligou, Irene; Crisp, Molly; High, Kirsty; Penkman, Kirsty; Gatos, Dimitrios; Tselios, Theodore

    2015-09-01

    A fast and efficient microwave (MW)-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis protocol using the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin and the Fmoc/tBu methodology, has been developed. The established protocol combines the advantages of MW irradiation and the acid labile 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin. The effect of temperature during the MW irradiation, the degree of resin substitution during the coupling of the first amino acids and the rate of racemization for each amino acid were evaluated. The suggested solid phase methodology is applicable for orthogonal peptide synthesis and for the synthesis of cyclic peptides. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Distinct mechanisms of a phosphotyrosyl peptide binding to two SH2 domains.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2014-05-01

    Protein phosphorylation is very common post-translational modification, catalyzed by kinases, for signaling and regulation. Phosphotyrosines frequently target SH2 domains. The spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins and for regulation of important pathways. Phosphorylation of both Y342 and Y346 in Syk linker B is required for optimal signaling. The SH2 domains of Vav1 and PLC-γ both bind this doubly phosphorylated motif. Here we used a recently developed method to calculate the effects of Y342 and Y346 phosphorylation on the rate constants of a peptide from Syk linker B binding to the SH2 domains of Vav1 and PLC-γ. The predicted effects agree well with experimental observations. Moreover, we found that the same doubly phosphorylated peptide binds the two SH2 domains via distinct mechanisms, with apparent rigid docking for Vav1 SH2 and dock-and-coalesce for PLC-γ SH2.

  9. Aptamer based peptide enrichment for quantitative analysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Richards, S L; Cawley, A T; Cavicchioli, R; Suann, C J; Pickford, R; Raftery, M J

    2016-04-01

    Over recent years threats to racing have expanded to include naturally occurring biological molecules, such as peptides and proteins, and their synthetic analogues. Traditionally, antibodies have been used to enable detection of these compounds as they allow purification and concentration of the analyte of interest. The rapid expansion of peptide-based therapeutics necessitates a similarly rapid development of suitable antibodies or other means of enrichment. Potential alternative enrichment strategies include the use of aptamers, which offer the significant advantage of chemical synthesis once the nucleic acid sequence is known. A method was developed for the enrichment, detection and quantitation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in equine urine using aptamer-based enrichment and LC-MS/MS. The method achieved comparable limits of detection (1 pg/mL) and quantification (2.5 pg/mL) to previously published antibody-based enrichment methods. The intra- and inter-assay precision achieved was less than 10% at both 5 and 20 pg/mL, and displayed a working dynamic range of 2.5-100 pg/mL. Significant matrix enhancement (170 ± 8%) and low analytical recovery (29 ± 15%) was observed, although the use of an isotopically heavy labelled GnRH peptide, GnRH (Pro(13)C5,(15)N), as the internal standard provides compensation for these parameters. Within the current limits of detection GnRH was detectable up to 1h post administration in urine and identification of a urinary catabolite extended this detection window to 4h. Based on the results of this preliminary investigation we propose the use of aptamers as a viable alternative to antibodies in the enrichment of peptide targets from equine urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CRMP-2 peptide mediated decrease of high and low voltage-activated calcium channels, attenuation of nociceptor excitability, and anti-nociception in a model of AIDS therapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ubiquity of protein-protein interactions in biological signaling offers ample opportunities for therapeutic intervention. We previously identified a peptide, designated CBD3, that suppressed inflammatory and neuropathic behavioral hypersensitivity in rodents by inhibiting the ability of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) to bind to N-type voltage-activated calcium channels (CaV2.2) [Brittain et al. Nature Medicine 17:822–829 (2011)]. Results and discussion Here, we utilized SPOTScan analysis to identify an optimized variation of the CBD3 peptide (CBD3A6K) that bound with greater affinity to Ca2+ channels. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the CBD3A6K peptide was more stable and less prone to the unfolding observed with the parent CBD3 peptide. This mutant peptide, conjugated to the cell penetrating motif of the HIV transduction domain protein TAT, exhibited greater anti-nociception in a rodent model of AIDS therapy-induced peripheral neuropathy when compared to the parent TAT-CBD3 peptide. Remarkably, intraperitoneal administration of TAT-CBD3A6K produced none of the minor side effects (i.e. tail kinking, body contortion) observed with the parent peptide. Interestingly, excitability of dissociated small diameter sensory neurons isolated from rats was also reduced by TAT-CBD3A6K peptide suggesting that suppression of excitability may be due to inhibition of T- and R-type Ca2+ channels. TAT-CBD3A6K had no effect on depolarization-evoked calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release compared to vehicle control. Conclusions Collectively, these results establish TAT-CBD3A6K as a peptide therapeutic with greater efficacy in an AIDS therapy-induced model of peripheral neuropathy than its parent peptide, TAT-CBD3. Structural modifications of the CBD3 scaffold peptide may result in peptides with selectivity against a particular subset of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in a multipharmacology of action on the target. PMID

  11. The TFPI-2 derived peptide EDC34 improves outcome of gram-negative sepsis.

    PubMed

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Sørensen, Ole E; Malmsten, Martin; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by a dysregulated host-pathogen response, leading to high cytokine levels, excessive coagulation and failure to eradicate invasive bacteria. Novel therapeutic strategies that address crucial pathogenetic steps during infection are urgently needed. Here, we describe novel bioactive roles and therapeutic anti-infective potential of the peptide EDC34, derived from the C-terminus of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2). This peptide exerted direct bactericidal effects and boosted activation of the classical complement pathway including formation of antimicrobial C3a, but inhibited bacteria-induced activation of the contact system. Correspondingly, in mouse models of severe Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, treatment with EDC34 reduced bacterial levels and lung damage. In combination with the antibiotic ceftazidime, the peptide significantly prolonged survival and reduced mortality in mice. The peptide's boosting effect on bacterial clearance paired with its inhibiting effect on excessive coagulation makes it a promising therapeutic candidate for invasive Gram-negative infections.

  12. The TFPI-2 Derived Peptide EDC34 Improves Outcome of Gram-Negative Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Sørensen, Ole E.; Malmsten, Martin; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by a dysregulated host-pathogen response, leading to high cytokine levels, excessive coagulation and failure to eradicate invasive bacteria. Novel therapeutic strategies that address crucial pathogenetic steps during infection are urgently needed. Here, we describe novel bioactive roles and therapeutic anti-infective potential of the peptide EDC34, derived from the C-terminus of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2). This peptide exerted direct bactericidal effects and boosted activation of the classical complement pathway including formation of antimicrobial C3a, but inhibited bacteria-induced activation of the contact system. Correspondingly, in mouse models of severe Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, treatment with EDC34 reduced bacterial levels and lung damage. In combination with the antibiotic ceftazidime, the peptide significantly prolonged survival and reduced mortality in mice. The peptide's boosting effect on bacterial clearance paired with its inhibiting effect on excessive coagulation makes it a promising therapeutic candidate for invasive Gram-negative infections. PMID:24339780

  13. Soluble NKG2D ligands: prevalence, release, and functional impact.

    PubMed

    Salih, Helmut Rainer; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Steinle, Alexander

    2008-05-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are capable to recognize and eliminate malignant cells. Anti-tumor responses of NK cells are promoted by the tumor-associated expression of cell stress-inducible ligands of the activating NK receptor NKG2D. Current evidence suggests that established tumors subvert NKG2D-mediated tumor immunosurveillance by releasing NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL). Release of NKG2DL has been observed in a broad variety of human tumor entities and is thought to interfere with NKG2D-mediated tumor immunity in several ways. Further, levels of soluble NKG2DL (sNKG2DL) were also found to be elevated under various non-malignant conditions, although the functional implications remain largely unclear. Here we review and discuss the available data on the prevalence, release, functional impact, and potential clinical value of sNKG2DL.

  14. Duck-billed platypus venom peptides induce Ca2+ influx in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masaki; Black, David StC; Ohno, Osamu; Yamada, Kaoru; Kigoshi, Hideo; Uemura, Daisuke

    2009-12-23

    The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is one of the few venomous Australian mammals. We previously found that its crude venom potently induces Ca(2+) influx in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Guided by this bioassay, we identified 11 novel peptides, including the heptapeptide H-His-Asp-His-Pro-Asn-Pro-Arg-OH (1). Compounds 1-4 and 5-11 coincided with the 6-9 N-terminal residues of Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide (OvCNP) and the 132-150 part of OvCNP precursor peptide, respectively. Heptapeptide 1, which is one of the primary components of the venom fluid (approximately 200 ng/microL), induced a significant increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in IMR-32 cells at 75 microM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the isolation of the N-terminal linear fragments of CNPs in any mammal.

  15. Use of synthetic peptide libraries for the H-2Kd binding motif identification.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, A; Casrouge, A; Kourilsky, P; Abastado, J P; Trudelle, Y

    1995-01-01

    To identify Kd-binding peptides, an approach based on small peptide libraries has been developed. These peptide libraries correspond to all possible single-amino acid variants of a particular Kd-binding peptide, SYIPSAEYI, an analog of the Plasmodium berghei 252-260 antigenic peptide SYIPSAEKI. In the parent sequence, each position is replaced by all the genetically encoded amino acids (except cysteine). The multiple analog syntheses are performed either by the Divide Couple and Recombine method or by the Single Resin method and generate mixtures containing 19 peptides. The present report deals with the synthesis, the purification, the chemical characterization by amino acid analysis and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS), and the application of such mixtures in binding tests with a soluble, functionally empty, single-chain H-2Kd molecule denoted SC-Kd. For each mixture, bound peptides were eluted and analyzed by sequencing. Since the binding tests were realized in noncompetitive conditions, our results show that a much broader set of peptides bind to Kd than expected from previous studies. This may be of practical importance when looking for low affinity peptides such as tumor peptides capable of eliciting protective immune response.

  16. Comparative physiology of glucagon-like peptide 2 - Implications and applications for production and health of ruminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a 33-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon by prohormone convertase 1/3 in enteroendocrine L-cells. Studies conducted in humans, rodent models, and in vitro indicate that GLP-2 is secreted in response to the presence of molecules in th...

  17. Analysis of the V2 Vasopressin Receptor (V2R) Mutations Causing Partial Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Highlights a Sustainable Signaling by a Non-peptide V2R Agonist*

    PubMed Central

    Makita, Noriko; Sato, Tomohiko; Yajima-Shoji, Yuki; Sato, Junichiro; Manaka, Katsunori; Eda-Hashimoto, Makiko; Ootaki, Masanori; Matsumoto, Naoki; Nangaku, Masaomi; Iiri, Taroh

    2016-01-01

    Disease-causing mutations in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes, including the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) gene, often cause misfolded receptors, leading to a defect in plasma membrane trafficking. A novel V2R mutation, T273M, identified in a boy with partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), shows intracellular localization and partial defects similar to the two mutants we described previously (10). Although non-peptide V2R antagonists have been shown to rescue the membrane localization of V2R mutants, their level of functional rescue is weak. Interestingly, it has been reported that a non-peptide agonist, OPC51803, activates misfolded V2R mutants intracellularly without degradation, thus potentially serving as a therapeutic agent against NDI (14). In our current experiments, however, a peptide antagonist blocked arginine vasopressin (AVP)- or OPC51803-stimulated cAMP accumulation both in COS-7 and MDCK cells, suggesting that OPC51803 mainly stimulates cell surface V2R mutants. In addition, our analyses revealed that OPC51803 works not only as a non-peptide agonist that causes activation/β-arrestin-dependent desensitization of V2R mutants expressed at the plasma membrane but also as a pharmacochaperone that promotes the endoplasmic reticulum-retained mutant maturation and trafficking to the plasma membrane. The ratio of the pharmacochaperone effect to the desensitization effect likely correlates negatively with the residual function of the tested mutants, suggesting that OPC5 has a more favorable effect on the V2R mutants with a less residual function. We speculated that the canceling of the desensitization effect of OPC51803 by the pharmacochaperone effect after long-term treatment may produce sustainable signaling, and thus pharmacochaperone agonists such as OPC51803 may serve as promising therapeutics for NDI caused by misfolded V2R mutants. PMID:27601473

  18. A pilot study examining the relationship among Crohn disease activity, glucagon-like peptide-2 signalling and intestinal function in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Sigalet, David L; Kravarusic, Dragan; Butzner, Decker; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Meddings, Jon

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The relationship between the enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and intestinal inflammation is unclear. GLP-2 promotes mucosal growth, decreases permeability and reduces inflammation in the intestine; physiological stimulation of GLP-2 release is triggered by nutrient contact. The authors hypothesized that ileal Crohn disease (CD) affects GLP-2 release. METHODS: With ethics board approval, pediatric patients hospitalized with CD were studied; controls were recruited from local schools. Inclusion criteria were endoscopy-confirmed CD (primarily of the small intestine) with a disease activity index >150. Fasting and post-prandial GLP-2 levels and quantitative urinary recovery of orally administered 3-O-methyl-glucose (active transport) and lactulose/mannitol (passive) were quantified during the acute and remission phases. RESULTS: Seven patients (mean [± SD] age 15.3±1.3 years) and 10 controls (10.3±1.6 years) were studied. In patients with active disease, fasting levels of GLP-2 remained stable but postprandial levels were reduced. Patients with active disease exhibited reduced glucose absorption and increased lactulose/mannitol recovery; all normalized with disease remission. The change in the lactulose/mannitol ratio was due to both reduced lactulose and increased mannitol absorption. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that pediatric patients with acute ileal CD have decreased postprandial GLP-2 release, reduced glucose absorption and increased intestinal permeability. Healing of CD resulted in normalization of postprandial GLP-2 release and mucosal functioning (nutrient absorption and permeability), the latter due to an increase in mucosal surface area. These findings have implications for the use of GLP-2 and feeding strategies as a therapy in CD patients; further studies of the effects of inflammation and the GLP-2 axis are recommended. PMID:24106731

  19. Chronic Beryllium Disease: Revealing the Role of Beryllium Ion and Small Peptides Binding to HLA-DP2

    PubMed Central

    Petukh, Marharyta; Wu, Bohua; Stefl, Shannon; Smith, Nick; Hyde-Volpe, David; Wang, Li; Alexov, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Beryllium (Be) Disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder that predominantly affects the lung. The CBD is caused by Be exposure of individuals carrying the HLA-DP2 protein of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII). While the involvement of Be in the development of CBD is obvious and the binding site and the sequence of Be and peptide binding were recently experimentally revealed [1], the interplay between induced conformational changes and the changes of the peptide binding affinity in presence of Be were not investigated. Here we carry out in silico modeling and predict the Be binding to be within the acidic pocket (Glu26, Glu68 and Glu69) present on the HLA-DP2 protein in accordance with the experimental work [1]. In addition, the modeling indicates that the Be ion binds to the HLA-DP2 before the corresponding peptide is able to bind to it. Further analysis of the MD generated trajectories reveals that in the presence of the Be ion in the binding pocket of HLA-DP2, all the different types of peptides induce very similar conformational changes, but their binding affinities are quite different. Since these conformational changes are distinctly different from the changes caused by peptides normally found in the cell in the absence of Be, it can be speculated that CBD can be caused by any peptide in presence of Be ion. However, the affinities of peptides for Be loaded HLA-DP2 were found to depend of their amino acid composition and the peptides carrying acidic group at positions 4 and 7 are among the strongest binders. Thus, it is proposed that CBD is caused by the exposure of Be of an individual carrying the HLA-DP2*0201 allele and that the binding of Be to HLA-DP2 protein alters the conformational and ionization properties of HLA-DP2 such that the binding of a peptide triggers a wrong signaling cascade. PMID:25369028

  20. Regulation of PGE(2) and PGI(2) release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells by actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, S. J.; Norvell, S. M.; Ponik, S. M.; Pavalko, F. M.

    2001-01-01

    Disruption of microfilaments in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with cytochalasin D (cytD) or latrunculin A (latA) resulted in a 3.3- to 5.7-fold increase in total synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and a 3.4- to 6.5-fold increase in prostacyclin (PGI(2)) compared with control cells. Disruption of the microtubule network with nocodazole or colchicine increased synthesis of PGE(2) 1.7- to 1.9-fold and PGI(2) 1.9- to 2.0-fold compared with control cells. Interestingly, however, increased release of PGE(2) and PGI(2) from HUVEC into the media occurred only when microfilaments were disrupted. CytD treatment resulted in 6.7-fold more PGE(2) and 3.8-fold more PGI(2) released from HUVEC compared with control cells; latA treatment resulted in 17.7-fold more PGE(2) and 11.2-fold more PGI(2) released compared with control cells. Both increased synthesis and release of prostaglandins in response to all drug treatments were completely inhibited by NS-398, a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Disruption of either microfilaments using cytD or latA or of microtubules using nocodazole or colchicine resulted in a significant increase in COX-2 protein levels, suggesting that the increased synthesis of prostaglandins in response to drug treatments may result from increased activity of COX-2. These results, together with studies demonstrating a vasoprotective role for prostaglandins, suggest that the cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintenance of endothelial barrier function by regulating prostaglandin synthesis and release from HUVEC.

  1. The 2-monoacylglycerol moiety of dietary fat appears to be responsible for the fat-induced release of GLP-1 in humans.

    PubMed

    Mandøe, Mette J; Hansen, Katrine B; Hartmann, Bolette; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Hansen, Harald S

    2015-09-01

    Dietary triglycerides can, after digestion, stimulate the intestinal release of incretin hormones through activation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 119 by 2-monoacylglycerol and by the activation of fatty acid receptors for long- and short-chain fatty acids. Medium-chain fatty acids do not stimulate the release of intestinal hormones. To dissect the mechanism of fat-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) release in humans, we compared the effects of tributyrin (containing short-chain fatty acids; i.e., butyric acid), olive oil [containing long-chain fatty acids; e.g., oleic acid plus 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG)], and 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol (C8-dietary oil), which is digested to form medium-chain fatty acids : i.e., octanoic acid : and 2-OG. In a randomized, single-blinded crossover study, 12 healthy white men [mean age: 24 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22] were given the following 4 meals on 4 different days: 200 g carrots + 6.53 g tributyrin, 200 g carrots + 13.15 g C8-dietary oil, 200 g carrots + 19 g olive oil, or 200 g carrots. All of the lipids totaled 0.0216 mol. Main outcome measures were incremental areas under the curve for total GLP-1, GIP, and cholecystokinin (CCK) in plasma. C8-dietary oil and olive oil showed the same GLP-1 response [583 ± 101 and 538 ± 71 (pmol/L) × 120 min; P = 0.733], whereas the GIP response was higher for olive oil than for C8-dietary oil [3293 ± 404 and 1674 ± 270 (pmol/L) × 120 min; P = 0.002]. Tributyrin and carrots alone resulted in no increase in any of the measured hormones. Peptide YY (PYY) and neurotensin responses resembled those of GLP-1. Only olive oil stimulated CCK release. Under our study conditions, 2-OG and GPR119 activation can fully explain the olive oil-induced secretion of GLP-1, PYY, and neurotensin. In contrast, both oleic acid and 2-OG contributed to the GIP response. Dietary butyrate did not stimulate gut hormone secretion. Olive oil

  2. Fabrication of a biomimetic ZeinPDA nanofibrous scaffold impregnated with BMP-2 peptide conjugated TiO2 nanoparticle for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Babitha, S; Annamalai, Meenakshi; Dykas, Michal Marcin; Saha, Surajit; Poddar, Kingshuk; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2018-04-01

    A biomimetic Zein polydopamine based nanofiber scaffold was fabricated to deliver bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) peptide conjugated titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a sustained manner for investigating its osteogenic differentiation potential. To prolong its retention time at the target site, BMP-2 peptide has been conjugated to titanium dioxide nanoparticles owing to its high surface to volume ratio. The effect of biochemical cues from BMP-2 peptide and nanotopographical stimulation of electrospun Zein polydopamine nanofiber were examined for its enhanced osteogenic expression of human fetal osteoblast cells. The sustained delivery of bioactive signals, improved cell adhesion, mineralization, and differentiation could be attributed to its highly interconnected nanofibrous matrix with unique material composition. Further, the expression of osteogenic markers revealed that the fabricated nanofibrous scaffold possess better cell-biomaterial interactions. These promising results demonstrate the potential of the composite nanofibrous scaffold as an effective biomaterial substrate for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Basal C-peptide Level as a Surrogate Marker of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Tae; Kim, Byung-Joon; Song, In-Geol; Jung, Jang-Han; Lee, Kang-Woo; Park, Keun-Young; Cho, Youn-Zoo; Lee, Dae-Ho; Koh, Gwan-Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have revealed that C-peptide induces smooth muscle cell proliferation and causes human atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether the basal C-peptide levels correlate with cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods Data was obtained from 467 patients with T2DM from two institutions who were followed for four years. The medical findings of all patients were reviewed, and patients with creatinine >1.4 mg/dL, any inflammation or infection, hepatitis, or type 1 DM were excluded. The relationships between basal C-peptide and other clinical values were statistically analyzed. Results A simple correlation was found between basal C-peptide and components of metabolic syndrome (MS). Statistically basal C-peptide levels were significantly higher than the three different MS criteria used in the present study, the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program's (NCEP's), World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria (NCEP-ATP III, P=0.001; IDF, P<0.001; WHO, P=0.029). The multiple regression analysis between intima-media thickness (IMT) and clinical values showed that basal C-peptide significantly correlated with IMT (P=0.043), while the analysis between the 10-year coronary heart disease risk by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine and clinical values showed that basal C-peptide did not correlate with IMT (P=0.226). Conclusion Basal C-peptide is related to cardiovascular predictors (IMT) of T2DM, suggesting that basal C-peptide does provide a further indication of cardiovascular disease. PMID:21537412

  4. Conformation-Specific Spectroscopy of a Prototypical γ-PEPTIDE-WATER Complex: Ac-γ2-hPhe-NHMe-(H2O)1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Evan G.; James, William H., III; Zwier, Timothy S.; Guo, Li; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2010-06-01

    The prototypical γ-peptide, Ac-γ2-hPhe-NHMe, has been previously studied in a supersonic jet expansion, with three different conformers observed. Two of the monomers form nine atom, intramolecular hydrogen bonded rings, which differ by the position of the aromatic chromophore relative to the backbone. The third monomer conformer has no intramolecular H-bonds, but forms instead an intramolecular, amide-amide stacked structure unique to the γ-peptide backbone. This talk focuses attention on the conformation-specific IR spectra of the Ac-γ2-hPhe-NHMe-(H2O)1 complex, which is observed to form six unique conformational isomers, all of which preserve the two distinct monomer structural motifs. Three conformers are assigned to the nine atom intramolecular hydrogen bond family with the water hydrogen bonded to it as donor in different locations. The other three belong to the amide-amide stacking family with the water forming a bridge between the two amide planes. Infrared photodissocation of the water molecule from the complex to form γ-peptide monomer conformations will also be discussed.

