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Sample records for relevant animal model

  1. The relevance of animal models in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, R W

    1990-01-01

    Studies of osteoarthritis (OA) in humans are restricted by the slow rate at which the disease progresses, and the limited opportunity for study of the tissue changes over time. A range of animal models of OA have been developed which demonstrate histopathological and gross features typical of OA in humans. Animal models can be used to study OA, and to investigate the effects of a variety of agents, including so-called chondroprotective agents, on the progression of the disease.

  2. Are animal models relevant to key aspects of human parturition?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Bryan F; Taggart, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    Preterm birth remains the most serious complication of pregnancy and is associated with increased rates of infant death or permanent neurodevelopmental disability. Our understanding of the regulation of parturition remains inadequate. The scientific literature, largely derived from rodent animal models, suggests two major mechanisms regulating the timing of parturition: the withdrawal of the steroid hormone progesterone and a proinflammatory response by the immune system. However, available evidence strongly suggests that parturition in the human has significantly different regulators and mediators from those in most of the animal models. Our objectives are to critically review the data and concepts that have arisen from use of animal models for parturition and to rationalize the use of a new model. Many animal models have contributed to advances in our understanding of the regulation of parturition. However, we suggest that those animals dependent on progesterone withdrawal to initiate parturition clearly have a limitation to their translation to the human. In such models, a linear sequence of events (e.g., luteolysis, progesterone withdrawal, uterine activation, parturition) gives rise to the concept of a "trigger" mechanism. Conversely, we propose that human parturition may arise from the concomitant maturation of several systems in parallel. We have termed this novel concept "modular accumulation of physiological systems" (MAPS). We also emphasize the urgency to determine the precise role of the immune system in the process of parturition in situations other than intrauterine infection. Finally, we accentuate the need to develop a nonprimate animal model whose physiology is more relevant to human parturition. We suggest that the guinea pig displays several key physiological characteristics of gestation that more closely resemble human pregnancy than do currently favored animal models. We conclude that the application of novel concepts and new models are

  3. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia. PMID:22404856

  4. Relevance of pharmacokinetic parameters in animal models of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Cho, A K; Melega, W P; Kuczenski, R; Segal, D S

    2001-02-01

    Although the behavioral consequences of methamphetamine (METH) abuse have been extensively documented, a more precise and thorough understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanisms still requires the use of animal models. To study these biochemical processes in experimental animals requires consideration for the broad range of human METH abuse patterns and the many factors that have been identified to profoundly influence the behavioral and neurochemical effects of exposure to METH-like stimulants. One potentially critical issue relates to pharmacokinetic differences between the species. In this review, METH plasma pharmacokinetic profiles after single and multiple dose intravenous METH administration are compared for the rat and human. Significant differences in elimination half-life between the two species (t1/2: rat-70 min, human-12 h) result in markedly dissimilar profiles of METH exposure. However, the plasma profile of a human METH binge pattern can be approximated in the rat by increasing METH dose frequency. Consideration of METH pharmacokinetics in animal models should permit a closer simulation of the temporal profile of METH exposure in the human CNS and should provide further insight into the mechanisms contributing to the addiciton and psychopathology associated with METH abuse.

  5. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R

    2015-09-02

    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiological differences, such as body size and longevity. In contrast, large animal models, including sheep, provide an alternative to mice for biomedical research due to their greater physiological parallels with humans. Completion of the full genome sequences of many species, and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, means it is now feasible to screen large populations of domesticated animals for genetic variants that resemble human genetic diseases, and generate models that more accurately model rare human pathologies. In this review, we discuss the notion of using sheep as large animal models, and their advantages in modelling human genetic disease. We exemplify several existing naturally occurring ovine variants in genes that are orthologous to human disease genes, such as the Cln6 sheep model for Batten disease. These, and other sheep models, have contributed significantly to our understanding of the relevant human disease process, in addition to providing opportunities to trial new therapies in animals with similar body and organ size to humans. Therefore sheep are a significant species with respect to the modelling of rare genetic human disease, which we summarize in this review.

  6. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome: translational relevance and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ney, Denise M.; Sigalet, David L.; Vegge, Andreas; Burrin, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF), due to short bowel syndrome (SBS), results from surgical resection of a major portion of the intestine, leading to reduced nutrient absorption and need for parenteral nutrition (PN). The incidence is highest in infants and relates to preterm birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus, and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, and nutritional and pharmacological interventions. Animal studies are needed to carefully evaluate the cellular mechanisms, safety, and translational relevance of new procedures. Distal intestinal resection, without a functioning colon, results in the most severe complications and adaptation may depend on the age at resection (preterm, term, young, adult). Clinically relevant therapies have recently been suggested from studies in preterm and term PN-dependent SBS piglets, with or without a functional colon. Studies in rats and mice have specifically addressed the fundamental physiological processes underlying adaptation at the cellular level, such as regulation of mucosal proliferation, apoptosis, transport, and digestive enzyme expression, and easily allow exogenous or genetic manipulation of growth factors and their receptors (e.g., glucagon-like peptide 2, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor). The greater size of rats, and especially young pigs, is an advantage for testing surgical procedures and nutritional interventions (e.g., PN, milk diets, long-/short-chain lipids, pre- and probiotics). Conversely, newborn pigs (preterm or term) and weanling rats provide better insights into the developmental aspects of treatment for SBS in infants owing to their immature intestines. The review shows that a balance among practical, economical, experimental, and ethical constraints will determine the

  7. Translational Relevance and Recent Advances of Animal Models of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sénémaud, Jean; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Etienne, Harry; Delbosc, Sandrine; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Coscas, Raphaël

    2017-03-01

    Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathophysiology is not yet completely understood. In conductance arteries, the insoluble extracellular matrix, synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells, assumes the function of withstanding the intraluminal arterial blood pressure. Progressive loss of this function through extracellular matrix proteolysis is a main feature of AAAs. As most patients are now treated via endovascular approaches, surgical AAA specimens have become rare. Animal models provide valuable complementary insights into AAA pathophysiology. Current experimental AAA models involve induction of intraluminal dilation (nondissecting AAAs) or a contained intramural rupture (dissecting models). Although the ideal model should reproduce the histological characteristics and natural history of the human disease, none of the currently available animal models perfectly do so. Experimental models try to represent the main pathophysiological determinants of AAAs: genetic or acquired defects in extracellular matrix, loss of vascular smooth muscle cells, and innate or adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, most models are characterized by aneurysmal stabilization and healing after a few weeks because of cessation of the initial stimulus. Recent studies have focused on ways to optimize existing models to allow continuous aneurysmal growth. This review aims to discuss the relevance and recent advances of current animal AAA models.

  8. Animal models of Parkinson's disease: limits and relevance to neuroprotection studies.

    PubMed

    Bezard, Erwan; Yue, Zhenyu; Kirik, Deniz; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, significant strides has been made toward acquiring a better knowledge of both the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental models are of paramount importance to obtain greater insights into the pathogenesis of the disease. Thus far, neurotoxin-based animal models have been the most popular tools employed to produce selective neuronal death in both in vitro and in vivo systems. These models have been commonly referred to as the pathogenic models. The current trend in modeling PD revolves around what can be called the disease gene-based models or etiologic models. The value of utilizing multiple models with a different mechanism of insult rests on the premise that dopamine-producing neurons die by stereotyped cascades that can be activated by a range of insults, from neurotoxins to downregulation and overexpression of disease-related genes. In this position article, we present the relevance of both pathogenic and etiologic models as well as the concept of clinically relevant designs that, we argue, should be utilized in the preclinical development phase of new neuroprotective therapies before embarking into clinical trials.

  9. [Relevance of animal models in the study of human pathologies: a mouse model of Down syndrome].

    PubMed

    Morice, Elise

    2010-01-01

    Animal models provide a simplified representation of biological systems impossible to study directly in the human being. Regarding genetic pathologies, mouse models are the most studied since they enable to reproduce in animals the mutation of the gene or genes responsible for the disease and to study the phenotypic consequences. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is characterized by different degrees of phenotypic alterations including morphological, cardiac, muscular, cerebral, motor and intellectual changes. This high phenotypic heterogeneity involves genetic and environmental effects, which are impossible to dissect out in human beings. Various models in mice have been developed in order to identify the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for Down syndrome. The Tc1 mouse is the most complete genetic animal model currently available to study Down syndrome, since it carries an almost complete Hsa 21. The behavioural and electrophysiological studies of this model reveal a great similarity between the animal phenotype and the Down syndrome symptomatology, consequently this model represents a powerful genetic tool with a potential to unravel the mechanisms underlying the deficiencies array characteristic of this human condition. In the long term, Tc1 mice will contribute to the development and the screening of new therapeutics, with the goal of improving all the impairments reported in Down syndrome.

  10. Clinical and Neurobiological Relevance of Current Animal Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Lázaro, María T.; Choi, Chang Soon; Bahn, Geon Ho; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments, as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviors. The phenotypic heterogeneity of ASD has made it overwhelmingly difficult to determine the exact etiology and pathophysiology underlying the core symptoms, which are often accompanied by comorbidities such as hyperactivity, seizures, and sensorimotor abnormalities. To our benefit, the advent of animal models has allowed us to assess and test diverse risk factors of ASD, both genetic and environmental, and measure their contribution to the manifestation of autistic symptoms. At a broader scale, rodent models have helped consolidate molecular pathways and unify the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying each one of the various etiologies. This approach will potentially enable the stratification of ASD into clinical, molecular, and neurophenotypic subgroups, further proving their translational utility. It is henceforth paramount to establish a common ground of mechanistic theories from complementing results in preclinical research. In this review, we cluster the ASD animal models into lesion and genetic models and further classify them based on the corresponding environmental, epigenetic and genetic factors. Finally, we summarize the symptoms and neuropathological highlights for each model and make critical comparisons that elucidate their clinical and neurobiological relevance. PMID:27133257

  11. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of necrotizing enterocolitis: pathophysiology, translational relevance, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Jia, Hongpeng; Shaffiey, Shahab; Good, Misty; Branca, Maria F; Hackam, David J

    2014-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from gastrointestinal disease in premature infants and is characterized by initial feeding intolerance and abdominal distention followed by the rapid progression to coagulation necrosis of the intestine and death in many cases. Although the risk factors for NEC development remain well accepted, namely premature birth and formula feeding, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Current thinking indicates that NEC develops in response to an abnormal interaction between the mucosal immune system of the premature host and an abnormal indigenous microflora, leading to an exaggerated mucosal inflammatory response and impaired mesenteric perfusion. In seeking to understand the molecular and cellular events leading to NEC, various animal models have been developed. However, the large number and variability between the available animal models and the unique characteristics of each has raised important questions regarding the validity of particular models for NEC research. In an attempt to provide some guidance to the growing community of NEC researchers, we now seek to review the key features of the major NEC models that have been developed in mammalian and nonmammalian species and to assess the advantages, disadvantage, challenges and major scientific discoveries yielded by each. A strategy for model validation is proposed, the principal models are compared, and future directions and challenges within the field of NEC research are explored.

  12. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of necrotizing enterocolitis: pathophysiology, translational relevance, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peng; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Jia, Hongpeng; Shaffiey, Shahab; Good, Misty; Branca, Maria F.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from gastrointestinal disease in premature infants and is characterized by initial feeding intolerance and abdominal distention followed by the rapid progression to coagulation necrosis of the intestine and death in many cases. Although the risk factors for NEC development remain well accepted, namely premature birth and formula feeding, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Current thinking indicates that NEC develops in response to an abnormal interaction between the mucosal immune system of the premature host and an abnormal indigenous microflora, leading to an exaggerated mucosal inflammatory response and impaired mesenteric perfusion. In seeking to understand the molecular and cellular events leading to NEC, various animal models have been developed. However, the large number and variability between the available animal models and the unique characteristics of each has raised important questions regarding the validity of particular models for NEC research. In an attempt to provide some guidance to the growing community of NEC researchers, we now seek to review the key features of the major NEC models that have been developed in mammalian and nonmammalian species and to assess the advantages, disadvantage, challenges and major scientific discoveries yielded by each. A strategy for model validation is proposed, the principal models are compared, and future directions and challenges within the field of NEC research are explored. PMID:24763555

  13. Animal Models of Deficient Sensorimotor Gating in Schizophrenia: Are They Still Relevant?

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Neal R; Light, Gregory A

    Animal models of impaired sensorimotor gating, as assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, have demonstrated clear validity at face, predictive, and construct levels for schizophrenia therapeutics, neurophysiological endophenotypes, and potential causative insults for this group of disorders. However, with the growing recognition of the heterogeneity of the schizophrenias, and the less sanguine view of the clinical value of antipsychotic (AP) medications, our field must look beyond "validity," to assess the actual utility of these models. At a substantial cost in terms of research support and intellectual capital, what has come from these models, that we can say has actually helped schizophrenia patients? Such introspection is timely, as we are reassessing not only our view of the genetic and pathophysiological diversity of these disorders, but also the predominant strategies for SZ therapeutics; indeed, our field is gaining awareness that we must move away from a "find what's broke and fix it" approach, toward identifying spared neural and cognitive function in SZ patients, and matching these residual neural assets with learning-based therapies. Perhaps, construct-valid models that identify evidence of "spared function" in neural substrates might reveal opportunities for future therapeutics and allow us to study these substrates at a mechanistic level to maximize opportunities for neuroplasticity. Such an effort will require a retooling of our models, and more importantly, a re-evaluation of their utility. For animal models to remain relevant in the search for schizophrenia therapeutics, they will need to focus less on what is valid and focus more on what is useful.

  14. Multiple system organ response induced by hyperoxia in a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Raquel; Martín-Barrasa, José Luis; Ramos-Nuez, Ángela; Cañas-Pedrosa, Ana María; Martínez-Saavedra, María Teresa; García-Bello, Miguel Ángel; López-Aguilar, Josefina; Baluja, Aurora; Álvarez, Julián; Slutsky, Arthur S; Villar, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen therapy is currently used as a supportive treatment in septic patients to improve tissue oxygenation. However, oxygen can exert deleterious effects on the inflammatory response triggered by infection. We postulated that the use of high oxygen concentrations may be partially responsible for the worsening of sepsis-induced multiple system organ dysfunction in an experimental clinically relevant model of sepsis. We used Sprague-Dawley rats. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Sham-septic controls (n = 16) and septic animals (n = 32) were randomly assigned to four groups and placed in a sealed Plexiglas cage continuously flushed for 24 h with medical air (group 1), 40% oxygen (group 2), 60% oxygen (group 3), or 100% oxygen (group 4). We examined the effects of these oxygen concentrations on the spread of infection in blood, urine, peritoneal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage, and meninges; serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers and reactive oxygen species production; and hematological parameters in all experimental groups. In cecal ligation and puncture animals, the use of higher oxygen concentrations was associated with a greater number of infected biological samples (P < 0.0001), higher serum levels of interleukin-6 (P < 0.0001), interleukin-10 (P = 0.033), and tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.034), a marked decrease in platelet counts (P < 0.001), and a marked elevation of reactive oxygen species serum levels (P = 0.0006) after 24 h of oxygen exposure. Oxygen therapy greatly influences the progression and clinical manifestation of multiple system organ dysfunction in experimental sepsis. If these results are extrapolated to humans, they suggest that oxygen therapy should be carefully managed in septic patients to minimize its deleterious effects.

  15. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-04-11

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition.

  16. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition. PMID:27077845

  17. How Relevant Are Imaging Findings in Animal Models of Movement Disorders to Human Disease?

    PubMed

    Bannon, Darryl; Landau, Anne M; Doudet, Doris J

    2015-08-01

    The combination of novel imaging techniques with the use of small animal models of disease is often used in attempt to understand disease mechanisms, design potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, and develop novel methods with translatability to human clinical conditions. However, it is clear that most animal models are deficient when compared to the complexity of human diseases: they cannot sufficiently replicate all the features of multisystem disorders. Furthermore, some practical differences may affect the use or interpretation of animal imaging to model human conditions such as the use of anesthesia, various species differences, and limitations of methodological tools. Nevertheless, imaging animal models allows us to dissect, in interpretable bits, the effects of one system upon another, the consequences of variable neuronal losses or overactive systems, the results of experimental treatments, and we can develop and validate new methods. In this review, we focus on imaging modalities that are easily used in both human subjects and animal models such as positron emission and magnetic resonance imaging and discuss aging and Parkinson's disease as prototypical examples of preclinical imaging studies.

  18. Animals models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of alcohol-induced liver disease: pathophysiology, translational relevance, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Stephanie; Xu, Mingjiang; Wang, Hua; Bertola, Adeline; Gao, Bin

    2014-05-15

    Over the last four decades, chronic ethanol feeding studies in rodents using either ad libitum feeding or intragastric infusion models have significantly enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Recently, we developed a chronic plus binge alcohol feeding model in mice that is similar to the drinking patterns of many alcoholic hepatitis patients: a history of chronic drinking and recent excessive alcohol consumption. Chronic+binge ethanol feeding synergistically induced steatosis, liver injury, and neutrophil infiltration in mice, which may be useful for the study of early alcoholic liver injury and inflammation. Using this chronic+binge model, researchers have begun to identify novel mechanisms that participate in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury, thereby revealing novel therapeutic targets. In this review article, we briefly discuss several mouse models of ALD with a focus on the chronic+binge ethanol feeding model.

  19. A clinically relevant animal model of TMD and IBS co-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Richard J.; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Karpowicz, Jane; Pandya, Sangeeta; Ji, Yaping; Dorsey, Susan G.; Dessem, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are comorbid functional chronic pain disorders of unknown etiology that are triggered/exacerbated by stress. Here we present baseline phenotypic characterization of a novel animal model to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms that contribute to such comorbid pain conditions. In this model, chronic visceral hypersensitivity, a defining symptom of IBS, is dependent upon on three factors: estradiol, existing chronic somatic pain, and stress. In ovariectomized rats, estradiol replacement followed by craniofacial muscle injury and stress induced visceral hypersensitivity that persisted for months. Omission of any one factor resulted in a transient (1 week) visceral hypersensitivity from stress alone, or no hypersensitivity (no inflammation or estradiol). Maintenance of visceral hypersensitivity was estradiol dependent; resolving when estradiol replacement ceased. Referred cutaneous hypersensitivity was concurrent with visceral hypersensitivity. Increased spinal Fos expression suggests induction of central sensitization. These data demonstrate the development and maintenance of visceral hypersensitivity in estradiol-replaced animals following distal somatic injury and stress that mimics some characteristics reported in patients with TMD and comorbid IBS. This new animal model is a powerful experimental tool which can be employed to gain further mechanistic insight into overlapping pain conditions. PMID:24981128

  20. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: comparison of animal models and relevance to the human situation.

    PubMed

    van Loenhout, Rhiannon B; Tibboel, Dick; Post, Martin; Keijzer, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) occurs in 1 in 3,000 newborns. Mortality and morbidity are due to the amount of pulmonary hypoplasia (PH), the response on artificial ventilation and the presence of therapy-resistant pulmonary hypertension. The pathogenesis and etiology of CDH and its associated anomalies are still largely unknown despite all research efforts over the past years. Several animal models have been proposed to study CDH. In this review we compare surgical, pharmacological and transgenic models, and discuss their strengths and limitations to study PH.

  1. New insight into oseophageal injury and protection in physiologically relevant animal models.

    PubMed

    Zayachkivska, O; Pshyk-Titko, I; Hrycevych, N; Savytska, M

    2014-04-01

    Chronic diseases of lifestyle (CDL), the most common chronic group of non-infectious and non-transmissible diseases worldwide, which share the similar risk factors of unhealthy lifestyle, have become most recognized as a serious trigger in the genesis of oesophageal injury. Non-erosive oesophageal lesions (NEOL) are found more frequently than erosive or ulcer lesions in patients with reflux oesophagitis (RO) related to CDL. They also have restricted healing options, which often leads to carcinogenesis. Therefore, developing a physiologically relevant animal model of NEOL remains an urgent priority. One of triggers of CDL, postprandial hyperglycemia (PHG), which is characterized by hyperglycemic spikes, and overloading nitro-compounds leading to oxidative stress that may predispose to NEOL. The present study was designed to set up a model of RO related to CDL in rodents to understand mechanisms of oesophageal preulcerogenic injury under such conditions as food-associated long-term PHG, restrained water-immersion stress (WIS), and imbalance of entero-salivary nitrites recirculation (ESNR). Beneficial effects of L-tryptophan (L-Try) have already been described by many activities in kynurenine and melatonin (Mel) synthesis, redox reactions, which play a key role for cytoprotection and proliferation. Nevertheless, the effect of L-Try and Mel on NEOL under PHG is still unknown. An extract of Cucurbita maxim sweet seed (eCMS), which contains a high amount of antioxidants, also appear to play an important role in foregut cytoprotection. Thus, the second aim was to observe the effects of eCSE on oesophageal mucosa (OEM) in modification of ESNR (mESNR). Rats were used with without/with pre-treatment L-Try, Mel during WIS and PHG. In the second series of experiments rats were used with without/with CSE pre-treatment in mESNR; oral and OEM lesions were determined by histology; inflammation of OEM by lectin histochemistry; esophageal NO2(-), cNOS and iNOS via bioassays

  2. Genes and molecules that can potentiate or attenuate psychostimulant dependence: relevance of data from animal models to human addiction.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Minae; Yan, Yijin; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2008-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a variety of molecule products play critical roles in the transitions from recreational drug use to drug abuse, and then to drug dependence. Elucidation of the roles of specific molecules in the development of drug dependence can come from preclinical animal models and/or from clinical data. Among animal models, behavioral sensitization, conditioned place preference, drug discrimination, drug self-administration, and extensions of these basic procedures have been widely used to identify molecule products that might be involved in psychostimulant dependence. Repeated exposure to psychostimulants causes cellular adaptations in specific neuronal populations that are likely to contribute to dependence in some humans. In animal models, molecules that include shati, piccolo, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor can act as antiaddictive factors. In some of these models, other molecules including matrix metalloproteinase and tissue plasminogen activator can act as proaddictive factors. We review evidence that the balance between levels of anti- and proaddictive factors induced by addictive drugs could play important roles in developing drug dependence. We focus on potential risk molecules in animal models for the development of methamphetamine dependence and their relevance to abusers. We propose that dynamic changes in the balance between levels of antiaddictive and proaddictive factors in the brain provide some of the determinants of susceptibility to drug dependence. Exploration of the roles that candidate molecules play in an appropriate repertoire of animal behavioral models, especially drug self-administration and extensions thereof, should thus help us to understand human stimulant dependence.

  3. Monitoring for potential adverse effects of prenatal gene therapy: use of large animal models with relevance to human application.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vedanta; Abi-Nader, Khalil N; Carr, David; Wallace, Jacqueline; Coutelle, Charles; Waddington, Simon N; Peebles, Donald; David, Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Safety is an absolute prerequisite for introducing any new therapy, and the need to monitor the consequences of administration of both vector and transgene to the fetus is particularly important. The unique features of fetal development that make it an attractive target for gene therapy, such as its immature immune system and rapidly dividing populations of stem cells, also mean that small perturbations in pregnancy can have significant short- and long-term consequences. Certain features of the viral vectors used, the product of the delivered gene, and sometimes the invasive techniques necessary to deliver the construct to the fetus in utero have the potential to do harm. An important goal of prenatal gene therapy research is to develop clinically relevant techniques that could be applied to cure or ameliorate human disease in utero on large animal models such as sheep or nonhuman primates. Equally important is the use of these models to monitor for potential adverse effects of such interventions. These large animal models provide good representation of individual patient-based investigations. However, analyses that require defined genetic backgrounds, high throughput, defined variability and statistical analyses, e.g. for initial studies on teratogenic and oncogenic effects, are best performed on larger groups of small animals, in particular mice. This chapter gives an overview of the potential adverse effects in relation to prenatal gene therapy and describes the techniques that can be used experimentally in a large animal model to monitor the potential adverse consequences of prenatal gene therapy, with relevance to clinical application. The sheep model is particularly useful to allow serial monitoring of fetal growth and well-being after delivery of prenatal gene therapy. It is also amenable to serially sampling using minimally invasive and clinically relevant techniques such as ultrasound-guided blood sampling. For more invasive long-term monitoring, we

  4. The relevance to humans of animal models for inhalation studies of cancer in the nose and upper airways.

    PubMed

    DeSesso, J M

    1993-09-01

    While nasal cancer is relatively rare among the general population, workers in the nickel refining, leather manufacturing, and furniture building industries exhibit increased incidences of nasal cancer. To investigate the causes of nasal cancer and to design ameliorative strategies, an appropriate animal model for the human upper respiratory regions is required. The present report describes, compares, and assesses the anatomy and physiology of the nasal passages and upper airways of humans, rats, and monkeys for the purpose of determining a relevant animal model in which to investigate potential causes of nasal cancer. Based on the mode of breathing, overall geometry of the nasal passages, relative nasal surface areas, proportions of nasal surfaces lined by various epithelia, mucociliary clearance patterns, and inspiratory airflow routes, the rat, which is very different from humans, is a poor model. In contrast, the monkey exhibits many similarities to humans. Although the monkey does differ from humans in that it exhibits a more rapid respiratory rate, smaller minute and tidal volumes, larger medial turbinate, and a vestibular wing that creates an anterior vortex during inspiration, it offers a more appropriate model for studying the toxic effects of inhaled substances on the nasal passages and extrapolating the findings to humans.

  5. Establishing a Clinically Relevant Large Animal Model Platform for TBI Therapy Development: Using Cyclosporin A as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Margulies, Susan S.; Kilbaugh, Todd; Sullivan, Sarah; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen; Byro, Melissa; Saliga, Kristen; Costine, Beth A.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2015-01-01

    We have developed the first immature large animal translational treatment trial of a pharmacologic intervention for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The preclinical trial design includes multiple doses of the intervention in two different injury types (focal and diffuse) to bracket the range seen in clinical injury and uses two post-TBI delays to drug administration. Cyclosporin A (CsA) was used as a case study in our first implementation of the platform because of its success in multiple preclinical adult rodent TBI models and its current use in children for other indications. Tier 1 of the therapy development platform assessed the short-term treatment efficacy after 24 h of agent administration. Positive responses to treatment were compared with injured controls using an objective effect threshold established prior to the study. Effective CsA doses were identified to study in Tier 2. In the Tier 2 paradigm, agent is administered in a porcine intensive care unit utilizing neurological monitoring and clinically relevant management strategies, and intervention efficacy is defined as improvement in longer term behavioral endpoints above untreated injured animals. In summary, this innovative large animal preclinical study design can be applied to future evaluations of other agents that promote recovery or repair after TBI. PMID:25904045

  6. Establishing a Clinically Relevant Large Animal Model Platform for TBI Therapy Development: Using Cyclosporin A as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Margulies, Susan S; Kilbaugh, Todd; Sullivan, Sarah; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen; Byro, Melissa; Saliga, Kristen; Costine, Beth A; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2015-05-01

    We have developed the first immature large animal translational treatment trial of a pharmacologic intervention for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The preclinical trial design includes multiple doses of the intervention in two different injury types (focal and diffuse) to bracket the range seen in clinical injury and uses two post-TBI delays to drug administration. Cyclosporin A (CsA) was used as a case study in our first implementation of the platform because of its success in multiple preclinical adult rodent TBI models and its current use in children for other indications. Tier 1 of the therapy development platform assessed the short-term treatment efficacy after 24 h of agent administration. Positive responses to treatment were compared with injured controls using an objective effect threshold established prior to the study. Effective CsA doses were identified to study in Tier 2. In the Tier 2 paradigm, agent is administered in a porcine intensive care unit utilizing neurological monitoring and clinically relevant management strategies, and intervention efficacy is defined as improvement in longer term behavioral endpoints above untreated injured animals. In summary, this innovative large animal preclinical study design can be applied to future evaluations of other agents that promote recovery or repair after TBI.

  7. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context. PMID:27563374

  8. Animal models relevant to human prostate carcinogenesis underlining the critical implication of prostatic stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent development of animal models relevant to human prostate cancer (PC) etiopathogenesis has provided important information on the specific functions provided by key gene products altered during disease initiation and progression to locally invasive, metastatic and hormone-refractory stages. Especially, the characterization of transgenic mouse models has indicated that the inactivation of distinct tumor suppressor proteins such as phosphatase tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), Nkx3.1, p27KIP1 and p53 and retinoblastoma (pRb) may cooperate for the malignant transformation of prostatic stem/progenitor cells into PC stem/progenitor cells and tumor development and metastases. Moreover, the sustained activation of diverse oncogenic signaling elements, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), sonic hedgehog, Wnt/β-catenin, c-Myc, Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) also may contribute to the acquisition of more aggressive and hormone-refractory phenotypes by PC stem/progenitor cells and their progenies during disease progression. Importantly, it has also been shown that an enrichment of PC stem/progenitor cells expressing stem cell-like markers may occur after androgen deprivation therapy and docetaxel treatment in the transgenic mouse models of PC suggesting the critical implication of these immature PC cells in treatment resistance, tumor re-growth and disease recurrence. Of clinical interest, the molecular targeting of distinct gene products altered in PC cells by using different dietary compounds has also been shown to counteract PC initiation and progression in animal models supporting their potential use as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for eradicating the total tumor cell mass, improving current anti-hormonal and chemotherapies and preventing disease relapse. PMID:21396984

  9. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits.

  10. Relevance of various animal models of human infections to establish therapeutic equivalence of a generic product of piperacillin/tazobactam.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Maria; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Zuluaga, Andres F; Vesga, Omar

    2015-02-01

    After demonstrating with diverse intravenous antibacterials that pharmaceutical equivalence (PE) does not predict therapeutic equivalence, we tested a single generic product of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) in terms of PE, pharmacokinetics and in vitro/vivo pharmacodynamics against several pathogens in neutropenic mouse thigh, lung and brain infection models. A generic product was compared head-to-head against the innovator. PE was evaluated by microbiological assay. Single-dose serum pharmacokinetics were determined in infected mice, and the MIC/MBC were determined by broth microdilution. In vivo experiments were done in a blind fashion. Reproducibility was tested on different days using different infecting organisms and animal models. Neutropenic MPF mice were infected in the thighs with Staphylococcus aureus GRP-0057 or Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and in the lungs or brain with Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031. Treatment started 2h (thigh and brain) or 14 h (lung) after infection and was administered every 3h over 24h (thigh and lung) or 48 h (brain). Both products exhibited the same MIC/MBC against each strain, yielded overlaid curves in the microbiological assay (P>0.21) and were bioequivalent (IC90 83-117% for AUC test/reference ratio). In vivo, the generic product and innovator were again undistinguishable in all models and against the different bacterial pathogens involved. The relevance of these neutropenic murine models of infection was established by demonstrating their accuracy to predict the biological response following simultaneous treatment with a generic product or the innovator of TZP. Therapeutic equivalence of the generic product was proved in every model and against different pathogens.

  11. Diaphragm Muscle Adaptation to Sustained Hypoxia: Lessons from Animal Models with Relevance to High Altitude and Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Philip; O'Halloran, Ken D.

    2016-01-01

    The diaphragm is the primary inspiratory pump muscle of breathing. Notwithstanding its critical role in pulmonary ventilation, the diaphragm like other striated muscles is malleable in response to physiological and pathophysiological stressors, with potential implications for the maintenance of respiratory homeostasis. This review considers hypoxic adaptation of the diaphragm muscle, with a focus on functional, structural, and metabolic remodeling relevant to conditions such as high altitude and chronic respiratory disease. On the basis of emerging data in animal models, we posit that hypoxia is a significant driver of respiratory muscle plasticity, with evidence suggestive of both compensatory and deleterious adaptations in conditions of sustained exposure to low oxygen. Cellular strategies driving diaphragm remodeling during exposure to sustained hypoxia appear to confer hypoxic tolerance at the expense of peak force-generating capacity, a key functional parameter that correlates with patient morbidity and mortality. Changes include, but are not limited to: redox-dependent activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and MAP kinases; time-dependent carbonylation of key metabolic and functional proteins; decreased mitochondrial respiration; activation of atrophic signaling and increased proteolysis; and altered functional performance. Diaphragm muscle weakness may be a signature effect of sustained hypoxic exposure. We discuss the putative role of reactive oxygen species as mediators of both advantageous and disadvantageous adaptations of diaphragm muscle to sustained hypoxia, and the role of antioxidants in mitigating adverse effects of chronic hypoxic stress on respiratory muscle function. PMID:28018247

  12. Diaphragm Muscle Adaptation to Sustained Hypoxia: Lessons from Animal Models with Relevance to High Altitude and Chronic Respiratory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Philip; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2016-01-01

    The diaphragm is the primary inspiratory pump muscle of breathing. Notwithstanding its critical role in pulmonary ventilation, the diaphragm like other striated muscles is malleable in response to physiological and pathophysiological stressors, with potential implications for the maintenance of respiratory homeostasis. This review considers hypoxic adaptation of the diaphragm muscle, with a focus on functional, structural, and metabolic remodeling relevant to conditions such as high altitude and chronic respiratory disease. On the basis of emerging data in animal models, we posit that hypoxia is a significant driver of respiratory muscle plasticity, with evidence suggestive of both compensatory and deleterious adaptations in conditions of sustained exposure to low oxygen. Cellular strategies driving diaphragm remodeling during exposure to sustained hypoxia appear to confer hypoxic tolerance at the expense of peak force-generating capacity, a key functional parameter that correlates with patient morbidity and mortality. Changes include, but are not limited to: redox-dependent activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and MAP kinases; time-dependent carbonylation of key metabolic and functional proteins; decreased mitochondrial respiration; activation of atrophic signaling and increased proteolysis; and altered functional performance. Diaphragm muscle weakness may be a signature effect of sustained hypoxic exposure. We discuss the putative role of reactive oxygen species as mediators of both advantageous and disadvantageous adaptations of diaphragm muscle to sustained hypoxia, and the role of antioxidants in mitigating adverse effects of chronic hypoxic stress on respiratory muscle function.

  13. Animal Models of Nicotine Exposure: Relevance to Second-Hand Smoking, Electronic Cigarette Use, and Compulsive Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ami; George, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Much evidence indicates that individuals use tobacco primarily to experience the psychopharmacological properties of nicotine and that a large proportion of smokers eventually become dependent on nicotine. In humans, nicotine acutely produces positive reinforcing effects, including mild euphoria, whereas a nicotine abstinence syndrome with both somatic and affective components is observed after chronic nicotine exposure. Animal models of nicotine self-administration and chronic exposure to nicotine have been critical in unveiling the neurobiological substrates that mediate the acute reinforcing effects of nicotine and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence. However, important aspects of the transition from nicotine abuse to nicotine dependence, such as the emergence of increased motivation and compulsive nicotine intake following repeated exposure to the drug, have only recently begun to be modeled in animals. Thus, the neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in these important aspects of nicotine addiction remain largely unknown. In this review, we describe the different animal models available to date and discuss recent advances in animal models of nicotine exposure and nicotine dependence. This review demonstrates that novel animal models of nicotine vapor exposure and escalation of nicotine intake provide a unique opportunity to investigate the neurobiological effects of second-hand nicotine exposure, electronic cigarette use, and the mechanisms that underlie the transition from nicotine use to compulsive nicotine intake. PMID:23761766

  14. Animal Models to Study Links between Cardiovascular Disease and Renal Failure and Their Relevance to Human Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hewitson, Tim D.; Holt, Stephen G.; Smith, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    The close association between cardiovascular pathology and renal dysfunction is well documented and significant. Patients with conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease like diabetes and hypertension also suffer renal dysfunction. This is unsurprising if the kidney is simply regarded as a “modified blood vessel” and thus, traditional risk factors will affect both systems. Consistent with this, it is relatively easy to comprehend how patients with either sudden or gradual cardiac and or vascular compromise have changes in both renal hemodynamic and regulatory systems. However, patients with pure or primary renal dysfunction also have metabolic changes (e.g., oxidant stress, inflammation, nitric oxide, or endocrine changes) that affect the cardiovascular system. Thus, cardiovascular and renal systems are intimately, bidirectionally and inextricably linked. Whilst we understand several of these links, some of the mechanisms for these connections remain incompletely explained. Animal models of cardiovascular and renal disease allow us to explore such mechanisms, and more importantly, potential therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review various experimental models used, and examine critically how representative they are of the human condition. PMID:26441970

  15. Animal models of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on

  16. Challenges and issues with streptozotocin-induced diabetes - A clinically relevant animal model to understand the diabetes pathogenesis and evaluate therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sameer N; Reddy, Navya M; Patil, Kalpesh R; Nakhate, Kartik T; Ojha, Shreesh; Patil, Chandragouda R; Agrawal, Yogeeta O

    2016-01-25

    Streptozotocin (STZ) has been extensively used over the last three decades to induce diabetes in various animal species and to help screen for hypoglycemic drugs. STZ induces clinical features in animals that resemble those associated with diabetes in humans. For this reason STZ treated animals have been used to study diabetogenic mechanisms and for preclinical evaluation of novel antidiabetic therapies. However, the physiochemical characteristics and associated toxicities of STZ are still major obstacles for researchers using STZ treated animals to investigate diabetes. Another major challenges in STZ-induced diabetes are sustaining uniformity, suitability, reproducibility and induction of diabetes with minimal animal lethality. Lack of appropriate use of STZ was found to be associated with increased mortality and animal suffering. During STZ use in animals, attention should be paid to several factors such as method of preparation of STZ, stability, suitable dose, route of administration, diet regimen, animal species with respect to age, body weight, gender and the target blood glucose level used to represent hyperglycemia. Therefore, protocol for STZ-induced diabetes in experimental animals must be meticulously planned. This review highlights specific skills and strategies involved in the execution of STZ-induced diabetes model. The present review aims to provide insight into diabetogenic mechanisms of STZ, specific toxicity of STZ with its significance and factors responsible for variations in diabetogenic effects of STZ. Further this review also addresses ways to minimize STZ-induced mortality, suggests methods to improve STZ-based experimental models and best utilize them for experimental studies purported to understand diabetes pathogenesis and preclinical evaluation of drugs.

  17. Solidarity with Animals: Assessing a Relevant Dimension of Social Identification with Animals.

    PubMed

    Amiot, Catherine E; Bastian, Brock

    2017-01-01

    Interactions with animals are pervasive in human life, a fact that is reflected in the burgeoning field of human-animal relations research. The goal of the current research was to examine the psychology of our social connection with other animals, by specifically developing a measure of solidarity with animals. In 8 studies using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal designs, solidarity with animals predicted more positive attitudes and behaviors toward animals, over and above existing scales of identification, and even when this implied a loss of resources and privileges for humans relative to animals. Solidarity with animals also displayed predicted relationships with relevant variables (anthropomorphism, empathy). Pet owners and vegetarians displayed higher levels of solidarity with animals. Correlational and experimental evidence confirmed that human-animal similarity heightens solidarity with animals. Our findings provide a useful measure that can facilitate important insights into the nature of our relationships with animals.

  18. Solidarity with Animals: Assessing a Relevant Dimension of Social Identification with Animals

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, Catherine E.; Bastian, Brock

    2017-01-01

    Interactions with animals are pervasive in human life, a fact that is reflected in the burgeoning field of human-animal relations research. The goal of the current research was to examine the psychology of our social connection with other animals, by specifically developing a measure of solidarity with animals. In 8 studies using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal designs, solidarity with animals predicted more positive attitudes and behaviors toward animals, over and above existing scales of identification, and even when this implied a loss of resources and privileges for humans relative to animals. Solidarity with animals also displayed predicted relationships with relevant variables (anthropomorphism, empathy). Pet owners and vegetarians displayed higher levels of solidarity with animals. Correlational and experimental evidence confirmed that human-animal similarity heightens solidarity with animals. Our findings provide a useful measure that can facilitate important insights into the nature of our relationships with animals. PMID:28045909

  19. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Nobuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host's normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the present paper, we surveyed reports about the methodology of the dermatophytosis animal model for tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium and discussed future prospects. PMID:22619489

  20. Animal Models in Burn Research

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  1. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  2. Animal Models of Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, J. K.; Hildreth, B. E.; Supsavhad, W.; Elshafae, S. M.; Hassan, B. B.; Dirksen, W. P.; Toribio, R. E.; Rosol, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites of cancer metastasis in humans and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Bone metastases are considered incurable and result in pain, pathologic fracture, and decreased quality of life. Animal models of skeletal metastases are essential to improve the understanding of the molecular pathways of cancer metastasis and growth in bone and to develop new therapies to inhibit and prevent bone metastases. The ideal animal model should be clinically relevant, reproducible, and representative of human disease. Currently, an ideal model does not exist; however, understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the available models will lead to proper study design and successful cancer research. This review provides an overview of the current in vivo animal models used in the study of skeletal metastases or local tumor invasion into bone and focuses on mammary and prostate cancer, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and miscellaneous tumors that metastasize to bone. PMID:26021553

  3. Animal models of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  4. Animal models for osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  5. Animal models of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  6. Animal models of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yijie; Yibrehu, Betel; Zabini, Diana; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2017-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a debilitating, inflammatory, multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown cause, commonly affecting the lung. In contrast to other chronic lung diseases such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary arterial hypertension, there is so far no widely accepted or implemented animal model for this disease. This has hampered our insights into the etiology of sarcoidosis, the mechanisms of its pathogenesis, the identification of new biomarkers and diagnostic tools and, last not least, the development and implementation of novel treatment strategies. Over past years, however, a number of new animal models have been described that may provide useful tools to fill these critical knowledge gaps. In this review, we therefore outline the present status quo for animal models of sarcoidosis, comparing their pros and cons with respect to their ability to mimic the etiological, clinical and histological hallmarks of human disease and discuss their applicability for future research. Overall, the recent surge in animal models has markedly expanded our options for translational research; however, given the relative early stage of most animal models for sarcoidosis, appropriate replication of etiological and histological features of clinical disease, reproducibility and usefulness in terms of identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, and testing of new treatments should be prioritized when considering the refinement of existing or the development of new models.

  7. Animal models for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Komori, Toshihisa

    2015-07-15

    The major types of osteoporosis in humans are postmenopausal osteoporosis, disuse osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis are generated by ovariectomy. Bone loss occurs in estrogen deficiency due to enhanced bone resorption and impaired osteoblast function. Estrogen receptor α induces osteoclast apoptosis, but the mechanism for impaired osteoblast function remains to be clarified. Animal models for unloading are generated by tail suspension or hind limb immobilization by sciatic neurectomy, tenotomy, or using plaster cast. Unloading inhibits bone formation and enhances bone resorption, and the involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in it needs to be further investigated. The osteocyte network regulates bone mass by responding to mechanical stress. Osteoblast-specific BCL2 transgenic mice, in which the osteocyte network is completely disrupted, can be a mouse model for the evaluation of osteocyte functions. Glucocorticoid treatment inhibits bone formation and enhances bone resorption, and markedly reduces cancellous bone in humans and large animals, but not consistently in rodents.

  8. Complexity and Animal Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Complexity and animal models 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...decrease W/Wmax, thereby maintaining the relationship between variability and W/Wmax. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2010.05.012 Complexity and animal models...may not be possible during mass casualty and natural disaster situations or may need to be postponed during combat to avoid danger to the medic’s life

  9. [Law, guidelines and standards relevant to laboratory animals and animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Takagaki, Y

    1982-04-01

    Presently available laws guidelines and standards relevant to laboratory animals and animal experimentation are reviewed. In Japan there exist Animal Protection and Management Act, and the Guideline for Animal Care and Management which was later prepared in accordance with the former act. These are comparable in quality to those seen in foreign countries such as the Cruelty to Animals Act of Great Britain or the Animal Welfare Act of U.S.A. As for laboratory animals, however, only basic matters appear there, and that is why the Japanese National Academy of Science in 1980 proposed legislation of a guideline for animal experimentation to the government. It is awaited to legislate sooner the one comparable to the Guidelines for the Regulation of Animal Experimentation prepared by ICLA in 1974. Other laws and regulations referred and discussed here are: *standards and guidelines for breeding, care and management of laboratory animals *veterinary laws and regulations which should be referred when domestic or wild animals are to be used for experiments *laws and regulations for general housing construction and environmental protection *regulations for particular experiments where radioisotopes, microbial infections or recombinant DNA are in use

  10. Cyclic Hematopoiesis: animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.B.; Lange, R.D.

    1983-08-01

    The four existing animal models of cyclic hematopoiesis are briefly described. The unusual erythropoietin (Ep) responses of the W/Wv mouse, the Sl/Sld mouse, and cyclic hematopoietic dog are reviewed. The facts reviewed indicate that the bone marrow itself is capable of influencing regulatory events of hematopoiesis.

  11. The development of animal personality: relevance, concepts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Judy; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies of animal personality have focused on its proximate causation and its ecological and evolutionary significance, but have mostly ignored questions about its development, although an understanding of the latter is highly relevant to these other questions. One possible reason for this neglect is confusion about many of the concepts and terms that are necessary to study the development of animal personality. Here, we provide a framework for studying personality development that focuses on the properties of animal personality, and considers how and why these properties may change over time. We specifically focus on three dimensions of personality: (1) contextual generality at a given age or time, (2) temporal consistency in behavioural traits and in relationships between traits, and (3) the effects of genes and experience on the development of personality at a given age or life stage. We advocate using a new approach, contextual reaction norms, to study the contextual generality of personality traits at the level of groups, individuals and genotypes, show how concepts and terms borrowed from the literature on personality development in humans can be used to study temporal changes in personality at the level of groups and individuals, and demonstrate how classical developmental reaction norms can provide insights into the ways that genes and experiential factors interact across ontogeny to affect the expression of personality traits. In addition, we discuss how correlations between the effects of genes and experience on personality development can arise as a function of individuals' control over their own environment, via niche-picking or niche-construction. Using this framework, we discuss several widely held assumptions about animal personality development that still await validation, identify neglected methodological issues, and describe a number of promising new avenues for future research.

  12. Animal models of narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E; McKenna, James T; McCarley, Robert W

    2009-08-01

    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems in canine narcolepsy. In 1999, two independent studies revealed that orexin neurotransmission deficiency was pivotal to the development of narcolepsy with cataplexy. This scientific leap fueled the generation of several genetically engineered mouse and rat models of narcolepsy. To facilitate further research, it is imperative that researchers reach a consensus concerning the evaluation of narcoleptic behavioral and EEG phenomenology in these models.

  13. Animal Farm: Considerations in Animal Gastrointestinal Physiology and Relevance to Drug Delivery in Humans.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Grace B; Yadav, Vipul; Basit, Abdul W; Merchant, Hamid A

    2015-09-01

    "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others" was the illustrious quote derived from British writer George Orwell's famed work, Animal Farm. Extending beyond the remit of political allegory, however, this statement would appear to hold true for the selection of appropriate animal models to simulate human physiology in preclinical studies. There remain definite gaps in our current knowledge with respect to animal physiology, notably those of intra- and inter-species differences in gastrointestinal (GI) function, which may affect oral drug delivery and absorption. Factors such as cost and availability have often influenced the choice of animal species without clear justification for their similarity to humans, and lack of standardization in techniques employed in past studies using various animals may also have contributed to the generation of contradictory results. As it stands, attempts to identify a single animal species as appropriately representative of human physiology and which may able to adequately simulate human in vivo conditions are limited. In this review, we have compiled and critically reviewed data from numerous studies of GI anatomy and physiology of various animal species commonly used in drug delivery modeling, commenting on the appropriateness of these animals for in vivo comparison and extrapolation to humans.

  14. Animal models of adrenocortical tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beuschlein, Felix; Galac, Sara; Wilson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, research on human adrenocortical neoplasia has been dominated by gene expression profiling of tumor specimens and by analysis of genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to these tumors. Although these studies have identified key genes and associated signaling pathways that are dysregulated in adrenocortical neoplasms, the molecular events accounting for the frequent occurrence of benign tumors and low rate of malignant transformation remain unknown. Moreover, the prognosis for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma remains poor, so new medical treatments are needed. Naturally occurring and genetically engineered animal models afford a means to investigate adrenocortical tumorigenesis and to develop novel therapeutics. This comparative review highlights adrenocortical tumor models useful for either mechanistic studies or preclinical testing. Three model species – mouse, ferret, and dog – are reviewed, and their relevance to adrenocortical tumors in humans is discussed. PMID:22100615

  15. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

  16. Optimization of high grade glioma cell culture from surgical specimens for use in clinically relevant animal models and 3D immunochemistry.

    PubMed

    Hasselbach, Laura A; Irtenkauf, Susan M; Lemke, Nancy W; Nelson, Kevin K; Berezovsky, Artem D; Carlton, Enoch T; Transou, Andrea D; Mikkelsen, Tom; deCarvalho, Ana C

    2014-01-07

    Glioblastomas, the most common and aggressive form of astrocytoma, are refractory to therapy, and molecularly heterogeneous. The ability to establish cell cultures that preserve the genomic profile of the parental tumors, for use in patient specific in vitro and in vivo models, has the potential to revolutionize the preclinical development of new treatments for glioblastoma tailored to the molecular characteristics of each tumor. Starting with fresh high grade astrocytoma tumors dissociated into single cells, we use the neurosphere assay as an enrichment method for cells presenting cancer stem cell phenotype, including expression of neural stem cell markers, long term self-renewal in vitro, and the ability to form orthotopic xenograft tumors. This method has been previously proposed, and is now in use by several investigators. Based on our experience of dissociating and culturing 125 glioblastoma specimens, we arrived at the detailed protocol we present here, suitable for routine neurosphere culturing of high grade astrocytomas and large scale expansion of tumorigenic cells for preclinical studies. We report on the efficiency of successful long term cultures using this protocol and suggest affordable alternatives for culturing dissociated glioblastoma cells that fail to grow as neurospheres. We also describe in detail a protocol for preserving the neurospheres 3D architecture for immunohistochemistry. Cell cultures enriched in CSCs, capable of generating orthotopic xenograft models that preserve the molecular signatures and heterogeneity of GBMs, are becoming increasingly popular for the study of the biology of GBMs and for the improved design of preclinical testing of potential therapies.

  17. Animal models of RLS phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Allen, Richard P; Donelson, Nathan C; Jones, Byron C; Li, Yuqing; Manconi, Mauro; Rye, David B; Sanyal, Subhabrata; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a complex disorder that involves sensory and motor systems. The major pathophysiology of RLS is low iron concentration in the substantia nigra containing the cell bodies of dopamine neurons that project to the striatum, an area that is crucial for modulating movement. People who have RLS often present with normal iron values outside the brain; recent studies implicate several genes are involved in the syndrome. Like most complex diseases, animal models usually do not faithfully capture the full phenotypic spectrum of "disease," which is a uniquely human construct. Nonetheless, animal models have proven useful in helping to unravel the complex pathophysiology of diseases such as RLS and suggesting novel treatment paradigms. For example, hypothesis-independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genes as increasing the risk for RLS, including BTBD9. Independently, the murine homolog Btbd9 was identified as a candidate gene for iron regulation in the midbrain in mice. The relevance of the phenotype of another of the GWAS identified genes, MEIS1, has also been explored. The role of Btbd9 in iron regulation and RLS-like behaviors has been further evaluated in mice carrying a null mutation of the gene and in fruit flies when the BTBD9 protein is degraded. The BTBD9 and MEIS1 stories originate from human GWAS research, supported by work in a genetic reference population of mice (forward genetics) and further verified in mice, fish flies, and worms. Finally, the role of genetics is further supported by an inbred mouse strain that displays many of the phenotypic characteristics of RLS. The role of animal models of RLS phenotypes is also extended to include periodic limb movements.

