Science.gov

Sample records for relevant cover factor

  1. The dust covering factor in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalevski, Marko

    2016-08-01

    We undertook a critical investigation of a common estimator of the dust covering factor in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The infrared radiation emitted by the obscuring dusty structure ("the dusty torus") is nothing but a reprocessed fraction of the accretion disk emission, so the ratio of their luminosities (L_torus /L_AGN) should correspond to the fraction of the AGN sky obscured by dust. Using state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, we calculated a grid of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) emitted by the clumpy two-phase dusty structure. Using this grid of SEDs, we studied the relation between L_torus /L_AGN and the dust covering factor for different parameters of the torus. We found that in case of type 1 AGNs, due to the torus anisotropy, L_torus/L AGN underestimate low covering factors and overestimate high covering factors. In type 2 AGNs covering factors are always underestimated. Our results provide a novel easy-to-use method to account for anisotropy and obtain correct covering factors. Using two samples from the literature, we demonstrated the importance of these effects for inferring the obscured AGN fraction. We found that after the anisotropy is properly accounted for, the dust covering factors show very weak dependence on L_AGN, with values in the range of approx. 0.6 ‑ 0.7. Our results suggest a higher fraction of obscured AGNs at high luminosities than those found by X-ray surveys. We discuss the possible causes of this discrepancy and demonstrate that it is partially due to the presence of a Compton-thick AGN population, which is missed by X-ray surveys, but not by infrared.

  2. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover.

  3. 28 CFR 51.57 - Relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Determinations by the Attorney General § 51.57 Relevant... afforded members of racial and language minority groups an opportunity to participate in the decision to... language minority groups into account in making the change....

  4. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  5. Quantifying Environmental Limiting Factors on Tree Cover Using Geospatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Santos, Maria J.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  6. The dust covering factor in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalevski, Marko; Ricci, Claudio; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Lira, Paulina; Fritz, Jacopo; Baes, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    The primary source of emission of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the accretion disc, is surrounded by an optically and geometrically thick dusty structure (`the so-called dusty torus'). The infrared radiation emitted by the dust is nothing but a reprocessed fraction of the accretion disc emission, so the ratio of the torus to the AGN luminosity (Ltorus/LAGN) should corresponds to the fraction of the sky obscured by dust, i.e. the covering factor. We undertook a critical investigation of the Ltorus/LAGN as the dust covering factor proxy. Using state-of-the-art 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, we calculated a grid of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) emitted by the clumpy two-phase dusty structure. With this grid of SEDs, we studied the relation between Ltorus/LAGN and the dust covering factor for different parameters of the torus. We found that in the case of type 1 AGNs the torus anisotropy makes Ltorus/LAGN underestimate low covering factors and overestimate high covering factors. In type 2 AGNs Ltorus/LAGN always underestimates covering factors. Our results provide a novel easy-to-use method to account for anisotropy and obtain correct covering factors. Using two samples from the literature, we demonstrated the importance of our result for inferring the obscured AGN fraction. We found that after the anisotropy is properly accounted for, the dust covering factors show very weak dependence on LAGN, with values in the range of ≈0.6-0.7. Our results also suggest a higher fraction of obscured AGNs at high luminosities than those found by X-ray surveys, in part owing to the presence of a Compton-thick AGN population predicted by population synthesis models.

  7. The small covering factor of cold accretion streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2011-03-01

    Theoretical models of galaxy formation predict that galaxies acquire most of their baryons via cold mode accretion. Observations of high-redshift galaxies, while showing ubiquitous outflows, have so far not revealed convincing traces of the predicted cold streams, which has been interpreted as a challenge for the current models. Using high-resolution, zoom-in smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of Lyman break galaxy (LBG) haloes combined with ionizing radiative transfer, we quantify the covering factor of the cold streams at z= 2-4. We focus specifically on Lyman limit systems (LLSs) and damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs), which can be probed by absorption spectroscopy using a background galaxy or quasar sightline, and which are closely related to low-ionization metal absorbers. We show that the covering factor of these systems is relatively small and decreases with time. At z= 2, the covering factor of DLAs within the virial radius of the simulated galaxies is ˜3 per cent (˜1 per cent within twice this projected distance), and arises principally from the galaxy itself. The corresponding values for LLSs are ˜10 and 4 per cent. Because of their small covering factor compared to the order unity covering fraction expected for galactic winds, the cold streams are naturally dominated by outflows in stacked spectra. We conclude that the existing observations are consistent with the predictions of cold mode accretion, and outline promising kinematic and chemical diagnostics to separate out the signatures of galactic accretion and feedback.

  8. The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…

  9. Directional reflectance factor distributions for cover types of Northern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.; Tucker, C. J.; Zonneveld, I. S.; Van Wijngaarden, W.

    1985-01-01

    Directional reflectance factors that spanned the entire exitance hemisphere were collected on the ground throughout the morning period for common cover types in Tunisia, Africa. NOAA 7/8 AVHRR bands 1(0.58-0.68 micron) and 2 (0.7301.1 micron) were used in data collection. The cover types reported were a plowed field, annual grassland, steppe grassland, hard wheat, salt plain, and irrigated wheat. Several of these cover types had geometric structures that are extreme as compared to those reported in the literature. Comparisons were made between the dynamics of the observed reflectance distributions and those reported in the literature. It was found that the dynamics of the measured data could be explained by a combination of soil and vegetation scattering components. The data and analysis further validated physical principles that cause the reflectance distribution dynamics as proposed by field and simulation studies in the literature. Finally, the normalized difference transformation (Band 2 - Band 1)/(Band 1 + Band 2), which is useful in monitoring vegetation cover, generally decreased the variation in signal with changing view angle. However, several exceptions were noted.

  10. Factors relevant to utility integration of intermittent renewable technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Yih-huei; Parsons, B.K.

    1993-08-01

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among findings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface; (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels are feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also identified.

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF THE DUSTY TORUS COVERING FACTOR IN QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Minfeng

    2013-08-20

    We have assembled a large sample of 5996 quasars at 2.0 {<=} z {<=} 2.4 (high-z) or 0.7 {<=} z {<=} 1.1 (low-z) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ninth and seventh data release and quasar catalogs. The spectral energy distributions of quasars were constructed by collecting WISE, UKIDSS, and GALEX photometric data in addition to SDSS data, from which the IR luminosity at 1-7 {mu}m and bolometric luminosity at 1100 A-1 {mu}m were calculated. A red tail is clearly seen in the distribution of the spectral index over 1100 A-1 {mu}m for both the high-z and low-z sources; this tail is likely due to red or reddened quasars. The covering factor (CF) of the dusty torus is estimated as the ratio of the IR luminosity to the bolometric luminosity. We find significant anti-correlations between the CF and the bolometric luminosity, in both the high-z and low-z quasars; however, these two groups follow different tracks. At overlapping bolometric luminosities, the CF of high-z quasars is systematically larger than those of low-z quasars, implying an evolution of the CF with redshift.

  12. Relevance of Preindustrial Land Cover Change and Emissions for Attribution of Excess Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, J.; Caldeira, K.

    2010-12-01

    Until the 1950s, CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC), in particular from deforestation, have been of similar magnitude as or larger than CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning. It has therefore been widely acknowledged that attribution of the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change to countries has to consider not only fossil-fuel emissions, but also emissions from ALCC. Unlike fossil-fuel burning, however, ALCC caused substantial emissions in the preindustrial era: 20-40% of cumulative ALCC emissions until today have occurred before AD 1850. Here, we use simulation results from the comprehensive climate-carbon cycle model ECHAM5-JSBACH/MPIOM-HAMOCC5 and a response function approach to give improved estimates of countries’ contributions to atmospheric CO2 increase, based on a spatially explicit reconstruction of ALCC that reaches back until AD 800. We find that considering emissions from ALCC in addition to fossil-fuel burning substantially shifts the attribution of the present-day CO2 increase towards tropical regions, consistent with previous studies. So far unrecognized, however, has been the role of the large-scale preindustrial deforestation in India and China. Together, these countries contributed more than 20% to the CO2 increase well into the 20th century. As a consequence, the contribution to atmospheric CO2 increase of Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and North America combined is about 100% in 1850 and 70% today when only fossil-fuel emissions are considered, but only 30% in 1850 and 50% today when ALCC emissions are also considered. Reconstruction of the long history of ALCC allows accounting for legacy effects such as delayed emissions from soils and wood products, and for carbon sinks caused by historical land use activity. We find that the Middle East counteracts the atmospheric CO2 increase throughout the preindustrial era, as agricultural area is abandoned in late medieval and early modern times. As

  13. The effects of space relevant environmental factors on halophilic Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, Stefan; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra

    Within the last 50 years, space technology has provided tools for transporting terrestrial (microbial) life beyond Earth's protective shield in order to study its responses to selected conditions of space. Microorganisms are ubiquitous and can be found in almost every environment on Earth. They thrive and survive in a broad spectrum of environments and are true masters in adapting to rapidly changing external conditions. Although microorganisms cannot actively grow under the harsh conditions of outer space or other known planets, some microorganisms might be able to survive for a time in space or other planets as dormant, inactive spores or in similar desiccation-resistant resting states, e.g., enclosed in halite crystals or biofilms. Halite crystals are the realm of halophilic Archaea as they have adapted to life at extreme salt concentrations. They can stay entrapped in such crystals for millions of years without losing viability and therefore the family Halobacteriaceae belongs to the group of microorganisms which may survive space travel or may even be found on other planets. Several members of this family have been utilized in space relevant experiments where they were exposed to detrimental environmental conditions such as UV-C radiation, vacuum, temperature cycles (+60(°) C and -25(°) C) and heavy iron bombardment (150 MeV He, 500 MeV Ar and 500 MeV Fe ions). The viability was evaluated by colony forming unit (cfu) counts as well as with the LIFE/DEAD kit. Results revealed that UV-C radiation (up to 1.000 J/m (2) ) has a considerable effect on the viability, whereas the other tested parameters inflict little damage onto the organisms. Repair of UV-C inflicted damage is efficient and several DNA damage repair genes are up-regulated following exposure. Halophilic archaea display a strong resistance against heavy iron bombardment, with dosages of up to 2.000 Gy 500 MeV Fe ions needed to establish a visible effect on the vitality. Genomic integrity after

  14. Covering factors of the dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Maitrayee; Sikora, Marek; Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    We compare covering factors of circumnuclear dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. The radio-loud quasars are represented by a sample of FR II quasars obtained by cross-matching a catalog of the FR II radio sources selected by van Velzen et al. with the SDSS DR7 catalog of quasars. Covering factors of FR II quasars are compared with covering factors of the radio-quiet quasars matched with them in redshift, black hole mass, and Eddington-ratio. We found that covering factors, proxied by the infrared-to-bolometric luminosity ratio, are on average slightly smaller in FR II quasars than in radio-quiet quasars, however, this difference is statistically significant only for the highest Eddington ratios. For both samples, no statistically significant dependence of a median covering factor on Eddington ratio, black hole mass, nor redshift can be claimed.

  15. Pathologically Relevant Prelamin A Interactions with Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Infante, Arantza; Rodríguez, Clara I

    2016-01-01

    LMNA-linked laminopathies are a group of rare human diseases caused by mutations in LMNA or by disrupted posttranslational processing of its largest encoded isoform, prelamin A. The accumulation of mutated or immature forms of farnesylated prelamin A, named progerin or prelamin A, respectively, dominantly disrupts nuclear lamina structure with toxic effects in cells. One hypothesis is that aberrant lamin filament networks disrupt or "trap" proteins such as transcription factors, thereby interfering with their normal activity. Since laminopathies mainly affect tissues of mesenchymal origin, we tested this hypothesis by generating an experimental model of laminopathy by inducing prelamin A accumulation in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We provide detailed protocols for inducing and detecting prelamin A accumulation in hMSCs, and describe the bioinformatic analysis and in vitro assays of transcription factors potentially affected by prelamin A accumulation.