  5. Characteristics of CO2 release from forest soil in the mountains near Beijing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang Yang; Gao, Cheng Da; Zhang, Lin; Li, Su Yan; Qiao, Yong

    2011-04-01

    CO2 release from forest soil is a key driver of carbon cycling between the soil and atmosphere ecosystem. The rate of CO2 released from soil was measured in three forest stands (in the mountainous region near Beijing, China) by the alkaline absorption method from 2004 to 2006. The rate of CO2 released did not differ among the three stands. The CO2 release rate ranged from - 341 to 1,193 mg m(-2) h(-1), and the mean value over all three forests and sampling times was 286 mg m(-2) h(-1). CO2 release was positively correlated with soil water content and the soil temperature. Diurnally, CO2 release was higher in the day than at night. Seasonally, CO2 release was highest in early autumn and lowest in winter; in winter, negative values of CO2 release suggested that CO2 was absorbed by soil.

  6. A Membrane-Destabilizing Peptide in Capsid Protein L2 Is Required for Egress of Papillomavirus Genomes from Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kämper, Nadine; Day, Patricia M.; Nowak, Thorsten; Selinka, Hans-Christoph; Florin, Luise; Bolscher, Jan; Hilbig, Lydia; Schiller, John T.; Sapp, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are internalized via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, the mechanism by which viral genomes pass endosomal membranes has not been elucidated. In this report we show that the minor capsid protein L2 is required for egress of viral genomes from endosomes but not for initial uptake and uncoating and that a 23-amino-acid peptide at the C terminus of L2 is necessary for this function. Pseudogenomes encapsidated by L1 and L2 lacking this peptide accumulated in vesicular compartments similar to that observed with L1-only viral particles, and these mutant pseudoviruses were noninfectious. This L2 peptide displayed strong membrane-disrupting activity, induced cytolysis of bacteria and eukaryotic cells in a pH-dependent manner, and permeabilized cells after exogenous addition. Fusions between green fluorescent protein and the L2 peptide integrated into cellular membranes like the wild type but not like C-terminal mutants of L2. Our data indicate that the L2 C terminus facilitates escape of viral genomes from the endocytic compartment and that this feature is conserved among papillomaviruses. Furthermore, the characteristic of this peptide differs from the classical virus-encoded membrane-penetrating peptides. PMID:16378978

  7. Exploring biological effects of MoS2 nanosheets on native structures of α-helical peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zonglin; Li, Weifeng; Hong, Linbi; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-05-01

    Recent reports of mono- and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a representative transition metal dichacogenide (TMD), as antibacterial and anticancer agents have shed light on their potential in biomedical applications. To better facilitate these promising applications, one needs to understand the biological effects of these TMDs as well, such as their potential adverse effects on protein structure and function. Here, we sought to understand the interaction of MoS2 nanosheets with peptides using molecular dynamics simulations and a simple model polyalanine with various lengths (PAn, n = 10, 20, 30, and 40; mainly α - helices). Our results demonstrated that MoS2 monolayer has an exceptional capability to bind all peptides in a fast and strong manner. The strong attraction from the MoS2 nanosheet is more than enough to compensate the energy needed to unfold the peptide, regardless of the length, which induces drastic disruptions to the intra-peptide hydrogen bonds and subsequent secondary structures of α - helices. This universal phenomenon may point to the potential nanotoxicity of MoS2 when used in biological systems. Moreover, these results aligned well with previous findings on the potential cytotoxicity of TMD nanomaterials.

  8. Human distribution and release of a putative new gut hormone, peptide YY.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Ferri, G L; Bacarese-Hamilton, A J; Fuessl, H S; Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

    1985-11-01

    A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the new intestinal hormonal peptide tyrosine tyrosine [peptide YY (PYY)]. Peptide YY concentrations were measured in separated layers of the human gastrointestinal tract, where PYY was found exclusively in the mucosal epithelium which contained the endocrine cells. Peptide YY was found throughout the small intestine, in very low concentrations (5 pmol/g) in duodenum (6 pmol/g) and jejunum (5 pmol/g), but in higher concentrations in the terminal ileum (84 pmol/g). High concentrations were found throughout the colon (ascending 82 pmol/g, sigmoid 196 pmol/g), being maximum in the rectum (480 pmol/g). The major molecular form of PYY-like immunoreactivity in human intestine appeared to be identical to pure porcine hormone, both as judged by gel permeation chromatography and by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Basal plasma concentrations of PYY were low but rose in response to food, remaining elevated for several hours postprandially. The known potent biologic actions of PYY, its high concentrations in gut endocrine cells, and its release into the circulation after a normal meal suggest that this peptide may function physiologically as a circulating gut hormone.

  9. Field demonstration of CO2 leakage detection in potable aquifers with a pulselike CO2-release test.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus; Mickler, Patrick J; Treviño, Ramón H; Phillips, Straun

    2014-12-02

    This study presents two field pulselike CO2-release tests to demonstrate CO2 leakage detection in a shallow aquifer by monitoring groundwater pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) using the periodic groundwater sampling method and a fiber-optic CO2 sensor for real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 in groundwater. Measurements of groundwater pH, alkalinity, DIC, and dissolved CO2 clearly deviated from their background values, showing responses to CO2 leakage. Dissolved CO2 observed in the tests was highly sensitive in comparison to groundwater pH, DIC, and alkalinity. Comparison of the pulselike CO2-release tests to other field tests suggests that pulselike CO2-release tests can provide reliable assessment of geochemical parameters indicative of CO2 leakage. Measurements by the fiber-optic CO2 sensor, showing obvious leakage signals, demonstrated the potential of real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 for leakage detection at a geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) site. Results of a two-dimensional reactive transport model reproduced the geochemical measurements and confirmed that the decrease in groundwater pH and the increases in DIC and dissolved CO2 observed in the pulselike CO2-release tests were caused by dissolution of CO2 whereas alkalinity was likely affected by carbonate dissolution.

  10. Tumor-penetrating Peptide Conjugated and Doxorubicin Loaded T1-T2 Dual Mode MRI Contrast Agents Nanoparticles for Tumor Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lipeng; Yu, Jing; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Jinge; Sun, Lei; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Jianzhong; Peng, Hui; Lu, Weiyue; Yu, Lei; Yan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yiting

    2018-01-01

    The conventional chemotherapeutics could not be traced in vivo and provide timely feedback on the clinical effectiveness of drugs. Methods: In this study, a tumor-penetrating peptide RGERPPR (RGE) modified, Gd-DTPA conjugated, and doxorubicin (DOX) loaded Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2 nanoparticle drug delivery system (Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2/DOX-(Gd-DTPA)-PEG-RGE NPs) was prepared for tumor theranostics. Results: The Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2/DOX-(Gd-DTPA)-PEG-RGE NPs showed a z-average hydrodynamic diameter of about 90 nm, and a pH-sensitive DOX release profile. The 3 T MRI results confirmed the relaxivity of the NPs (r1 = 6.13 mM-1S-1, r2 = 36.89 mM-1S-1). The in vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity assays on U87MG cells confirmed that the conjugation of RGERPPR played a significant role in increasing the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the NPs. The near-infrared fluorescence in vivo imaging results showed that the NPs could be significantly accumulated in the U87MG tumor tissue, which should result from the mediation of the tumor-penetrating peptide RGERPPR. The MRI results showed that the NPs offered a T1-T2 dual mode contrast imaging effect which would lead to a more precise diagnosis. Compared with unmodified NPs, the RGE-modified NPs showed significantly enhanced MR imaging signal in tumor tissue and antitumor effect, which should also be attributed to the tumor penetrating ability of RGERPPR peptide. Furthermore, the Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining and TUNEL assay proved that the NPs produced obvious cell apoptosis in tumor tissue. Conclusions: These results indicated that Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2/DOX-(Gd-DTPA)-PEG-RGE NPs are an effective targeted delivery system for tumor theranostics, and should have a potential value in the personalized treatment of tumor. PMID:29290795

  11. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The Commission shall not revoke parole on the basis of a single, unconfirmed positive drug test, if... the reasons set forth in § 2.204(a)(1). These conditions are printed on the certificate of release issued to each releasee. (2)(i) The refusal of a prisoner who has been granted a parole date to sign the...

  12. TPC2 is a novel NAADP-sensitive Ca2+ release channel, operating as a dual sensor of luminal pH and Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Samantha J; Funnell, Tim M; Sitsapesan, Mano; Venturi, Elisa; Rietdorf, Katja; Ruas, Margarida; Ganesan, A; Gosain, Rajendra; Churchill, Grant C; Zhu, Michael X; Parrington, John; Galione, Antony; Sitsapesan, Rebecca

    2010-11-05

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a molecule capable of initiating the release of intracellular Ca(2+) required for many essential cellular processes. Recent evidence links two-pore channels (TPCs) with NAADP-induced release of Ca(2+) from lysosome-like acidic organelles; however, there has been no direct demonstration that TPCs can act as NAADP-sensitive Ca(2+) release channels. Controversial evidence also proposes ryanodine receptors as the primary target of NAADP. We show that TPC2, the major lysosomal targeted isoform, is a cation channel with selectivity for Ca(2+) that will enable it to act as a Ca(2+) release channel in the cellular environment. NAADP opens TPC2 channels in a concentration-dependent manner, binding to high affinity activation and low affinity inhibition sites. At the core of this process is the luminal environment of the channel. The sensitivity of TPC2 to NAADP is steeply dependent on the luminal [Ca(2+)] allowing extremely low levels of NAADP to open the channel. In parallel, luminal pH controls NAADP affinity for TPC2 by switching from reversible activation of TPC2 at low pH to irreversible activation at neutral pH. Further evidence earmarking TPCs as the likely pathway for NAADP-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release is obtained from the use of Ned-19, the selective blocker of cellular NAADP-induced Ca(2+) release. Ned-19 antagonizes NAADP-activation of TPC2 in a non-competitive manner at 1 μM but potentiates NAADP activation at nanomolar concentrations. This single-channel study provides a long awaited molecular basis for the peculiar mechanistic features of NAADP signaling and a framework for understanding how NAADP can mediate key physiological events.

  13. Na2S, a fast-releasing H2S donor, given as suppository lowers blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomasova, Lenka; Drapala, Adrian; Jurkowska, Halina; Wróbel, Maria; Ufnal, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is involved in blood pressure control. The available slow-releasing H 2 S-donors are poorly soluble in water and their ability to release H 2 S in biologically relevant amounts under physiological conditions is questionable. Therefore, new slow-releasing donors or new experimental approaches to fast-releasing H 2 S donors are needed. Hemodynamics and ECG were recorded in male, anesthetized Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and in Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at baseline and after: 1) intravenous (iv) infusion of vehicle or Na 2 S; 2) administration of vehicle suppositories or Na 2 S suppositories. Intravenously administered vehicle and vehicle suppositories did not affect mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR). Na 2 S administered iv caused a significant, but transient (2-5min) decrease in MABP. Na 2 S suppositories produced a dose-dependent hypotensive response that lasted ∼45min in WKY and ∼75-80min in SHR. It was accompanied by a decrease in HR in WKY, and an increase in HR in SHR. Na 2 S suppositories did not produce a significant change in corrected QT, an indicator of cardiotoxicity. Na 2 S suppositories increased blood level of thiosulfates, products of H 2 S oxidation. Na 2 S administered in suppositories exerts a prolonged hypotensive effect in rats, with no apparent cardiotoxic effect. SHR and WKY differ in hemodynamic response to the H 2 S donor. Suppository formulation of fast-releasing H 2 S donors may be useful in research, if a reference slow-releasing H 2 S donor is not available. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of a proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) agonist on tryptase release from human mast cells].

    PubMed

    He, Shao-Heng; Xie, Hua; He, Yong-Song

    2002-12-25

    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) expression has been observed on numerous cell types. However, little is known about the functional expression of PAR-2 in human mast cells. In the current study, the actions of a PAR-2 agonist trans-cinnamoyl-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-Orn-amide (tc-LIGRLO) on tryptase release from dispersed human colonic mast cells were examined. The results showed that tc-LIGRLO was able to induce a fold increase in tryptase release over the basal level following a 15 min incubation of colonic mast cells, whereas tc-OLRGIL did not have any effect on tryptase release. The potency of tc-LIGRLO appeared greater than that of anti-IgE and calcium ionophore A23187 (CI) in induction of tryptase release. Extending the incubation time to 30 min had no significant effect on the actions of tc-LIGRLO or anti-IgE. In the time course study, it was observed that the tryptase release from mast cells induced by tc-LIGRLO started at 1 min and peaked at 3 min following incubation. The above-mentioned results indicate that tc-LIGRLO is a potent stimulus of tryptase release from human mast cells, which strongly suggests that PAR-2s are expressed in human mast cells.

  15. Stability of pro-gastrin-releasing peptide in serum versus plasma.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Toru; Fujita, Kenju; Kawakami, Satoshi; Takeda, Katsumichi; Chan, Sabrina; Beligere, Gangamani; Dowell, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Although serum assays for pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) assays have been commercially available in Japan for several years, the stability of ProGRP in serum and plasma has not been well documented. We investigated the stability of ProGRP in serum and plasma with fresh and stored (frozen) specimens, as well as the cause of the observed instability in serum. ProGRP concentrations in fresh serum were decreased by 6-28% after room temperature storage for 2 h and by 8-32% after 2-8 degrees C storage for 24 h. The average change in ProGRP concentrations in fresh plasma was within +/-10% of baseline for more than 4 h at room temperature and for more than 24 h at 2-8 degrees C. The incubation of a serine protease, thrombin (activated blood coagulation factor II), in a buffer solution containing ProGRP caused decreases in ProGRP concentrations. Following the addition of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, a serine protease inhibitor, to serum, the serum stability for ProGRP was similar to that in plasma. ProGRP is significantly more stable in plasma than in serum. We speculate that thrombin in serum is one of the factors that inactivate ProGRP in serum by proteolysis of the ProGRP antigen. The use of plasma samples for ProGRP may improve the clinical reliability of this marker by minimizing preanalytical changes in ProGRP concentrations. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Interaction of H2 @C60 and nitroxide through conformationally constrained peptide bridges.

    PubMed

    Garbuio, Luca; Li, Yongjun; Antonello, Sabrina; Gascón, José A; Lawler, Ronald G; Lei, Xuegong; Murata, Yasujiro; Turro, Nicholas J; Maran, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized two molecular systems, in which an endofullerene C60 , incarcerating one hydrogen molecule (H2 @C60 ) and a nitroxide radical are connected by a folded 310 -helical peptide. The difference between the two molecules is the direction of the peptide orientation. The nuclear spin relaxation rates and the para → ortho conversion rate of the incarcerated hydrogen molecule were determined by (1) H NMR spectroscopy. The experimental results were analyzed using DFT-optimized molecular models. The relaxation rates and the conversion rates of the two peptides fall in the expected distance range. One of the two peptides is particularly rigid and thus ideal to keep the H2 @C60 /nitroxide separation, r, as large and controlled as possible, which results in particularly low relaxation and conversion rates. Despite the very similar optimized distance, however, the rates measured with the other peptide are considerably higher and thus are compatible with a shorter effective distance. The results strengthen the outcome of previous investigations that while the para → ortho conversion rates satisfactorily obey the Wigner's theory, the nuclear spin relaxation rates are in excellent agreement with the Solomon-Bloembergen equation predicting a 1/r(6) dependence. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. Specificity of RSG-1.2 Peptide Binding to RRE-IIB RNA Element of HIV-1 over Rev Peptide Is Mainly Enthalpic in Origin

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Bose, Debojit; Suryawanshi, Hemant; Sabharwal, Harshana; Mapa, Koyeli; Maiti, Souvik

    2011-01-01

    Rev is an essential HIV-1 regulatory protein which binds to the Rev responsive element (RRE) present within the env gene of HIV-1 RNA genome. This binding facilitates the transport of the RNA to the cytoplasm, which in turn triggers the switch between viral latency and active viral replication. Essential components of this complex have been localized to a minimal arginine rich Rev peptide and stem IIB region of RRE. A synthetic peptide known as RSG-1.2 binds with high binding affinity and specificity to the RRE-IIB than the Rev peptide, however the thermodynamic basis of this specificity has not yet been addressed. The present study aims to probe the thermodynamic origin of this specificity of RSG-1.2 over Rev Peptide for RRE-IIB. The temperature dependent melting studies show that RSG-1.2 binding stabilizes the RRE structure significantly (ΔT m = 4.3°C), in contrast to Rev binding. Interestingly the thermodynamic signatures of the binding have also been found to be different for both the peptides. At pH 7.5, RSG-1.2 binds RRE-IIB with a Ka = 16.2±0.6×107 M−1 where enthalpic change ΔH = −13.9±0.1 kcal/mol is the main driving force with limited unfavorable contribution from entropic change TΔS = −2.8±0.1 kcal/mol. A large part of ΔH may be due to specific stacking between U72 and Arg15. In contrast binding of Rev (Ka = 3.1±0.4×107 M−1) is driven mainly by entropy (ΔH = 0 kcal/mol and TΔS = 10.2±0.2 kcal/mol) which arises from major conformational changes in the RNA upon binding. PMID:21853108

  18. Specificity of RSG-1.2 peptide binding to RRE-IIB RNA element of HIV-1 over Rev peptide is mainly enthalpic in origin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Bose, Debojit; Suryawanshi, Hemant; Sabharwal, Harshana; Mapa, Koyeli; Maiti, Souvik

    2011-01-01

    Rev is an essential HIV-1 regulatory protein which binds to the Rev responsive element (RRE) present within the env gene of HIV-1 RNA genome. This binding facilitates the transport of the RNA to the cytoplasm, which in turn triggers the switch between viral latency and active viral replication. Essential components of this complex have been localized to a minimal arginine rich Rev peptide and stem IIB region of RRE. A synthetic peptide known as RSG-1.2 binds with high binding affinity and specificity to the RRE-IIB than the Rev peptide, however the thermodynamic basis of this specificity has not yet been addressed. The present study aims to probe the thermodynamic origin of this specificity of RSG-1.2 over Rev Peptide for RRE-IIB. The temperature dependent melting studies show that RSG-1.2 binding stabilizes the RRE structure significantly (ΔT(m) = 4.3°C), in contrast to Rev binding. Interestingly the thermodynamic signatures of the binding have also been found to be different for both the peptides. At pH 7.5, RSG-1.2 binds RRE-IIB with a K(a) = 16.2±0.6×10(7) M(-1) where enthalpic change ΔH = -13.9±0.1 kcal/mol is the main driving force with limited unfavorable contribution from entropic change TΔS = -2.8±0.1 kcal/mol. A large part of ΔH may be due to specific stacking between U72 and Arg15. In contrast binding of Rev (K(a) = 3.1±0.4×10(7) M(-1)) is driven mainly by entropy (ΔH = 0 kcal/mol and TΔS = 10.2±0.2 kcal/mol) which arises from major conformational changes in the RNA upon binding.

  19. Can Helical Peptides Unwind One Turn at a Time? - Controlled Conformational Transitions in α,β(2,3)-Hybrid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Dhayalan; Muraleedharan, Kannoth M

    2015-06-22

    Unfolding of helical trans-β(2,3) -hybrid peptides with (α-β)n α composition, when executed by increasing solvent polarity or temperature, proceeded in a systematic manner with the turns unwinding sequentially; C-terminal region of these peptides were first to unwind and the process propagated towards N terminus with more and more β residues equilibrating from the gauche to the anti rotameric state across Cα-Cβ . This is evidenced by clear change in their Cβ H signal splitting, (3)JCαH-CβH values, and sequential disappearance of i,i+2 NOEs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Oat Proteins Derived Peptides in Stressed Hepatic HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yichen; Esfandi, Ramak; Willmore, William G.; Tsopmo, Apollinaire

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, antioxidant activities of seven peptides (P1–P7) derived from hydrolysis of oat proteins in a cellular model. In the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that P2 had the highest radical scavenging activity (0.67 ± 0.02 µM Trolox equivalent (TE)/µM peptide) followed by P5, P3, P6, P4, P1, and P7 whose activities were between 0.14–0.61 µM TE/µM). In the hepatic HepG2 cells, none of the peptides was cytotoxic at 20–300 µM. In addition to having the highest ORAC value, P2 was also the most protective (29% increase in cell viability) against 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride -induced oxidative stress. P1, P6, and P7 protected at a lesser extent, with an 8%–21% increase viability of cells. The protection of cells was attributed to several factors including reduced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, increased cellular glutathione, and increased activities of three main endogenous antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27775607

  1. 28 CFR 2.12 - Initial hearings: Setting presumptive release dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial hearings: Setting presumptive release dates. 2.12 Section 2.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code...

  2. Hypertonic enhancement of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals: Ca2+ independence and role of integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashani, A. H.; Chen, B. M.; Grinnell, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    Hyperosmotic solutions cause markedly enhanced spontaneous quantal release of neurotransmitter from many nerve terminals. The mechanism of this enhancement is unknown. We have investigated this phenomenon at the frog neuromuscular junction with the aim of determining the degree to which it resembles the modulation of release by stretch, which has been shown to be mediated by mechanical tension on integrins.The hypertonicity enhancement, like the stretch effect, does not require Ca2+ influx or release from internal stores, although internal release may contribute to the effect. The hypertonicity effect is sharply reduced (but not eliminated) by peptides containing the RGD sequence, which compete with native ligands for integrin bonds.There is co-variance in the magnitude of the stretch and osmotic effects; that is, individual terminals exhibiting a large stretch effect also show strong enhancement by hypertonicity, and vice versa. The stretch and osmotic enhancements also can partially occlude each other.There remain some clear-cut differences between osmotic and stretch forms of modulation: the larger range of enhancement by hypertonic solutions, the relative lack of effect of osmolarity on evoked release, and the reported higher temperature sensitivity of osmotic enhancement. Nevertheless, our data strongly implicate integrins in a significant fraction of the osmotic enhancement, possibly acting via the same mechanism as stretch modulation.