  18. ANIMAL MODELS FOR IMMUNOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater susceptibility to infection is a hallmark of compromised immune function in humans and animals, and is often considered the benchmark against which the predictive value of immune function tests are compared. This focus of this paper is resistance to infection with the pa...

  19. [Psoriasis in the animal model].

    PubMed

    Boehncke, W H

    1997-10-01

    Co-existing inflammation and epidermal hyperproliferation characteristic for psoriasis have been shown to be reproducible in several animal models utilizing a variety of different strategies. These models highlight some points of the multicausal pathogenesis of psoriasis. Based on observations made in the animal models, a hypothesis is proposed for the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the elements of which can be tested in a recently established xenogeneic transplantation model.

  20. The Semantic Distance Model of Relevance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the Semantic Distance Model (SDM) of Relevance Assessment, a cognitive model of the relationship between semantic distance and relevance assessment. Discusses premises of the model such as the subjective nature of information and the metaphor of semantic distance. Empirical results illustrate the effects of semantic distance and semantic…

  1. Animal models of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Mandeep Singh; Khan, Samsroz Ahmad; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Choudhary, Rajesh; Bodakhe, Surendra H

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a prevalent male sexual dysfunction with profound adverse effects on the physical and the psychosocial health of men and, subsequently, on their partners. The expanded use of various types of rodent models has produced some advances in the study of ED, and neurophysiological studies using various animal models have provided important insights into human sexual dysfunction. At present, animal models play a key role in exploring and screening novel drugs designed to treat ED.

  2. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  3. Animal Models for Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Heather R.; Huppler, Anna R.; Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple forms of candidiasis are clinically important in humans. Established murine models of disseminated, oropharyngeal, vaginal, and cutaneous candidiasis caused by Candida albicans are described in this unit. Detailed materials and methods for C. albicans growth and detection are also described. PMID:24700323

  4. Animal Models of Bacterial Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Marquart, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial keratitis is a disease of the cornea characterized by pain, redness, inflammation, and opacity. Common causes of this disease are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Animal models of keratitis have been used to elucidate both the bacterial factors and the host inflammatory response involved in the disease. Reviewed herein are animal models of bacterial keratitis and some of the key findings in the last several decades. PMID:21274270

  5. Composite Mandibulectomy: A Novel Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Sidell, Douglas R.; Aghaloo, Tara; Tetradis, Sotirios; Lee, Min; Bezouglaia, Olga; DeConde, Adam; St. John, Maie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Segmental mandibular defects can result after the treatment of various pathologic processes, including osteoradionecrosis, tumor resection, or fracture nonunion with sequestration. The variety of etiologies and the frequency of occurrence make the reconstruction of segmental mandibular defects a topic of significant interest. Despite these incentives, a well-established small-animal model of the segmental mandibulectomy, including composite resection, does not exist. The objective of this study is the creation of a reliable animal model that can be used to study the reconstruction of en bloc mandibular defects. Surgical techniques and an array of reconstructive options are described. Study design Description of an animal model. Setting Animal laboratory at a quaternary care university medical center. Methods We present an Animal Research Oversight Committee–approved prospective analysis of survival operations in the rat model. A detailed, stepwise description of surgical technique and relevant intraoperative anatomy is presented. Postoperative management, early pitfalls, surgical complications, and future applications are discussed. Results A total of 72 operations were performed by a single individual between July and October 2010. Two intraoperative and 9 postoperative complications were recognized. There were 6 orocutaneous fistulas, 2 abscesses, and 1 seroma. There were 4 fatalities, which were attributed to anesthetic complications (2, intraoperative), hematoma formation (1, postoperative), and foreign-body aspiration (1, postoperative). Conclusion This novel animal model reliably replicates the en bloc segmental mandibular defects seen in our patient population and can be manipulated to achieve a wide variety of research objectives. PMID:22282867

  6. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Wexler, Anthony; Ristenpart, William

    2014-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in modulating the pathogen transmission, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulence intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of a standard axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We demonstrate that the fan speed counterintuitively has no effect on the downstream plume width, a result replicated with a variety of different fan types and configurations. The results point toward a useful simplification in modeling of airborne disease transmission via fan-generated flows.

  7. Anhedonia, avolition, and anticipatory deficits: assessments in animals with relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Samuel A; Der-Avakian, Andre; Markou, Athina

    2014-05-01

    Schizophrenia represents a complex, heterogeneous disorder characterized by several symptomatic domains that include positive and negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. Negative symptoms reflect a cluster of symptoms that remains therapeutically unresponsive to currently available medications. Therefore, the development of animal models that may contribute to the discovery of novel and efficacious treatment strategies is essential. An animal model consists of both an inducing condition or manipulation (i.e., independent variable) and an observable measure(s) (i.e., dependent variables) that are used to assess the construct(s) under investigation. The objective of this review is to describe currently available experimental procedures that can be used to characterize constructs relevant to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia in experimental animals. While negative symptoms can encompass aspects of social withdrawal and emotional blunting, this review focuses on the assessment of reward deficits that result in anhedonia, avolition, and abnormal reward anticipation. The development and utilization of animal procedures that accurately assess reward-based constructs related to negative symptomatology in schizophrenia will provide an improved understanding of the neural substrates involved in these processes.

  8. Anhedonia, avolition, and anticipatory deficits: Assessments in animals with relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Samuel A.; Der-Avakian, Andre; Markou, Athina

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia represents a complex, heterogeneous disorder characterized by several symptomatic domains that include positive and negative symptoms, and cognitive deficits. Negative symptoms reflect a cluster of symptoms that remains therapeutically unresponsive to currently available medications. Therefore, the development of animal models that may contribute to the discovery of novel and efficacious treatment strategies is essential. An animal model consists of both an inducing condition or manipulation (i.e., independent variable) and an observable measure(s) (i.e., dependent variables) that are used to assess the construct(s) under investigation. The objective of this review is to describe currently available experimental procedures that can be used to characterize constructs relevant to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia in experimental animals. While negative symptoms can encompass aspects of social withdrawal and emotional blunting, this review focuses on the assessment of reward deficits that result in anhedonia, avolition, and abnormal reward anticipation. The development and utilization of animal procedures that accurately assess reward-based constructs related to negative symptomatology in schizophrenia will provide an improved understanding of the neural substrates involved in these processes. PMID:24183826

  9. Animal and cellular models of Friedreich ataxia.

    PubMed

    Perdomini, Morgane; Hick, Aurore; Puccio, Hélène; Pook, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    The development and use of animal and cellular models of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) are essential requirements for the understanding of FRDA disease mechanisms and the investigation of potential FRDA therapeutic strategies. Although animal and cellular models of lower organisms have provided valuable information on certain aspects of FRDA disease and therapy, it is intuitive that the most useful models are those of mammals and mammalian cells, which are the closest in physiological terms to FRDA patients. To date, there have been considerable efforts put into the development of several different FRDA mouse models and relevant FRDA mouse and human cell line systems. We summarize the principal mammalian FRDA models, discuss the pros and cons of each system, and describe the ways in which such models have been used to address two of the fundamental, as yet unanswered, questions regarding FRDA. Namely, what is the exact pathophysiology of FRDA and what is the detailed genetic and epigenetic basis of FRDA?

  10. Animal models of chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Storer, Robin James; Supronsinchai, Weera; Srikiatkhachorn, Anan

    2015-01-01

    Many animal models of migraine have been described. Some of them have been useful in the development of new therapies. All of them have their shortcomings. Animal models of chronic migraine have been relatively less frequently described. Whether a rigid distinction between episodic and chronic migraine is useful when their underlying pathophysiology is likely to be the same and that migraine frequency probably depends on complex polygenic influences remains to be determined. Any model of chronic migraine must reflect the chronicity of the disorder and be reliable and validated with pharmacological interventions. Future animal models of chronic migraine are likely to involve recurrent activation of the trigeminal nociceptive system. Valid models would provide a means for investigating pathophysiological mechanism of the transformation from episodic to chronic migraine and may also be used to test the efficacy of potential preventive medications.

  11. Uncertainty in spatially explicit animal dispersal models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooij, Wolf M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    Uncertainty in estimates of survival of dispersing animals is a vexing difficulty in conservation biology. The current notion is that this uncertainty decreases the usefulness of spatially explicit population models in particular. We examined this problem by comparing dispersal models of three levels of complexity: (1) an event-based binomial model that considers only the occurrence of mortality or arrival, (2) a temporally explicit exponential model that employs mortality and arrival rates, and (3) a spatially explicit grid-walk model that simulates the movement of animals through an artificial landscape. Each model was fitted to the same set of field data. A first objective of the paper is to illustrate how the maximum-likelihood method can be used in all three cases to estimate the means and confidence limits for the relevant model parameters, given a particular set of data on dispersal survival. Using this framework we show that the structure of the uncertainty for all three models is strikingly similar. In fact, the results of our unified approach imply that spatially explicit dispersal models, which take advantage of information on landscape details, suffer less from uncertainly than do simpler models. Moreover, we show that the proposed strategy of model development safeguards one from error propagation in these more complex models. Finally, our approach shows that all models related to animal dispersal, ranging from simple to complex, can be related in a hierarchical fashion, so that the various approaches to modeling such dispersal can be viewed from a unified perspective.

  12. Animal models of trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Frith, Daniel; Cohen, Mitchell J; Brohi, Karim

    2012-05-01

    Resurgent study of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) has delivered considerable improvements in survival after injury. Robust, valid and clinically relevant experimental models of TIC are essential to support the evolution of our knowledge and management of this condition. The aims of this study were to identify and analyze contemporary animal models of TIC with regard to their ability to accurately characterize known mechanisms of coagulopathy and/or to test the efficacy of therapeutic agents. A literature review was performed. Structured search of the indexed online database MEDLINE/PubMed in July 2010 identified 43 relevant articles containing 23 distinct animal models of TIC. The main aim of 26 studies was to test a therapeutic and the other 17 were conducted to investigate pathophysiology. A preponderance of porcine models was identified. Three new models demonstrating an endogenous acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) have offered new insights into the pathophysiology of TIC. Independent or combined effects of induced hypothermia and metabolic acidosis have been extensively evaluated. Recently, a pig model of TIC has been developed that features all major etiologies of TIC, although not in correct chronological order. This review identifies a general lack of experimental research to keep pace with clinical developments. Tissue injury and hemorrhagic shock are fundamental initiating events that prime the hemostatic system for subsequent iatrogenic insults. New animal models utilizing a variety of species that accurately simulate the natural clinical trajectory of trauma are urgently needed.

  13. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    PubMed

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  14. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal models provide an important resource for investigation of tissue-specific tumourigenic mechanisms, and evaluations of novel therapies, illustrated by studies into multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a hereditary syndrome in which ∼30% of patients develop pituitary adenomas. This review describes animal models of pituitary neoplasia that have been generated, together with some recent advances in gene editing technologies, and an illustration of the use of the Men1 mouse as a pre clinical model for evaluating novel therapies. PMID:26320859

  15. Animal models of soft-tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Rebecca D.; Mito, Jeffery K.; Kirsch, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from muscle, fat and connective tissue. Currently, over 75 subtypes of STS are recognized. The rarity and heterogeneity of patient samples complicate clinical investigations into sarcoma biology. Model organisms might provide traction to our understanding and treatment of the disease. Over the past 10 years, many successful animal models of STS have been developed, primarily genetically engineered mice and zebrafish. These models are useful for studying the relevant oncogenes, signaling pathways and other cell changes involved in generating STSs. Recently, these model systems have become preclinical platforms in which to evaluate new drugs and treatment regimens. Thus, animal models are useful surrogates for understanding STS disease susceptibility and pathogenesis as well as for testing potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:20713645

  16. Small animal models of xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation has become a successful and acceptable treatment for end-stage organ failure. Such success has allowed transplant patients to resume a normal lifestyle. The demands for transplantation have been steadily increasing, as more patients and new diseases are being deemed eligible for treatment via transplantation. However, it is clear that human organs will never meet the increasing demand of transplantation. Therefore, scientists must continue to pursue alternative therapies and explore new treatments to meet the growing demand for the limited number of organs available. Transplanting organs from animals into humans (xenotransplantation) is one such therapy. The observed enthusiasm for xenotransplantation, irrespective of the severe shortage of human organs and tissues available for transplantation, can be said to stem from at least two factors. First, there is the possibility that animal organs and tissues might be less susceptible than those of humans to the recurrence of disease processes. Second, a xenograft might be used as a vehicle for introducing novel genes or biochemical processes which could be of therapeutic value for the transplant recipient.To date, millions of lives have been saved by organ transplantation. These remarkable achievements would have been impossible without experimental transplantation research in animal models. Presently, more than 95% of organ transplantation research projects are carried out using rodents, such as rats and mice. The key factor to ensure the success of these experiments lies in state-of-the art experimental surgery. Small animal models offer unique advantages for the mechanistic study of xenotransplantation rejection. Currently, multiple models have been developed for investigating the different stages of immunological barriers in xenotransplantation. In this chapter, we describe six valuable small animal models that have been used in xenotransplantation research. The methodology for the small animal

  17. Animal models in virus research: their utility and limitations.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2013-11-01

    Viral diseases are important threats to public health worldwide. With the number of emerging viral diseases increasing the last decades, there is a growing need for appropriate animal models for virus studies. The relevance of animal models can be limited in terms of mimicking human pathophysiology. In this review, we discuss the utility of animal models for studies of influenza A viruses, HIV and SARS-CoV in light of viral emergence, assessment of infection and transmission risks, and regulatory decision making. We address their relevance and limitations. The susceptibility, immune responses, pathogenesis, and pharmacokinetics may differ between the various animal models. These complexities may thwart translating results from animal experiments to the humans. Within these constraints, animal models are very informative for studying virus immunopathology and transmission modes and for translation of virus research into clinical benefit. Insight in the limitations of the various models may facilitate further improvements of the models.

  18. Stochastic modelling of animal movement

    PubMed Central

    Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal points that attract the animal's movements. (ii) Memory-based models are used to predict how accumulated experience translates into biased movement choices, employing reinforced random walk behaviour, with previous visitation increasing or decreasing the probability of repetition. (iii) Lévy movement involves a step-length distribution that is over-dispersed, relative to standard probability distributions, and adaptive in exploring new environments or searching for rare targets. Each of these modelling arenas implies more detail in the movement pattern than general models of movement can accommodate, but realistic empiric evaluation of their predictions requires dense locational data, both in time and space, only available with modern GPS telemetry. PMID:20566497

  19. Animal models of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    LaFerla, Frank M; Green, Kim N

    2012-11-01

    Significant insights into the function of genes associated with Alzheimer disease and related dementias have occurred through studying genetically modified animals. Although none of the existing models fully reproduces the complete spectrum of this insidious human disease, critical aspects of Alzheimer pathology and disease processes can be experimentally recapitulated. Genetically modified animal models have helped advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease and have proven to be invaluable in the preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions. Continuing refinement and evolution to yield the next generation of animal models will facilitate successes in producing greater translational concordance between preclinical studies and human clinical trials and eventually lead to the introduction of novel therapies into clinical practice.

  20. Animal models of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Carlos; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Lavin, Begoña; Mallavia, Beñat; Tarin, Carlos; Mas, Sebastian; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Small mammalian animal models of heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Paula; Fan, Huimin; Liu, Zhongmin; He, Jia-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent clinical need to develop new therapeutic approaches for treating cardiovascular disease, but the biology of cardiovascular regeneration is complex. Model systems are required to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis, progression, and mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease as well as to test therapeutic approaches to regenerate tissue and restore cardiac function following injury. An ideal model system should be inexpensive, easily manipulated, reproducible, physiologically representative of human disease, and ethically sound. The choice of animal model needs to be considered carefully since it affects experimental outcomes and whether findings of the study can be reasonably translated to humans. This review presents a guideline for the commonly used small animal models (mice, rats, rabbits, and cats) used in cardiac research as an effort to standardize the most relevant procedures and obtain translatable and reproducible results. PMID:27679742

  2. An ecologist's guide to the animal model.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alastair J; Réale, Denis; Clements, Michelle N; Morrissey, Michael M; Postma, Erik; Walling, Craig A; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Nussey, Daniel H

    2010-01-01

    1. Efforts to understand the links between evolutionary and ecological dynamics hinge on our ability to measure and understand how genes influence phenotypes, fitness and population dynamics. Quantitative genetics provides a range of theoretical and empirical tools with which to achieve this when the relatedness between individuals within a population is known. 2. A number of recent studies have used a type of mixed-effects model, known as the animal model, to estimate the genetic component of phenotypic variation using data collected in the field. Here, we provide a practical guide for ecologists interested in exploring the potential to apply this quantitative genetic method in their research. 3. We begin by outlining, in simple terms, key concepts in quantitative genetics and how an animal model estimates relevant quantitative genetic parameters, such as heritabilities or genetic correlations. 4. We then provide three detailed example tutorials, for implementation in a variety of software packages, for some basic applications of the animal model. We discuss several important statistical issues relating to best practice when fitting different kinds of mixed models. 5. We conclude by briefly summarizing more complex applications of the animal model, and by highlighting key pitfalls and dangers for the researcher wanting to begin using quantitative genetic tools to address ecological and evolutionary questions.

  3. Morally relevant differences between animals and human beings justifying the use of animals in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Dennis, J U

    1997-03-01

    I have attempted to show that the differential qualities of animals and human beings indeed to have bearing on moral rules and the derivation of rights, including rights established on the basis of reason and utilitarianism. Special rights for members of our species are not simply a consequence of human domination and self-interest. I also have tried to show that rights arise from values and that the qualities we value most highly often are the ones that distinguish human beings from other species. I maintain that giving more value to human lives over animal lives achieves reflective balance with the commonsense notions that most of us have developed. Because utilitarianism, contractualism, and the classical philosophical methods of Kant and Aristotle all may allow favoring human interests over animal interests, it seems reasonable to suspect that animal rights activists embrace narrow, extremist views. There are many uniquely human experiences to which we ascribe high value-deep interpersonal relationships, achieving a life's goal, enjoying a complex cultural event such as a play or an opera, or authoring a manuscript. Therefore, it would seem improper that social and ethical considerations regarding animals be centered entirely on the notion of a biological continuum, because there are many kinds of human experience-moral, religious, aesthetic, and otherwise-that appear to be outside the realm of biology. Knowledge about the biology of animals is helpful for making moral decisions about our obligations to them. Why, then, is there a substantial population of animal rights activists in Europe, the United States, and throughout the world, who would not agree with my conclusions? Certain habitual ways of thinking may encourage anthropomorphism and equating animal interests with human interests. Certain metaphysical beliefs, such as a belief in reincarnation, also might favor animal rights. It also is possible that a number of people are being deceived and misled by

  4. Animal Models of Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    P Bradley And Claude M Nagamine, Michael

    2017-03-07

    Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults. This recent association with severe clinical disease, of which further analysis strongly suggested causation by Zika virus, has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of both basic and applied research of this virus. Both small and large animal models are being used to uncover the pathogenesis of this emerging disease and to develop vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here we review the animal-model-based Zika virus research that has been performed to date.

  5. Large genetic animal models of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Morton, A Jennifer; Howland, David S

    2013-01-01

    The dominant nature of the Huntington's disease gene mutation has allowed genetic models to be developed in multiple species, with the mutation causing an abnormal neurological phenotype in all animals in which it is expressed. Many different rodent models have been generated. The most widely used of these, the transgenic R6/2 mouse, carries the mutation in a fragment of the human huntingtin gene and has a rapidly progressive and fatal neurological phenotype with many relevant pathological changes. Nevertheless, their rapid decline has been frequently questioned in the context of a disease that takes years to manifest in humans, and strenuous efforts have been made to make rodent models that are genetically more 'relevant' to the human condition, including full length huntingtin gene transgenic and knock-in mice. While there is no doubt that we have learned, and continue to learn much from rodent models, their usefulness is limited by two species constraints. First, the brains of rodents differ significantly from humans in both their small size and their neuroanatomical organization. Second, rodents have much shorter lifespans than humans. Here, we review new approaches taken to these challenges in the development of models of Huntington's disease in large brained, long-lived animals. We discuss the need for such models, and how they might be used to fill specific niches in preclinical Huntington's disease research, particularly in testing gene-based therapeutics. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animals in which the prodromal period of disease extends over a long time span. We suggest that there is considerable 'value added' for large animal models in preclinical Huntington's disease research.

  6. Overcrowding and Population Growth: The Nature and Relevance of Animal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stettner, Laurence J.

    This paper provides a descriptive overview of research on the consequences of overcrowding and the development of high population densities in animals, and speculates on the relevance of these studies for similar human phenomena. Three major foci are distinguished: (1) the effect of high population densities on animal behavior; (2) the nature of…

  7. Animal models for auditory streaming.

    PubMed

    Itatani, Naoya; Klump, Georg M

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons' response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  8. Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Hraiech, Sami; Papazian, Laurent; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Bregeon, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasionally life-threatening infections. The physiopathology of pneumonia has been extensively studied, providing information for the development of new treatments for this condition. In addition to in vitro research, animal models have been largely used in the field of pneumonia. Several models have been described and have provided a better understanding of pneumonia under different settings and with various pathogens. However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential. Although “two hits” animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia. Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information. PMID:26170617

  9. Comparative biology of cystic fibrosis animal models.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John T; Zhang, Yulong; Engelhardt, John F

    2011-01-01

    Animal models of human diseases are critical for dissecting mechanisms of pathophysiology and developing therapies. In the context of cystic fibrosis (CF), mouse models have been the dominant species by which to study CF disease processes in vivo for the past two decades. Although much has been learned through these CF mouse models, limitations in the ability of this species to recapitulate spontaneous lung disease and several other organ abnormalities seen in CF humans have created a need for additional species on which to study CF. To this end, pig and ferret CF models have been generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer and are currently being characterized. These new larger animal models have phenotypes that appear to closely resemble human CF disease seen in newborns, and efforts to characterize their adult phenotypes are ongoing. This chapter will review current knowledge about comparative lung cell biology and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) biology among mice, pigs, and ferrets that has implications for CF disease modeling in these species. We will focus on methods used to compare the biology and function of CFTR between these species and their relevance to phenotypes seen in the animal models. These cross-species comparisons and the development of both the pig and the ferret CF models may help elucidate pathophysiologic mechanisms of CF lung disease and lead to new therapeutic approaches.

  10. Animal models of papillomavirus pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Campo, M Saveria

    2002-11-01

    Tumorigenesis due to papillomavirus (PV) infection was first demonstrated in rabbits and cattle early last century. Despite the evidence obtained in animals, the role of viruses in human cancer was dismissed as irrelevant. It took a paradigm shift in the late 1970s for some viruses to be recognised as 'tumour viruses' in humans, and in 1995, more than 60 years after Rous's first demonstration of CRPV oncogenicity, WHO officially declared that 'HPV-16 and HPV-18 are carcinogenic to humans'. Experimental studies with animal PVs have been a determining factor in this decision. Animal PVs have been studied both as agents of disease in animals and as models of human PV infection. In addition to the study of PV infection in whole animals, in vitro studies with animal PV proteins have contributed greatly to the understanding of the mechanisms of cell transformation. Animal PVs cause distressing diseases in both farm and companion animals, such as teat papillomatosis in cattle, equine sarcoids and canine oral papillomatosis and there is an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis of these problematic infections. Persistent and florid teat papillomatosis in cows can lead to mastitis, prevent the suckling of calves and make milking impossible; heavily affected animals are culled and so occasionally are whole herds. Equine sarcoids are often recurrent and untreatable and lead to loss of valuable animals. Canine oral papillomatosis can be very extensive and persistent and lead to great distress. Thus the continuing research in the biology of animal PVs is amply justified. BPVs and CRPV have been for many years the model systems with which to study the biology of HPV. Induction of papillomas and their neoplastic progression has been experimentally demonstrated and reproduced in cattle and rabbits, and virus-cofactor interactions have been elucidated in these systems. With the advancements in molecular and cell culture techniques, the direct study of HPV has become less

  11. Henipavirus infections: lessons from animal models.

    PubMed

    Dhondt, Kévin P; Horvat, Branka

    2013-04-09

    The Henipavirus genus contains two highly lethal viruses, the Hendra and Nipah viruses and one, recently discovered, apparently nonpathogenic member; Cedar virus. These three, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, are hosted by fruit bats and use EphrinB2 receptors for entry into cells. The Hendra and Nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that emerged in the middle of 90s and have caused severe, and often fatal, neurologic and/or respiratory diseases in both humans and different animals; including spillover into equine and porcine species. Development of relevant models is critical for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis, generating new diagnostic tools, and assessing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. This review summarizes available data on several animal models where natural and/or experimental infection has been demonstrated; including pteroid bats, horses, pigs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, ferrets, and nonhuman primates. It recapitulates the principal features of viral pathogenesis in these animals and current knowledge on anti-viral immune responses. Lastly it describes the recently characterized murine animal model, which provides the possibility to use numerous and powerful tools available for mice to further decipher henipaviruses immunopathogenesis, prophylaxis, and treatment. The utility of different models to analyze important aspects of henipaviruses-induced disease in humans, potential routes of transmission, and therapeutic approaches are equally discussed.

  12. Henipavirus Infections: Lessons from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Dhondt, Kévin P.; Horvat, Branka

    2013-01-01

    The Henipavirus genus contains two highly lethal viruses, the Hendra and Nipah viruses and one, recently discovered, apparently nonpathogenic member; Cedar virus. These three, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, are hosted by fruit bats and use EphrinB2 receptors for entry into cells. The Hendra and Nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that emerged in the middle of 90s and have caused severe, and often fatal, neurologic and/or respiratory diseases in both humans and different animals; including spillover into equine and porcine species. Development of relevant models is critical for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis, generating new diagnostic tools, and assessing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. This review summarizes available data on several animal models where natural and/or experimental infection has been demonstrated; including pteroid bats, horses, pigs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, ferrets, and nonhuman primates. It recapitulates the principal features of viral pathogenesis in these animals and current knowledge on anti-viral immune responses. Lastly it describes the recently characterized murine animal model, which provides the possibility to use numerous and powerful tools available for mice to further decipher henipaviruses immunopathogenesis, prophylaxis, and treatment. The utility of different models to analyze important aspects of henipaviruses-induced disease in humans, potential routes of transmission, and therapeutic approaches are equally discussed. PMID:25437037

  13. Animal models of source memory.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is the aspect of episodic memory that encodes the origin (i.e., source) of information acquired in the past. Episodic memory (i.e., our memories for unique personal past events) typically involves source memory because those memories focus on the origin of previous events. Source memory is at work when, for example, someone tells a favorite joke to a person while avoiding retelling the joke to the friend who originally shared the joke. Importantly, source memory permits differentiation of one episodic memory from another because source memory includes features that were present when the different memories were formed. This article reviews recent efforts to develop an animal model of source memory using rats. Experiments are reviewed which suggest that source memory is dissociated from other forms of memory. The review highlights strengths and weaknesses of a number of animal models of episodic memory. Animal models of source memory may be used to probe the biological bases of memory. Moreover, these models can be combined with genetic models of Alzheimer's disease to evaluate pharmacotherapies that ultimately have the potential to improve memory.

  14. Animal models of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    García Pardo, María Pilar; Roger Sánchez, Concepción; De la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; Aguilar Calpe, María Asunción

    2017-01-12

    The development of animal models of drug reward and addiction is an essential factor for progress in understanding the biological basis of this disorder and for the identification of new therapeutic targets. Depending on the component of reward to be studied, one type of animal model or another may be used. There are models of reinforcement based on the primary hedonic effect produced by the consumption of the addictive substance, such as the self-administration (SA) and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigms, and there are models based on the component of reward related to associative learning and cognitive ability to make predictions about obtaining reward in the future, such as the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In recent years these models have incorporated methodological modifications to study extinction, reinstatement and reconsolidation processes, or to model specific aspects of addictive behavior such as motivation to consume drugs, compulsive consumption or drug seeking under punishment situations. There are also models that link different reinforcement components or model voluntary motivation to consume (two-bottle choice, or drinking in the dark tests). In short, innovations in these models allow progress in scientific knowledge regarding the different aspects that lead individuals to consume a drug and develop compulsive consumption, providing a target for future treatments of addiction.

  15. Animal models of cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow

    2006-02-01

    The increased life expectancy in industrialised countries in the last half century has also brought to a greater incidence of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and developing in a rather long time. In this respect, Alzheimer's disease (AD), for the large incidence, and the dramatic loss of autonomy caused by its cognitive and behavioural symptoms represents one of the main challenges of modern medicine. Although AD is a typical human disease and probably includes several nosographic entities, the use of animal models may contribute to understand specific aspects of pathophysiology of the disease. The most widely used animal models are rodents and non-human primates. In this review different animal models characterised by impaired cognitive functions are analysed. None of the models available mimics exactly cognitive, behavioural, biochemical and histopathological abnormalities observed in neurological disorders characterised by cognitive impairment. However, partial reproduction of neuropathology and/or cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia and dementia occurring in Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases, or in other neurodegenerative disorders may represent a basis for understanding pathophysiological traits of these diseases and for contributing to their treatments.

  16. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models

    PubMed Central

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders; Jepsen, Niels; Berg, Søren; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and pH in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would be consistent with the OCLTT but has rarely been tested. Moreover, the performance model and the allocation model predict positive and negative relationships, respectively, between standard metabolic rate and activity. Finally, animal activity could be affected by individual morphology because of covariation with cost of transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that individual variation in activity is correlated with variation in metabolism and morphology. To test this prediction, we captured 23 wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a lake, tagged them with telemetry transmitters, measured standard and maximal metabolic rates, aerobic metabolic scope and fineness ratio and returned the fish to the lake to quantify individual in situ activity levels. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, whereas the activity assay involved high-resolution telemetry providing positions every 30 s over 12 days. We found no correlation between individual metabolic traits and activity, whereas individual fineness ratio correlated with activity. Independent of body length, and consistent with physics theory, slender fish maintained faster mean and maximal swimming speeds, but this variation did not result in a larger area (in square metres) explored per 24 h. Testing assumptions and predictions of recent conceptual models, our study indicates that individual metabolism is not a strong determinant of animal activity, in contrast to individual morphology, which is

  17. Evaluation of Surrogate Animal Models of Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Warawa, Jonathan Mark

    2010-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for the disease melioidosis. B. pseudomallei establishes disease in susceptible individuals through multiple routes of infection, all of which may proceed to a septicemic disease associated with a high mortality rate. B. pseudomallei opportunistically infects humans and a wide range of animals directly from the environment, and modeling of experimental melioidosis has been conducted in numerous biologically relevant models including mammalian and invertebrate hosts. This review seeks to summarize published findings related to established animal models of melioidosis, with an aim to compare and contrast the virulence of B. pseudomallei in these models. The effect of the route of delivery on disease is also discussed for intravenous, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intranasal, aerosol, oral, and intratracheal infection methodologies, with a particular focus on how they relate to modeling clinical melioidosis. The importance of the translational validity of the animal models used in B. pseudomallei research is highlighted as these studies have become increasingly therapeutic in nature. PMID:21772830

  18. Animal Models in Pressure Ulcer Research

    PubMed Central

    Salcido, Richard; Popescu, Adrian; Ahn, Chulhyun

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Research targeting the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of pressure ulcers (PrUs) continue to be a significant priority for clinical and basic science research. Spinal cord injury patients particularly benefit from PrU research, because the prevalence of chronic wounds in this category is increasing despite standardized medical care. Because of practical, ethical, and safety considerations, PrUs in the human environment are limited to studies involving patients with pre-existing ulcers. Therefore, we are limited in our basic knowledge pertaining to the development, progression, and healing environment in this devastating disease. Methods: This review provides a synopsis of literature and a discussion of techniques used to induce PrUs in animal models. The question of what animal model best mimics the human PrU environment has been a subject of debate by investigators, peer review panels, and editors. The similarities in wound development and healing in mammalian tissue make murine models a relevant model for understanding the causal factors as well as the wound healing elements. Although we are beginning to understand some of the mechanisms of PrU development, a key dilemma of what makes an apparently healthy tissue develop a PrU waits to be solved. Results and Conclusions: No single method of induction and exploring PrUs in animals can address all the aspects of the pathology of chronic wounds. Each model has its particular strengths and weaknesses. Certain types of models can selectively identify specific aspects of wound development, quantify the extent of lesions, and assess outcomes from interventions. The appropriate interpretation of these methods is significant for proper study design, an understanding of the results, and extrapolation to clinical relevance. PMID:17591222

  19. Macrophages and Uveitis in Experimental Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Mérida, Salvador; Palacios, Elena; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution. PMID:26078494

  20. Software Validation via Model Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutle, Aaron M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Butler, Ricky W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a new approach to validating software implementations that have been produced from formally-verified algorithms. Although visual inspection gives some confidence that the implementations faithfully reflect the formal models, it does not provide complete assurance that the software is correct. The proposed approach, which is based on animation of formal specifications, compares the outputs computed by the software implementations on a given suite of input values to the outputs computed by the formal models on the same inputs, and determines if they are equal up to a given tolerance. The approach is illustrated on a prototype air traffic management system that computes simple kinematic trajectories for aircraft. Proofs for the mathematical models of the system's algorithms are carried out in the Prototype Verification System (PVS). The animation tool PVSio is used to evaluate the formal models on a set of randomly generated test cases. Output values computed by PVSio are compared against output values computed by the actual software. This comparison improves the assurance that the translation from formal models to code is faithful and that, for example, floating point errors do not greatly affect correctness and safety properties.

  1. Translational Relevance of Swine Models of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Schomberg, Dominic T; Miranpuri, Gurwattan S; Chopra, Abhishek; Patel, Kush; Meudt, Jennifer J; Tellez, Armando; Resnick, Daniel K; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan

    2017-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a physically and psychologically devastating clinical condition. The typical treatment regimens of decompressive surgery and rehabilitation therapy still leave many patients with permanent disability. The development of new therapies and devices can be accelerated if relevant translational animal models are more effectively used in pre-clinical stages. Swine is a highly relevant model for SCI research, especially with respect to spine and spinal cord anatomy, spine vasculature, immune responses to injury, and functional assessments. Several spine injury models have recently been developed for swine and are beginning to be used to evaluate new therapies. Swine models of SCI offer tremendous advantages for efficient translation of pre-clinical discoveries and the development of new therapies and devices. Future swine models will also be enhanced by advances in gene-editing technology to further elucidate the complex pathophysiology associated with SCI and provide a means to engineer specific spinal pathologies.

  2. Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis: How informative are they?

    PubMed

    McNamee, Kay; Williams, Richard; Seed, Michael

    2015-07-15

    Animal models of arthritis are widely used to de-convolute disease pathways and to identify novel drug targets and therapeutic approaches. However, the high attrition rates of drugs in Phase II/III rates means that a relatively small number of drugs reach the market, despite showing efficacy in pre-clinical models. There is also increasing awareness of the ethical issues surrounding the use of animal models of disease and it is timely, therefore, to review the relevance and translatability of animal models of arthritis. In this paper we review the most commonly used animal models in terms of their pathological similarities to human rheumatoid arthritis as well as their response to drug therapy. In general, the ability of animal models to predict efficacy of biologics in man has been good. However, the predictive power of animal models for small molecules has been variable, probably because of differences in the levels of target knockdown achievable in vivo.

  3. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  4. [Animal models of cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Chorro, Francisco J; Such-Belenguer, Luis; López-Merino, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    The use of animal models to study cardiovascular disease has made a substantial contribution to increasing our understanding of disease pathogenesis, has led to the development of diagnostic techniques, and has made it possible to verify the effectiveness of different preventative and therapeutic approaches, whether pharmacological or interventional. The main limitations stem from differences between human and experimentally induced pathology, in terms of both genetic regulatory mechanisms and factors that influence cardiovascular function. The experimental models and preparations used in cardiovascular research include those based on isolated cells or tissues or structures immersed in organ baths. The Langendorff system enables isolated perfused hearts to be studied directly under conditions of either no load or controlled loading. In small mammals, a number of models have been developed of cardiovascular conditions that result from spontaneous genetic mutations or, alternatively, that may be induced by specific genomic modification. One of the techniques employed is gene transfer, which can involve the controlled induction of mutations that result in the expression of abnormalities associated with the development of a broad range of different types of cardiovascular disease. Larger animals are used in experimental models in which it is important that physiological regulatory and homeostatic mechanisms are present.

  5. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pasupuleti, Mohan Kumar; Molahally, Subramanya Shetty; Salwaji, Supraja

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective. PMID:28298815

  6. Animal Models of Autoimmune Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Soliven, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprises the cranial nerves, the spinal nerves with their roots and rami, dorsal root ganglia neurons, the peripheral nerves, and peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system. Cell-mediated or antibody-mediated immune attack on the PNS results in distinct clinical syndromes, which are classified based on the tempo of illness, PNS component(s) involved, and the culprit antigen(s) identified. Insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune neuropathy have been provided by ex vivo immunologic studies, biopsy materials, electrophysiologic studies, and experimental models. This review article summarizes earlier seminal observations and highlights the recent progress in our understanding of immunopathogenesis of autoimmune neuropathies based on data from animal models. PMID:24615441

  7. Animal models and conserved processes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is insufficient for inter

  8. Animal models of recurrent or bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Kasahara, T; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Kato, T M; Nakajima, K

    2016-05-03

    Animal models of mental disorders should ideally have construct, face, and predictive validity, but current animal models do not always satisfy these validity criteria. Additionally, animal models of depression rely mainly on stress-induced behavioral changes. These stress-induced models have limited validity, because stress is not a risk factor specific to depression, and the models do not recapitulate the recurrent and spontaneous nature of depressive episodes. Although animal models exhibiting recurrent depressive episodes or bipolar depression have not yet been established, several researchers are trying to generate such animals by modeling clinical risk factors as well as by manipulating a specific neural circuit using emerging techniques.

  9. Animal model of neuropathic tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, R. P.; Appalsamy, M.; Diedrich, A.; Davis, T. L.; Robertson, D.

    2001-01-01

    Clinically relevant autonomic dysfunction can result from either complete or partial loss of sympathetic outflow to effector organs. Reported animal models of autonomic neuropathy have aimed to achieve complete lesions of sympathetic nerves, but incomplete lesions might be more relevant to certain clinical entities. We hypothesized that loss of sympathetic innervation would result in a predicted decrease in arterial pressure and a compensatory increase in heart rate. Increased heart rate due to loss of sympathetic innervation is seemingly paradoxical, but it provides a mechanistic explanation for clinical autonomic syndromes such as neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome. Partially dysautonomic animals were generated by selectively lesioning postganglionic sympathetic neurons with 150 mg/kg 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored using radiotelemetry. Systolic blood pressure decreased within hours postlesion (Delta>20 mm Hg). Within 4 days postlesion, heart rate rose and remained elevated above control levels. The severity of the lesion was determined functionally and pharmacologically by spectral analysis and responsiveness to tyramine. Low-frequency spectral power of systolic blood pressure was reduced postlesion and correlated with the diminished tyramine responsiveness (r=0.9572, P=0.0053). The tachycardia was abolished by treatment with the beta-antagonist propranolol, demonstrating that it was mediated by catecholamines acting on cardiac beta-receptors. Partial lesions of the autonomic nervous system have been hypothesized to underlie many disorders, including neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome. This animal model may help us better understand the pathophysiology of autonomic dysfunction and lead to development of therapeutic interventions.

  10. Ethological concepts enhance the translational value of animal models.

    PubMed

    Peters, Suzanne M; Pothuizen, Helen H J; Spruijt, Berry M

    2015-07-15

    The translational value of animal models is an issue of ongoing discussion. We argue that 'Refinement' of animal experiments is needed and this can be achieved by exploiting an ethological approach when setting up and conducting experiments. Ethology aims to assess the functional meaning of behavioral changes, due to experimental manipulation or treatment, in animal models. Although the use of ethological concepts is particularly important for studies involving the measurement of animal behavior (as is the case for most studies on neuro-psychiatric conditions), it will also substantially benefit other disciplines, such as those investigating the immune system or inflammatory response. Using an ethological approach also involves using more optimal testing conditions are employed that have a biological relevance to the animal. Moreover, using a more biological relevant analysis of the data will help to clarify the functional meaning of the modeled readout (e.g. whether it is psychopathological or adaptive in nature). We advocate for instance that more behavioral studies should use animals in group-housed conditions, including the recording of their ultrasonic vocalizations, because (1) social behavior is an essential feature of animal models for human 'social' psychopathologies, such as autism and schizophrenia, and (2) social conditions are indispensable conditions for appropriate behavioral studies in social species, such as the rat. Only when taking these elements into account, the validity of animal experiments and, thus, the translation value of animal models can be enhanced.

  11. Serotonergic hallucinogens as translational models relevant to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Geyer, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    One of the oldest models of schizophrenia is based on the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens such as mescaline, psilocybin, and (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), which act through the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. These compounds produce a 'model psychosis' in normal individuals that resembles at least some of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Based on these similarities, and because evidence has emerged that the serotonergic system plays a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in some patients, animal models relevant to schizophrenia have been developed based on hallucinogen effects. Here we review the behavioural effects of hallucinogens in four of those models, the receptor and neurochemical mechanisms for the effects and their translational relevance. Despite the difficulty of modelling hallucinogen effects in nonverbal species, animal models of schizophrenia based on hallucinogens have yielded important insights into the linkage between 5-HT and schizophrenia and have helped to identify receptor targets and interactions that could be exploited in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  12. Companion animals symposium: humanized animal models of the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Gootenberg, D B; Turnbaugh, P J

    2011-05-01

    Humans and other mammals are colonized by trillions of microorganisms, most of which reside in the gastrointestinal tract, that provide key metabolic capabilities, such as the biosynthesis of vitamins and AA, the degradation of dietary plant polysaccharides, and the metabolism of orally administered therapeutics. Although much progress has been made by studying the human microbiome directly, comparing the human microbiome with that of other animals, and constructing in vitro models of the human gut, there remains a need to develop in vivo models where host, microbial, and environmental parameters can be manipulated. Here, we discuss some of the initial results from a promising method that enables the direct manipulation of microbial community structure, environmental exposures, host genotype, and other factors: the colonization of germ-free animals with complex microbial communities, including those from humans or other animal donors. Analyses of these resulting "humanized" gut microbiomes have begun to reveal 1) that key microbial activities can be transferred from the donor to the recipient animal (e.g., microbial reduction of cholesterol and production of equol), 2) that dietary shifts can affect the composition, gene abundance, and gene expression of the gut microbiome, 3) the succession of the microbial community in infants and ex-germ-free adult animals, and 4) the biogeography of these microbes across the length of gastrointestinal tract. Continued studies of humanized and other intentionally colonized animal models stand to provide new insight into not only the human microbiome, but also the microbiomes of our animal companions.

  13. Mathematical modeling relevant to closed artificial ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The mathematical modeling of ecosystems has contributed much to the understanding of the dynamics of such systems. Ecosystems can include not only the natural variety, but also artificial systems designed and controlled by humans. These can range from agricultural systems and activated sludge plants, down to mesocosms, microcosms, and aquaria, which may have practical or research applications. Some purposes may require the design of systems that are completely closed, as far as material cycling is concerned. In all cases, mathematical modeling can help not only to understand the dynamics of the system, but also to design methods of control to keep the system operating in desired ranges. This paper reviews mathematical modeling relevant to the simulation and control of closed or semi-closed artificial ecosystems designed for biological production and recycling in applications in space. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  14. Mathematical modeling relevant to closed artificial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    The mathematical modeling of ecosystems has contributed much to the understanding of the dynamics of such systems. Ecosystems can include not only the natural variety, but also artificial systems designed and controlled by humans. These can range from agricultural systems and activated sludge plants, down to mesocosms, microcosms, and aquaria, which may have practical or research applications. Some purposes may require the design of systems that are completely closed, as far as material cycling is concerned. In all cases, mathematical modeling can help not only to understand the dynamics of the system, but also to design methods of control to keep the system operating in desired ranges. This paper reviews mathematical modeling relevant to the simulation and control of closed or semi-closed artificial ecosystems designed for biological production and recycling in applications in space.

  15. Small Animal In Vivo X-Ray Tomosynthesis: Anatomical Relevance of the Reconstructed Images.

    PubMed

    Barquero, H; Brasse, D

    2016-02-01

    Whole body X-ray micro-Digital Tomosynthesis (micro-DT) for small animal imaging is introduced in this work. Such a system allows to deal with geometrical constraints that do not allow to use a micro-CT system as well as to reduce the radiological dose compared to a micro-CT scan. Data was simulated using the Digimouse anatomical model of the mouse with the designed system. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm regularized by Total Variation norm (TV) minimization was used to reconstruct images. Parameters for the reconstruction were optimized and the algorithm performance was evaluated quantitatively. High contrast tissues were subsequently segmented by thresholding the image. Quantitative analysis of the segmented domains indicates that a relevant anatomical information can possibly be extracted from micro-DT images. Indeed the Dice's coefficient values are greater than 0.8 for the segmented High Contrast Tissues compared to the phantom, which indicates an important overlap between the domains. The volume of the segmented tissues is over-estimated for the bones and skin-with 1.313 and 1.113 ratios of the estimated over reference volumes, respectively-and under-estimated in the case of the lungs with a 0.762 ratio. The mean point to surface distance is inferior to the voxel size of 400 μm, for the three segmented tissues. These results are very encouraging and let us consider micro-DT as an alternative to micro-CT to deal with geometrical constraints.

  16. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to SUI with the goal of developing prophylactic treatments. Methods of assessing SUI in animals that mimic diagnostic methods used clinically have been developed to evaluate the animal models. Use of these animal models to test innovative treatment strategies has the potential to improve clinical management of SUI. This chapter provides a review of the available animal models of SUI, as well as a review of the methods of assessing SUI in animal models, and potential treatments that have been tested on these models. PMID:21290221

  17. Potency of Animal Models in KANSEI Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Shigeru; Hisano, Setsuji; Iwamoto, Yoshiki

    Various species of animals have been used as animal models for neuroscience and provided critical information about the brain functions. Although it seems difficult to elucidate a highly advanced function of the human brain, animal models have potency to clarify the fundamental mechanisms of emotion, decision-making and social behavior. In this review, we will pick up common animal models and point to both the merits and demerits caused by the characteristics. We will also mention that wide-ranging approaches from animal models are advantageous to understand KANSEI as well as mind in humans.

  18. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  19. Chronobiology of ethanol: animal models.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical and epidemiological observations have revealed that alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with widespread disruptions in sleep and other circadian biological rhythms. As with other psychiatric disorders, animal models have been very useful in efforts to better understand the cause and effect relationships underlying the largely correlative human data. This review summarizes the experimental findings indicating bidirectional interactions between alcohol (ethanol) consumption and the circadian timing system, emphasizing behavioral studies conducted in the author's laboratory. Together with convergent evidence from multiple laboratories, the work summarized here establishes that ethanol intake (or administration) alters fundamental properties of the underlying circadian pacemaker. In turn, circadian disruption induced by either environmental or genetic manipulations can alter voluntary ethanol intake. These reciprocal interactions may create a vicious cycle that contributes to the downward spiral of alcohol and drug addiction. In the future, such studies may lead to the development of chronobiologically based interventions to prevent relapse and effectively mitigate some of the societal burden associated with such disorders.

  20. Reproducibility Issues: Avoiding Pitfalls in Animal Inflammation Models.

    PubMed

    Laman, Jon D; Kooistra, Susanne M; Clausen, Björn E

    2017-01-01

    In light of an enhanced awareness of ethical questions and ever increasing costs when working with animals in biomedical research, there is a dedicated and sometimes fierce debate concerning the (lack of) reproducibility of animal models and their relevance for human inflammatory diseases. Despite evident advancements in searching for alternatives, that is, replacing, reducing, and refining animal experiments-the three R's of Russel and Burch (1959)-understanding the complex interactions of the cells of the immune system, the nervous system and the affected tissue/organ during inflammation critically relies on in vivo models. Consequently, scientific advancement and ultimately novel therapeutic interventions depend on improving the reproducibility of animal inflammation models. As a prelude to the remaining hands-on protocols described in this volume, here, we summarize potential pitfalls of preclinical animal research and provide resources and background reading on how to avoid them.

  1. Animal Models of Psychosis: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Alexandra D.; Coto, Carlos A.; Siegel, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosis is an abnormal mental state characterized by disorganization, delusions and hallucinations. Animal models have become an increasingly important research tool in the effort to understand both the underlying pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis. There are multiple animal models for psychosis, with each formed by the coupling of a manipulation and a measurement. In this manuscript we do not address the diseases of which psychosis is a prominent comorbidity. Instead, we summarize the current state of affairs and future directions for animal models of psychosis. To accomplish this, our manuscript will first discuss relevant behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. We then provide an overview of the different manipulations that are combined with these measurements to produce animal models. The strengths and limitations of each model will be addressed in order to evaluate its cross-species comparability. PMID:25215267

  2. Pain assessment in animal models of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Piel, Margaret J; Kroin, Jeffrey S; van Wijnen, Andre J; Kc, Ranjan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2014-03-10

    Assessment of pain in animal models of osteoarthritis is integral to interpretation of a model's utility in representing the clinical condition, and enabling accurate translational medicine. Here we describe behavioral pain assessments available for small and large experimental osteoarthritic pain animal models.

  3. Exploring the Validity of Valproic Acid Animal Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Mabunga, Darine Froy N.; Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Kim, Ji-woon; Kim, Ki Chan

    2015-01-01

    The valproic acid (VPA) animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most widely used animal model in the field. Like any other disease models, it can't model the totality of the features seen in autism. Then, is it valid to model autism? This model demonstrates many of the structural and behavioral features that can be observed in individuals with autism. These similarities enable the model to define relevant pathways of developmental dysregulation resulting from environmental manipulation. The uncovering of these complex pathways resulted to the growing pool of potential therapeutic candidates addressing the core symptoms of ASD. Here, we summarize the validity points of VPA that may or may not qualify it as a valid animal model of ASD. PMID:26713077

  4. Animal models of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Geraldine

    2017-01-11

    , interpretation of findings from many rodent and NHP models of vaccine-enhanced hRSV disease has been confounded by sensitisation to non-viral antigens present in the vaccine and challenge virus. Studies of non-human pneumoviruses in their native hosts are more likely to reflect the pathogenesis of natural hRSV infection, and experimental infection of calves with bRSV and of mice with PVM result in clinical disease and extensive pulmonary pathology. These animal models have not only been of value in studies on mechanisms of immunity to and the pathogenesis of pneumovirus infections but have also been used to evaluate hRSV vaccine concepts. Furthermore, the similarities between the epidemiology of bRSV in calves and hRSV in infants and the high level of genetic and antigenic similarity between bRSV and hRSV, make the calf model of bRSV infection a relevant model for preclinical evaluation of hRSV vaccine candidates which contain proteins that are conserved between hRSV and bRSV.