  16. Spatially varying relationships between land-cover change and driving factors at multiple sampling scales.

    PubMed

    Du, Shihong; Wang, Qiao; Guo, Luo

    2014-05-01

    Modeling the relationships between environment, human activity, and natural conditions is very important for understanding human-environment interactions. This study aims at examining how these relationships vary over spatial sampling scales and investigating the spatially varying relationships between land-cover changes and driving factors, as well as the variations in the relationships at different sampling scales in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, P.R. China. Regular sampling methods are used first to generate eight sets of data points at different scales, and then the values for land-cover changes and the factors are extracted for these data points. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is applied to analyze the relationships between land-cover changes and the factors at different sampling scales. The results indicate that the influences of the factors (e.g. the signs, significances, and values of coefficients) change greatly over different sampling scales; similarly, for different types of land-cover changes, the contributions of the factors also vary. Generally, roads, rivers, and lakes contribute greatly to land-cover changes, while villages, temples, and elevations contribute less. A possible reason is that the densities of roads, rivers, and lakes is much greater than those of villages and temples, and the populations in temples and villages are too small to have much effect on land-cover changes. The results demonstrate that the sampling scales have an important influence on the relationships between land-cover change and the factors. PMID:24603033

  17. Spatially varying relationships between land-cover change and driving factors at multiple sampling scales.

    PubMed

    Du, Shihong; Wang, Qiao; Guo, Luo

    2014-05-01

    Modeling the relationships between environment, human activity, and natural conditions is very important for understanding human-environment interactions. This study aims at examining how these relationships vary over spatial sampling scales and investigating the spatially varying relationships between land-cover changes and driving factors, as well as the variations in the relationships at different sampling scales in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, P.R. China. Regular sampling methods are used first to generate eight sets of data points at different scales, and then the values for land-cover changes and the factors are extracted for these data points. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is applied to analyze the relationships between land-cover changes and the factors at different sampling scales. The results indicate that the influences of the factors (e.g. the signs, significances, and values of coefficients) change greatly over different sampling scales; similarly, for different types of land-cover changes, the contributions of the factors also vary. Generally, roads, rivers, and lakes contribute greatly to land-cover changes, while villages, temples, and elevations contribute less. A possible reason is that the densities of roads, rivers, and lakes is much greater than those of villages and temples, and the populations in temples and villages are too small to have much effect on land-cover changes. The results demonstrate that the sampling scales have an important influence on the relationships between land-cover change and the factors.

  18. Are soluble factors relevant for polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysregulation in septicemia?

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Graninger, W

    1995-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of twelve patients with gram-negative septicemia exhibited a decreased capacity to phagocytize Escherichia coli and generate reactive oxygen products which normalized within 7 days of treatment. Ex vivo exchange of plasma from age-, sex-, and blood-group-identical normal controls resulted in an increase of both phagocytic capacity and reactive oxygen intermediate generation in PMNs of septicemic patients and transiently reduced phagocytosis and reactive oxygen intermediate production in PMNs of normal controls. These results suggest that extrinsic factors are crucial for PMN function. PMID:7697538

  19. [Advance in researches on vegetation cover and management factor in the soil erosion prediction model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jianping; Liu, Baoyuan

    2002-08-01

    Vegetation cover and land management are the main limiting factors of soil erosion, and quantitative evaluation on the effect of different vegetation on soil erosion is essential to land use and soil conservation planning. The vegetation cover and management factor (C) in the universal soil loss equation (USLE) is an index to evaluate this effect, which has been studied deeply and used widely. However, the C factor study is insufficient in China. In order to strengthen the research of C factor, this paper reviewed the developing progress of C factor, and compared the methods of estimating C value in different USLE versions. The relative studies in China were also summarized from the aspects of vegetation canopy coverage, soil surface cover, and root density. Three problems in C factor study were pointed out. The authors suggested that cropland C factor research should be furthered, and its methodology should be unified in China to represent reliable C values for soil loss prediction and conservation planning.

  20. Clinical relevance of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)

    PubMed Central

    Bassenge, E.

    1992-01-01

    1 In addition to metabolic and neurohumoral factors endothelium-derived autacoids like the nitric oxide radical NO and prostacyclin are effective regulators of vascular tone and thus tissue perfusion. NO is produced in endothelial cells from L-arginine by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme NO synthase. In addition, the NO radical is ultimately cleaved from all nitrovasodilators and resembles their vasoactive and antiaggregatory principle, which is used under pathological conditions as substitution therapy for impaired endothelial function and autacoid production. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasomotor control has been documented in hypercholesterolaemia, atheromatosis, diabetes, hypertension, and in reperfusion damage. L-arginine supplementation is effective in a few instances. PMID:1633078

  1. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, M.; Baloković, M.; Stern, D.; Arévalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Fuerst, F.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S.; Puccetti, S.; Rivers, E.; Vasudevan, R.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-05-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (>10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman & Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with NH measured from 1024 to 1026 cm-2, and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, fc, is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, LX, where fc = (-0.41 ± 0.13)log10(LX/erg s-1)+18.31 ± 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in LX (1041.5-1044 erg s-1). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with LX > 1042.5 erg s-1.

  2. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brightman, M.; Balokovic, M.; Stern, D.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N(sub H) greater than 1.5 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (greater than 10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N(sub H) measured from 10(exp 24) to 10(exp 26) cm(exp -2), and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f(sub c), is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, L(sub X), where f(sub c) = (-0.41 +/- 0.13)log(sub 10)(L(sub X)/erg s(exp -1))+18.31 +/- 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L(sub X) (10(exp 41.5) - 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1)). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 42.5) erg s(exp -1).

  3. Multiple Landscape Factors Affect the Resilience of a Mixed Land Cover Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Prues, A. G.; D'Amico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities can stimulate the physical and chemical properties of streams to move beyond their background conditions, thereby facilitating the transition of these factors to stressors that affect watershed resilience. This is particularly true in mixed land cover watersheds. We quantify and explore the statistical nonlinear relationships between watershed and buffer-scale factors and nutrient (nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP)) concentrations, in addition to a multi-metric Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed. Our goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the potentially numerous landscape and near-stream hydrological and biogeochemical factors that affect watershed resiliency - as inferred from in-stream nutrient levels and biological condition. We used a boosted regression tree approach, which quantifies nonlinear relationships and variable interactions, to develop watershed and 200 m buffer scale models for each chemical constituent and the annual IBI score. We developed nutrient models for the spring and summer seasons. Two primary factors - location within the watershed and percentage of urban land cover in the watershed or buffer - emerged as important explanatory variables in most nutrient and IBI models. Geographic location (i.e., latitude and longitude) interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores and suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover) and runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors). Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrologic Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. Our overall approach confirms that it is important to consider multiple and often interacting factors when managing for watershed resilience.

  4. Systematic processes of land use/land cover change to identify relevant driving forces: implications on water quality.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Zara; Teixeira, Heliana; Marques, João C

    2014-02-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) are driving forces that potentially exert pressures on water bodies, which are most commonly quantified by simply obtained aggregated data. However, this is insufficient to detect the drivers that arise from the landscape change itself. To achieve this objective one must distinguish between random and systematic transitions and identify the transitions that show strong signals of change, since these will make it possible to identify the transitions that have evolved due to population growth, industrial expansion and/or changes in land management policies. Our goal is to describe a method to characterize driving forces both from LULC and dominant LULC changes, recognizing that the presence of certain LULC classes as well as the processes of transition to other uses are both sources of stress with potential effects on the condition of water bodies. This paper first quantifies the driving forces from LULC and also from processes of LULC change for three nested regions within the Mondego river basin in 1990, 2000 and 2006. It then discusses the implications for the environmental water body condition and management policies. The fingerprint left on the landscape by some of the dominant changes found, such as urbanization and industrial expansion, is, as expected, low due to their proportion in the geographic regions under study, yet their magnitude of change and consistency reveal strong signals of change regarding the pressures acting in the system. Assessing dominant LULC changes is vital for a comprehensive study of driving forces with potential impacts on water condition.

  5. 29 CFR 780.145 - The relationship is determined by consideration of all relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS... consideration of all relevant factors. The character of a practice as a part of the agricultural activity or...

  6. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  7. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  8. The Covering Factor of Warm Dust in Weak Emission-line Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Weak emission-line active galactic nuclei (WLAGNs) are radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that have nearly featureless optical spectra. We investigate the ultraviolet to mid-infrared spectral energy distributions of 73 WLAGNs (0.4 < z < 3) and find that most of them are similar to normal AGNs. We also calculate the covering factor of warm dust of these 73 WLAGNs. No significant difference is indicated by a KS test between the covering factor of WLAGNs and normal AGNs in the common range of bolometric luminosity. The implication for several models of WLAGNs is discussed. The super-Eddington accretion is unlikely to be the dominant reason for the featureless spectrum of a WLAGN. The present results are still consistent with the evolution scenario, i.e., WLAGNs are in a special stage of AGNs.

  9. X-Ray Absorption, Nuclear Infrared Emission, and Dust Covering Factors of AGNs: Testing Unification Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Barcons, X.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Watson, M. G.; Blain, A.; Caccianiga, A.; Ballo, L.; Braito, V.; Ramos Almeida, C.

    2016-03-01

    We present the distributions of the geometrical covering factors of the dusty tori (f2) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using an X-ray selected complete sample of 227 AGNs drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The AGNs have z from 0.05 to 1.7, 2-10 keV luminosities between 1042 and 1046 erg s-1, and Compton-thin X-ray absorption. Employing data from UKIDSS, 2MASS, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in a previous work, we determined the rest-frame 1-20 μm continuum emission from the torus, which we model here with the clumpy torus models of Nenkova et al. Optically classified type 1 and type 2 AGNs are intrinsically different, with type 2 AGNs having, on average, tori with higher f2 than type 1 AGNs. Nevertheless, ˜20% of type 1 AGNs have tori with large covering factors, while ˜23%-28% of type 2 AGNs have tori with small covering factors. Low f2 are preferred at high AGN luminosities, as postulated by simple receding torus models, although for type 2 AGNs the effect is certainly small. f2 increases with the X-ray column density, which implies that dust extinction and X-ray absorption take place in material that share an overall geometry and most likely belong to the same structure, the putative torus. Based on our results, the viewing angle, AGN luminosity, and also f2 determine the optical appearance of an AGN and control the shape of the rest-frame ˜1-20 μm nuclear continuum emission. Thus, the torus geometrical covering factor is a key ingredient of unification schemes.

  10. On the form factors of relevant operators and their cluster property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acerbi, C.; Mussardo, G.; Valleriani, A.

    1997-05-01

    We compute the form factors of the relevant scaling operators in a class of integrable models without internal symmetries by exploiting their cluster properties. Their identification is established by computing the corresponding anomalous dimensions by means of the Delfino - Simonetti - Cardy sum rule and further confirmed it by comparing some universal ratios of the nearby non-integrable quantum field theories with their independent numerical determination.

  11. Mycobacterium biofilms: factors involved in development, dispersal, and therapeutic strategies against biofilm-relevant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaohong; Deng, Wanyan; Liu, Minqiang; Xie, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria can develop biofilm (BF), a multicellular structure largely combining bacteria and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The formation of biofilm results in an alternative existence in which microbes ensure their survival in adverse environments. Biofilm-relevant infections are more persistent, resistant to most antibiotics, and more recalcitrant to host immunity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, can develop biofilm, though whether M. tuberculosis can form biofilm within tuberculosis patients has yet to be determined. Here, we summarize the factors involved in the development and dispersal of mycobacterial biofilms, as well as underlying regulatory factors and inhibitors against biofilm to deepen our understanding of their development and to elucidate potential novel modes of action for future antibiotics. Key factors in biofilm formation identified as drug targets represent a novel and promising avenue for developing better antibiotics.