  3. Development of a Trypanosoma cruzi strain typing assay using MS2 peptide spectral libraries (Tc-STAMS2)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Gilberto Santos; Kawahara, Rebeca; Rosa-Fernandes, Livia; Avila, Carla Cristi; Teixeira, Marta M. G.; Larsen, Martin R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Chagas disease also known as American trypanosomiasis is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Over the last 30 years, Chagas disease has expanded from a neglected parasitic infection of the rural population to an urbanized chronic disease, becoming a potentially emergent global health problem. T. cruzi strains were assigned to seven genetic groups (TcI-TcVI and TcBat), named discrete typing units (DTUs), which represent a set of isolates that differ in virulence, pathogenicity and immunological features. Indeed, diverse clinical manifestations (from asymptomatic to highly severe disease) have been attempted to be related to T.cruzi genetic variability. Due to that, several DTU typing methods have been introduced. Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks such as high complexity and analysis time and all of them are based on genetic signatures. Recently, a novel method discriminated bacterial strains using a peptide identification-free, genome sequence-independent shotgun proteomics workflow. Here, we aimed to develop a Trypanosoma cruzi Strain Typing Assay using MS/MS peptide spectral libraries, named Tc-STAMS2. Methods/Principal findings The Tc-STAMS2 method uses shotgun proteomics combined with spectral library search to assign and discriminate T. cruzi strains independently on the genome knowledge. The method is based on the construction of a library of MS/MS peptide spectra built using genotyped T. cruzi reference strains. For identification, the MS/MS peptide spectra of unknown T. cruzi cells are identified using the spectral matching algorithm SpectraST. The Tc-STAMS2 method allowed correct identification of all DTUs with high confidence. The method was robust towards different sample preparations, length of chromatographic gradients and fragmentation techniques. Moreover, a pilot inter-laboratory study showed the applicability to different MS platforms. Conclusions and significance This is the first study that develops a MS

  4. Development of a Trypanosoma cruzi strain typing assay using MS2 peptide spectral libraries (Tc-STAMS2).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gilberto Santos; Kawahara, Rebeca; Rosa-Fernandes, Livia; Mule, Simon Ngao; Avila, Carla Cristi; Teixeira, Marta M G; Larsen, Martin R; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Chagas disease also known as American trypanosomiasis is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Over the last 30 years, Chagas disease has expanded from a neglected parasitic infection of the rural population to an urbanized chronic disease, becoming a potentially emergent global health problem. T. cruzi strains were assigned to seven genetic groups (TcI-TcVI and TcBat), named discrete typing units (DTUs), which represent a set of isolates that differ in virulence, pathogenicity and immunological features. Indeed, diverse clinical manifestations (from asymptomatic to highly severe disease) have been attempted to be related to T.cruzi genetic variability. Due to that, several DTU typing methods have been introduced. Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks such as high complexity and analysis time and all of them are based on genetic signatures. Recently, a novel method discriminated bacterial strains using a peptide identification-free, genome sequence-independent shotgun proteomics workflow. Here, we aimed to develop a Trypanosoma cruzi Strain Typing Assay using MS/MS peptide spectral libraries, named Tc-STAMS2. The Tc-STAMS2 method uses shotgun proteomics combined with spectral library search to assign and discriminate T. cruzi strains independently on the genome knowledge. The method is based on the construction of a library of MS/MS peptide spectra built using genotyped T. cruzi reference strains. For identification, the MS/MS peptide spectra of unknown T. cruzi cells are identified using the spectral matching algorithm SpectraST. The Tc-STAMS2 method allowed correct identification of all DTUs with high confidence. The method was robust towards different sample preparations, length of chromatographic gradients and fragmentation techniques. Moreover, a pilot inter-laboratory study showed the applicability to different MS platforms. This is the first study that develops a MS-based platform for T. cruzi strain typing. Indeed, the Tc-STAMS2 method

  5. Homology-guided mutational analysis reveals the functional requirements for antinociceptive specificity of collapsin response mediator protein 2-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Moutal, Aubin; Li, Wennan; Wang, Yue; Ju, Weina; Luo, Shizhen; Cai, Song; François-Moutal, Liberty; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Hu, Jackie; Dustrude, Erik T; Vanderah, Todd W; Gokhale, Vijay; Khanna, May; Khanna, Rajesh

    2017-02-05

    N-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca v 2.2) channels are critical determinants of increased neuronal excitability and neurotransmission accompanying persistent neuropathic pain. Although Ca v 2.2 channel antagonists are recommended as first-line treatment for neuropathic pain, calcium-current blocking gabapentinoids inadequately alleviate chronic pain symptoms and often exhibit numerous side effects. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) targets Ca v 2.2 channels to the sensory neuron membrane and allosterically modulates their function. A 15-amino-acid peptide (CBD3), derived from CRMP2, disrupts the functional protein-protein interaction between CRMP2 and Ca v 2.2 channels to inhibit calcium influx, transmitter release and acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here, we have mapped the minimal domain of CBD3 necessary for its antinociceptive potential. Truncated as well as homology-guided mutant versions of CBD3 were generated and assessed using depolarization-evoked calcium influx in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, binding between CRMP2 and Ca v 2.2 channels, whole-cell voltage clamp electrophysiology and behavioural effects in two models of experimental pain: post-surgical pain and HIV-induced sensory neuropathy induced by the viral glycoprotein 120. The first six amino acids within CBD3 accounted for all in vitro activity and antinociception. Spinal administration of a prototypical peptide (TAT-CBD3-L5M) reversed pain behaviours. Homology-guided mutational analyses of these six amino acids identified at least two residues, Ala1 and Arg4, as being critical for antinociception in two pain models. These results identify an antinociceptive scaffold core in CBD3 that can be used for development of low MW mimetics of CBD3. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. The CLAVATA receptor FASCIATED EAR2 responds to distinct CLE peptides by signaling through two downstream effectors.

    PubMed

    Je, Byoung Il; Xu, Fang; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Lei; Meeley, Robert; Gallagher, Joseph P; Corcilius, Leo; Payne, Richard J; Bartlett, Madelaine E; Jackson, David

    2018-03-15

    Meristems contain groups of indeterminate stem cells, which are maintained by a feedback loop between CLAVATA ( CLV ) and WUSCHEL ( WUS ) signaling. CLV signaling involves the secretion of the CLV3 peptide and its perception by a number of Leucine-Rich-Repeat (LRR) receptors, including the receptor-like kinase CLV1 and the receptor-like protein CLV2 coupled with the CORYNE (CRN) pseudokinase. CLV2, and its maize ortholog FASCIATED EAR2 (FEA2) appear to function in signaling by CLV3 and several related CLV3/EMBRYO-SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide ligands. Nevertheless, how signaling specificity is achieved remains unknown. Here we show that FEA2 transmits signaling from two distinct CLE peptides, the maize CLV3 ortholog ZmCLE7 and ZmFON2-LIKE CLE PROTEIN1 (ZmFCP1) through two different candidate downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the maize heterotrimeric G protein COMPACT PLANT2 (CT2), and ZmCRN. Our data provide a novel framework to understand how diverse signaling peptides can activate different downstream pathways through common receptor proteins. © 2018, Je et al.

  7. Aversive and appetitive events evoke the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone and bombesin-like peptides at the central nucleus of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Merali, Z; McIntosh, J; Kent, P; Michaud, D; Anisman, H

    1998-06-15

    There is wide agreement that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems within the brain are activated by stressful stimuli. There is also mounting evidence for the role of bombesin (BN)-like peptides in the mediation of the stress response. To date, however, the extent to which other stimuli increase the activity of these peptidergic systems has received little attention. In the present investigation we validated and used in vivo microdialysis sampling followed by ex vivo radioimmunoassays to monitor the release of CRH and BN-like peptides during appetitive (food intake) and stressful (restraint) events. It is demonstrated for the first time that the in vivo release of CRH and BN-like peptides at the central nucleus of the amygdala was markedly increased by both stressor exposure and food ingestion. In fact, the meal-elicited rise of CRH release was as great as that associated with 20 min of restraint stress. Paralleling these findings, circulating ACTH and corticosterone levels were also increased in response to both food intake and restraint. Contrary to the current views, these results indicate that either food ingestion is interpreted as a "stressful" event by certain neural circuits involving the central amygdala or that the CRH- and BN-related peptidergic systems may serve a much broader role than previously envisioned. Rather than evoking feelings of fear and anxiety, these systems may serve to draw attention to events or cues of biological significance, such as those associated with food availability as well as those posing a threat to survival.

  8. Influence of peanut matrix on stability of allergens in gastric-simulated digesta: 2S albumins are main contributors to the IgE reactivity of short digestion-resistant peptides.

    PubMed

    Prodic, I; Stanic-Vucinic, D; Apostolovic, D; Mihailovic, J; Radibratovic, M; Radosavljevic, J; Burazer, L; Milcic, M; Smiljanic, K; van Hage, M; Cirkovic Velickovic, T

    2018-06-01

    Most food allergens sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract are stable proteins that are resistant to pepsin digestion, in particular major peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. Survival of their large fragments is essential for sensitizing capacity. However, the immunoreactive proteins/peptides to which the immune system of the gastrointestinal tract is exposed during digestion of peanut proteins are unknown. Particularly, the IgE reactivity of short digestion-resistant peptides (SDRPs; <10 kDa) released by gastric digestion under standardized and physiologically relevant in vitro conditions has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate and identify digestion products of major peanut allergens and in particular to examine IgE reactivity of SDRPs released by pepsin digestion of whole peanut grains. Two-dimensional gel-based proteomics and shotgun peptidomics, immunoblotting with allergen-specific antibodies from peanut-sensitized patients, enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assay and ImmunoCAP tests, including far ultraviolet-circular dichroism spectroscopy were used to identify and characterize peanut digesta. Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 remained mostly intact, and SDRPs from Ara h 2 were more potent in inhibiting IgE binding than Ara h 1 and Ara 3. Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 exhibited sequential digestion into a series of digestion-resistant peptides with preserved allergenic capacity. A high number of identified SDRPs from Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 were part of short continuous epitope sequences and possessed substantial allergenic potential. Peanut grain digestion by oral and gastric phase enzymes generates mixture of products, where the major peanut allergens remain intact and their digested peptides have preserved allergenic capacity highlighting their important roles in allergic reactions to peanut. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) reveals structure and dynamics of a surface-bound peptide

    PubMed Central

    Laaser, Jennifer E.; Skoff, David R.; Ho, Jia-Jung; Joo, Yongho; Serrano, Arnaldo L.; Steinkruger, Jay D.; Gopalan, Padma; Gellman, Samuel H.; Zanni, Martin T.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-bound polypeptides and proteins are increasingly used to functionalize inorganic interfaces such as electrodes, but their structural characterization is exceedingly difficult with standard technologies. In this paper, we report the first two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) spectra of a peptide monolayer, which is collected by adding a mid-IR pulse shaper to a standard femtosecond SFG spectrometer. On a gold surface, standard FTIR spectroscopy is inconclusive about the peptide structure because of solvation-induced frequency shifts, but the 2D lineshapes, anharmonic shifts, and lifetimes obtained from 2D SFG reveal that the peptide is largely α-helical and upright. Random coil residues are also observed, which do not themselves appear in SFG spectra due to their isotropic structural distribution, but which still absorb infrared light and so can be detected by cross-peaks in 2D SFG spectra. We discuss these results in the context of peptide design. Because of the similar way in which the spectra are collected, these 2D SFG spectra can be directly compared to 2D IR spectra, thereby enabling structural interpretations of surface-bound peptides and biomolecules based on the well-studied structure/2D IR spectra relationships established from soluble proteins. PMID:24372101

  10. The Effect of Neighboring Methionine Residue on Tyrosine Nitration & Oxidation in Peptides Treated with MPO, H2O2, & NO2- or Peroxynitrite and Bicarbonate: Role of Intramolecular Electron-Transfer Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Zielonka, Jacek; Sikora, Adam; Joseph, Joy; Xu, Yingkai; Kalyanaraman, B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that intramolecular electron-transfer reactions can profoundly affect the site and specificity of tyrosyl nitration and oxidation in peptides and proteins. Here we investigated the effects of methionine on tyrosyl nitration and oxidation induced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), H2O2 and NO2- and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) or ONOO- and bicarbonate (HCO3-) in model peptides, tyrosylmethionine (YM), tyrosylphenylalanine (YF) and tyrosine. Nitration and oxidation products of these peptides were analysed by HPLC with UV/Vis and fluorescence detection, and mass spectrometry; radical intermediates were identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin-trapping. We have previously shown (Zhang et al., J. Biol. Chem. (2005) 280, 40684-40698) that oxidation and nitration of tyrosyl residue was inhibited in tyrosylcysteine(YC)-type peptides as compared to free tyrosine. Here we show that methionine, another sulfur-containing amino acid, does not inhibit nitration and oxidation of a neighboring tyrosine residue in the presence of ONOO- (or ONOOCO2-) or MPO/H2O2/NO2- system. Nitration of tyrosyl residue in YM was actually stimulated under the conditions of in situ generation of ONOO- (formed by reaction of superoxide with nitric oxide during SIN-1 decomposition), as compared to YF, YC and tyrosine. The dramatic variations in tyrosyl nitration profiles caused by methionine and cysteine residues have been attributed to differences in the direction of intramolecular electron transfer mechanism in these peptides. Further confirmation of HPLC data analysis was obtained by steady-state radiolysis and photolysis experiments. Potential implications of the intramolecular electron-transfer mechanism in mediating selective nitration of protein tyrosyl groups are discussed. PMID:19056332

  11. Antimicrobial activity and interactions of cationic peptides derived from Galleria mellonella cecropin D-like peptide with model membranes.

    PubMed

    Oñate-Garzón, José; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela; Trier, Steven; Leidy, Chad; Torres, Rodrigo; Patiño, Edwin

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are effector molecules of the innate immune system against invading pathogens. The cationic charge in their structures has a strong correlation with antimicrobial activity, being responsible for the initial electrostatic interaction between peptides and the anionic microbial surface. This paper contains evidence that charge modification in the neutral peptide Gm cecropin D-like (WT) improved the antimicrobial activity of the modified peptides. Two cationic peptides derived from WT sequence named as ΔM1 and ΔM2, with net charge of +5 and +9, respectively, showed at least an eightfold increase in their antimicrobial activity in comparison to WT. The mechanism of action of these peptides was investigated using small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) as model membranes. To study permeabilization effects of the peptides on cell membranes, entrapped calcein liposomes were used and the results showed that all peptides induced calcein release from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) SUVs, whereas in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), POPC/POPG and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE)/POPG SUVs, only ΔM1 and ΔM2 induced a notable permeabilization. In addition, interactions of these peptides with phospholipids at the level of the glycerol backbone and hydrophobic domain were studied through observed changes in generalized polarization and fluorescence anisotropy using probes such as Laurdan and DPH, respectively. The results suggest that peptides slightly ordered the bilayer structure at the level of glycerol backbone and on the hydrophobic core in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) SUVs, whereas in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/DMPG SUVs, only ΔM1 and ΔM2 peptides increased the order of bilayers. Thus, peptides would be inducing clustering of phospholipids creating phospholipid domains with a higher phase transition temperature.

  12. Tilapia Hepcidin 2-3 Peptide Modulates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Cytokines and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor-α through Cyclooxygenase-2 and Phosphodiesterase 4D*

    PubMed Central

    Rajanbabu, Venugopal; Pan, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Shang-Chun; Lin, Wei-Ju; Lin, Ching-Chun; Li, Chung-Leung; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2010-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, tilapia hepcidin (TH) 2-3, belongs to the hepcidin family, and its antibacterial function has been reported. Here, we examined the TH2-3-mediated regulation of proinflammatory cytokines in bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophages. The presence of TH2-3 in LPS-stimulated cells reduced the amount of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion. From a microarray, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cytokine array studies, we showed down-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and the prostaglandin synthesis gene, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, by TH2-3. Studies with the COX-2-specific inhibitor, melaxicam, and with COX-2-overexpressing cells demonstrated the positive regulation of TNF-α and negative regulation of cAMP degradation-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D by COX-2. In LPS-stimulated cells, TH2-3 acts like melaxicam and down-regulates COX-2 and up-regulates PDE4D. The reduction in intracellular cAMP by TH2-3 or melaxicam in LPS-stimulated cells supports the negative regulation of PDE4D by COX-2 and TH2-3. This demonstrates that the inhibition of COX-2 is among the mechanisms through which TH2-3 controls TNF-α release. At 1 h after treatment, the presence of TH2-3 in LPS-stimulated cells had suppressed the induction of pERK1/2 and prevented the LPS-stimulated nuclear accumulation of NF-κB family proteins of p65, NF-κB2, and c-Rel. In conclusion, TH2-3 inhibits TNF-α and other proinflammatory cytokines through COX-2-, PDE4D-, and pERK1/2-dependent mechanisms. PMID:20675368

  13. The P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptors mediate autoinhibition of transmitter release in sympathetic innervated tissues.

    PubMed

    Quintas, Clara; Fraga, Sónia; Gonçalves, Jorge; Queiroz, Glória

    2009-12-01

    In the sympathetic nervous system, ATP is a co-transmitter and modulator of transmitter release, inhibiting noradrenaline release by acting on P2Y autoreceptors, but in peripheral tissues the subtypes involved have only scarcely been identified. We investigated the identity of the noradrenaline release-inhibiting P2Y subtypes in the epididymal portion of vas deferens and tail artery of the rat. The subtypes operating as autoreceptors, the signalling mechanism and cross-talk with alpha(2)-autoreceptors, was also investigated in the epididymal portion. In both tissues, the nucleotides 2-methylthioATP, 2-methylthioADP, ADP and ATP inhibited noradrenaline release up to 68%, with the following order of potency: 2-methylthioADP=2-methylthioATP>ADP=ATP in the epididymal portion and 2-methylthioADP=2-methylthioATP=ADP>ATP in the tail artery. The selective P2Y(1) antagonist 2'-deoxy-N(6)-methyladenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate (30microM) and the P2Y(12) antagonist 2,2-dimethyl-propionic acid 3-(2-chloro-6-methylaminopurin-9-yl)-2-(2,2-dimethyl-propionyloxymethyl)-propyl ester (30microM) increased noradrenaline release per se by 25+/-8% and 18+/-3%, respectively, in the epididymal portion but not in tail artery. Both antagonists attenuated the effect of nucleotides in the epididymal portion whereas in tail artery only the P2Y(1) antagonist was effective. The agonist of P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptors, 2-methylthioADP, caused an inhibition of noradrenaline release that was not prevented by inhibition of phospholipase C or protein kinase C but was abolished by pertussis toxin. 2-methylthioADP and the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine were less potent at inhibiting noradrenaline release under marked influence of alpha(2)-autoinhibition. In both tissues, nucleotides modulate noradrenaline release by activation of inhibitory P2Y(1) receptors but in the epididymal portion P2Y(12) receptors also participate. P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptors are coupled to G

  14. Evaluation of 2-soft-release techniques to reintroduce black bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastridge, Rick; Clark, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Black bear (Ursus americanus) were extirpated from most of their range by the early 1900s by habitat destruction and unregulated hunting. Since then, bear habitat has recovered in many areas, but isolation may prevent natural recolonization. Black bear translocations often have limited success because of high mortality rates and low site fidelity. We tested 2 reintroduction techniques designed to overcome those problems. The first technique used a winter release whereby pre- or post-parturient female bears were removed from their dens and placed in new dens at the release area. The second technique involved translocating female bears to the reintroduction area during summer and holding them in pens for a 2-week acclimation period before release. We translocated 8 female bears with cubs with the winter-release technique and 6 female with the summer-release technique. After release, total distance moved, net distance moved, mean daily distance moved, and circuity for winter-released bears (x̄=18.3 km, 7.1 km, 1.4 km, and 0.36, respectively) were less than summer-released bears (x̄=97.6, 63.4 km 5.1 km, and 0.74; P=0.010, 0.040, 0.019, and 0.038, respectively). Also, survival of winter-released bears (0.88) was greater than that for summer-released bears (0.2, P=0.001). Population modeling indicated that the least one additional stocking of 6 adult females with 12 cubs would greatly increase chances of population reestablishment. the winter-release technique has distinct advantages over the summer-release technique, limiting post-release movements and increasing survival of translocated bears.