  5. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  6. The National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program in animal reproduction: changes in priorities and scope relevant to United States animal agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mirando, M A

    2007-03-01

    The National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants Program is the USDA's major competitive grants program and is administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service. The NRI was authorized by the US Congress in the 1990 Farm Bill at a funding level of $500 million; however, the maximal NRI appropriation was $181.17 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006. Across all programs, the NRI is mandated to use 40% of its funding to support mission-linked research. Since its inception in 1991, the NRI has funded competitive grants in the discipline of animal reproduction. Before 2004, the Animal Reproduction Program funded a broad range of projects encompassing almost every subdiscipline in reproductive biology of farm animals, including aquatic species important to the aquaculture industry and laboratory animals. During FY 2004, the NRI Animal Reproduction Program narrowed the focus of its funding priorities to 5 issue-based topics in an effort to make greater measurable improvements in a few high-impact areas over the next 10 years. Funding priorities were narrowed further in FY 2006 to 3 subdisciplines based, in part, on recommendations that emerged from a stakeholder workshop conducted by Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service in August 2004. In FY 2003, Congress authorized expenditure of up to 20% of the funds appropriated to the NRI to support projects that integrate at least 2 of the 3 functions of research, education, and extension. In FY 2004, the Animal Reproduction Program included a funding priority for integrated projects focused primarily on infertility in dairy cattle. The program funded its first integrated project in FY 2005. During FY 2002, increased emphasis on justification for the use of model systems (e.g., laboratory animals and in vitro systems) was included in the NRI request for applications. In FY 2006, applications proposing to primarily utilize nonagricultural animal models were excluded from

  7. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Fang, Marong; Chen, Haohao; Gou, Fangming; Ding, Mingxing

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies. PMID:25598784

  8. Animal model and neurobiology of suicide.

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Animal models are formidable tools to investigate the etiology, the course and the potential treatment of an illness. No convincing animal model of suicide has been produced to date, and despite the intensive study of thousands of animal species naturalists have not identified suicide in nonhuman species in field situations. When modeling suicidal behavior in the animal, the greatest challenge is reproducing the role of will and intention in suicide mechanics. To overcome this limitation, current investigations on animals focus on every single step leading to suicide in humans. The most promising endophenotypes worth investigating in animals are the cortisol social-stress response and the aggression/impulsivity trait, involving the serotonergic system. Astroglia, neurotrophic factors and neurotrophins are implied in suicide, too. The prevention of suicide rests on the identification and treatment of every element increasing the risk.

  9. Animal models for the study of tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Warden, S J

    2007-04-01

    Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity-related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent potential efficient and effective means of furthering our understanding of human tendinopathy and its underlying pathology. By selecting an appropriate species and introducing known risk factors for tendinopathy in humans, it is possible to develop tendon changes in animal models that are consistent with the human condition. This paper overviews the role of animal models in tendinopathy research by discussing the benefits and development of animal models of tendinosis, highlighting potential outcome measures that may be used in animal tendon research, and reviewing current animal models of tendinosis. It is hoped that with further development of animal models of tendinosis, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy in humans will be generated.

  10. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Reizner, W.; Hunter, J.G.; O’Malley, N.T.; Southgate, R.D.; Schwarz, E.M.; Kates, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed & Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorized by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarized and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting. PMID:24668594

  11. Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Xu, Hongzhi; Qin, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term "arteriovenous malformation," limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

  12. Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Xu, Hongzhi; Qin, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term “arteriovenous malformation,” limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected. PMID:26649296

  13. Comparative juvenile safety testing of new therapeutic candidates: relevance of laboratory animal data to children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tim; Khan, Nasir K; Tassinari, Melissa S; Hurtt, Mark E

    2009-01-01

    Differences in drug response in patients of various ages including children and the elderly are common, often leading to challenges in optimizing dosages and duration of use. For example, developmental changes in renal function can dramatically alter the plasma clearance of compounds with extensive renal elimination and thus can enhance renal and systemic toxicity of these drugs. Preclinical and clinical research of new therapeutics is initially focused on adults, and provides little relevant information for children especially those who are still going through skeletal and organ development. The organ systems in the pediatric population that can be most susceptible are lungs, brain, kidneys, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems. Considering that significant differences can exist between adult and juvenile populations that may affect drug safety, major regulatory agencies around the world are encouraging and sometimes requiring companies to generate preclinical juvenile animal data to predict for potential drug toxicity in children. However, data generated from such studies are useful only if obtained using the most appropriate species at the most relevant age considering comparability of specific organ system development in question. Other factors in the design of juvenile safety studies should include the indication, existing toxicological data and likely route of human exposure. This report will discuss these factors with a focus on reviewing species-specific developmental schedules for specific target organs and relevance of preclinical data in the design and conduct of clinical pediatric studies. Specific examples will be used to discuss the relationship of preclinical juvenile toxicity observations to risk assessment in humans.

  14. Animal models for testing anti-prion drugs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Elezgarai, Saioa R; Eraña, Hasier; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases belong to a group of fatal infectious diseases with no effective therapies available. Throughout the last 35 years, less than 50 different drugs have been tested in different experimental animal models without hopeful results. An important limitation when searching for new drugs is the existence of appropriate models of the disease. The three different possible origins of prion diseases require the existence of different animal models for testing anti-prion compounds. Wild type, over-expressing transgenic mice and other more sophisticated animal models have been used to evaluate a diversity of compounds which some of them were previously tested in different in vitro experimental models. The complexity of prion diseases will require more pre-screening studies, reliable sporadic (or spontaneous) animal models and accurate chemical modifications of the selected compounds before having an effective therapy against human prion diseases. This review is intended to put on display the more relevant animal models that have been used in the search of new antiprion therapies and describe some possible procedures when handling chemical compounds presumed to have anti-prion activity prior to testing them in animal models.

  15. Overview of Animal Models of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Thomas A.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of animal models of obesity currently used in research. We have focused upon more commonly utilized models since there are far too many newly created models to consider, especially those caused by selective molecular genetic approaches modifying one or more genes in specific populations of cells. Further, we will not discuss the generation and use of inducible transgenic animals (induced knock-out or knock-in) even though they often bear significant advantages compared to traditional transgenic animals; influences of the genetic modification during the development of the animals can be minimized. The number of these animal models is simply too large to be covered in this chapter. PMID:22948848

  16. Animal models of external traumatic wound infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Kharkwal, Gitika B; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Huang, Ying-Ying; Bil de Arce, Vida J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite advances in traumatic wound care and management, infections remain a leading cause of mortality, morbidity and economic disruption in millions of wound patients around the world. Animal models have become standard tools for studying a wide array of external traumatic wound infections and testing new antimicrobial strategies. Results: Animal models of external traumatic wound infections reported by different investigators vary in animal species used, microorganism strains, the number of microorganisms applied, the size of the wounds and for burn infections, the length of time the heated object or liquid is in contact with the skin. Methods: This review covers experimental infections in animal models of surgical wounds, skin abrasions, burns, lacerations, excisional wounds and open fractures. Conclusions: As antibiotic resistance continues to increase, more new antimicrobial approaches are urgently needed. These should be tested using standard protocols for infections in external traumatic wounds in animal models. PMID:21701256

  17. Engineering large animal models of human disease.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Sheets, Timothy P; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site-specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of gene editing tools we will see a dramatic increase in animal model resources available for both the study of human disease and the translation of this knowledge into the clinic. Comparative pathology will be central to the productive use of these animal models and the successful translation of new therapeutic strategies.

  18. Intestinal Microbiota in Animal Models of Inflammatory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hörmannsperger, G; Schaubeck, M; Haller, D

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has long been known to play an important role in the maintenance of health. In addition, alterations of the intestinal microbiota have recently been associated with a range of immune-mediated and metabolic disorders. Characterizing the composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota, unravelling relevant microbe-host interactions, and identifying disease-relevant microbes are therefore currently of major interest in scientific and medical communities. Experimental animal models for the respective diseases of interest are pivotal in order to address functional questions on microbe-host interaction and to clarify the clinical relevance of microbiome alterations associated with disease initiation and development. This review presents an overview of the outcomes of highly sophisticated experimental studies on microbe-host interaction in animal models of inflammatory diseases, with a focus on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We will address the advantages and drawbacks of analyzing microbe-host interaction in complex colonized animal models compared with gnotobiotic animal models using monoassociation, simplified microbial consortia (SMC), or microbial humanization.

  19. Animal models of suicide-trait-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Malkesman, Oz; Pine, Daniel S; Tragon, Tyson; Austin, Daniel R; Henter, Ioline D; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-04-01

    Although antidepressants are moderately effective in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), concerns have arisen that selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior, especially in children, adolescents and young adults. Almost no experimental research in model systems has considered the mechanisms by which SSRIs might be associated with this potential side effect in some susceptible individuals. Suicide is a complex behavior and impossible to fully reproduce in an animal model. However, by investigating traits that show strong cross-species parallels in addition to associations with suicide in humans, animal models might elucidate the mechanisms by which SSRIs are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior. Traits linked with suicide in humans that can be successfully modeled in rodents include aggression, impulsivity, irritability and hopelessness/helplessness. Modeling these relevant traits in animals can help to clarify the impact of SSRIs on these traits, suggesting avenues for reducing suicide risk in this vulnerable population.

  20. Animal Models for Cartilage Regeneration and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Szczodry, Michal; Bruno, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage injury and degeneration are leading causes of disability. Animal studies are critically important to developing effective treatments for cartilage injuries. This review focuses on the use of animal models for the study of the repair and regeneration of focal cartilage defects. Animals commonly used in cartilage repair studies include murine, lapine, canine, caprine, porcine, and equine models. There are advantages and disadvantages to each model. Small animal rodent and lapine models are cost effective, easy to house, and useful for pilot and proof-of-concept studies. The availability of transgenic and knockout mice provide opportunities for mechanistic in vivo study. Athymic mice and rats are additionally useful for evaluating the cartilage repair potential of human cells and tissues. Their small joint size, thin cartilage, and greater potential for intrinsic healing than humans, however, limit the translational value of small animal models. Large animal models with thicker articular cartilage permit study of both partial thickness and full thickness chondral repair, as well as osteochondral repair. Joint size and cartilage thickness for canine, caprine, and mini-pig models remain significantly smaller than that of humans. The repair and regeneration of chondral and osteochondral defects of size and volume comparable to that of clinically significant human lesions can be reliably studied primarily in equine models. While larger animals may more closely approximate the human clinical situation, they carry greater logistical, financial, and ethical considerations. A multifactorial analysis of each animal model should be carried out when planning in vivo studies. Ultimately, the scientific goals of the study will be critical in determining the appropriate animal model. PMID:19831641

  1. A Relevant Model for Preparing Aspiring Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robicheau, Jerry; Haar, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The relevance of administrative preparation programs has been questioned. The questions center around how well programs are preparing school leaders to deal with the myriad of requirements placed in front of them (i.e. demands relate to issues of accountability, changing demographics, aging professionals, demanding publics, and school…

  2. Animal models for simulating weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, E.; Wronski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    NASA has developed a rat model to simulate on earth some aspects of the weightlessness alterations experienced in space, i.e., unloading and fluid shifts. Comparison of data collected from space flight and from the head-down rat suspension model suggests that this model system reproduces many of the physiological alterations induced by space flight. Data from various versions of the rat model are virtually identical for the same parameters; thus, modifications of the model for acute, chronic, or metabolic studies do not alter the results as long as the critical components of the model are maintained, i.e., a cephalad shift of fluids and/or unloading of the rear limbs.

  3. Proteomics in farm animals models of human diseases.

    PubMed

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Restelli, Laura; Lecchi, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. It is becoming increasingly evident that the few species utilised to date cannot be regarded as universal. There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. Farm animals, including pigs, cows, sheep and horses, represent a valid alternative to commonly utilised rodent models. There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. Focus will be on specific topics of biomedical research in which farm animal models have been characterised through the application of proteomic techniques.

  4. Using animal models to develop therapeutics for Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Neal R; Sutherland, Ashley N

    2005-12-01

    The science of Tourette Syndrome (TS) is advancing at multiple levels of analysis and will be enhanced through the use of animal models. Particular challenges in the development of TS animal models reflect complex features of this disorder, including its waxing and waning course and its "invisible" sensory and psychic symptoms. Animal models can achieve face, predictive, or construct validity based on their particular features. Predictive validity, of most direct relevance to drug development for TS, is achieved to some degree by a several animal models, although the reliance of most of these models on measures of motor suppression may ultimately limit their utility. Other models achieve construct validity with proposed pathophysiological mechanisms related to the immune and neural circuit etiologies of TS. One model-deficient sensorimotor gating of the startle reflex-is discussed in terms of its present and future applications towards advancing our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of TS. In addition to models that will advance the pharmacotherapy of TS, other animal models may enhance the utility of nonpharmacologic TS treatments, ranging from behavior therapy to deep brain stimulation (DBS).

  5. Animal Models of Tuberculosis: Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Lisanne M.; van der Sar, Astrid M.; Bitter, Wilbert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an attractive new vertebrate model organism for studying mycobacterial pathogenesis. The combination of medium-throughput screening and real-time in vivo visualization has allowed new ways to dissect host pathogenic interaction in a vertebrate host. Furthermore, genetic screens on the host and bacterial sides have elucidated new mechanisms involved in the initiation of granuloma formation and the importance of a balanced immune response for control of mycobacterial pathogens. This article will highlight the unique features of the zebrafish–Mycobacterium marinum infection model and its added value for tuberculosis research. PMID:25414379

  6. Animal models of orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asma; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2010-01-01

    Pain is one of the most common reasons for which patients seek dental and medical care. Orofacial pain conditions consist of a wide range of disorders including odontalgia (toothache), temporomandibular disorders, trigeminal neuralgia and others. Most of these conditions are either inflammatory or neuropathic in nature. This chapter provides an overview of the commonly used models to study inflammatory and neuropathic orofacial pain.

  7. Implementing Relevance Feedback in the Bayesian Network Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Campos, Luis M.; Fernandez-Luna, Juan M.; Huete, Juan F.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of relevance feedback in information retrieval focuses on a proposal for the Bayesian Network Retrieval Model. Bases the proposal on the propagation of partial evidences in the Bayesian network, representing new information obtained from the user's relevance judgments to compute the posterior relevance probabilities of the documents…

  8. OVERVIEW: USING MODE OF ACTION AND LIFE STAGE INFORMATION TO EVALUATE THE HUMAN RELEVANCE OF ANIMAL TOXICITY DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript summarizes a workshop aimed at developing a framework to determine the relevancy of animal modes-of-action for extrapolation to humans. A complete mode of action human relevance analysis - as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone - depends on robust info...

  9. Animal models of Parkinson's disease: a gateway to therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Le, Weidong; Sayana, Pavani; Jankovic, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology, although a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors has been implicated as a pathogenic mechanism of selected neuronal loss. A better understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and molecular mechanisms underlying the disease process may be gained from research on animal models. While cell and tissue models are helpful in unraveling involved molecular pathways, animal models are much better suited to study the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies. The animal models most relevant to PD include those generated by neurotoxic chemicals that selectively disrupt the catecholaminergic system such as 6-hydroxydopamine; 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropiridine; agricultural pesticide toxins, such as rotenone and paraquat; the ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitors; inflammatory modulators; and several genetically manipulated models, such as α-synuclein, DJ-1, PINK1, Parkin, and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 transgenic or knock-out animals. Genetic and nongenetic animal models have their own unique advantages and limitations, which must be considered when they are employed in the study of pathogenesis or treatment approaches. This review provides a summary and a critical review of our current knowledge about various in vivo models of PD used to test novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. Animal models for SARS and MERS coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gretebeck, Lisa M; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), two strains of animal coronaviruses that crossed the species barrier to infect and cause severe respiratory infections in humans within the last 12 years, have taught us that coronaviruses represent a global threat that does not recognize international borders. We can expect to see other novel coronaviruses emerge in the future. An ideal animal model should reflect the clinical signs, viral replication and pathology seen in humans. In this review, we present factors to consider in establishing an animal model for the study of novel coronaviruses and compare the different animal models that have been employed to study SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. PMID:26184451

  11. Animal models of orthopedic implant infection.

    PubMed

    An, Y H; Friedman, R J

    1998-01-01

    Prosthetic infection following total joint replacement can have catastrophic results both physically and psychologically for patients, leading to complete failure of the arthroplasty, possible amputation, prolonged hospitalization, and even death. Although with the use of prophylactic antibiotics and greatly improved operating room techniques the infection rate has decreased markedly during the years, challenges still remain for better preventive and therapeutic measures. In this review the in vivo experimental methods for studies of prosthetic infection are discussed, concentrating on (1) the animal models that have been established and the use of these animal models for studies of pathogenesis of bacteria, behavior of biofilm, effect of biomaterials on prosthetic infection rate, and the effect of infection on biomaterial surfaces, and (2) how to design and conduct an animal model of orthopedic prosthetic infection including animal selection, implant fabrication, bacterial inoculation, surgical technique, and the methods for evaluating the results.

  12. Animal models for SARS and MERS coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Gretebeck, Lisa M; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), two strains of animal coronaviruses that crossed the species barrier to infect and cause severe respiratory infections in humans within the last 12 years, have taught us that coronaviruses represent a global threat that does not recognize international borders. We can expect to see other novel coronaviruses emerge in the future. An ideal animal model should reflect the clinical signs, viral replication and pathology seen in humans. In this review, we present factors to consider in establishing an animal model for the study of novel coronaviruses and compare the different animal models that have been employed to study SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

  13. Building models of animals from video.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Deva; Forsyth, David A; Barnard, Kobus

    2006-08-01

    This paper argues that tracking, object detection, and model building are all similar activities. We describe a fully automatic system that builds 2D articulated models known as pictorial structures from videos of animals. The learned model can be used to detect the animal in the original video--in this sense, the system can be viewed as a generalized tracker (one that is capable of modeling objects while tracking them). The learned model can be matched to a visual library; here, the system can be viewed as a video recognition algorithm. The learned model can also be used to detect the animal in novel images--in this case, the system can be seen as a method for learning models for object recognition. We find that we can significantly improve the pictorial structures by augmenting them with a discriminative texture model learned from a texture library. We develop a novel texture descriptor that outperforms the state-of-the-art for animal textures. We demonstrate the entire system on real video sequences of three different animals. We show that we can automatically track and identify the given animal. We use the learned models to recognize animals from two data sets; images taken by professional photographers from the Corel collection, and assorted images from the Web returned by Google. We demonstrate quite good performance on both data sets. Comparing our results with simple baselines, we show that, for the Google set, we can detect, localize, and recover part articulations from a collection demonstrably hard for object recognition.

  14. Animal models of monogenic migraine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Pin; Tolner, Else A; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina

    2016-06-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling neurological disorder with a strong genetic component. Rare monogenic forms of migraine, or syndromes in which migraine frequently occurs, help scientists to unravel pathogenetic mechanisms of migraine and its comorbidities. Transgenic mouse models for rare monogenic mutations causing familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome (FASPS), have been created. Here, we review the current state of research using these mutant mice. We also discuss how currently available experimental approaches, including epigenetic studies, biomolecular analysis and optogenetic technologies, can be used for characterization of migraine genes to further unravel the functional and molecular pathways involved in migraine.

  15. Progress With Nonhuman Animal Models of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, John C

    2016-09-01

    Nonhuman animals have been major contributors to the science of the genetics of addiction. Given the explosion of interest in genetics, it is fair to ask, are we making reasonable progress toward our goals with animal models? I will argue that our goals are changing and that overall progress has been steady and seems likely to continue apace. Genetics tools have developed almost incredibly rapidly, enabling both more reductionist and more synthetic or integrative approaches. I believe that these approaches to making progress have been unbalanced in biomedical science, favoring reductionism, particularly in animal genetics. I argue that substantial, novel progress is also likely to come in the other direction, toward synthesis and abstraction. Another area in which future progress with genetic animal models seems poised to contribute more is the reconciliation of human and animal phenotypes, or consilience. The inherent power of the genetic animal models could be more profitably exploited. In the end, animal research has continued to provide novel insights about how genes influence individual differences in addiction risk and consequences. The rules of the genetics game are changing so fast that it is hard to remember how comparatively little we knew even a generation ago. Rather than worry about whether we have been wasting time and resources asking the questions we have been, we should look to the future and see if we can come up with some new ones. The valuable findings from the past will endure, and the sidetracks will be forgotten.

  16. Animal models in motion sickness research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  17. Engel's biopsychosocial model is still relevant today.

    PubMed

    Adler, Rolf H

    2009-12-01

    In 1977, Engel published the seminal paper, "The Need for a New Medical Model: A Challenge for Biomedicine" [Science 196 (1977) 129-136]. He featured a biopsychosocial (BPS) model based on systems theory and on the hierarchical organization of organisms. In this essay, the model is extended by the introduction of semiotics and constructivism. Semiotics provides the language which allows to describe the relationships between the individual and his environment. Constructivism explains how an organism perceives his environment. The impact of the BPS model on research, medical education, and application in the practice of medicine is discussed.

  18. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24697577

  19. Animal models of human response to dioxins.

    PubMed Central

    Grassman, J A; Masten, S A; Walker, N J; Lucier, G W

    1998-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent member of a class of chlorinated hydrocarbons that interact with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). TCDD and dioxinlike compounds are environmentally and biologically stable and as a result, human exposure is chronic and widespread. Studies of highly exposed human populations show that dioxins produce developmental effects, chloracne, and an increase in all cancers and suggest that they may also alter immune and endocrine function. In contrast, the health effects of low-level environmental exposure have not been established. Experimental animal models can enhance the understanding of the effects of low-level dioxin exposure, particularly when there is evidence that humans respond similarly to the animal models. Although there are species differences in pharmacokinetics, experimental animal models demonstrate AhR-dependent health effects that are similar to those found in exposed human populations. Comparisons of biochemical changes show that humans and animal models have similar degrees of sensitivity to dioxin-induced effects. The information gained from animal models is important for developing mechanistic models of dioxin toxicity and critical for assessing the risks to human populations under different circumstances of exposure. PMID:9599728

  20. Animal models of idiosyncratic drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Ng, Winnie; Lobach, Alexandra R M; Zhu, Xu; Chen, Xin; Liu, Feng; Metushi, Imir G; Sharma, Amy; Li, Jinze; Cai, Ping; Ip, Julia; Novalen, Maria; Popovic, Marija; Zhang, Xiaochu; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Li, Yan; Uetrecht, Jack

    2012-01-01

    If we could predict and prevent idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs) it would have a profound effect on drug development and therapy. Given our present lack of mechanistic understanding, this goal remains elusive. Hypothesis testing requires valid animal models with characteristics similar to the idiosyncratic reactions that occur in patients. Although it has not been conclusively demonstrated, it appears that almost all IDRs are immune-mediated, and a dominant characteristic is a delay between starting the drug and the onset of the adverse reaction. In contrast, most animal models are acute and therefore involve a different mechanism than idiosyncratic reactions. There are, however, a few animal models such as the nevirapine-induced skin rash in rats that have characteristics very similar to the idiosyncratic reaction that occurs in humans and presumably have a very similar mechanism. These models have allowed testing hypotheses that would be impossible to test in any other way. In addition there are models in which there is a delayed onset of mild hepatic injury that resolves despite continued treatment similar to the "adaptation" reactions that are more common than severe idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in humans. This probably represents the development of immune tolerance. However, most attempts to develop animal models by stimulating the immune system have been failures. A specific combination of MHC and T cell receptor may be required, but it is likely more complex. Animal studies that determine the requirements for an immune response would provide vital clues about risk factors for IDRs in patients.

  1. Large Animal Models of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine repeat (>37 glutamines) in the disease protein huntingtin, which results in preferential neuronal loss in distinct brain regions. Mutant huntingtin causes late-onset neurological symptoms in patients in middle life, though the expression of mutant huntingtin is ubiquitous from early life. Thus, it is important to understand why mutant huntingtin selectively causes neuronal loss in an age-dependent manner. Transgenic animal models have been essential tools for uncovering the pathogenesis and therapeutic targets of neurodegenerative diseases. Genetic mouse models have been investigated extensively and have revealed the common pathological hallmark of age-dependent formation of aggregates or inclusions consisting of misfolded proteins. However, most genetic mouse models lack striking neurodegeneration that has been found in patient brains. Since there are considerable species differences between small and large animals, large animal models of Huntington's disease may allow one to identify the pathological features that are more similar to those in patients and also help uncover more effective therapeutic targets. This chapter will focus on the important findings from large animal models of Huntington's disease and discusses the use of large animal models to investigate the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease and develop new therapeutic strategies.

  2. Animal Models of Maternal Immune Activation in Depression Research

    PubMed Central

    Ronovsky, Marianne; Berger, Stefanie; Molz, Barbara; Berger, Angelika; Pollak, Daniela D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Depression and schizophrenia are debilitating mental illnesses with significant socio-economic impact. The high degree of comorbidity between the two disorders, and shared symptoms and risk factors, suggest partly common pathogenic mechanisms. Supported by human and animal studies, maternal immune activation (MIA) has been intimately associated with the development of schizophrenia. However, the link between MIA and depression has remained less clear, in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. Objective Here we aim to summarize findings obtained from studies using MIA animal models and discuss their relevance for preclinical depression research. Methods Results on molecular, cellular and behavioral phenotypes in MIA animal models were collected by literature search (PubMed) and evaluated for their significance for depression. Results Several reports on offspring depression-related behavioral alterations indicate an involvement of MIA in the development of depression later in life. Depression-related behavioral phenotypes were frequently paralleled by neurogenic and neurotrophic deficits and modulated by several genetic and environmental factors. Conclusion Literature evidence analyzed in this review supports a relevance of MIA as animal model for a specific early life adversity, which may prime an individual for the development of distinct psychopathologies later life. MIA animal models may present a unique tool for the identification of additional exogenous and endogenous factors, which are required for the manifestation of a specific neuropsychiatric disorder, such as depression, later in life. Hereby, novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of depression may be obtained, supporting the identification of alternative therapeutic strategies. PMID:26666733

  3. Animal models of transcranial direct current stimulation: Methods and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark P; Rahman, Asif; Lafon, Belen; Kronberg, Gregory; Ling, Doris; Parra, Lucas C; Bikson, Marom

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of animal research using direct current stimulation (DCS) to our understanding of the physiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We comprehensively address experimental methodology in animal studies, broadly classified as: (1) transcranial stimulation; (2) direct cortical stimulation in vivo and (3) in vitro models. In each case advantages and disadvantages for translational research are discussed including dose translation and the overarching "quasi-uniform" assumption, which underpins translational relevance in all animal models of tDCS. Terminology such as anode, cathode, inward current, outward current, current density, electric field, and uniform are defined. Though we put key animal experiments spanning decades in perspective, our goal is not simply an exhaustive cataloging of relevant animal studies, but rather to put them in context of ongoing efforts to improve tDCS. Cellular targets, including excitatory neuronal somas, dendrites, axons, interneurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells are considered. We emphasize neurons are always depolarized and hyperpolarized such that effects of DCS on neuronal excitability can only be evaluated within subcellular regions of the neuron. Findings from animal studies on the effects of DCS on plasticity (LTP/LTD) and network oscillations are reviewed extensively. Any endogenous phenomena dependent on membrane potential changes are, in theory, susceptible to modulation by DCS. The relevance of morphological changes (galvanotropy) to tDCS is also considered, as we suggest microscopic migration of axon terminals or dendritic spines may be relevant during tDCS. A majority of clinical studies using tDCS employ a simplistic dose strategy where excitability is singularly increased or decreased under the anode and cathode, respectively. We discuss how this strategy, itself based on classic animal studies, cannot account for the

  4. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D.; Bussey, Timothy; Mar, Adam; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu). A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. PMID:23994273

  5. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D; Bussey, Timothy J; Mar, Adam C; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu) meeting. A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits.

  6. Current status: Animal models of nausea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The advantages, and possible benefits of a valid, reliable animal model for nausea are discussed, and difficulties inherent to the development of a model are considered. A principle problem for developing models arises because nausea is a subjective sensation that can be identified only in humans. Several putative measures of nausea in animals are considered, with more detailed consideration directed to variation in cardiac rate, levels of vasopressin, and conditioned taste aversion. Demonstration that putative measures are associated with reported nausea in humans is proposed as a requirement for validating measures to be used in animal models. The necessity for a 'real-time' measure of nausea is proposed as an important factor for future research; and the need for improved understanding of the neuroanatomy underlying the emetic syndrome is discussed.

  7. Optogenetics in animal model of alcohol addiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalberczak, Maria; Radwanska, Kasia

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the neuronal and molecular basis of alcohol addiction is still not satisfactory. As a consequence we still miss successful therapy of alcoholism. One of the reasons for such state is the lack of appropriate animal models which would allow in-depth analysis of biological basis of addiction. Here we will present our efforts to create the animal model of alcohol addiction in the automated learning device, the IntelliCage setup. Applying this model to optogenetically modified mice with remotely controlled regulation of selected neuronal populations by light may lead to very precise identification of neuronal circuits involved in coding addiction-related behaviors.

  8. Pharmacokinetic modeling in aquatic animals. 1. Models and concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, M.G.; Stehly, Guy R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    While clinical and toxicological applications of pharmacokinetics have continued to evolve both conceptually and experimentally, pharmacokinetics modeling in aquatic animals has not progressed accordingly. In this paper we present methods and concepts of pharmacokinetic modeling in aquatic animals using multicompartmental, clearance-based, non-compartmental and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models. These models should be considered as alternatives to traditional approaches, which assume that the animal acts as a single homogeneous compartment based on apparent monoexponential elimination.

  9. Animal models of gastrointestinal inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Chan, Ruby L Y; Luo, X M; Wu, William K K; Shin, Vivian Y; Cho, C H

    2014-07-11

    Inflammation and cancer are the two major disorders in the gastrointestinal tract. They are causally related in their pathogenesis. It is important to study animal models' causal relationship and, in particular, to discover new therapeutic agents for such diseases. There are several criteria for these models in order to make them useful in better understanding the etiology and treatment of the said diseases in humans. In this regard, animal models should be similar as possible to human diseases and also be easy to produce and reproducible and also economic to allow a continuous replication in different laboratories. In this review, we summarize the various animal models for inflammatory and cancerous disorders in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Experimental approaches are as simple as by giving a single oral dose of alcohol or other noxious agents or by injections of multiple dosages of ulcer inducing agents or by parenteral administration or in drinking water of carcinogens or by modifying the genetic makeups of animals to produce relatively long-term pathological changes in particular organs. With these methods they could induce consistent inflammatory responses or tumorigenesis in the gastrointestinal mucosa. These animal models are widely used in laboratories in understanding the pathogenesis as well as the mechanisms of action for therapeutic agents in the treatment of gastrointestinal inflammation and cancer.

  10. Cancer prevention by tea: animal studies, molecular mechanisms and human relevance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Lu, Gang; Picinich, Sonia C.

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of tea, especially green tea, and tea polyphenols have been shown to inhibit the formation and development of tumours at different organ sites in animal models. There is considerable evidence that tea polyphenols, in particular (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibit enzyme activities and signal transduction pathways, resulting in the suppression of cell proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis, as well as the inhibition of cell invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, we review these biological activities and existing data relating tea consumption to human cancer risk in an attempt to understand the potential use of tea for cancer prevention. PMID:19472429

  11. Review of Nonprimate, Large Animal Models for Osteoporosis Research

    PubMed Central

    Reinwald, Susan; Burr, David

    2008-01-01

    Large animal models are required for preclinical prevention and intervention studies related to osteoporosis research. The challenging aspect of this requirement is that no single animal model exactly mimics the progression of this human-specific chronic condition. There are pros and cons associated with the skeletal, hormonal, and metabolic conditions of each species that influence their relevance and applicability to human physiology. Of all larger mammalian species, nonhuman primates (NHPs) are preeminent in terms of replicating important aspects of human physiology. However, NHPs are very expensive, putting them out of reach of the vast majority of researchers. Practical, cost-effective alternatives to NHPs are sought after among ungulate (porcine, caprine, and ovine) and canine species that are the focus of this review. The overriding caveat to using large lower-order species is to take the time in advance to understand and appreciate the limitations and strengths of each animal model. Under these circumstances, experiments can be strategically designed to optimize the potential of an animal to develop the cardinal features of postmenopausal bone loss and/or yield information of relevance to treatment. PMID:18505374

  12. Large animal models for stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Harding, John; Roberts, R Michael; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg

    2013-03-28

    The field of regenerative medicine is approaching translation to clinical practice, and significant safety concerns and knowledge gaps have become clear as clinical practitioners are considering the potential risks and benefits of cell-based therapy. It is necessary to understand the full spectrum of stem cell actions and preclinical evidence for safety and therapeutic efficacy. The role of animal models for gaining this information has increased substantially. There is an urgent need for novel animal models to expand the range of current studies, most of which have been conducted in rodents. Extant models are providing important information but have limitations for a variety of disease categories and can have different size and physiology relative to humans. These differences can preclude the ability to reproduce the results of animal-based preclinical studies in human trials. Larger animal species, such as rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep, goats, and non-human primates, are better predictors of responses in humans than are rodents, but in each case it will be necessary to choose the best model for a specific application. There is a wide spectrum of potential stem cell-based products that can be used for regenerative medicine, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, somatic stem cells, and differentiated cellular progeny. The state of knowledge and availability of these cells from large animals vary among species. In most cases, significant effort is required for establishing and characterizing cell lines, comparing behavior to human analogs, and testing potential applications. Stem cell-based therapies present significant safety challenges, which cannot be addressed by traditional procedures and require the development of new protocols and test systems, for which the rigorous use of larger animal species more closely resembling human behavior will be required. In this article, we discuss the current status and challenges of and several major directions

  13. Food allergy animal models: an overview.

    PubMed

    Helm, Ricki M

    2002-05-01

    Specific food allergy is characterized by sensitization to innocuous food proteins with production of allergen-specific IgE that binds to receptors on basophils and mast cells. Upon recurrent exposure to the same allergen, an allergic response is induced by mediator release following cross-linking of cell-bound allergen-specific IgE. The determination of what makes an innocuous food protein an allergen in predisposed individuals is unknown; however, mechanistic and protein allergen predictive models are being actively investigated in a number of animal models. Currently, there is no animal model that will actively profile known food allergens, predict the allergic potential of novel food proteins, or demonstrate clinically the human food allergic sensitization/allergic response. Animal models under investigation include mice, rats, the guinea pig, atopic dog, and neonatal swine. These models are being assessed for production of IgE, clinical responses to re-exposure, and a ranking of food allergens (based on potency) including a nonfood allergen protein source. A selection of animal models actively being investigated that will contribute to our understanding of what makes a protein an allergen and future predictive models for assessing the allergenicity of novel proteins is presented in this review.

  14. Towards policy relevant environmental modeling: contextual validity and pragmatic models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, Scott B.

    2000-01-01

    "What makes for a good model?" In various forms, this question is a question that, undoubtedly, many people, businesses, and institutions ponder with regards to their particular domain of modeling. One particular domain that is wrestling with this question is the multidisciplinary field of environmental modeling. Examples of environmental models range from models of contaminated ground water flow to the economic impact of natural disasters, such as earthquakes. One of the distinguishing claims of the field is the relevancy of environmental modeling to policy and environment-related decision-making in general. A pervasive view by both scientists and decision-makers is that a "good" model is one that is an accurate predictor. Thus, determining whether a model is "accurate" or "correct" is done by comparing model output to empirical observations. The expected outcome of this process, usually referred to as "validation" or "ground truthing," is a stamp on the model in question of "valid" or "not valid" that serves to indicate whether or not the model will be reliable before it is put into service in a decision-making context. In this paper, I begin by elaborating on the prevailing view of model validation and why this view must change. Drawing from concepts coming out of the studies of science and technology, I go on to propose a contextual view of validity that can overcome the problems associated with "ground truthing" models as an indicator of model goodness. The problem of how we talk about and determine model validity has much to do about how we perceive the utility of environmental models. In the remainder of the paper, I argue that we should adopt ideas of pragmatism in judging what makes for a good model and, in turn, developing good models. From such a perspective of model goodness, good environmental models should facilitate communication, convey—not bury or "eliminate"—uncertainties, and, thus, afford the active building of consensus decisions, instead

  15. Standardization of A Physiologic Hypoparathyroidism Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Soo Yeon; Kim, Ha Yeong; Park, Hae Sang; Yin, Xiang Yun; Chung, Sung Min; Kim, Han Su

    2016-01-01

    Ideal hypoparathyroidism animal models are a prerequisite to developing new treatment modalities for this disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a model whereby rats were parathyroidectomized (PTX) using a fluorescent-identification method and the ideal calcium content of the diet was determined. Thirty male rats were divided into surgical sham (SHAM, n = 5) and PTX plus 0, 0.5, and 2% calcium diet groups (PTX-FC (n = 5), PTX-NC (n = 10), and PTX-HC (n = 10), respectively). Serum parathyroid hormone levels decreased to non-detectable levels in all PTX groups. All animals in the PTX—FC group died within 4 days after the operation. All animals survived when supplied calcium in the diet. However, serum calcium levels were higher in the PTX-HC than the SHAM group. The PTX-NC group demonstrated the most representative modeling of primary hypothyroidism. Serum calcium levels decreased and phosphorus levels increased, and bone volume was increased. All animals survived without further treatment and did not show nephrotoxicity including calcium deposits. These findings demonstrate that PTX animal models produced by using the fluorescent-identification method, and fed a 0.5% calcium diet, are appropriate for hypoparathyroidism treatment studies. PMID:27695051

  16. Animal models of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ye; Mahmood, Asim; Chopp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in both civilian life and the battlefield worldwide. Survivors of TBI frequently experience long-term disabling changes in cognition, sensorimotor function and personality. Over the past three decades, animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of human TBI, to better understand the underlying pathophysiology and to explore potential treatments. Nevertheless, promising neuroprotective drugs, which were identified to be effective in animal TBI models, have all failed in phase II or phase III clinical trials. This failure in clinical translation of preclinical studies highlights a compelling need to revisit the current status of animal models of TBI and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23329160

  17. Lessons Learned from Animal Models of Inherited Bleeding Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in treatment of hemophilia and von Willebrand disease (VWD) depend heavily on the availability of well-characterized animal models. These animals faithfully recapitulate the severe bleeding phenotype that occurs in humans with these inherited bleeding disorders. Research in these animal models represents important early and intermediate steps of translational research aimed at addressing current limitations in treatment such as the development of inhibitory antibodies to coagulation factors VIII and IX (FVIII, FIX) or von Willebrand factor (VWF), the life-long need for frequent venous access, the expense of therapy, and the ongoing need for improved ex vivo coagulation assays and in vivo methods for assessing hemostasis. The primary strengths of research that utilizes these highly relevant animal models include the development of better and safer treatments for hemophilia and VWD. Careful consideration of the strengths and limitations of the specific models is essential for optimizing chances for successful translation of advances to clinical medicine that benefits humans and animals. PMID:26052366

  18. Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy: insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Stables, Catherine L; Glasser, Rebecca L; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a relatively common and often devastating complication of diabetes. The major clinical signs are tachycardia, exercise intolerance, and orthostatic hypotension, but the most severe aspects of this complication are high rates of cardiac events and mortality. One of the earliest manifestations of CAN is reduced heart rate variability, and detection of this, along with abnormal results in postural blood pressure testing and/or the Valsalva maneuver, are central to diagnosis of the disease. The treatment options for CAN, beyond glycemic control, are extremely limited and lack evidence of efficacy. The underlying molecular mechanisms are also poorly understood. Thus, CAN is associated with a poor prognosis and there is a compelling need for research to understand, prevent, and reverse CAN. In this review of the literature we examine the use and usefulness of animal models of CAN in diabetes. Compared to other diabetic complications, the number of animal studies of CAN is very low. The published studies range across a variety of species, methods of inducing diabetes, and timescales examined, leading to high variability in study outcomes. The lack of well-characterized animal models makes it difficult to judge the relevance of these models to the human disease. One major advantage of animal studies is the ability to probe underlying molecular mechanisms, and the limited numbers of mechanistic studies conducted to date are outlined. Thus, while animal models of CAN in diabetes are crucial to better understanding and development of therapies, they are currently under-used.

  19. Hierarchical models of animal abundance and occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Much of animal ecology is devoted to studies of abundance and occurrence of species, based on surveys of spatially referenced sample units. These surveys frequently yield sparse counts that are contaminated by imperfect detection, making direct inference about abundance or occurrence based on observational data infeasible. This article describes a flexible hierarchical modeling framework for estimation and inference about animal abundance and occurrence from survey data that are subject to imperfect detection. Within this framework, we specify models of abundance and detectability of animals at the level of the local populations defined by the sample units. Information at the level of the local population is aggregated by specifying models that describe variation in abundance and detection among sites. We describe likelihood-based and Bayesian methods for estimation and inference under the resulting hierarchical model. We provide two examples of the application of hierarchical models to animal survey data, the first based on removal counts of stream fish and the second based on avian quadrat counts. For both examples, we provide a Bayesian analysis of the models using the software WinBUGS.

  20. Pathophysiology and animal modeling of underactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Smith, Phillip P; Kuchel, George A; de Groat, William C; Birder, Lori A; Chermansky, Christopher J; Adam, Rosalyn M; Tse, Vincent; Chancellor, Michael B; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    While the symptomology of underactive bladder (UAB) may imply a primary dysfunction of the detrusor muscle, insights into pathophysiology indicate that both myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms need to be considered. Due to lack of proper animal models, the current understanding of the UAB pathophysiology is limited, and much of what is known about the clinical etiology of the condition has been derived from epidemiological data. We hereby review current state of the art in the understanding of the pathophysiology of and animal models used to study the UAB.

  1. Animal models of mucositis: implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Joanne M; Gibson, Rachel J; Keefe, Dorothy M K

    2011-01-01

    Alimentary mucositis is a major acute complication in the clinical setting, occurring in a large percentage of patients undergoing cytotoxic therapy. One of the major problems with alimentary mucositis is that the underlying mechanisms behind its development are not entirely understood, which makes it extremely difficult to develop effective interventions. Animal models provide a critical source of knowledge when sampling from patients is unavailable or interventions are yet to be fully tested. This review focuses on the animal models used to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of mucositis and translate new antimucotoxic agents into clinical trials.

  2. Laboratory animal models for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dhanya Venugopalan; Reddy, A. Gopala

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal cancer is rapidly increasing especially in developing countries. The major risk factors include unhealthy lifestyle practices such as alcohol consumption, smoking, and chewing tobacco to name a few. Diagnosis at an advanced stage and poor prognosis make esophageal cancer one of the most lethal diseases. These factors have urged further research in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. Animal models not only aid in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of esophageal cancer but also help in developing therapeutic interventions for the disease. This review throws light on the various recent laboratory animal models for esophageal cancer. PMID:27956773

  3. Animal models of focal brain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death in many countries. Understanding the pathophysiology of ischemic injury and developing therapies is an important endeavor that requires much additional research. Animal stroke models provide an important mechanism for these activities. A large number of stroke models have been developed and are currently used in laboratories around the world. These models are overviewed as are approaches for measuring infarct size and functional outcome. PMID:20150985

  4. [Laboratory animal infection in modeling intestinal schistosomiasis].

    PubMed

    Zelia, O P

    1984-01-01

    A comparative efficiency of different regimes for infecting laboratory animals has been determined in order to find out optimal conditions under which an experimental model of intestinal schistosomiasis (infection with Schistosoma mansoni) can be maintained. When evaluating the results of laboratory definitive hosts infection we took into account the character of Schistosoma distribution in animals, which with high probability rate was modelled by means of negative binomial distribution. The main parameters of this distribution were used for determination of effective doses and methods of animals infection alongside with generally accepted indices of infection rate and intensiveness. Analysis of the data obtained has shown that the infection of 150 cercarians per mouse and 200 cercarians per golden and striped hairy-footed hamster by their subcutaneous administration creates optimal density of parasites in the host. Results of investigations have shown that striped hairy-footed hamsters can be used as definitive hosts of Schistosoma.

  5. Are animal models predictive for humans?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools they fall far short of being able to predict human responses. This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics. PMID:19146696

  6. An animated model of reticulorumen motility.

    PubMed

    Gookin, Jody L; Foster, Derek M; Harvey, Alice M; McWhorter, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Understanding reticulorumen motility is important to the assessment of ruminant health and optimal production, and in the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Accordingly, the teaching of reticulorumen motility is a staple of all veterinary curricula. This teaching has historically been based on written descriptions, line drawings, or pressure tracings obtained during contraction sequences. We developed an animated model of reticulorumen motility and hypothesized that veterinary students would prefer use of the model over traditional instructional methods. First-year veterinary students were randomly allocated to one of two online learning exercises: with the animated model (Group A) or with text and line drawings (Group B) depicting reticulorumen motility. Learning was assessed with a multiple-choice quiz and feedback on the learning alternatives was obtained by survey. Seventy-four students participated in the study, including 38/42 in Group A and 36/36 in Group B. Sixty-four out of 72 students (89%) responded that they would prefer use of the animated model if only one of the two learning methods was available. A majority of students agreed or strongly agreed that the animated model was easy to understand and improved their knowledge and appreciation of the importance of reticulorumen motility, and would recommend the model to other veterinary students. Interestingly, students in Group B achieved higher scores on examination than students in Group A. This could be speculatively attributed to the inclusion of an itemized list of contraction sequences in the text provided to Group B and failure of Group A students to read the text associated with the animations.

  7. Transgenic Animal Models of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shang-Hsun; Chan, Anthony W S

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that currently has no cure. In order to develop effective treatment, an understanding of HD pathogenesis and the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of novel medications with the aid of animal models are critical steps. Transgenic animals sharing similar genetic defects that lead to HD have provided important discoveries in HD mechanisms that cell models are not able to replicate, which include psychiatric impairment, cognitive behavioral impact, and motor functions. Although transgenic HD rodent models have been widely used in HD research, it is clear that an animal model with comparable physiology to man, similar genetic defects that lead to HD, and the ability to develop similar cognitive and behavioral impairments is critical for explaining HD pathogenesis and the development of cures. Compared to HD rodents, HD transgenic nonhuman primates have not only developed comparable neuropathology but also present HD clinical features such as rigidity, seizure, dystonia, bradykinesia, and chorea that no other animal model has been able to replicate. Distinctive degenerating neurons and the accumulation of neuropil aggregates observed in HD monkey brain strongly support the hypothesis that the unique neuropathogenic events seen in HD monkey brain recapitulate HD in man. The latest development of transgenic HD primates has opened a new era of animal modeling that better represents human genetic disorders such as HD, which will accelerate the development of diagnostic tools and identifying novel biomarkers through longitudinal studies including gene expression and metabolite profiling, and noninvasive imaging. Furthermore, novel treatments with predictable efficacy in human patients can be developed using HD monkeys because of comparable neuropathology and clinical features.

  8. Animal models for photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Zenildo Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs non-toxic dyes called photosensitizers (PSs), which absorb visible light to give the excited singlet state, followed by the long-lived triplet state that can undergo photochemistry. In the presence of ambient oxygen, reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals are formed that are able to kill cancer cells, inactivate microbial pathogens and destroy unwanted tissue. Although there are already several clinically approved PSs for various disease indications, many studies around the world are using animal models to investigate the further utility of PDT. The present review will cover the main groups of animal models that have been described in the literature. Cancer comprises the single biggest group of models including syngeneic mouse/rat tumours that can either be subcutaneous or orthotopic and allow the study of anti-tumour immune response; human tumours that need to be implanted in immunosuppressed hosts; carcinogen-induced tumours; and mice that have been genetically engineered to develop cancer (often by pathways similar to those in patients). Infections are the second biggest class of animal models and the anatomical sites include wounds, burns, oral cavity, ears, eyes, nose etc. Responsible pathogens can include Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. A smaller and diverse group of miscellaneous animal models have been reported that allow PDT to be tested in ophthalmology, atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, dermatology and wound healing. Successful studies using animal models of PDT are blazing the trail for tomorrow's clinical approvals. PMID:26415497

  9. Animal models for genetic neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Vainzof, Mariz; Ayub-Guerrieri, Danielle; Onofre, Paula C G; Martins, Poliana C M; Lopes, Vanessa F; Zilberztajn, Dinorah; Maia, Lucas S; Sell, Karen; Yamamoto, Lydia U

    2008-03-01

    The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal, sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models generally present physiological alterations observed in human patients and can be used as important tools for genetic, clinic, and histopathological studies. The mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although it is a good genetic and biochemical model, presenting total deficiency of the protein dystrophin in the muscle, this mouse is not useful for clinical trials because of its very mild phenotype. The canine golden retriever MD model represents a more clinically similar model of DMD due to its larger size and significant muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle MD forms models include the SJL/J mice, which develop a spontaneous myopathy resulting from a mutation in the Dysferlin gene, being a model for LGMD2B. For the human sarcoglycanopahties (SG), the BIO14.6 hamster is the spontaneous animal model for delta-SG deficiency, whereas some canine models with deficiency of SG proteins have also been identified. More recently, using the homologous recombination technique in embryonic stem cell, several mouse models have been developed with null mutations in each one of the four SG genes. All sarcoglycan-null animals display a progressive muscular dystrophy of variable severity and share the property of a significant secondary reduction in the expression of the other members of the sarcoglycan subcomplex and other components of the Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mouse models for congenital MD include the dy/dy (dystrophia-muscularis) mouse and the allelic mutant dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse

  10. Animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Girón-Martínez, Álvaro; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2015-03-01

    Animal models of disease have always been welcomed by the scientific community because they provide an approach to the investigation of certain aspects of the disease in question. Animal models of COPD cannot reproduce the heterogeneity of the disease and usually only manage to represent the disease in its milder stages. Moreover, airflow obstruction, the variable that determines patient diagnosis, not always taken into account in the models. For this reason, models have focused on the development of emphysema, easily detectable by lung morphometry, and have disregarded other components of the disease, such as airway injury or associated vascular changes. Continuous, long-term exposure to cigarette smoke is considered the main risk factor for this disease, justifying the fact that the cigarette smoke exposure model is the most widely used. Some variations on this basic model, related to exposure time, the association of other inducers or inhibitors, exacerbations or the use of transgenic animals to facilitate the identification of pathogenic pathways have been developed. Some variations or heterogeneity of this disease, then, can be reproduced and models can be designed for resolving researchers' questions on disease identification or treatment responses.

  11. The modelling cycle for collective animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sumpter, David J T; Mann, Richard P; Perna, Andrea

    2012-12-06

    Collective animal behaviour is the study of how interactions between individuals produce group level patterns, and why these interactions have evolved. This study has proved itself uniquely interdisciplinary, involving physicists, mathematicians, engineers as well as biologists. Almost all experimental work in this area is related directly or indirectly to mathematical models, with regular movement back and forth between models, experimental data and statistical fitting. In this paper, we describe how the modelling cycle works in the study of collective animal behaviour. We classify studies as addressing questions at different levels or linking different levels, i.e. as local, local to global, global to local or global. We also describe three distinct approaches-theory-driven, data-driven and model selection-to these questions. We show, with reference to our own research on species across different taxa, how we move between these different levels of description and how these various approaches can be applied to link levels together.