  12. Cover Factor Determination by Means of Reflectance Measurement in Translucent Textile Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tàpias, Montserrat; Escofet, Jaume; Ralló, Miquel

    2008-04-01

    We propose a new method to measure the cover factor (CF) of a translucent textile web through the measure of its reflectance with a spectroradiometer. CF is the ratio of the area covered by the yarns to the whole area of the fabric. Reflectance of a single layer of a web, R1, over a background is modelled as a weighted mean of the reflectance of the fabric threads, Rt, and the reflectance of the background, Rb. Its corresponding weights are CF and 1-CF. Rb can be straightforwardly measured by the spectroradiometer. Fabric's threads reflectance is derived by Kubelka-Munk's theory from the reflectances of a sequence of an increasing superposition of fabric layers, assuming that a suitable superposition of several enough layers of fabric can be considered as a homogeneous medium with completely diffuse light distribution. The sequence extends up to a number of layers enough that the reflectance stabilizes. Linear regression furnishes CF from R1, Rt and Rb. The method has been applied to a variety of coloured translucent samples with different CF values, which have been previously evaluated by image thresholding. CF values obtained from reflectances show a good agreement with the previously known CF values of the analyzed samples.

  13. A probabilistic water erosion model for Mediterranean olive orchards with changing cover factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo Perez, A. J.; Giraldez Cervera, J. V.; Vanderlinden, K.

    2012-04-01

    A simple probabilistic framework is presented to describe soil and water loss in olive orchards in Mediterranean environments. The model is based on the exploration of field observations, obtained during three hydrological years (2003-2007) from a network of 1m2 microplots located in olive orchards throughout southern Spain. The objective of this experiment was to compare soil erosion under conventional tillage (CT) and a cover crop system (CC). The basis of the model is a linear relationship between soil and water loss (output) and key variables (input). The exploration of field observations suggested that the key variables were i) rainfall, which was easily described by a gamma probability density function (pdf), ii) slope, for which we adopted a uniform pdf, with values ranging from 4 to24%; and iii) cover factor. This factor could be well described using a truncated beta pdf, but due to the growing trend in the data we proposed an expression similar to a sigmoid curve. Runoff and sediment yield in both soil managements were best represented by exponential pdfs. To generalize the model we combined it with a Monte Carlo scheme to generate the inputs randomly. The model was run using the simulated input data and the relative frequencies of simulated output data were compared with the proposed pdfs for the observed data. The results showed the ability of the model to provide a probabilistic description of soil erosion. Observed and simulated data indicated that the probability to obtain higher soil losses was larger in CT as compared to CC. Therefore, conservationist soil management is essential for maintaining the productivity of olive orchards in this area. Keywords: soil management, erosion processes in olive orchard, probability density function, Monte Carlo scheme.

  14. Spatiotemporal variation of macroinvertebrates in relation to canopy cover and other environmental factors in Eriora River, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arimoro, Francis O; Obi-Iyeke, Grace E; Obukeni, Prince J O

    2012-10-01

    Canopy cover is well known to influence the distribution of macroinvertebrates in temperate streams. Very little is known about how this factor influences stream communities in Afrotropical streams. The effects and possible interactions of environmental factors and canopy cover on macroinvertebrate community structure (abundance, richness, and diversity) were examined in four stations in Eriora River, southern Nigeria bimonthly from May to November 2010. The river supported diverse macroinvertebrates in which the upstream sampling stations with dense canopy cover were dominated by Decapoda, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Gastropoda, Trichoptera, and Coleoptera while Diptera and Coleoptera were the benthic organisms found predominant at downstream stations with less canopy cover. Some caddisfly species such as Agapetus agilis, Trichosetodes species and the stonefly Neoperla species were present upstream and were found to be potential bioindicators for a clean ecosystem. The blood worm Chironomus species and Tabanus sp. were abundant at the downstream of the river and are considered potential bioindicators for an organically degrading ecosystem. Some environmental factors varied temporally with significantly higher macroinvertebrate abundance and richness in May. We found out that canopy cover and environmental factors affected macroinvertebrates abundance, diversity, and richness and that the individual taxon had varying responses to these factors. These results help identify the mechanisms underlying the effects of canopy cover and other environmental factors on Afrotropical stream invertebrate communities.

  15. Relevant factors to consider prior to an investor-owned acquisition of a nonprofit healthcare entity.

    PubMed

    Ault, Kelvin; Childs, Brad; Wainright, Charles F; Young, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the factors that affect the negotiations for an acquisition of a nonprofit system by an investor-owned entity. The recent economic downturn, accompanying credit crisis, and healthcare reform legislation will likely encourage and accelerate the pace of merger and acquisition (M&A) transactions between investor-owned entities and nonprofit hospitals. As many nonprofits are smaller, more financially vulnerable, and more limited in their access to capital than their investor-owned counterparts, nonprofits could be prime targets for investor-owned acquirers during the healthcare reform implementation period. In M&A transactions of this type, the investor-owned acquirer typically is motivated to pursue an acquisition when the deal promises an acceptable return on investment and decreased operating costs from economies of scale. Alternatively, the nonprofit target is typically seeking funding for upgrades to facilities and information technology systems as well as a continued commitment to charity care and managed-care contracting leverage. A successful acquisition of a nonprofit hospital by an investor-owned company requires a careful analysis of relevant tax, economic, and strategic factors prior to closing the deal. This article lists the most significant factors to consider in these deals and explains how these factors should influence the purchase price and postacquisition cash flow.

  16. Relevant Obstetric Factors for Cerebral Palsy: From the Nationwide Obstetric Compensation System in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Asano, Yuri; Satoh, Shoji; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Tamiya, Nanako; Nakai, Akihito; Fujimori, Keiya; Maeda, Tsugio; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Ueda, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify the relevant obstetric factors for cerebral palsy (CP) after 33 weeks’ gestation in Japan. Study design This retrospective case cohort study (1:100 cases and controls) used a Japanese national CP registry. Obstetric characteristics and clinical course were compared between CP cases in the Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy database and controls in the perinatal database of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology born as live singleton infants between 2009 and 2011 with a birth weight ≥ 2,000 g and gestation ≥ 33 weeks. Results One hundred and seventy-five CP cases and 17,475 controls were assessed. Major relevant single factors for CP were placental abnormalities (31%), umbilical cord abnormalities (15%), maternal complications (10%), and neonatal complications (1%). A multivariate regression model demonstrated that obstetric variables associated with CP were acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status (relative risk [RR]: 37.182, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.028–69.032), uterine rupture (RR: 24.770, 95% CI: 6.006–102.160), placental abruption (RR: 20.891, 95% CI: 11.817–36.934), and preterm labor (RR: 3.153, 95% CI: 2.024–4.911), whereas protective factors were head presentation (RR: 0.199, 95% CI: 0.088–0.450) and elective cesarean section (RR: 0.236, 95% CI: 0.067–0.828). Conclusion CP after 33 weeks’ gestation in the recently reported cases in Japan was strongly associated with acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status, uterine rupture, and placental abruption. PMID:26821386

  17. Therapy-relevant factors in adult ADHD from a cognitive behavioural perspective.

    PubMed

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2010-06-01

    Adult individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been suffering from this neurobiological and highly heritable disorder chronically since childhood. Resulting from their longstanding neuropsychological impairments, such as attentional problems, emotional instability, and disinhibition, they are familiar to a multiplicity of negative life outcomes and underachievement. Furthermore, a large part of this population suffers from psychiatric comorbidity. This accumulation of negative experiences has an impact on therapy-relevant factors such as the individual's self-esteem, self-efficacy, development of core beliefs/schemas, and coping strategies. Based on negative beliefs about the self, individuals confronted with difficult situations develop maladaptive coping strategies, for instance avoidance and procrastination. These strategies lead to maintenance and reinforcement of maladaptive beliefs, and as such they acquit themselves as schema-confirming. Captured in this vicious cycle, the individual sees her negative view of the self confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate these interactive factors that influence the aforementioned cycle in order to emphasize the cognitive behavioural interventions tailored to those factors on the basis of latest research. Furthermore, the authors want to attract notice to the resources people with ADHD are said to have, namely creativity and resilience. These postulated resources could be therapy-relevant by creating positive beliefs about the self, hence improving coping skills and breaking the vicious circle of negative appraisal. Taking into account personal resources and their fostering may be an important fundament for the treatment plan of adult ADHD. Information on the current state of research and theoretical approaches concerning the below-mentioned key words was gathered through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEXplus, and PubMed databases. PMID:21432591

  18. Complement Factor B Mutations in Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome—Disease-Relevant or Benign?

    PubMed Central

    Marinozzi, Maria Chiara; Vergoz, Laura; Rybkine, Tania; Ngo, Stephanie; Bettoni, Serena; Pashov, Anastas; Cayla, Mathieu; Tabarin, Fanny; Jablonski, Mathieu; Hue, Christophe; Smith, Richard J.; Noris, Marina; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Donadelli, Roberta; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a genetic ultrarare renal disease associated with overactivation of the alternative pathway of complement. Four gain-of-function mutations that form a hyperactive or deregulated C3 convertase have been identified in Factor B (FB) ligand binding sites. Here, we studied the functional consequences of 10 FB genetic changes recently identified from different aHUS cohorts. Using several tests for alternative C3 and C5 convertase formation and regulation, we identified two gain-of-function and potentially disease-relevant mutations that formed either an overactive convertase (M433I) or a convertase resistant to decay by FH (K298Q). One mutation (R178Q) produced a partially cleaved protein with no ligand binding or functional activity. Seven genetic changes led to near-normal or only slightly reduced ligand binding and functional activity compared with the most common polymorphism at position 7, R7. Notably, none of the algorithms used to predict the disease relevance of FB mutations agreed completely with the experimental data, suggesting that in silico approaches should be undertaken with caution. These data, combined with previously published results, suggest that 9 of 15 FB genetic changes identified in patients with aHUS are unrelated to disease pathogenesis. This study highlights that functional assessment of identified nucleotide changes in FB is mandatory to confirm disease association. PMID:24652797

  19. Microbial Relevant Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: Influencing Factors, Characterization, and Fouling Control

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bing; Fane, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) play important roles on degradation of organic/inorganic substances in wastewaters, while microbial deposition/growth and microbial product accumulation on membranes potentially induce membrane fouling. Generally, there is a need to characterize membrane foulants and to determine their relations to the evolution of membrane fouling in order to identify a suitable fouling control approach in MBRs. This review summarized the factors in MBRs that influence microbial behaviors (community compositions, physical properties, and microbial products). The state-of-the-art techniques to characterize biofoulants in MBRs were reported. The strategies for controlling microbial relevant fouling were discussed and the future studies on membrane fouling mechanisms in MBRs were proposed. PMID:24958297

  20. Cancer-relevant Splicing Factor CAPERα Engages the Essential Splicing Factor SF3b155 in a Specific Ternary Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Loerch, Sarah; Maucuer, Alexandre; Manceau, Valérie; Green, Michael R.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2014-01-01