  15. Mode of action and membrane specificity of the antimicrobial peptide snakin-2

    PubMed Central

    Herbel, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of short, cationic peptides which are naturally occurring molecules in the first-line defense of most living organisms. They represent promising candidates for the treatment of pathogenic microorganisms. Snakin-2 (SN2) from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is stabilized through six intramolecular disulphide bridges; it shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi, and it agglomerates single cells prior to killing. In this study, we further characterized SN2 by providing time-kill curves and corresponding growth inhibition analysis of model organisms, such as E. coli or B. subtilis. SN2 was produced recombinantly in E. coli with thioredoxin as fusion protein, which was removed after affinity purification by proteolytic digestion. Furthermore, the target specificity of SN2 was investigated by means of hemolysis and hemagglutination assays; its effect on plant cell membranes of isolated protoplasts was investigated by microscopy. SN2 shows a non-specific pore-forming effect in all tested membranes. We suggest that SN2 could be useful as a preservative agent to protect food, pharmaceuticals, or cosmetics from decomposition by microbes. PMID:27190708

  16. Ga2O3 photocatalyzed on-line tagging of cysteine to facilitate peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liang; Su, Fangzheng; Bi, Hongyan; Girault, Hubert H; Liu, Baohong

    2011-09-01

    β-Ga(2)O(3) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor having strong oxidation ability under light irradiation. Herein, the steel target plates modified with β-Ga(2)O(3) nanoparticles have been developed to carry out in-source photo-catalytic oxidative reactions for online peptide tagging during laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) analysis. Under UV laser irradiation, β-Ga(2)O(3) can catalyze the photo-oxidation of 2-methoxyhydroquinone added to a sample mixture to 2-methoxy benzoquinone that can further react with the thiol groups of cysteine residues by Michael addition reaction. The tagging process leads to appearance of pairs of peaks with an m/z shift of 138.1Th. This online labelling strategy is demonstrated to be sensitive and efficient with a detection-limit at femtomole level. Using the strategy, the information on cysteine content in peptides can be obtained together with peptide mass, therefore constraining the database searching for an advanced identification of cysteine-containing proteins from protein mixtures. The current peptide online tagging method can be important for specific analysis of cysteine-containing proteins especially the low-abundant ones that cannot be completely isolated from other high-abundant non-cysteine-proteins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Mechanism of Mg2+-Accompanied Product Release in Sugar Nucleotidyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Vithani, Neha; Ankush Jagtap, Pravin Kumar; Verma, Sunil Kumar; Tripathi, Ravi; Awasthi, Shalini; Nair, Nisanth N; Prakash, Balaji

    2018-03-06

    The nucleotidyl transfer reaction, catalyzed by sugar nucleotidyltransferases (SNTs), is assisted by two active site Mg 2+ ions. While studying this reaction using X-ray crystallography, we captured snapshots of the pyrophosphate (product) as it exits along a pocket. Surprisingly, one of the active site Mg 2+ ions remains coordinated to the exiting pyrophosphate. This hints at the participation of Mg 2+ in the process of product release, besides its role in catalyzing nucleotidyl transfer. These observations are further supported by enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations. Free energy computations suggest that the product release is likely to be rate limiting in SNTs, and the origin of the high free energy barrier for product release could be traced back to the "slow" conformational change of an Arg residue at the exit end of the pocket. These results establish a dual role for Mg 2+ , and propose a general mechanism of product release during the nucleotidyl transfer by SNTs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oleic acid stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 release from enteroendocrine cells by modulating cell respiration and glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Clara, Rosmarie; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2016-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent satiating and incretin hormone released by enteroendocrine L-cells in response to eating. Dietary fat, in particular monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA), potently stimulates GLP-1 secretion from L-cells. It is, however, unclear whether the intracellular metabolic handling of OA is involved in this effect. First we determined the optimal medium for the bioenergetics measurements. Then we examined the effect of OA on the metabolism of the immortalized enteroendocrine GLUTag cell model and assessed GLP-1 release in parallel. We measured oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate in response to OA and to different metabolic inhibitors with the Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. OA increased cellular respiration and potently stimulated GLP-1 release. The fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir did neither reduce OA-induced respiration nor affect the OA-induced GLP-1 release. In contrast, inhibition of the respiratory chain or of downstream steps of aerobic glycolysis reduced the OA-induced GLP-1 release, and an inhibition of the first step of glycolysis by addition of 2-deoxy-d-glucose even abolished it. These findings indicate that an indirect stimulation of glycolysis is crucial for the OA-induced release of GLP-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Circulating levels of cholecystokinin and gastrin-releasing peptide in rainbow trout fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Elisabeth; Forsman, Antti; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E; Egnér, Barbro; Ruohonen, Kari; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2006-09-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are gastrointestinal peptides thought to be important regulators of intake and digestion of food in vertebrates. In this study, pre- and postprandial plasma levels of CCK and GRP were measured in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the establishment of homologous radioimmunoassays, and the hormonal levels assessed in relation to dietary lipid:protein ratio and food intake. Fish were acclimated to either a high protein/low lipid diet (HP/LL diet; 14.1% lipids) or a normal protein/high lipid diet (NP/HL diet; 31.4% lipids). On three consecutive sampling days, radio-dense lead-glass beads were included in the diets for assessment of feed intake. Fish were terminally sampled for blood and stomach contents prior to feeding at time 0, and at 0.3, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after feeding. There was a postprandial elevation of plasma CCK levels, which was most evident after 4 and 6 h. Fish fed the NP/HL diet had higher plasma CCK levels compared with those fed the HP/LL diet. Plasma CCK levels were not affected by the amount of food ingested. GRP levels in plasma were not influenced by sampling time, diet, or feed intake. The results indicate that the endocrine release of gastrointestinal CCK is increased during feeding and may be further influenced by the dietary lipid:protein ratio in rainbow trout. Plasma GRP levels, on the other hand, appear not to be influenced by feeding or diet composition.

  20. Analysis of the V2 Vasopressin Receptor (V2R) Mutations Causing Partial Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Highlights a Sustainable Signaling by a Non-peptide V2R Agonist.

    PubMed

    Makita, Noriko; Sato, Tomohiko; Yajima-Shoji, Yuki; Sato, Junichiro; Manaka, Katsunori; Eda-Hashimoto, Makiko; Ootaki, Masanori; Matsumoto, Naoki; Nangaku, Masaomi; Iiri, Taroh

    2016-10-21

    Disease-causing mutations in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes, including the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) gene, often cause misfolded receptors, leading to a defect in plasma membrane trafficking. A novel V2R mutation, T273M, identified in a boy with partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), shows intracellular localization and partial defects similar to the two mutants we described previously (10). Although non-peptide V2R antagonists have been shown to rescue the membrane localization of V2R mutants, their level of functional rescue is weak. Interestingly, it has been reported that a non-peptide agonist, OPC51803, activates misfolded V2R mutants intracellularly without degradation, thus potentially serving as a therapeutic agent against NDI (14). In our current experiments, however, a peptide antagonist blocked arginine vasopressin (AVP)- or OPC51803-stimulated cAMP accumulation both in COS-7 and MDCK cells, suggesting that OPC51803 mainly stimulates cell surface V2R mutants. In addition, our analyses revealed that OPC51803 works not only as a non-peptide agonist that causes activation/β-arrestin-dependent desensitization of V2R mutants expressed at the plasma membrane but also as a pharmacochaperone that promotes the endoplasmic reticulum-retained mutant maturation and trafficking to the plasma membrane. The ratio of the pharmacochaperone effect to the desensitization effect likely correlates negatively with the residual function of the tested mutants, suggesting that OPC5 has a more favorable effect on the V2R mutants with a less residual function. We speculated that the canceling of the desensitization effect of OPC51803 by the pharmacochaperone effect after long-term treatment may produce sustainable signaling, and thus pharmacochaperone agonists such as OPC51803 may serve as promising therapeutics for NDI caused by misfolded V2R mutants. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The Nutrient-Responsive Hormone CCHamide-2 Controls Growth by Regulating Insulin-like Peptides in the Brain of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sano, Hiroko; Nakamura, Akira; Texada, Michael J; Truman, James W; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Kamikouchi, Azusa; Nibu, Yutaka; Kume, Kazuhiko; Ida, Takanori; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-05-01

    The coordination of growth with nutritional status is essential for proper development and physiology. Nutritional information is mostly perceived by peripheral organs before being relayed to the brain, which modulates physiological responses. Hormonal signaling ensures this organ-to-organ communication, and the failure of endocrine regulation in humans can cause diseases including obesity and diabetes. In Drosophila melanogaster, the fat body (adipose tissue) has been suggested to play an important role in coupling growth with nutritional status. Here, we show that the peripheral tissue-derived peptide hormone CCHamide-2 (CCHa2) acts as a nutrient-dependent regulator of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (Dilps). A BAC-based transgenic reporter revealed strong expression of CCHa2 receptor (CCHa2-R) in insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the brain. Calcium imaging of brain explants and IPC-specific CCHa2-R knockdown demonstrated that peripheral-tissue derived CCHa2 directly activates IPCs. Interestingly, genetic disruption of either CCHa2 or CCHa2-R caused almost identical defects in larval growth and developmental timing. Consistent with these phenotypes, the expression of dilp5, and the release of both Dilp2 and Dilp5, were severely reduced. Furthermore, transcription of CCHa2 is altered in response to nutritional levels, particularly of glucose. These findings demonstrate that CCHa2 and CCHa2-R form a direct link between peripheral tissues and the brain, and that this pathway is essential for the coordination of systemic growth with nutritional availability. A mammalian homologue of CCHa2-R, Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (Brs3), is an orphan receptor that is expressed in the islet β-cells; however, the role of Brs3 in insulin regulation remains elusive. Our genetic approach in Drosophila melanogaster provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bombesin receptor signaling with its endogenous ligand promotes insulin production.

  2. Neutrophilia, gelatinase release and microvascular leakage induced by human mast cell tryptase in a mouse model: Lack of a role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2).

    PubMed

    Khedr, M E M S; Abdelmotelb, A M; Pender, S L F; Zhou, X; Walls, A F

    2018-05-01

    Tryptase, the most abundant protease of the human mast cell, has been implicated as a key mediator of allergic inflammation that acts through activation of PAR2. To investigate the contribution of PAR2 in the pro-inflammatory actions mediated by tryptase in a mice model. We have injected recombinant human βII-tryptase into the peritoneum of PAR2-deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. After 6, 12 and 24 hours, mice were killed, peritoneal lavage performed and inflammatory changes investigated. Tryptase stimulated an increase in neutrophil numbers in the peritoneum, but responses did not differ between PAR2-deficient and wild-type mice. Heat inactivation of tryptase or pre-incubation with a selective tryptase inhibitor reduced neutrophilia, but neutrophil accumulation was not elicited with a peptide agonist of PAR2 (SLIGRL-NH 2 ). Zymography indicated that tryptase stimulated the release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 in the peritoneum of both mouse strains. Studies involving immunomagnetic isolation of neutrophils suggested that neutrophils represent the major cellular source of tryptase-induced MMP2 and MMP9. At 24 hours after tryptase injection, there was increased microvascular leakage as indicated by high levels of albumin in peritoneal lavage fluid, and this appeared to be partially abolished by heat-inactivating tryptase or addition of a protease inhibitor. There was no corresponding increase in levels of histamine or total protein. The extent of tryptase-induced microvascular leakage or gelatinase release into the peritoneum did not differ between PAR2-deficient and wild-type mice. Our findings indicate that tryptase is a potent stimulus for neutrophil accumulation, MMP release and microvascular leakage. Although these actions required an intact catalytic site, the primary mechanism of tryptase in vivo would appear to involve processes independent of PAR2. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of bolus doses of fat on small intestinal structure and on release of gastrin, cholecystokinin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, and enteroglucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, A P; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Thompson, R P

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the enterotrophic effects of bolus doses of long chain triglycerides, two groups of eight female Wistar rats were fed identical diets with 48.2% total calories as the essential fatty acid rich oil Efamol. To one group the oil was given in twice daily bolus doses by gavage, while for the other group the oil was mixed with the remainder of the feed and thus consumed over 24 hours. The animals were killed after 20 to 22 days. Bolus dosing significantly increased parameters of mucosal mass along the length of the small intestine in association with an increase in two hour accumulation of vincristine arrested metaphases in small intestinal crypts. In a second experiment, four replicate studies were carried out, each involving two groups of 12 rats respectively fed as described above. After 21 days one animal from each group was killed every two hours, providing regular plasma samples over 24 hours for measurement of gastrin, cholecystokinin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and enteroglucagon. Bolus dosing markedly enhanced release of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and enteroglucagon, but not of gastrin or cholecystokinin. Thus, the enhanced enterotrophic effects of bolus doses of long chain triglycerides could be mediated by release of a distally located gut peptide, perhaps enteroglucagon. PMID:1541417

  4. Characterization of dopamine releasable and reserve pools in Drosophila larvae using ATP/P2X2-mediated stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ning; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic signaling pathways are conserved between mammals and Drosophila, but the factors important for maintaining the functional pool of synaptic dopamine are not fully understood in Drosophila. In this study, we characterized the releasable and reserve dopamine pools in Drosophila larvae using ATP/ P2X2-mediated stimulation. Dopamine release was stable with stimulations performed at least every 5 min but decayed with stimulations performed 2 min apart or less, indicating the replenishment of the releasable pool occurred on a time scale between 2 and 5 min. Dopamine synthesis or uptake were pharmacologically inhibited with 3-iodotyrosine and cocaine, respectively, to evaluate their contributions to maintaining the releasable dopamine pool. We found that both synthesis and uptake were needed to maintain the releasable dopamine pool, with synthesis playing a major part in long-term replenishment and uptake being more important for short-term replenishment. These effects of synthesis and uptake on different time scales in Drosophila are analogous to mammals. However, unlike in mammals, cocaine did not activate a reserve pool of dopamine in Drosophila when using P2X2 stimulations. Our study shows that both synthesis and uptake replenish the releasable pool, providing a better understanding of dopamine regulation in Drosophila. PMID:25951875

  5. Effects of Mg2+ on Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle fibres from yabby (crustacean) and rat.

    PubMed

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    2000-07-15

    1. The role of myoplasmic [Mg2+] on Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was examined in the two major types of crustacean muscle fibres, the tonic, long sarcomere fibres and the phasic, short sarcomere fibres of the fresh water decapod crustacean Cherax destructor (yabby) and in the fast-twitch rat muscle fibres using the mechanically skinned muscle fibre preparation. 2. A robust Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release (CICR) mechanism was present in both long and short sarcomere fibres and 1 mM Mg2+ exerted a strong inhibitory action on the SR Ca2+ release in both fibre types. 3. The SR displayed different properties with respect to Ca2+ loading in the long and the short sarcomere fibres and marked functional differences were identified with respect to Mg2+ inhibition between the two crustacean fibre types. Thus, in long sarcomere fibres, the submaximally loaded SR was able to release Ca2+ when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mM in the presence of 8 mM ATPtotal and in the virtual absence of Ca2+ (< 5 nM) even when the CICR was suppressed. In contrast, negligible Ca2+ was released from the submaximally loaded SR of short sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mM under the same conditions as for the long sarcomere fibres. Nevertheless, the rate of SR Ca2+ release in short sarcomere fibres increased markedly when [Mg2+] was lowered in the presence of [Ca2+] approaching the normal resting levels (50-100 nM). 4. Rat fibres were able to release SR Ca2+ at a faster rate than the long sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0. 01 mM in the virtual absence of Ca2+ but, unlike with yabby fibres, the net rate of Ca2+ release was actually increased for conditions that were considerably less favourable to CICR. 5. In summary, it is concluded that crustacean skeletal muscles have more that one functional type of Ca2+-release channels, that these channels display properties that are intermediate between those of mammalian skeletal and

  6. Ca2+ Entry is Required for Mechanical Stimulation-induced ATP Release from Astrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaekwang; Chun, Ye-Eun; Han, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Jungmoo; Woo, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes and neurons are inseparable partners in the brain. Neurotransmitters released from neurons activate corresponding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed in astrocytes, resulting in release of gliotransmitters such as glutamate, D-serine, and ATP. These gliotransmitters in turn influence neuronal excitability and synaptic activities. Among these gliotransmitters, ATP regulates the level of network excitability and is critically involved in sleep homeostasis and astrocytic Ca2+ oscillations. ATP is known to be released from astrocytes by Ca2+-dependent manner. However, the precise source of Ca2+, whether it is Ca2+ entry from outside of cell or from the intracellular store, is still not clear yet. Here, we performed sniffer patch to detect ATP release from astrocyte by using various stimulation. We found that ATP was not released from astrocyte when Ca2+ was released from intracellular stores by activation of Gαq-coupled GPCR including PAR1, P2YR, and B2R. More importantly, mechanical stimulation (MS)-induced ATP release from astrocyte was eliminated when external Ca2+ was omitted. Our results suggest that Ca2+ entry, but not release from intracellular Ca2+ store, is critical for MS-induced ATP release from astrocyte. PMID:25792866

  7. The electrostatic surface of MDM2 modulates the specificity of its interaction with phosphorylated and unphosphorylated p53 peptides.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher John; Srinivasan, Deepa; Jun, Lee Hui; Coomber, David; Verma, Chandra S; Lane, David P

    2008-03-01

    Florescence anisotropy measurements using FAM-labelled p53 peptides showed that the binding of the peptides to MDM2 was dependant upon the phosphorylation of p53 at Thr18 and that this binding was modulated by the electrostatic properties of MDM2. In agreement with computational predictions, the binding to phosphorylated p53 peptide, in comparison to the unphosphorylated p53 peptide, was enhanced upon mutation of 3 key residues on the MDM2 surface.

  8. Comparative physiology of glucagon-like peptide-2 – Implications and applications for production and health of ruminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon by prohormone convertase 1/3 in enteroendocrine L-cells. Studies conducted in humans, rodent models, and in vitro indicate that GLP-2 is secreted in response to the presence of molecules in th...

  9. Probing the Release and Uptake of Water in α-MnO 2 · xH 2O

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Zhenzhen; Ford, Denise C.; Park, Joong Sun; ...

    2016-12-27

    Alpha-MnO 2 is of interest as a cathode material for 3 V lithium batteries and as an electrode/electrocatalyst for higher energy, hybrid Li-ion/Li–O 2 systems. It has a structure with large tunnels that contain stabilizing cations such as Ba 2+, K + , NH 4 + , and H3O + (or water, H 2O). When stabilized by H 3O + /H 2O, the protons can be ion-exchanged with lithium to produce a Li 2O-stabilized α-MnO 2 structure. It has been speculated that the electrocatalytic process in Li–O 2 cells may be linked to the removal of lithium and oxygen frommore » the host α-MnO 2 structure during charge, and their reintroduction during discharge. In this investigation, hydrated α-MnO 2 was used, as a first step, to study the release and uptake of oxygen in α-MnO 2. Temperature-resolved in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a nonlinear, two-stage, volume change profile, which with the aide of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), redox titration, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, is interpreted as the release of water from the α-MnO 2 tunnels. The two stages correspond to H 2O release from intercalated H 2O species at lower temperatures and H 3O + species at higher temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the release of oxygen from α-MnO 2 in several stages during heating–including surface water, occluded water, and structural oxygen–and in situ UV resonance Raman spectroscopy corroborated the uptake and release of tunnel water by revealing small shifts in frequencies during the heating and cooling of α-MnO 2. Lastly, DFT calculations revealed the likelihood of disordered water species in binding sites in α-MnO 2 tunnels and a facile diffusion process.« less

  10. Distribution and function of the peptide transporter PEPT2 in normal and cystic fibrosis human lung.

    PubMed

    Groneberg, D A; Eynott, P R; Döring, F; Dinh, Q Thai; Oates, T; Barnes, P J; Chung, K F; Daniel, H; Fischer, A

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol administration of peptide based drugs has an important role in the treatment of various pulmonary and systemic diseases. The characterisation of pulmonary peptide transport pathways can lead to new strategies in aerosol drug treatment. Immunohistochemistry and ex vivo uptake studies were established to assess the distribution and activity of the beta-lactam transporting high affinity proton coupled peptide transporter PEPT2 in normal and cystic fibrosis human airway tissue. PEPT2 immunoreactivity in normal human airways was localised to cells of the tracheal and bronchial epithelium and the endothelium of small vessels. In peripheral lung immunoreactivity was restricted to type II pneumocytes. In sections of cystic fibrosis lung a similar pattern of distribution was obtained with signals localised to endothelial cells, airway epithelium, and type II pneumocytes. Functional ex vivo uptake studies with fresh lung specimens led to an uptake of the fluorophore conjugated dipeptide derivative D-Ala-L-Lys-AMCA into bronchial epithelial cells and type II pneumocytes. This uptake was competitively inhibited by dipeptides and cephalosporins but not ACE inhibitors, indicating a substrate specificity as described for PEPT2. These findings provide evidence for the expression and function of the peptide transporter PEPT2 in the normal and cystic fibrosis human respiratory tract and suggest that PEPT2 is likely to play a role in the transport of pulmonary peptides and peptidomimetics.

  11. Distribution and function of the peptide transporter PEPT2 in normal and cystic fibrosis human lung

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg, D; Eynott, P; Doring, F; Thai, D; Oates, T; Barnes, P; Chung, K; Daniel, H; Fischer, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: Aerosol administration of peptide based drugs has an important role in the treatment of various pulmonary and systemic diseases. The characterisation of pulmonary peptide transport pathways can lead to new strategies in aerosol drug treatment. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and ex vivo uptake studies were established to assess the distribution and activity of the ß-lactam transporting high affinity proton coupled peptide transporter PEPT2 in normal and cystic fibrosis human airway tissue. Results: PEPT2 immunoreactivity in normal human airways was localised to cells of the tracheal and bronchial epithelium and the endothelium of small vessels. In peripheral lung immunoreactivity was restricted to type II pneumocytes. In sections of cystic fibrosis lung a similar pattern of distribution was obtained with signals localised to endothelial cells, airway epithelium, and type II pneumocytes. Functional ex vivo uptake studies with fresh lung specimens led to an uptake of the fluorophore conjugated dipeptide derivative D-Ala-L-Lys-AMCA into bronchial epithelial cells and type II pneumocytes. This uptake was competitively inhibited by dipeptides and cephalosporins but not ACE inhibitors, indicating a substrate specificity as described for PEPT2. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence for the expression and function of the peptide transporter PEPT2 in the normal and cystic fibrosis human respiratory tract and suggest that PEPT2 is likely to play a role in the transport of pulmonary peptides and peptidomimetics. PMID:11809991

  12. Two-Step Self-Assembly of Liposome-Multidomain Peptide Nanofiber Hydrogel for Time-Controlled Release

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Progress in self-assembly and supramolecular chemistry has been directed toward obtaining macromolecular assemblies with higher degrees of complexity, simulating the highly structured environment in natural systems. One approach to this type of complexity are multistep, multicomponent, self-assembling systems that allow approaches comparable to traditional multistep synthetic organic chemistry; however, only a few examples of this approach have appeared in the literature. Our previous work demonstrated nanofibrous mimics of the extracellular matrix. Here we demonstrate the ability to create a unique hydrogel, developed by stepwise self-assembly of multidomain peptide fibers and liposomes. The two-component system allows for controlled release of bioactive factors at multiple time points. The individual components of the self-assembled gel and the composite hydrogel were characterized by TEM, SEM, and rheometry, demonstrating that peptide nanofibers and lipid vesicles both retain their structural integrity in the composite gel. The rheological robustness of the hydrogel is shown to be largely unaffected by the presence of liposomes. Release studies from the composite gels loaded with different growth factors EGF, MCP-1, and PlGF-1 showed delay and prolongation of release by liposomes entrapped in the hydrogel compared to more rapid release from the hydrogel alone. This bimodal release system may have utility in systems where timed cascades of biological signals may be valuable, such as in tissue regeneration. PMID:25308335

  13. 43 CFR 2.2 - What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA? 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT General Information § 2.2 What is DOI's policy regarding...

  14. 43 CFR 2.2 - What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA? 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT General Information § 2.2 What is DOI's policy regarding...