  12. Cholestasis: human disease and experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Garay, Emilio Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Cholestasis may result from a failure in bile secretion in hepatocytes or ductular cells, or from a blockade to the free bile flow. Human cholestasis may be induced by many drugs, being antibiotics the more common. Other types of cholestasis seen in humans are a group of familial cholestatic disorders, obstructive cholestasis, primary biliary cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia, primary sclerosing cholangitis, cholestasis of pregnancy, oral contraceptive-induced cholestasis, and sepsis-induced cholestasis. Experimental animal models allow the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms involved and their clinical correlates. The most common experimental models of intrahepatic cholestasis are estrogen-induced, endotoxin-induced and drug-induced cholestasis. A well known model of extrahepatic biliary obstruction is common bile duct ligation. Drug-induced cholestasis were described using different drugs. On this regard, alpha naphthylisothiocyanate treatment has been extensively used, permitting to describe not only cholestatic alterations but also compensatory mechanisms. Congenital defficiency of transport proteins also were studied in natural rat models of cholestasis. The experimental animal models allow to define down-regulated alterations of hepatocyte transport proteins, and up-regulated ones acting as compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, animal model and transport protein studies are necessary for the progressive understanding of congenital and acquired human cholestasis, and regulatory mechanisms that operate on liver cells.

  13. Vestibular animal models: contributions to understanding physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Straka, Hans; Zwergal, Andreas; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge of the vestibular sensory system, its functional significance for gaze and posture stabilization, and its capability to ensure accurate spatial orientation perception and spatial navigation has greatly benefitted from experimental approaches using a variety of vertebrate species. This review summarizes the attempts to establish the roles of semicircular canal and otolith endorgans in these functions followed by an overview of the most relevant fields of vestibular research including major findings that have advanced our understanding of how this system exerts its influence on reflexive and cognitive challenges encountered during daily life. In particular, we highlight the contributions of different animal models and the advantage of using a comparative research approach. Cross-species comparisons have established that the morpho-physiological properties underlying vestibular signal processing are evolutionarily inherent, thereby disclosing general principles. Based on the documented success of this approach, we suggest that future research employing a balanced spectrum of standard animal models such as fish/frog, mouse and primate will optimize our progress in understanding vestibular processing in health and disease. Moreover, we propose that this should be further supplemented by research employing more "exotic" species that offer unique experimental access and/or have specific vestibular adaptations due to unusual locomotor capabilities or lifestyles. Taken together this strategy will expedite our understanding of the basic principles underlying vestibular computations to reveal relevant translational aspects. Accordingly, studies employing animal models are indispensible and even mandatory for the development of new treatments, medication and technical aids (implants) for patients with vestibular pathologies.

  14. Animal models of psoriasis and pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Hitoshi; Yamanaka, Keiichi; Konishi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Takaaki

    2003-04-01

    Investigation of psoriasis and pustular psoriasis is presently hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models. So far, more than ten models have been developed in mice by spontaneous gene mutations and by gene manipulation. However, none of them has satisfactorily reproduced the clinicopathological and immunopathological phenotypes of these diseases. Xenotransplantation techniques have been used for designing models of psoriasis vulgaris, in which CD4(+) T cells have been shown to play an important role. An ideal model for pustular psoriasis should have an immunological background and fulfill the diagnostic criteria of psoriasis.

  15. Nonmurine animal models of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Helm, Ricki M; Ermel, Richard W; Frick, Oscar L

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy can present as immediate hypersensitivity [manifestations mediated by immunoglobulin (Ig)E], delayed-type hypersensitivity (reactions associated with specific T lymphocytes), and inflammatory reactions caused by immune complexes. For reasons of ethics and efficacy, investigations in humans to determine sensitization and allergic responses of IgE production to innocuous food proteins are not feasible. Therefore, animal models are used a) to bypass the innate tendency to develop tolerance to food proteins and induce specific IgE antibody of sufficient avidity/affinity to cause sensitization and upon reexposure to induce an allergic response, b) to predict allergenicity of novel proteins using characteristics of known food allergens, and c) to treat food allergy by using immunotherapeutic strategies to alleviate life-threatening reactions. The predominant hypothesis for IgE-mediated food allergy is that there is an adverse reaction to exogenous food proteins or food protein fragments, which escape lumen hydrolysis, and in a polarized helper T cell subset 2 (Th2) environment, immunoglobulin class switching to allergen-specific IgE is generated in the immune system of the gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissues. Traditionally, the immunologic characterization and toxicologic studies of small laboratory animals have provided the basis for development of animal models of food allergy; however, the natural allergic response in large animals, which closely mimic allergic diseases in humans, can also be useful as models for investigations involving food allergy.

  16. Potential animal models of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depressive episodes during winter that are alleviated during summer and by morning bright light treatment. Currently, there is no animal model of SAD. However, it may be possible to use rodents that respond to day length (photoperiod) to understand how photoperiod can shape the brain and behavior in humans. As nights lengthen in the autumn, the duration of the nightly elevation of melatonin increase; seasonally breeding animals use this information to orchestrate seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. SAD may originate from the extended duration of nightly melatonin secretion during fall and winter. These similarities between humans and rodents in melatonin secretion allows for comparisons with rodents that express more depressive-like responses when exposed to short day lengths. For instance, Siberian hamsters, fat sand rats, Nile grass rats, and Wistar rats display a depressive-like phenotype when exposed to short days. Current research in depression and animal models of depression suggests that hippocampal plasticity may underlie the symptoms of depression and depressive-like behaviors, respectively. It is also possible that day length induces structural changes in human brains. Many seasonally breeding rodents undergo changes in whole brain and hippocampal volume in short days. Based on strict validity criteria, there is no animal model of SAD, but rodents that respond to reduced day lengths may be useful to approximate the neurobiological phenomena that occur in people with SAD, leading to greater understanding of the etiology of the disorder as well as novel therapeutic interventions.

  17. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

  18. Animal models of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infection

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Casandra W.; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been acknowledged as an emerging cause of gastroenteritis worldwide for over two decades. Epidemiologists are revealing the role of EAEC in diarrheal outbreaks as a more common occurrence than ever suggested before. EAEC induced diarrhea is most commonly associated with travelers, children and immunocompromised individuals however its afflictions are not limited to any particular demographic. Many attributes have been discovered and characterized surrounding the capability of EAEC to provoke a potent pro-inflammatory immune response, however cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying initiation, progression and outcomes are largely unknown. This limited understanding can be attributed to heterogeneity in strains and the lack of adequate animal models. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about EAEC etiology, pathogenesis and clinical manifestation. Additionally, current animal models and their limitations will be discussed along with the value of applying systems-wide approaches such as computational modeling to study host-EAEC interactions. PMID:23680797

  19. Pathogenesis of Epilepsy: Challenges in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Hui Yin, Yow; Ahmad, Nurulumi; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic disorders affecting individuals of all ages. A greater understanding of pathogenesis in epilepsy will likely provide the basis fundamental for development of new antiepileptic therapies that aim to prevent the epileptogenesis process or modify the progression of epilepsy in addition to treatment of epilepsy symptomatically. Therefore, several investigations have embarked on advancing knowledge of the mechanism underlying epileptogenesis, understanding in mechanism of pharmacoresistance and discovering antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying therapy. Animal models play a crucial and significant role in providing additional insight into mechanism of epileptogenesis. With the help of these models, epileptogenesis process has been demonstrated to be involved in various molecular and biological pathways or processes. Hence, this article will discuss the known and postulated mechanisms of epileptogenesis and challenges in using the animal models. PMID:24494063

  20. Animal models of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jiawei; Huang, Wei; Liu, George

    2015-08-20

    Cardiovascular disease, predominantly coronary heart disease and stroke, leads to high morbidity and mortality not only in developed worlds but also in underdeveloped regions. The dominant pathologic foundation for cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis and as to coronary heart disease, coronary atherosclerosis and resulting lumen stenosis, even total occlusions. In translational research, several animals, such as mice, rabbits and pigs, have been used as disease models of human atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular disorders. However, coronary lesions are either naturally rare or hard to be fast induced in these models, hence, coronary heart disease induction mostly relies on surgical or pharmaceutical interventions with no or limited primary coronary lesions, thus unrepresentative of human coronary heart disease progression and pathology. In this review, we will describe the progress of animal models of coronary heart disease following either spontaneous or diet-accelerated coronary lesions.

  1. Animal models of insulin resistance: A review.

    PubMed

    Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Singh, Barinder; Choudhary, Supriti; Kumar, Anil

    2016-12-01

    Insulin resistance can be seen as a molecular and genetic mystery, with a role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a basis for a number of chronic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, coronary heart disease, cerebral vascular disease along with T2DM, thus the key is to cure and prevent insulin resistance. Critical perspicacity into the etiology of insulin resistance have been gained by the use of animal models where insulin action has been modulated by various transgenic and non-transgenic models which is not possible in human studies. The following review comprises the pathophysiology involved in insulin resistance, various factors causing insulin resistance, their screening and various genetic and non-genetic animal models highlighting the pathological and metabolic characteristics of each.

  2. Cardiovascular imaging: what have we learned from animal models?

    PubMed

    Santos, Arnoldo; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Villalba, María; López-Melgar, Beatriz; España, Samuel; Mateo, Jesús; Mota, Ruben A; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for patient diagnosis and follow up. Probably the wide clinical applications of imaging are due to the possibility of a detailed and high quality description and quantification of cardiovascular system structure and function. Also phenomena that involve complex physiological mechanisms and biochemical pathways, such as inflammation and ischemia, can be visualized in a non-destructive way. The widespread use and evolution of imaging would not have been possible without animal studies. Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results. In this review, we will critically describe the contribution of animal models to the use of biomedical imaging in cardiovascular medicine. We will discuss the characteristics of the most frequent models used in/for imaging studies. We will cover the major findings of animal studies focused in the cardiovascular use of the repeatedly used imaging techniques in clinical practice and experimental studies. We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases. In these diseases, imaging research using animals has allowed the study of aspects such as: ventricular size, shape, global function, and wall thickening, local myocardial function, myocardial perfusion, metabolism and energetic assessment, infarct quantification, vascular lesion characterization, myocardial fiber structure, and myocardial calcium uptake. Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models.

  3. Cardiovascular imaging: what have we learned from animal models?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Arnoldo; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Villalba, María; López-Melgar, Beatriz; España, Samuel; Mateo, Jesús; Mota, Ruben A.; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for patient diagnosis and follow up. Probably the wide clinical applications of imaging are due to the possibility of a detailed and high quality description and quantification of cardiovascular system structure and function. Also phenomena that involve complex physiological mechanisms and biochemical pathways, such as inflammation and ischemia, can be visualized in a non-destructive way. The widespread use and evolution of imaging would not have been possible without animal studies. Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results. In this review, we will critically describe the contribution of animal models to the use of biomedical imaging in cardiovascular medicine. We will discuss the characteristics of the most frequent models used in/for imaging studies. We will cover the major findings of animal studies focused in the cardiovascular use of the repeatedly used imaging techniques in clinical practice and experimental studies. We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases. In these diseases, imaging research using animals has allowed the study of aspects such as: ventricular size, shape, global function, and wall thickening, local myocardial function, myocardial perfusion, metabolism and energetic assessment, infarct quantification, vascular lesion characterization, myocardial fiber structure, and myocardial calcium uptake. Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models. PMID:26539113

  4. Risk of parasite transmission influences perceived vulnerability to disease and perceived danger of disease-relevant animals.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Fancovicová, Jana

    2010-09-01

    Adaptationist view proposes that emotions were shaped by natural selection and their primary function is to protect humans against predators and/or disease threat. This study examined cross-cultural and inter-personal differences in behavioural immune system measured by disgust, fear and perceived danger in participants from high (Turkey) and low (Slovakia) pathogen prevalence areas. We found that behavioural immune system in Turkish participants was activated more than those of Slovakian participants when exposed to photographs depicting disease-relevant cues, but not when exposed to disease-irrelevant cues. However, participants from Slovakia, where human to human disease transmission is expected to be more prevalent than in Turkey, showed lower aversion in Germ Aversion subscale supporting hypersensitiveness of the behavioural immune system. Having animals at home was less frequent both in Turkey and in participants who perceived higher danger about disease relevant animals. Participants more vulnerable to diseases reported higher incidence of illness last year and considered perceived disease-relevant animals more dangerous than others. Females showed greater fear, disgust and danger about disease-relevant animals than males. Our results further support the finding that cultural and inter-personal differences in human personality are influenced by parasite threat.

  5. Animal models of acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Junemann, Anselm; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal; Grover, Kuldeep; Dhawan, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    The animal models are pivotal for understanding the characteristics of acute renal failure (ARF) and development of effective therapy for its optimal management. Since the etiology for induction of renal failure is multifold, therefore, a large number of animal models have been developed to mimic the clinical conditions of renal failure. Glycerol-induced renal failure closely mimics the rhabdomyolysis; ischemia-reperfusion-induced ARF simulate the hemodynamic changes-induced changes in renal functioning; drug-induced such as gentamicin, cisplatin, NSAID, ifosfamide-induced ARF mimics the renal failure due to clinical administration of respective drugs; uranium, potassium dichromate-induced ARF mimics the occupational hazard; S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine-induced ARF simulate contaminated water-induced renal dysfunction; sepsis-induced ARF mimics the infection-induced renal failure and radiocontrast-induced ARF mimics renal failure in patients during use of radiocontrast media at the time of cardiac catheterization. Since each animal model has been created with specific methodology, therefore, it is essential to describe the model in detail and consequently interpret the results in the context of a specific model.

  6. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  7. Animal Models of Depression: Molecular Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vaishnav; Nestler, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current understanding about the pathogenesis of altered mood, impaired concentration and neurovegetative symptoms in major depression has come from animal models. However, because of the unique and complex features of human depression, the generation of valid and insightful depression models has been less straightforward than modeling other disabling diseases like cancer or autoimmune conditions. Today’s popular depression models creatively merge ethologically valid behavioral assays with the latest technological advances in molecular biology and automated video-tracking. This chapter reviews depression assays involving acute stress (e.g., forced swim test), models consisting of prolonged physical or social stress (e.g., social defeat), models of secondary depression, genetic models, and experiments designed to elucidate the mechanisms of antidepressant action. These paradigms are critically evaluated in relation to their ease, validity and replicability, the molecular insights that they have provided, and their capacity to offer the next generation of therapeutics for depression. PMID:21225412

  8. Animal models of viral hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darci R; Holbrook, Michael R; Gowen, Brian B

    2014-12-01

    The term "viral hemorrhagic fever" (VHF) designates a syndrome of acute febrile illness, increased vascular permeability and coagulation defects which often progresses to bleeding and shock and may be fatal in a significant percentage of cases. The causative agents are some 20 different RNA viruses in the families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae and Flaviviridae, which are maintained in a variety of animal species and are transferred to humans through direct or indirect contact or by an arthropod vector. Except for dengue, which is transmitted among humans by mosquitoes, the geographic distribution of each type of VHF is determined by the range of its animal reservoir. Treatments are available for Argentine HF and Lassa fever, but no approved countermeasures have been developed against other types of VHF. The development of effective interventions is hindered by the sporadic nature of most infections and their occurrence in geographic regions with limited medical resources. Laboratory animal models that faithfully reproduce human disease are therefore essential for the evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics. The goal of this review is to highlight the current status of animal models that can be used to study the pathogenesis of VHF and test new countermeasures.

  9. Towards an animal model of food addiction.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could

  10. The Laboratory Rat as an Animal Model for Osteoporosis Research

    PubMed Central

    Lelovas, Pavlos P; Xanthos, Theodoros T; Thoma, Sofia E; Lyritis, George P; Dontas, Ismene A

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an important systemic disorder, affecting mainly Caucasian women, with a diverse and multifactorial etiology. A large variety of animal species, including rodents, rabbits, dogs, and primates, have been used as animal models in osteoporosis research. Among these, the laboratory rat is the preferred animal for most researchers. Its skeleton has been studied extensively, and although there are several limitations to its similarity to the human condition, these can be overcome through detailed knowledge of its specific traits or with certain techniques. The rat has been used in many experimental protocols leading to bone loss, including hormonal interventions (ovariectomy, orchidectomy, hypophysectomy, parathyroidectomy), immobilization, and dietary manipulations. The aim of the current review is not only to present the ovariectomized rat and its advantages as an appropriate model for the research of osteoporosis, but also to provide information about the most relevant age and bone site selection according to the goals of each experimental protocol. In addition, several methods of bone mass evaluation are assessed, such as biochemical markers, densitometry, histomorphometry, and bone mechanical testing, that are used for monitoring and evaluation of this animal model in preventive or therapeutic strategies for osteoporosis. PMID:19004367

  11. Animal Models for Medical Countermeasures to Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jacqueline P.; Brown, Stephen L.; Georges, George E.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Hill, Richard P.; Huser, Amy K.; Kirsch, David G.; MacVittie, Thomas J.; Mason, Kathy A.; Medhora, Meetha M.; Moulder, John E.; Okunieff, Paul; Otterson, Mary F.; Robbins, Michael E.; Smathers, James B.; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, there has been the recognition of a plausible threat from acts of terrorism, including radiological or nuclear attacks. A network of Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCRs) has been established across the U.S.; one of the missions of this network is to identify and develop mitigating agents that can be used to treat the civilian population after a radiological event. The development of such agents requires comparison of data from many sources and accumulation of information consistent with the “Animal Rule” from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Given the necessity for a consensus on appropriate animal model use across the network to allow for comparative studies to be performed across institutions, and to identify pivotal studies and facilitate FDA approval, in early 2008, investigators from each of the CMCRs organized and met for an Animal Models Workshop. Working groups deliberated and discussed the wide range of animal models available for assessing agent efficacy in a number of relevant tissues and organs, including the immune and hematopoietic systems, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and skin. Discussions covered the most appropriate species and strains available as well as other factors that may affect differential findings between groups and institutions. This report provides the workshop findings. PMID:20334528

  12. Standardised animal models of host microbial mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, A J; McCoy, K D

    2015-01-01

    An appreciation of the importance of interactions between microbes and multicellular organisms is currently driving research in biology and biomedicine. Many human diseases involve interactions between the host and the microbiota, so investigating the mechanisms involved is important for human health. Although microbial ecology measurements capture considerable diversity of the communities between individuals, this diversity is highly problematic for reproducible experimental animal models that seek to establish the mechanistic basis for interactions within the overall host-microbial superorganism. Conflicting experimental results may be explained away through unknown differences in the microbiota composition between vivaria or between the microenvironment of different isolated cages. In this position paper, we propose standardised criteria for stabilised and defined experimental animal microbiotas to generate reproducible models of human disease that are suitable for systematic experimentation and are reproducible across different institutions. PMID:25492472

  13. Models of GH deficiency in animal studies.

    PubMed

    Gahete, Manuel D; Luque, Raul M; Castaño, Justo P

    2016-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone released from pituitary somatotrope cells that promotes growth, cell division and regeneration by acting directly through the GH receptor (GHR), or indirectly via hepatic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) production. GH deficiency (GHD) can cause severe consequences, such as growth failure, changes in body composition and altered insulin sensitivity, depending of the origin, time of onset (childhood or adulthood) or duration of GHD. The highly variable clinical phenotypes of GHD can now be better understood through research on transgenic and naturally-occurring animal models, which are widely employed to investigate the origin, phenotype, and consequences of GHD, and particularly the underlying mechanisms of metabolic disorders associated to GHD. Here, we reviewed the most salient aspects of GH biology, from somatotrope development to GH actions, linked to certain GHD types, as well as the animal models employed to reproduce these GHD-associated alterations.

  14. Animal models of age related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Pennesi, Mark E; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J

    2012-08-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations.

  15. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  16. Technical intelligence in animals: the kea model.

    PubMed

    Huber, Ludwig; Gajdon, Gyula K

    2006-10-01

    The ability to act on information flexibly is one of the cornerstones of intelligent behavior. As particularly informative example, tool-oriented behavior has been investigated to determine to which extent nonhuman animals understand means-end relations, object affordances, and have specific motor skills. Even planning with foresight, goal-directed problem solving and immediate causal inference have been a focus of research. However, these cognitive abilities may not be restricted to tool-using animals but may be found also in animals that show high levels of curiosity, object exploration and manipulation, and extractive foraging behavior. The kea, a New Zealand parrot, is a particularly good example. We here review findings from laboratory experiments and field observations of keas revealing surprising cognitive capacities in the physical domain. In an experiment with captive keas, the success rate of individuals that were allowed to observe a trained conspecific was significantly higher than that of naive control subjects due to their acquisition of some functional understanding of the task through observation. In a further experiment using the string-pulling task, a well-probed test for means-end comprehension, we found the keas finding an immediate solution that could not be improved upon in nine further trials. We interpreted their performance as insightful in the sense of being sensitive of the relevant functional properties of the task and thereby producing a new adaptive response without trial-and-error learning. Together, these findings contribute to the ongoing debate on the distribution of higher cognitive skills in the animal kingdom by showing high levels of sensorimotor intelligence in animals that do not use tools. In conclusion, we suggest that the 'Technical intelligence hypothesis' (Byrne, Machiavellian intelligence II: extensions and evaluations, pp 289-211, 1997), which has been proposed to explain the origin of the ape/monkey grade-shift in

  17. Animal models of ANCA associated vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Alan D.; Little, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    This review seeks to provide an update on the experimental models that have been developed recapitulating clinical ANCA associated vasculitis. The recent insights regarding the application of the models in the study of pathogenesis, and the therapeutic implications of this, are covered in the article by van Timmeren and Heeringa in this issue. Recent findings Rodent models of both MPO- and PR3 ANCA associated vasculitis have been developed, which have provided important insights into the pathogenesis of ANCA associated pulmonary and renal disease. The vast majority of in vivo work in this field has concerned MPO-ANCA associated disease, although the last year has seen some advances in modelling of anti-PR3 disease. As with all experimental animal models they are flawed in one way or another, by virtue of the means by which they are induced, but they have already provided novel directions for future intervention in these complex diseases. To date there are no good models that replicate the granulomatous lesions found in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener’s), or the development of vasculitis lesions in organs other than the lungs or kidneys. However, use of a combination of the available models should allow greater understanding of the critical requirements for disease and how these may be potentially monitored and modified in patients. Summary ANCA associated vasculitis can be induced in various forms in susceptible rodents. Further refinements are required for the full spectrum of disease phenotype to be replicated in animals, but critical new targets have been proposed based on use of molecular blocking agents and transgenic animals to elucidate disease pathways. PMID:22089094

  18. Sexual Differentiation of the Brain in Man and Animals: Of Relevance to Klinefelter Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, MARGARET M.

    2017-01-01

    The developing brain is highly sensitive to the organizing effects of steroids of gonadal origin in a process referred to as sexual differentiation. Early hormone effects prime the brain for adult sensitivity to the appropriate hormonal milieu, maximizing reproductive fitness via coordinated physiology and behavior. Animal models, in particular rodents, have provided insight into general principles and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of brain differentiation. Cellular endpoints influenced by steroids in the developing brain include neurogenesis, migration, apoptosis, dendritic growth, and synaptic patterning. Important roles for prostaglandins, endocanabinoids, and epigenetics are among the many cellular mediators of hormonal organization. Transference of general principles of brain sexual differentiation to humans relies on observations of individuals with genetic anomalies that either increase or decrease hormone exposure and sensitivity. The physiology and behavior of individuals with XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) has not been considered in the context of sexual differentiation of the brain, most likely due to the delay in diagnoses and highly variable presentation. The behavioral phenotype and impairments in the domains of speech and language that are characteristic of individuals with XXY is consistent with the reduced androgen production associated with the syndrome. Hormone replacement appears effective in restoring some deficits and impact may be further improved by increased understanding of the hormonally mediated sexual differentiation of the brain. PMID:23335108

  19. Colon Preneoplastic Lesions in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Suzui, Masumi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The animal model is a powerful and fundamental tool in the field of biochemical research including toxicology, carcinogenesis, cancer therapeutics and prevention. In the carcinogenesis animal model system, numerous examples of preneoplastic lesions have been isolated and investigated from various perspectives. This may indicate that several options of endpoints to evaluate carcinogenesis effect or therapeutic outcome are presently available; however, classification of preneoplastic lesions has become complicated. For instance, these lesions include aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF, flat ACF, β-catenin accumulated crypts, and mucin-depleted foci. These lesions have been induced by commonly used chemical carcinogens such as azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), methylnitrosourea (MUN), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Investigators can choose any procedures or methods to examine colonic preneoplastic lesions according to their interests and the objectives of their experiments. Based on topographical, histopathological, and biological features of colon cancer preneoplastic lesions in the animal model, we summarize and discuss the character and implications of these lesions. PMID:24526805

  20. Animal models of compulsive eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-10-22

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating "comfort foods" in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, "food addiction" has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies.

  1. Exploiting ovine immunology to improve the relevance of biomedical models

    PubMed Central

    Entrican, Gary; Wattegedera, Sean R.; Griffiths, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of human disease are important tools in many areas of biomedicine; for example, in infectious disease research and in the development of novel drugs and medical devices. Most studies involving animals use rodents, in particular congenic mice, due to the availability of a wide number of strains and the ease with which they can be genetically manipulated. The use of mouse models has led to major advances in many fields of research, in particular in immunology but despite these advances, no animal model can exactly reproduce all the features of human disease. It is increasingly becoming recognised that in many circumstances mice do not provide the best model and that alternative species may be more appropriate. Here, we describe the relative merits of sheep as biomedical models for human physiology and disease in comparison to mice, with a particular focus on reproductive and respiratory pathogens. PMID:25263932

  2. Animal Models Utilized in HTLV-1 Research.

    PubMed

    Panfil, Amanda R; Al-Saleem, Jacob J; Green, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    Since the isolation and discovery of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) over 30 years ago, researchers have utilized animal models to study HTLV-1 transmission, viral persistence, virus-elicited immune responses, and HTLV-1-associated disease development (ATL, HAM/TSP). Non-human primates, rabbits, rats, and mice have all been used to help understand HTLV-1 biology and disease progression. Non-human primates offer a model system that is phylogenetically similar to humans for examining viral persistence. Viral transmission, persistence, and immune responses have been widely studied using New Zealand White rabbits. The advent of molecular clones of HTLV-1 has offered the opportunity to assess the importance of various viral genes in rabbits, non-human primates, and mice. Additionally, over-expression of viral genes using transgenic mice has helped uncover the importance of Tax and Hbz in the induction of lymphoma and other lymphocyte-mediated diseases. HTLV-1 inoculation of certain strains of rats results in histopathological features and clinical symptoms similar to that of humans with HAM/TSP. Transplantation of certain types of ATL cell lines in immunocompromised mice results in lymphoma. Recently, "humanized" mice have been used to model ATL development for the first time. Not all HTLV-1 animal models develop disease and those that do vary in consistency depending on the type of monkey, strain of rat, or even type of ATL cell line used. However, the progress made using animal models cannot be understated as it has led to insights into the mechanisms regulating viral replication, viral persistence, disease development, and, most importantly, model systems to test disease treatments.

  3. Freshwater Planarians as an Alternative Animal Model for Neurotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Hagstrom, Danielle; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Zhang, Siqi; Khuu, Cindy; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2015-09-01

    Traditional toxicology testing has relied on low-throughput, expensive mammalian studies; however, timely testing of the large number of environmental toxicants requires new in vitro and in vivo platforms for inexpensive medium- to high-throughput screening. Herein, we describe the suitability of the asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica as a new animal model for the study of developmental neurotoxicology. As these asexual animals reproduce by binary fission, followed by regeneration of missing body structures within approximately 1 week, development and regeneration occur through similar processes allowing us to induce neurodevelopment "at will" through amputation. This short time scale and the comparable sizes of full and regenerating animals enable parallel experiments in adults and developing worms to determine development-specific aspects of toxicity. Because the planarian brain, despite its simplicity, is structurally and molecularly similar to the mammalian brain, we are able to ascertain neurodevelopmental toxicity that is relevant to humans. As a proof of concept, we developed a 5-step semiautomatic screening platform to characterize the toxicity of 9 known neurotoxicants (consisting of common solvents, pesticides, and detergents) and a neutral agent, glucose, and quantified effects on viability, stimulated and unstimulated behavior, regeneration, and brain structure. Comparisons of our findings with other alternative toxicology animal models, such as zebrafish larvae and nematodes, demonstrated that planarians are comparably sensitive to the tested chemicals. In addition, we found that certain compounds induced adverse effects specifically in developing animals. We thus conclude that planarians offer new complementary opportunities for developmental neurotoxicology animal models.

  4. Freshwater Planarians as an Alternative Animal Model for Neurotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Hagstrom, Danielle; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Zhang, Siqi; Khuu, Cindy; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional toxicology testing has relied on low-throughput, expensive mammalian studies; however, timely testing of the large number of environmental toxicants requires new in vitro and in vivo platforms for inexpensive medium- to high-throughput screening. Herein, we describe the suitability of the asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica as a new animal model for the study of developmental neurotoxicology. As these asexual animals reproduce by binary fission, followed by regeneration of missing body structures within approximately 1 week, development and regeneration occur through similar processes allowing us to induce neurodevelopment “at will” through amputation. This short time scale and the comparable sizes of full and regenerating animals enable parallel experiments in adults and developing worms to determine development-specific aspects of toxicity. Because the planarian brain, despite its simplicity, is structurally and molecularly similar to the mammalian brain, we are able to ascertain neurodevelopmental toxicity that is relevant to humans. As a proof of concept, we developed a 5-step semiautomatic screening platform to characterize the toxicity of 9 known neurotoxicants (consisting of common solvents, pesticides, and detergents) and a neutral agent, glucose, and quantified effects on viability, stimulated and unstimulated behavior, regeneration, and brain structure. Comparisons of our findings with other alternative toxicology animal models, such as zebrafish larvae and nematodes, demonstrated that planarians are comparably sensitive to the tested chemicals. In addition, we found that certain compounds induced adverse effects specifically in developing animals. We thus conclude that planarians offer new complementary opportunities for developmental neurotoxicology animal models. PMID:26116028

  5. Molecular diagnosis of certain nematode infections can save life and beauty, and preserve breeds of socially relevant and sporting animals.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato

    2007-11-30

    The recognition that the health and welfare of some humans are improved through contact and relationships with animals is now established. Two commonly recognized assistance animals are dogs and horses. Both provide therapeutic benefits to humans with some physical and mental illnesses and both assist people with disabilities. Moreover, the public and scientific attention to the health and conservation of many animal breeds is also increasing worldwide. In the past few years, two potentially life-threatening nematode infections that can induce tumours or tumour-like masses in canids and equids, spirocercosis and draschiosis/habronemosis, respectively, are emerging in several areas of the world. This article reviews and comments how recent insights into the molecular early diagnosis of these diseases can save and preserve life, beauty and breeds of socially relevant and sporting animals.

  6. What Is the Predictive Value of Animal Models for Vaccine Efficacy in Humans? Consideration of Strategies to Improve the Value of Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Wherry, E John

    2017-03-27

    Animal models are an essential feature of the vaccine design toolkit. Although animal models have been invaluable in delineating the mechanisms of immune function, their precision in predicting how well specific vaccines work in humans is often suboptimal. There are, of course, many obvious species differences that may limit animal models from predicting all details of how a vaccine works in humans. However, careful consideration of which animal models may have limitations should also allow more accurate interpretations of animal model data and more accurate predictions of what is to be expected in clinical trials. In this article, we examine some of the considerations that might be relevant to cross-species extrapolation of vaccine-related immune responses for the prediction of how vaccines will perform in humans.

  7. Animal models of addiction: fat and sugar.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Drake; Sizemore, Glen M

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "food addiction" is gaining acceptance among the scientific community, and much is known about the influence of various components of food (e.g. high-fat, sugar, carbohydrate, salt) on behavior and physiology. Most of the studies to date have studied these consequences following relatively long-term diet manipulations and/or relatively free access to the food of interest. It is suggested that these types of studies are primarily tapping into the energy regulation and homeostatic processes that govern food intake and consumption. More recently, the overlap between the neurobiology of "reward-related" or hedonic effects of food ingestion and other reinforcers such as drugs of abuse has been highlighted, contributing to the notion that "food addiction" exists and that various components of food may be the substance of abuse. Based on preclinical animal models of drug addiction, a new direction for this field is using self-administration procedures and identifying an addiction-like behavioral phenotype in animals following various environmental, genetic, pharmacological, and neurobiological manipulations. Here we provide examples from this research area, with a focus on fat and sugar self-administration, and how the sophisticated animal models of drug addiction can be used to study the determinants and consequences of food addiction.

  8. Contribution of animal models to contemporary understanding of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Constança; Vieira Crespo, Mariana; Ferreira Bastos, Luisa; Knight, Andrew; Vicente, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a poorly understood neurodevelopmental disorder of multifactorial origin. Animal-based research has been used to investigate ADHD aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment, but the efficacy of this research for patients has not yet been systematically evaluated. However, such evaluation is important, given the resource consumption and ethical concerns incurred by animal use. Accordingly, we used the citation tracking facility within Web of Science to locate original research performed on animal models related to ADHD, prior to 2010. Human medical papers citing those animal studies were carefully analyzed by two independent raters to evaluate the contribution of the animal to the human studies. 211 publications describing relevant animal studies were located. Approximately half (3,342) of their 6,406 citations were by other animal studies. 446 human medical papers cited 121 of these 211 animal studies, a total of 500 times. 254 of these 446 papers were human studies of ADHD. However, only eight animal papers (cited 10 times) were relevant to the hypothesis of the human medical study in question. Three of these eight papers described results from both human and animal studies, but their citations solely referred to the human data. Five animal research papers were relevant to the hypotheses of the applicable human medical papers. Citation analysis indicates that animal research has contributed very little to contemporary understanding of ADHD. To ensure optimal allocation of Research & Development funds targeting this disease the contribution of other research methods should be similarly evaluated.

  9. Neural circuit dysfunction in schizophrenia: Insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, T

    2016-05-03

    Despite decades of research, the neural circuit abnormalities underlying schizophrenia remain elusive. Although studies on schizophrenia patients have yielded important insights they have not been able to fully reveal the details of how neural circuits are disrupted in the disease, which is essential for understanding its pathophysiology and developing new treatment strategies. Animal models of schizophrenia are likely to play an important role in this effort. Such models allow neural circuit dysfunction to be investigated in detail and the role of risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms to be experimentally assessed. The goal of this review is to summarize what we have learned from electrophysiological studies that have examined neural circuit function in animal models of schizophrenia. Although these studies have revealed diverse manifestations of neural circuit dysfunction spanning multiple levels of analysis, common themes have nevertheless emerged across different studies and animal models, revealing a core set of neural circuit abnormalities. These include an imbalance between excitation and inhibition, deficits in synaptic plasticity, disruptions in local and long-range synchrony and abnormalities in dopaminergic signaling. The relevance of these findings to the pathophysiology of the disease is discussed, as well as outstanding questions for future research.

  10. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0–9 years) and adults (25–54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak. PMID:26193480

  11. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Kucharski, Adam; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0-9 years) and adults (25-54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak.

  12. Animal modelling for inherited central vision loss.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Corinne; Arsenijevic, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Disease-causing variants of a large number of genes trigger inherited retinal degeneration leading to photoreceptor loss. Because cones are essential for daylight and central vision such as reading, mobility, and face recognition, this review focuses on a variety of animal models for cone diseases. The pertinence of using these models to reveal genotype/phenotype correlations and to evaluate new therapeutic strategies is discussed. Interestingly, several large animal models recapitulate human diseases and can serve as a strong base from which to study the biology of disease and to assess the scale-up of new therapies. Examples of innovative approaches will be presented such as lentiviral-based transgenesis in pigs and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-gene transfer into the monkey eye to investigate the neural circuitry plasticity of the visual system. The models reported herein permit the exploration of common mechanisms that exist between different species and the identification and highlighting of pathways that may be specific to primates, including humans.

  13. Animal models for HIV/AIDS research

    PubMed Central

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Evans, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic continues to present us with unique scientific and public health challenges. Although the development of effective antiretroviral therapy has been a major triumph, the emergence of drug resistance requires active management of treatment regimens and the continued development of new antiretroviral drugs. Moreover, despite nearly 30 years of intensive investigation, we still lack the basic scientific knowledge necessary to produce a safe and effective vaccine against HIV-1. Animal models offer obvious advantages in the study of HIV/AIDS, allowing for a more invasive investigation of the disease and for preclinical testing of drugs and vaccines. Advances in humanized mouse models, non-human primate immunogenetics and recombinant challenge viruses have greatly increased the number and sophistication of available mouse and simian models. Understanding the advantages and limitations of each of these models is essential for the design of animal studies to guide the development of vaccines and antiretroviral therapies for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:23154262

  14. Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Samaranayake, Yuthika H.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2001-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is as much the final outcome of the vulnerability of the host as of the virulence of the invading organism. We review here the extensive literature on animal experiments mainly appertaining to the host predisposing factors that initiate and perpetuate these infections. The monkey, rat, and mouse are the choice models for investigating oral candidiasis, but comparisons between the same or different models appear difficult, because of variables such as the study design, the number of animals used, their diet, the differences in Candida strains, and the duration of the studies. These variables notwithstanding, the following could be concluded. (i) The primate model is ideal for investigating Candida-associated denture stomatitis since both erythematous and pseudomembranous lesions have been produced in monkeys with prosthetic plates; they are, however, expensive and difficult to obtain and maintain. (ii) The rat model (both Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) is well proven for observing chronic oral candidal colonization and infection, due to the ease of breeding and handling and their ready availability. (iii) Mice are similar, but in addition there are well characterized variants simulating immunologic and genetic abnormalities (e.g., athymic, euthymic, murine-acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficient models) and hence are used for short-term studies relating the host immune response and oral candidiasis. Nonetheless, an ideal, relatively inexpensive model representative of the human oral environment in ecological and microbiological terms is yet to be described. Until such a model is developed, researchers should pay attention to standardization of the experimental protocols described here to obtain broadly comparable and meaningful data. PMID:11292645

  15. Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mark H; Tanimura, Yoko; Lee, Linda W; Bodfish, James W

    2007-01-10

    Restricted, repetitive behavior, along with deficits in social reciprocity and communication, is diagnostic of autism. Animal models relevant to this domain generally fall into three classes: repetitive behavior associated with targeted insults to the CNS; repetitive behavior induced by pharmacological agents; and repetitive behavior associated with restricted environments and experience. The extant literature provides potential models of the repetitive behavioral phenotype in autism rather than attempts to model the etiology or pathophysiology of restricted, repetitive behavior, as these are poorly understood. This review focuses on our work with deer mice which exhibit repetitive behaviors associated with environmental restriction. Repetitive behaviors are the most common category of abnormal behavior observed in confined animals and larger, more complex environments substantially reduce the development and expression of such behavior. Studies with this model, including environmental enrichment effects, suggest alterations in cortical-basal ganglia circuitry in the development and expression of repetitive behavior. Considerably more work needs to be done in this area, particularly in modeling the development of aberrant repetitive behavior. As mutant mouse models continue to proliferate, there should be a number of promising genetic models to pursue.

  16. Domestic animals as models for biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Domestic animals are unique models for biomedical research due to their long history (thousands of years) of strong phenotypic selection. This process has enriched for novel mutations that have contributed to phenotype evolution in domestic animals. The characterization of such mutations provides insights in gene function and biological mechanisms. This review summarizes genetic dissection of about 50 genetic variants affecting pigmentation, behaviour, metabolic regulation, and the pattern of locomotion. The variants are controlled by mutations in about 30 different genes, and for 10 of these our group was the first to report an association between the gene and a phenotype. Almost half of the reported mutations occur in non-coding sequences, suggesting that this is the most common type of polymorphism underlying phenotypic variation since this is a biased list where the proportion of coding mutations are inflated as they are easier to find. The review documents that structural changes (duplications, deletions, and inversions) have contributed significantly to the evolution of phenotypic diversity in domestic animals. Finally, we describe five examples of evolution of alleles, which means that alleles have evolved by the accumulation of several consecutive mutations affecting the function of the same gene. PMID:26479863

  17. Domestic animals as models for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Domestic animals are unique models for biomedical research due to their long history (thousands of years) of strong phenotypic selection. This process has enriched for novel mutations that have contributed to phenotype evolution in domestic animals. The characterization of such mutations provides insights in gene function and biological mechanisms. This review summarizes genetic dissection of about 50 genetic variants affecting pigmentation, behaviour, metabolic regulation, and the pattern of locomotion. The variants are controlled by mutations in about 30 different genes, and for 10 of these our group was the first to report an association between the gene and a phenotype. Almost half of the reported mutations occur in non-coding sequences, suggesting that this is the most common type of polymorphism underlying phenotypic variation since this is a biased list where the proportion of coding mutations are inflated as they are easier to find. The review documents that structural changes (duplications, deletions, and inversions) have contributed significantly to the evolution of phenotypic diversity in domestic animals. Finally, we describe five examples of evolution of alleles, which means that alleles have evolved by the accumulation of several consecutive mutations affecting the function of the same gene.

  18. Animal models of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Overby, Darryl R; Clark, Abbot F

    2015-12-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases and conditions. While unmatched in their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, GC therapy is often associated with the significant ocular side effect of GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and iatrogenic open-angle glaucoma. Investigators have generated GC-induced OHT and glaucoma in at least 8 different species besides man. These models mimic many features of this condition in man and provide morphologic and molecular insights into the pathogenesis of GC-OHT. In addition, there are many clinical, morphological, and molecular similarities between GC-induced glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), making animals models of GC-induced OHT and glaucoma attractive models in which to study specific aspects of POAG.

  19. Lattice animal model of chromosome organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Arya, Gaurav

    2012-07-01

    Polymer models tied together by constraints of looping and confinement have been used to explain many of the observed organizational characteristics of interphase chromosomes. Here we introduce a simple lattice animal representation of interphase chromosomes that combines the features of looping and confinement constraints into a single framework. We show through Monte Carlo simulations that this model qualitatively captures both the leveling off in the spatial distance between genomic markers observed in fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments and the inverse decay in the looping probability as a function of genomic separation observed in chromosome conformation capture experiments. The model also suggests that the collapsed state of chromosomes and their segregation into territories with distinct looping activities might be a natural consequence of confinement.

  20. Animal Models of Glucocorticoid-Induced Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Darryl R.; Clark, Abbot F.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases and conditions. While unmatched in their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, GC therapy is often associated with the significant ocular side effect of GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and iatrogenic open-angle glaucoma. Investigators have generated GC-induced OHT and glaucoma in at least 8 different species besides man. These models mimic many features of this condition in man and provide morphologic and molecular insights into the pathogenesis of GC-OHT. In addition, there are many clinical, morphological, and molecular similarities between GC-induced glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), making animals models of GC-induced OHT and glaucoma attractive models in which to study specific aspects of POAG. PMID:26051991

  1. An animal model for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Haley, Sheila A; Atwood, Walter J

    2014-12-01

    JC virus (JCV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease in humans. The disease, once considered fatal, is now managed with immune reconstitution therapy; however, surviving patients remain severely debilitated. Until now, there has been no animal model to study JCV in the brain, and research into treatment has relied on cell culture systems. In this issue of the JCI, Kondo and colleagues developed a mouse model in which human glial cells are engrafted into neonatal mice that are both immunodeficient and deficient for myelin basic protein. When challenged intracerebrally with JCV, these mice exhibit some of the characteristics of PML. The establishment of this chimeric mouse model is a significant advance toward understanding the mechanism of JCV pathogenesis and the identification of drugs to treat or prevent the disease.

  2. Animal models of premature and retarded ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend

    2005-06-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from animal studies using rats with normal sexual behaviour. However, none of these proposed models adequately represents human ejaculatory disorders. Based on the "ejaculation distribution theory", which postulates that the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in men is represented by a biological continuum, we have developed an animal model for the research of premature and delayed ejaculation. In this model, a large number of male Wistar rats are investigated during 4-6 weekly sexual behavioural tests. Based on the number of ejaculations during 30 min tests, rapid and sluggish ejaculating rats are distinguished, each representing approximately 10% at both ends of a Gaussian distribution. Together with other parameters, such as ejaculation latency time, these rats at either side of the spectrum resemble men with premature and delayed ejaculation, respectively. Comparable to the human situation, in a normal population of rats, endophenotypes exist with regard to basal sexual (ejaculatory) performance.

  3. Animating Talk and Texts: Culturally Relevant Teacher Read-Alouds of Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the classroom interactions surrounding teacher read-alouds of nonfiction texts in the classroom of a teacher who strived for cultural relevancy. Participants in this study were one European American teacher and her upper-elementary students who lived in the surrounding working-class neighborhood; all but two students…

  4. Models of Relevant Cue Integration in Name Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Luigi; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Semantic features have different levels of importance in indexing a target concept. The article proposes that semantic relevance, an algorithmically derived measure based on concept descriptions, may efficiently capture the relative importance of different semantic features. Three models of how semantic features are integrated in terms of…

  5. Neuropsychiatric SLE: from animal model to human.

    PubMed

    Pikman, R; Kivity, S; Levy, Y; Arango, M-T; Chapman, J; Yonath, H; Shoenfeld, Y; Gofrit, S G

    2017-04-01

    Animal models are a key element in disease research and treatment. In the field of neuropsychiatric lupus research, inbred, transgenic and disease-induced mice provide an opportunity to study the pathogenic routes of this multifactorial illness. In addition to achieving a better understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying the disease onset, supplementary metabolic and endocrine influences have been discovered and investigated. The ever-expanding knowledge about the pathologic events that occur at disease inception enables us to explore new drugs and therapeutic approaches further and to test them using the same animal models. Discovery of the molecular targets that constitute the pathogenic basis of the disease along with scientific advancements allow us to target these molecules with monoclonal antibodies and other specific approaches directly. This novel therapy, termed "targeted biological medication" is a promising endeavor towards producing drugs that are more effective and less toxic. Further work to discover additional molecular targets in lupus' pathogenic mechanism and to produce drugs that neutralize their activity is needed to provide patients with safe and efficient methods of controlling and treating the disease.

  6. Animal models of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjun; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Gershwin, M Eric; Ridgway, William M; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-08-01

    Within the last decade, several mouse models that manifest characteristic features of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) with antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and immune-mediated biliary duct pathology have been reported. Here, the authors discuss the current findings on two spontaneous (nonobese diabetic autoimmune biliary disease [NOD.ABD] and dominant negative transforming growth factor-β receptor II [dnTGFβRII]) and two induced (chemical xenobiotics and microbial immunization) models of PBC. These models exhibit the serological, immunological, and histopathological features of human PBC. From these animal models, it is evident that the etiology of PBC is multifactorial and requires both specific genetic predispositions and environmental insults (either xenobiotic chemicals or microbial), which lead to the breaking of tolerance and eventually liver pathology. Human PBC is likely orchestrated by multiple factors and hence no single model can fully mimic the immunopathophysiology of human PBC. Nevertheless, knowledge gained from these models has greatly advanced our understanding of the major immunological pathways as well as the etiology of PBC.

  7. Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Vertebrate Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunjong; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with environmental risk factors and aging. Vertebrate genetic models, especially mice, have aided the study of autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive PD. Mice are capable of showing a broad range of phenotypes and, coupled with their conserved genetic and anatomical structures, provide unparalleled molecular and pathological tools to model human disease. These models used in combination with aging and PD-associated toxins have expanded our understanding of PD pathogenesis. Attempts to refine PD animal models using conditional approaches have yielded in vivo nigrostriatal degeneration that is instructive in ordering pathogenic signaling and in developing therapeutic strategies to cure or halt the disease. Here, we provide an overview of the generation and characterization of transgenic and knockout mice used to study PD followed by a review of the molecular insights that have been gleaned from current PD mouse models. Finally, potential approaches to refine and improve current models are discussed. PMID:22960626

  8. Animal models of disease: pre-clinical animal models of cancer and their applications and utility in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Bruce A; Camp, Faye; Miknyoczki, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical models of human cancers are indispensable in the drug discovery and development process for new cancer drugs, small molecules and biologics. They are however imperfect facsimiles of human cancers given the genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity of the latter and the multiplicity of dysregulated survival and growth-regulatory pathways that characterize this spectrum of diseases. This review discusses pre-clinical tumor models - traditional ectopic xenografts, orthotopic xenografts, genetically engineered tumor models, primary human tumorgrafts, and various multi-stage carcinogen-induced tumor models - their advantages, limitations, physiological and pathological relevance. Collectively, these animal models represent a portfolio of test systems that should be utilized at specific stages in the drug discovery process in a pragmatic and hierarchical manner of increasing complexity, physiological relevance, and clinical predictability of the human response. Additionally, evaluating the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents emerging from drug discovery programs in a variety of pre-clinical models can better mimic the heterogeneity of human cancers and also aid in establishing dose levels, dose regimens and drug combinations for use in clinical trials. Nonetheless, despite the sophistication and physiological relevance of these human cancer models (e.g., genetically engineered tumor models and primary human tumografts), the ultimate proof of concept for efficacy and safety of novel oncology therapeutics lies in humans. The judicious interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to humans, and a correspondingly greater emphasis placed on translational medical research in early stage clinical trials, are essential to improve on the current clinical attrition rates for novel oncology therapeutic agents.

  9. Estimating the predictive validity of diabetic animal models in rosiglitazone studies.

    PubMed

    Varga, O E; Zsíros, N; Olsson, I A S

    2015-06-01

    For therapeutic studies, predictive validity of animal models - arguably the most important feature of animal models in terms of human relevance - can be calculated retrospectively by obtaining data on treatment efficacy from human and animal trials. Using rosiglitazone as a case study, we aim to determine the predictive validity of animal models of diabetes, by analysing which models perform most similarly to humans during rosiglitazone treatment in terms of changes in standard diabetes diagnosis parameters (glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c] and fasting glucose levels). A further objective of this paper was to explore the impact of four covariates on the predictive capacity: (i) diabetes induction method; (ii) drug administration route; (iii) sex of animals and (iv) diet during the experiments. Despite the variable consistency of animal species-based models with the human reference for glucose and HbA1c treatment effects, our results show that glucose and HbA1c treatment effects in rats agreed better with the expected values based on human data than in other species. Induction method was also found to be a substantial factor affecting animal model performance. The study concluded that regular reassessment of animal models can help to identify human relevance of each model and adapt research design for actual research goals.

  10. Animal Models of Fibrotic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, William E.; Oury, Tim D.; Sisson, Thomas H.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung fibrosis can develop as a consequence of occupational or medical exposure, as a result of genetic defects, and after trauma or acute lung injury leading to fibroproliferative acute respiratory distress syndrome, or it can develop in an idiopathic manner. The pathogenesis of each form of lung fibrosis remains poorly understood. They each result in a progressive loss of lung function with increasing dyspnea, and most forms ultimately result in mortality. To better understand the pathogenesis of lung fibrotic disorders, multiple animal models have been developed. This review summarizes the common and emerging models of lung fibrosis to highlight their usefulness in understanding the cell–cell and soluble mediator interactions that drive fibrotic responses. Recent advances have allowed for the development of models to study targeted injuries of Type II alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblastic autonomous effects, and targeted genetic defects. Repetitive dosing in some models has more closely mimicked the pathology of human fibrotic lung disease. We also have a much better understanding of the fact that the aged lung has increased susceptibility to fibrosis. Each of the models reviewed in this report offers a powerful tool for studying some aspect of fibrotic lung disease. PMID:23526222

  11. Animal models, prophylaxis, and therapeutics for arenavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Vela, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Arenaviruses are enveloped, bipartite negative single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and experimental animals including hemorrhagic fever. The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex. Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration, hemorrhage, organ failure, shock, and in severe cases death. Currently, there are few prophylactic and therapeutic treatments available for arenavirus-induced symptoms. Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. Therefore, efficacy testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in relevant animal models is necessary. Because of the potential for person-to-person spread, the ability to cause lethal or debilitating disease in humans, limited treatment options, and potential as a bio-weapon, the development of prophylactics and therapeutics is essential. This article reviews the current arenavirus animal models and prophylactic and therapeutic strategies under development to treat arenavirus infection.