    U2AF homology motifs (UHMs) mediate protein-protein interactions with U2AF ligand motifs (ULMs) of pre-mRNA splicing factors. The UHM-containing alternative splicing factor CAPERα regulates splicing of tumor-promoting VEGF isoforms, yet the molecular target of the CAPERα UHM is unknown. Here we present structures of the CAPERα UHM bound to a representative SF3b155 ULM at 1.7 Å resolution and, for comparison, in the absence of ligand at 2.2 Å resolution. The prototypical UHM/ULM interactions authenticate CAPERα as a bona fide member of the UHM family of proteins. We identify SF3b155 as the relevant ULM-containing partner of full-length CAPERα in human cell extracts. Isothermal titration calorimetry comparisons of the purified CAPERα UHM binding known ULM-containing proteins demonstrate that high affinity interactions depend on the presence of an intact, intrinsically unstructured SF3b155 domain containing seven ULM-like motifs. The interplay among bound CAPERα molecules gives rise to the appearance of two high affinity sites in the SF3b155 ULM-containing domain. In conjunction with the previously identified, UHM/ULM-mediated complexes of U2AF65 and SPF45 with SF3b155, this work demonstrates the capacity of SF3b155 to offer a platform for coordinated recruitment of UHM-containing splicing factors. PMID:24795046

  1. [Quantitative estimation of vegetation cover and management factor in USLE and RUSLE models by using remote sensing data: a review].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Guang; Li, Sheng; Ren, Hua-Dong; Yao, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Zi-Jie

    2012-06-01

    Soil loss prediction models such as universal soil loss equation (USLE) and its revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) are the useful tools for risk assessment of soil erosion and planning of soil conservation at regional scale. To make a rational estimation of vegetation cover and management factor, the most important parameters in USLE or RUSLE, is particularly important for the accurate prediction of soil erosion. The traditional estimation based on field survey and measurement is time-consuming, laborious, and costly, and cannot rapidly extract the vegetation cover and management factor at macro-scale. In recent years, the development of remote sensing technology has provided both data and methods for the estimation of vegetation cover and management factor over broad geographic areas. This paper summarized the research findings on the quantitative estimation of vegetation cover and management factor by using remote sensing data, and analyzed the advantages and the disadvantages of various methods, aimed to provide reference for the further research and quantitative estimation of vegetation cover and management factor at large scale.

  2. Challenge of investigating biologically relevant functions of virulence factors in bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Moxon, R; Tang, C

    2000-01-01

    Recent innovations have increased enormously the opportunities for investigating the molecular basis of bacterial pathogenicity, including the availability of whole-genome sequences, techniques for identifying key virulence genes, and the use of microarrays and proteomics. These methods should provide powerful tools for analysing the patterns of gene expression and function required for investigating host-microbe interactions in vivo. But, the challenge is exacting. Pathogenicity is a complex phenotype and the reductionist approach does not adequately address the eclectic and variable outcomes of host-microbe interactions, including evolutionary dynamics and ecological factors. There are difficulties in distinguishing bacterial 'virulence' factors from the many determinants that are permissive for pathogenicity, for example those promoting general fitness. A further practical problem for some of the major bacterial pathogens is that there are no satisfactory animal models or experimental assays that adequately reflect the infection under investigation. In this review, we give a personal perspective on the challenge of characterizing how bacterial pathogens behave in vivo and discuss some of the methods that might be most relevant for understanding the molecular basis of the diseases for which they are responsible. Despite the powerful genomic, molecular, cellular and structural technologies available to us, we are still struggling to come to grips with the question of 'What is a pathogen?' PMID:10874737

  3. Relevance of psychosomatic factors in psoriasis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Janković, Slavenka; Raznatović, Milena; Marinković, Jelena; Maksimović, Natasa; Janković, Janko; Djikanović, Bosiljka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of stressful life events, lack of social support and attachment insecurity in triggering exacerbations of psoriasis. Outpatients experiencing exacerbation of psoriasis in the last 6 months (n = 110) were compared with outpatients affected by skin conditions in which psychosomatic factors are believed to play a minor role (n = 200). Stressful life events during the last 12 months were assessed with Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events. Perceived social support and attachment relationship were assessed with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, respectively. In comparison with controls the patients with psoriasis reported more stressful life events in the last year. The statistically significant difference was found only for the sum of the first 25 events (odds ratio (OR) 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-2.87; p < 0.001). Also, patients with psoriasis were more likely to score higher on both anxiety (OR = 1.44; CI = 1.09-1.92; p = 0.011) and avoidance attachment scale (OR = 1.49; CI = 1.04-2.14; p = 0.030), and perceived less support from their social network than did the comparison subjects. The results of this study confirm the relevance of psychosocial factors in psoriasis.

  4. Clinical relevance of and risk factors for HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia: results of an outbreak investigation

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Ilka; Gottlieb, Jens; Meier, Astrid; Sohr, Dorit; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Henke-Gendo, Cornelia; Gastmeier, Petra; Welte, Tobias; Schulz, Thomas Friedrich; Mattner, Frauke

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 was identified in respiratory specimens from a cluster of eight patients on a surgical intensive care unit within 8 weeks. Six of these patients suffered from HSV-related tracheobronchitis and one from HSV-related pneumonia only. Our outbreak investigation aimed to determine the clinical relevance of and risk factors associated with HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia in critically ill patients, and to investigate whether the cluster was caused by nosocomial transmission. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for the outcomes of HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia and death using univariable analysis as well as logistic regression analysis. Viruses were typed by molecular analysis of a fragment of the HSV type 1 glycoprotein G. Results The cohort of patients covering the outbreak period comprised 53 patients, including six patients with HSV-related tracheobronchitis and one patient with pneumonia only. HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia was associated with increased mortality (100% in patients with versus 17.8% in patients without HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia; P < 0.0001). The interaction of longer duration of ventilation and tracheotomy was associated with HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia in multivariable analysis. Identical HSV type 1 glycoprotein G sequences were found in three patients and in two patients. The group of three identical viral sequences belonged to a widely circulating strain. The two identical viral sequences were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavages of one patient with HSV-related tracheobronchitis and of one patient without clinical symptoms. These viral sequences showed unique polymorphisms, indicating probable nosocomial transmission. Conclusion HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia is associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. Care should be taken to avoid nosocomial transmission and

  5. Expression, regulation and clinical relevance of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Aragó, M; Formentini, L; Martínez-Reyes, I; García-Bermudez, J; Santacatterina, F; Sánchez-Cenizo, L; Willers, I M; Aldea, M; Nájera, L; Juarránz, Á; López, E C; Clofent, J; Navarro, C; Espinosa, E; Cuezva, J M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings in colon cancer cells indicate that inhibition of the mitochondrial H+-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase by the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) promotes aerobic glycolysis and a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signal that enhances proliferation and cell survival. Herein, we have studied the expression, biological relevance, mechanism of regulation and potential clinical impact of IF1 in some prevalent human carcinomas. We show that IF1 is highly overexpressed in most (>90%) of the colon (n=64), lung (n=30), breast (n=129) and ovarian (n=10) carcinomas studied as assessed by different approaches in independent cohorts of cancer patients. The expression of IF1 in the corresponding normal tissues is negligible. By contrast, the endometrium, stomach and kidney show high expression of IF1 in the normal tissue revealing subtle differences by carcinogenesis. The overexpression of IF1 also promotes the activation of aerobic glycolysis and a concurrent ROS signal in mitochondria of the lung, breast and ovarian cancer cells mimicking the activity of oligomycin. IF1-mediated ROS signaling activates cell-type specific adaptive responses aimed at preventing death in these cell lines. Remarkably, regulation of IF1 expression in the colon, lung, breast and ovarian carcinomas is exerted at post-transcriptional levels. We demonstrate that IF1 is a short-lived protein (t1/2 ∼100 min) strongly implicating translation and/or protein stabilization as main drivers of metabolic reprogramming and cell survival in these human cancers. Analysis of tumor expression of IF1 in cohorts of breast and colon cancer patients revealed its relevance as a predictive marker for clinical outcome, emphasizing the high potential of IF1 as therapeutic target. PMID:23608753

  6. Prognostic Factors Toward Clinically Relevant Radiographic Progression in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Okada, Akitomo; Fukuda, Takaaki; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kodera, Takao; Nakashima, Munetoshi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Honda, Seiyo; Horai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Ryu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama, Tomomasa; Takai, Osamu; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Origuchi, Tomoki; Nakamura, Hideki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice. We performed a multicenter prospective study in Japan of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD)-naive RA patients with moderate to high disease activity treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) at study entry. We longitudinally observed 408 patients for 1 year and assessed disease activity every 3 months. CRRP was defined as yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS) > 3.0 U. We also divided the cohort into 2 groups based on disease duration (<3 vs ≥3 years) and performed a subgroup analysis. CRRP was found in 10.3% of the patients. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: CRP at baseline (0.30 mg/dL increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.11), time-integrated Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) during the 1 year postbaseline (12.4-unit increase, 95%CI 1.17–2.59), RA typical erosion at baseline (95%CI 1.56–21.1), and the introduction of bDMARDs (95%CI 0.06–0.38). The subgroup analysis revealed that time-integrated DAS28-ESR is not a predictor whereas the introduction of bDMARDs is a significant protective factor for CRRP in RA patients with disease duration <3 years. We identified factors that could be used to predict the development of CRRP in RA patients treated with DMARDs. These variables appear to be different based on the RA patients’ disease durations. PMID:27124044

  7. Environmental factors influencing attenuation of methane and hydrochlorofluorocarbons in landfill cover soils.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The influence of different environmental factors on methane oxidation and degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) was investigated in microcosms containing soil sampled at Skellingsted Landfill, Denmark. The soil showed a high capacity for methane oxidation resulting in a maximum oxidation rate of 104 microg CH4 g(-1) h(-1) and a low affinity of methane with a half-saturation constant of 2.0% v/v. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-21 (dichlorofluoromethane) and HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane) were rapidly oxidized and the oxidation occurred in parallel with the oxidation of methane. The maximal HCFC oxidation rates were 0.95 and 0.68 microg g(-1) h(-1) for HCFC-21 and HCFC-22, respectively. Increasing concentrations of HCFCs resulted in decreased methane oxidation rates. However, compared with typical concentrations in landfill gas, relatively high HCFC concentrations were needed to obtain a significant inhibition of methane oxidation. In general, the environmental factors studied influenced the degradation of HCFCs in almost the same way as they influenced methane oxidation. Temperature had a strong influence on the methanotrophic activity giving high Q10 values of 3.4 to 4.1 over the temperature range of 2 to 25 degrees C. Temperature optimum was around 30 degrees C; however, oxidation occurred at temperatures as low as 2 degrees C. A moisture content of 25% w/w yielded the maximum oxidation rate as it allowed good gas transport together with sufficient microbial activity. The optimum pH was around neutrality (pH = 6.5-7.5) showing that the methanotrophs were optimally adapted to the in situ pH, which was 6.9. Copper showed no inhibitory effect when added in relatively high concentrations (up to 60 mg kg(-1)), most likely due to sorption of copper ions to soil particles. At higher copper concentrations the oxidation rates decreased. The oxidation rates for methane, HCFC-21, and HCFC-22 were unaltered in ammonium-amended soil up to 14 mg kg(-1). Higher

  8. Environmental factors influencing attenuation of methane and hydrochlorofluorocarbons in landfill cover soils.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The influence of different environmental factors on methane oxidation and degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) was investigated in microcosms containing soil sampled at Skellingsted Landfill, Denmark. The soil showed a high capacity for methane oxidation resulting in a maximum oxidation rate of 104 microg CH4 g(-1) h(-1) and a low affinity of methane with a half-saturation constant of 2.0% v/v. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-21 (dichlorofluoromethane) and HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane) were rapidly oxidized and the oxidation occurred in parallel with the oxidation of methane. The maximal HCFC oxidation rates were 0.95 and 0.68 microg g(-1) h(-1) for HCFC-21 and HCFC-22, respectively. Increasing concentrations of HCFCs resulted in decreased methane oxidation rates. However, compared with typical concentrations in landfill gas, relatively high HCFC concentrations were needed to obtain a significant inhibition of methane oxidation. In general, the environmental factors studied influenced the degradation of HCFCs in almost the same way as they influenced methane oxidation. Temperature had a strong influence on the methanotrophic activity giving high Q10 values of 3.4 to 4.1 over the temperature range of 2 to 25 degrees C. Temperature optimum was around 30 degrees C; however, oxidation occurred at temperatures as low as 2 degrees C. A moisture content of 25% w/w yielded the maximum oxidation rate as it allowed good gas transport together with sufficient microbial activity. The optimum pH was around neutrality (pH = 6.5-7.5) showing that the methanotrophs were optimally adapted to the in situ pH, which was 6.9. Copper showed no inhibitory effect when added in relatively high concentrations (up to 60 mg kg(-1)), most likely due to sorption of copper ions to soil particles. At higher copper concentrations the oxidation rates decreased. The oxidation rates for methane, HCFC-21, and HCFC-22 were unaltered in ammonium-amended soil up to 14 mg kg(-1). Higher