  15. Expanded test method for peptides >2 kDa employing immunoaffinity purification and LC-HRMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Tretzel, Laura; Brinkkötter, Paul; Fichant, Eric; Delahaut, Philippe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides with an approximate molecular mass of 2-12 kDa are of considerable relevance in sports drug testing. Such peptides have been used to manipulate several potential performance-enhancing processes in the athlete's body and include for example growth hormone releasing hormones (sermorelin, CJC-1293, CJC-1295, tesamorelin), synthetic/animal insulins (lispro, aspart, glulisine, glargine, detemir, degludec, bovine and porcine insulin), synthetic ACTH (synacthen), synthetic IGF-I (longR(3) -IGF-I) and mechano growth factors (human MGF, modified human MGF, 'full-length' MGF). A combined initial test method using one analytical procedure is a desirable tool in doping controls and related disciplines as requests for higher sample throughput with utmost comprehensiveness preferably at reduced costs are constantly issued. An approach modified from an earlier assay proved fit-for-purpose employing pre-concentration of all target analytes by means of ultrafiltration, immunoaffinity purification with coated paramagnetic beads, nano-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation, and subsequent detection by means of high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The method was shown to be applicable to blood and urine samples, which represent the most common doping control specimens. The method was validated considering the parameters specificity, recovery (11-69%), linearity, imprecision (<25%), limit of detection (5-100 pg in urine, 0.1-2 ng in plasma), and ion suppression. The analysis of administration study samples for insulin degludec, detemir, aspart, and synacthen provided the essential data for the proof-of-principle of the method. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Controlled Retention of BMP-2-Derived Peptide on Nanofibers Based on Mussel-Inspired Adhesion for Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinkyu; Perikamana, Sajeesh Kumar Madhurakkat; Ahmad, Taufiq; Lee, Min Suk; Yang, Hee Seok; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Kim, Kyobum; Kwon, Bosun; Shin, Heungsoo

    2017-04-01

    Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been frequently used to stimulate bone formation, it has several side effects to be addressed, including the difficulty in optimization of clinically relevant doses and unwanted induction of cancerous signaling processes. In this study, an osteogenic peptide (OP) derived from BMP-2 was investigated as a substitute for BMP-2. In vitro studies showed that OP was able to enhance the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The peptides were then conjugated onto biocompatible poly-ι-lactide electrospun nanofibers through polydopamine chemistry. Surface chemical analysis proved that more than 80% of the peptides were stably retained on the nanofiber surface after 8 h of polydopamine coating during at least 28 days, and the amount of peptides that was retained increased depending on the polydopamine coating time. For instance, about 65% of the peptides were retained on nanofibers after 4 h of polydopamine coating. Also, a relatively small dose of peptides could effectively induce bone formation in in vivo critical-sized defects on the calvarial bones of mice. More than 50.4% ± 16.9% of newly formed bone was filled within the defect after treatment with only 10.5 ± 0.6 μg of peptides. Moreover, these groups had similar elastic moduli and contact hardnesses with host bone. Taken together, our results suggest that polydopamine-mediated OP immobilized on nanofibers can modulate the retention of relatively short lengths of peptides, which might make this an effective therapeutic remedy to guide bone regeneration using a relatively small amount of peptides.

  17. The Monitoring of Sallow CO2 Leakage From the CO2 Release Experiment in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the in-soil CO2 gas diffusion from the K-COSEM shallow CO2 release experiment. The study site consisting of five zones was built in Eumseong, South Korea, and approximately 1.8 t CO2 were injected from the perforated release well at Zones 1 to 4 from June 1 to 30, 2016. In-soil CO2 concentrations were measured once a day at 15 cm and 60 cm depths at 0 m, 2.5 m, 5.0 m, and 10.0 m away from the CO2 releasing well using a portable gas analyzer (GA5000) from May 11 to July 27, 2016. On June 4, CO2 leakage was simultaneously detected at 15 cm (8.8 %) and 60 cm (44.0 %) depths at 0 m from the well at Zone 3, and were increased up to about 30 % and 70 %, respectively. During the CO2 injection period, CO2 concentrations measured at 15 cm depth were significantly lower than those measured at 60 cm depth because of the atmospheric pressure effect. After stopping the CO2 injection, CO2 concentrations gradually decreased until July 27, but were still higher than the natural background concentration. This result suggested the possibility of long-term CO2 leakage. In addition, low levels of CO2 leakage were determined using CO2 regression analysis and CO2:O2 ratio. CO2 concentrations measured at 60 cm depth at 0 m from the well at Zones 1 to 4 consistently showed sigmoid increasing patterns with the injection time (R2=0.60-0.99). O2 concentrations at 15 cm and 60 cm depths from the CO2 release experiment were reached 0 % at about 76 % and 84 % of CO2 concentrations, respectively, whereas, those from biological reaction approached 0 % when CO2 increased to about 21 %. Therefore, deep underground monitoring would be able to detect CO2 leakage faster than near-surface monitoring, and CO2 regression and CO2:O2 ratio analyses seemed to be useful as clear indicators of CO2 leakage.

  18. Transient early neurotrophin release and delayed inflammatory cytokine release by microglia in response to PAR-2 stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia exerts both beneficial and deleterious effects on neurons, but the signaling mechanism controlling these distinct responses remain unclear. We demonstrated that treatment of microglial cultures with the PAR-2 agonist, 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, evoked early transient release of BDNF, while sustained PAR-2 stimulation evoked the delayed release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and nitric oxide. Culture medium harvested during the early phase (at 1 h) of microglial activation induced by 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (microglial conditioned medium, MCM) had no deleterious effects on cultured neurons, while MCM harvested during the late phase (at 72 h) promoted DNA fragmentation and apoptosis as indicated by TUNEL and annexin/PI staining. Blockade of PAR-1 during the early phase of PAR-2 stimulation enhanced BDNF release (by 11%, small but significant) while a PAR-1 agonist added during the late phase (24 h after 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 addition) suppressed the release of cytokines and NO. The neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of activated microglial exhibit distinct temporal profiles that are regulated by PAR-1 and PAR-2 stimulation. It may be possible to facilitate neuronal recovery and repair by appropriately timed stimulation and inhibition of microglial PAR-1 and PAR-2 receptors. PMID:22731117

  19. Transient early neurotrophin release and delayed inflammatory cytokine release by microglia in response to PAR-2 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Wen; Chen, Qian-Bo; Ouyang, Qing; Sun, Ji-Hu; Liu, Fang-Ting; Song, Dian-Wen; Yuan, Hong-Bin

    2012-06-25

    Activated microglia exerts both beneficial and deleterious effects on neurons, but the signaling mechanism controlling these distinct responses remain unclear. We demonstrated that treatment of microglial cultures with the PAR-2 agonist, 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, evoked early transient release of BDNF, while sustained PAR-2 stimulation evoked the delayed release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β and TNF-α) and nitric oxide. Culture medium harvested during the early phase (at 1 h) of microglial activation induced by 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (microglial conditioned medium, MCM) had no deleterious effects on cultured neurons, while MCM harvested during the late phase (at 72 h) promoted DNA fragmentation and apoptosis as indicated by TUNEL and annexin/PI staining. Blockade of PAR-1 during the early phase of PAR-2 stimulation enhanced BDNF release (by 11%, small but significant) while a PAR-1 agonist added during the late phase (24 h after 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 addition) suppressed the release of cytokines and NO. The neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of activated microglial exhibit distinct temporal profiles that are regulated by PAR-1 and PAR-2 stimulation. It may be possible to facilitate neuronal recovery and repair by appropriately timed stimulation and inhibition of microglial PAR-1 and PAR-2 receptors.

  20. Liposomes physically coated with peptides: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Su, Cuicui; Xia, Yuqiong; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Nan; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Tao; Huang, Yanyi; Liang, Dehai

    2014-06-03

    Physically coating liposomes with peptides of desirable functions is an economic, versatile, and less time-consuming approach to prepare drug delivery vehicles. In this work, we designed three peptides-Ac-WWKKKGGNNN-NH2 (W2K3), Ac-WWRRRGGNNN-NH2(W2R3), Ac-WWGGGGGNNN-NH2(W2G3)-and studied their coating ability on negatively charged liposomes. It was found that the coating was mainly driven by the electrostatic interaction between the peptides' cationic side groups and the acidic lipids, which also mediated the "anchoring " of Trp residuals in the interfacial region of lipid bilayers. At the same conditions, the amount of the coated W2R3 was more than that of W2K3, but the stability of the liposome coated with W2R3 was deteriorated. This was caused by the delocalized charge of the guanidinium group of arginine. The coating of the peptide rendered the liposome pH-responsive behavior but did not prominently change the phase transition temperature. The liposome coated with peptides displayed appropriate pH/temperature dual responsive characteristics and was able to release the content in a controlled manner.

  1. Mapping Protein–Protein Interactions of the Resistance-Related Bacterial Zeta Toxin–Epsilon Antitoxin Complex (ε2ζ2) with High Affinity Peptide Ligands Using Fluorescence Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Brzozowska, Iwona; Odolczyk, Norbert; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Rademann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Toxin–antitoxin systems constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria and thus are potential targets of antibiotic drugs. Here, we target the Zeta–Epsilon toxin–antitoxin system, which is responsible for the stable maintenance of certain multiresistance plasmids in Gram-positive bacteria. Peptide ligands were designed on the basis of the ε2ζ2 complex. Three α helices of Zeta forming the protein–protein interaction (PPI) site were selected and peptides were designed conserving the residues interacting with Epsilon antitoxin while substituting residues binding intramolecularly to other parts of Zeta. Designed peptides were synthesized with an N-terminal fluoresceinyl-carboxy-residue for binding assays and provided active ligands, which were used to define the hot spots of the ε2ζ2 complex. Further shortening and modification of the binding peptides provided ligands with affinities <100 nM, allowing us to determine the most relevant PPIs and implement a robust competition binding assay. PMID:27438853

  2. Photoreactive Stapled BH3 Peptides to Dissect the BCL-2 Family Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Craig R.; Mintseris, Julian; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Bird, Gregory H.; Gygi, Steven P.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Defining protein interactions forms the basis for discovery of biological pathways, disease mechanisms, and opportunities for therapeutic intervention. To harness the robust binding affinity and selectivity of structured peptides for interactome discovery, we engineered photoreactive stapled BH3 peptide helices that covalently capture their physiologic BCL-2 family targets. The crosslinking α-helices covalently trap both static and dynamic protein interactors, and enable rapid identification of interaction sites, providing a critical link between interactome discovery and targeted drug design. PMID:21168768

  3. Matrix metalloproteinases-2/9-sensitive peptide-conjugated polymer micelles for site-specific release of drugs and enhancing tumor accumulation: preparation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaofei; Zhong, Weitong; Ren, Xiaoqing; Sha, Xianyi; Fang, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Since elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 is commonly observed in several malignant tumors, MMPs have been widely reported as key factors in the design of drug delivery systems. Several strategies have been proposed to develop MMPs-responsive nanoparticles to deliver chemotherapeutics to malignant solid tumors. A stimuli-responsive drug delivery system, which could be cleaved by MMPs, was proposed in this study. By inserting an MMP-2/9 cleavable oligopeptide GPVGLIGK-NH2 (GK8) as spacer between α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol molecular weight (MW 2000 Da) activated by N-hydroxysuccinimide (mPEG2K-NHS), mPEG2K-GK8-α-TOS (TGK) was synthesized as the primary ingredient for MMP-2/9-sensitive micelles composed of d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) and TGK (n:n =40:60, TGK micelles). mPEG2K-α-TOS (T2K) was similarly synthesized as nonsensitive control. The TGK micelles showed better stability than nonsensitive micelles composed of TPGS and T2K (n:n =40:60, T2K micelles) owing to the inserted peptide. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer results indicated that TGK micelles could be successfully cleaved by MMP-2/9. Effective drug release was demonstrated in the presence of collagenase type IV, a mixture of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Compared with nonsensitive micelles, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded TGK micelles showed a fold higher cellular uptake in HT1080 cells. While the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of TGK and T2K micelles were similar (P>0.05) in MCF-7 cells (MMP-2/9 underexpression), the IC50 values of the aforementioned micelles were 0.064±0.006 and 0.122±0.009 μg/mL, respectively, in HT1080 cells (MMP-2/9 overexpression). The MMP-2/9-sensitive micelles also demonstrated desired tumor targeting and accumulation ability in vivo. The results of in vivo antitumor effect evaluation indicate that TGK micelles are potent against solid tumors while maintaining minimum systemic

  4. FV peptide induces apoptosis in HEp 2 and HeLa cells: an insight into the mechanism of induction

    PubMed Central

    Sri Balasubashini, M; Karthigayan, S; Somasundaram, ST; Balasubramanian, T; Rukkumani, R; Menon, Venugopal P

    2006-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to evaluate the antiproliferative potential of peptide (7.6 kDa) from lionfish (Pterios volitans) venom on cultured HEp2 and HeLa cells. Different dose of purified peptide (1, 2 and 4 μg/ml) at different time points (12, 24 and 36 hrs) were tested for antiproliferative index of the peptide. Among them, 2 μg/ml at 24 hrs was found to effectively inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and did not cause any adverse effect on normal human lymphocytes. Apoptosis was examined by propidium iodide staining, confirmed by the expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3, down regulation of Bcl-2 expression and DNA fragmentation in treated cells, when compared to untreated HEp2 and HeLa cells. Thus fish venom peptide was found to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cell. PMID:17137521

  5. Pep2Path: automated mass spectrometry-guided genome mining of peptidic natural products.

    PubMed

    Medema, Marnix H; Paalvast, Yared; Nguyen, Don D; Melnik, Alexey; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Nonribosomally and ribosomally synthesized bioactive peptides constitute a source of molecules of great biomedical importance, including antibiotics such as penicillin, immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine, and cytostatics such as bleomycin. Recently, an innovative mass-spectrometry-based strategy, peptidogenomics, has been pioneered to effectively mine microbial strains for novel peptidic metabolites. Even though mass-spectrometric peptide detection can be performed quite fast, true high-throughput natural product discovery approaches have still been limited by the inability to rapidly match the identified tandem mass spectra to the gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of the corresponding compounds. With Pep2Path, we introduce a software package to fully automate the peptidogenomics approach through the rapid Bayesian probabilistic matching of mass spectra to their corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters. Detailed benchmarking of the method shows that the approach is powerful enough to correctly identify gene clusters even in data sets that consist of hundreds of genomes, which also makes it possible to match compounds from unsequenced organisms to closely related biosynthetic gene clusters in other genomes. Applying Pep2Path to a data set of compounds without known biosynthesis routes, we were able to identify candidate gene clusters for the biosynthesis of five important compounds. Notably, one of these clusters was detected in a genome from a different subphylum of Proteobacteria than that in which the molecule had first been identified. All in all, our approach paves the way towards high-throughput discovery of novel peptidic natural products. Pep2Path is freely available from http://pep2path.sourceforge.net/, implemented in Python, licensed under the GNU General Public License v3 and supported on MS Windows, Linux and Mac OS X.

  6. Milk peptides increase iron dialyzability in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Konstantina; Tako, Elad; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P; Komaitis, Michael; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2009-02-25

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether these fractions (a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells and (b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Two milk peptide fractions that solubilize iron were isolated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration of a milk digest. These peptide fractions did not affect relative gene expression of DMT-1 when incubated with Caco-2 cells for 2 or 48 h. Dialyzability was measured after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. Both peptide fractions enhanced the dialyzability of iron from ferric chloride added to PIPES buffer, but had no effect on dialyzability from milk or a vegetable or fruit meal after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. However, dialyzability from milk was enhanced by the addition of a more concentrated lyophilized peptide fraction.

  7. High-Throughput Quantification of SH2 Domain-Phosphopeptide Interactions with Cellulose-Peptide Conjugate Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Brett W

    2017-01-01

    The Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain family primarily recognizes phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) containing peptide motifs. The relative affinity preferences among competing SH2 domains for phosphopeptide ligands define "specificity space," and underpins many functional pY mediated interactions within signaling networks. The degree of promiscuity exhibited and the dynamic range of affinities supported by individual domains or phosphopeptides is best resolved by a carefully executed and controlled quantitative high-throughput experiment. Here, I describe the fabrication and application of a cellulose-peptide conjugate microarray (CPCMA) platform to the quantitative analysis of SH2 domain specificity space. Included herein are instructions for optimal experimental design with special attention paid to common sources of systematic error, phosphopeptide SPOT synthesis, microarray fabrication, analyte titrations, data capture, and analysis.

  8. Characteristics of inositol trisphosphate mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ release from permeabilized hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, S.K.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Ca/sup 2 +/ release triggered by inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) has been measured in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ or Quin 2. The initial rate of Ca/sup 2 +/ release was not markedly affected by the incubation temperature (175 +/- 40 pmol/s/mg at 30/sup 0/C versus 133 +/- 24 pmol/s/mg at 4/sup 0/C). This result is consistent with the membrane translocation of Ca/sup 2 +/ occurring through an ion-channel rather than an ion-carrier. The amount of Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP/sub 3/ was not affected by pH (6.5-8.0) or by compounds that inhibit voltage-gated Ca/sup 2 +/more » channels. La/sup 3 +/ (100 ..mu..M) markedly inhibits the effect of 1 ..mu..M IP/sub 3/. The possibility that La/sup 3 +/ chelates IP/sub 3/ cannot be excluded since the effect of La/sup 3 +/ can be overcome by increasing the IP/sub 3/ concentration. IP/sub 3/-mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ release displays a requirement for a permeant cation in the incubation medium. Optimal release is observed with K/sup +/ gluconate. Other monovalent cations, with the exception of Li/sup +/, can substitute for K/sup +/. Permeant anions, at concentrations above 40 mM, inhibit Ca/sup 2 +/ release produced by IP/sub 3/. Cl/sup -/, Br/sup -/, I/sup -/, and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ were equally effective. Ca/sup 2 +/ release was not inhibited by DIDS or Furosemide. /sup 85/Sr/sup 2 +/ and /sup 54/Mn/sup 2 +/ fluxes were also stimulated by IP/sub 3/. These results suggest that IP/sub 3/ acts to gate a divalent cation channel. The translocation of positive charge through this channel is balanced by ancillary movements of monovalent cations and anions across the reticular membrane.« less

  9. Production of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 receptor knockdown (GnRHR2 KD) swine line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine are the only livestock species that produce both the second mammalian isoform of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH2) and its receptor (GnRHR2). Previously, we reported that GnRH2 and GnRHR2 mediate LH-independent testosterone secretion from porcine testes. To further explore this ligand-r...

  10. Intraspinal release of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide during development of inflammation in the joint in vivo--a study with antibody microprobes in cat and rat.

    PubMed

    Schaible, H G; Freudenberger, U; Neugebauer, V; Stiller, R U

    1994-10-01

    This study addressed the intraspinal release of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide in vivo during mechanical stimulation of the normal joint and during the development of an acute experimental inflammation in the knee joint in the anaesthetized cat (spinalized) and rat (not spinalized). Release was assessed using microprobes coated with antibody to calcitonin gene-related peptide; inhibition of binding of [125I]calcitonin gene-related peptide to these probes following insertion into the spinal cord is equated with intraspinal release of the endogenous (unlabelled) peptide. Probes inserted prior to inflammation showed marked basal release of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide in the dorsal horn with a maximum in the superficial dorsal horn in the absence of intentional stimulation. The pattern of binding of [125I]calcitonin gene-related peptide was not or only minimally changed by innocuous mechanical stimuli (flexion of and innocuous pressure to the knee in the cat and innocuous pressure to the knee of the rat) but was significantly altered by electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve in the cat (sufficient to excite unmyelinated afferent fibres), indicating release of the peptide by the latter stimulus. During the first hours of the development of an experimental inflammation in the knee joint induced by intra-articular injections of kaolin and carrageenan, the pattern of binding of [125I]calcitonin gene-related peptide changed. In the cat, the level of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide showed a persistent increase in the gray matter and up to the surface of the cord and release was slightly increased by innocuous stimuli. In the rat, increased levels of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide were mainly seen in the superficial and deep dorsal horn during innocuous pressure (this stimulus did not evoke release of the peptide prior to inflammation) and noxious pressure applied to the injected knee, whereas increased

  11. Effect of porcine gastrin releasing peptide on gastric secretion and motility and the release of hormonal peptides in conscious cats.

    PubMed

    Vagne, M; Collinet, M; Cuber, J C; Bernard, C; Chayvialle, J A; McDonald, T J; Mutt, V

    1987-01-01

    The effect of porcine gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) was compared to those of bombesin (BBS) and pentagastrin (PG) in conscious cats. GRP and BBS augmented acid and pepsin secretions, as well as antral motility with an early effect comparable to that produced by pentagastrin with an elevation of low amplitude contractions and a diminution of high amplitude contractions. BBS and GRP increased plasma gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels and decreased motilin levels measured by a C terminus-directed antiserum. In all cases, BBS and GRP displayed parallel dose-response curves. PG showed slight differences in the slopes of the dose-response curves slopes of the dose-response curves except for acid secretion stimulation where no difference was noted (PG was the most effective) and for pepsin stimulation where the difference was large (PG was much less effective). According to the different targets studied, BBS was 4 to 9 times more potent than GRP, 6 to 200 times more than PG. Gastrin release, elicited by the lowest ED50 of both BBS and GRP, should be considered as their primary effect in the cat.

  12. NASA Meteoroid Engineering Model Release 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, A. V.; Koehler, H. M.; Cooke, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Meteoroid Engineering Model release 2.0 (MEMR2) software is NASA's most current and accurate model of the meteoroid environment. It enables the user to generate a trajectory-specific meteoroid environment for spacecraft traveling within the inner solar system. In addition to the total meteoroid flux, MEMR2 provides the user with meteoroid directionality and velocity information. Users have the ability to make a number of analysis and output choices that tailor the resulting environment to their needs. This Technical Memorandum outlines the history of MEMR2, the meteoroid environment it describes, and makes recommendations for the correct use of the software and interpretation of its results.

  13. Identification of candidate angiogenic inhibitors processed by matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in cell-based proteomic screens: disruption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/heparin affin regulatory peptide (pleiotrophin) and VEGF/Connective tissue growth factor angiogenic inhibitory complexes by MMP-2 proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Dean, Richard A; Butler, Georgina S; Hamma-Kourbali, Yamina; Delbé, Jean; Brigstock, David R; Courty, José; Overall, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exert both pro- and antiangiogenic functions by the release of cytokines or proteolytically generated angiogenic inhibitors from extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling. In the Mmp2-/- mouse neovascularization is greatly reduced, but the mechanistic aspects of this remain unclear. Using isotope-coded affinity tag labeling of proteins analyzed by multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry we explored proteome differences between Mmp2-/- cells and those rescued by MMP-2 transfection. Proteome signatures that are hallmarks of proteolysis revealed cleavage of many known MMP-2 substrates in the cellular context. Proteomic evidence of MMP-2 processing of novel substrates was found. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6, follistatin-like 1, and cystatin C protein cleavage by MMP-2 was biochemically confirmed, and the cleavage sites in heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP; pleiotrophin) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. MMP-2 processing of HARP and CTGF released vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from angiogenic inhibitory complexes. The cleaved HARP N-terminal domain increased HARP-induced cell proliferation, whereas the HARP C-terminal domain was antagonistic and decreased cell proliferation and migration. Hence the unmasking of cytokines, such as VEGF, by metalloproteinase processing of their binding proteins is a new mechanism in the control of cytokine activation and angiogenesis.