  12. Animal Models, Prophylaxis, and Therapeutics for Arenavirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Arenaviruses are enveloped, bipartite negative single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and experimental animals including hemorrhagic fever. The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex. Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration, hemorrhage, organ failure, shock, and in severe cases death. Currently, there are few prophylactic and therapeutic treatments available for arenavirus-induced symptoms. Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. Therefore, efficacy testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in relevant animal models is necessary. Because of the potential for person-to-person spread, the ability to cause lethal or debilitating disease in humans, limited treatment options, and potential as a bio-weapon, the development of prophylactics and therapeutics is essential. This article reviews the current arenavirus animal models and prophylactic and therapeutic strategies under development to treat arenavirus infection. PMID:23170184

  13. Biochemical correlates in an animal model of depression

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    A valid animal model of depression was used to explore specific adrenergic receptor differences between rats exhibiting aberrant behavior and control groups. Preliminary experiments revealed a distinct upregulation of hippocampal beta-receptors (as compared to other brain regions) in those animals acquiring a response deficit as a result of exposure to inescapable footshock. Concurrent studies using standard receptor binding techniques showed no large changes in the density of alpha-adrenergic, serotonergic, or dopaminergic receptor densities. This led to the hypothesis that the hippocampal beta-receptor in responses deficient animals could be correlated with the behavioral changes seen after exposure to the aversive stimulus. Normalization of the behavior through the administration of antidepressants could be expected to reverse the biochemical changes if these are related to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. This study makes three important points: (1) there is a relevant biochemical change in the hippocampus of response deficient rats which occurs in parallel to a well-defined behavior, (2) the biochemical and behavioral changes are normalized by antidepressant treatments exhibiting both serotonergic and adrenergic mechanisms of action, and (3) the mode of action of antidepressants in this model is probably a combination of serotonergic and adrenergic influences modulating the hippocampal beta-receptor. These results are discussed in relation to anatomical and biochemical aspects of antidepressant action.

  14. Vaccines and animal models for arboviral encephalitides.

    PubMed

    Nalca, Aysegul; Fellows, Patricia F; Whitehouse, Chris A

    2003-11-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses ("arboviruses") cause significant human illness ranging from mild, asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever. The most significant arboviruses causing human illness belong to genera in three viral families, Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae. These viruses represent a significant public health threat to many parts of the world, and, as evidenced by the recent introduction of the West Nile virus (WNV) to the Western Hemisphere, they can no longer be considered specific to any one country or region of the world. Like most viral diseases, there are no specific therapies for the arboviral encephalitides; therefore, effective vaccines remain the front line of defense for these diseases. With this in mind, the development of new, more effective vaccines and the appropriate animal models in which to test them become paramount. In fact, for many important arboviruses (e.g. California serogroup and St. Louis encephalitis viruses), there are currently no approved vaccines available for human use. For others, such as the alphaviruses, human vaccines are available only as Investigational New Drugs, and thus are not in widespread use. On the other hand, safe and effective vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) have been in use for decades. New challenges in vaccine development have been met with new technologies in vaccine research. Many of the newer vaccines are now being developed by recombinant DNA technology. For example, chimeric virus vaccines have been developed using infectious clone technology for many of the arboviruses including, WNV, JEV, and TBEV. Other successful approaches have involved the use of naked DNA encoding and subsequently expressing the desired protective epitopes. Naked DNA vaccines have been used for TBEV and JEV and are currently under development for use against WNV. The development of less expensive, more authentic animal models to

  15. [Analysis of dalbavancin in animal models].

    PubMed

    Murillo, Óscar; El-Haj, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Multiresistant Gram-positive infections continue to pose a major clinical challenge and the development of new antibiotics is always desirable. Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with a prolonged half-life that allows long dosing intervals. In experimental models, its activity has been evaluated in distinct models and microorganisms, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn; however, the largest number of studies have been conducted in Staphylococcus aureus infection. Overall, dalbavancin has shown concentration-dependent efficacy and the parameters best explaining its activity are maximal pharmacodynamic concentration/minimal inhibitory concentration and the area under the curve/minimal inhibitory concentration. In these experimental models, dalbavancin has shown good distribution, a prolonged half-life in all animal species and efficacy that is mostly similar to that of previous glycopeptides but with lower doses and with longer dosing intervals. Of note, the efficacy of dalbavancin is not altered by methicillin resistance or the glycopeptide sensitivity of S. aureus. In the case of difficult-to-treat staphylococcal infections (eg, endocarditis, foreign body infections), an adequate dosing interval and high dosage seem to play an important role in the efficacy of the drug. All in all, experimental models can still provide greater knowledge of this new antibiotic to guide clinical research and determine its role in the treatment of distinct infections produced by Gram-positive microorganisms.

  16. Fetal akinesia deformation sequence: an animal model.

    PubMed

    Moessinger, A C

    1983-12-01

    Rat fetuses were paralyzed by daily transuterine injections of curare from day 18 of gestation until term (day 21). The following anomalies were noted at the time of delivery: multiple joint contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, micrognathia, fetal growth retardation, short umbilical cords, and polyhydramnios. Neither sham-operated nor untouched littermate control fetuses had any of these anomalies. The group of anomalies (or deformation sequence) obtained with this animal model is presumed to result from the paralytic effect of curare. This phenotype bears a striking resemblance to the syndrome of ankyloses, facial anomalies, and pulmonary hypoplasia (also known as Pena and Shokeir I), presumably inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. It is suggested that this phenotype is not specific but, rather, represents a deformation sequence which results from fetal immobilization or akinesia. Diagnostic evaluation of patients with this group of anomalies should include the identification of the underlying pathologic process (etiology of the akinesia) to allow for proper classification and genetic counseling.

  17. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K.; Rey, Benjamin; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that an animal's metabolic rate can be estimated through measuring the whole-organism oxygen consumption rate. However, oxygen consumption alone is unlikely to be a sufficient marker of energy metabolism in many situations. This is due to the inherent variability in the link between oxidation and phosphorylation; that is, the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by mitochondria (P/O ratio). In this article, we describe how the P/O ratio can vary within and among individuals, and in response to a number of environmental parameters, including diet and temperature. As the P/O ratio affects the efficiency of cellular energy production, its variability may have significant consequences for animal performance, such as growth rate and reproductive output. We explore the adaptive significance of such variability and hypothesize that while a reduction in the P/O ratio is energetically costly, it may be associated with advantages in terms of somatic maintenance through reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we discuss how considering variation in mitochondrial efficiency, together with whole-organism oxygen consumption, can permit a better understanding of the relationship between energy metabolism and life history for studies in evolutionary ecology. PMID:26203001

  18. Is gastrointestinal microbiota relevant for endogenous mercury methylation in terrestrial animals?

    PubMed

    Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez; Mateo, R; Jiménez-Moreno, M

    2017-01-01

    The active role of gastrointestinal microbiota in mercury (Hg) methylation has been investigated in different terrestrial organisms from insects or annelids to rats and mammals, including the human beings. Some findings reveal the animal digestive tracts as new potential niches for Hg methylation especially in terrestrial invertebrates. However, contradictory results have been reported so far and there is still a long way to fully understand how important the MeHg production in this habitat could be, as well as its implications on the toxicity and biomagnification of MeHg within terrestrial food chains. It is important to know what has been studied in the past and discuss the previous results according to the new perspectives opened in this field. Therefore, the aim of this work is to review the present state of knowledge about the potential capability of gastrointestinal microbiota in Hg methylation with special emphasis in terrestrial animals and to propose new approaches profiting the new and powerful molecular and analytical tools.

  19. Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Talsness, Chris E.; Andrade, Anderson J. M.; Kuriyama, Sergio N.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Components used in plastics, such as phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), are detected in humans. In addition to their utility in plastics, an inadvertent characteristic of these chemicals is the ability to alter the endocrine system. Phthalates function as anti-androgens while the main action attributed to BPA is oestrogen-like activity. PBDE and TBBPA have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis while PBDEs also exhibit anti-androgen action. Experimental investigations in animals indicate a wide variety of effects associated with exposure to these compounds, causing concern regarding potential risk to human health. For example, the spectrum of effects following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Concentrations of BPA in the foetal mouse within the range of unconjugated BPA levels observed in human foetal blood have produced effects in animal experiments. Finally, thyroid hormones are essential for normal neurological development and reproductive function. Human body burdens of these chemicals are detected with high prevalence, and concentrations in young children, a group particularly sensitive to exogenous insults, are typically higher, indicating the need to decrease exposure to these compounds. PMID:19528057

  20. Animal Models of Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)

    PubMed Central

    Bewley, Kevin R

    2013-01-01

    Q fever, caused by the pathogen Coxiella burnetii, is an acute disease that can progress to become a serious chronic illness. The organism leads an obligate, intracellular lifecycle, during which it multiplies in the phagolytic compartments of the phagocytic cells of the immune system of its hosts. This characteristic makes study of the organism particularly difficult and is perhaps one of the reasons why, more than 70 y after its discovery, much remains unknown about the organism and its pathogenesis. A variety of animal species have been used to study both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Although none of the models perfectly mimics the disease process in humans, each opens a window onto an important aspect of the pathology of the disease. We have learned that immunosuppression, overexpression of IL10, or physical damage to the heart muscle in mice and guinea pigs can induce disease that is similar to the chronic disease seen in humans, suggesting that this aspect of disease may eventually be fully understood. Models using species from mice to nonhuman primates have been used to evaluate and characterize vaccines to protect against the disease and may ultimately yield safer, less expensive vaccines. PMID:24326221

  1. Goats as an osteopenic animal model.

    PubMed

    Leung, K S; Siu, W S; Cheung, N M; Lui, P Y; Chow, D H; James, A; Qin, L

    2001-12-01

    A large osteopenic animal model that resembles human osteoporotic changes is essential for osteoporosis research. This study aimed at establishing a large osteopenic animal model in goats. Twenty-five Chinese mountain goats were used in which they were either ovariectomized (OVX) and fed with a low-calcium diet (n = 16) or sham-operated (SHAM; n = 9). Monthly photodensitometric analysis on proximal tibial metaphysis and calcaneus was performed. Two iliac crest biopsy specimens obtained before and 6 months after OVX were used for bone mineral density (BMD) measurement with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Lumbar vertebrae (L2 and L7), humeral heads, and calcanei were collected for BMD measurement after euthanasia. The humeral heads and calcanei were used in biomechanical indentation test. BMD measurement showed a significant 25.0% (p = 0.006) decrease in BMD of the iliac crest biopsy specimens 6 months after OVX. It also was statistically significant when compared with the SHAM (p = 0.028). BMD at L2, L7, calcaneus, and humeral head reduced by 24-33% (p ranged from 0.001 to 0.011) when compared with the SHAM. Photodensitometry showed a continuous decrease in bone density after OVX. There were significant decreases of 18.9% in proximal tibial metaphysis (p = 0.003) and 21.8% in calcaneus (p = 0.023) in the OVX group 6 months postoperatively. Indentation test on the humeral head and calcaneus showed a significant decrease 52% (p = 0.006) and 54% (p = 0.001), respectively, in energy required for displacement of 3 mm in the OVX group compared with the SHAM group. The decreases correlated significantly to the decrease in BMD of the corresponding specimens (r2 = 0.439 and 0.581; p < 0.001 for both). In conclusion, this study showed that OVX plus a low-calcium diet could induce significant osteopenia and deterioration of mechanical properties of the cancellous bone in goats.

  2. The Terrestrial Isopod Microbiome: An All-in-One Toolbox for Animal-Microbe Interactions of Ecological Relevance.

    PubMed

    Bouchon, Didier; Zimmer, Martin; Dittmer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial isopods comprise a group of crustaceans that have evolved a terrestrial lifestyle and represent keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and regulating the microbial food web. Since their nutrition is based on plant detritus, it has long been suspected that bacterial symbionts located in the digestive tissues might play an important role in host nutrition via the provisioning of digestive enzymes, thereby enabling the utilization of recalcitrant food compounds (e.g., cellulose or lignins). If this were the case, then (i) the acquisition of these bacteria might have been an important evolutionary prerequisite for the colonization of land by isopods, and (ii) these bacterial symbionts would directly mediate the role of their hosts in ecosystem functioning. Several bacterial symbionts have indeed been discovered in the midgut caeca of terrestrial isopods and some of them might be specific to this group of animals (i.e., Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum, Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum, and Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis), while others are well-known intracellular pathogens (Rickettsiella spp.) or reproductive parasites (Wolbachia sp.). Moreover, a recent investigation of the microbiota in Armadillidium vulgare has revealed that this species harbors a highly diverse bacterial community which varies between host populations

  3. Large animal model of chronic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hitoshi; Hall, Candice M; Griffith, Grant W; Johnson, Kent F; McGillicuddy, John W; Bartlett, Robert H; Cook, Keith E

    2008-01-01

    A large animal model is needed to study artificial lung attachment in a setting simulating chronic lung disease with significant pulmonary hypertension (PH). This study sought to create a sheep model that develops significant PH within 60 days with a low rate of mortality. Sephadex beads were injected in the pulmonary circulation of sheep every other day for 60 days at doses of 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g (n = 10, 10, 7). Mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and cardiac output were obtained every 2 weeks. In the 0.5, 0.75, and 1-g groups, 90, 70, and 14.3% of sheep completed the study, respectively, with the remainder experiencing heart failure. By the 60th day, pulmonary vascular resistance had increased (p < 0.01) from 0.89 +/- 0.3 to 3.2 +/- 0.9 mm Hg/(L/min) and from 0.9 +/- 0.3 to 4.3 +/- 3.2 mm Hg/(L/min) in the 0.5 and 0.75-g groups, respectively. Significant right ventricular hypertrophy was observed in the 0.75-g group but not in the 0.5-g group. Data from the 1-g group were insufficient for analysis due to high mortality. Thus, the 0.5 and 0.75-g groups generate significant PH, but the 0.75-g group is a better model of chronic PH in lung disease due to the development of right ventricular hypertrophy.

  4. Adrenomedullin and Pregnancy: Perspectives from Animal Models to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Patricia M.; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    A healthy pregnancy requires strict coordination of genetic, physiologic, and environmental factors. The relatively common incidence of infertility and pregnancy complications has resulted in increased interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie normal versus abnormal pregnancy. The peptide hormone adrenomedullin has recently been the focus of some exciting breakthroughs in the pregnancy field. Supported by mechanistic studies in genetic animal models, there continues to be a growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of adrenomedullin protein levels in a variety of human pregnancy complications. With more extensive mechanistic studies and improved consistency in clinical measurements of adrenomedullin, there is great potential for the development of adrenomedullin as a clinically-relevant biomarker in pregnancy and pregnancy complications. PMID:22425034

  5. Practical application of stereological methods in experimental kidney animal models.

    PubMed

    Fernández García, María Teresa; Núñez Martínez, Paula; García de la Fuente, Vanessa; Sánchez Pitiot, Marta; Muñiz Salgueiro, María Del Carmen; Perillán Méndez, Carmen; Argüelles Luis, Juan; Astudillo González, Aurora

    The kidneys are vital organs responsible for excretion, fluid and electrolyte balance and hormone production. The nephrons are the kidney's functional and structural units. The number, size and distribution of the nephron components contain relevant information on renal function. Stereology is a branch of morphometry that applies mathematical principles to obtain three-dimensional information from serial, parallel and equidistant two-dimensional microscopic sections. Because of the complexity of stereological studies and the lack of scientific literature on the subject, the aim of this paper is to clearly explain, through animal models, the basic concepts of stereology and how to calculate the main kidney stereological parameters that can be applied in future experimental studies.

  6. Apoptosis in the mammalian CNS: Lessons from animal models.

    PubMed

    Lossi, L; Cantile, C; Tamagno, I; Merighi, A

    2005-07-01

    It is generally assumed that about half of the neurons produced during neurogenesis die before completion of maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). Neural cell death is also relevant in aging and several neurodegenerative diseases. Among the modalities by which neurons die, apoptosis has very much attracted the interest of investigators because in this type of cell death neurons are actively responsible for their own demise by switching on a number of genes and activating a series of specific intracellular pathways. This review focuses on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in normal and transgenic animal models related to naturally occurring neuronal death within the CNS. We will also consider some examples of apoptotic cell death in canine neuropathologies. A thorough analysis of naturally occurring neuronal death in vivo will offer a basis for parallel and future studies involving secondary neuronal loss such as those in neurodegenerative disorders, trauma or ischaemia.

  7. Minireview: translational animal models of human menopause: challenges and emerging opportunities.

    PubMed

    Diaz Brinton, Roberta

    2012-08-01

    Increasing importance is placed on the translational validity of animal models of human menopause to discern risk vs. benefit for prediction of outcomes after therapeutic interventions and to develop new therapeutic strategies to promote health. Basic discovery research conducted over many decades has built an extensive body of knowledge regarding reproductive senescence across mammalian species upon which to advance animal models of human menopause. Modifications to existing animal models could rapidly address translational gaps relevant to clinical issues in human menopausal health, which include the impact of 1) chronic ovarian hormone deprivation and hormone therapy, 2) clinically relevant hormone therapy regimens (cyclic vs. continuous combined), 3) clinically relevant hormone therapy formulations, and 4) windows of opportunity and optimal duration of interventions. Modifications in existing animal models to more accurately represent human menopause and clinical interventions could rapidly provide preclinical translational data to predict outcomes regarding unresolved clinical issues relevant to women's menopausal health. Development of the next generation of animal models of human menopause could leverage advances in identifying genotypic variations in estrogen and progesterone receptors to develop personalized menopausal care and to predict outcomes of interventions for protection against or vulnerability to disease. Key to the success of these models is the close coupling between the translational target and the range of predictive validity. Preclinical translational animal models of human menopause need to keep pace with changes in clinical practice. With focus on predictive validity and strategic use of advances in genetic and epigenetic science, new animal models of human menopause have the opportunity to set new directions for menopausal clinical care for women worldwide.

  8. Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F) of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratracheally injected with one of the mycoplasma strains: Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 (wild strain), Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18 (type strain) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Eaton strain. Groups D, E, F were the negative, media, and sham controls. Fragments of trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, brain and spleen were cultured and used for the histopathological study. U frequency test was used to compare recovery of mycoplasmas from organs. Results Mycoplasmas were detected by culture and PCR. The three mycoplasma strains induced an interstitial pneumonia; they also migrated to several organs and persisted there for at least 50 days. Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 induced a more severe damage in lungs than Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produced severe damage in lungs and renal damage. Conclusions Mycoplasma fermentans induced a respiratory tract infection and persisted in different organs for several weeks in hamsters. This finding may help to explain the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans to induce pneumonia and chronic infectious diseases in humans. PMID:23298636

  9. The maternal deprivation animal model revisited.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Llorente, Ricardo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Mela, Virginia; Llorente-Berzal, Álvaro; Prada, Carmen; Viveros, María-Paz

    2015-04-01

    Early life stress, in the form of MD (24h at pnd 9), interferes with brain developmental trajectories modifying both behavioral and neurobiochemical parameters. MD has been reported to enhance neuroendocrine responses to stress, to affect emotional behavior and to impair cognitive function. More recently, changes in body weight gain, metabolic parameters and immunological responding have also been described. Present data give support to the fact that neuronal degeneration and/or astrocyte proliferation are present in specific brain regions, mainly hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus, which are particularly vulnerable to the effects of neonatal stress. The MD animal model arises as a valuable tool for the investigation of the brain processes occurring at the narrow time window comprised between pnd 9 and 10 that are critical for the establishment of brain circuitries critical for the regulation of behavior, metabolism and energy homeostasis. In the present review we will discuss three possible mechanisms that might be crucial for the effects of MD, namely, the rapid increase in glucocorticoids, the lack of the neonatal leptin surge, and the enhanced endocannabinoid signaling during the specific critical period of MD. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the detrimental consequences of MD is a concern for public health and may provide new insights into mental health prevention strategies and into novel therapeutic approaches in neuropsychiatry.

  10. Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) quickly detect snakes but not spiders: Evolutionary origins of fear-relevant animals.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Koda, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Humans quickly detect the presence of evolutionary threats through visual perception. Many theorists have considered humans to be predisposed to respond to both snakes and spiders as evolutionarily fear-relevant stimuli. Evidence supports that human adults, children, and snake-naive monkeys all detect pictures of snakes among pictures of flowers more quickly than vice versa, but recent neurophysiological and behavioral studies suggest that spiders may, in fact, be processed similarly to nonthreat animals. The evidence of quick detection and rapid fear learning by primates is limited to snakes, and no such evidence exists for spiders, suggesting qualitative differences between fear of snakes and fear of spiders. Here, we show that snake-naive Japanese monkeys detect a single snake picture among 8 nonthreat animal pictures (koala) more quickly than vice versa; however, no such difference in detection was observed between spiders and pleasant animals. These robust differences between snakes and spiders are the most convincing evidence that the primate visual system is predisposed to pay attention to snakes but not spiders. These findings suggest that attentional bias toward snakes has an evolutionary basis but that bias toward spiders is more due to top-down, conceptually driven effects of emotion on attention capture. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Animal Models for Evaluation of Bone Implants and Devices: Comparative Bone Structure and Common Model Uses.

    PubMed

    Wancket, L M

    2015-09-01

    Bone implants and devices are a rapidly growing field within biomedical research, and implants have the potential to significantly improve human and animal health. Animal models play a key role in initial product development and are important components of nonclinical data included in applications for regulatory approval. Pathologists are increasingly being asked to evaluate these models at the initial developmental and nonclinical biocompatibility testing stages, and it is important to understand the relative merits and deficiencies of various species when evaluating a new material or device. This article summarizes characteristics of the most commonly used species in studies of bone implant materials, including detailed information about the relevance of a particular model to human bone physiology and pathology. Species reviewed include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, sheep, goats, and nonhuman primates. Ultimately, a comprehensive understanding of the benefits and limitations of different model species will aid in rigorously evaluating a novel bone implant material or device.

  12. Mapping patterns of depression-related brain regions with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry: relevance of animal affective systems to human disorders, with a focus on resilience to adverse events.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Matrov, Denis; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    The search for novel antidepressants may be facilitated by pre-clinical animal models that relay on specific neural circuit and related neurochemical endpoint measures, which are anchored in concrete neuro-anatomical and functional neural-network analyzes. One of the most important initial considerations must be which regions of the brain are candidates for the maladaptive response to depressogenic challenges. Consideration of persistent differences or changes in the activity of cerebral networks can be achieved by mapping oxidative metabolism in ethologically or pathogenetically relevant animal models. Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry is a technique suitable to detect regional long-term brain activity changes relative to control conditions and has been used in a variety of animal models. This work is summarized and indicates that major changes occur mainly in subcortical areas, highlighting specific brain regions where some alterations in regional oxidative metabolism may represent adaptive changes to depressogenic adverse life events, while others may reflect failures of adaptation. Many of these changes in oxidative metabolism may depend upon the integrity of serotonergic neurotransmission, and occur in several brain regions shown by other techniques to be involved in endogenous affective circuits that control emotional behaviors as well as related higher brain regions that integrate learning and cognitive information processing. These brain regions appear as primary targets for further identification of endophenotypes specific to affective disorders.

  13. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

    2008-05-29

    Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the

  14. Modeling individual animal histories with multistate capture–recapture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Nichols, James D.; Barker, Richard J.; Pradel, Roger; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Many fields of science begin with a phase of exploration and description, followed by investigations of the processes that account for observed patterns. The science of ecology is no exception, and recent decades have seen a focus on understanding key processes underlying the dynamics of ecological systems. In population ecology, emphasis has shifted from the state variable of population size to the demographic processes responsible for changes in this state variable: birth, death, immigration, and emigration. In evolutionary ecology, some of these same demographic processes, rates of birth and death, are also the determinants of fitness. In animal population ecology, the estimation of state variables and their associated vital rates is especially problematic because of the difficulties in sampling such populations and detecting individual animals. Indeed, early capture–recapture models were developed for the purpose of estimating population size, given the reality that all animals are not caught or detected at any sampling occasion. More recently, capture–recapture models for open populations were developed to draw inferences about survival in the face of these same sampling problems. The focus of this paper is on multi‐state mark–recapture models (MSMR), which first appeared in the 1970s but have undergone substantial development in the last 15 years. These models were developed to deal explicitly with biological variation, in that animals in different “states” (classes defined by location, physiology, behavior, reproductive status, etc.) may have different probabilities of survival and detection. Animal transitions between states are also stochastic and themselves of interest. These general models have proven to be extremely useful and provide a way of thinking about a remarkably wide range of important ecological processes. These methods are now at a stage of refinement and sophistication where they can readily be used by biologists to tackle a wide

  15. Asymmetry of brain and behavior in animals: Its development, function, and human relevance.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lesley J

    2014-06-01

    Since the discovery of brain asymmetry in a wide range of vertebrate species, it has become possible to study development and expression of lateralized behavior accurately in well-controlled experiments. Several species have emerged as useful models for investigating aspects of lateralization. Discussed here are: (1) the influence of exposure to light during embryonic development on lateralization, (2) effects of steroid hormones on lateralization, (3) developmental changes in which hemisphere is controlling behavior, and (4) asymmetry in memory formation and recall. The findings have bearing on understanding the development of hemispheric specialization in humans and are likely to provide insight into dysfunctional behavior associated with weak or absent lateralization and impaired interhemispheric communication (e.g., autism, schizophrenia, and dyslexia). This review features research on chicks, pigeons, and zebrafish, with the addition of some recent evidence of lateralization in bees. Discoveries made using these species have highlighted the interaction between experience, hormones, and genetic factors during development, and have provided some of the first clear evidence of the advantage of having a lateralized brain.

  16. Animal models to study gluten sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A

    2012-07-01

    The initial development and maintenance of tolerance to dietary antigens is a complex process that, when prevented or interrupted, can lead to human disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which tolerance to specific dietary antigens is attained and maintained is crucial to our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases related to intolerance of specific dietary antigens. Two diseases that are the result of intolerance to a dietary antigen are celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). Both of these diseases are dependent upon the ingestion of gluten (the protein fraction of wheat, rye, and barley) and manifest in the gastrointestinal tract and skin, respectively. These gluten-sensitive diseases are two examples of how devastating abnormal immune responses to a ubiquitous food can be. The well-recognized risk genotype for both is conferred by either of the HLA class II molecules DQ2 or DQ8. However, only a minority of individuals who carry these molecules will develop either disease. Also of interest is that the age at diagnosis can range from infancy to 70-80 years of age. This would indicate that intolerance to gluten may potentially be the result of two different phenomena. The first would be that, for various reasons, tolerance to gluten never developed in certain individuals, but that for other individuals, prior tolerance to gluten was lost at some point after childhood. Of recent interest is the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity, which manifests as chronic digestive or neurologic symptoms due to gluten, but through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. This review will address how animal models of gluten-sensitive disorders have substantially contributed to a better understanding of how gluten intolerance can arise and cause disease.

  17. The safety, efficacy and regulatory triangle in drug development: Impact for animal models and the use of animals.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Peter J K; Graham, Melanie L; Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2015-07-15

    Nonclinical studies in animals are conducted to demonstrate proof-of-concept, mechanism of action and safety of new drugs. For a large part, in particular safety assessment, studies are done in compliance with international regulatory guidance. However, animal models supporting the initiation of clinical trials have their limitations, related to uncertainty regarding the predictive value for a clinical condition. The 3Rs principles (refinement, reduction and replacement) are better applied nowadays, with a more comprehensive application with respect to the original definition. This regards also regulatory guidance, so that opportunities exist to revise or reduce regulatory guidance with the perspective that the optimal balance between scientifically relevant data and animal wellbeing or a reduction in animal use can be achieved. In this manuscript we review the connections in the triangle between nonclinical efficacy/safety studies and regulatory aspects, with focus on in vivo testing of drugs. These connections differ for different drugs (chemistry-based low molecular weight compounds, recombinant proteins, cell therapy or gene therapy products). Regarding animal models and their translational value we focus on regulatory aspects and indications where scientific outcomes warrant changes, reduction or replacement, like for, e.g., biosimilar evaluation and safety testing of monoclonal antibodies. On the other hand, we present applications where translational value has been clearly demonstrated, e.g., immunosuppressives in transplantation. Especially for drugs of more recent date like recombinant proteins, cell therapy products and gene therapy products, a regulatory approach that allows the possibility to conduct combined efficacy/safety testing in validated animal models should strengthen scientific outcomes and improve translational value, while reducing the numbers of animals necessary.

  18. Animal models to evaluate anti-atherosclerotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Priyadharsini, Raman P

    2015-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial condition characterized by endothelial injury, fatty streak deposition, and stiffening of the blood vessels. The pathogenesis is complex and mediated by adhesion molecules, inflammatory cells, and smooth muscle cells. Statins have been the major drugs in treating hypercholesterolemia for the past two decades despite little efficacy. There is an urgent need for new drugs that can replace statins or combined with statins. The preclinical studies evaluating atherosclerosis require an ideal animal model which resembles the disease condition, but there is no single animal model which mimics the disease. The animal models used are rabbits, rats, mice, hamsters, mini pigs, etc. Each animal model has its own advantages and disadvantages. The method of induction of atherosclerosis includes diet, chemical induction, mechanically induced injuries, and genetically manipulated animal models. This review mainly focuses on the various animal models, method of induction, the advantages, disadvantages, and the current perspectives with regard to preclinical studies on atherosclerosis.

  19. Bursting processes in plasmas and relevant nonlinear model equations

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, B.; Coppi, B.

    1995-01-01

    Important intrinsic plasma instabilities manifest themselves in the form of periodic bursts of fluctuations rather than as a state of stationary fluctuations, which a conventional application of quasilinear theory would lead to expect. A set of coupled nonlinear equations for the time evolution of the fluctuation amplitude and of the driving factor of the relevant instability is shown to have the features necessary to reproduce the variety of bursts that are observed experimentally. These are the periodicity, the duration, and the shape of the bursts, special consideration being given to the excitation of modes by high-energy particle populations in thermalized plasmas and to a model for the transition from a bursting state to one of stationary fluctuations. A model is introduced that is relevant to the case where the spatial dependence of the mode amplitude is important. The application of the given analysis to the bursty wave emissions observed in space is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  20. Modeling the Encephalopathy of Prematurity in Animals: The Important Role of Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Hannah C.; Volpe, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Translational research in preterm brain injury depends upon the delineation of the human neuropathology in order that animal models faithfully reiterate it, thereby ensuring direct relevance to the human condition. The major substrate of human preterm brain injury is the encephalopathy of prematurity that is characterized by gray and white matter lesions reflecting combined acquired insults, altered developmental trajectories, and reparative phenomena. Here we highlight the key features of human preterm brain development and the encephalopathy of prematurity that are critical for modeling in animals. The complete mimicry of the complex human neuropathology is difficult in animal models. Many models focus upon mechanisms related to a specific feature, for example, loss of premyelinating oligodendrocytes in the cerebral white matter. Nevertheless, animal models that simultaneously address oligodendrocyte, neuronal, and axonal injury carry the potential to decipher shared mechanisms and synergistic treatments to ameliorate the global consequences of the encephalopathy of prematurity. PMID:22685653

  1. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-02-13

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  2. Cumulative permanent environmental effects for repeated records animal models.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, L R

    2011-04-01

    The assumption of a single permanent environmental (PE) effect contributing to every record made by an animal is questioned. An alternative model where new PE effects accumulate with each record made by an animal is proposed. An example is used to illustrate the differences between the traditional model and the proposed model.

  3. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) for peritoneal carcinomatosis: review of animal models.

    PubMed

    Gremonprez, Félix; Willaert, Wouter; Ceelen, Wim

    2014-02-01

    The development of suitable animal models is essential to experimental research on intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC). This review of the English literature (MEDLINE) presents a detailed analysis of current animal models and gives recommendations for future experimental research. Special consideration should be given to cytotoxic drug dose and concentration, tumor models, and outcome parameters.

  4. Animal models of leukemia: any closer to the real thing?

    PubMed

    Cook, Guerry J; Pardee, Timothy S

    2013-06-01

    Animal models have been invaluable in the efforts to better understand and ultimately treat patients suffering from leukemia. While important insights have been gleaned from these models, limitations must be acknowledged. In this review, we will highlight the various animal models of leukemia and describe their contributions to the improved understanding and treatment of these cancers.

  5. Animal Models of Leukemia: Any closer to the real thing?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Guerry J; Pardee, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models have been invaluable in the efforts to better understand and ultimately treat patients suffering from leukemia. While important insights have been gleaned from these models, limitations must be acknowledged. In this review, we will highlight the various animal models of leukemia and describe their contributions to the improved understanding and treatment of these cancers. PMID:23081702

  6. Rapporteur report: cellular, animal and epidemiological studies of the effects of static magnetic fields relevant to human health.

    PubMed

    Leszczynski, Dariusz

    2005-01-01

    Three talks were presented in the session on "Cellular, Animal and Epidemiological Studies of the Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Relevant to Human Health". The first talk presented the in vitro effects of static magnetic fields on cell cultures. The second talk presented the in vivo evidence obtained from animal studies. The final, third talk, presented the evidence obtained from epidemiological studies. The overall conclusion of the three presentations and the following general discussion was that the scientific evidence available to date is weak and contains large gaps in knowledge either due to the poor quality of published studies or because of the lack of published research on certain health-related topics. It was emphasized that the rapid development of new technological applications of static magnetic fields (e.g. magnetic levitation trains or magnetic resonance imaging-MRI) results in the human population at large, in certain occupations, and in a selected population of clinical patients being exposed to ever increasing static magnetic field strengths. It is of concern that the knowledge presently available concerning the health effects of these strong static magnetic fields is lagging a long way behind technological development. In conclusion, it was suggested that there is an urgent need to perform new studies in all research areas (in vitro, in vivo and epidemiology) in order to fill the present gaps in knowledge and provide assurance that this technology will not cause any unwanted and unexpected health side effects.

  7. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few reports of long-term exposure. Reports in the literature describing "chronic" exposures to pesticides are, in fact, a...

  8. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few studies of- long-term exposure. Many reports in the literature describing ;chronic' exposures to pesticides are, in fa...

  9. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Considerations for Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brabb, Thea; Carbone, Larry; Snyder, Jessica; Phillips, Nona

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain are debilitating, life-altering conditions that affect a significant proportion of the human population. Animal models, used to study basic disease mechanisms and treatment modalities, are diverse and provide many challenges for institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) review and postapproval monitoring. Items to consider include regulatory and ethical imperatives in animal models that may be designed to study pain, the basic mechanism of neurodegeneration, and different disease processes for which neuropathic pain is a side effect. Neuropathic pain can be difficult to detect or quantify in many models, and pain management is often unsuccessful in both humans and animals, inspiring the need for more research. Design of humane endpoints requires clear communication of potential adverse outcomes and solutions. Communication with the IACUC, researchers, and veterinary staff is also key for successful postapproval monitoring of these challenging models. PMID:24615447

  10. Hierarchical animal movement models for population-level inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Buderman, Frances E.; Brost, Brian M.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Ivans, Jacob S.

    2016-01-01

    New methods for modeling animal movement based on telemetry data are developed regularly. With advances in telemetry capabilities, animal movement models are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Despite a need for population-level inference, animal movement models are still predominantly developed for individual-level inference. Most efforts to upscale the inference to the population level are either post hoc or complicated enough that only the developer can implement the model. Hierarchical Bayesian models provide an ideal platform for the development of population-level animal movement models but can be challenging to fit due to computational limitations or extensive tuning required. We propose a two-stage procedure for fitting hierarchical animal movement models to telemetry data. The two-stage approach is statistically rigorous and allows one to fit individual-level movement models separately, then resample them using a secondary MCMC algorithm. The primary advantages of the two-stage approach are that the first stage is easily parallelizable and the second stage is completely unsupervised, allowing for an automated fitting procedure in many cases. We demonstrate the two-stage procedure with two applications of animal movement models. The first application involves a spatial point process approach to modeling telemetry data, and the second involves a more complicated continuous-time discrete-space animal movement model. We fit these models to simulated data and real telemetry data arising from a population of monitored Canada lynx in Colorado, USA.

  11. Fractional Moment Bounds and Disorder Relevance for Pinning Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Giacomin, Giambattista; Lacoin, Hubert; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2009-05-01

    We study the critical point of directed pinning/wetting models with quenched disorder. The distribution K(·) of the location of the first contact of the (free) polymer with the defect line is assumed to be of the form K( n) = n - α-1 L( n), with α ≥ 0 and L(·) slowly varying. The model undergoes a (de)-localization phase transition: the free energy (per unit length) is zero in the delocalized phase and positive in the localized phase. For α < 1/2 disorder is irrelevant: quenched and annealed critical points coincide for small disorder, as well as quenched and annealed critical exponents [3,28]. The same has been proven also for α = 1/2, but under the assumption that L(·) diverges sufficiently fast at infinity, a hypothesis that is not satisfied in the (1 + 1)-dimensional wetting model considered in [12,17], where L(·) is asymptotically constant. Here we prove that, if 1/2 < α < 1 or α > 1, then quenched and annealed critical points differ whenever disorder is present, and we give the scaling form of their difference for small disorder. In agreement with the so-called Harris criterion, disorder is therefore relevant in this case. In the marginal case α = 1/2, under the assumption that L(·) vanishes sufficiently fast at infinity, we prove that the difference between quenched and annealed critical points, which is smaller than any power of the disorder strength, is positive: disorder is marginally relevant. Again, the case considered in [12,17] is out of our analysis and remains open. The results are achieved by setting the parameters of the model so that the annealed system is localized, but close to criticality, and by first considering a quenched system of size that does not exceed the correlation length of the annealed model. In such a regime we can show that the expectation of the partition function raised to a suitably chosen power {γ in (0, 1)} is small. We then exploit such an information to prove that the expectation of the same fractional

  12. Are animal models as good as we think?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Models have been a tool of science at least since the 18th century and serve a variety of purposes from focusing abstract thoughts to representing scaled down version of things for study. Generally, animal models are needed when it is impractical or unethical to study the target animal. Biologists...

  13. The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

  14. Overview of Vertebrate Animal Models of Fungal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Tobias M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi represent emerging infectious threats to human populations worldwide. Mice and other laboratory animals have proved invaluable in modeling clinical syndromes associated with superficial and life-threatening invasive mycoses. This review outlines salient features of common vertebrate animal model systems to study fungal pathogenesis, host antifungal immune responses, and antifungal compounds. PMID:24709390

  15. Formal models in animal-metacognition research: the problem of interpreting animals' behavior.

    PubMed

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Ongoing research explores whether animals have precursors to metacognition-that is, the capacity to monitor mental states or cognitive processes. Comparative psychologists have tested apes, monkeys, rats, pigeons, and a dolphin using perceptual, memory, foraging, and information-seeking paradigms. The consensus is that some species have a functional analog to human metacognition. Recently, though, associative modelers have used formal-mathematical models hoping to describe animals' "metacognitive" performances in associative-behaviorist ways. We evaluate these attempts to reify formal models as proof of particular explanations of animal cognition. These attempts misunderstand the content and proper application of models. They embody mistakes of scientific reasoning. They blur fundamental distinctions in understanding animal cognition. They impede theoretical development. In contrast, an energetic empirical enterprise is achieving strong success in describing the psychology underlying animals' metacognitive performances. We argue that this careful empirical work is the clear path to useful theoretical development. The issues raised here about formal modeling-in the domain of animal metacognition-potentially extend to biobehavioral research more broadly.

  16. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    PubMed

    Bem, Reinout A; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2011-08-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for novel therapies and preventative strategies. Present animal models include several target species for hRSV, including chimpanzees, cattle, sheep, cotton rats, and mice, as well as alternative animal pneumovirus models, such as bovine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice. These diverse animal models reproduce different features of hRSV disease, and their utilization should therefore be based on the scientific hypothesis under investigation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the strengths and limitations of each of these animal models. Our intent is to provide a resource for investigators and an impetus for future research.

  17. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  18. Animal Models of Tourette Syndrome—From Proliferation to Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Yael, Dorin; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated with multiple comorbid symptoms. Over the last decade, the accumulation of findings from TS patients and the emergence of new technologies have led to the development of novel animal models with high construct validity. In addition, animal models which were previously associated with other disorders were recently attributed to TS. The proliferation of TS animal models has accelerated TS research and provided a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the disorder. This newfound success generates novel challenges, since the conclusions that can be drawn from TS animal model studies are constrained by the considerable variation across models. Typically, each animal model examines a specific subset of deficits and centers on one field of research (physiology/genetics/pharmacology/etc.). Moreover, different studies do not use a standard lexicon to characterize different properties of the model. These factors hinder the evaluation of individual model validity as well as the comparison across models, leading to a formation of a fuzzy, segregated landscape of TS pathophysiology. Here, we call for a standardization process in the study of TS animal models as the next logical step. We believe that a generation of standard examination criteria will improve the utility of these models and enable their consolidation into a general framework. This should lead to a better understanding of these models and their relationship to TS, thereby improving the research of the mechanism underlying this disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. PMID:27065791

  19. Comparative and alternative approaches and novel animal models for aging research

    PubMed Central

    Kristan, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of AGE showcases powerful alternative or unconventional approaches to basic aging research, including the use of exceptionally long-lived animal model species and comparative methods from evolutionary biology. In this opening paper, we introduce several of these alternative aging research themes, including the comparative phylogenetic approach. This approach applies modern inferential methods for dissecting basic physiological and biochemical mechanisms correlated with phenotypic traits including longevity, slow aging, sustained somatic maintenance, and repair of molecular damage. Comparative methods can be used to assess the general relevance of specific aging mechanisms—including oxidative processes—to diverse animal species, as well as to assess their potential clinical relevance to humans and other mammals. We also introduce several other novel, underexploited approaches with particular relevance to biogerontology, including the use of model animal species or strains that retain natural genetic heterogeneity, studies of effects of infectious disease and parasites on aging and responses to caloric restriction, studies of reproductive aging, and naturally occurring sex differences in aging. We emphasize the importance of drawing inferences from aging phenomena in laboratory studies that can be applied to clinically relevant aging syndromes in long-lived, outbred animals, including humans. PMID:19424857

  20. Animal Models for Salmonellosis: Applications in Vaccine Research.

    PubMed

    Higginson, Ellen E; Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M

    2016-09-01

    Salmonellosis remains an important cause of human disease worldwide. While there are several licensed vaccines for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, these vaccines are generally ineffective against other Salmonella serovars. Vaccines that target paratyphoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars are very much in need. Preclinical evaluation of candidate vaccines is highly dependent on the availability of appropriate scientific tools, particularly animal models. Many different animal models exist for various Salmonella serovars, from whole-animal models to smaller models, such as those recently established in insects. Here, we discuss various mouse, rat, rabbit, calf, primate, and insect models for Salmonella infection, all of which have their place in research. However, choosing the right model is imperative in selecting the best vaccine candidates for further clinical testing. In this minireview, we summarize the various animal models that are used to assess salmonellosis, highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and discuss their value in vaccine development.

  1. Animal Models for Salmonellosis: Applications in Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Higginson, Ellen E.; Simon, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis remains an important cause of human disease worldwide. While there are several licensed vaccines for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, these vaccines are generally ineffective against other Salmonella serovars. Vaccines that target paratyphoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars are very much in need. Preclinical evaluation of candidate vaccines is highly dependent on the availability of appropriate scientific tools, particularly animal models. Many different animal models exist for various Salmonella serovars, from whole-animal models to smaller models, such as those recently established in insects. Here, we discuss various mouse, rat, rabbit, calf, primate, and insect models for Salmonella infection, all of which have their place in research. However, choosing the right model is imperative in selecting the best vaccine candidates for further clinical testing. In this minireview, we summarize the various animal models that are used to assess salmonellosis, highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and discuss their value in vaccine development. PMID:27413068

  2. Systematic Reviews of Animal Models: Methodology versus Epistemology

    PubMed Central

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions. PMID:23372426

  3. Systematic reviews of animal models: methodology versus epistemology.

    PubMed

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions.

  4. The hamster flank organ model: Is it relevant to man

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, T.J.; Lehman, P.A.; Pochi, P.; Odland, G.F.; Olerud, J. )

    1989-10-01

    The critical role that androgens play in the etiology of acne has led to a search for topically active antiandrogens and the frequent use of the flank organ of the golden Syrian hamster as an animal model. 17-alpha-propyltestosterone (17-PT) has been identified as having potent antiandrogenic activity in the hamster model, and this report describes its clinical evaluation. Two double-blind placebo controlled studies comparing 4% 17-PT in 80% alcohol versus vehicle alone were conducted. One study examined 17-PT sebosuppressive activity in 20 subjects. The second study examined its efficacy in 44 subjects having mild to moderate acne. A third study measured in vitro percutaneous absorption of 17-PT through hamster flank and monkey skin, and human face skin in-vivo, using radioactive drug. 17-PT was found to be ineffective in reducing either the sebum excretion rate or the number of inflammatory acne lesions. Failure of 17-PT to show clinical activity was not a result of poor percutaneous absorption. Total absorption in man was 7.7% of the dose and only 1.0% in the hamster. The sebaceous gland of hamster flank organ is apparently more sensitive to antiandrogens than the human sebaceous gland.

  5. A Statistical Quality Model for Data-Driven Speech Animation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaohan; Deng, Zhigang

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, data-driven speech animation approaches have achieved significant successes in terms of animation quality. However, how to automatically evaluate the realism of novel synthesized speech animations has been an important yet unsolved research problem. In this paper, we propose a novel statistical model (called SAQP) to automatically predict the quality of on-the-fly synthesized speech animations by various data-driven techniques. Its essential idea is to construct a phoneme-based, Speech Animation Trajectory Fitting (SATF) metric to describe speech animation synthesis errors and then build a statistical regression model to learn the association between the obtained SATF metric and the objective speech animation synthesis quality. Through delicately designed user studies, we evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed SAQP model. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first-of-its-kind, quantitative quality model for data-driven speech animation. We believe it is the important first step to remove a critical technical barrier for applying data-driven speech animation techniques to numerous online or interactive talking avatar applications.

  6. The use of animal models in diabetes research

    PubMed Central

    King, Aileen JF

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a disease characterized by a relative or absolute lack of insulin, leading to hyperglycaemia. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, and type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance coupled by a failure of the beta cell to compensate. Animal models for type 1 diabetes range from animals with spontaneously developing autoimmune diabetes to chemical ablation of the pancreatic beta cells. Type 2 diabetes is modelled in both obese and non-obese animal models with varying degrees of insulin resistance and beta cell failure. This review outlines some of the models currently used in diabetes research. In addition, the use of transgenic and knock-out mouse models is discussed. Ideally, more than one animal model should be used to represent the diversity seen in human diabetic patients. LINKED ARTICLES Animal Models This paper is the latest in a series of publications on the use of animal models in pharmacology research. Readers might be interested in the previous papers. Robinson V (2009). Less is more: reducing the reliance on animal models for nausea and vomiting research. Holmes AM, Rudd JA, Tattersall FD, Aziz Q, Andrews PLR (2009). Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting. Giacomotto J and Ségalat L (2010). High-throughput screening and small animal models, where are we? McGrath JC, Drummond GB, McLachlan EM, Kilkenny C, Wainwright CL (2010). Guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals: the ARRIVE guidelines. Kilkenny C, Browne W, Cuthill IC, Emerson M, Altman DG (2010). The ARRIVE guidelines. Emerson M (2010). Refinement, reduction and replacement approaches to in vivo cardiovascular research. Berge O-G (2011). Predictive validity of behavioural animal models for chronic pain. Vickers SP, Jackson HC and Cheetham SC (2011). The utility of animal models to evaluate

  7. Nephrectomized and hepatectomized animal models as tools in preclinical pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Bill; Agersø, Henrik; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-08-01

    Early understanding of the pharmacokinetics and metabolic patterns of new drug candidates is essential for selection of optimal candidates to move further in to the drug development process. In vitro methodologies can be used to investigate metabolic patterns, but in general, they lack several aspects of the whole-body physiology. In contrast, the complexity of intact animals does not necessarily allow individual processes to be identified. Animal models lacking a major excretion organ can be used to investigate these individual metabolic processes. Animal models of nephrectomy and hepatectomy have considerable potential as tools in preclinical pharmacokinetics to assess organs of importance for drug clearance and thereby knowledge of potential metabolic processes to manipulate to improve pharmacokinetic properties of the molecules. Detailed knowledge of anatomy and surgical techniques is crucial to successfully establish the models, and a well-balanced anaesthesia and adequate monitoring of the animals are also of major importance. An obvious drawback of animal models lacking an organ is the disruption of normal homoeostasis and the induction of dramatic and ultimately mortal systemic changes in the animals. Refining of the surgical techniques and the post-operative supportive care of the animals can increase the value of these models by minimizing the systemic changes induced, and thorough validation of nephrectomy and hepatectomy models is needed before use of such models as a tool in preclinical pharmacokinetics. The present MiniReview discusses pros and cons of the available techniques associated with establishing nephrectomy and hepatectomy models.

  8. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    PubMed

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated.

  9. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  10. Animal models of henipavirus infection: a review.

    PubMed

    Weingartl, Hana M; Berhane, Yohannes; Czub, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) form a separate genus Henipavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae, and are classified as biosafety level four pathogens due to their high case fatality rate following human infection and because of the lack of effective vaccines or therapy. Both viruses emerged from their natural reservoir during the last decade of the 20th century, causing severe disease in humans, horses and swine, and infecting a number of other mammalian species. The current review summarises current published data relating to experimental infection of small and large animals, including the natural reservoir species, the Pteropus bat, with HeV or NiV. Susceptibility to infection and virus distribution in the individual species is discussed, along with the pathogenesis, pathological changes, and potential routes of transmission.

  11. Large animal models for vaccine development and testing.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, Volker; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, Francois; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Wilson, Don; Walker, Stewart; Wheler, Colette; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    The development of human vaccines continues to rely on the use of animals for research. Regulatory authorities require novel vaccine candidates to undergo preclinical assessment in animal models before being permitted to enter the clinical phase in human subjects. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in reducing and replacing the number of animals used for preclinical vaccine research through the use of bioinformatics and computational biology to design new vaccine candidates. However, the ultimate goal of a new vaccine is to instruct the immune system to elicit an effective immune response against the pathogen of interest, and no alternatives to live animal use currently exist for evaluation of this response. Studies identifying the mechanisms of immune protection; determining the optimal route and formulation of vaccines; establishing the duration and onset of immunity, as well as the safety and efficacy of new vaccines, must be performed in a living system. Importantly, no single animal model provides all the information required for advancing a new vaccine through the preclinical stage, and research over the last two decades has highlighted that large animals more accurately predict vaccine outcome in humans than do other models. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of large animal models for human vaccine development and demonstrate that much of the success in bringing a new vaccine to market depends on choosing the most appropriate animal model for preclinical testing.