  9. Use of allogenic epidermal sheets for difficult wound healing: selection and testing of relevant growth factors.

    PubMed

    Auxenfans, C; Colloud, M; Debard, A L; Braye, F M; Amini, M; Allombert-Blaise, V; Builles, N; Claudy, A; Damour, O

    2006-01-01

    The clinical interest of using allogenic epidermal sheets (AES) has largely been shown [1,2,3]. As well as covering, they also stimulate healing, by simultaneously secreting numerous growth factors (GFs), although little is known on their mechanism of action. Our objectives were to: (a) devise a test for the efficacy of AES release, (b) select keratinocyte-secreting strains and optimal culture conditions. Three GFs were selected: IL-1alpha, IL-8 and VEGF. Three different keratinocyte strains were cultured for 3 and 6 days after confluence for 3 passages. Assays were performed after 3 h and 24 h+3 h after dispase treatment (AES conservation for 24 h then change of medium and sampling after 3 h). AES were found to secrete GFs in DMEM and the amounts were greater when cultured for 6 rather than 3 days after confluence. Each strain had different secretory patterns depending on passage and time in culture, this variability being explained by inter-individual heterogeneity.

  10. An upscaling method for cover-management factor and its application in the loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenwu; Fu, Bojie; Qiu, Yang

    2013-10-09

    The cover-management factor (C-factor) is important for studying soil erosion. In addition, it is important to use sampling plot data to estimate the regional C-factor when assessing erosion and soil conservation. Here, the loess hill and gully region in Ansai County, China, was studied to determine a method for computing the C-factor. This C-factor is used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) at a regional scale. After upscaling the slope-scale computational equation, the C-factor for Ansai County was calculated by using the soil loss ratio, precipitation and land use/cover type. The multi-year mean C-factor for Ansai County was 0.36. The C-factor values were greater in the eastern region of the county than in the western region. In addition, the lowest C-factor values were found in the southern region of the county near its southern border. These spatial differences were consistent with the spatial distribution of the soil loess ratios across areas with different land uses. Additional research is needed to determine the effects of seasonal vegetation growth changes on the C-factor, and the C-factor upscaling uncertainties at a regional scale.

  11. The relevance of coagulation factor X protection of adenoviruses in human sera

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, M R; Doszpoly, A; Turner, G; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenoviruses is the optimal route for many gene therapy applications. Once in the blood, coagulation factor X (FX) binds to the adenovirus capsid and protects the virion from natural antibody and classical complement-mediated neutralisation in mice. However, to date, no studies have examined the relevance of this FX/viral immune protective mechanism in human samples. In this study, we assessed the effects of blocking FX on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) activity in the presence of human serum. FX prevented human IgM binding directly to the virus. In individual human sera samples (n=25), approximately half of those screened inhibited adenovirus transduction only when the Ad5–FX interaction was blocked, demonstrating that FX protected the virus from neutralising components in a large proportion of human sera. In contrast, the remainder of sera tested had no inhibitory effects on Ad5 transduction and FX armament was not required for effective gene transfer. In human sera in which FX had a protective role, Ad5 induced lower levels of complement activation in the presence of FX. We therefore demonstrate for the first time the importance of Ad–FX protection in human samples and highlight subject variability and species-specific differences as key considerations for adenoviral gene therapy. PMID:27014840

  12. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burow, E; Thomsen, P T; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1) <165 m or (2) ≥165 m. Cover of track way was categorised as (1) prepared (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, and/or rubber), (2) partly prepared or (3) not prepared (soil, sand, grass) for the surface of the majority of tracks used. The effect of track way distance and cover was evaluated for their impact on lameness using logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way was associated with decreased severe lameness in Danish dairy cows.

  13. Decoupling factors affecting plant diversity and cover on extensive green roofs.

    PubMed

    MacIvor, J Scott; Margolis, Liat; Puncher, Curtis L; Carver Matthews, Benjamin J

    2013-11-30

    Supplemental irrigation systems are often specified on green roofs to ensure plant cover and growth, both important components of green roof performance and aesthetics. Properties of the growing media environment too can alter the assemblage of plant species able to thrive. In this study we determine how plant cover, above ground biomass and species diversity are influenced by irrigation and growing media. Grass and forb vegetative cover and biomass were significantly greater in organic based growing media but there was no effect of supplemental irrigation, with two warm season grasses dominating in those treatments receiving no supplemental irrigation. On the other hand, plant diversity declined without irrigation in organic media, and having no irrigation in inorganic growing media resulted in almost a complete loss of cover. Sedum biomass was less in inorganic growing media treatments and species dominance shifted when growing media organic content increased. Our results demonstrate that supplemental irrigation is required to maintain plant diversity on an extensive green roof, but not necessarily plant cover or biomass. These results provide evidence that planting extensive green roofs with a mix of plant species can ensure the survival of some species; maintaining cover and biomass when supplemental irrigation is turned off to conserve water, or during extreme drought.

  14. Annual and semi-annual variability of cloud covering in Abastumani and their coupling with cosmic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todua, M.; Didebulidze, G. G.

    2016-09-01

    Investigation of the influence of cosmic factors on the Earths's atmosphere is an important issue of the atmospheric and solar-terrestrial coupling studies. Contribution of cosmic factors to the climate change, included in the solar-terrestrial coupling models, is a matter of increasing interest. We studied long-term inter-annual variations of cloud covering in Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory (N41°45'; E42°49') during day- and night-time, at various helio-geophysical conditions, as well as coupling with cosmic factors. We found that these distributions are different: for cloudless days they reveal semi-annual periodicity, while for cloudless nights both annual and semi-annual ones are observed, depending also on geomagnetic activity. This may be a manifestation of possible influence of cosmic factors on cloud covering.

  15. Ice Cover as a Factor Driving Microbial Community Structure in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, R. M.; Beall, B.; Oyserman, B.; Smith, D.; Bullerjahn, G.; Morris, P.; Twiss, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes serve as rapid responding sentinels of human influence on the natural environment rendering them powerful tools to advance our understanding of a changing climate on microbial community structure and function. Whereas we possess a baseline knowledge of microbial diversity in the Great Lakes, we know little about how these communities respond to the manifestations of climate change. Through collaboration with U.S.- and Canadian Coast Guards, winter surveys have been conducted on Lake Erie since 2007. The surveys have captured extremes in ice extent ranging from expansive ice cover through 2011 to nearly ice-free waters in winter 2012, a condition driven by a warm positive Arctic Oscillation. We showed that dramatic changes in annual ice cover were accompanied by equally dramatic shifts in phytoplankton community structure. Expansive ice cover documented for Lake Erie in winters 2010 and 2011 supported ice-associated phytoplankton blooms dominated by physiologically robust, filamentous centric diatoms. Transcriptomic analysis of the winter bloom offers insights into the success of this psychrophilic community. By comparison, ice free conditions promoted the growth of small-sized cells supported by analysis of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and flow cytometry. The phytoplankton community in winter 2013 was dominated by microplankton-sized filamentous diatoms, coincident with expansive ice cover and thus returning to the size structure of the 2010 and 2011 communities. Reduced size is recognized as a universal ecological response to global warming in aquatic systems although it usually marks a response to climate warming over multiple years, not a single season as reported here. Fig. 1. Winter surveys conducted on Lake Erie over two years demonstrated tight coupling between microplankton Chl a biomass and total Chl a during winter 2010-11 (purple, green), a year of expansive ice cover. A warm positive Arctic Oscillation resulted in negligible ice cover on Lake

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children. PMID:23373713

  17. Stream fish occurrence in response to impervious cover, historic land use, and hydrogeomorphic factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenger, S.J.; Peterson, J.T.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.; Homans, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated competing models explaining the occurrence of five stream fishes in an urbanizing watershed to determine the relative importance of (a) impervious surface and other indicators of current land use, (b) historic land use (e.g., agriculture, impoundments), and (c) hydrogeomorphic characteristics (e.g., stream size, elevation, geology). For four of five species, the best-supported models were those that included both current effective impervious cover and historic land use predictor variables, although models with only effective impervious cover were equally well supported for two of those species. For the best-supported models for three species, occurrence probability was predicted to approach zero at levels of development equivalent to about 2%-4% effective impervious cover in the surrounding region. Data were drawn from 357 fish collections made in the Etowah River basin, Georgia, USA, between 1998 and 2003 and analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression accounting for imperfect species detection. This is the first study we know of to examine the response of individual fish species to both increasing impervious cover and historic land use. Such individual species assessments will be increasingly necessary to guide policies for managing urban effects and preventing extirpations of sensitive species. ?? 2008 NRC.

  18. Stream fish occurrence in response to impervious cover, historic land use, and hydrogeomorphic factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenger, S.J.; Peterson, J.T.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.; Homans, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated competing models explaining the occurrence of five stream fishes in an urbanizing watershed to determine the relative importance of (a) impervious surface and other indicators of current land use, (b) historic land use (e.g., agriculture, impoundments), and (c) hydrogeomorphic characteristics (e.g., stream size, elevation, geology). For four of five species, the best-supported models were those that included both current effective impervious cover and historic land use predictor variables, although models with only effective impervious cover were equally well supported for two of those species. For the best-supported models for three species, occurrence probability was predicted to approach zero at levels of development equivalent to about 2%?4% effective impervious cover in the surrounding region. Data were drawn from 357 fish collections made in the Etowah River basin, Georgia, USA, between 1998 and 2003 and analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression accounting for imperfect species detection. This is the first study we know of to examine the response of individual fish species to both increasing impervious cover and historic land use. Such individual species assessments will be increasingly necessary to guide policies for managing urban effects and preventing extirpations of sensitive species.