  14. Identification of Candidate Angiogenic Inhibitors Processed by Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in Cell-Based Proteomic Screens: Disruption of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)/Heparin Affin Regulatory Peptide (Pleiotrophin) and VEGF/Connective Tissue Growth Factor Angiogenic Inhibitory Complexes by MMP-2 Proteolysis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Richard A.; Butler, Georgina S.; Hamma-Kourbali, Yamina; Delbé, Jean; Brigstock, David R.; Courty, José; Overall, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exert both pro- and antiangiogenic functions by the release of cytokines or proteolytically generated angiogenic inhibitors from extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling. In the Mmp2−/− mouse neovascularization is greatly reduced, but the mechanistic aspects of this remain unclear. Using isotope-coded affinity tag labeling of proteins analyzed by multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry we explored proteome differences between Mmp2−/− cells and those rescued by MMP-2 transfection. Proteome signatures that are hallmarks of proteolysis revealed cleavage of many known MMP-2 substrates in the cellular context. Proteomic evidence of MMP-2 processing of novel substrates was found. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6, follistatin-like 1, and cystatin C protein cleavage by MMP-2 was biochemically confirmed, and the cleavage sites in heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP; pleiotrophin) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. MMP-2 processing of HARP and CTGF released vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from angiogenic inhibitory complexes. The cleaved HARP N-terminal domain increased HARP-induced cell proliferation, whereas the HARP C-terminal domain was antagonistic and decreased cell proliferation and migration. Hence the unmasking of cytokines, such as VEGF, by metalloproteinase processing of their binding proteins is a new mechanism in the control of cytokine activation and angiogenesis. PMID:17908800

  15. Binding of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 with different BH3 peptides: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Huihui; Cui, Jinglan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculations are utilized to study how different BH3 peptides originating from Bax, Bim, Bik and Noxa interact with Bcl-2, one of the main members of anti-apoptotic proteins. The effects of peptide length, sequence and helical content on the binding affinity are discussed, on which a novel BH3-like peptide is designed in silico with an improved binding property.

  16. Efficacy of ipamorelin, a novel ghrelin mimetic, in a rodent model of postoperative ileus.

    PubMed

    Venkova, Kalina; Mann, William; Nelson, Richard; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2009-06-01

    Ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics stimulate appetite and enhance gastric motility. The present study investigates whether ipamorelin, a selective growth hormone secretagogue and agonist of the ghrelin receptor, would accelerate gastrointestinal transit and ameliorate the symptoms in a rodent model of postoperative ileus (POI). Fasted male rats were subjected to laparotomy and intestinal manipulation. At the end of surgery, a dye marker was infused in the proximal colon to evaluate postsurgical colonic transit time, which was the time to the first bowel movement. In addition, fecal pellet output, food intake, and body weight were monitored regularly for 48 h. Ipamorelin (0.01-1 mg/kg), growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 (20 microg/kg), or vehicle (saline) were administered via intravenous bolus infusion after a single dosing or a 2-day repetitive dosing regimen (four doses a day at 3-h intervals). Compared with the vehicle, a single dose of ipamorelin (1 mg/kg) or GHRP-6 (20 microg/kg) decreased the time to the first bowel movement but had no effect on cumulative fecal output, food intake, or body weight gain measured 48 h after the surgery. In contrast, repetitive dosing of ipamorelin (0.1 or 1 mg/kg) significantly increased the cumulative fecal pellet output, food intake, and body weight gain. The results suggest that postsurgical intravenous infusions of ipamorelin may ameliorate the symptoms in patients with POI.

  17. FOOD-INTAKE DYSREGULATION IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC GOTO-KAKIZAKI RATS: HYPOTHESIZED ROLE OF DYSFUNCTIONAL BRAINSTEM THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE AND IMPAIRED VAGAL OUTPUT

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, K.; Ao, Y.; Harper, R.M.; Go, V. L.W.; Yang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a neuropeptide contained in neural terminals innervating brainstem vagal motor neurons, enhances vagal outflow to modify multisystemic visceral functions and food intake. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are accompanied by impaired vagal functioning. We examined the possibility that impaired brainstem TRH action may contribute to the vagal dysregulation of food intake in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a T2D model with hyperglycemia and impaired central vagal activation by TRH. Food intake induced by intracisternal injection of TRH analog was reduced significantly by 50% in GK rats, compared to Wistar rats. Similarly, natural food intake in the dark phase or food intake after an overnight fast was reduced by 56–81% in GK rats. Fasting (48 h) and refeeding (2 h)-associated changes in serum ghrelin, insulin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide and leptin, and the concomitant changes in orexigenic or anorexigenic peptide expression in the brainstem and hypothalamus, all apparent in Wistar rats, were absent or markedly reduced in GK rats, with hormone release stimulated by vagal activation, such as ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide, decreased substantially. Fasting-induced Fos expression accompanying endogenous brainstem TRH action decreased by 66% and 91%, respectively, in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) in GK rats, compared to Wistar rats. Refeeding abolished fasting-induced Fos-expression in the NTS, while that in the DMV remained in Wistar but not GK rats. These findings indicate that dysfunctional brainstem TRH-elicited vagal impairment contributes to the disturbed food intake in T2D GK rats, and may provide a pathophysiological mechanism which prevents further weight gain in T2D and obesity. PMID:23701881

  18. Food-intake dysregulation in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats: hypothesized role of dysfunctional brainstem thyrotropin-releasing hormone and impaired vagal output.

    PubMed

    Zhao, K; Ao, Y; Harper, R M; Go, V L W; Yang, H

    2013-09-05

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a neuropeptide contained in neural terminals innervating brainstem vagal motor neurons, enhances vagal outflow to modify multisystemic visceral functions and food intake. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are accompanied by impaired vagal functioning. We examined the possibility that impaired brainstem TRH action may contribute to the vagal dysregulation of food intake in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a T2D model with hyperglycemia and impaired central vagal activation by TRH. Food intake induced by intracisternal injection of TRH analog was reduced significantly by 50% in GK rats, compared to Wistar rats. Similarly, natural food intake in the dark phase or food intake after an overnight fast was reduced by 56-81% in GK rats. Fasting (48h) and refeeding (2h)-associated changes in serum ghrelin, insulin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide and leptin, and the concomitant changes in orexigenic or anorexigenic peptide expression in the brainstem and hypothalamus, all apparent in Wistar rats, were absent or markedly reduced in GK rats, with hormone release stimulated by vagal activation, such as ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide, decreased substantially. Fasting-induced Fos expression accompanying endogenous brainstem TRH action decreased by 66% and 91%, respectively, in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) in GK rats, compared to Wistar rats. Refeeding abolished fasting-induced Fos-expression in the NTS, while that in the DMV remained in Wistar but not GK rats. These findings indicate that dysfunctional brainstem TRH-elicited vagal impairment contributes to the disturbed food intake in T2D GK rats, and may provide a pathophysiological mechanism which prevents further weight gain in T2D and obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Interactive effect of body posture on exercise-induced atrial natriuretic peptide release.

    PubMed

    Ray, C A; Delp, M D; Hartle, D K

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that supine exercise elicits a greater atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) response than upright exercise because of higher atrial filling pressure attained in the supine posture. Plasma ANP concentration ([ANP]) was measured during continuous graded supine and upright exercise in eight healthy men at rest after 4 min of cycling exercise at 31, 51, and 79% of posture-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), after 2 min of cycling at posture-specific VO2 peak, and 5 and 15 min postexercise. [ANP] was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) above rest by 64, 140, and 228% during supine cycling at 51 and 79% and VO2 peak, respectively. During upright cycling, [ANP] was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) at 79% (60%) and VO2 peak (125%). After 15 min of postexercise rest, [ANP] remained elevated (P less than 0.05) only in the supine subjects. [ANP] was 63, 79, and 75% higher (P less than 0.05) in the supine than in the upright position during cycling at 51 and 79% and VO2 peak. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) different between positions in all measurement periods. Heart rates were lower (P less than 0.05) in the supine position compared with the upright position. In conclusion, these results suggest that supine exercise elicits greater ANP release independent of blood pressure and heart rate but presumably caused by greater venous return, central blood volume, and concomitant atrial filling pressure and stretch.

  20. Influence of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2) on the distribution of cefadroxil in mouse brain: A microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomei; Keep, Richard F; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Hu, Yongjun; Smith, David E

    2017-05-01

    Peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2) is a high-affinity low-capacity transporter belonging to the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter family. Although many aspects of PEPT2 structure-function are known, including its localization in choroid plexus and neurons, its regional activity in brain, especially extracellular fluid (ECF), is uncertain. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and regional brain distribution of cefadroxil, a β-lactam antibiotic and PEPT2 substrate, were investigated in wildtype and Pept2 null mice using in vivo intracerebral microdialysis. Cefadroxil was infused intravenously over 4h at 0.15mg/min/kg, and samples obtained from plasma, brain ECF, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue. A permeability-surface area experiment was also performed in which 0.15mg/min/kg cefadroxil was infused intravenously for 10min, and samples obtained from plasma and brain tissues. Our results showed that PEPT2 ablation significantly increased the brain ECF and CSF levels of cefadroxil (2- to 2.5-fold). In contrast, there were no significant differences between wildtype and Pept2 null mice in the amount of cefadroxil in brain cells. The unbound volume of distribution of cefadroxil in brain was 60% lower in Pept2 null mice indicating an uptake function for PEPT2 in brain cells. Finally, PEPT2 did not affect the influx clearance of cefadroxil, thereby, ruling out differences between the two genotypes in drug entry across the blood-brain barriers. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the impact of PEPT2 on brain ECF as well as the known role of PEPT2 in removing peptide-like drugs, such as cefadroxil, from the CSF to blood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) induces a decrease in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and tachykinin immunoreactivity in guinea-pig peripheral airways.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, R E; Springall, D R; Chitano, P; Fabbri, L M; Polak, J M; Mapp, C E

    1996-09-01

    The mammalian respiratory tract is densely innervated by sensory and autonomic fibres. Subsets of the nerves contain bioactive regulatory peptides, such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and neurokinins. The sensory nervous system responds to inhaled irritants, resulting in a release of neuropeptides and, thus, a decrease in the peptide immunoreactivity of the fibres. We examined the effects of inhaled nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a well-known indoor and outdoor air pollutant, on pulmonary sensory neuropeptides. Guinea-pigs were exposed for 4 h to 18 parts per million (ppm) NO2 or to air (n = 5 each). At the end of the exposure, they were killed with urethane and their lungs were fixed in 1% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline. Cryostat sections were stained with antisera to an anatomical nerve marker, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, and to CGRP and tachykinins, utilizing the avidin-biotinylated peroxidase method. In the noncartilaginous airways (diameter < 250 microns) of NO2-exposed animals, less tachykinin- and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were found compared with controls. No change was seen in the total nerve fibre distribution (PGP 9.5). It is concluded that the peptidergic nerves of guinea-pig peripheral airways are a sensitive indicator of exposure to nitrogen dioxide.

  2. Peptide chemistry toolbox - Transforming natural peptides into peptide therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Erak, Miloš; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2018-06-01

    The development of solid phase peptide synthesis has released tremendous opportunities for using synthetic peptides in medicinal applications. In the last decades, peptide therapeutics became an emerging market in pharmaceutical industry. The need for synthetic strategies in order to improve peptidic properties, such as longer half-life, higher bioavailability, increased potency and efficiency is accordingly rising. In this mini-review, we present a toolbox of modifications in peptide chemistry for overcoming the main drawbacks during the transition from natural peptides to peptide therapeutics. Modifications at the level of the peptide backbone, amino acid side chains and higher orders of structures are described. Furthermore, we are discussing the future of peptide therapeutics development and their impact on the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural Analysis of the Complex between Penta-EF-Hand ALG-2 Protein and Sec31A Peptide Reveals a Novel Target Recognition Mechanism of ALG-2

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Kojima, Kyosuke; Zhang, Wei; Sasaki, Kanae; Ito, Masaru; Suzuki, Hironori; Kawasaki, Masato; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Takahara, Terunao; Shibata, Hideki; Maki, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    ALG-2, a 22-kDa penta-EF-hand protein, is involved in cell death, signal transduction, membrane trafficking, etc., by interacting with various proteins in mammalian cells in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Most known ALG-2-interacting proteins contain proline-rich regions in which either PPYPXnYP (type 1 motif) or PXPGF (type 2 motif) is commonly found. Previous X-ray crystal structural analysis of the complex between ALG-2 and an ALIX peptide revealed that the peptide binds to the two hydrophobic pockets. In the present study, we resolved the crystal structure of the complex between ALG-2 and a peptide of Sec31A (outer shell component of coat complex II, COPII; containing the type 2 motif) and found that the peptide binds to the third hydrophobic pocket (Pocket 3). While amino acid substitution of Phe85, a Pocket 3 residue, with Ala abrogated the interaction with Sec31A, it did not affect the interaction with ALIX. On the other hand, amino acid substitution of Tyr180, a Pocket 1 residue, with Ala caused loss of binding to ALIX, but maintained binding to Sec31A. We conclude that ALG-2 recognizes two types of motifs at different hydrophobic surfaces. Furthermore, based on the results of serial mutational analysis of the ALG-2-binding sites in Sec31A, the type 2 motif was newly defined. PMID:25667979

  4. Controlled release of GAG-binding enhanced transduction (GET) peptides for sustained and highly efficient intracellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Abu-Awwad, Hosam Al-Deen M; Thiagarajan, Lalitha; Dixon, James E

    2017-07-15

    Controlled release systems for therapeutic molecules are vital to allow the sustained local delivery of their activities which direct cell behaviour and enable novel regenerative strategies. Direct programming of cells using exogenously delivered transcription factors can by-pass growth factor signalling but there is still a requirement to deliver such activity spatio-temporally. We previously developed a technology termed GAG-binding enhanced transduction (GET) to efficiently deliver a variety of cargoes intracellularly, using GAG-binding domains which promote cell targeting, and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) which allow cell entry. Herein we demonstrate that GET system can be used in controlled release systems to mediate sustained intracellular transduction over one week. We assessed the stability and activity of GET peptides in poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) prepared using a S/O/W double emulsion method. Efficient encapsulation (∼65%) and tailored protein release profiles could be achieved, however intracellular transduction was significantly inhibited post-release. To retain GET peptide activity we optimized a strategy of co-encapsulation of l-Histidine, which may form a complex with the PLGA degradation products under acidic conditions. Simulations of the polymer microclimate showed that hydrolytic acidic PLGA degradation products directly inhibited GET peptide transduction activity, and use of l-Histidine significantly enhanced released protein delivery. The ability to control the intracellular transduction of functional proteins into cells will facilitate new localized delivery methods and allow approaches to direct cellular behaviour for many regenerative medicine applications. The goal for regenerative medicine is to restore functional biological tissue by controlling and augmenting cellular behaviour. Either Transcription (TFs) or growth factors (GFs) can be presented to cells in spatio-temporal gradients for

  5. Exploring biological effects of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets on native structures of α-helical peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Zonglin; Li, Weifeng, E-mail: wfli@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: ruhong@us.ibm.com; Hong, Linbi

    Recent reports of mono- and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}), a representative transition metal dichacogenide (TMD), as antibacterial and anticancer agents have shed light on their potential in biomedical applications. To better facilitate these promising applications, one needs to understand the biological effects of these TMDs as well, such as their potential adverse effects on protein structure and function. Here, we sought to understand the interaction of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets with peptides using molecular dynamics simulations and a simple model polyalanine with various lengths (PA{sub n}, n = 10, 20, 30, and 40; mainly α − helices). Our results demonstratedmore » that MoS{sub 2} monolayer has an exceptional capability to bind all peptides in a fast and strong manner. The strong attraction from the MoS{sub 2} nanosheet is more than enough to compensate the energy needed to unfold the peptide, regardless of the length, which induces drastic disruptions to the intra-peptide hydrogen bonds and subsequent secondary structures of α − helices. This universal phenomenon may point to the potential nanotoxicity of MoS{sub 2} when used in biological systems. Moreover, these results aligned well with previous findings on the potential cytotoxicity of TMD nanomaterials.« less

  6. The Peptide Repertoire of HLA-B27 may include Ligands with Lysine at P2 Anchor Position.

    PubMed

    Yair-Sabag, Shira; Tedeschi, Valentina; Vitulano, Carolina; Barnea, Eilon; Glaser, Fabian; Melamed Kadosh, Dganit; Taurog, Joel D; Fiorillo, Maria Teresa; Sorrentino, Rosa; Admon, Arie

    2018-05-01

    The HLA-B*27 peptidome has drawn significant attention due to the genetic association between some of the HLA-B*27 alleles and the inflammatory rheumatic disease ankylosing spondylitis (AS), for which a comprehensive biological explanation is still lacking. This study aims to expand the known limits of the HLA-B*27 peptidome to facilitate selection and testing of new peptides, possibly involved in the disease. The HLA peptidomes of HeLa and C1R cell lines stably transfected with the AS-associated HLA-B*27:05 allele, the nonassociated HLA-B*27:09 allele, or their cysteine 67 to serine mutants (C67S), are analyzed on a very large scale. In addition, the peptidomes of HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*27:05-C67S are analyzed from the spleens of rats transgenic for these alleles. The results indicate that C67S mutation increases the percentage of peptides with glutamine or lysine at their P2 position (P2-Lys), in both HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*27:09. Furthermore, a small fraction of HLA-B*27 peptides contains lysine at their second position (P2), in addition to the more commonly found peptides with arginine (P2-Arg) or the less common glutamine (P2-Gln) located at this anchor position. Overall these data indicate that peptides with P2-Lys should be considered as real ligands of HLA-B*27 molecules and taken into account while looking for putative peptides implicated in the AS. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. H2-M polymorphism in mice susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis involves the peptide binding groove

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.; Loos, M.; Maeurer, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The ability to develop type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is associated with the major histocompatibility I-A gene and with as yet poorly defined regulatory molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen processing and presentation pathway. H2-M molecules are thought to be involved in the loading of antigenic peptides into the MHC class II binding cleft. We sequenced H2-Ma, H2-Mb1, and H2-Mb2 genes from CIA-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains and identified four different Ma and Mb2 alleles, and three different Mb1 alleles defined by polymorphic residues within the predicted peptide binding groove. Most CIA-resistant mousemore » strains share common Ma, Mb1, and Mb2 alleles. In contrast, H2-M alleles designated Ma-III, Ma-IV, Mb1-III, and Mb2-IV could be exclusively identified in the CIA-susceptible H2{sup r} and H2{sup q} haplotypes, suggesting that allelic H2-M molecules may modulate the composition of different CII peptides loaded onto MHC class II molecules, presumably presenting {open_quotes}arthritogenic{close_quotes} epitopes to T lymphocytes. 42 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  8. Investigation of CO2 release pressures in pipeline cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenz, Paul; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    The CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology can prevent or reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. The main idea of this technology is the segregation and collection of CO2 from facilities with a high emission of that greenhouse gas, i.e. power plants which burn fossil fuels. To segregate CO2 from the exhaust gas the power plant must be upgraded. Up to now there are three possible procedures to segregate the carbon dioxide with different advantages and disadvantages. After segregation the carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline to a subsurface storage location. As CO2 is at normal conditions (1013,25 Pa; 20 °C) in a gaseous phase state it must be set under high pressure to enter denser phase states to make a more efficient pipeline transport possible. Normally the carbon dioxide is set into the liquid or supercritical phase state by compressor stations which compress the gas up to 15 MPa. The pressure drop makes booster stations along the pipeline necessary which keep the CO2 in a dens phase state. Depending on the compression pressure CO2 can be transported over 300km without any booster station. The goal of this work is the investigation of release pressures in pipeline cracks. The high pressurised pipeline system consists of different parts with different failure probabilities. In most cases corrosion or obsolescence is the reason for pipeline damages. In case of a crack CO2 will escape from the pipeline and disperse into the atmosphere. Due to its nature CO2 can remain unattended for a long time. There are some studies of the CO2 dispersion process, e.g. Mazzoldi et al. (2007, 2008 and 2011) and Wang et al. (2008), but with different assumptions concerning the pipeline release pressures. To give an idea of realistic release pressures investigations with the CFD tool OpenFOAM were carried out and are presented within this work. To cover such a scenario with an accidental release of carbon dioxide a pipeline section with different diameters and

  9. The Difference Quantity of Urinary Peptides between Two Groups of Type 2 Diabetic Patients with or without Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Guangzhen; Hu, Mei; Chu, Lina; Zhang, Man

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aim to explore urinary biomarkers that could monitor CAD in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods. Urine samples from two groups, twenty-eight type 2 diabetic patients with coexisting CAD and thirty type 2 diabetic patients without CAD, were purified by MB-WCX and then analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Subsequently, we compared the urinary peptide signatures of the two groups by use of ClinProTools2.1 and evaluated the potential ability of the differently expressed peptides to distinguish type 2 diabetic patients with coexisting CAD from type 2 diabetic patients without CAD by ROC analysis. Finally, the differently expressed peptides were identified by nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results. There were six differently expressed peptides (m/z 1305.2, 1743.9, 2184.9, 2756.1, 3223.2, and 6196.1) between the two groups of subjects, and they were identified as fragments of isoform 1 of fibrinogen alpha chain precursor, prothrombin precursor, and interalpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4. The diagnostic efficacy of m/z 2756.1 and m/z 3223.2 was better than the other peptides. Area under ROC of the m/z 2756.1, and m/z 3223.2 was 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. Conclusions. These urinary peptides are potential urinary biomarkers for monitoring of type 2 diabetic patients with CAD. PMID:26089891

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Her2-NLP peptide conjugates targeting circulating breast cancer cells: cellular uptake and localization by fluorescent microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huawei; Singh, Ajay N; Sun, Xiankai; Peng, Fangyu

    2015-01-01

    To synthesize a fluorescent Her2-NLP peptide conjugate consisting of Her2/neu targeting peptide and nuclear localization sequence peptide (NLP) and assess its cellular uptake and intracellular localization for radionuclide cancer therapy targeting Her2/neu-positive circulating breast cancer cells (CBCC). Fluorescent Cy5.5 Her2-NLP peptide conjugate was synthesized by coupling a bivalent peptide sequence, which consisted of a Her2-binding peptide (NH2-GSGKCCYSL) and an NLP peptide (CGYGPKKKRKVGG) linked by a polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain with 6 repeating units, with an activated Cy5.5 ester. The conjugate was separated and purified by HPLC and then characterized by Maldi-MS. The intracellular localization of fluorescent Cy5.5 Her2-NLP peptide conjugate was assessed by fluorescent microscopic imaging using a confocal microscope after incubation of Cy5.5-Her2-NLP with Her2/neu positive breast cancer cells and Her2/neu negative control breast cancer cells, respectively. Fluorescent signals were detected in cytoplasm of Her2/neu positive breast cancer cells (SKBR-3 and BT474 cell lines), but not or little in cytoplasm of Her2/neu negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), after incubation of the breast cancer cells with Cy5.5-Her2-NLP conjugates in vitro. No fluorescent signals were detected within the nuclei of Her2/neu positive SKBR-3 and BT474 breast cancer cells, neither Her2/neu negative MDA-MB-231 cells, incubated with the Cy5.5-Her2-NLP peptide conjugates, suggesting poor nuclear localization of the Cy5.5-Her2-NLP conjugates localized within the cytoplasm after their cellular uptake and internalization by the Her2/neu positive breast cancer cells. Her2-binding peptide (KCCYSL) is a promising agent for radionuclide therapy of Her2/neu positive breast cancer using a β(-) or α emitting radionuclide, but poor nuclear localization of the Her2-NLP peptide conjugates may limit its use for eradication of Her2/neu-positive CBCC using I-125 or other Auger electron

  11. Effect of curcumin and Cu 2+/Zn 2+ ions on the fibrillar aggregates formed by the amyloid peptide and other peptides at the organic-aqueous interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghamitra, Nusrat J. M.; Varghese, Neenu; Rao, C. N. R.