  12. The rational use of animal models in the evaluation of novel bone regenerative therapies.

    PubMed

    Peric, Mihaela; Dumic-Cule, Ivo; Grcevic, Danka; Matijasic, Mario; Verbanac, Donatella; Paul, Ruth; Grgurevic, Lovorka; Trkulja, Vladimir; Bagi, Cedo M; Vukicevic, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Bone has a high potential for endogenous self-repair. However, due to population aging, human diseases with impaired bone regeneration are on the rise. Current strategies to facilitate bone healing include various biomolecules, cellular therapies, biomaterials and different combinations of these. Animal models for testing novel regenerative therapies remain the gold standard in pre-clinical phases of drug discovery and development. Despite improvements in animal experimentation, excessive poorly designed animal studies with inappropriate endpoints and inaccurate conclusions are being conducted. In this review, we discuss animal models, procedures, methods and technologies used in bone repair studies with the aim to assist investigators in planning and performing scientifically sound experiments that respect the wellbeing of animals. In the process of designing an animal study for bone repair investigators should consider: skeletal characteristics of the selected animal species; a suitable animal model that mimics the intended clinical indication; an appropriate assessment plan with validated methods, markers, timing, endpoints and scoring systems; relevant dosing and statistically pre-justified sample sizes and evaluation methods; synchronization of the study with regulatory requirements and additional evaluations specific to cell-based approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem Cells and Bone".

  13. Current animal models of obsessive compulsive disorder: an update.

    PubMed

    Albelda, N; Joel, D

    2012-06-01

    During the last 30 years there have been many attempts to develop animal models of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), in the hope that they may provide a route for furthering our understanding and treatment of this disorder. The present review provides the reader with an overview of the currently active animal models of OCD, their strengths and limitations, so that the reader can use the review as a guide for establishing new animal models of OCD, evaluating existing animal models and choosing among them according to one's needs. We review current genetic, pharmacological, neurodevelopmental and behavioral animal models of OCD, and evaluate their face validity (derived from phenomenological similarity between the behavior in the animal model and the specific symptoms of the human condition), predictive validity (derived from similarity in response to treatment) and construct validity (derived from similarity in the underlying mechanisms [physiological or psychological]). On the basis of this evaluation we discuss the usefulness of the different models for screening drugs for anti-compulsive activity, detecting new targets for high frequency stimulation, studying the neural mechanisms of OCD and unraveling the role of gonadal hormones. We then describe potential new treatment strategies that emerge from the convergence of data obtained in different models on the one hand, and how different models can be used to model different subtypes or dimensions of OCD, on the other hand.

  14. Preclinical animal models of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lwin, Seint T; Edwards, Claire M; Silbermann, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable plasma-cell malignancy characterized by osteolytic bone disease and immunosuppression. Murine models of multiple myeloma and myeloma bone disease are critical tools for an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. This review will cover commonly used immunocompetent and xenograft models of myeloma, describing the advantages and disadvantages of each model system. In addition, this review provides detailed protocols for establishing systemic and local models of myeloma using both murine and human myeloma cell lines. PMID:26909147

  15. ANIMAL MODELS OF UROLOGIC CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROMES (UCPPS): FINDINGS FROM THE MAPP RESEARCH NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Gereau, Robert W.; Luo, Yi; O’Donnell, Michael; Rudick, Charles N.; Pontari, Michel; Mullins, Chris; Klumpp, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the approach taken by MAPP (Multi-Disciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain) Research Network investigators to advance the utility of UCPPS (urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes) animal models. Methods A multidisciplinary team of investigators representing basic science and clinical expertise defined key phenotypic criteria for rodent models of UCPPS. UCPPS symptoms were prioritized based on their clinical significance. Methods for quantifying animal correlates to patient symptoms were developed. The methods were implemented across proposed rodent models for evaluation and comparison of animals for phenotypic characteristics relevant to human symptomatology. Results Pelvic pain and urinary frequency were deemed primary features of human UCPPS and were prioritized for assessment in animals. Nociception was quantified using visceromotor response to bladder distention, and by applying von Frey filaments to the lower abdomen (referred tactile allodynia). Micturition activity was assessed as free voiding using micturition cages or blotting pad assays, and in response to bladder filling by cystometry. Models varied in both depth of characterization and degree of recapitulating pelvic pain and urinary frequency characteristics of UCPPS. Conclusion Rodent models that reflect multiple, key characteristics of human UCPPS may be identified and provide enhanced clinical significance to mechanistic studies. We have developed a strategy for evaluating current and future animal models of UCPPS based on human symptomatology. This approach provides a foundation for improved translation between mechanistic studies in animals and clinical research, and serves as a validation strategy for assessing validity of models for symptom-driven disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26099889

  16. Exploring a Professional Development Model for Teaching Culturally Relevant Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campeau, Rebecca K.

    2013-01-01

    An area of concern for school district administrators is the lack of training that teachers have using culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP). A lack of training may reduce a teacher's effectiveness in meeting the needs of non-White students. Obstacles to attending trainings include the beliefs and attitudes of teachers and the relevance of training…

  17. Social defeat as an animal model for depression.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Fiona; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Depression is one of the most disabling medical conditions in the world today, yet its etiologies remain unclear and current treatments are not wholly effective. Animal models are a powerful tool to investigate possible causes and treatments for human diseases. We describe an animal model of social defeat as a possible model for human depression. We discuss the paradigm, behavioral correlates to depression, and potential underlying neurobiological mechanisms with an eye toward possible future therapies.

  18. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of cystic fibrosis: gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary disease and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Alicia K; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Meyerholz, David K

    2015-03-15

    Multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and hepatobiliary systems, are affected by cystic fibrosis (CF). Many of these changes begin early in life and are difficult to study in young CF patients. Recent development of novel CF animal models has expanded opportunities in the field to better understand CF pathogenesis and evaluate traditional and innovative therapeutics. In this review, we discuss manifestations of CF disease in gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary systems of humans and animal models. We also compare the similarities and limitations of animal models and discuss future directions for modeling CF.

  19. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of cystic fibrosis: gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary disease and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Alicia K.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and hepatobiliary systems, are affected by cystic fibrosis (CF). Many of these changes begin early in life and are difficult to study in young CF patients. Recent development of novel CF animal models has expanded opportunities in the field to better understand CF pathogenesis and evaluate traditional and innovative therapeutics. In this review, we discuss manifestations of CF disease in gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary systems of humans and animal models. We also compare the similarities and limitations of animal models and discuss future directions for modeling CF. PMID:25591863

  20. Alpha-synuclein propagation: New insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Dehay, Benjamin; Vila, Miquel; Bezard, Erwan; Brundin, Patrik; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2016-02-01

    Aggregation of alpha-synuclein is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases collectively termed synucleinopathies. Emerging evidence strongly implicates cell-to-cell transmission of misfolded alpha-synuclein as a common pathogenetic mechanism in synucleinopathies. The impact of alpha-synuclein pathology on neuronal dysfunction and behavioral impairments is being explored in animal models. This review provides an update on how research in animal models supports the concept that misfolded alpha-synuclein spreads from cell to cell and describes how findings in animal models might relate to the disease process in humans. Finally, we discuss the current underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms and future therapeutic strategies targeting alpha-synuclein propagation.

  1. Lab-on-a-brane: A novel physiologically relevant planar arterial model to study transendothelial transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhwani, Karim Ismail

    The tremendous quality of life impact notwithstanding, cardiovascular diseases and Cancer add up to over US$ 700bn each year in financial costs alone. Aging and population growth are expected to further expand the problem space while drug research and development remain expensive. However, preclinical costs can be substantially mitigated by substituting animal models with in vitro devices that accurately model human cardiovascular transport. Here we present a novel physiologically relevant lab-on-a-brane that simulates in vivo pressure, flow, strain, and shear waveforms associated with normal and pathological conditions in large and small blood vessels for studying molecular transport across the endothelial monolayer. The device builds upon previously demonstrated integrated microfluidic loop design by: (a) introducing nanoscale pores in the substrate membrane to enable transmembrane molecular transport, (b) transforming the substrate membrane into a nanofibrous matrix for 3D smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissue culture, (c) integrating electrospinning fabrication methods, (d) engineering an invertible sandwich cell culture device architecture, and (e) devising a healthy co-culture mechanism for human arterial endothelial cell (HAEC) monolayer and multiple layers of human smooth muscle cells (HSMC) to accurately mimic arterial anatomy. Structural and mechanical characterization was conducted using confocal microscopy, SEM, stress/strain analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. Transport was characterized using FITC-Dextran hydraulic permeability protocol. Structure and transport characterization successfully demonstrate device viability as a physiologically relevant arterial mimic for testing transendothelial transport. Thus, our lab-on-a-brane provides a highly effective and efficient, yet considerably inexpensive, physiologically relevant alternative for pharmacokinetic evaluation; possibly reducing animals used in pre-clinical testing, clinical trials cost from false

  2. [Genetically modified animals as model systems of psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Soboleva, A G; Mezentsev, A V; Bruskin, S A

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune skin disorder. Experimental models of psoriasis can be used to study the disease in controlled conditions. Moreover, the experimental models allow to study a certain aspect of the pathological process. Although none of the multiple mouse models reproduces the human disease precisely, lab animals as model systems can be very helpful because of two reasons. First, introduction of new mutations into animal genome allows to reveal the new genes that may play a certain role in pathogenesis of the disease. Second, the experiments that are carried on the lab animals can be used for testing the new drugs and selection of the most efficient chemical agents from a variety of the proposed experimental preparations. The aim of this paper was to summarize the data on the lab animals that serve as experimental models of psoriasis.

  3. Animal models in epigenetic research: institutional animal care and use committee considerations across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid expansion and evolution of epigenetics as a core scientific discipline have raised new questions about how endogenous and environmental factors can inform the mechanisms through which biological form and function are regulated. Existing and proposed animal models used for epigenetic research have targeted a myriad of health and disease endpoints that may be acute, chronic, and transgenerational in nature. Initiating events and outcomes may extend across the entire lifespan to elicit unanticipated phenotypes that are of particular concern to institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs). The dynamics and plasticity of epigenetic mechanisms produce effects and consequences that are manifest differentially within discreet spatial and temporal contexts, including prenatal development, stem cells, assisted reproductive technologies, production of sexual dimorphisms, senescence, and others. Many dietary and nutritional interventions have also been shown to have a significant impact on biological functions and disease susceptibilities through altered epigenetic programming. The environmental, chemical, toxic, therapeutic, and psychosocial stressors used in animal studies to elicit epigenetic changes can become extreme and should raise IACUC concerns for the well-being and proper care of all research animals involved. Epigenetics research is rapidly becoming an integral part of the search for mechanisms in every major area of biomedical and behavioral research and will foster the continued development of new animal models. From the IACUC perspective, care must be taken to acknowledge the particular needs and concerns created by superimposition of epigenetic mechanisms over diverse fields of investigation to ensure the proper care and use of animals without impeding scientific progress.

  4. Emerging preclinical animal models for FSHD

    PubMed Central

    Lek, Angela; Rahimov, Fedik; Jones, Peter L.; Kunkel, Louis M.

    2015-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is a unique and complex genetic disease that is not entirely solved. Recent advances in the field have led to a consensus genetic premise for the disorder, enabling researchers to now pursue the design of preclinical models. In this review, we explore all available FSHD models (DUX4-dependent and -independent) for their utility in therapeutic discovery and potential to yield novel disease insights. Due to the complex nature of FSHD, there is currently no single model that accurately recapitulates the genetic and pathophysiological spectrum of the disorder. Existing models are limited to emphasize only specific aspects of the disease, thus highlighting the need for more collaborative research and novel paradigms to advance the translational research space of FSHD. PMID:25801126

  5. Why test animals to treat humans? On the validity of animal models.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Cameron

    2010-09-01

    Critics of animal modeling have advanced a variety of arguments against the validity of the practice. The point of one such form of argument is to establish that animal modeling is pointless and therefore immoral. In this article, critical arguments of this form are divided into three types, the pseudoscience argument, the disanalogy argument, and the predictive validity argument. I contend that none of these criticisms currently succeed, nor are they likely to. However, the connection between validity and morality is important, suggesting that critical efforts would be instructive if they addressed it in a more nuanced way.

  6. Animal models of substance abuse and addiction: implications for science, animal welfare, and society.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-06-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.

  7. Animal model: dysmorphogenesis and death in a chicken embryo model.

    PubMed

    Fineman, R M; Schoenwolf, G C

    1987-07-01

    The chicken embryo is a useful animal model for investigating problems in developmental biology and teratology. Here we report data that further define the causes of 2 different patterns of malformation (one associated with amnion abnormalities, the other with isolated neural tube defects) and death induced by making a window in the shell and subshell membranes during the first day of incubation. The interpretation of these data suggests to us the following hypotheses. An early amnion deficit spectrum or syndrome (EADS) in chicken embryos is caused by a brief (less than 10 sec) perturbation that occurs during the windowing procedure. This perturbation results in an acute increase in mechanical tension to the developing embryo and support structures, dehydration localized to the area of the blastoderm, and/or increased friction between the blastoderm and overlying vitelline and shell membranes. Isolated neural tube defects (NTDs) are caused by a longer perturbation (greater than 3 hr) consisting of increased mechanical stress across the blastoderm. The mechanical stress is associated with the introduction of a new air space over the animal pole of the yolk during windowing. The new air space causes the shape of the yolk to change (ie, to be deformed), resulting in an increase in mechanical tension across the vitelline membrane and blastoderm. NTDs involving the head are associated with significant early embryonic mortality, whereas those involving the trunk are not. Death may also be caused by cardiovascular anomalies observed in EADS. It is concluded that disturbances in morphogenesis and death in this model are, therefore, the result of extrinsic forces (eg, mechanical stress, localized dehydration, or friction) acting on different tissue types at various critical times in development. Intensity and duration of these forces on the developing blastoderm are important variables.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN ANIMAL MODELS

    PubMed Central

    SP, Grover; CE, Evans; AS, Patel; B, Modarai; P, Saha; A, Smith

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and common complications, including pulmonary embolism and post thrombotic syndrome, represent a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Experimental models of venous thrombosis have provided considerable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate thrombus formation and subsequent resolution. Here we critically appraise the ex vivo and in vivo techniques used to assess venous thrombosis in these models. Particular attention is paid to imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, micro computed tomography and high frequency ultrasound that facilitate longitudinal assessment of thrombus size and composition. PMID:26681755

  9. Animal models for screening anxiolytic-like drugs: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bourin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary biological psychiatry uses experimental animal models to increase our understanding of affective disorder pathogenesis. Modern anxiolytic drug discovery mainly targets specific pathways and molecular determinants within a single phenotypic domain. However, greater understanding of the mechanisms of action is possible through animal models. Primarily developed with rats, animal models in anxiety have been adapted with mixed success for mice, easy-to-use mammals with better genetic possibilities than rats. In this review, we focus on the three most common animal models of anxiety in mice used in the screening of anxiolytics. Both conditioned and unconditioned models are described, in order to represent all types of animal models of anxiety. Behavioral studies require careful attention to variable parameters linked to environment, handling, or paradigms; this is also discussed. Finally, we focus on the consequences of re-exposure to the apparatus. Test-retest procedures can provide new answers, but should be intensively studied in order to revalidate the entire paradigm as an animal model of anxiety. PMID:26487810

  10. Animal models for screening anxiolytic-like drugs: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary biological psychiatry uses experimental animal models to increase our understanding of affective disorder pathogenesis. Modern anxiolytic drug discovery mainly targets specific pathways and molecular determinants within a single phenotypic domain. However, greater understanding of the mechanisms of action is possible through animal models. Primarily developed with rats, animal models in anxiety have been adapted with mixed success for mice, easy-to-use mammals with better genetic possibilities than rats. In this review, we focus on the three most common animal models of anxiety in mice used in the screening of anxiolytics. Both conditioned and unconditioned models are described, in order to represent all types of animal models of anxiety. Behavioral studies require careful attention to variable parameters linked to environment, handling, or paradigms; this is also discussed. Finally, we focus on the consequences of re-exposure to the apparatus. Test-retest procedures can provide new answers, but should be intensively studied in order to revalidate the entire paradigm as an animal model of anxiety.

  11. Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research: Hypertension and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension and atherosclerosis are among the most common causes of mortality in both developed and developing countries. Experimental animal models of hypertension and atherosclerosis have become a valuable tool for providing information on etiology, pathophysiology, and complications of the disease and on the efficacy and mechanism of action of various drugs and compounds used in treatment. An animal model has been developed to study hypertension and atherosclerosis for several reasons. Compared to human models, an animal model is easily manageable, as compounding effects of dietary and environmental factors can be controlled. Blood vessels and cardiac tissue samples can be taken for detailed experimental and biomolecular examination. Choice of animal model is often determined by the research aim, as well as financial and technical factors. A thorough understanding of the animal models used and complete analysis must be validated so that the data can be extrapolated to humans. In conclusion, animal models for hypertension and atherosclerosis are invaluable in improving our understanding of cardiovascular disease and developing new pharmacological therapies. PMID:26064920

  12. Animal models for arthritis: innovative tools for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kollias, George; Papadaki, Piyi; Apparailly, Florence; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J; Holmdahl, Rikard; Baumans, Vera; Desaintes, Christian; Di Santo, James; Distler, Jörg; Garside, Paul; Hegen, Martin; Huizinga, Tom W J; Jüngel, Astrid; Klareskog, Lars; McInnes, Iain; Ragoussis, Ioannis; Schett, Georg; Hart, Bert 't; Tak, Paul P; Toes, Rene; van den Berg, Wim; Wurst, Wolfgang; Gay, Steffen

    2011-08-01

    The development of novel treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) requires the interplay between clinical observations and studies in animal models. Given the complex molecular pathogenesis and highly heterogeneous clinical picture of RA, there is an urgent need to dissect its multifactorial nature and to propose new strategies for preventive, early and curative treatments. Research on animal models has generated new knowledge on RA pathophysiology and aetiology and has provided highly successful paradigms for innovative drug development. Recent focus has shifted towards the discovery of novel biomarkers, with emphasis on presymptomatic and emerging stages of human RA, and towards addressing the pathophysiological mechanisms and subsequent efficacy of interventions that underlie different disease variants. Shifts in the current paradigms underlying RA pathogenesis have also led to increased demand for new (including humanised) animal models. There is therefore an urgent need to integrate the knowledge on human and animal models with the ultimate goal of creating a comprehensive 'pathogenesis map' that will guide alignment of existing and new animal models to the subset of disease they mimic. This requires full and standardised characterisation of all models at the genotypic, phenotypic and biomarker level, exploiting recent technological developments in 'omics' profiling and computational biology as well as state of the art bioimaging. Efficient integration and dissemination of information and resources as well as outreach to the public will be necessary to manage the plethora of data accumulated and to increase community awareness and support for innovative animal model research in rheumatology.

  13. Laboratory animal models for human Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Avila, Guillermina; Teran, Nancy; Aguilar-Vega, Laura; Maravilla, Pablo; Mata-Miranda, Pilar; Flisser, Ana

    2006-01-01

    Human beings are the only hosts of adult Taenia solium; thus, many aspects of the host-parasite relationship are unknown. The development of successful experimental models of taeniasis allows in-depth investigations of the host-parasite relationship. We established experimental models in hamsters, gerbils and chinchillas. Here we review our findings regarding the characteristics of the tapeworms, their anchoring site and development, as well as the humoral and cellular immune response they elicit. We also used statistics to analyze the data obtained in different infections performed along several years. Furthermore, we compared the size of T. solium rostellum and strobila recovered from hamsters and gerbils to those obtained from humans. Our data indicate that these rodents are adequate experimental models for studying T. solium in its adult stage; that parasites induce immune responses and that hamsters seem to be more permissive hosts than gerbils, since parasites survive for longer times, grow longer and develop more, and the inflammatory response in the intestinal mucosa against T. solium is moderate. Finally, chinchillas are the most successful experimental definitive model for adult T. solium, since tapeworms with gravid proglottids are obtained, and the life cycle can be continued to the intermediate host.

  14. Mathematical modelling of animate and intentional motion.

    PubMed Central

    Rittscher, Jens; Blake, Andrew; Hoogs, Anthony; Stein, Gees

    2003-01-01

    Our aim is to enable a machine to observe and interpret the behaviour of others. Mathematical models are employed to describe certain biological motions. The main challenge is to design models that are both tractable and meaningful. In the first part we will describe how computer vision techniques, in particular visual tracking, can be applied to recognize a small vocabulary of human actions in a constrained scenario. Mainly the problems of viewpoint and scale invariance need to be overcome to formalize a general framework. Hence the second part of the article is devoted to the question whether a particular human action should be captured in a single complex model or whether it is more promising to make extensive use of semantic knowledge and a collection of low-level models that encode certain motion primitives. Scene context plays a crucial role if we intend to give a higher-level interpretation rather than a low-level physical description of the observed motion. A semantic knowledge base is used to establish the scene context. This approach consists of three main components: visual analysis, the mapping from vision to language and the search of the semantic database. A small number of robust visual detectors is used to generate a higher-level description of the scene. The approach together with a number of results is presented in the third part of this article. PMID:12689374

  15. Animal models of frailty: current applications in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Kane, Alice E; Hilmer, Sarah N; Mach, John; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Howlett, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The ethical, logistical, and biological complications of working with an older population of people inherently limits clinical studies of frailty. The recent development of animal models of frailty, and tools for assessing frailty in animal models provides an invaluable opportunity for frailty research. This review summarizes currently published animal models of frailty including the interleukin-10 knock-out mouse, the mouse frailty phenotype assessment tool, and the mouse clinical frailty index. It discusses both current and potential roles of these models in research into mechanisms of frailty, interventions to prevent/delay frailty, and the effect of frailty on outcomes. Finally, this review discusses some of the challenges and opportunities of translating research findings from animals to humans.

  16. Animal challenge models of henipavirus infection and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz; Broder, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    The henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV), and Nipah virus (NiV), are enigmatic emerging pathogens that causes severe and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease in both animals and humans. Amongst people, case fatality rates range between 40 and 75% and there are no vaccines or treatments approved for human use. A number of species of animals including guinea pigs, hamsters, cats, ferrets, pigs, and African green monkeys have been employed as animal models of human henipavirus infection. Here, we review the development of animal models for henipavirus infection, discuss the pathology and pathogenesis of these models, and assess the utility of each model to recapitulate important aspects of henipavirus-mediated disease seen in humans.

  17. Animal models of frailty: current applications in clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Alice E; Hilmer, Sarah N; Mach, John; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Howlett, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The ethical, logistical, and biological complications of working with an older population of people inherently limits clinical studies of frailty. The recent development of animal models of frailty, and tools for assessing frailty in animal models provides an invaluable opportunity for frailty research. This review summarizes currently published animal models of frailty including the interleukin-10 knock-out mouse, the mouse frailty phenotype assessment tool, and the mouse clinical frailty index. It discusses both current and potential roles of these models in research into mechanisms of frailty, interventions to prevent/delay frailty, and the effect of frailty on outcomes. Finally, this review discusses some of the challenges and opportunities of translating research findings from animals to humans. PMID:27822024

  18. Relevant parameters in models of cell division control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Jacopo; Osella, Matteo; Kennard, Andrew S.; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino

    2017-03-01

    A recent burst of dynamic single-cell data makes it possible to characterize the stochastic dynamics of cell division control in bacteria. Different models were used to propose specific mechanisms, but the links between them are poorly explored. The lack of comparative studies makes it difficult to appreciate how well any particular mechanism is supported by the data. Here, we describe a simple and generic framework in which two common formalisms can be used interchangeably: (i) a continuous-time division process described by a hazard function and (ii) a discrete-time equation describing cell size across generations (where the unit of time is a cell cycle). In our framework, this second process is a discrete-time Langevin equation with simple physical analogues. By perturbative expansion around the mean initial size (or interdivision time), we show how this framework describes a wide range of division control mechanisms, including combinations of time and size control, as well as the constant added size mechanism recently found to capture several aspects of the cell division behavior of different bacteria. As we show by analytical estimates and numerical simulations, the available data are described precisely by the first-order approximation of this expansion, i.e., by a "linear response" regime for the correction of size fluctuations. Hence, a single dimensionless parameter defines the strength and action of the division control against cell-to-cell variability (quantified by a single "noise" parameter). However, the same strength of linear response may emerge from several mechanisms, which are distinguished only by higher-order terms in the perturbative expansion. Our analytical estimate of the sample size needed to distinguish between second-order effects shows that this value is close to but larger than the values of the current datasets. These results provide a unified framework for future studies and clarify the relevant parameters at play in the control of

  19. Retinal degeneration in animal models with a defective visual cycle

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Akiko; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Continuous generation of visual chromophore through the visual (retinoid) cycle is essential to maintain eyesight and retinal heath. Impairments in this cycle and related pathways adversely affect vision. In this review, we summarize the chemical reactions of vitamin A metabolites involved in the retinoid cycle and describe animal models of associated human diseases. Development of potential therapies for retinal disorders in these animal models is also introduced. PMID:25210527

  20. Large animal models of neurological disorders for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Christine; Bunnell, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    he development of therapeutic interventions for genetic disorders and diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS) has proven challenging. There has been significant progress in the development of gene therapy strategies in murine models of human disease, but gene therapy outcomes in these models do not always translate to the human setting. Therefore, large animal models are crucial to the development of diagnostics, treatments, and eventual cures for debilitating neurological disorders. This review focuses on the description of large animal models of neurological diseases such as lysosomal storage diseases, Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, and neuroAIDS. The review also describes the contributions of these models to progress in gene therapy research.

  1. Modeling Behavior and Variation for Crowd Animation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    navigation strategies in complex environments. In Proceedings of the 2003 Intl. Confer- ence on Humanoid Robots , October 2003. 4.7.3 [15] Wallace Ching and...generate spatial and temporal variants from a small amount of data. We think of our work as one step towards the problem of motion variation; we...Treuille and his colleagues [102] generate crowd motions by thinking of crowds of agents as particles in a fluid. They model a potential field in

  2. Animal models for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Pekarsky, Yuri; Zanesi, Nicola; Aqeilan, Rami I; Croce, Carlo M

    2007-04-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), the most common leukemia in the Western world, results from an expansion of a rare population of CD5+ mature B-lymphocytes. Although clinical features and genomic abnormalities in B-CLL have been studied in considerable detail, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease development has remained unclear until recently. In the last 4 years, several transgenic mouse models for B-CLL were generated. Investigations of these mouse models revealed that deregulation of three pathways, Tcl1-Akt pathway, TNF-NF-kB pathway, and Bcl2-mediated anti-apoptotic pathway, result in the development of B-CLL. While deregulation of TCL1 alone caused a B-CLL phenotype in mice, overexpression of Bcl2 required aberrantly activated TNF-NF-kB pathway signaling to yield the disease phenotype. In this article, we present what has been learned from mice with B-CLL phenotype and how these mouse models of B-CLL were used to test therapeutic treatments for this common leukemia.

  3. Elements of episodic-like memory in animal models.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2009-03-01

    Representations of unique events from one's past constitute the content of episodic memories. A number of studies with non-human animals have revealed that animals remember specific episodes from their past (referred to as episodic-like memory). The development of animal models of memory holds enormous potential for gaining insight into the biological bases of human memory. Specifically, given the extensive knowledge of the rodent brain, the development of rodent models of episodic memory would open new opportunities to explore the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and molecular mechanisms of memory. Development of such animal models holds enormous potential for studying functional changes in episodic memory in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, amnesia, and other human memory pathologies. This article reviews several approaches that have been used to assess episodic-like memory in animals. The approaches reviewed include the discrimination of what, where, and when in a radial arm maze, dissociation of recollection and familiarity, object recognition, binding, unexpected questions, and anticipation of a reproductive state. The diversity of approaches may promote the development of converging lines of evidence on the difficult problem of assessing episodic-like memory in animals.

  4. Animal models of osteoarthritis: classification, update, and measurement of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kuyinu, Emmanuel L; Narayanan, Ganesh; Nair, Lakshmi S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2016-02-02

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most commonly occurring forms of arthritis in the world today. It is a debilitating chronic illness causing pain and immense discomfort to the affected individual. Significant research is currently ongoing to understand its pathophysiology and develop successful treatment regimens based on this knowledge. Animal models have played a key role in achieving this goal. Animal models currently used to study osteoarthritis can be classified based on the etiology under investigation, primary osteoarthritis, and post-traumatic osteoarthritis, to better clarify the relationship between these models and the pathogenesis of the disease. Non-invasive animal models have shown significant promise in understanding early osteoarthritic changes. Imaging modalities play a pivotal role in understanding the pathogenesis of OA and the correlation with pain. These imaging studies would also allow in vivo surveillance of the disease as a function of time in the animal model. This review summarizes the current understanding of the disease pathogenesis, invasive and non-invasive animal models, imaging modalities, and pain assessment techniques in the animals.

  5. Animal model of sensitization by inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Barboriak, J J; Knoblock, H W; Hensley, G T; Gombas, O F; Fink, J N

    1976-01-01

    Groups of rats exposed to daily inhalation challenge with aerosolized pigeon serum developed precipitating antibody within 2 weeks and definitive granulomatous inflammatory changes in the lung after 7 weeks of exposure. The dissociation of the two responses to an inhalation challenge indicate that the rat model may serve for screening of the various inhalant antigens for their sensitizing potential, and for investigation of the contributory role of some of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:939055

  6. The Use of Animal Models for Stroke Research: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Casals, Juliana B; Pieri, Naira CG; Feitosa, Matheus LT; Ercolin, Anna CM; Roballo, Kelly CS; Barreto, Rodrigo SN; Bressan, Fabiana F; Martins, Daniele S; Miglino, Maria A; Ambrósio, Carlos E

    2011-01-01

    Stroke has been identified as the second leading cause of death worldwide. Stroke is a focal neurologic deficit caused by a change in cerebral circulation. The use of animal models in recent years has improved our understanding of the physiopathology of this disease. Rats and mice are the most commonly used stroke models, but the demand for larger models, such as rabbits and even nonhuman primates, is increasing so as to better understand the disease and its treatment. Although the basic mechanisms of stroke are nearly identical among mammals, we here discuss the differences between the human encephalon and various animals. In addition, we compare common surgical techniques used to induce animal models of stroke. A more complete anatomic knowledge of the cerebral vessels of various model species is needed to develop more reliable models for objective results that improve knowledge of the pathology of stroke in both human and veterinary medicine. PMID:22330245

  7. [Comments on an animal model of depression].

    PubMed

    Vaugeois, J-M; El Yacoubi, M; Costentin, J

    2004-09-01

    Depression is a multifactorial illness and genetic factors play a role in its etiology. The understanding of its pathophysiology relies on the availability of experimental models potentially mimicking the disease. Here is presented a model built up by selective breeding of mice with strikingly different responses in the tail suspension test, a stress paradigm aimed at screening potential antidepressants. Indeed, "helpless" mice are essentially immobile in the tail suspension test, as well as the Porsolt forced-swim test, and they show reduced consumption of a palatable 2% sucrose solution. In addition, helpless mice exhibit sleep-wakefulness alterations resembling those classically observed in depressed patients, notably a lighter and more fragmented sleep, with an increase pressure of rapid eye movement sleep. Compared with "nonhelpless" mice, they display higher basal serum corticosterone levels and lower serotonin metabolism index in the hippocampus. Remarkably, serotonin1A autoreceptor stimulation induced greatest hypothermia and inhibition of serotoninergic neuronal firing in the nucleus raphe dorsalis in helpless than in nonhelpless mice. Thus, helpless mice exhibit a decrease in serotoninergic tone, which evokes that associated with endogenous depression in humans. Finally, both the behavioral impairments and the serotoninergic dysfunction can be improved by chronic treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine. The helpless line of mice may provide an opportunity to approach genes influencing susceptibility to depression and to investigate neurophysiological and neurochemical substrates underlying antidepressant effects.

  8. Animal models for prenatal gene therapy: the nonhuman primate model.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Citra N; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh; Chan, Jerry K Y

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine gene therapy (IUGT) potentially enables the treatment and possible cure of monogenic -diseases that cause severe fetal damage. The main benefits of this approach will be the ability to correct the disorder before the onset of irreversible pathology and inducing central immune tolerance to the vector and transgene if treatment is instituted in early gestation. Cure has been demonstrated in small animal models, but because of the significant differences in immune ontogeny and the much shorter gestation compared to humans, it is unlikely that questions of long-term efficacy and safety will be adequately addressed in rodents. The nonhuman primate (NHP) allows investigation of key issues, in particular, the different outcomes in early and late-gestation IUGT associated with different stages of immune maturity, longevity of transgene expression, and delayed-onset adverse events in treated offspring and mothers including insertional mutagenesis. Here, we describe a model based on the Macaca fascicularis using ultrasound and fetoscopic approaches to systemic vector delivery and the processes involved in vector administration and longitudinal analyses.

  9. Animal Models of Cystic Fibrosis Pathology: Phenotypic Parallels and Divergences

    PubMed Central

    McElvaney, Noel G.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The resultant characteristic ion transport defect results in decreased mucociliary clearance, bacterial colonisation, and chronic neutrophil-dominated inflammation. Much knowledge surrounding the pathophysiology of the disease has been gained through the generation of animal models, despite inherent limitations in each. The failure of certain mouse models to recapitulate the phenotypic manifestations of human disease has initiated the generation of larger animals in which to study CF, including the pig and the ferret. This review will summarise the basic phenotypes of three animal models and describe the contributions of such animal studies to our current understanding of CF. PMID:27340661

  10. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  11. The utility of animal models in developing immunosuppressive agents.

    PubMed

    McDaid, James; Scott, Christopher J; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Chen, Huifang; Martins, Paulo N

    2015-07-15

    The immune system comprises an integrated network of cellular interactions. Some responses are predictable, while others are more stochastic. While in vitro the outcome of stimulating a single type of cell may be stereotyped and reproducible, in vivo this is often not the case. This phenomenon often merits the use of animal models in predicting the impact of immunosuppressant drugs. A heavy burden of responsibility lies on the shoulders of the investigator when using animal models to study immunosuppressive agents. The principles of the three R׳s: refine (less suffering,), reduce (lower animal numbers) and replace (alternative in vitro assays) must be applied, as described elsewhere in this issue. Well designed animal model experiments have allowed us to develop all the immunosuppressive agents currently available for treating autoimmune disease and transplant recipients. In this review, we examine the common animal models used in developing immunosuppressive agents, focusing on drugs used in transplant surgery. Autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are covered elsewhere in this issue. We look at the utility and limitations of small and large animal models in measuring potency and toxicity of immunosuppressive therapies.

  12. Animal models to study thyroid hormone action in cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2009-06-01

    Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system including the cerebellum. To study the molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action, various animal models have been used. These are classified: (1) congenital hypothyroid animals due to thyroid gland dysgenesis or thyroid dyshormonogenesis, (2) thyroid hormone receptor (TR) gene-mutated animals, and (3) thyroid hormone transport or metabolism-modified animals. TR is a ligand-activated transcription factor. In the presence of ligand, it activates transcription of target gene, whereas it represses the transcription without ligand. Thus, phenotype of TR-knockout mouse is different from that of hypothyroid animal (low thyroid hormone level), in which unliganded TR actively represses the transcription. On the other hand, human patient harboring mutant TR expresses different phenotypes depending on the function of mutated TR. To mimic this phenotype, other animal models are generated. In addition, recent human studies have shown that thyroid hormone transporters such as monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8 may play an important role in thyroid hormone-mediated brain development. However, MCT8 knockout mouse show different phenotypes from a human patient. This article introduces representative animal models currently used to study various aspects of thyroid hormone, particularly to study the involvement of the thyroid hormone system on the development and functional maintenance of the cerebellum.

  13. Impairments of Synaptic Plasticity in Aged Animals and in Animal Models of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Balietti, Marta; Tamagnini, Francesco; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Burattini, Costanza; Casoli, Tiziana; Platano, Daniela; Lattanzio, Fabrizia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with a gradual decline in cognitive functions, and more dramatic cognitive impairments occur in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Electrophysiological and molecular studies performed in aged animals and in animal models of AD have shown that cognitive decline is associated with significant modifications in synaptic plasticity (i.e., activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength) and have elucidated some of the cellular mechanisms underlying this process. Morphological studies have revealed a correlation between the quality of memory performance and the extent of structural changes of synaptic contacts occurring during memory consolidation. We briefly review recent experimental evidence here. PMID:22533439

  14. Animal models of obsessive–compulsive disorder: utility and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Pino; López-Solà, Clara; Real, Eva; Segalàs, Cinto; Menchón, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling and common neuropsychiatric condition of poorly known etiology. Many attempts have been made in the last few years to develop animal models of OCD with the aim of clarifying the genetic, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical basis of the disorder, as well as of developing novel pharmacological and neurosurgical treatments that may help to improve the prognosis of the illness. The latter goal is particularly important given that around 40% of patients with OCD do not respond to currently available therapies. This article summarizes strengths and limitations of the leading animal models of OCD including genetic, pharmacologically induced, behavioral manipulation-based, and neurodevelopmental models according to their face, construct, and predictive validity. On the basis of this evaluation, we discuss that currently labeled “animal models of OCD” should be regarded not as models of OCD but, rather, as animal models of different psychopathological processes, such as compulsivity, stereotypy, or perseverance, that are present not only in OCD but also in other psychiatric or neurological disorders. Animal models might constitute a challenging approach to study the neural and genetic mechanism of these phenomena from a trans-diagnostic perspective. Animal models are also of particular interest as tools for developing new therapeutic options for OCD, with the greatest convergence focusing on the glutamatergic system, the role of ovarian and related hormones, and the exploration of new potential targets for deep brain stimulation. Finally, future research on neurocognitive deficits associated with OCD through the use of analogous animal tasks could also provide a genuine opportunity to disentangle the complex etiology of the disorder. PMID:26346234

  15. Animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Soejima, Yurie; Fukusato, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of a patient without a history of alcohol abuse. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and incidence has been increasing worldwide in line with the increased prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipemia. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH give crucial information, not only in elucidating pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH but also in examining therapeutic effects of various agents. An ideal model of NAFLD/NASH should correctly reflect both hepatic histopathology and pathophysiology of human NAFLD/NASH. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH are divided into genetic, dietary, and combination models. In this paper, we review commonly used animal models of NAFLD/NASH referring to their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:22654421

  16. Animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Soejima, Yurie; Fukusato, Toshio

    2012-05-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of a patient without a history of alcohol abuse. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and incidence has been increasing worldwide in line with the increased prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipemia. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH give crucial information, not only in elucidating pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH but also in examining therapeutic effects of various agents. An ideal model of NAFLD/NASH should correctly reflect both hepatic histopathology and pathophysiology of human NAFLD/NASH. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH are divided into genetic, dietary, and combination models. In this paper, we review commonly used animal models of NAFLD/NASH referring to their advantages and disadvantages.

  17. Animal models of speech and vocal communication deficits associated with psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language when compared to vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. Here, we review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication, and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language and vocal communication. PMID:26232298

  18. Animal Models of Speech and Vocal Communication Deficits Associated With Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language, and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language compared with vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. We review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language, and vocal communication.

  19. Conceptual Framework for a Culturally Relevant and Responsive Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddahian, Ebrahim; Bird, Mara

    2004-01-01

    According to a large number of nationally known educational experts a Culturally Relevant and Responsive Education (CRRE) system is the best alternative to improve not only the academic achievement of all students but also to prepare them for a better social and moral life. CRRE is a comprehensive, research-based, and practical alternative for…

  20. Models of stress in nonhuman primates and their relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold S; Hamel, Amanda F

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

  1. Models of Stress in Nonhuman Primates and Their Relevance for Human Psychopathology and Endocrine Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold S.; Hamel, Amanda F.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction. PMID:25225311

  2. Large animal models of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Trobridge, G D; Kiem, H-P

    2010-08-01

    Large animal models have been instrumental in advancing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy. Here we review the advantages of large animal models, their contributions to the field of HSC gene therapy and recent progress in this field. Several properties of human HSCs including their purification, their cell-cycle characteristics, their response to cytokines and the proliferative demands placed on them after transplantation are more similar in large animal models than in mice. Progress in the development and use of retroviral vectors and ex vivo transduction protocols over the last decade has led to efficient gene transfer in both dogs and nonhuman primates. Importantly, the approaches developed in these models have translated well to the clinic. Large animals continue to be useful to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gene therapy, and dogs with hematopoietic diseases have now been cured by HSC gene therapy. Nonhuman primates allow evaluation of aspects of transplantation as well as disease-specific approaches such as AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) gene therapy that can not be modeled well in the dog. Finally, large animal models have been used to evaluate the genotoxicity of viral vectors by comparing integration sites in hematopoietic repopulating cells and monitoring clonality after transplantation.

  3. Animal models of COPD: What do they tell us?

    PubMed

    Jones, Bernadette; Donovan, Chantal; Liu, Gang; Gomez, Henry M; Chimankar, Vrushali; Harrison, Celeste L; Wiegman, Cornelis H; Adcock, Ian M; Knight, Darryl A; Hirota, Jeremy A; Hansbro, Philip M

    2017-01-01

    COPD is a major cause of global mortality and morbidity but current treatments are poorly effective. This is because the underlying mechanisms that drive the development and progression of COPD are incompletely understood. Animal models of disease provide a valuable, ethically and economically viable experimental platform to examine these mechanisms and identify biomarkers that may be therapeutic targets that would facilitate the development of improved standard of care. Here, we review the different established animal models of COPD and the various aspects of disease pathophysiology that have been successfully recapitulated in these models including chronic lung inflammation, airway remodelling, emphysema and impaired lung function. Furthermore, some of the mechanistic features, and thus biomarkers and therapeutic targets of COPD identified in animal models are outlined. Some of the existing therapies that suppress some disease symptoms that were identified in animal models and are progressing towards therapeutic development have been outlined. Further studies of representative animal models of human COPD have the strong potential to identify new and effective therapeutic approaches for COPD.

  4. [Laboratory animal anaesthesia: influence of anaesthetic protocols on experimental models].

    PubMed

    Bazin, J-E; Constantin, J-M; Gindre, G

    2004-08-01

    different animal species and human and animals about the effects of anaesthetic agents are very hazardous. Great differences exist between the effects observed in vitro and in whole animals. The effects of the anaesthetics could be totally different if they are used alone or in association. The same anaesthetic could have opposite effects from an organ to another. For results validation, the anaesthesia side effects (hypoventilation, hypotension, cooling em leader ) have to be minimized. All new experimental models should require discussing the possible interferences between anaesthesia and results and to compare results obtained with different anaesthetic protocols.

  5. [Animal welfare aspects relevant to the design of the spectacled bear facility in the Zürich Zoo].

    PubMed

    Rübel, A

    1996-01-01

    The Swiss animal welfare law and animal welfare regulations determine the conditions how wild animals have to be kept in captivity. The zoo animal working group of the Swiss Veterinary Association for Animal Welfare has analysed the respective definitions in relation to keeping bears. During the planning and construction of the new clouded forest exhibit for spectacled bears, the Zürich Zoo has put the conclusions of this analysis into practice. Beside the safety precautions for health the realisation of species-related requirements is the basis for the well-being of the animals. The shaping, the arrangement, the furniture and the management of the enclosure for spectacled bears in regard to these demands are described.

  6. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  7. The bile duct ligated rat: A relevant model to study muscle mass loss in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Bosoi, Cristina R; Oliveira, Mariana M; Ochoa-Sanchez, Rafael; Tremblay, Mélanie; Ten Have, Gabriella A; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Rose, Christopher F; Bemeur, Chantal

    2017-04-01

    Muscle mass loss and hepatic encephalopathy (complex neuropsychiatric disorder) are serious complications of chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) which impact negatively on clinical outcome and quality of life and increase mortality. Liver disease leads to hyperammonemia and ammonia toxicity is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. However, the effects of ammonia are not brain-specific and therefore may also affect other organs and tissues including muscle. The precise pathophysiological mechanisms underlying muscle wasting in chronic liver disease remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we characterized body composition as well as muscle protein synthesis in cirrhotic rats with hepatic encephalopathy using the 6-week bile duct ligation (BDL) model which recapitulates the main features of cirrhosis. Compared to sham-operated control animals, BDL rats display significant decreased gain in body weight, altered body composition, decreased gastrocnemius muscle mass and circumference as well as altered muscle morphology. Muscle protein synthesis was also significantly reduced in BDL rats compared to control animals. These findings demonstrate that the 6-week BDL experimental rat is a relevant model to study liver disease-induced muscle mass loss.

  8. Use of animal models to develop antiaddiction medications.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Eliot L

    2008-10-01

    Although addiction is a uniquely human phenomenon, some of its pathognomonic features can be modeled at the animal level. Such features include the euphoric "high" produced by acute administration of addictive drugs; the dysphoric "crash" produced by acute withdrawal; drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors; and relapse to drug-seeking behavior after achieving successful abstinence. Animal models exist for each of these features. In this review, I focus on various animal models of addiction and how they can be used to search for clinically effective antiaddiction medications. I conclude by noting some of the new and novel medications that have been developed preclinically using such models and the hope for further developments along such lines.

  9. Use of Animal Models to Develop Antiaddiction Medications

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Eliot L.

    2008-01-01

    Although addiction is a uniquely human phenomenon, some of its pathognomonic features can be modeled at the animal level. Such features include the euphoric “high” produced by acute administration of addictive drugs; the dysphoric “crash” produced by acute withdrawal, drug-seeking, and drug-taking behaviors; and relapse to drug-seeking behavior after achieving successful abstinence. Animal models exist for each of these features. In this review, I focus on various animal models of addiction and how they can be used to search for clinically effective antiaddiction medications. I conclude by noting some of the new and novel medications that have been developed preclinically using such models and the hope for further developments along such lines. PMID:18803910

  10. Canine tumors: a spontaneous animal model of human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Salomé S; Carvalho, Sandra; Cabral, Joana; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2012-03-01

    The enormous biologic complexity of human cancer has stimulated the development of more appropriate experimental models that could resemble in a natural and spontaneous manner the physiopathologic aspects of cancer biology. Companion animals have many desired characteristics that fill the gap between in vitro and in vivo studies, and these characteristics have proven to be important in understanding many complex molecular aspects of human cancer. Spontaneous tumors in dogs share a wide variety of epidemiologic, biologic, and clinical features with human cancer, which makes this animal model both attractive and underused in oncology research. In this review, we summarize the importance of naturally occurring canine tumors as valuable tools for studying numerous aspects of human cancer as well as the potential use of this animal model for the development of new cancer treatments. We address specifically the use of canine mammary tumors as an increasingly powerful model to study human breast cancer.

  11. Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Couri, Bruna M; Lenis, Andrew T; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. These models can mimic different human characteristics – histological, anatomical or hormonal, but none present all of the characteristics at the same time. Major animal models include knockout mice, rats, sheep, rabbits and nonhuman primates. In this article we discuss different animal models and their utility for investigating the natural progression of pelvic organ prolapse pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches. PMID:22707980

  12. Behavioral Models of Tinnitus and Hyperacusis in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sarah H.; Radziwon, Kelly E.; Stolzberg, Daniel J.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The phantom perception of tinnitus and reduced sound-level tolerance associated with hyperacusis have a high comorbidity and can be debilitating conditions for which there are no widely accepted treatments. One factor limiting the development of treatments for tinnitus and hyperacusis is the lack of reliable animal behavioral models of these disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight the current animal models of tinnitus and hyperacusis, and to detail the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm. To date, this is the first review to include models of both tinnitus and hyperacusis. PMID:25278931

  13. Recent developments in experimental animal models of Henipavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Rockx, Barry

    2014-07-01

    Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses (genus Henipavirus (HNV; family Paramyxoviridae) are emerging zoonotic agents that can cause severe respiratory distress and acute encephalitis in humans. Given the lack of effective therapeutics and vaccines for human use, these viruses are considered as public health concerns. Several experimental animal models of HNV infection have been developed in recent years. Here, we review the current status of four of the most promising experimental animal models (mice, hamsters, ferrets, and African green monkeys) and their suitability for modeling the clinical disease, transmission, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment for HNV infection in humans.

  14. Animal models of self-injurious behaviour: an overview.

    PubMed

    Devine, Darragh P

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behaviour is highly prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, it is not restricted to any individual diagnostic group. Rather, it is exhibited in various forms across patient groups with distinct genetic defects and classifications of disorders. This suggests that there may be shared neuropathology that confers vulnerability. Convergent evidence from clinical pharmacotherapy, brain imaging studies, postmortem neurochemical analyses, and animal models indicates that dopaminergic insufficiency is a key culprit. This chapter provides an overview of studies in which animal models have been used to investigate the biochemical basis of self-injury, and highlights the convergence in findings between these models and expression of self-injury in humans.

  15. Animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder: face validity

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sonal; Rodríguez-Sierra, Olga; Cascardi, Michele; Paré, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic) are used to examine the long-term effects of severe trauma. We emphasize models involving predator threat because they reproduce human individual differences in susceptibility to, and in the long-term consequences of, psychological trauma. PMID:23754973

  16. [The importance of animal models for progress in science].

    PubMed

    Weiser, H

    1989-06-01

    Experimental animals may serve as models for human beings, if analogies between animal and human functions exist. Therefore, the selection of species and strain plays an important role in the development of such models. Knowledge of the nutritional and physiological characteristics of a species is a prerequisite for the composition of complete diets. Often, preliminary work has to begin at the breeding farm in order to make use of such curative models possible. Only when the high requirements of standardization of experimental animals are met can clinical and subclinical symptoms be determined distinctly. By means of sensitive biochemical reactions, imbalances and interactions of nutritive and active ingredients, as well as successful substitutions, can be recorded. The study of absorption and metabolism of preparations is made possible by observing these reactions. However, negative influence on the results of analysis must be eliminated by correct selection of narcotics, and the proper excision and storage of organs. Because of its importance for the planning and evaluation of experiments, biometry is an integral part of every research project. The scientific information which must be gained from the whole experimental animal cannot be substituted by either isolated organs and cell cultures, or by means of computer simulation. A demanding effort, which includes biotechnological methods, is necessary to further reduce the number of experimental animals and, simultaneously, to enhance experimental evidence. In any case, all scientific aims must be in accordance with the ethical principles of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

  17. Animal models of GM2 gangliosidosis: utility and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Cheryl A; Martin, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis, a subset of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by a deficiency of the glycohydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and includes the closely related Tay–Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents the normal, stepwise degradation of ganglioside, which accumulates unchecked within the cellular lysosome, particularly in neurons. As a result, individuals with GM2 gangliosidosis experience progressive neurological diseases including motor deficits, progressive weakness and hypotonia, decreased responsiveness, vision deterioration, and seizures. Mice and cats are well-established animal models for Sandhoff disease, whereas Jacob sheep are the only known laboratory animal model of Tay–Sachs disease to exhibit clinical symptoms. Since the human diseases are relatively rare, animal models are indispensable tools for further study of pathogenesis and for development of potential treatments. Though no effective treatments for gangliosidoses currently exist, animal models have been used to test promising experimental therapies. Herein, the utility and limitations of gangliosidosis animal models and how they have contributed to the development of potential new treatments are described. PMID:27499644

  18. A novel animal model for skin flap prelamination with biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianyu; Luo, Xusong; Liu, Fei; Gu, Chuan; Wang, Xi; Yang, Qun; Qian, Yunliang; Yang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Several animal models of skin flap construction were reported using biomaterials in a way similar to prefabrication. However, there are few animal model using biomaterials similar to prelamination, another main way of clinical skin flap construction that has been proved to be reliable. Can biomaterials be added in skin flap prelamination to reduce the use of autogenous tissues? Beside individual clinical attempts, animal model is needed for randomized controlled trial to objectively evaluate the feasibility and further investigation. Combining human Acellular Dermal Matrix (hADM) and autologous skin graft, we prelaminated flaps based on inguinal fascia. One, two, three and four weeks later, hADM exhibited a sound revascularization and host cell infiltration. Prelaminated skin flaps were then raised and microsurgically transplanted back to groin region. Except for flaps after one week of prelamination, flaps from other subgroups successfully reconstructed defects. After six to sixteen weeks of transplantation, hADM was proved to being able to maintain its original structure, having a wealth of host tissue cells and achieving full revascularization.To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of prelaminating skin flap with biomaterials. Success of this animal model indicates that novel flap prelamination with biomaterials is feasible.