  19. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  20. Factors that Influence the Perceived Advantages and Relevance of Facebook as a Learning Tool: An Extension of the UTAUT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Carvajal-Trujillo, Elena; Monge-Lozano, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Social media technologies are becoming a fundamental component of education. This study extends the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to identify factors that influence the perceived advantages and relevance of Facebook as a learning tool. The proposed model is based on previous models of UTAUT. Constructs from previous…

  1. Malaria entomological risk factors in relation to land cover in the Lower Caura River Basin, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Bevilacqua, Mariapia; Medina, Domingo Alberto; Moreno, Jorge Ernesto; Cárdenas, Lya; Sánchez, Víctor; Estrada, Yarys; Anaya, William; Martínez, Ángela

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effects of deforestation and resulting differences in vegetation and land cover on entomological parameters, such as anopheline species composition, abundance, biting rate, parity and entomological inoculation rate (EIR), three villages were selected in the Lower Caura River Basin, state of Bolívar, Venezuela. All-night mosquito collections were conducted between March 2008-January 2009 using CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnet(r) Liberty Plus. Human landing catches were performed between 06:00 pm-10:00 pm, when anophelines were most active. Four types of vegetation were identified. The Annual Parasite Index was not correlated with the type of vegetation. The least abundantly forested village had the highest anopheline abundance, biting rate and species diversity. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most abundant species and were collected in all three villages. Both species showed unique biting cycles. The more abundantly forested village of El Palmar reported the highest EIR. The results confirmed previous observations that the impacts of deforestation and resulting changes in vegetation cover on malaria transmission are complex and vary locally. PMID:23579803

  2. Environmental factors affecting long-term stabilization of radon suppression covers for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Long, L.W.; Reis, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. To help determine design stresses for the tailings piles, environmental parameters are characterized for the five active uranium-producing regions on a site-specific basis. Only conventional uranium mills that are currently operating or that are scheduled to open in the mid 1980s are considered. Available data indicate that flooding has the most potential for disrupting a tailings pile. The arid regions of the Wyoming Basins and the Colorado Plateau are subject to brief storms of high intensity. The Texas Gulf Coast has the highest potential for extreme precipitation from hurricane-related storms. Wind data indicate average wind speeds from 3 to 6 m/sec for the sites, but extremes of 40 m/sec can be expected. Tornado risks range from low to moderate. The Colorado Plateau has the highest seismic potential, with maximum acceleration caused by earthquakes ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 g. Any direct effect from volcanic eruption is negligible, as all mills are located 90 km or more from an igneous or hydrothermal system.

  3. [Stationary thromboprophylaxis in casualty surgery. Relevance of postoperative mobility and preexisting risk factors].

    PubMed

    Eisele, R; Maier, E; Kinzl, L; Gude, U

    2004-04-01

    The presented thromboprophylactic concept includes weight bearing and ankle motion as well as breathing therapy and drug prophylaxis (antiphlogistics, analgesic drugs, heparin). Routinely performed ultrasound screening of the deep veins (legs and pelvis) before release showed a low DVT incidence of 2.5% in a prospective clinical observation of 841 inpatients. Obesity, venous insufficiency, and a history of previous thromboembolic events were associated with a significantly increased risk of thrombosis (relative risk 4.1, 4,9, and 5.8, respectively) The duration of immobilization also had a relevant influence indicating that early postoperative physiotherapy in traumatology and orthopedic surgery has a widely underestimated thromboprophylactic effect.

  4. [Distribution of PGEs contents and its factors in snowfall and snow cover over the arid region in Changji City].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Yan; Liu, Hao-Feng; Zhang, Lan

    2013-02-01

    This paper was to select a small-medium sized City, Changji city, over the arid region, study the distribution of platinum group metals(PGEs) contents and influencing factors in snowfall and snow cover. Samples were analysed by ICP-MS. The results revealed that the annual contents of Rh, Pd and Pt in snowfall were on the average value of 0.43 ng.L-1 ranging from not detected to 2.24 ng.L-1 , 60.07 ng.L-1 ranging from 46.66 to 84.25 ng.L-1 and 4.54 ng.L-1 ranging from 3.02 ng.L-1 to 6.38 ng.L-1 respectively. The difference of PGEs levels was found in different occurrences of snowfall, tended to increase before snowfall due to the longer arid days. PGEs contents maybe influenced by the amount of snowfall, the less snowfall, the higher PGEs contents reflected. The annual levels of Rh, Pd and Pt in snow cover were in the range of 2.50-18.80 ng.L-1 (av. 6.65 ng.L-1), 46.83-199.20 ng.L-1 (av. 83.45 ng.L-1) ,4. 27-13.78 ng.L-1 (av. 8.17 ng.L-1) respectively. PGEs content in snow cover were far higher than that of snowfall, PGEs in snowfall were only obtained from atmospheric PGEs rinsed by single time of snowfall, while PGEs were not only from the accumulation of PGEs in frequent times of snowfall and the snow cover under the long time exposure, but also continuously accepted the PGEs from atmospheric dry deposition. PGEs content of snow cover in all sampling sites were demonstrated as follows: traffic area > residential-culture-education district > square of park > suburban farmland. the input way of PGEs in snow cover was found a remarkable difference with the amount of input within different function areas, which was the main reason caused that PGEs content of snow cover in each function area varied and had a certain regularity.

  5. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Milan; Bertoncelj, Irena; Pirotti, Francesco; Dakskobler, Igor; Kutnar, Lado

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts. PMID:25793871

  6. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Milan; Bertoncelj, Irena; Pirotti, Francesco; Dakskobler, Igor; Kutnar, Lado

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  7. Are climate and land cover changes in East Asia important factors for dust emission variability in the past 30 years?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, R. M. K.; Tai, A. P. K.; Ridley, D. A.; Kok, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust is important for climate because it alters the radiation budget, both directly by scattering sunlight and indirectly by influencing cloud processes. Studies have shown that the variability of dust emission is greatly affected by local wind speeds and land surface characteristics. Globally, land cover change is mainly driven by vegetation changes that modify the dust sources, which can be represented by changes in leaf area index (LAI), and its effect on East Asian dust emission under the backdrop of changing wind patterns has yet to be quantified. Here we present a study to investigate how climate and land cover changes might have modified dust emission in East Asia during 1982-2010 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. New developments include a dynamic geomorphology-dependent dust emission scheme and better representation of vegetation effect on surface roughness and threshold wind speed. We also implement subgrid wind variability to reduce the resolution dependence of the model. The bias of modeled total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relative to observations is reduced from about -86% to -14%, mostly due to the inclusion of subgrid wind variability, but up to 10% of the emission improvements stem from the revised vegetation dependence. Simulations suggest that about 45 Tg, ~9% of the global dust emission, is from East Asia in spring. Sensitivity studies with changing historical LAI vs. surface wind show that climate variability might be a more important factor than land cover change contributing to dust emission variability and trends over the past 30 years.

  8. On the Relevance of Assumptions Associated with Classical Factor Analytic Approaches†

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Daniel; Ünlü, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A personal trait, for example a person’s cognitive ability, represents a theoretical concept postulated to explain behavior. Interesting constructs are latent, that is, they cannot be observed. Latent variable modeling constitutes a methodology to deal with hypothetical constructs. Constructs are modeled as random variables and become components of a statistical model. As random variables, they possess a probability distribution in the population of reference. In applications, this distribution is typically assumed to be the normal distribution. The normality assumption may be reasonable in many cases, but there are situations where it cannot be justified. For example, this is true for criterion-referenced tests or for background characteristics of students in large scale assessment studies. Nevertheless, the normal procedures in combination with the classical factor analytic methods are frequently pursued, despite the effects of violating this “implicit” assumption are not clear in general. In a simulation study, we investigate whether classical factor analytic approaches can be instrumental in estimating the factorial structure and properties of the population distribution of a latent personal trait from educational test data, when violations of classical assumptions as the aforementioned are present. The results indicate that having a latent non-normal distribution clearly affects the estimation of the distribution of the factor scores and properties thereof. Thus, when the population distribution of a personal trait is assumed to be non-symmetric, we recommend avoiding those factor analytic approaches for estimation of a person’s factor score, even though the number of extracted factors and the estimated loading matrix may not be strongly affected. An application to the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is given. Comments on possible implications for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) complete the

  9. On the relevance of assumptions associated with classical factor analytic approaches.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Daniel; Unlü, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A personal trait, for example a person's cognitive ability, represents a theoretical concept postulated to explain behavior. Interesting constructs are latent, that is, they cannot be observed. Latent variable modeling constitutes a methodology to deal with hypothetical constructs. Constructs are modeled as random variables and become components of a statistical model. As random variables, they possess a probability distribution in the population of reference. In applications, this distribution is typically assumed to be the normal distribution. The normality assumption may be reasonable in many cases, but there are situations where it cannot be justified. For example, this is true for criterion-referenced tests or for background characteristics of students in large scale assessment studies. Nevertheless, the normal procedures in combination with the classical factor analytic methods are frequently pursued, despite the effects of violating this "implicit" assumption are not clear in general. In a simulation study, we investigate whether classical factor analytic approaches can be instrumental in estimating the factorial structure and properties of the population distribution of a latent personal trait from educational test data, when violations of classical assumptions as the aforementioned are present. The results indicate that having a latent non-normal distribution clearly affects the estimation of the distribution of the factor scores and properties thereof. Thus, when the population distribution of a personal trait is assumed to be non-symmetric, we recommend avoiding those factor analytic approaches for estimation of a person's factor score, even though the number of extracted factors and the estimated loading matrix may not be strongly affected. An application to the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is given. Comments on possible implications for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) complete the presentation. PMID

  10. Contextual Factors Relevant to Elementary Teachers Using Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Omar; Krockover, Cheri

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature by examining in more detail the correlations among contextual factors defined by the teachers' technical confidence, lesson planning skills, and the extent of IWB usage in mathematics classroom discourse. The sample for the current study consisted of 134 elementary school teachers in grades K-5 using…

  11. 29 CFR 780.145 - The relationship is determined by consideration of all relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Incident to Or in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.145 The relationship is determined by... be considered an incident to farming within the intent of the Act. Thus, the general relationship, if any, of the practice to farming as evidenced by common understanding, competitive factors, and...

  12. 29 CFR 780.145 - The relationship is determined by consideration of all relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Incident to Or in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.145 The relationship is determined by... be considered an incident to farming within the intent of the Act. Thus, the general relationship, if any, of the practice to farming as evidenced by common understanding, competitive factors, and...

  13. 29 CFR 780.145 - The relationship is determined by consideration of all relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Incident to Or in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.145 The relationship is determined by... be considered an incident to farming within the intent of the Act. Thus, the general relationship, if any, of the practice to farming as evidenced by common understanding, competitive factors, and...

  14. The Assessment of the Likelihood of Mammography Usage with Relevant Factors among Women with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2012-01-01

    Research that identifies the determinants of low mammography use among disabled people is scant. This study examines the determining factors related to the low usage of mammography among women with disabilities. To identify the barriers that prevent women with disabilities from participating in mammography screening can help authorities conceive…

  15. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  16. The global impact factors of net primary production in different land cover types from 2005 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Chen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    With the seriously polluted environment due to social development, the sustainability of net primary production (NPP), which is used to feed most lives on the earth, has become one of the biggest concerns that we have to consider for the sake of food shortage. There have been many researches analyzing one or two potential impact factors of NPP based on field observation data, which brings about many uncertainties for further calculation. Moreover, the frequently used process-based models heavily depend on the understandings of researchers about the NPP process. The premises of such models hinder the impact factor analysis from being objective and confident. To overcome such shortages, we collected 27 potential impact factors of global NPP in terms of eight land cover types. The feature variables include atmosphere, biosphere, anthroposphere and lithosphere parameters, which can be obtained from public available remote sensed products. The experiment shows that latitude, irradiance ultraviolet and normalized difference vegetation index are dominant factors impacting global NPP. Anthropogenic activities, precipitation and surface emissivity are influencing NPP calculation largely. However, some commonly used biosphere parameters in process-based models are actually not playing that important roles in NPP estimation. This work provides a new insight in analyzing NPP impact factors, being more objective and comprehensive compared with frequently used process-based models. PMID:27536518

  17. The global impact factors of net primary production in different land cover types from 2005 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Chen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    With the seriously polluted environment due to social development, the sustainability of net primary production (NPP), which is used to feed most lives on the earth, has become one of the biggest concerns that we have to consider for the sake of food shortage. There have been many researches analyzing one or two potential impact factors of NPP based on field observation data, which brings about many uncertainties for further calculation. Moreover, the frequently used process-based models heavily depend on the understandings of researchers about the NPP process. The premises of such models hinder the impact factor analysis from being objective and confident. To overcome such shortages, we collected 27 potential impact factors of global NPP in terms of eight land cover types. The feature variables include atmosphere, biosphere, anthroposphere and lithosphere parameters, which can be obtained from public available remote sensed products. The experiment shows that latitude, irradiance ultraviolet and normalized difference vegetation index are dominant factors impacting global NPP. Anthropogenic activities, precipitation and surface emissivity are influencing NPP calculation largely. However, some commonly used biosphere parameters in process-based models are actually not playing that important roles in NPP estimation. This work provides a new insight in analyzing NPP impact factors, being more objective and comprehensive compared with frequently used process-based models.