    2010-08-01

    Characteristic features of a perilous neuro-degenerative disease such as the Alzhiemer's disease is fibrillar plaque formation by the amyloid (Aβ) peptide. We have modelled the formation and disintegration of fibrils by studying the aggregate structures formed by Aβ structural motif diphenylalanine as well as insulin and bovine serum albumin at the organic-aqueous interface. Even small concentrations of curcumin in the organic medium or Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ ions in the aqueous medium are found to break down the fibrillar structures.

  12. Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces negative effects of diarrhea on calf gut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by diarrhea reduces nutrient absorption and growth rate, and may have long-term effects on the young animal. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an intestinotropic hormone that improves gut integrity and nutrient absorption, and has antioxidant effects in th...

  13. The effects of vasoactive peptide urocortin 2 on hemodynamics in spontaneous hypertensive rat and the role of L-type calcium channel and CRFR2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunna; Liu, Xinyu; Yang, Jing; Duan, Yan; Yao, Hongyue; Li, Fenghua; Zhang, Xia

    2015-04-01

    Urocortin (UCN) is a newly identified vascular-active peptide that has been shown to reverse cardiovascular remodeling and improve left ventricular (LV) function. The effects and mechanism of urocortin 2 (UCN2) in vivo on the electrical remodeling of left ventricle and the hemodynamics of hypertensive objectives have not been investigated. UCN2 (1 μg/kg/d, 3.5 μg/kg/d or 7 μg/kg/d) was intravenously injected for 2 weeks and its effects on hemodynamics in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) observed. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to explore the effects of UCN2 on the electrical remodeling of left ventricular cardiomyocytes. The flow cytometry method was used to determine the content of fluorescence calcium in myocardium. UCN2 improved the systolic and diastolic function of SHRs as demonstrated by decreased left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), increased +dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmax and decreased cAMP level. UCN2 inhibited the opening of L-type calcium channel and decreased the calcium channel current of cardiomyocytes. In addition, UCN2 also decreased the contents of fluorescence calcium in SHR myocardium. However, astressin2-B (AST-2B), the antagonist of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2), could reverse the inhibitory effects of UCN2 on calcium channel. UCN2 can modulate electrical remodeling of the myocardium and hemodynamics in an experimental model of SHR via inhibition of L-type calcium channel and CRFR2 in cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of ghrelin antagonists [D-Lys(3) ]-GHRP-6 or JMV2959 on ethanol, water, and food intake in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Juan L; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol use and abuse patterns have created a need for novel treatment models. Current research has turned its focus on reward pathways associated with intrinsic necessities, such as feeding. Theories suggest that drugs of abuse seize control of natural reward pathways and dysregulate normal function, leading to chronic addiction. One such pathway involving the hunger stimulating peptide, ghrelin, is the focus of our study. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to groups and treated with vehicle or a ghrelin antagonist, either [D-Lys(3) ]-GHRP-6 (DLys) or JMV2959. Three experiments tested ghrelin antagonism using different doses; experiment 1 tested 12 mg/kg JMV2959; experiment 2 tested 15 mg/kg DLys; experiment 3 tested 9 mg/kg JMV2959. Using a 2-bottle choice 24-hour access paradigm, data were collected for ethanol intake, preference, water intake, and food intake at 4 and 24 hours after injection. Experiment 1 showed that 12 mg/kg of JMV2959 decreased ethanol, water, and food intake, without affecting preference. Experiment 2 showed that 15 mg/kg of DLys decreased ethanol intake, preference, and water intake only on the first day of treatment. Experiment 3 showed that 9 mg/kg of JMV2959 decreased only ethanol and food intake. No change was seen during deprivation, and JMV2959 was still effective at reducing ethanol intake upon reintroduction. Despite the change in food intake, there were no differences in body weight throughout the experiments. It should be noted that the majority of significant effects were only found 4 hours postinjection. The results show that compounds that block ghrelin receptor activity are effective at decreasing ethanol intake. However, DLys was only effective at reducing intake and preference on the first day, suggesting a quick tolerance and selectivity for ethanol. JMV2959 consistently reduced ethanol intake, but at the higher dose also reduced all other consummatory behaviors. Thus, ghrelin antagonists provide a viable potential

  15. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... special condition, because available information indicates a low risk of future substance abuse by the..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.40 Conditions of... substance. If the Commission finds after a revocation hearing that a releasee, released after December 31...

  16. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... special condition, because available information indicates a low risk of future substance abuse by the..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.40 Conditions of... substance. If the Commission finds after a revocation hearing that a releasee, released after December 31...

  17. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... special condition, because available information indicates a low risk of future substance abuse by the..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.40 Conditions of... substance. If the Commission finds after a revocation hearing that a releasee, released after December 31...

  18. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... special condition, because available information indicates a low risk of future substance abuse by the..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.40 Conditions of... substance. If the Commission finds after a revocation hearing that a releasee, released after December 31...

  19. P-type Ca2+ channels mediate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmitter release in crayfish muscle.

    PubMed

    Araque, A; Clarac, F; Buño, W

    1994-05-10

    The toxin fraction (FTX) and peptide omega-Aga-IVA from the venom of the funnel-web spider Agelenopsis aperta, as well as a synthetic analogue of FTX, specifically block the P-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC). The effects of these toxins on synaptic transmission were studied in the neuromuscular synapses of the crayfish opener muscle, which has a single excitatory and a single inhibitory motoneuron. FTX selectively and reversibly blocked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents and potentials in a dose-dependent manner. FTX had no effect on (i) resting and postsynaptic membrane conductance, (ii) postsynaptic L-type VDCC, and (iii) both glutamate- and gamma-aminobutyric acid-induced postsynaptic responses. Mean amplitude and frequency of miniature postsynaptic potentials were unchanged by FTX. The postsynaptic VDCC was inhibited by nifedipine, a selective dihydropyridine antagonist of L-type VDCC, whereas synaptic transmission was unaffected. Transmission was also undisturbed by omega-conotoxin, suggesting that N-type VDCCs are not involved. The peptide omega-Aga-IVA blocked excitatory and inhibitory transmission without affecting postsynaptic VDCC. Synaptic transmission was also blocked by synthetic FTX. We conclude that presynaptic P-type VDCCs are involved in both evoked excitatory and inhibitory transmitter release in crayfish neuromuscular synapses.

  20. P-type Ca2+ channels mediate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmitter release in crayfish muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Araque, A; Clarac, F; Buño, W

    1994-01-01

    The toxin fraction (FTX) and peptide omega-Aga-IVA from the venom of the funnel-web spider Agelenopsis aperta, as well as a synthetic analogue of FTX, specifically block the P-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC). The effects of these toxins on synaptic transmission were studied in the neuromuscular synapses of the crayfish opener muscle, which has a single excitatory and a single inhibitory motoneuron. FTX selectively and reversibly blocked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents and potentials in a dose-dependent manner. FTX had no effect on (i) resting and postsynaptic membrane conductance, (ii) postsynaptic L-type VDCC, and (iii) both glutamate- and gamma-aminobutyric acid-induced postsynaptic responses. Mean amplitude and frequency of miniature postsynaptic potentials were unchanged by FTX. The postsynaptic VDCC was inhibited by nifedipine, a selective dihydropyridine antagonist of L-type VDCC, whereas synaptic transmission was unaffected. Transmission was also undisturbed by omega-conotoxin, suggesting that N-type VDCCs are not involved. The peptide omega-Aga-IVA blocked excitatory and inhibitory transmission without affecting postsynaptic VDCC. Synaptic transmission was also blocked by synthetic FTX. We conclude that presynaptic P-type VDCCs are involved in both evoked excitatory and inhibitory transmitter release in crayfish neuromuscular synapses. Images PMID:7910404

  1. Intercalation and controlled release of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using rhombohedral [LiAl2(OH)6]Cl·xH2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragavan, Anusha; Khan, Aamir I.; O'Hare, Dermot

    2006-05-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been fully intercalated into the rhombohedral polymorph of [LiAl2(OH)6]Cl·xH2O ([rhom-Li Al] LDH) by an ion exchange method. The controlled release of 2,4-D from the interlamellar spaces of [rhom-Li Al] LDH has been studied in a phosphate buffer, natural rainwater and deionised water. In buffer solution and rainwater, the intercalated herbicide is exchanged for anions in solution. In contrast, in deionised water the herbicide is released as part of the Li+/herbicide ion pair, leading to the formation of Al(OH)3 and the solvated ions.

  2. Gastrin-releasing peptide induces monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium by upregulating endothelial adhesion molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Hyun-Joo; Department of Dental Pharmacology, BK21 PLUS Project, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that plays roles in various pathophysiological conditions including inflammatory diseases in peripheral tissues; however, little is known about whether GRP can directly regulate endothelial inflammatory processes. In this study, we showed that GRP promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the aortic endothelium. GRP increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in endothelial cells. In addition, GRP activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38MAPK, and AKT, and the inhibition of these signaling pathways significantly reduced GRP-inducedmore » monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Overall, our results suggested that GRP may cause endothelial dysfunction, which could be of particular relevance in the development of vascular inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • GRP induces adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium. • GRP increases the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules through the activation of NF-κB. • ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and Akt pathways are involved in the GRP-induced leukocyte adhesiveness to endothelium.« less

  3. GENIE Production Release 2.10.0

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M.; Andreopoulos, C.; Athar, M.

    2015-12-25

    GENIE is a neutrino Monte Carlo event generator that simulates the primary interaction of a neutrino with a nuclear target, along with the subsequent propagation of the reaction products through the nuclear medium. It additionally contains libraries for fully-featured detector geometries and for managing various types of neutrino flux. This note details recent updates to GENIE, in particular, changes introduced into the newest production release, version 2.10.0.

  4. The role of spatial organization of Ca2+ release sites in the generation of arrhythmogenic diastolic Ca2+ release in myocytes from failing hearts

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Terentyeva, Radmila; Schober, Karsten E.; Terentyev, Dmitry; Carnes, Cynthia A.

    2018-01-01

    In heart failure (HF), dysregulated cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) contribute to the generation of diastolic Ca2+ waves (DCWs), thereby predisposing adrenergically stressed failing hearts to life-threatening arrhythmias. However, the specific cellular, subcellular, and molecular defects that account for cardiac arrhythmia in HF remain to be elucidated. Patch-clamp techniques and confocal Ca2+ imaging were applied to study spatially defined Ca2+ handling in ventricular myocytes isolated from normal (control) and failing canine hearts. Based on their activation time upon electrical stimulation, Ca2+ release sites were categorized as coupled, located in close proximity to the sarcolemmal Ca2+ channels, and uncoupled, the Ca2+ channel-free non-junctional Ca2+ release units. In control myocytes, stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol (Iso) resulted in a preferential increase in Ca2+ spark rate at uncoupled sites. This site-specific effect of Iso was eliminated by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, which caused similar facilitation of Ca2+ sparks at coupled and uncoupled sites. Iso-challenged HF myocytes exhibited increased predisposition to DCWs compared to control myocytes. In addition, the overall frequency of Ca2+ sparks was increased in HF cells due to preferential stimulation of coupled sites. Furthermore, coupled sites exhibited accelerated recovery from functional refractoriness in HF myocytes compared to control myocytes. Spatially resolved subcellular Ca2+ mapping revealed that DCWs predominantly originated from coupled sites. Inhibition of CaMK∏ suppressed DCWs and prevented preferential stimulation of coupled sites in Iso-challenged HF myocytes. These results suggest that CaMK∏-(and phosphatase)-dependent dysregulation of junctional Ca2+ release sites contributes to Ca2+-dependent arrhythmogenesis in HF. PMID:28612155

  5. The CNGRC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2 peptide induces a caspase-independent, Ca2+-dependent death in human leukemic myeloid cells by targeting surface aminopeptidase N/CD13.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Sandrine; Tang, Ruoping; Fava, Fanny; Legrand, Ollivier; Bauvois, Brigitte

    2016-04-12

    The CD13 antigen's binding site for the Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif enables NGR-containing chemotherapeutic drugs to be delivered to CD13-positive tumours. Human CD13-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells proliferate abnormally and escape death. Here, we show that the CNGRC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2 peptide induces death in AML cell lines (U937, THP-1, NB4, HL-60) and primary blood cells from AML patients. Cell death was characterized as a caspase-independent mechanism, without DNA fragmentation, but phosphatidylserine externalization and membrane disruption. Our results demonstrate in U937 cells that (i) the NGR-peptide triggers the loss of mitochondrial potential(ΔΨm) and generates superoxide anion (O2-), (ii) N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and extra/intracellular Ca2+ chelators (BAPTA) prevent both O2- production and cell death, (iii) the Ca2+-channel blocker nifedipine prevents cell death (indicating that Ca2+ influx is the initial death trigger), and (iv) BAPTA, but not NAC, prevents ΔΨm loss (suggesting O2- is a mitochondrial downstream effector). AML cell lines and primary blasts responding to the lethal action of NGR-peptide express promatrix metalloproteinase-12 (proMMP-12) and its substrate progranulin (an 88 kDa cell survival factor). A cell-free assay highlighted proMMP-12 activation by O2-. Accordingly, NGR-peptide's downregulation of 88 kDa progranulin protein was prevented by BAPTA and NAC. Conversely, AML blast resistance to NGR-peptide is associated with the expression of a distinct, 105 kDa progranulin isoform. These results indicate that CNGRC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2 induces death in AML cells through the Ca2+-mitochondria-O2.-pathway, and support the link between proMMP-12 activation and progranulin cleavage during cell death. Our findings may have implications for the understanding of tumour biology and treatment.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Wheat Derived Nonspecific Lipid Transfer Protein 2 (nsLTP2).

    PubMed

    Bosi, Sara; Fiori, Jessica; Dinelli, Giovanni; Rigby, Neil; Leoncini, Emanuela; Prata, Cecilia; Bregola, Valeria; Marotti, Ilaria; Gotti, Roberto; Naldi, Marina; Massaccesi, Luca; Malaguti, Marco; Kroon, Paul; Hrelia, Silvana

    2018-05-22

    Numerous studies support the protective role of bioactive peptides against cardiovascular diseases. Cereals represent the primary source of carbohydrates, but they also contain substantial amounts of proteins, therefore representing a potential dietary source of bioactive peptides with nutraceutical activities. The analysis of wheat extracts purified by chromatographic techniques by means of HPLC-UV/nanoLC-nanoESI-QTOF allowed the identification of a signal of about 7 kDa which, following data base searches, was ascribed to a nonspecific lipid-transfer protein (nsLTP) type 2 from Triticum aestivum (sequence coverage of 92%). For the first time nsLTP2 biological activities have been investigated. In particular, in experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), nsLTP2 displayed antioxidant and cytoprotective activities, being able to significantly decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and to reduce lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, generated following oxidative (hydrogen peroxide) and inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and lipopolysaccharide) stimulation. The obtained promising results suggest potential protective role of nsLTP2 in vascular diseases prevention. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: nsLTP 2 peptide is resistant to proteases throughout the gastrointestinal tract and exerts antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. These characteristics could be exploited in vascular diseases prevention. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Acyclic peptides incorporating the d-Phe-2-Abz turn motif: Investigations on antimicrobial activity and propensity to adopt β-hairpin conformations.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Alan J; Varnava, Kyriakos G; Edwards, Patrick J B; Harjes, Elena; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2018-06-14

    Three linear peptides incorporating d-Phe-2-Abz as the turn motif are reported. Peptide 1, a hydrophobic β-hairpin, served as a proof of principle for the design strategy with both NMR and CD spectra strongly suggesting a β-hairpin conformation. Peptides 2 and 3, designed as amphipathic antimicrobials, exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, with potency in the nanomolar range against Staphylococcus aureus. Both compounds possess a high degree of selectivity, proving non-haemolytic at concentrations 500 to 800 times higher than their respective minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against S. aureus. Peptide 2 induced cell membrane and cell wall disintegration in both S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Peptide 2 also demonstrated moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans with an MIC of 50 μM. Synergism was observed with sub-MIC levels of amphotericin B (AmB), leading to nanomolar MICs against C. albicans for peptide 2. Based on circular dichroism spectra, both peptides 2 and 3 appear to exist as a mixture of conformers with the β-hairpin as a minor conformer in aqueous solution, and a slight increase in hairpin population in 50% trifluoroethanol, which was more pronounced for peptide 3. NMR spectra of peptide 2 in a 1:1 CD 3 CN/H 2 O mixture and 30 mM deuterated sodium dodecyl sulfate showed evidence of an extended backbone conformation of the β-strand residues. However, inter-strand rotating frame Overhauser effects (ROE) could not be detected and a loosely defined divergent hairpin structure resulted from ROE structure calculation in CD 3 CN/H 2 O. The loosely defined hairpin conformation is most likely a result of the electrostatic repulsions between cationic strand residues which also probably contribute towards maintaining low haemolytic activity. Copyright © 2018 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Preferred Substrates for Transglutaminase 2 in a Complex Wheat Gluten Digest Are Peptide Fragments Harboring Celiac Disease T-Cell Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Dørum, Siri; Arntzen, Magnus Ø.; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Holm, Anders; Koehler, Christian J.; Thiede, Bernd; Sollid, Ludvig M.; Fleckenstein, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    Background Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that is induced by dietary exposure to gluten proteins. CD4+ T cells of the intestinal lesion recognize gluten peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ8 and the gluten derived peptides become better T-cell antigens after deamidation catalyzed by the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2). In this study we aimed to identify the preferred peptide substrates of TG2 in a heterogeneous proteolytic digest of whole wheat gluten. Methods A method was established to enrich for preferred TG2 substrates in a complex gluten peptide mixture by tagging with 5-biotinamido-pentylamine. Tagged peptides were isolated and then identified by nano-liquid chromatography online-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, database searching and final manual data validation. Results We identified 31 different peptides as preferred substrates of TG2. Strikingly, the majority of these peptides were harboring known gluten T-cell epitopes. Five TG2 peptide substrates that were predicted to bind to HLA-DQ2.5 did not contain previously characterized sequences of T-cell epitopes. Two of these peptides elicited T-cell responses when tested for recognition by intestinal T-cell lines of celiac disease patients, and thus they contain novel candidate T-cell epitopes. We also found that the intact 9mer core sequences of the respective epitopes were not present in all peptide substrates. Interestingly, those epitopes that were represented by intact forms were frequently recognized by T cells in celiac disease patients, whereas those that were present in truncated versions were infrequently recognized. Conclusion TG2 as well as gastrointestinal proteolysis play important roles in the selection of gluten T-cell epitopes in celiac disease. PMID:21124911

  9. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Ripken, Dina; van der Wielen, Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis for the current study was that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release from EECs is modulated by serotonin through a process involving serotonin receptor interaction. This was studied by assessing the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibition by fluoxetine on nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release from isolated pig intestinal segments. Next, serotonin-induced GLP-1 release was studied in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells, where effects of serotonin receptor inhibition were studied using specific and non-specific antagonists. Casein (1% w/v), safflower oil (3.35% w/v), sucrose (50mM) and rebaudioside A (12.5mM) stimulated GLP-1 release from intestinal segments, whereas casein only stimulated PYY and CCK release. Combining nutrients with fluoxetine further increased nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release. Serotonin release from intestinal tissue segments was stimulated by casein and safflower oil while sucrose and rebaudioside A had no effect. The combination with fluoxetine (0.155μM) further enhanced casein and safflower oil induced-serotonin release. Exposure of ileal tissue segments to serotonin (30μM) stimulated GLP-1 release whereas it did not induce PYY and CCK release. Serotonin (30 and 100μM) also stimulated GLP-1 release from STC-1 cells, which was inhibited by the non-specific 5HT receptor antagonist asenapine (1 and 10μM). These data suggest that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release is modulated by serotonin through a receptor mediated process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intracellular delivery of peptide cargos using iron oxide based nanoparticles: studies on antitumor efficacy of a BCL-2 converting peptide, NuBCP-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Gurpal; Sharma, Sapna; Gupta, Dikshi; Bansal, Vivek; Arora, Vikas; Bhat, Madhusudan; Srivastava, Sandeep K.; Sapra, Sameer; Kharbanda, Surender; Dinda, Amit K.; Singh, Harpal