  19. Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy: insight from animal models

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and epilepsy are separated in the medical community, but seizures occur in some patients with AD, and AD is a risk factor for epilepsy. Furthermore, memory impairment is common in patients with epilepsy. The relationship between AD and epilepsy remains an important question because ideas for therapeutic approaches could be shared between AD and epilepsy research laboratories if AD and epilepsy were related. Here we focus on one of the many types of epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), because patients with TLE often exhibit memory impairment, depression and other comorbidities that occur in AD. Moreover, the seizures that occur in patients with AD may be nonconvulsive, which occur in patients with TLE. Here we first compare neuropathology in TLE and AD with an emphasis on the hippocampus, which is central to both AD and TLE research. Then we compare animal models of AD pathology with animal models of TLE. Although many aspects of the comparisons are still controversial, there is one conclusion that we suggest is clear: some animal models of TLE could be used to help address questions in AD research, and some animal models of AD pathology are bona fide animal models of epilepsy. PMID:22723738

  20. A novel animal model for skin flap prelamination with biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianyu; Luo, Xusong; Liu, Fei; Gu, Chuan; Wang, Xi; Yang, Qun; Qian, Yunliang; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Several animal models of skin flap construction were reported using biomaterials in a way similar to prefabrication. However, there are few animal model using biomaterials similar to prelamination, another main way of clinical skin flap construction that has been proved to be reliable. Can biomaterials be added in skin flap prelamination to reduce the use of autogenous tissues? Beside individual clinical attempts, animal model is needed for randomized controlled trial to objectively evaluate the feasibility and further investigation. Combining human Acellular Dermal Matrix (hADM) and autologous skin graft, we prelaminated flaps based on inguinal fascia. One, two, three and four weeks later, hADM exhibited a sound revascularization and host cell infiltration. Prelaminated skin flaps were then raised and microsurgically transplanted back to groin region. Except for flaps after one week of prelamination, flaps from other subgroups successfully reconstructed defects. After six to sixteen weeks of transplantation, hADM was proved to being able to maintain its original structure, having a wealth of host tissue cells and achieving full revascularization.To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of prelaminating skin flap with biomaterials. Success of this animal model indicates that novel flap prelamination with biomaterials is feasible. PMID:27659066

  1. Animal models of GM2 gangliosidosis: utility and limitations.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Cheryl A; Martin, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis, a subset of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by a deficiency of the glycohydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and includes the closely related Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents the normal, stepwise degradation of ganglioside, which accumulates unchecked within the cellular lysosome, particularly in neurons. As a result, individuals with GM2 gangliosidosis experience progressive neurological diseases including motor deficits, progressive weakness and hypotonia, decreased responsiveness, vision deterioration, and seizures. Mice and cats are well-established animal models for Sandhoff disease, whereas Jacob sheep are the only known laboratory animal model of Tay-Sachs disease to exhibit clinical symptoms. Since the human diseases are relatively rare, animal models are indispensable tools for further study of pathogenesis and for development of potential treatments. Though no effective treatments for gangliosidoses currently exist, animal models have been used to test promising experimental therapies. Herein, the utility and limitations of gangliosidosis animal models and how they have contributed to the development of potential new treatments are described.

  2. A content relevance model for social media health information.

    PubMed

    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.

  3. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections

    PubMed Central

    Uzal, Francisco A.; McClane, Bruce A.; Cheung, Jackie K.; Theoret, James; Garcia, Jorge P.; Moore, Robert J.; Rood, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats. PMID:25770894

  4. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A; Cheung, Jackie K; Theoret, James; Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I

    2015-08-31

    The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats.

  5. Enhanced sensitization to animal, interpersonal, and intergroup fear-relevant stimuli (but no evidence for selective one-trial fear learning).

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Cronin, Sophie L; Alhadad, Sakinah S J; Luck, Camilla C

    2015-11-01

    Selective sensitization has been proposed as an alternative explanation for enhanced responding to animal fear-relevant stimuli--snakes and spiders--during extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. The current study sought to replicate the phenomenon using a shock workup procedure as the sensitizing manipulation and to extend it to interpersonal and intergroup fear-relevant stimuli--angry faces and other-race faces. Assessment of selective sensitization was followed by a one-trial fear learning procedure. Selective sensitization, larger electrodermal responses to fear-relevant than to control stimuli after sensitization, or a larger increase in electrodermal responding to fear-relevant than to control stimuli after sensitization was observed across stimulus domains. However, the one-trial fear learning procedure failed to provide evidence for enhanced fear conditioning to fear-relevant stimuli. One-trial fear learning was either absent or present for fear-relevant and nonfear-relevant stimuli. The current study confirms that electrodermal responses to fear-relevant stimuli across stimulus domains are subject to selective sensitization.

  6. Psychiatric disorders as vulnerability factors for nicotine addiction: what have we learned from animal models?

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Bernard; Ng, Enoch; Di Ciano, Patricia; Trigo, José M

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate a high prevalence of tobacco smoking in subjects with psychiatric disorders. Notably, there is a high prevalence of smoking among those with dependence to other substances, schizophrenia, mood, or anxiety disorders. It has been difficult to understand how these phenomena interact with clinical populations as it is unclear what preceded what in most of the studies. These comorbidities may be best understood by using experimental approaches in well-controlled conditions. Notably, animal models represent advantageous approaches as the parameters under study can be controlled perfectly. This review will focus on evidence collected so far exploring how behavioral effects of nicotine are modified in animal models of psychiatric conditions. Notably, we will focus on behavioral responses induced by nicotine that are relevant for its addictive potential. Despite the clinical relevance and frequency of the comorbidity between psychiatric issues and tobacco smoking, very few studies have been done to explore this issue in animals. The available data suggest that the behavioral and reinforcing effects of nicotine are enhanced in animal models of these comorbidities, although much more experimental work would be required to provide certainty in this domain.

  7. The use of animal models in behavioural neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Kaldewaij, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are used in experiments in the behavioural neurosciences that aim to contribute to the prevention and treatment of cognitive and affective disorders in human beings, such as anxiety and depression. Ironically, those animals that are likely to be the best models for psychopathology are also likely to be considered the ones that are most morally problematic to use, if it seems probable that (and if indeed they are initially selected as models because) they have experiences that are similar to human experiences that we have strong reasons to avoid causing, and indeed aim to alleviate (such as pain, anxiety or sadness). In this paper, against the background of contemporary discussions in animal ethics and the philosophy of animal minds, we discuss the views that it is morally permissible to use animals in these kinds of experiments, and that it is better to use less cognitively complex animals (such as zebrafish) than more complex animals (such as dogs). First, we criticise some justifications for the claim that human beings and more complex animals have higher moral status. We argue that contemporary approaches that attribute equal moral status to all beings that are capable of conscious strivings strivings (e.g. avoiding pain and anxiety; aiming to eat and play) are based on more plausible assumptions. Second, we argue that it is problematic to assume that less cognitively complex animals have a lesser sensory and emotional experience than more complex beings across the board. In specific cases, there might be good reasons to assume that more complex beings would be harmed more by a specific physical or environmental intervention, but it might also be that they sometimes are harmed less because of a better ability to cope. Determining whether a specific experiment is justified is therefore a complex issue. Our aim in this chapter is to stimulate further reflection on these common assumptions behind the use of animal models for psychopathologies. In

  8. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low.

  9. The pain of pain: challenges of animal behavior models.

    PubMed

    Barrett, James E

    2015-04-15

    Berend Olivier has had a long-standing interest in the utility of animal models for a wide variety of therapeutic indications. His work has spanned multiple types of models, blending ethological, or species typical and naturalistic behaviors, along with methodologies based on learned behavior. He has consistently done so, from an analytical as well as predictive perspective, and has made multiple contributions while working in both the pharmaceutical industry and within an academic institution. Although focused primarily on psychiatric disorders, Berend has conducted research in the area of pain in humans and in animals, demonstrating an expansive appreciation for the breadth, scope and significance of the science and applications of the discipline of pharmacology to these diverse areas. This review focuses on the use of animal models in pain research from the perspective of the long-standing deficiencies in the development of therapeutics in this area and from a preclinical perspective where the translational weaknesses have been quite problematic. The challenges confronting animal models of pain, however, are not unique to this area of research, as they cut across several therapeutic areas. Despite the deficiencies, failures and concerns, existing animal models of pain continue to be of widespread use and are essential to progress in pain research as well as in other areas. Although not focusing on specific animal models of pain, this paper seeks to examine general issues facing the use of these models. It does so by exploring alternative approaches which capture recent developments, which build upon principles and concepts we have learned from Berend's contributions, and which provide the prospect of helping to address the absence of novel therapeutics in this area.

  10. Computer simulation models are implementable as replacements for animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Modgill, Vikas; Kaur, Jasleen

    2009-04-01

    It has become increasingly difficult to perform animal experiments, because of issues related to the procurement of animals, and strict regulations and ethical issues related to their use. As a result, it is felt that the teaching of pharmacology should be more clinically oriented and that unnecessary animal experimentation should be avoided. Although a number of computer simulation models (CSMs) are available, they are not being widely used. Interactive demonstrations were conducted to encourage the departmental faculty to use CSMs. Four different animal experiments were selected, that dealt with actions of autonomic drugs. The students observed demonstrations of animal experiments involving conventional methods and the use of CSMs. This was followed by hands-on experience of the same experiment, but using CSMs in small groups, instead of hands-on experience with the animal procedures. Test scores and feedback showed that there was better understanding of the mechanisms of action of the drugs, gained in a shorter time. The majority of the students found the teaching programme used to be good to excellent. CSMs can be used repeatedly and independently by students, and this avoids unnecessary experimentation and also causing pain and trauma to animals. The CSM programme can be implemented in existing teaching schedules for pharmacology undergraduate teaching with basic infrastructure support, and is readily adaptable for use by other institutes.

  11. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome: Translational relevance and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal failure (IF), due to short bowel syndrome (SBS), results from surgical resection of a major portion of the intestine, leading to reduced nutrient absorption and need for parenteral nutrition (PN). The incidence is highest in infants and relates to preterm birth, necrotizing enterocolitis,...

  12. Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?

    PubMed

    Gigliuto, Carmelo; De Gregori, Manuela; Malafoglia, Valentina; Raffaeli, William; Compagnone, Christian; Visai, Livia; Petrini, Paola; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Muscoli, Carolina; Viganò, Jacopo; Calabrese, Francesco; Dominioni, Tommaso; Allegri, Massimo; Cobianchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus, number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal-dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability), swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography), behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive), plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs), because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals.

  13. Amphibians as animal models for laboratory research in physiology.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Warburton, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The concept of animal models is well honored, and amphibians have played a prominent part in the success of using key species to discover new information about all animals. As animal models, amphibians offer several advantages that include a well-understood basic physiology, a taxonomic diversity well suited to comparative studies, tolerance to temperature and oxygen variation, and a greater similarity to humans than many other currently popular animal models. Amphibians now account for approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of lower vertebrate and invertebrate research, and this proportion is especially true in physiological research, as evident from the high profile of amphibians as animal models in Nobel Prize research. Currently, amphibians play prominent roles in research in the physiology of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, reproductive, and sensory systems. Amphibians are also used extensively in physiological studies aimed at generating new insights in evolutionary biology, especially in the investigation of the evolution of air breathing and terrestriality. Environmental physiology also utilizes amphibians, ranging from studies of cryoprotectants for tissue preservation to physiological reactions to hypergravity and space exploration. Amphibians are also playing a key role in studies of environmental endocrine disruptors that are having disproportionately large effects on amphibian populations and where specific species can serve as sentinel species for environmental pollution. Finally, amphibian genera such as Xenopus, a genus relatively well understood metabolically and physiologically, will continue to contribute increasingly in this new era of systems biology and "X-omics."

  14. Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?

    PubMed Central

    Gigliuto, Carmelo; De Gregori, Manuela; Malafoglia, Valentina; Raffaeli, William; Compagnone, Christian; Visai, Livia; Petrini, Paola; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Muscoli, Carolina; Viganò, Jacopo; Calabrese, Francesco; Dominioni, Tommaso; Allegri, Massimo; Cobianchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus, number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal–dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability), swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography), behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive), plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs), because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals. PMID:24855386

  15. Animal Models in Behçet's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a chronic, recurrent, multisystemic, inflammatory disorder affecting mainly the oral and urogenital mucosa and the uveal tract. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of Behçet's disease are unknown, numerous etiologies have been proposed, including environmental, infectious, and immunological factors; an autoimmune basis, characterized by circulating immune complexes and complement activation, has gained increasing acceptance. To test and understand immunopathogenesis of Behçet's disease, animal models were developed based on enviromental pollutants, bacterial and human heat shock protein derived peptides, and virus injections. Using these animal models separately and/or concurrently allows for a more effective investigation into Behçet's disease. Animal models developed in the last 10 years aim at the development of efficient and safe treatment options.

  16. Cognitive endophenotypes, gene-environment interactions and experience-dependent plasticity in animal models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Emma L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating brain disorder caused by a complex and heterogeneous combination of genetic and environmental factors. In order to develop effective new strategies to prevent and treat schizophrenia, valid animal models are required which accurately model the disorder, and ideally provide construct, face and predictive validity. The cognitive deficits in schizophrenia represent some of the most debilitating symptoms and are also currently the most poorly treated. Therefore it is crucial that animal models are able to capture the cognitive dysfunction that characterizes schizophrenia, as well as the negative and psychotic symptoms. The genomes of mice have, prior to the recent gene-editing revolution, proven the most easily manipulable of mammalian laboratory species, and hence most genetic targeting has been performed using mouse models. Importantly, when key environmental factors of relevance to schizophrenia are experimentally manipulated, dramatic changes in the phenotypes of these animal models are often observed. We will review recent studies in rodent models which provide insight into gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia. We will focus specifically on environmental factors which modulate levels of experience-dependent plasticity, including environmental enrichment, cognitive stimulation, physical activity and stress. The insights provided by this research will not only help refine the establishment of optimally valid animal models which facilitate development of novel therapeutics, but will also provide insight into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, thus identifying molecular and cellular targets for future preclinical and clinical investigations.

  17. A review of fundamental principles for animal models of DOHaD research: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, H; Moss, T J; Gatford, K L; Moritz, K M; Akison, L; Fullston, T; Hryciw, D H; Maloney, C A; Morris, M J; Wooldridge, A L; Schjenken, J E; Robertson, S A; Waddell, B J; Mark, P J; Wyrwoll, C S; Ellery, S J; Thornburg, K L; Muhlhausler, B S; Morrison, J L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiology formed the basis of 'the Barker hypothesis', the concept of 'developmental programming' and today's discipline of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Animal experimentation provided proof of the underlying concepts, and continues to generate knowledge of underlying mechanisms. Interventions in humans, based on DOHaD principles, will be informed by experiments in animals. As knowledge in this discipline has accumulated, from studies of humans and other animals, the complexity of interactions between genome, environment and epigenetics, has been revealed. The vast nature of programming stimuli and breadth of effects is becoming known. As a result of our accumulating knowledge we now appreciate the impact of many variables that contribute to programmed outcomes. To guide further animal research in this field, the Australia and New Zealand DOHaD society (ANZ DOHaD) Animals Models of DOHaD Research Working Group convened at the 2nd Annual ANZ DOHaD Congress in Melbourne, Australia in April 2015. This review summarizes the contributions of animal research to the understanding of DOHaD, and makes recommendations for the design and conduct of animal experiments to maximize relevance, reproducibility and translation of knowledge into improving health and well-being.

  18. Minireview: Epigenetic programming of diabetes and obesity: animal models.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yoshinori; Williams, Lyda; Vuguin, Patricia M; Charron, Maureen J

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the intrauterine (IU) environment has a significant and lasting effect on the long-term health of the growing fetus and the development of metabolic disease in later life as put forth in the fetal origins of disease hypothesis. Metabolic diseases have been associated with alterations in the epigenome that occur without changes in the DNA sequence, such as cytosine methylation of DNA, histone posttranslational modifications, and micro-RNA. Animal models of epigenetic modifications secondary to an altered IU milieu are an invaluable tool to study the mechanisms that determine the development of metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Rodent and nonlitter bearing animals are good models for the study of disease, because they have similar embryology, anatomy, and physiology to humans. Thus, it is feasible to monitor and modify the IU environment of animal models in order to gain insight into the molecular basis of human metabolic disease pathogenesis. In this review, the database of PubMed was searched for articles published between 1999 and 2011. Key words included epigenetic modifications, IU growth retardation, small for gestational age, animal models, metabolic disease, and obesity. The inclusion criteria used to select studies included animal models of epigenetic modifications during fetal and neonatal development associated with adult metabolic syndrome. Experimental manipulations included: changes in the nutritional status of the pregnant female (calorie-restricted, high-fat, or low-protein diets during pregnancy), as well as the father; interference with placenta function, or uterine blood flow, environmental toxin exposure during pregnancy, as well as dietary modifications during the neonatal (lactation) as well as pubertal period. This review article is focused solely on studies in animal models that demonstrate epigenetic changes that are correlated with manifestation of metabolic disease, including diabetes

  19. Nicotine neuroprotection against nigrostriatal damage: importance of the animal model.

    PubMed

    Quik, Maryka; O'Neill, Michael; Perez, Xiomara A

    2007-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized by a loss of nigrostriatal dopamine-containing neurons. Unexpectedly, there is a reduced incidence of Parkinson's disease in tobacco users. This finding is important because the identification of the component(s) responsible for this effect could lead to therapeutic strategies to slow down or halt the progression of Parkinson's disease. Results from cell culture models consistently show that nicotine protects against neurotoxicity. However, data from animal models of nigrostriatal damage are conflicting, thus raising questions about a neuroprotective role of nicotine. Accumulating evidence indicates that discrepancies are observed primarily in mouse models of the disease. By contrast, reproducible protection occurs in rat models and in a nonhuman primate parkinsonian model that closely resembles the human disease. These findings highlight the need to use the appropriate animal model and treatment conditions when testing putative neuroprotective agents.

  20. Continuous-time discrete-space models for animal movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2015-01-01

    The processes influencing animal movement and resource selection are complex and varied. Past efforts to model behavioral changes over time used Bayesian statistical models with variable parameter space, such as reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo approaches, which are computationally demanding and inaccessible to many practitioners. We present a continuous-time discrete-space (CTDS) model of animal movement that can be fit using standard generalized linear modeling (GLM) methods. This CTDS approach allows for the joint modeling of location-based as well as directional drivers of movement. Changing behavior over time is modeled using a varying-coefficient framework which maintains the computational simplicity of a GLM approach, and variable selection is accomplished using a group lasso penalty. We apply our approach to a study of two mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Colorado, USA.

  1. Animal models of efficacy to accelerate drug discovery in malaria.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Viera, Sara; Fernández-Alvaro, Elena; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to artemisinins and the renewed efforts to eradicate malaria demand the urgent development of new drugs. In this endeavour, the evaluation of efficacy in animal models is often a go/no go decision assay in drug discovery. This important role relies on the capability of animal models to assess the disposition, toxicology and efficacy of drugs in a single test. Although the relative merits of each efficacy model of malaria as human surrogate have been extensively discussed, there are no critical analyses on the use of such models in current drug discovery. In this article, we intend to analyse how efficacy models are used to discover new antimalarial drugs. Our analysis indicates that testing drug efficacy is often the last assay in each discovery stage and the experimental designs utilized are not optimized to expedite decision-making and inform clinical development. In light of this analysis, we propose new ways to accelerate drug discovery using efficacy models.

  2. Animal models of skin disease for drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Pinar; Sadasivam, Magesh; Gupta, Asheesh; De Melo, Wanessa CMA; Huang, Ying-Ying; Yin, Rui; Rakkiyappan, Chandran; Kumar, Raj; Otufowora, Ayodeji; Nyame, Theodore; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Discovery of novel drugs, treatments, and testing of consumer products in the field of dermatology is a multi-billion dollar business. Due to the distressing nature of many dermatological diseases, and the enormous consumer demand for products to reverse the effects of skin photodamage, aging, and hair loss, this is a very active field. Areas covered In this paper, we will cover the use of animal models that have been reported to recapitulate to a greater or lesser extent the features of human dermatological disease. There has been a remarkable increase in the number and variety of transgenic mouse models in recent years, and the basic strategy for constructing them is outlined. Expert opinion Inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases are all represented by a range of mouse models both transgenic and normal. Skin cancer is mainly studied in mice and fish. Wound healing is studied in a wider range of animal species, and skin infections such as acne and leprosy also have been studied in animal models. Moving to the more consumer-oriented area of dermatology, there are models for studying the harmful effect of sunlight on the skin, and testing of sunscreens, and several different animal models of hair loss or alopecia. PMID:23293893

  3. Animal Models of Diabetic Retinopathy: Summary and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Amy C. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication associated with chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Although clinical assessment and retinal autopsy of diabetic patients provide information on the features and progression of DR, its underlying pathophysiological mechanism cannot be deduced. In order to have a better understanding of the development of DR at the molecular and cellular levels, a variety of animal models have been developed. They include pharmacological induction of hyperglycemia and spontaneous diabetic rodents as well as models of angiogenesis without diabetes (to compensate for the absence of proliferative DR symptoms). In this review, we summarize the existing protocols to induce diabetes using STZ. We also describe and compare the pathological presentations, in both morphological and functional aspects, of the currently available DR animal models. The advantages and disadvantages of using different animals, ranging from zebrafish, rodents to other higher-order mammals, are also discussed. Until now, there is no single model that displays all the clinical features of DR as seen in human. Yet, with the understanding of the pathological findings in these animal models, researchers can select the most suitable models for mechanistic studies or drug screening. PMID:24286086

  4. The role of animal models in tendon research

    PubMed Central

    Hast, M. W.; Zuskov, A.; Soslowsky, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition which can cause significant pain and lead to complete rupture of the tendon, which often requires surgical repair. Due in part to the large spectrum of tendon pathologies, these disorders continue to be a clinical challenge. Animal models are often used in this field of research as they offer an attractive framework to examine the cascade of processes that occur throughout both tendon pathology and repair. This review discusses the structural, mechanical, and biological changes that occur throughout tendon pathology in animal models, as well as strategies for the improvement of tendon healing. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:193–202. PMID:24958818

  5. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Calvin S.; Medland, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. PMID:26451004

  6. Translational value of animal models of kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Alberto; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Izquierdo, Maria C; Martin-Cleary, Catalina; Garcia-Bermejo, Laura; Moreno, Juan A; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Draibe, Juliana; Cruzado, Josep M; Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M; Soler, Maria J; Sanz, Ana B

    2015-07-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with decreased renal function and increased mortality risk, while the therapeutic armamentarium is unsatisfactory. The availability of adequate animal models may speed up the discovery of biomarkers for disease staging and therapy individualization as well as design and testing of novel therapeutic strategies. Some longstanding animal models have failed to result in therapeutic advances in the clinical setting, such as kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury and diabetic nephropathy models. In this regard, most models for diabetic nephropathy are unsatisfactory in that they do not evolve to renal failure. Satisfactory models for additional nephropathies are needed. These include anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, IgA nephropathy, anti-phospholipase-A2-receptor (PLA2R) membranous nephropathy and Fabry nephropathy. However, recent novel models hold promise for clinical translation. Thus, the AKI to CKD translation has been modeled, in some cases with toxins of interest for human CKD such as aristolochic acid. Genetically modified mice provide models for Alport syndrome evolving to renal failure that have resulted in clinical recommendations, polycystic kidney disease models that have provided clues for the development of tolvaptan, that was recently approved for the human disease in Japan; and animal models also contributed to target C5 with eculizumab in hemolytic uremic syndrome. Some ongoing trials explore novel concepts derived from models, such TWEAK targeting as tissue protection for lupus nephritis. We now review animal models reproducing diverse, genetic and acquired, causes of AKI and CKD evolving to kidney failure and discuss the contribution to clinical translation and prospects for the future.

  7. The Relevance of the CIPP Evaluation Model for Educational Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stufflebeam, Daniel L.

    The CIPP Evaluation Model was originally developed to provide timely information in a systematic way for decision making, which is a proactive application of evaluation. This article examines whether the CIPP model also serves the retroactive purpose of providing information for accountability. Specifically, can the CIPP Model adequately assist…

  8. Contemporary Animal Models For Human Gene Therapy Applications.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Chitra; Nathar, Trupti Job; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Hickstein, Dennis Durand; Remington Nelson, Everette Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, gene therapy has been making considerable progress as an alternative strategy in the treatment of many diseases. Since 2009, several studies have been reported in humans on the successful treatment of various diseases. Animal models mimicking human disease conditions are very essential at the preclinical stage before embarking on a clinical trial. In gene therapy, for instance, they are useful in the assessment of variables related to the use of viral vectors such as safety, efficacy, dosage and localization of transgene expression. However, choosing a suitable disease-specific model is of paramount importance for successful clinical translation. This review focuses on the animal models that are most commonly used in gene therapy studies, such as murine, canine, non-human primates, rabbits, porcine, and a more recently developed humanized mice. Though small and large animals both have their own pros and cons as disease-specific models, the choice is made largely based on the type and length of study performed. While small animals with a shorter life span could be well-suited for degenerative/aging studies, large animals with longer life span could suit longitudinal studies and also help with dosage adjustments to maximize therapeutic benefit. Recently, humanized mice or mouse-human chimaeras have gained interest in the study of human tissues or cells, thereby providing a more reliable understanding of therapeutic interventions. Thus, animal models are of great importance with regard to testing new vector technologies in vivo for assessing safety and efficacy prior to a gene therapy clinical trial.

  9. Abnormalities of serotonergic neurotransmission in animal models of SUDEP.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Faingold, Carl L

    2015-08-10

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating event, and both DBA/1 and DBA/2 mice have been shown to be relevant animal models for studying SUDEP. DBA mice exhibit seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA), leading to cardiac arrest and subsequent sudden death after generalized audiogenic seizures (AGSs). This sequence of terminal events is also observed in the majority of witnessed human SUDEP cases. Several pathophysiological mechanisms, including respiratory/cardiac dysfunction, have been proposed to contribute to human SUDEP. Several (but not all) selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, can reversibly block S-IRA, and abnormal expression of 5-HT receptors is found in the brainstem of DBA mice. DBA mice, which do not initially show S-IRA, exhibit S-IRA after treatment with a nonselective 5-HT antagonist. These studies suggest that abnormalities of 5-HT neurotransmission are involved in the pathogenesis of S-IRA in DBA mice. Serotonergic (5-HT) transmission plays an important role in normal respiration, and DBA mice exhibiting S-IRA can be resuscitated using a rodent ventilator. It is important and interesting to know if fluoxetine blocks S-IRA in DBA mice by enhancing respiratory ventilation. To test this, the effects of breathing stimulants, doxapram, and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine (PK-THPP) were compared with the effects of fluoxetine on S-IRA in DBA/1 mice. Although fluoxetine reduces the incidence of S-IRA in DBA/1 mice, as reported previously, the same dose of fluoxetine fails to enhance baseline respiratory ventilation in the absence of AGSs. Doxapram and PK-THPP augment the baseline ventilation in DBA/1 mice. However, these breathing stimulants are ineffective in preventing S-IRA in DBA/1 mice. These data suggest that fluoxetine blocks S-IRA in DBA/1 mice by cellular/molecular mechanisms other than enhancement of basal ventilation. Future research directions are also discussed. This

  10. Different animal welfare orientations towards some key research areas of current relevance to pastoral dairy farming in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Webster, J R; Schütz, K E; Sutherland, M A; Stewart, M; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand dairy industry needs to meet public expectations regarding animal welfare in order to retain the freedom to operate and achieve market success. Three key orientations towards animal welfare assessment have been identified, namely biological functioning, affective state and natural living, the last two of which are more recent foci for societal concern. Biological functioning was the first and most-studied aspect of animal welfare and continues to be important, but now the contribution of affective state to animal well-being is emphasised much more. Natural living, or naturalness, has received relatively less attention from animal welfare science. It is proposed that increasing the use of naturalness as a contextual reference point for considering species-specific behavioural expressions of affective state will enhance its inclusion in animal welfare assessment. Nevertheless, all three orientations need to be considered in order to evaluate the significance of welfare research findings. On this basis, five key aspects of the New Zealand dairy industry that have been the subject of recent research, due to the risk of them not meeting public expectations, are highlighted and discussed. The aspects are provision of shade and shelter, meeting targets for body condition, provision of comfortable surfaces for rearing calves, and for adult cows while off pasture, and pain relief for disbudding of calves. Research evidence indicates that the industry guidelines on body condition score, if met, would satisfy public expectations across the three orientations to animal welfare, whereas further work is needed on the other aspects. It is concluded that considering these three orientations to animal welfare when planning research and then evaluating the outcomes will help to promote the market success of the dairy industry in New Zealand.

  11. Animal models in the drug discovery pipeline for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2011-01-01

    With increasing feasibility of predicting conversion of mild cognitive impairment to dementia based on biomarker profiling, the urgent need for efficacious disease-modifying compounds has become even more critical. Despite intensive research, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain insufficiently documented for purposeful target discovery. Translational research based on valid animal models may aid in alleviating some of the unmet needs in the current Alzheimer's disease pharmaceutical market, which includes disease-modification, increased efficacy and safety, reduction of the number of treatment unresponsive patients and patient compliance. The development and phenotyping of animal models is indeed essential in Alzheimer's disease-related research as valid models enable the appraisal of early pathological processes – which are often not accessible in patients, and subsequent target discovery and evaluation. This review paper summarizes and critically evaluates currently available animal models, and discusses their value to the Alzheimer drug discovery pipeline. Models dealt with include spontaneous models in various species, including senescence-accelerated mice, chemical and lesion-induced rodent models, and genetically modified models developed in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Danio rerio and rodents. Although highly valid animal models exist, none of the currently available models recapitulates all aspects of human Alzheimer's disease, and one should always be aware of the potential dangers of uncritical extrapolating from model organisms to a human condition that takes decades to develop and mainly involves higher cognitive functions. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21371009

  12. [Animal models for the study of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Miszczyk, Eliza; Walencka, Maria; Mikołajczyk-Chmiela, Magdalena

    2014-05-15

    The Gram-negative bacillus Helicobacter pylori is widely recognized as a major etiologic agent responsible for chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, the development of gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Still, little is known about the natural history of H. pylori infection, since patients usually after many years of not suffering from symptoms of the infection are simply asymptomatic. Since the research investigators carried out on human models has many limitations, there is an urgent need for the development of an animal model optimal and suitable for the monitoring of H. pylori infections. This review summarizes the recent findings on the suitability of animal models used in H. pylori research. Several animal models are useful for the assessment of pathological, microbiological and immunological consequences of infection, which makes it possible to monitor the natural history of H. pylori infection. Preclinical investigations on animal models are an essential stage of research which enrich the knowledge on treatment and prevention strategies.

  13. Animal models for prenatal gene therapy: the sheep model.

    PubMed

    Abi-Nader, Khalil N; Boyd, Michael; Flake, Alan W; Mehta, Vedanta; Peebles, Donald; David, Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Large animal experiments are vital in the field of prenatal gene therapy, to allow translation from small animals into man. Sheep provide many advantages for such experiments. They have been widely used in research into fetal physiology and pregnancy and the sheep fetus is a similar size to that in the human. Sheep are tolerant to in utero manipulations such as fetoscopy or even hysterotomy, and they are cheaper and easier to maintain than non-human primates. In this chapter, we describe the animal husbandry involved in generating time-mated sheep pregnancies, the large number of injection routes in the fetus that can be achieved using ultrasound or fetoscopic-guided injection, and laparotomy when these more minimally invasive routes of injection are not feasible.

  14. An animal model of chronic inflammatory pain: pharmacological and temporal differentiation from acute models.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alex W; Medhurst, Stephen J; Dixon, Claire I; Bontoft, Nick C; Winyard, Lisa A; Brackenborough, Kim T; De Alba, Jorge; Clarke, Christopher J; Gunthorpe, Martin J; Hicks, Gareth A; Bountra, Chas; McQueen, Daniel S; Chessell, Iain P

    2006-08-01

    Clinically, inflammatory pain is far more persistent than that typically modelled pre-clinically, with the majority of animal models focussing on short-term effects of the inflammatory pain response. The large attrition rate of compounds in the clinic which show pre-clinical efficacy suggests the need for novel models of, or approaches to, chronic inflammatory pain if novel mechanisms are to make it to the market. A model in which a more chronic inflammatory hypersensitivity phenotype is profiled may allow for a more clinically predictive tool. The aims of these studies were to characterise and validate a chronic model of inflammatory pain. We have shown that injection of a large volume of adjuvant to the intra-articular space of the rat knee results in a prolonged inflammatory pain response, compared to the response in an acute adjuvant model. Additionally, this model also results in a hypersensitive state in the presence and absence of inflammation. A range of clinically effective analgesics demonstrate activity in this chronic model, including morphine (3mg/kg, t.i.d.), dexamethasone (1mg/kg, b.i.d.), ibuprofen (30mg/kg, t.i.d.), etoricoxib (5mg/kg, b.i.d.) and rofecoxib (0.3-10mg/kg, b.i.d.). A further aim was to exemplify the utility of this chronic model over the more acute intra-plantar adjuvant model using two novel therapeutic approaches; NR2B selective NMDA receptor antagonism and iNOS inhibition. Our data shows that different effects were observed with these therapies when comparing the acute model with the model of chronic inflammatory joint pain. These data suggest that the chronic model may be more relevant to identifying mechanisms for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain states in the clinic.

  15. Large Animal Models of Neurological Disorders for Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Christine; Bunnell, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of therapeutic interventions for genetic disorders and diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS) has proven challenging. There has been significant progress in the development of gene therapy strategies in murine models of human disease, but gene therapy outcomes in these models do not always translate to the human setting. Therefore, large animal models are crucial to the development of diagnostics, treatments, and eventual cures for debilitating neurological disorders. This review focuses on the description of large animal models of neurological diseases such as lysosomal storage diseases, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and neuroAIDS. The review also describes the contributions of these models to progress in gene therapy research. PMID:19293458

  16. What Animal Models Can Tell Us About Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Struebing, Felix L; Geisert, Eldon E

    2015-01-01

    Well defined animal models facilitate the study of ocular diseases. Each model brings a unique perspective to the understanding of the disease process, and in some cases, the models are critical to the development of therapeutic approaches for treatments. This is especially the case for glaucoma. Glaucoma is a family of diseases that can be caused by very different biological processes. The one thing in common is the end result, the loss of retinal ganglion cells and blindness. In this review, we will attempt to relate the findings from a number of animal models to specific types of glaucoma, emphasizing the contributions that each of the models makes to our overall understanding of the complex collection of diseases we call glaucoma.

  17. [Animal models of injury and repair in developing brain].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo; Caceres, Alfredo; Palacio, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Animal models of injury and repair in developing brain. Brain injury is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality, a considerable group of these children will develop long term neurological sequels. Despite the great clinical and social significance and the advances in neonatal medicine, no therapy yet does exist that prevent or decrease detrimental effects in cases of neonatal brain injury. Our objective was to review recent research in relation to the hypothesis for repair mechanism in the developing brain, based in animal models that show developmental compensatory mechanisms that promote neural and functional plasticity. A better understanding of these adaptive mechanisms will help clinicians to apply knowledge derived from animals to human clinical situations.

  18. Social conflict exacerbates an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Mary W; Johnson, Robin R; Vichaya, Elisabeth Good; Young, Erin E; Lunt, Shannon; Welsh, C Jane

    2007-07-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that social conflict is associated with inflammatory disease onset and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and in animal models of MS. This review illustrates how animal research can be used to elucidate the biobehavioral mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of social conflict. The authors review studies indicating that social conflict exacerbates a virally initiated animal model of MS. This research suggests that the deleterious effects of social conflict may be partially mediated by stress-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the central nervous system. In addition, they provide evidence that the adverse health effects of social conflict can be prevented by blocking the stress-induced increases in cytokine activity. This suggests that interventions designed to prevent or reverse the stress-induced increases in cytokine activity may be able to prevent or reverse some of the negative health effects of social conflict in humans.

  19. Animal models of major depression and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Czéh, Boldizsár; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wiborg, Ove; Simon, Mária

    2016-01-04

    Major depressive disorder is a common, complex, and potentially life-threatening mental disorder that imposes a severe social and economic burden worldwide. Over the years, numerous animal models have been established to elucidate pathophysiology that underlies depression and to test novel antidepressant treatment strategies. Despite these substantial efforts, the animal models available currently are of limited utility for these purposes, probably because none of the models mimics this complex disorder fully. It is presumable that psychiatric illnesses, such as affective disorders, are related to the complexity of the human brain. Here, we summarize the animal models that are used most commonly for depression, and discuss their advantages and limitations. We discuss genetic models, including the recently developed optogenetic tools and the stress models, such as the social stress, chronic mild stress, learned helplessness, and early-life stress paradigms. Moreover, we summarize briefly the olfactory bulbectomy model, as well as models that are based on pharmacological manipulations and disruption of the circadian rhythm. Finally, we highlight common misinterpretations and often-neglected important issues in this field.

  20. Alcohol-related neurodegeneration and recovery: mechanisms from animal models.

    PubMed

    Crews, Fulton T

    2008-01-01

    Human studies have found alcoholics to have a smaller brain size than moderate drinkers; however, these studies are complicated by many uncontrollable factors, including timing and amount of alcohol use. Animal experiments, which can control many factors, have established that alcohol can cause damage to brain cells (i.e., neurons), which results in their loss of structure or function (i.e., neurodegeneration) in multiple brain regions, similar to the damage found in human alcoholics. In addition, animal studies indicate that inhibition of the creation of neurons (i.e., neurogenesis) and other brain-cell genesis contributes to alcoholic neurodegeneration. Animal studies also suggest that neurodegeneration changes cognition, contributing to alcohol use disorders. Risk factors such as adolescent age and genetic predisposition toward alcohol consumption worsen neurodegeneration. Mild impairment of executive functions similar to that found in humans occurs in animals following binge alcohol treatment. Thus, animal studies suggest that heavy alcohol use contributes to neurodegeneration and the progressive loss of control over drinking. Despite the negative consequences of heavy drinking, there is hope of recovery with abstinence, which in animal models can result in neural stem-cell proliferation and the formation of new neurons and other brain cells, indicative of brain growth.

  1. Miniature pigs: a large animal model of cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haijin; Guo, Weiwei; Chen, Wei; Chen, Lei; Ye, Jingying; Yang, Shiming

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the suitability of the miniature pig as a large animal model of cochlear implantation (CI). Micro-CT scanning and three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear were completed in six animals. Photographs of the procedures and measurements of the inner ear were made. The CI procedure was simulated in 10 animals. Electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABRs) and radiographic images were evaluated during or after the CI procedure. Morphological examination and measurements of inner ears of the miniature pigs were completed by micro-CT scanning. The height of the scala tympani was 873.12 µm in the 1st turn, 641.46 µm in the 2nd turn, 445.13 µm in the third turn and 339.19 µm in the fourth turn. The length of the cochlea was 38.6 mm, larger than other animal models (7.2 mm in rats and 22 mm in macaque, for example) and similar to that in the human (36 mm). Commercial electrodes used in humans (870 µm at the end and 630 µm at the tip in diameter) were implanted in the pig’s cochlea, through which normal eABRs were obtained. Radiographic images after the CI procedure revealed electrodes located in the scala tympani of the first and second turns. Compared with traditional animal models, greater similarities of the inner ear between miniature pigs and humans make this animal a potentially useful model for CI studies. PMID:28078020

  2. A review of models relevant to road safety.

    PubMed

    Hughes, B P; Newstead, S; Anund, A; Shu, C C; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into 'Safe Systems' models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or 'models' of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma.

  3. Hyperbolic value addition and general models of animal choice.

    PubMed

    Mazur, J E

    2001-01-01

    Three mathematical models of choice--the contextual-choice model (R. Grace, 1994), delay-reduction theory (N. Squires & E. Fantino, 1971), and a new model called the hyperbolic value-added model--were compared in their ability to predict the results from a wide variety of experiments with animal subjects. When supplied with 2 or 3 free parameters, all 3 models made fairly accurate predictions for a large set of experiments that used concurrent-chain procedures. One advantage of the hyperbolic value-added model is that it is derived from a simpler model that makes accurate predictions for many experiments using discrete-trial adjusting-delay procedures. Some results favor the hyperbolic value-added model and delay-reduction theory over the contextual-choice model, but more data are needed from choice situations for which the models make distinctly different predictions.

  4. Concise Review: Stem Cell Trials Using Companion Animal Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Andrew M; Dow, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports. Disease models included osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's fistulas, meningoencephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis-like), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Sjogren's syndrome-like), atopic dermatitis, and chronic (end-stage) kidney disease. Stem cells evaluated in these studies included mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (MSC, 17/19 trials), olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC, 1 trial), or neural lineage cells derived from bone marrow MSC (1 trial), and 16/19 studies were performed in dogs. The MSC studies (13/17) used adipose tissue-derived MSC from either allogeneic (8/13) or autologous (5/13) sources. The majority of studies were open label, uncontrolled studies. Endpoints and protocols were feasible, and the stem cell therapies were reportedly safe and elicited beneficial patient responses in all but two of the trials. In conclusion, companion animals with naturally occurring diseases analogous to human conditions can be recruited into clinical trials and provide realistic insight into feasibility, safety, and biologic activity of novel stem cell therapies. However, improvements in the rigor of manufacturing, study design, and regulatory compliance will be needed to better utilize these models. Stem Cells 2016;34:1709-1729.

  5. Animal models in genomic research: Techniques, applications, and roles for nurses.

    PubMed

    Osier, Nicole D; Pham, Lan; Savarese, Amanda; Sayles, Kendra; Alexander, Sheila A

    2016-11-01

    Animal research has been conducted by scientists for over two millennia resulting in a better understanding of human anatomy, physiology, and pathology, as well as testing of novel therapies. In the molecular genomic era, pre-clinical models represent a key tool for understanding the genomic underpinnings of health and disease and are relevant to precision medicine initiatives. Nurses contribute to improved health by collecting and translating evidence from clinically relevant pre-clinical models. Using animal models, nurses can ask questions that would not be feasible or ethical to address in humans, and establish the safety and efficacy of interventions before translating them to clinical trials. Two advantages of using pre-clinical models are reduced variability between test subjects and the opportunity for precisely controlled experimental exposures. Standardized care controls the effects of diet and environment, while the availability of inbred strains significantly reduces the confounding effects of genetic differences. Outside the laboratory, nurses can contribute to the approval and oversight of animal studies, as well as translation to clinical trials and, ultimately, patient care. This review is intended as a primer on the use of animal models to advance nursing science; specifically, the paper discusses the utility of preclinical models for studying the pathophysiologic and genomic contributors to health and disease, testing interventions, and evaluating effects of environmental exposures. Considerations specifically geared to nurse researchers are also introduced, including discussion of how to choose an appropriate model and controls, potential confounders, as well as legal and ethical concerns. Finally, roles for nurse clinicians in pre-clinical research are also highlighted.

  6. Relevance of a Managerial Decision-Model to Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Edward.; Welty, Gordon

    The rational model of classical economic theory assumes that the decision maker has complete information on alternatives and consequences, and that he chooses the alternative that maximizes expected utility. This model does not allow for constraints placed on the decision maker resulting from lack of information, organizational pressures,…

  7. An Animal Oral Exposure Model – Sensitization vs. Tolerance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models are needed to assess novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential dietary allergenicity. The exact characteristics that give certain foods allergenic potential are unclear, but must include both the potential to sensitize (induce IgE) as well as the c...

  8. Neonatal chest drain insertion--an animal model.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Crawshaw, P. A.; Hall, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Trainees rarely see a neonatal pneumothorax because of the combination of decreased doctors' hours, the use of surfactant, and modern ventilator techniques. An animal model, using a dead rabbit, is described that could be used to train doctors and others in the management of this serious complication of neonatal care. PMID:7712271

  9. Animal models and high field imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Öz, Gülin; Tkáč, Ivan; Uğurbil, Kamil

    2013-09-01

    A plethora of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques developed in the last two decades provide unique and noninvasive measurement capabilities for studies of basic brain function and brain diseases in humans. Animal model experiments have been an indispensible part of this development. MR imaging and spectroscopy measurements have been employed in animal models, either by themselves or in combination with complementary and often invasive techniques, to enlighten us about the information content of such MR methods and/or verify observations made in the human brain. They have also been employed, with or independently of human efforts, to examine mechanisms underlying pathological developments in the brain, exploiting the wealth of animal models available for such studies. In this endeavor, the desire to push for ever-higher spatial and/or spectral resolution, better signal-to-noise ratio, and unique image contrast has inevitably led to the introduction of increasingly higher magnetic fields. As a result, today, animal model studies are starting to be conducted at magnetic fields ranging from ~ 11 to 17 Tesla, significantly enhancing the armamentarium of tools available for the probing brain function and brain pathologies.

  10. Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy in the animal model

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Fernández-Prado, Ricardo; Delgado, María; Fieira, Eva M.; Centeno, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the training on uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy in sheep. This animal model is helpful to learn the different view, the importance of lung exposure and the key points of the instrumentation. In this article we present three videos with the left upper lobectomy, the left lower lobectomy and the right upper lobectomy in the sheep. PMID:25379206

  11. Aquatic Animal Models – Not Just for Ecotox Anymore

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of internationally harmonized toxicity test guidelines employing aquatic animal models have been established for regulatory use. For fish alone, there are over a dozen internationally harmonized toxicity test guidelines that have been, or are being, validated. To dat...

  12. An Aerosolized Brucella spp. Challenge Model for Laboratory Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To characterize the optimal aerosol dosage of Brucella abortus strain 2308 (S2308) and B. melitensis (S16M) in a laboratory animal model of brucellosis, dosages of 10**3 to 10**10 CFU were nebulized to mice. Although tissue weights were minimally influenced, total colony-forming units (CFU) per tis...

  13. Animation Model to Conceptualize ATP Generation: A Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the molecular unit of intracellular energy and it is the product of oxidative phosphorylation of cellular respiration uses in cellular processes. The study explores the growth of the misconception levels amongst the learners and evaluates the effectiveness of animation model over traditional methods. The data…

  14. On the empirical relevance of the transient in opinion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banisch, Sven; Araújo, Tanya

    2010-07-01

    While the number and variety of models to explain opinion exchange dynamics is huge, attempts to justify the model results using empirical data are relatively rare. As linking to real data is essential for establishing model credibility, this Letter develops an empirical confirmation experiment by which an opinion model is related to real election data. The model is based on a representation of opinions as a vector of k bits. Individuals interact according to the principle that similarity leads to interaction and interaction leads to still more similarity. In the comparison to real data we concentrate on the transient opinion profiles that form during the dynamic process. An artificial election procedure is introduced which allows to relate transient opinion configurations to the electoral performance of candidates for which data are available. The election procedure based on the well-established principle of proximity voting is repeatedly performed during the transient period and remarkable statistical agreement with the empirical data is observed.

  15. A partial hearing animal model for chronic electro-acoustic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, S.; Wise, A. K.; Millard, R. E.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Cochlear implants (CIs) have provided some auditory function to hundreds of thousands of people around the world. Although traditionally carried out only in profoundly deaf patients, the eligibility criteria for implantation have recently been relaxed to include many partially-deaf patients with useful levels of hearing. These patients receive both electrical stimulation from their implant and acoustic stimulation via their residual hearing (electro-acoustic stimulation; EAS) and perform very well. It is unclear how EAS improves speech perception over electrical stimulation alone, and little evidence exists about the nature of the interactions between electric and acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, clinical results suggest that some patients that undergo cochlear implantation lose some, if not all, of their residual hearing, reducing the advantages of EAS over electrical stimulation alone. A reliable animal model with clinically-relevant partial deafness combined with clinical CIs is important to enable these issues to be studied. This paper outlines such a model that has been successfully used in our laboratory. Approach. This paper outlines a battery of techniques used in our laboratory to generate, validate and examine an animal model of partial deafness and chronic CI use. Main results. Ototoxic deafening produced bilaterally symmetrical hearing thresholds in neonatal and adult animals. Electrical activation of the auditory system was confirmed, and all animals were chronically stimulated via adapted clinical CIs. Acoustic compound action potentials (CAPs) were obtained from partially-hearing cochleae, using the CI amplifier. Immunohistochemical analysis allows the effects of deafness and electrical stimulation on cell survival to be studied. Significance. This animal model has applications in EAS research, including investigating the functional interactions between electric and acoustic stimulation, and the development of techniques to maintain residual

  16. A partial hearing animal model for chronic electro-acoustic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Irving, S.; Wise, A.K.; Millard, R.E.; Shepherd, R.K.; Fallon, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cochlear implants (CIs) have provided some auditory function to hundreds of thousands of people around the world. Although traditionally carried out only in profoundly deaf patients, the eligibility criteria for implantation have recently been relaxed to include many partially-deaf patients with useful levels of hearing. These patients receive both electrical stimulation from their implant and acoustic stimulation via their residual hearing (electro-acoustic stimulation; EAS) and perform very well. It is unclear how EAS improves speech perception over electrical stimulation alone, and little evidence exists about the nature of the interactions between electric and acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, clinical results suggest that some patients that undergo cochlear implantation lose some, if not all, of their residual hearing, reducing the advantages of EAS over electrical stimulation alone. A reliable animal model with clinically-relevant partial deafness combined with clinical CIs is important to enable these issues to be studied. This manuscript outlines such a model that has been successfully used in our laboratory. Approach This manuscript outlines a battery of techniques used in our laboratory to generate, validate and examine an animal model of partial deafness and chronic CI use. Main Result Ototoxic deafening produced bilaterally symmetrical hearing thresholds in neonatal and adult animals. Electrical activation of the auditory system was confirmed, and all animals were chronically stimulated via adapted clinical CIs. Acoustic compound action potentials (CAPs) were obtained from partially-hearing cochleae, using the CI amplifier. Immunohistochemical analysis allows the effects of deafness and electrical stimulation on cell survival to be studied. Significance This animal model has applications in EAS research, including investigating the functional interactions between electric and acoustic stimulation, and the development of techniques to maintain

  17. [Pain sensitivity changes in schizophrenic patients and animal models--Part II].