  18. [Mites in mattress dust and relevant environmental factors in student dormitories in Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Wu, Jie; Liu, Zhi-gang; Ran, Pi-xin; Gao, Qiao; Luo, Chun-hui; Ai, Mei

    2009-02-28

    Three hundred and eight mattress dust samples were collected from college dormitories in Shenzhen with a mite prevalence of 88% (271/308). From the samples, 6163 mites were isolated and identified. Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis were three most abundant species, occupying 29.7%, 21.7% and 17.9%, respectively. It was found that sex of the students, mattress cover (bamboo mat or bed sheet), with or without air conditioner installation, and daily using of air conditioner (<2 h, 2-8 h and >8 h) had no significant influence on the mite prevalence (P>0.05). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of mite sensitization in male student dormitory was significantly lower than that in female dormitory (OR=0.55, P=0.038), and the risk of using bed sheets was significantly higher than using bamboo mats (OR=2.13, P=0.040). Both mite prevalence and the risk of mite sensitization significantly decreased with higher floor of the dormitory building. PMID:19459513

  19. [Dynamics of recent cultivated land in Zhejiang Province and relevant driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-dong; Yu, Dong-sheng; Shi, Xue-zheng; Liu, Ying-an; Wang, Shi-hang; Zhang, Guang-xing; Liu, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Through the human-computer interactive interpretation of the 2000, 2005, and 2008 remote sensing images of Zhejiang Province with the help of RS and GIS techniques, the dynamic database of cultivated land change in the province in, 2000-2008 was established, and the driving factors of the cultivated land change were analyzed by ridge regression analysis. There was a notable cultivated land change in the province in 2000-2008. In 2000-2005 and 2005-2008, the annual cultivated land change in the province arrived -1.42% and -1.46%, respectively, and most of the cultivated land was changed into residential and industrial land. Non-agricultural population rate, real estate investment, urban green area, and orchard area were thought to be the main driving factors of the cultivated land change in Zhejiang Province, and even, in the developed areas of east China.

  20. Clinical Relevance of Environmental Factors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute for about 70% to 80% and environmental factors for about 20% to 30% to the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Relatives of AITD patients carry a risk to contract AITD themselves. The 5-year risk can be quantified by the so-called Thyroid Events Amsterdam-score, based on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-antibodies and family history. Subjects at risk may ask what they can do to prevent development of AITD. This review summarizes what is known about modulation of exposure to environmental factors in terms of AITD prevention. To stop smoking decreases the risk on Graves disease but increases the risk on Hashimoto disease. Moderate alcohol intake provides some protection against both Graves and Hashimoto disease. Low selenium intake is associated with a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity, but evidence that selenium supplementation may lower TPO antibodies and prevent subclinical hypothyroidism remains inconclusive. Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with a higher prevalence of TPO antibodies, but intervention studies with extra vitamin D have not been done yet. Stress may provoke Graves hyperthyroidism but not Hashimoto thyroiditis. Estrogen use have been linked to a lower prevalence of Graves disease. The postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of AITD. Taking together, preventive interventions to diminish the risk of AITD are few, not always feasible, and probably of limited efficacy. PMID:27184015

  1. A teacher-centered exploration of the relevance of social factors to theory of mind development.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barlow C; Mahfoud, Janina

    2014-02-01

    Many accounts of children's Theory of Mind (ToM) development favor a cognitive explanation, for example, in terms of mental representational improvements at or before 4 years. Here, we investigated whether social factors as rated by a child's teacher, are related to ToM development. We tested 82 children of 3-6 years on each of four ToM tasks, and their class teacher completed a social questionnaire about each child's playing behavior, sharing, talkativeness, confidence, aggressiveness and outgoingness. A measure of task memory and the child's gender were also recorded. Here, children generally passed ToM tasks after 5 years-old, but no one gender performed reliably better than the other. Teacher-rated confidence and playing behavior were correlated to ToM. But in a regression analysis, these were replaced by teacher-rated talkativeness; with age and memory given primacy in both sets of analyses. It is concluded that maturation and cognitive factors may well have primacy but social factors, facilitated during early primary education, must also be given a role in ToM development.

  2. Clinical Relevance of Environmental Factors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.

    PubMed

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic factors contribute for about 70% to 80% and environmental factors for about 20% to 30% to the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Relatives of AITD patients carry a risk to contract AITD themselves. The 5-year risk can be quantified by the so-called Thyroid Events Amsterdam-score, based on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-antibodies and family history. Subjects at risk may ask what they can do to prevent development of AITD. This review summarizes what is known about modulation of exposure to environmental factors in terms of AITD prevention. To stop smoking decreases the risk on Graves disease but increases the risk on Hashimoto disease. Moderate alcohol intake provides some protection against both Graves and Hashimoto disease. Low selenium intake is associated with a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity, but evidence that selenium supplementation may lower TPO antibodies and prevent subclinical hypothyroidism remains inconclusive. Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with a higher prevalence of TPO antibodies, but intervention studies with extra vitamin D have not been done yet. Stress may provoke Graves hyperthyroidism but not Hashimoto thyroiditis. Estrogen use have been linked to a lower prevalence of Graves disease. The postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of AITD. Taking together, preventive interventions to diminish the risk of AITD are few, not always feasible, and probably of limited efficacy. PMID:27184015

  3. A teacher-centered exploration of the relevance of social factors to theory of mind development.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barlow C; Mahfoud, Janina

    2014-02-01

    Many accounts of children's Theory of Mind (ToM) development favor a cognitive explanation, for example, in terms of mental representational improvements at or before 4 years. Here, we investigated whether social factors as rated by a child's teacher, are related to ToM development. We tested 82 children of 3-6 years on each of four ToM tasks, and their class teacher completed a social questionnaire about each child's playing behavior, sharing, talkativeness, confidence, aggressiveness and outgoingness. A measure of task memory and the child's gender were also recorded. Here, children generally passed ToM tasks after 5 years-old, but no one gender performed reliably better than the other. Teacher-rated confidence and playing behavior were correlated to ToM. But in a regression analysis, these were replaced by teacher-rated talkativeness; with age and memory given primacy in both sets of analyses. It is concluded that maturation and cognitive factors may well have primacy but social factors, facilitated during early primary education, must also be given a role in ToM development. PMID:24303951

  4. The Classical Assumption Test to Driving Factors of Land Cover Change in the Development Region of Northern Part of West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainiyah, Nur; Deliar, Albertus; Virtriana, Riantini

    2016-06-01

    Land cover changes continuously change by the time. Many kind of phenomena is a simple of important factors that affect the environment change, both locally and also globally. To determine the existence of the phenomenon of land cover change in a region, it is necessary to identify the driving factors that can cause land cover change. The relation between driving factors and response variables can be evaluated by using regression analysis techniques. In this case, land cover change is a dichotomous phenomenon (binary). The BLR's model (Binary Logistic Regression) is the one of kind regression analysis which can be used to describe the nature of dichotomy. Before performing regression analysis, correlation analysis is carried it the first. Both correlation test and regression tests are part of a statistical test or known classical assumption test. From result of classical assumption test, then can be seen that the data used to perform analysis from driving factors of the land cover changes is proper with used by BLR's method. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of methods in assessing the relation between driving factors of land cover change that assumed can affect to land cover change phenomena. This research will use the classical assumed test of multiple regression linear analysis, showing that BLR method is efficiency and effectiveness solution for researching or studying in phenomenon of land cover changes. So it will to provide certainty that the regression equation obtained has accuracy in estimation, unbiased and consistent.

  5. An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Pamela; Mukabana, W Richard; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mathenge, Evan; Killeen, Gerry F; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Background Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Methods Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Results Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Conclusion Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary

  6. Soluble Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (sEGFRs) in Cancer: Biological Aspects and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Maramotti, Sally; Paci, Massimiliano; Manzotti, Gloria; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gugnoni, Mila; Galeone, Carla; Cesario, Alfredo; Lococo, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The identification of molecules that can reliably detect the presence of a tumor or predict its behavior is one of the biggest challenges of research in cancer biology. Biological fluids are intriguing mediums, containing many molecules that express the individual health status and, accordingly, may be useful in establishing the potential risk of cancer, defining differential diagnosis and prognosis, predicting the response to treatment, and monitoring the disease progression. The existence of circulating soluble growth factor receptors (sGFRs) deriving from their membrane counterparts has stimulated the interest of researchers to investigate the use of such molecules as potential cancer biomarkers. But what are the origins of circulating sGFRs? Are they naturally occurring molecules or tumor-derived products? Among these, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell-surface molecule significantly involved in cancer development and progression; it can be processed into biological active soluble isoforms (sEGFR). We have carried out an extensive review of the currently available literature on the sEGFRs and their mechanisms of regulation and biological function, with the intent to clarify the role of these molecules in cancer (and other pathological conditions) and, on the basis of the retrieved evidences, speculate about their potential use in the clinical setting. PMID:27104520

  7. Physiologic and clinical relevance of the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P; Rosenfeld, R G

    1994-08-01

    The insulin-like growht factors (IGFs) are potent mitogenic agents that have been recognized for three decades. Recently, however, the complex milieu in which they operate has begun to be unraveled. Endocrine and autocrine patterns of IGF secretion have been identified and specific receptors that bind IGFs and mediate their biologic actions have been characterized. A family of six peptides, which bind IGFs with high affinity, the IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), have been recognized as a new class of growth modulators. The IGFBPs can inhibit IGF actions, enhance IGF actions, or function as independent cell regulatory factors, possibly by interacting with their own receptors on the cell membrane. The IGFBPs, in turn, are regulated by a group of proteolytic enzymes, which are capable of cleaving IGFBPs into smaller fragments with lower affinity for the IGFs, thus enhancing IGF action. The size IGFBPs, although similar, have unique biologic properties, and appear to have specific patterns of expression and function. Radioimmunoassays for IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 are currently commercially available and information is accumulating on their diagnostic usefulness. This includes several clinical situations, such as growth disorders, where serum IGFBP-3 is a highly specific screening tool for growth hormone deficiency, various malignancies in which serum IGFBP-2 levels are elevated, and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism that display an inverse relationship between serum IGFBP-1 and insulin secretion. Current clinical practice may include the judicious use of these tests for the diagnosis and for monitoring the therapeutic response, of such disorders. PMID:7951670

  8. Modelling of INTER-Linkages Between LAND Cover Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors in the Idemili River Basin of South Eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduekwe, N. I.; Adesina, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the inter-relationships between socio-economic factors and land cover pattern in the Idemili River Basin of South Eastern Nigeria. It is based on the concept of coupled human environment systems and focuses on the modelling of community scale relationships between critical land cover parameter and socio-demographic, economic and cultural factors in the basin. The modelling was implemented with pixel level NDVI indicators of vegetation cover density developed from NigeriaSat image with 32m resolution linked to eight indicators of socio-economic factors developed from a household survey of the basin. NDVI and socio-economic data were matched for 25 sampled localities in the basin and their relationships modelled with correlation, regression and Principal Component Analysis statistics. NDVI based image analysis showed a high level of human impact on vegetation. The Model output shows that bivariate relationships between vegetation cover dynamics and socio-demographic variables were the most significant, with R Square values > 0.60 for linear and non linear models. Vegetation cover density has high inverse correlations with population, urbanization levels and number of households in localities. Population/urbanization status of localities was also the most significant Principal Component or underlying dimension linked to spatial dynamics of vegetation cover in the basin accounting for 50% of factor variations. Relationships between vegetation cover densities and economic factors (occupational and household energy patterns) and socio-cultural factors (environmental knowledge, values and governance) were weaker and less significant. The study captured the linkages between landcover- represented by vegetation cover- and socio-economic parameters. It demonstrates that socio-economic factors are major drivers of change in the basin. Key Words: Socio-economic factors, Vegetation Cover, NDVI, Socio-ecological Systems, State Variables, South Eastern Nigeria

  9. Posttraumatic stress reactions in siblings after mutual disaster: relevance of family factors.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Egil; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the importance of family factors in the development of posttraumatic stress reactions in children after trauma is studied by comparing siblings and nonsiblings who experienced the tsunami in Southeast Asia in 2004 as tourists. Thirty-eight sibling pairs aged 6-17 years were interviewed using the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index. The sibling differences were similar to differences found in randomly selected children in the same sample, indicating that family influences may not be as important as anticipated. The results are an important contribution to our understanding of what contributes to and influences the development of posttrauma reactions in children. They also suggest the importance of conducting individual assessments even after mutually experienced trauma.