    2014-11-01

    Delivering peptides into cells targeting the undruggable oncoproteins is an emerging area in cancer therapeutics. Here we report a novel nanoparticle-based delivery system that can transport therapeutic cargos to the intracellular sites without the need for a cell transduction or penetration domain (CPP). In the present study, we have used iron oxide nanoparticles to deliver an oncopeptide, NuBCP-9, targeting the BCL-2 BH3 domain. Citric acid/2-bromo 2-methylpropanoic acid (CA/BMPA)-capped SPIONs were used to immobilize and deliver the NuBCP-9 peptide to the cancer cells without any noticeable off-target effects. Our results have demonstrated that NuBCP-9-SPIONs efficiently penetrate into cancer cells and bind to its intracellular target protein BCL-2. Moreover, significant inhibition of proliferation and substantial induction of cell death were observed when cancer cells were treated with NuBCP-9-SPIONs at different time intervals. Importantly, the IC50 values for killing of breast cancer cells with NuBCP-9-SPIONs were much lower compared to cells treated with the NuBCP-9 peptide linked with a CPP (Arg-8; NuBCP-9-R8). Molecular and biochemical analyses further supported that NuBCP-9-SPIONs killed breast cancer cells by apoptosis-mediated mechanisms. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that administration of NuBCP-9-SPIONs to mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors (EAT) was associated with loss of tumorigenicity and extensive apoptosis in tumor tissues. Taken together, these findings show that a non-CPP-tagged peptide can be successfully delivered to undruggable intracellular oncotargets using SPIONs.Delivering peptides into cells targeting the undruggable oncoproteins is an emerging area in cancer therapeutics. Here we report a novel nanoparticle-based delivery system that can transport therapeutic cargos to the intracellular sites without the need for a cell transduction or penetration domain (CPP). In the present study, we have used iron oxide nanoparticles to

  11. How Source Content Determines Intracellular Ca2+ Release Kinetics. Simultaneous Measurement of [Ca2+] Transients and [H+] Displacement in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Gonzalo; Ríos, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, the waveform of Ca2+ release under clamp depolarization exhibits an early peak. Its decay reflects an inactivation, which locally corresponds to the termination of Ca2+ sparks, and is crucial for rapid control. In cardiac muscle, both the frequency of spontaneous sparks (i.e., their activation) and their termination appear to be strongly dependent on the Ca2+ content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In skeletal muscle, no such role is established. Seeking a robust measurement of Ca2+ release and a way to reliably modify the SR content, we combined in the same cells the “EGTA/phenol red” method (Pape et al., 1995) to evaluate Ca2+ release, with the “removal” method (Melzer et al., 1987) to evaluate release flux. The cytosol of voltage-clamped frog fibers was equilibrated with EGTA (36 mM), antipyrylazo III, and phenol red, and absorbance changes were monitored simultaneously at three wavelengths, affording largely independent evaluations of Δ[H+] and Δ[Ca2+] from which the amount of released Ca2+ and the release flux were independently derived. Both methods yielded mutually consistent evaluations of flux. While the removal method gave a better kinetic picture of the release waveform, EGTA/phenol red provided continuous reproducible measures of calcium in the SR (CaSR). Steady release permeability (P), reached at the end of a 120-ms pulse, increased as CaSR was progressively reduced by a prior conditioning pulse, reaching 2.34-fold at 25% of resting CaSR (four cells). Peak P, reached early during a pulse, increased proportionally much less with SR depletion, decreasing at very low CaSR. The increase in steady P upon depletion was associated with a slowing of the rate of decay of P after the peak (i.e., a slower inactivation of Ca2+ release). These results are consistent with a major inhibitory effect of cytosolic (rather than intra-SR) Ca2+ on the activity of Ca2+ release channels. PMID:15337820

  12. ACE2 and vasoactive peptides: novel players in cardiovascular/renal remodeling and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Torres, Evelyn; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Mondaca-Ruff, David; Azocar, Andrés; Castro, Pablo F; Jalil, Jorge E; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Ocaranza, María Paz

    2015-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key component of cardiovascular physiology and homeostasis due to its influence on the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, vascular tone and cardiovascular remodeling. Deregulation of this system contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Numerous studies have generated new perspectives about a noncanonical and protective RAS pathway that counteracts the proliferative and hypertensive effects of the classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin (Ang) II/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis. The key components of this pathway are ACE2 and its products, Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9). These two vasoactive peptides act through the Mas receptor (MasR) and AT2R, respectively. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR and ACE2/Ang-(1-9)/AT2R axes have opposite effects to those of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, such as decreased proliferation and cardiovascular remodeling, increased production of nitric oxide and vasodilation. A novel peptide from the noncanonical pathway, alamandine, was recently identified in rats, mice and humans. This heptapeptide is generated by catalytic action of ACE2 on Ang A or through a decarboxylation reaction on Ang-(1-7). Alamandine produces the same effects as Ang-(1-7), such as vasodilation and prevention of fibrosis, by interacting with Mas-related GPCR, member D (MrgD). In this article, we review the key roles of ACE2 and the vasoactive peptides Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-9) and alamandine as counter-regulators of the ACE-Ang II axis as well as the biological properties that allow them to regulate blood pressure and cardiovascular and renal remodeling. © The Author(s), 2015.

  13. Rosiglitazone stimulates the release and synthesis of insulin by enhancing GLUT-2, glucokinase and BETA2/NeuroD expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyo-Sup; Noh, Jung-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Hyun

    2008-03-14

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and its ligands, the thiazolidinediones, might directly stimulate insulin release and insulin synthesis in pancreatic {beta}-cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on insulin release and synthesis in pancreatic {beta}-cell (INS-1). Insulin release and synthesis were stimulated by treatment with RGZ for 24 h. RGZ upregulated the expressions of GLUT-2 and glucokinase (GCK). Moreover, it was found that RGZ increased the expression of BETA2/NeuroD gene which could regulate insulin gene expression. These results suggest that RGZ could stimulate the release and synthesis ofmore » insulin through the upregulation of GLUT-2, GCK, and BETA2/NeuroD gene expression.« less

  14. Membrane Pore Formation by Amyloid beta (25-35) Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Nabin; Tatulian, Suren

    Amyloid (A β) peptide contributes to Alzheimer's disease by a yet unidentified mechanism. One of the possible mechanisms of A β toxicity is formation of pores in cellular membranes. We have characterized the formation of pores in phospholipid membranes by the Aβ25 - 35 peptide (GSNKGAIIGLM) using fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. CD and FTIR identified formation of β-sheet structure upon incubation of the peptide in aqueous buffer for 2 hours. Unilamellar vesicles composed of a zwitterionic lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), and 70 % POPC plus 30 % of an acidic lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), are made in 30 mM CaCl2. Quin-2, a fluorophore that displays increased fluorescence upon Ca2+ binding, is added to the vesicles externally. Peptide addition results in increased Quin-2 fluorescence, which is interpreted by binding of the peptide to the vesicles, pore formation, and Ca2+ leakage. The positive and negative control measurements involve addition of a detergent, Triton X-100, which causes vesicle rupture and release of total calcium, and blank buffer, respectively.

  15. Experimental and Computational Investigation of the Effect of Hydrophobicity on Aggregation and Osteoinductive Potential of BMP-2-Derived Peptide in a Hydrogel Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; Barati, Danial; Sarvestani, Samaneh K.; Karimi, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    An attractive approach to reduce the undesired side effects of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in regenerative medicine is to use osteoinductive peptide sequences derived from BMPs. Although the structure and function of BMPs have been studied extensively, there is limited data on structure and activity of BMP-derived peptides immobilized in hydrogels. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of concentration and hydrophobicity of the BMP-2 peptide, corresponding to residues 73–92 of the knuckle epitope of BMP-2 protein, on peptide aggregation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in a polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel. The peptide hydrophobicity was varied by capping PEG chain ends with short lactide segments. The BMP-2 peptide with a positive index of hydrophobicity had a critical micelle concentration (CMC) and formed aggregates in aqueous solution. Based on simulation results, there was a slight increase in the concentration of free peptide in solution with 1000-fold increase in peptide concentration. The dose-osteogenic response curve of the BMP-2 peptide was in the 0.0005–0.005 mM range, and osteoinductive potential of the BMP-2 peptide was significantly less than that of BMP-2 protein even at 1000-fold higher concentrations, which was attributed to peptide aggregation. Further, the peptide or PEG-peptide aggregates had significantly higher interaction energy with the cell membrane compared with the free peptide, which led to a higher nonspecific interaction with the cell membrane and loss of osteoinductive potential. Conjugation of the BMP-2 peptide to PEG increased CMC and osteoinductive potential of the peptide whereas conjugation to lactide-capped PEG reduced CMC and osteoinductive potential of the peptide. Experimental and simulation results revealed that osteoinductive potential of the BMP-2 peptide is correlated with its CMC and the free peptide concentration in aqueous medium and not the

  16. Melatonin inhibits voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel-mediated neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae-Yong; Kwon, Ji Eun; Durrance, Eunice Sung; Jo, Su-Hyun; Choi, Se-Young; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2014-04-04

    Melatonin is involved in various neuronal functions such as circadian rhythmicity and thermoregulation. Melatonin has a wide range of pharmacologically effective concentration levels from the nanomolar to millimolar levels. Recently, the antiepileptic effect of high dose melatonin has been the focus of clinical studies; however, its detailed mechanism especially in relation to neurotransmitter release and synaptic transmission remains unclear. We studied the effect of melatonin at high concentrations on the neurotransmitter release by monitoring norepinephrine release in PC12 cells, and excitatory postsynaptic potential in rat hippocampal slices. Melatonin inhibits the 70mM K(+)-induced Ca(2+) increase at millimolar levels without effect on bradykinin-triggered Ca(2+) increase in PC12 cells. Melatonin (1mM) did not affect A2A adenosine receptor-evoked cAMP production, and classical melatonin receptor antagonists did not reverse the melatonin-induced inhibitory effect, suggesting G-protein coupled receptor independency. Melatonin inhibits the 70mM K(+)-induced norepinephrine release at a similar effective concentration range in PC12 cells. We confirmed that melatonin (100µM) inhibits excitatory synaptic transmission of the hippocampal Schaffer collateral pathway with the decrease in basal synaptic transmission and the increase in paired pulse ratio. These results show that melatonin inhibits neurotransmitter release through the blocking of voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels and suggest a possible mechanism for the antiepileptic effect of melatonin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Signal Peptide Derived from hsp60 Binds HLA-E and Interferes with CD94/NKG2A Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Michaëlsson, Jakob; Teixeira de Matos, Cristina; Achour, Adnane; Lanier, Lewis L.; Kärre, Klas; Söderström, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule which presents a restricted set of nonameric peptides, derived mainly from the signal sequence of other MHC class I molecules. It interacts with CD94/NKG2 receptors expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells and T cell subsets. Here we demonstrate that HLA-E also presents a peptide derived from the leader sequence of human heat shock protein 60 (hsp60). This peptide gains access to HLA-E intracellularly, resulting in up-regulated HLA-E/hsp60 signal peptide cell-surface levels on stressed cells. Notably, HLA-E molecules in complex with the hsp60 signal peptide are no longer recognized by CD94/NKG2A inhibitory receptors. Thus, during cellular stress an increased proportion of HLA-E molecules may bind the nonprotective hsp60 signal peptide, leading to a reduced capacity to inhibit a major NK cell population. Such stress induced peptide interference would gradually uncouple CD94/NKG2A inhibitory recognition and provide a mechanism for NK cells to detect stressed cells in a peptide-dependent manner. PMID:12461076

  18. Graphene oxide-stimulated myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells on PLGA/RGD peptide nanofiber matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y. C.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Hong, S. W.; Oh, J.-W.; Kim, C.-S.; Kim, B.; Hyun, J. K.; Kim, Y.-J.; Han, D.-W.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, much attention has been paid to graphene-based nanomaterials because they are considered as potential candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds for tissue engineering and substrates for the differentiation of stem cells. Until now, electrospun matrices composed of various biodegradable copolymers have been extensively developed for tissue engineering and regeneration; however, their use in combination with graphene oxide (GO) is novel and challenging. In this study, nanofiber matrices composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) and M13 phage with RGD peptide displayed on its surface (RGD peptide-M13 phage) were prepared as extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimicking substrates. RGD peptide is a tripeptide (Arg-Gly-Asp) found on ECM proteins that promotes various cellular behaviors. The physicochemical properties of PLGA and RGD peptide-M13 phage (PLGA/RGD peptide) nanofiber matrices were characterized by atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. In addition, the growth of C2C12 mouse myoblasts on the PLGA/RGD peptide matrices was examined by measuring the metabolic activity. Moreover, the differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts on the matrices when treated with GO was evaluated. The cellular behaviors, including growth and differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts, were substantially enhanced on the PLGA/RGD peptide nanofiber matrices when treated with GO. Overall, these findings suggest that the PLGA/RGD peptide nanofiber matrices can be used in combination with GO as a novel strategy for skeletal tissue regeneration.

  19. Antitumor effects of cationic synthetic peptides derived from Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues of snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Araya, Cindy; Lomonte, Bruno

    2007-03-01

    The effects of two cationic synthetic peptides, derived from the C-terminal region of Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues from snake venoms, upon various murine tumor cell lines (B16 melanoma, EMT6 mammary carcinoma, S-180 sarcoma, P3X myeloma, tEnd endothelial cells) were evaluated. The peptides are 13-mers derived from Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus Lys49 PLA2 (p-AppK: KKYKAYFKLKCKK) and Bothrops asper Lys49 myotoxin II (pEM-2[D]: KKWRWWLKALAKK), respectively, in the latter case with slight modifications and with all-D amino acids. All tumor cells tested were susceptible to the lytic action of the peptides. The susceptibility of tumor cell lines was not higher than that of C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts, utilized as a non-transformed cell line control. However, in a murine model of subcutaneous solid tumor growth of EMT6 mammary carcinoma, the intraperitoneal administration of pEM-2[D] caused a tumor mass reduction of 36% (p<0.05), which was of similar magnitude to that achieved by the administration of paclitaxel, an antitumor drug in clinical use. Thus, the C-terminal peptides of Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues present antitumor effects that might be of interest in developing therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  20. Bio-composites composed of a solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone and alginate-releasing bone morphogenic protein and bone formation peptide for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, MinSung; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, GeunHyung

    2013-11-01

    Biomedical scaffolds should be designed with highly porous three-dimensional (3D) structures that have mechanical properties similar to the replaced tissue, biocompatible properties, and biodegradability. Here, we propose a new composite composed of solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone (PCL), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) or bone formation peptide (BFP-1), and alginate for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, PCL was used as a mechanical supporting component to enhance the mechanical properties of the final biocomposite and alginate was used as the deterring material to control the release of BMP-2 and BFP-1. A release test revealed that alginate can act as a good release control material. The in vitro biocompatibilities of the composites were examined using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were assessed. The in vitro test results revealed that PCL/BFP-1/Alginate had significantly higher ALP activity and calcium deposition than the PCL/BMP-2/Alginate composite. Based on these findings, release-controlled BFP-1 could be a good growth factor for enhancement of bone tissue growth and the simple-alginate coating method will be a useful tool for fabrication of highly functional biomaterials through release-control supplementation.

  1. Characteristics of inositol trisphosphate-mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ release from permeabilized hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, S.K.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-11-05

    Ca/sup 2 +/ release triggered by inositol trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/) has been measured in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ or Quin 2. The initial rate of Ca/sup 2 +/ release was not greatly affected by the incubation temperature. The amount of Ca/sup 2 +/ released by Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ was not affected by pH (6.5-8.0). La/sup 3 +/ (100 ..mu..M) markedly inhibited the effect of 1 ..mu..M Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/. The possibility that La/sup 3 +/ chelates Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ cannot be excluded since the effect of La/sup 3 +/ could be overcome by increasing the Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ concentration. Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/-mediatedmore » Ca/sup 2 +/ release showed a requirement for permeant cations in the incubation medium. Optimal release was observed with potassium gluconate. Other monovalent cations, with the exception of Li/sup +/, can substitute for K/sup +/. Permeant anions, at concentrations above 40 mM, inhibited Ca/sup 2 +/ release produced by Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/. Cl/sup -/, Br/sup -/, I/sup -/, and SO/sup 2 -//sub 4/ were equally effective as inhibitors. Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ also caused the release of /sup 54/Mn/sup 2 +/ and /sup 85/Sr/sup 2 +/ accumulated by the permeabilized hepatocytes. The results are consistent with Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ promoting the membrane translocation of divalent cations through an ion channel rather than an ion carrier. The translocation of positive charge through this channel is balanced by ancillary movements of monovalent cations and anions across the reticular membranes. The transport systems responsible for these compensatory ion movements may represent a potential site for the regulation of the hormone-mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ signal.« less

  2. Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Reflects Binding of Human Centrin 2 to Ca2+ and Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C Peptide: An Example of EX1 Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Sperry, Justin B.; Ryan, Zachary C.; Kumar, Rajiv; Gross, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disease affecting 1 in 10,000-100,000 and predisposes people to early-age skin cancer, a disease that is increasing. Those with XP have decreased ability to repair UV-induced DNA damage, leading to increased susceptibility of cancerous non-melanomas and melanomas. A vital, heterotrimeric protein complex is linked to the nucleotide excision repair pathway for the damaged DNA. The complex consists of XPC protein, human centrin 2, and RAD23B. One of the members, human centrin 2, is a ubiquitous, acidic, Ca2+-binding protein belonging to the calmodulin superfamily. The XPC protein contains a sequence motif specific for binding to human centrin 2. We report here the Ca2+-binding properties of human centrin 2 and its interaction with the XPC peptide motif. We utilized a region-specific H/D exchange protocol to localize the interaction of the XPC peptide with the C-terminal domain of centrin, the binding of which is different than that of calmodulin complexes. The binding dynamics of human centrin 2 to the XPC peptide in the absence and presence of Ca2+ are revealed by the observation of EX1 H/D exchange regime, indicating that a locally unfolded population exists in solution and undergoes fast H/D exchange. PMID:23439742

  3. Sensitive and real-time determination of H2O2 release from intact peroxisomes.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sebastian; Weber, Angelika; Fritz, Reiner; Mütze, Sabine; Rost, Daniel; Walczak, Henning; Völkl, Alfred; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Peroxisomes are essential and ubiquitous cell organelles having a key role in mammalian lipid and oxygen metabolism. The presence of flavine oxidases makes them an important intracellular source of H(2)O(2): an obligate product of peroxisomal redox reactions and a key reactive oxygen species. Peroxisomes proliferate in response to external signals triggered by peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor signalling pathways. Peroxisome-derived oxidative stress as a consequence of this proliferation is increasingly recognized to participate in pathologies ranging from carcinogenesis in rodents to alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis in humans. To date, no sensitive approach exists to record H(2)O(2) turnover of peroxisomes in real time. Here, we introduce a sensitive chemiluminescence method that allows the monitoring of H(2)O(2) generation and degradation in real time in suspensions of intact peroxisomes. Importantly, removal, as well as release of, H(2)O(2) can be assessed at nanomolar, non-toxic concentrations in the same sample. Owing to the kinetic properties of catalase and oxidases, H(2)O(2) forms fast steady-state concentrations in the presence of various peroxisomal substrates. Substrate screening suggests that urate, glycolate and activated fatty acids are the most important sources for H(2)O(2) in rodents. Kinetic studies imply further that peroxisomes contribute significantly to the beta-oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, in addition to their essential role in the breakdown of long and very long ones. These observations establish a direct quantitative release of H(2)O(2) from intact peroxisomes. The experimental approach offers new possibilities for functionally studying H(2)O(2) metabolism, substrate transport and turnover in peroxisomes of eukaryotic cells. PMID:11964148

  4. Isolation and Characterization of a High Affinity Peptide Inhibitor of ClC-2 Chloride Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Christopher H.; Olivetti, Pedro R.; Fuller, Matthew D.; Freeman, Cody S.; McMaster, Denis; French, Robert J.; Pohl, Jan; Kubanek, Julia; McCarty, Nael A.

    2009-01-01

    The ClC protein family includes voltage-gated chloride channels and chloride/proton exchangers. In eukaryotes, ClC proteins regulate membrane potential of excitable cells, contribute to epithelial transport, and aid in lysosomal acidification. Although structure/function studies of ClC proteins have been aided greatly by the available crystal structures of a bacterial ClC chloride/proton exchanger, the availability of useful pharmacological tools, such as peptide toxin inhibitors, has lagged far behind that of their cation channel counterparts. Here we report the isolation, from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus venom, of a peptide toxin inhibitor of the ClC-2 chloride channel. This toxin, GaTx2, inhibits ClC-2 channels with a voltage-dependent apparent KD of ∼20 pm, making it the highest affinity inhibitor of any chloride channel. GaTx2 slows ClC-2 activation by increasing the latency to first opening by nearly 8-fold but is unable to inhibit open channels, suggesting that this toxin inhibits channel activation gating. Finally, GaTx2 specifically inhibits ClC-2 channels, showing no inhibitory effect on a battery of other major classes of chloride channels and voltage-gated potassium channels. GaTx2 is the first peptide toxin inhibitor of any ClC protein. The high affinity and specificity displayed by this toxin will make it a very powerful pharmacological tool to probe ClC-2 structure/function. PMID:19574231

  5. Green mamba peptide targets type-2 vasopressin receptor against polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciolek, Justyna; Reinfrank, Helen; Quinton, Loïc; Viengchareun, Say; Vera, Laura; Sigismeau, Sabrina; Mouillac, Bernard; Orcel, Hélène; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Droctové, Laura; Beau, Fabrice; Nevoux, Jerome; Lombès, Marc; Mourier, Gilles; De Pauw, Edwin; Servent, Denis; Mendre, Christiane; Witzgall, Ralph; Gilles, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases (PKDs) are genetic disorders that can cause renal failure and death in children and adults. Lowering cAMP in cystic tissues through the inhibition of the type-2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) constitutes a validated strategy to reduce disease progression. We identified a peptide from green mamba venom that exhibits nanomolar affinity for the V2R without any activity on 155 other G-protein–coupled receptors or on 15 ionic channels. Mambaquaretin-1 is a full antagonist of the V2R activation pathways studied: cAMP production, beta-arrestin interaction, and MAP kinase activity. This peptide adopts the Kunitz fold known to mostly act on potassium channels and serine proteases. Mambaquaretin-1 interacts selectively with the V2R through its first loop, in the same manner that aprotinin inhibits trypsin. Injected in mice, mambaquaretin-1 increases in a dose-dependent manner urine outflow with concomitant reduction of urine osmolality, indicating a purely aquaretic effect associated with the in vivo blockade of V2R. CD1-pcy/pcy mice, a juvenile model of PKD, daily treated with 13 𝝁g of mambaquaretin-1 for 99 d, developed less abundant (by 33%) and smaller (by 47%) cysts than control mice. Neither tachyphylaxis nor apparent toxicity has been noted. Mambaquaretin-1 represents a promising therapeutic agent against PKDs. PMID:28630289

  6. Succinate modulation of H2O2 release at NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) in brain mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zoccarato, Franco; Cavallini, Lucia; Bortolami, Silvia; Alexandre, Adolfo

    2007-01-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is responsible for most of the mitochondrial H2O