    PubMed

    Tuboly, Gábor; Horváth, Gyöngyi

    2009-05-30

    Diminished pain sensitivity in schizophrenic patients has been reported for more than 50 years, however little is known about the substrate and the basic mechanisms underlying altered pain sensitivity in this disease, therefore, relevant animal models are of decisive importance in the study of psychiatric diseases. The authors report a review consisting of two parts focusing on pain sensitivity changes in patients and in different animal models which proved the eligibility as schizophrenia models and pain sensitivities have also been determined. The second part of this article analyzed the results regarding knock out mice as schizophrenia models. These data proved that several genes have significant role in the pathomechanism of schizophrenia; therefore deficiency in one gene does not produce animals showing all signs of this disease. As regards the pain sensitivity changes, only a few data are available with controversial results. Data originated from complex chronic animal models indicate that they might be more adequate methods for studying the mechanisms of schizophrenia including the pain-sensitivity changes.

  18. Animal models for glucocorticoid-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis: An updated review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhida; Ren, Hui; Shen, Gengyang; Qiu, Ting; Liang, De; Yang, Zhidong; Yao, Zhensong; Tang, Jingjing; Jiang, Xiaobing; Wei, Qiushi

    2016-12-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis is a severe osteoporosis, with high risk of major osteoporotic fractures. This severe osteoporosis urges more extensive and deeper basic study, in which suitable animal models are indispensable. However, no relevant review is available introducing this model systematically. Based on the recent studies on GI-PMOP, this brief review introduces the GI-PMOP animal model in terms of its establishment, evaluation of bone mass and discuss its molecular mechanism. Rat, rabbit and sheep with their respective merits were chosen. Both direct and indirect evaluation of bone mass help to understand the bone metabolism under different intervention. The crucial signaling pathways, miRNAs, osteogenic- or adipogenic- related factors and estrogen level may be the predominant contributors to the development of glucocorticoid-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. How animal models of leukaemias have already benefited patients.

    PubMed

    Ablain, Julien; Nasr, Rihab; Zhu, Jun; Bazarbachi, Ali; Lallemand-Breittenbach, Valérie; de Thé, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    The relative genetic simplicity of leukaemias, the development of which likely relies on a limited number of initiating events has made them ideal for disease modelling, particularly in the mouse. Animal models provide incomparable insights into the mechanisms of leukaemia development and allow exploration of the molecular pillars of disease maintenance, an aspect often biased in cell lines or ex vivo systems. Several of these models, which faithfully recapitulate the characteristics of the human disease, have been used for pre-clinical purposes and have been instrumental in predicting therapy response in patients. We plea for a wider use of genetically defined animal models in the design of clinical trials, with a particular focus on reassessment of existing cancer or non-cancer drugs, alone or in combination.

  20. Animal models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Supsavhad, Wachiraphan; Dirksen, Wessel P; Martin, Chelsea K; Rosol, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common oral cancer worldwide. Local bone invasion into the maxilla or mandible and metastasis to regional lymph nodes often result in a poor prognosis, decreased quality of life and shortened survival time for HNSCC patients. Poor response to treatment and clinical outcomes are the major concerns in this aggressive cancer. Multiple animal models have been developed to replicate spontaneous HNSCC and investigate genetic alterations and novel therapeutic targets. This review provides an overview of HNSCC as well as the traditional animal models used in HNSCC preclinical research. The value and challenges of each in vivo model are discussed. Similarity between HNSCC in humans and cats and the possibility of using spontaneous feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) as a model for HNSCC in translational research are highlighted.

  1. Transgenic animal models of neurodegeneration based on human genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Richie, Christopher T.; Hoffer, Barry J.; Airavaara, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    The identification of genes linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has led to the development of animal models for studying mechanism and evaluating potential therapies. None of the transgenic models developed based on disease-associated genes have been able to fully recapitulate the behavioral and pathological features of the corresponding disease. However, there has been enormous progress made in identifying potential therapeutic targets and understanding some of the common mechanisms of neurodegeneration. In this review, we will discuss transgenic animal models for AD, ALS, HD and PD that are based on human genetic studies. All of the diseases discussed have active or complete clinical trials for experimental treatments that benefited from transgenic models of the disease. PMID:20931247

  2. Animal models and biomarkers of neuropathy in diabetic rodents

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, A.S.; Somani, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a multifactor complication of diabetes. It is a late finding in type 1 diabetes, but can be an early finding in type 2 diabetes. The cause of DN is still unclear and, like other complications of diabetes, it may be the result of various pathological conditions. Animal models and biomarkers of DN have been extensively used in neuropathic research. The most useful model of DN should exhibit the key feature present in human pathology. Diabetic rodents show behavioral, functional, structural and molecular biomarkers and they are widely used as models to investigate the etiology of DN as well as to screen the efficacy of the potential therapeutic interventions. We have reviewed the different animal models and biomarkers of neuropathy in diabetic rodents of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. PMID:20871761

  3. Effects of exercise on brain functions in diabetic animal models.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sun Shin

    2015-05-15

    Human life span has dramatically increased over several decades, and the quality of life has been considered to be equally important. However, diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by problems related to insulin secretion and recognition has become a serious health problem in recent years that threatens human health by causing decline in brain functions and finally leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise is recognized as an effective therapy for DM without medication administration. Exercise studies using experimental animals are a suitable option to overcome this drawback, and animal studies have improved continuously according to the needs of the experimenters. Since brain health is the most significant factor in human life, it is very important to assess brain functions according to the different exercise conditions using experimental animal models. Generally, there are two types of DM; insulin-dependent type 1 DM and an insulin-independent type 2 DM (T2DM); however, the author will mostly discuss brain functions in T2DM animal models in this review. Additionally, many physiopathologic alterations are caused in the brain by DM such as increased adiposity, inflammation, hormonal dysregulation, uncontrolled hyperphagia, insulin and leptin resistance, and dysregulation of neurotransmitters and declined neurogenesis in the hippocampus and we describe how exercise corrects these alterations in animal models. The results of changes in the brain environment differ according to voluntary, involuntary running exercises and resistance exercise, and gender in the animal studies. These factors have been mentioned in this review, and this review will be a good reference for studying how exercise can be used with therapy for treating DM.

  4. Epidemiology-driven neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Urs; Feldon, Joram

    2010-03-01

    Human epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence that the risk of developing schizophrenia is significantly enhanced following prenatal and/or perinatal exposure to various environmental insults, including maternal exposure to stress, infection and/or immune activation, nutritional deficiencies and obstetric complications. Based on these associations, a great deal of interest has been centered upon the establishment of neurodevelopmental animal models which are based on prenatal and/or perinatal exposure to such environmental stimuli. In the present review, we describe this relatively novel class of epidemiology-based animal models in relation to the etiology, neurobiology and psychopharmacology of schizophrenia. Thereby, we discuss the general design and practical implementation of these models, and we provide an integrative summary of experimental findings derived from diverse epidemiology-based models, including models of maternal exposure to psychological stress, glucocorticoid treatment, viral infection, immune activating agents, protein deprivation, vitamin D deficiency, as well as models of obstetric complications in the form of birth by Caesarian section and perinatal/postnatal hypoxia. We highlight that the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to these environmental challenges in animals successfully capture a broad spectrum of structural and functional brain abnormalities implicated in schizophrenia, some of which can be normalized by acute and/or chronic antipsychotic drug treatment. We thus conclude that epidemiology-driven neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia are characterized by a high level of face, construct and predictive validity, including intrinsic etiological significance to the disorder. They also fulfill the expectation of the neurodevelopmental theory, such that the effects of prenatal environmental insults often only emerge after puberty. Epidemiologically based animal models not only provide indispensable

  5. ABNORMALITY OF SEROTONERGIC NEUROTRANSMISSION IN ANIMAL MODELS OF SUDEP

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Faingold, Carl L.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating event, and both DBA/1 and DBA/2 mice have been shown to be relevant animal models for studying SUDEP. DBA mice exhibit seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA), leading to cardiac arrest and subsequent sudden death after generalized audiogenic seizures (AGS). This sequence of terminal events is also observed in the majority of witnessed human SUDEP cases. Several pathophysiological mechanisms, including respiratory/cardiac dysfunction, have been proposed to contribute to human SUDEP. Several (but not all) selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, can reversibly block S-IRA, and abnormal expression of 5-HT receptors is found in the brainstem of DBA mice. DBA mice, which do not initially show S-IRA, exhibit S-IRA after treatment with a non-selective 5-HT antagonist. These studies suggest that abnormalities of 5-HT neurotransmission are involved in the pathogenesis of S-IRA in DBA mice. 5-HT transmission plays an important role in normal respiration, and DBA mice exhibiting S-IRA can be resuscitated using a rodent ventilator. It is important and interesting to know if fluoxetine blocks S-IRA in DBA mice by enhancing respiratory ventilation. To test this, the effects of breathing stimulants, doxapram and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine (PK-THPP) were compared to fluoxetine on S-IRA in DBA/1 mice. Although fluoxetine reduces the incidence of S-IRA in DBA/1 mice, as reported previously, the same dose of fluoxetine fails to enhance baseline respiratory ventilation in the absence of AGS. Doxapram and PK-THPP augment the baseline ventilation in DBA/1 mice. However, these breathing stimulants are ineffective in preventing S-IRA in DBA/1 mice. These data suggest that fluoxetine blocks S-IRA in DBA/1 mice by cellular/molecular mechanisms other than enhancement of basal ventilation. Future research directions are also discussed. PMID:26272185

  6. Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    May, Jennifer E. Morse, H. Ruth Xu, Jinsheng Donaldson, Craig

    2012-09-15

    There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ► An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ► HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ► The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic

  7. Functional GI disorders: from animal models to drug development

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, E A; Bradesi, S; Chang, L; Spiegel, B M R; Bueller, J A; Naliboff, B D

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts by academic researchers and by the pharmaceutical industry, the development of novel pharmacological treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders has been slow and disappointing. The traditional approach to identifying and evaluating novel drugs for these symptom-based syndromes has relied on a fairly standard algorithm using animal models, experimental medicine models and clinical trials. In the current article, the empirical basis for this process is reviewed, focusing on the utility of the assessment of visceral hypersensitivity and GI transit, in both animals and humans, as well as the predictive validity of preclinical and clinical models of IBS for identifying successful treatments for IBS symptoms and IBS-related quality of life impairment. A review of published evidence suggests that abdominal pain, defecation-related symptoms (urgency, straining) and psychological factors all contribute to overall symptom severity and to health-related quality of life. Correlations between readouts obtained in preclinical and clinical models and respective symptoms are small, and the ability to predict drug effectiveness for specific as well as for global IBS symptoms is limited. One possible drug development algorithm is proposed which focuses on pharmacological imaging approaches in both preclinical and clinical models, with decreased emphasis on evaluating compounds in symptom-related animal models, and more rapid screening of promising candidate compounds in man. PMID:17965064

  8. Peripheral biomarkers in animal models of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of preclinical biomarkers for major depressive disorder (MDD) encompass the quantification of proteins, peptides, mRNAs, or small molecules in blood or urine of animal models. Most studies aim at characterising the animal model by including the assessment of analytes or hormones affected in depressive patients. The ultimate objective is to validate the model to better understand the neurobiological basis of MDD. Stress hormones or inflammation-related analytes associated with MDD are frequently measured. In contrast, other investigators evaluate peripheral analytes in preclinical models to translate the results in clinical settings afterwards. Large-scale, hypothesis-free studies are performed in MDD models to identify candidate biomarkers. Other studies wish to propose new targets for drug discovery. Animal models endowed with predictive validity are investigated, and the assessment of peripheral analytes, such as stress hormones or immune molecules, is comprised to increase the confidence in the target. Finally, since the mechanism of action of antidepressants is incompletely understood, studies investigating molecular alterations associated with antidepressant treatment may include peripheral analyte levels. In conclusion, preclinical biomarker studies aid the identification of new candidate analytes to be tested in clinical trials. They also increase our understanding of MDD pathophysiology and help to identify new pharmacological targets.

  9. Large animal model for osteoporosis in humans: the ewe.

    PubMed

    Oheim, R; Amling, M; Ignatius, A; Pogoda, P

    2012-11-12

    Osteoporosis is a chronic systemic disease characterised by bone loss and microarchitectural deterioration. Since the underlying regulatory mechanisms are still not fully understood and treatment options are not satisfactorily resolved, massive efforts are underway to further investigate this critical illness. Large animal models are stipulated, e.g. by the Food and Drug Administration, for preclinical prevention and intervention studies related to osteoporosis research; in this context, the ewe has already proven its value for orthopaedic research. Although oestrogen deficiency doubtless influences bone metabolism in sheep, the ovariectomised ewe seems unsuitable as a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis and bone loss induction due to its unreliable impact on bone mass and structure. In contrast, glucocorticoid treatment has a major impact on bone turnover and leads to bone conditions comparable to those found in steroid-treated humans. However, adverse side effects can be dramatic resulting in unacceptable discomfort and illness of the experimental animals. Further improvements are therefore essential to judge this model as ethically appropriate. Additionally, models for osteoporosis induced by surgical interventions of central regulatory mechanisms seem to be attractive, as remarkable bone loss is induced by only one surgical procedure without any further treatment. Taken together, different ewe models for osteoporosis have been successfully established and are invaluable for orthopaedic research. However, the search for a 'perfect' large remodelling animal model - in terms of mimicking the human disease and compatibility of bone loss, and without ethical concerns - is still on-going.

  10. Modeling the Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Sarah B.; Pierson, Emily R.; Lee, Sarah Y.; Goverman, Joan M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system manifested with varying clinical course, pathology, and inflammatory patterns. There are multiple animal models that reflect different aspects of this heterogeneity. Collectively, these models reveal a balance between pathogenic and regulatory CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells that influences the incidence, timing, and severity of central nervous system autoimmunity. In this review we discuss experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models that have been used to study the pathogenic and regulatory roles of these immune cells, models that recapitulate different aspects of the disease seen in patients with MS, and questions remaining for future studies. PMID:23707039

  11. Animal models of herpes simplex virus immunity and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kollias, Christina M; Huneke, Richard B; Wigdahl, Brian; Jennings, Stephen R

    2015-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous human pathogens represented by two distinct serotypes: herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1); and HSV type 2 (HSV-2). In the general population, adult seropositivity rates approach 90% for HSV-1 and 20-25% for HSV-2. These viruses cause significant morbidity, primarily as mucosal membrane lesions in the form of facial cold sores and genital ulcers, with much less common but more severe manifestations causing death from encephalitis. HSV infections in humans are difficult to study in many cases because many primary infections are asymptomatic. Moreover, the neurotropic properties of HSV make it much more difficult to study the immune mechanisms controlling reactivation of latent infection within the corresponding sensory ganglia and crossover into the central nervous system of infected humans. This is because samples from the nervous system can only be routinely obtained at the time of autopsy. Thus, animal models have been developed whose use has led to a better understanding of multiple aspects of HSV biology, molecular biology, pathogenesis, disease, and immunity. The course of HSV infection in a spectrum of animal models depends on important experimental parameters including animal species, age, and genotype; route of infection; and viral serotype, strain, and dose. This review summarizes the animal models most commonly used to study HSV pathogenesis and its establishment, maintenance, and reactivation from latency. It focuses particularly on the immune response to HSV during acute primary infection and the initial invasion of the ganglion with comparisons to the events governing maintenance of viral latency.

  12. NNK-Induced Lung Tumors: A Review of Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hua-Chuan; Takano, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of lung adenocarcinoma has been remarkably increasing in recent years due to the introduction of filter cigarettes and secondary-hand smoking because the people are more exposed to higher amounts of nitrogen oxides, especially 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK), which is widely applied in animal model of lung tumors. In NNK-induced lung tumors, genetic mutation, chromosome instability, gene methylation, and activation of oncogenes have been found so as to disrupt the expression profiles of some proteins or enzymes in various cellular signal pathways. Transgenic animal with specific alteration of lung cancer-related molecules have also been introduced to clarify the molecular mechanisms of NNK in the pathogenesis and development of lung tumors. Based on these animal models, many antioxidant ingredients and antitumor chemotherapeutic agents have been proved to suppress the NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis. In the future, it is necessary to delineate the most potent biomarkers of NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis, and to develop efficient methods to fight against NNK-associated lung cancer using animal models. PMID:21559252

  13. FATE OF DIETARY PERCHLORATE IN LACTATING DAIRY COWS: RELEVANCE TO ANIMAL HEALTH AND LEVELS IN THE MILK SUPPLY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for fiv...

  14. Can currently available non-animal methods detect pre and pro-haptens relevant for skin sensitization?

    PubMed

    Patlewicz, Grace; Casati, Silvia; Basketter, David A; Asturiol, David; Roberts, David W; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Worth, Andrew P; Aschberger, Karin

    2016-12-01

    Predictive testing to characterize substances for their skin sensitization potential has historically been based on animal tests such as the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). In recent years, regulations in the cosmetics and chemicals sectors have provided strong impetus to develop non-animal alternatives. Three test methods have undergone OECD validation: the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSens™ and the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). Whilst these methods perform relatively well in predicting LLNA results, a concern raised is their ability to predict chemicals that need activation to be sensitizing (pre- or pro-haptens). This current study reviewed an EURL ECVAM dataset of 127 substances for which information was available in the LLNA and three non-animal test methods. Twenty eight of the sensitizers needed to be activated, with the majority being pre-haptens. These were correctly identified by 1 or more of the test methods. Six substances were categorized exclusively as pro-haptens, but were correctly identified by at least one of the cell-based assays. The analysis here showed that skin metabolism was not likely to be a major consideration for assessing sensitization potential and that sensitizers requiring activation could be identified correctly using one or more of the current non-animal methods.

  15. Animal models for Ebola and Marburg virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Eri; Saijo, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers (EHF and MHF) are caused by the Filoviridae family, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (ebolavirus and marburgvirus), respectively. These severe diseases have high mortality rates in humans. Although EHF and MHF are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. A novel filovirus, Lloviu virus, which is genetically distinct from ebolavirus and marburgvirus, was recently discovered in Spain where filoviral hemorrhagic fever had never been reported. The virulence of this virus has not been determined. Ebolavirus and marburgvirus are classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) pathogens and Category A agents, for which the US government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism. Therefore, preventive measures against these viral hemorrhagic fevers should be prepared, not only in disease-endemic regions, but also in disease-free countries. Diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics need to be developed, and therefore the establishment of animal models for EHF and MHF is invaluable. Several animal models have been developed for EHF and MHF using non-human primates (NHPs) and rodents, which are crucial to understand pathophysiology and to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are representative models of filovirus infection as they exhibit remarkably similar symptoms to those observed in humans. However, the NHP models have practical and ethical problems that limit their experimental use. Furthermore, there are no inbred and genetically manipulated strains of NHP. Rodent models such as mouse, guinea pig, and hamster, have also been developed. However, these rodent models require adaptation of the virus to produce lethal disease and do not mirror all symptoms of human filovirus infection. This review article provides an outline of the clinical features of EHF and MHF in animals, including humans, and discusses how the animal models have been developed to study pathophysiology, vaccines, and therapeutics. PMID:24046765

  16. Trait and state anxiety in animal models: Is there correlation?

    PubMed

    Goes, Tiago Costa; Antunes, Fabrício Dias; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2009-02-06

    It is believed that subjects with high trait anxiety levels tend to present state anxiety reactions with greater intensity than individuals with low trait anxiety levels. In order to verify if this premise is valid for animal models of anxiety, the present work investigated the possible correlation between two behavioral tests: the elevated plus-maze, a classic model of state-anxiety, and the free-exploratory paradigm, which has been proposed as a model of trait anxiety. The behavior of 46 drug-naive, adult, Wistar, male rats was measured in these two models on two occasions, 1 week apart. Subsequently, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for the parameters "percentage of time in the novel side" (%TNS; free-exploratory paradigm), "percentage of time in the open arms" (%TOA; elevated plus-maze) and "percentage of entries into the open arms" (%EOA; elevated plus-maze). These parameters were also used to classify the animals into groups presenting high, medium or low levels of anxiety in both tests, so that the concordance between the models could be evaluated through the kappa test. The analysis resulted in low ICC (%TNSx%TOA: -0.127; %TNSx%EOA: 0.040) and low kappa index (%TNSx%TOA: -0.017; %TNSx%EOA: -0.044), suggesting a poor correspondence between the free-exploratory paradigm and the elevated plus-maze. In conclusion, the data presented here indicate that the premise of correlation between trait and state anxiety is not necessarily true for animal models of anxiety and, therefore, care must be exercised when using state anxiety models in order to determine animals' anxiety profile.

  17. A simple atmospheric model of relevance to El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebiak, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    A linear, equatorial, beta-plane atmosphere model with heating parameterized in terms of SST anomalies is developed and used to simulate surface wind anomalies in the equatorial Pacific during El Nino. The model results show some similarity to observations with respect to movement of the major convergence zones, and equatorial wind anomaly patterns in the central and western Pacific. There is considerable discrepancy between the model results and observations in much of the eastern Pacific, especially in the South Pacific high and southeast trades regions. The results suggest that some additional mechanisms may be responsible for these apparently sizeable and spatially coherent fluctuations, but that a direct link between wind anomalies and SST anomalies may indeed exist in much of the equatorial Pacific.

  18. Transmission of Helicobacter pyori in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Cellini, L; Marzio, L; Ferrero, G; Del Vino, A; Di Campli, E; Grossi, L; Toracchio, S; Artese, L

    2001-01-01

    An experimental murine model was studied to evaluate the orogastrointestinal colonization of Helicobacter pylori and the animal-to-animal transmission. Balb/C mice were infected with H. pylori and housed with uninoculated mice in cages with and without a grate on the floor. Mice were killed after 7, 14, 30, and 45 days, and samples from the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum were analyzed for H. pylori by PCR and immunohistochemistry and for histological changes. Bacterial colonization was assessed also by culture from stomach samples. H. pylori was cultured by stomach samples of infected mice at 7, 14, and 30 days. Using PCR and immunohistochemistry, H. pylori was detected in inoculated and uninoculated mice in all areas examined, with an high percentage of positive samples in the esophagus and stomach. Moreover transmission was detected, without differences, regardless of whether mice were housed with or without a grate on the floor, supporting an orooral animal transmission.

  19. Making animals alcoholic: shifting laboratory models of addiction.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals as experimental organisms has been critical to the development of addiction research from the nineteenth century. They have been used as a means of generating reliable data regarding the processes of addiction that was not available from the study of human subjects. Their use, however, has been far from straightforward. Through focusing on the study of alcoholism, where the nonhuman animal proved a most reluctant collaborator, this paper will analyze the ways in which scientists attempted to deal with its determined sobriety and account for their consistent failure to replicate the volitional consumption of ethanol to the point of physical dependency. In doing so, we will see how the animal model not only served as a means of interrogating a complex pathology, but also came to embody competing definitions of alcoholism as a disease process, and alternative visions for the very structure and purpose of a research field.

  20. An Animal Model Using Metallic Ions to Produce Autoimmune Nephritis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sandoval, Roxana; Luévano-Rodríguez, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mayra; Pérez-Pérez, María Elena; Saldívar-Elias, Sergio; Gurrola-Carlos, Reinaldo; Avalos-Díaz, Esperanza; Bollain-y-Goytia, Juan José; Herrera-Esparza, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune nephritis triggered by metallic ions was assessed in a Long-Evans rat model. The parameters evaluated included antinuclear autoantibody production, kidney damage mediated by immune complexes detected by immunofluorescence, and renal function tested by retention of nitrogen waste products and proteinuria. To accomplish our goal, the animals were treated with the following ionic metals: HgCl2, CuSO4, AgNO3, and Pb(NO3)2. A group without ionic metals was used as the control. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that metallic ions triggered antinuclear antibody production in 60% of animals, some of them with anti-DNA specificity. Furthermore, all animals treated with heavy metals developed toxic glomerulonephritis with immune complex deposition along the mesangium and membranes. These phenomena were accompanied by proteinuria and increased concentrations of urea. Based on these results, we conclude that metallic ions may induce experimental autoimmune nephritis.

  1. Tupaia Belangeri as an Experimental Animal Model for Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-01-01

    Tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. The morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the Tupaiidae. Genomic analysis has revealed that the genus Tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. In addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The only other experimental animal that has been demonstrated to be sensitive to both of these viruses is the chimpanzee, but restrictions on animal testing have meant that experiments using chimpanzees have become almost impossible. Consequently, the development of the tupaia for use as an animal infection model could become a powerful tool for hepatitis virus research and in preclinical studies on drug development. PMID:25048261

  2. MAKING ANIMALS ALCOHOLIC: SHIFTING LABORATORY MODELS OF ADDICTION

    PubMed Central

    RAMSDEN, EDMUND

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals as experimental organisms has been critical to the development of addiction research from the nineteenth century. They have been used as a means of generating reliable data regarding the processes of addiction that was not available from the study of human subjects. Their use, however, has been far from straightforward. Through focusing on the study of alcoholism, where the nonhuman animal proved a most reluctant collaborator, this paper will analyze the ways in which scientists attempted to deal with its determined sobriety and account for their consistent failure to replicate the volitional consumption of ethanol to the point of physical dependency. In doing so, we will see how the animal model not only served as a means of interrogating a complex pathology, but also came to embody competing definitions of alcoholism as a disease process, and alternative visions for the very structure and purpose of a research field. PMID:25740698

  3. Collection methods of trematode eggs using experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Tsubokawa, Daigo; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Mikami, Fusako; Shibata, Katsumasa; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Koichi; Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2016-10-01

    Although observing the eggs of human parasitic helminth is essential for medical education in parasitology, opportunities for collection of the eggs are limited. Collection of the eggs using experimental animal models is needed for a sustainable supply. The metacercariae of three trematode species, Paragonimus westermani, Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai, were collected from the second intermediate hosts: freshwater crabs and fishes, which were obtained using online shopping in Japan, and inoculated to experimental animal rat and dog. Consequently, eggs of the three trematode species were obtained abundantly from the feces of the animals. The eggs are being used for student training in several Japanese universities. In this article, we introduce the collection procedures for trematode eggs.

  4. Relevance of the Hierarchical Linear Model to TIMSS Data Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    Multilevel international data have been released from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), providing an opportunity to apply multilevel modeling techniques in educational research. In this paper, TIMSS factors are classified in fixed and random categories according to the project design. Classifying fixed and random…

  5. Neuronal and brain morphological changes in animal models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gonzalo; Morales-Medina, Julio César; Diaz, Alfonso

    2016-03-15

    Schizophrenia, a severe and debilitating disorder with a high social burden, affects 1% of the adult world population. Available therapies are unable to treat all the symptoms, and result in strong side effects. For this reason, numerous animal models have been generated to elucidate the pathophysiology of this disorder. All these models present neuronal remodeling and abnormalities in spine stability. It is well known that the complexity in dendritic arborization determines the number of receptive synaptic contacts. Also the loss of dendritic spines and arbor stability are strongly associated with schizophrenia. This review evaluates changes in spine density and dendritic arborization in animal models of schizophrenia. By understanding these changes, pharmacological treatments can be designed to target specific neural systems to attenuate neuronal remodeling and associated behavioral deficits.

  6. Animal Models of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Eat, Delete, and Inflame

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Samar H.; Hirsova, Petra; Malhi, Harmeet; Gores, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    With the obesity epidemic, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a public health problem with increasing prevalence. The mechanism of disease progression remains obscure and effective therapy is lacking. Therefore, there is a need to understand the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for disease development and progression in order to develop innovative therapies. To accomplish this goal, experimental animal models that recapitulate the human disease are necessary, especially, since causative mechanistic studies of NAFLD are more difficult or unethical to perform in humans. A large number of studies regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of NASH have been undertaken in mice to model human NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This review discusses the known dietary, genetic and inflammation based animal models of NASH described in recent years, with a focus on the major advances made in this field. PMID:26626909

  7. The pathology of comparative animal models of human haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R; Olias, P

    2012-11-01

    Haemochromatosis is one of the most common human hereditary diseases. It is defined as a pathological condition with normal iron-driven erythropoiesis, but toxic accumulation of iron in vital organs, which is caused by mutations in any gene that encodes a protein involved in limiting the entry of iron into the blood. Iron storage diseases have also been described in several mammalian and avian species and these have been proposed as comparative animal models for human haemochromatosis. Genetically engineered mouse strains with mutations in iron metabolism genes model several aspects of human haemochromatosis and study of these animals has facilitated understanding of the disease. Spontaneously arising iron storage diseases in non-murine species also overlap in some clinicopathological aspects with human haemochromatosis. However, the lack of conclusive information on the molecular biology of theses species-specific diseases and the common impact of dietary iron concentration on disease progression in most species limit their usefulness as comparative models.

  8. Neuropathic Pain in Animal Models of Nervous System Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tian, David H.; Perera, Chamini J.; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a frequent chronic presentation in autoimmune diseases of the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), causing significant individual disablement and suffering. Animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) mimic many aspects of MS and GBS, respectively, and are well suited to study the pathophysiology of these autoimmune diseases. However, while much attention has been devoted to curative options, research into neuropathic pain mechanisms and relief has been somewhat lacking. Recent studies have demonstrated a variety of sensory abnormalities in different EAE and EAN models, which enable investigations of behavioural changes, underlying mechanisms, and potential pharmacotherapies for neuropathic pain associated with these diseases. This review examines the symptoms, mechanisms, and clinical therapeutic options in these conditions and highlights the value of EAE and EAN animal models for the study of neuropathic pain in MS and GBS. PMID:23737643

  9. Characterization of animal models for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).

    PubMed

    Fickert, Peter; Pollheimer, Marion J; Beuers, Ulrich; Lackner, Carolin; Hirschfield, Gideon; Housset, Chantal; Keitel, Verena; Schramm, Christoph; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Karlsen, Tom H; Melum, Espen; Kaser, Arthur; Eksteen, Bertus; Strazzabosco, Mario; Manns, Michael; Trauner, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholangiopathy characterized by biliary fibrosis, development of cholestasis and end stage liver disease, high risk of malignancy, and frequent need for liver transplantation. The poor understanding of its pathogenesis is also reflected in the lack of effective medical treatment. Well-characterized animal models are utterly needed to develop novel pathogenetic concepts and study new treatment strategies. Currently there is no consensus on how to evaluate and characterize potential PSC models, which makes direct comparison of experimental results and effective exchange of study material between research groups difficult. The International Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Study Group (IPSCSG) has therefore summarized these key issues in a position paper proposing standard requirements for the study of animal models of PSC.

  10. New clinically relevant, orthotopic mouse models of human chondrosarcoma with spontaneous metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chondrosarcoma responds poorly to adjuvant therapy and new, clinically relevant animal models are required to test targeted therapy. Methods Two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and FS090, were evaluated for proliferation, colony formation, invasion, angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Cell lines were also investigated for VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, and RECK expression. JJ012 and FS090 were injected separately into the mouse tibia intramedullary canal or tibial periosteum. Animal limbs were measured, and x-rayed for evidence of tumour take and progression. Tibias and lungs were harvested to determine the presence of tumour and lung metastases. Results JJ012 demonstrated significantly higher proliferative capacity, invasion, and colony formation in collagen I gel. JJ012 conditioned medium stimulated endothelial tube formation and osteoclastogenesis with a greater potency than FS090 conditioned medium, perhaps related to the effects of VEGF and MMP-9. In vivo, tumours formed in intratibial and periosteal groups injected with JJ012, however no mice injected with FS090 developed tumours. JJ012 periosteal tumours grew to 3 times the non-injected limb size by 7 weeks, whereas intratibial injected limbs required 10 weeks to achieve a similar tumour size. Sectioned tumour tissue demonstrated features of grade III chondrosarcoma. All JJ012 periosteal tumours (5/5) resulted in lung micro-metastases, while only 2/4 JJ012 intratibial tumours demonstrated metastases. Conclusions The established JJ012 models replicate the site, morphology, and many behavioural characteristics of human chondrosarcoma. Local tumour invasion of bone and spontaneous lung metastasis offer valuable assessment tools to test the potential of novel agents for future chondrosarcoma therapy. PMID:20584302

  11. Neuroinflammation in animal models of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chong-Chi; Liao, Yi-En; Yang, Ling-Yu; Wang, Jing-Ya; Tweedie, David; Karnati, Hanuma K.; Greig, Nigel H.; Wang, Jia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Neuroinflammation is prominent in the short and long-term consequences of neuronal injuries that occur after TBI. Neuroinflammation involves the activation of glia, including microglia and astrocytes, to release inflammatory mediators within the brain, and the subsequent recruitment of peripheral immune cells. Various animal models of TBI have been developed that have proved valuable to elucidate the pathophysiology of the disorder and to assess the safety and efficacy of novel therapies prior to clinical trials. These models provide an excellent platform to delineate key injury mechanisms that associate with types of injury (concussion, contusion, and penetration injuries) that occur clinically for the investigation of mild, moderate, and severe forms of TBI. Additionally, TBI modeling in genetically engineered mice, in particular, has aided the identification of key molecules and pathways for putative injury mechanisms, as targets for development of novel therapies for human TBI. This Review details the evidence showing that neuroinflammation, characterized by the activation of microglia and astrocytes and elevated production of inflammatory mediators, is a critical process occurring in various TBI animal models, provides a broad overview of commonly used animal models of TBI, and overviews representative techniques to quantify markers of the brain inflammatory process. A better understanding of neuroinflammation could open therapeutic avenues for abrogation of secondary cell death and behavioral symptoms that may mediate the progression of TBI. PMID:27382003

  12. Recent advances in animal models of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease characterized by the three cardinal pathological features, comprising aberrant immune activation, vasculopathy and tissue fibrosis, with unknown etiology. Although many inducible and genetic animal models mimicking the selected aspects of SSc have been well documented, the lack of models encompassing the full clinical manifestations hindered the development and preclinical testing of therapies against this disease. Under this situation, three new genetic animal models have recently been established, such as Fra2 transgenic mice, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor deficient mice and Klf5(+/-) ;Fli1(+/-) mice, all of which recapitulate the pathological cascade of SSc. The former two murine models demonstrate endothelial cell apoptosis and capillary loss followed by tissue fibrosis, whereas the immune systems show no remarkable abnormality. Klf5(+/-) ;Fli1(+/-) mice develop immune activation, vasculopathy and tissue fibrosis in this sequence, eventually resulting in the development of dermal fibrosis, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary vascular involvement resembling those of SSc. Because Krueppel-like factor (KLF)5 and Friend leukemia integration 1 transcription factor (Fli1) are the transcription factors epigenetically suppressed in SSc dermal fibroblasts, the reproduction of SSc manifestations in Klf5(+/-) ;Fli1(+/-) mice supports the canonical idea that environmental influences play a central role in the development of SSc in genetically predisposed individuals. These new animal models offer important clues for the better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of SSc pathology and the identification of potential molecular targets for the treatment of this incurable disease.

  13. Immunology and Homeopathy. 3. Experimental Studies on Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Ortolani, Riccardo; Conforti, Anita

    2006-01-01

    A search of the literature and the experiments carried out by the authors of this review show that there are a number of animal models where the effect of homeopathic dilutions or the principles of homeopathic medicine have been tested. The results relate to the immunostimulation by ultralow doses of antigens, the immunological models of the ‘simile’, the regulation of acute or chronic inflammatory processes and the use of homeopathic medicines in farming. The models utilized by different research groups are extremely etherogeneous and differ as the test medicines, the dilutions and the outcomes are concerned. Some experimental lines, particularly those utilizing mice models of immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of homeopathic complex formulations, give support to a real effect of homeopathic high dilutions in animals, but often these data are of preliminary nature and have not been independently replicated. The evidence emerging from animal models is supporting the traditional ‘simile’ rule, according to which ultralow doses of compounds, that in high doses are pathogenic, may have paradoxically a protective or curative effect. Despite a few encouraging observational studies, the effectiveness of the homeopathic prevention or therapy of infections in veterinary medicine is not sufficiently supported by randomized and controlled trials. PMID:16786046

  14. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain.

  15. Generation of animation sequences of three dimensional models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poi, Sharon (Inventor); Bell, Brad N. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is directed toward a method and apparatus for generating an animated sequence through the movement of three-dimensional graphical models. A plurality of pre-defined graphical models are stored and manipulated in response to interactive commands or by means of a pre-defined command file. The models may be combined as part of a hierarchical structure to represent physical systems without need to create a separate model which represents the combined system. System motion is simulated through the introduction of translation, rotation and scaling parameters upon a model within the system. The motion is then transmitted down through the system hierarchy of models in accordance with hierarchical definitions and joint movement limitations. The present invention also calls for a method of editing hierarchical structure in response to interactive commands or a command file such that a model may be included, deleted, copied or moved within multiple system model hierarchies. The present invention also calls for the definition of multiple viewpoints or cameras which may exist as part of a system hierarchy or as an independent camera. The simulated movement of the models and systems is graphically displayed on a monitor and a frame is recorded by means of a video controller. Multiple movement and hierarchy manipulations are then recorded as a sequence of frames which may be played back as an animation sequence on a video cassette recorder.

  16. Sleep and obesity: a focus on animal models.

    PubMed

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Teske, Jennifer A

    2012-03-01

    The rapid rise in obesity prevalence in the modern world parallels a significant reduction in restorative sleep (Agras et al., 2004; Dixon et al., 2007, 2001; Gangwisch and Heymsfield, 2004; Gupta et al., 2002; Sekine et al., 2002; Vioque et al., 2000; Wolk et al., 2003). Reduced sleep time and quality increases the risk for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear (Gangwisch et al., 2005; Hicks et al., 1986; Imaki et al., 2002; Jennings et al., 2007; Moreno et al., 2006). A majority of the theories linking human sleep disturbances and obesity rely on self-reported sleep. However, studies with objective measurements of sleep/wake parameters suggest a U-shaped relationship between sleep and obesity. Studies in animal models are needed to improve our understanding of the association between sleep disturbances and obesity. Genetic and experimenter-induced models mimicking characteristics of human obesity are now available and these animal models will be useful in understanding whether sleep disturbances determine propensity for obesity, or result from obesity. These models exhibit weight gain profiles consistently different from control animals. Thus a careful evaluation of animal models will provide insight into the relationship between sleep disturbances and obesity in humans. In this review we first briefly consider the fundamentals of sleep and key sleep disturbances, such as sleep fragmentation and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), observed in obese individuals. Then we consider sleep deprivation studies and the role of circadian alterations in obesity. We describe sleep/wake changes in various rodent models of obesity and obesity resistance. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms linking sleep disturbances with obesity.

  17. An ecologically relevant guinea pig model of fetal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, S. A.; Lucas, D.; Kleven, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, shares with humans many similarities during pregnancy and prenatal development, including precocial offspring and social dependence. These similarities suggest the guinea pig as a promising model of fetal behavioral development as well. Using innovative methods of behavioral acclimation, fetal offspring of female IAF hairless guinea pigs time mated to NIH multi-colored Hartley males were observed longitudinally without restraint using noninvasive ultrasound at weekly intervals across the 10 week gestation. To insure that the ultrasound procedure did not cause significant stress, salivary cortisol was collected both before and after each observation. Measures of fetal spontaneous movement and behavioral state were quantified from video recordings from week 3 through the last week before birth. Results from prenatal quantification of Interlimb Movement Synchrony and state organization reveal guinea pig fetal development to be strikingly similar to that previously reported for other rodents and preterm human infants. Salivary cortisol readings taken before and after sonography did not differ at any observation time point. These results suggest this model holds translational promise for studying the prenatal mechanisms of neurobehavioral development, including those that may result from adverse events. Because the guinea pig is a highly social mammal with a wide range of socially oriented vocalizations, this model may also have utility for studying the prenatal origins and trajectories of developmental disabilities with social-emotional components, such as autism. PMID:25655512

  18. A clinically relevant model of perinatal global ischemic brain damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Zhuang, Lei; Terrando, Niccolò; Wu, Xinmin; Jonhson, Mark R; Maze, Mervyn; Ma, Daqing

    2011-04-06

    We have designed a clinically relevant model of perinatal asphyxia providing intrapartum hypoxia in rats. On gestation day 22 SD rats were anesthetized and the uterine horns were exteriorized and placed in a water bath at 37°C for up to 20min. After this, pups were delivered from the uterus and manually stimulated to initiate breathing in an incubator at 37°C for 1 h in air. Brains were harvested and stained with cresyl violet, caspase-3, and TUNEL to detect morphological and apoptotic changes on postnatal days (PND) 1, 3, and 7. Separate cohorts were maintained until PND 50 and tested for learning and memory using Morris water maze (WM). Survival rate was decreased with longer hypoxic time, and 100% mortality was noted when hypoxia time was beyond 18min. Apoptosis was increased with the duration of hypoxia with neuronal loss and cell shrinkage in the CA1 of hippocampus. The time taken for the juveniles to locate the hidden platform during WM was increased in animals subjected to hypoxia. These data demonstrate that perinatal ischemic injury leads to neuronal death in the hippocampus and long-lasting cognitive dysfunction. This model mimics hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in humans and may be appropriate for investigating therapeutic interventions.

  19. Upper Limb Immobilisation: A Neural Plasticity Model with Relevance to Poststroke Motor Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Leonardo; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Sterr, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the neural plasticity that occurs after hemiparetic stroke have contributed to the formulation of theories of poststroke motor recovery. These theories, in turn, have underpinned contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies for treating motor deficits after stroke, such as upper limb hemiparesis. However, a relative drawback has been that, in general, these strategies are most compatible with the recovery profiles of relatively high-functioning stroke survivors and therefore do not easily translate into benefit to those individuals sustaining low-functioning upper limb hemiparesis, who otherwise have poorer residual function. For these individuals, alternative motor rehabilitation strategies are currently needed. In this paper, we will review upper limb immobilisation studies that have been conducted with healthy adult humans and animals. Then, we will discuss how the findings from these studies could inspire the creation of a neural plasticity model that is likely to be of particular relevance to the context of motor rehabilitation after stroke. For instance, as will be elaborated, such model could contribute to the development of alternative motor rehabilitation strategies for treating poststroke upper limb hemiparesis. The implications of the findings from those immobilisation studies for contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies will also be discussed and perspectives for future research in this arena will be provided as well. PMID:26843992

  20. Longitudinal Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Afonso C.; Liu, Junjie V.; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Leoni, Renata F.; Merkle, Hellmut; Mackel, Julie B.; Zhang, Xian Feng; Nascimento, George C.; Stefanovic, Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has had an essential role in furthering our understanding of brain physiology and function. fMRI techniques are nowadays widely applied in neuroscience research, as well as in translational and clinical studies. The use of animal models in fMRI studies has been fundamental in helping elucidate the mechanisms of cerebral blood flow regulation, and in the exploration of basic neuroscience questions, such as the mechanisms of perception, behavior, and cognition. Because animals are inherently noncompliant, most fMRI performed to date have required the use of anesthesia, which interferes with brain function and compromises interpretability and applicability of results to our understanding of human brain function. An alternative approach that eliminates the need for anesthesia involves training the animal to tolerate physical restraint during the data acquisition. In the present work we review these two different approaches to obtaining fMRI data from animal models, with a specific focus on the acquisition of longitudinal data from the same subjects. PMID:21279608

  1. Sex Differences in Animal Models: Focus on Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jill B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss ways to think about and study sex differences in preclinical animal models. We use the framework of addiction, in which animal models have excellent face and construct validity, to illustrate the importance of considering sex differences. There are four types of sex differences: qualitative, quantitative, population, and mechanistic. A better understanding of the ways males and females can differ will help scientists design experiments to characterize better the presence or absence of sex differences in new phenomena that they are investigating. We have outlined major quantitative, population, and mechanistic sex differences in the addiction domain using a heuristic framework of the three established stages of the addiction cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Female rats, in general, acquire the self-administration of drugs and alcohol more rapidly, escalate their drug taking with extended access more rapidly, show more motivational withdrawal, and (where tested in animal models of “craving”) show greater reinstatement. The one exception is that female rats show less motivational withdrawal to alcohol. The bases for these quantitative sex differences appear to be both organizational, in that estradiol-treated neonatal animals show the male phenotype, and activational, in that the female phenotype depends on the effects of gonadal hormones. In animals, differences within the estrous cycle can be observed but are relatively minor. Such hormonal effects seem to be most prevalent during the acquisition of drug taking and less influential once compulsive drug taking is established and are linked largely to progesterone and estradiol. This review emphasizes not only significant differences in the phenotypes of females and males in the domain of addiction but emphasizes the paucity of data to date in our understanding of those differences. PMID:26772794

  2. Animal Models to Investigate the Pathogenesis of Rheumatic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Catherine M.; Govan, Brenda L.; Sikder, Suchandan; Williams, Natasha L.; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are sequelae of group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Although an autoimmune process has long been considered to be responsible for the initiation of RF/RHD, it is only in the last few decades that the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory condition have been unraveled partly due to experimentation on animal models. RF/RHD is a uniquely human condition and modeling this disease in animals is challenging. Antibody and T cell responses to recombinant GAS M protein (rM) and the subsequent interactions with cardiac tissue have been predominantly investigated using a rat autoimmune valvulitis model. In Lewis rats immunized with rM, the development of hallmark histological features akin to RF/RHD, both in the myocardial and in valvular tissue have been reported, with the generation of heart tissue cross-reactive antibodies and T cells. Recently, a Lewis rat model of Sydenham’s chorea and related neuropsychiatric disorders has also been described. Rodent models are very useful for assessing disease mechanisms due to the availability of reagents to precisely determine sequential events following infection with GAS or post-challenge with specific proteins and or carbohydrate preparations from GAS. However, studies of cardiac function are more problematic in such models. In this review, a historical overview of animal models previously used and those that are currently available will be discussed in terms of their usefulness in modeling different aspects of the disease process. Ultimately, cardiologists, microbiologists, immunologists, and physiologists may have to resort to diverse models to investigate different aspects of RF/RHD. PMID:25414841

  3. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Search for Factual Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Sheila Cristina L.; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Z.; Augusto, Marlei Josiele; da Silva, Deisy Mara; Ramalho, Fernando Silva

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis, which occurs in the absence of alcohol abuse. NAFLD can evolve into progressive liver injury and fibrosis in the form of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several animal models have been developed to attempt to represent the morphological, biochemical, and clinical features of human NASH. The actual review presents a critical analysis of the most commonly used experimental models of NAFLD/NASH development. These models can be classified into genetic, nutritional, and a combination of genetic and nutritional factors. The main genetic models are ob/ob and db/db mutant mice and Zucker rats. The principal nutritional models employ methionine- and choline-deficient, high-fat, high-cholesterol and high-cholate, cafeteria, and high-fructose diets. Currently, associations between high-fructose and various compositions of high-fat diets have been widely studied. Previous studies have encountered significant difficulties in developing animal models capable of reproducing human NASH. Some models produce consistent morphological findings, but the induction method differs significantly compared with the pathophysiology of human NASH. Other models precisely represent the clinical and etiological contexts of this disease but fail to provide accurate histopathological representations mainly in the progression from steatosis to liver fibrosis. PMID:26064924

  4. Animal models of social contact and drug self-administration.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Justin C; Smith, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Social learning theories of drug abuse propose that individuals imitate drug use behaviors modeled by social peers, and that these behaviors are selectively reinforced and/or punished depending on group norms. Historically, animal models of social influence have focused on distal factors (i.e., those factors outside the drug-taking context) in drug self-administration studies. Recently, several investigators have developed novel models, or significantly modified existing models, to examine the role of proximal factors (i.e., those factors that are immediately present at the time of drug taking) on measures of drug self-administration. Studies using these newer models have revealed several important conclusions regarding the effects of social learning on drug abuse: 1) the presence of a social partner influences drug self-administration, 2) the behavior of a social partner determines whether social contact will increase or decrease drug intake, and 3) social partners can model and imitate specific patterns of drug self-administration. These findings are congruent with those obtained in the human laboratory, providing support for the cross-species generality and validity of these preclinical models. This mini-review describes in detail some of the preclinical animal models used to study social contact and drug self-administration to guide future research on social learning and drug abuse.

  5. Animal models of disease: feline hyperthyroidism: an animal model for toxic nodular goiter.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Since first discovered just 35 years ago, the incidence of spontaneous feline hyperthyroidism has increased dramatically to the extent that it is now one of the most common disorders seen in middle-aged to senior domestic cats. Hyperthyroid cat goiters contain single or multiple autonomously (i.e. TSH-independent) functioning and growing thyroid nodules. Thus, hyperthyroidism in cats is clinically and histologically similar to toxic nodular goiter in humans. The disease in cats is mechanistically different from Graves' disease, because neither the hyperfunction nor growth of these nodules depends on extrathyroidal circulating stimulators. The basic lesion appears to be an excessive intrinsic growth capacity of some thyroid cells, but iodine deficiency, other nutritional goitrogens, or environmental disruptors may play a role in the disease pathogenesis. Clinical features of feline toxic nodular goiter include one or more palpable thyroid nodules, together with signs of hyperthyroidism (e.g. weight loss despite an increased appetite). Diagnosis of feline hyperthyroidism is confirmed by finding the increased serum concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, undetectable serum TSH concentrations, or increased thyroid uptake of radioiodine. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrates a heterogeneous pattern of increased radionuclide uptake, most commonly into both thyroid lobes. Treatment options for toxic nodular goiter in cats are similar to that used in humans and include surgical thyroidectomy, radioiodine, and antithyroid drugs. Most authorities agree that ablative therapy with radioiodine is the treatment of choice for most cats with toxic nodular goiter, because the animals are older, and the disease will never go into remission.

  6. Some atmospheric scattering considerations relevant to BATSE: A model calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, John H.

    1986-01-01

    The orbiting Burst and Transient Source Experiement (BATSE) will locate gamma ray burst sources by analysis of the relative numbers of photons coming directly from a source and entering its prescribed array of detectors. In order to accurately locate burst sources it is thus necessary to identify and correct for any counts contributed by events other than direct entry by a mainstream photon. An effort is described which estimates the photon numbers which might be scattered into the BATSE detectors from interactions with the Earth atmosphere. A model was developed which yielded analytical expressions for single-scatter photon contributions in terms of source and satellite locations.

  7. Animal model for study of human hepatitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Chayama, Kazuaki; Hayes, C Nelson; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Abe, Hiromi; Tsuge, Masataka; Imamura, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect only chimpanzees and humans. Analysis of both viruses has long been hampered by the absence of a small animal model. The recent development of human hepatocyte chimeric mice has enabled us to carry out studies on viral replication and cellular changes induced by replication of human hepatitis viruses. Various therapeutic agents have also been tested using this model. In the present review, we summarize published studies using chimeric mice and discuss the merits and shortcomings of this model.

  8. Neural models on temperature regulation for cold-stressed animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The present review evaluates several assumptions common to a variety of current models for thermoregulation in cold-stressed animals. Three areas covered by the models are discussed: signals to and from the central nervous system (CNS), portions of the CNS involved, and the arrangement of neurons within networks. Assumptions in each of these categories are considered. The evaluation of the models is based on the experimental foundations of the assumptions. Regions of the nervous system concerned here include the hypothalamus, the skin, the spinal cord, the hippocampus, and the septal area of the brain.

  9. Mechanobiology of Embryonic Skeletal Development: Insights from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nowlan, Niamh C.; Sharpe, James; Roddy, Karen A.; Prendergast, Patrick J.; Murphy, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A range of clinical conditions in which foetal movement is reduced or prevented can have a severe effect on skeletal development. Animal models have been instrumental to our understanding of the interplay between mechanical forces and skeletal development, in particular the mouse and the chick model systems. In the chick, the most commonly used means of altering the mechanical environment is by pharmaceutical agents which induce paralysis, while genetically modified mice with non-functional or absent skeletal muscle offer a valuable tool for examining the interpla