  10. [Responses of net soil nitrogen mineralization rate in moss-covered soil to hydrothermic factors in Shapotou regions, northern China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Xin-Ping; Pan, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Hao

    2014-02-01

    Undisturbed soil cores were incubated in laboratory at different temperatures (-10, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 40 degrees C) and moistures (29%, 58%, 85% and 170% of field water content, FWC) to analyze the effect of moss crusts, which were sampled from the natural vegetation area of Shapotou, on soil nitrogen transformation and their responses to hydrothermic factors. Results showed that immobilization was the dominant form of nitrogen transformation at the lower temperatures (<15 degrees C), and when the temperature surpassed 25 degrees C, the nitrogen transformation rate significantly increased. The nitrogen transformation rate in the moss-covered soil was more sensitive to temperature variation than in the bare soil, and the highest temperature sensitivity was at 85% FWC. It indicated that the existence and succession of moss crusts facilitated nitrogen transformation. In addition, the nitrogen transformation rates of two microhabitats increased initially and then declined with the increasing moisture, and the maximum nitrogen transformation rate was observed at 85% FWC. Significant interactive effects were found between temperature and moisture in the moss-covered soil. While, the greater enhancement in nitrogen transformation rate appeared at higher temperatures (25-40 degrees C ) and moderate moisture levels (58% FWC and 85% FWC). It was concluded that the existence and succession of moss crusts would increase the ability of soil nitrogen supply, promote nitrogen cycling and even contribute to the restoration of soil ecosystem.

  11. [Responses of net soil nitrogen mineralization rate in moss-covered soil to hydrothermic factors in Shapotou regions, northern China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Xin-Ping; Pan, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Hao

    2014-02-01

    Undisturbed soil cores were incubated in laboratory at different temperatures (-10, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 40 degrees C) and moistures (29%, 58%, 85% and 170% of field water content, FWC) to analyze the effect of moss crusts, which were sampled from the natural vegetation area of Shapotou, on soil nitrogen transformation and their responses to hydrothermic factors. Results showed that immobilization was the dominant form of nitrogen transformation at the lower temperatures (<15 degrees C), and when the temperature surpassed 25 degrees C, the nitrogen transformation rate significantly increased. The nitrogen transformation rate in the moss-covered soil was more sensitive to temperature variation than in the bare soil, and the highest temperature sensitivity was at 85% FWC. It indicated that the existence and succession of moss crusts facilitated nitrogen transformation. In addition, the nitrogen transformation rates of two microhabitats increased initially and then declined with the increasing moisture, and the maximum nitrogen transformation rate was observed at 85% FWC. Significant interactive effects were found between temperature and moisture in the moss-covered soil. While, the greater enhancement in nitrogen transformation rate appeared at higher temperatures (25-40 degrees C ) and moderate moisture levels (58% FWC and 85% FWC). It was concluded that the existence and succession of moss crusts would increase the ability of soil nitrogen supply, promote nitrogen cycling and even contribute to the restoration of soil ecosystem. PMID:24830238

  12. Physiologically relevant factors influence tau phosphorylation by leucine-rich repeat kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Matthew; Bailey, Rachel; Shaw, Gerry; Yen, Shu-Hui; Lewis, Jada; Giasson, Benoit I

    2015-10-01

    Hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau are observed in multiple neurodegenerative diseases termed tauopathies. Tau has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonisms. Some PD patients with mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene exhibit tau pathology. Mutations in LRRK2 are a major risk factor for PD, but LRRK2 protein function remains unclear. The most common mutation, G2019S, is located in the kinase domain of LRRK2 and enhances kinase activity in vitro. This suggests that the kinase activity of LRRK2 may underlie its cellular toxicity. Recently, in vitro studies have suggested a direct interaction between tubulin-bound tau and LRRK2 that results in tau phosphorylation at one identified site. Here we present data suggesting that microtubules (MTs) enhance LRRK2-mediated tau phosphorylation at three different epitopes. We also explore the effect of divalent cations as catalytic cofactors for G2019S LRRK2-mediated tau phosphorylation and show that manganese does not support kinase activity but inhibits the efficient ability of magnesium to catalyze LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation of tau. These results suggest that cofactors such as MTs and cations in the cellular milieu have an important impact on LRRK2-tau interactions and resultant tau phosphorylation.

  13. Glucocorticoid regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor: relevance to hippocampal structural and functional plasticity.

    PubMed

    Suri, D; Vaidya, V A

    2013-06-01

    Glucocorticoids serve as key stress response hormones that facilitate stress coping. However, sustained glucocorticoid exposure is associated with adverse consequences on the brain, in particular within the hippocampus. Chronic glucocorticoid exposure evokes neuronal cell damage and dendritic atrophy, reduces hippocampal neurogenesis and impairs synaptic plasticity. Glucocorticoids also alter expression and signaling of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Since BDNF is known to promote neuroplasticity, enhance cell survival, increase hippocampal neurogenesis and cellular excitability, it has been hypothesized that specific adverse effects of glucocorticoids may be mediated by attenuating BDNF expression and signaling. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of literature examining the influence of glucocorticoids on BDNF, and to address whether specific effects of glucocorticoids arise through perturbation of BDNF signaling. We integrate evidence of glucocorticoid regulation of BDNF at multiple levels, spanning from the well-documented glucocorticoid-induced changes in BDNF mRNA to studies examining alterations in BDNF receptor-mediated signaling. Further, we delineate potential lines of future investigation to address hitherto unexplored aspects of the influence of glucocorticoids on BDNF. Finally, we discuss the current understanding of the contribution of BDNF to the modulation of structural and functional plasticity by glucocorticoids, in particular in the context of the hippocampus. Understanding the mechanistic crosstalk between glucocorticoids and BDNF holds promise for the identification of potential therapeutic targets for disorders associated with the dysfunction of stress hormone pathways.

  14. Students’ Aggression and Its Relevance to Personal, Family, and Social Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Ali; Shahghasemi, Zohreh; Davarinia Motlagh Ghochan, Arezoo; Baratpour, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aggression is defined as behaviors intended to hurt, harm, or injure another person. Aggression is by no means a new concern in human society, especially in youth. Universities are among the institutions in which most of the members are young people and because of facing with various personal and social stressors, the students usually experience high level of stress. Objectives: This study aimed to determine aggression among university students and its association with their personal, family, and social characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on a representative sample (n = 809) of university students (1 state university and 2 private universities) locating in Gonabad, Iran in 2012. Using proportional to size stratified sampling, we selected the respondents and gathered the required data using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The data were entered into SPSS (version 20) and analyzed through t test, ANOVA, and regression model. Results: A total of 381 (47.2%) male and 428 (52.8%) female students participated in the study. Mean (SD) age of the respondents was 21.79 (2.86) years. Overall mean aggression score (SD) in the students was 72.45 (15.49) and this score for in dorm and out of dorm students was 74.31 (15.59) and 70.93 (15.23), respectively. There were significant associations between the mean aggression score of dormitory students and sex (P = 0.004), age (P = 0.044), and type of the university (P = 0.039). On the other hand, there was no significant association between all independent factors and mean aggression score of students living out of dorm. Conclusions: Regarding the control of aggressive behaviors, paying attention to male, young students living in dormitory, especially in non-governmental universities has the highest priority. PMID:26756005

  15. The Potential Risk Factors Relevant to Lateral Epicondylitis by Wrist Coupling Posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Ya; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Chien-Ju; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The use of awkward wrist postures and unskilled techniques might induce lateral epicondylitis. This study thus investigated the effects of wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity on the dynamic performances of the wrist muscles during the coupling posture via a custom-made bi-planar isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty subjects were recruited to perform the isokinetic testing. We measured the muscle strengths and activities for the wrist extensors and flexors during concentric and eccentric contractions at three movement velocities, 30°s-1, 90°s-1, and 180°s-1, combined with three wrist postures, neutral position (NP), radial deviation (RD), and ulnar deviation (UD). The root mean square (RMS) of the electromyographic signal in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC), normalized peak torque of extensors, and ratio of normalized peak torque between wrist extensors and flexors, were all greater in the NP than RD and UD in both contractions. The ratio of RMS between EDC and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) had a significantly greater value in RD than UD during the concentric contraction. The EDC showed significantly higher activity at the fast velocity in both contractions. Nevertheless, a significantly higher RMS of the electromyographic signal between EDC and FDS and the ratio of strength between wrist extensors and flexors were found at slow velocity in both contractions. The wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity of the wrist joint should thus be considered as influential factors which might alter the dynamic performances, and may result in further injury of the elbow joint. PMID:27171198

  16. Pediatric intracranial ependymomas: prognostic relevance of histological, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric factors.

    PubMed

    Zamecnik, Josef; Snuderl, Matija; Eckschlager, Tomas; Chanova, Marketa; Hladikova, Marie; Tichy, Michal; Kodet, Roman

    2003-10-01

    The correlation between the histological features and clinical outcome remains poor in pediatric intracranial ependymomas. We performed a retrospective study of a group of 31 patients (diagnosed from 1985 to 1995) to assess prognostic implications of the current grading system, of histological and immunohistochemical features, and of ploidy status estimated by flow cytometry. Immunoexpression of a broad spectrum of antigens was evaluated, including MIB-1, topoisomerase-IIalpha, cyclin D1, glial and epithelial proteins (GFAP, EMA, cytokeratins), molecules involved in controlling apoptosis (bcl-2, caspase-3/CPP32), and p53 oncoprotein. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of each variable on both the progression free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) with at least 7-year follow up. Although we showed a significant correlation between histological grade and prognosis, the current grading system failed in predicting outcome in nearly one third of individual cases. Problems with interpathologist reproducibility were also demonstrated. The extent of surgical resection was the only clinical factor that was associated with survival. Both the PFS and the OS were significantly decreased for the following pathological variables: increased cellularity (>300 nuclei per HPF), mitotic activity of >7 per 10 HPF, increased MIB-1 labeling index (LI), topoisomerase-IIalpha LI, S-phase fraction, and p53 and bcl-2 positivity. Increased cyclin D1 LI was demonstrated to have only a marginally significant impact on PFS. A flow chart modeling was further performed to formulate a scheme for discriminating of prognostic subgroups. Based on that, p53 immunopositivity and/or MIB-1 LI of >5% (after subtotal resection) or MIB-1 LI of >15% (after complete resection) were the strongest indicators of the tumor's aggressive behavior and of a poor prognosis of the disease. Foci of hypercellularity should be specifically looked for in

  17. Non-cardiac, non-oesophageal chest pain: the relevance of psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    Ho, K; Kang, J; Yeo, B; Ng, W

    1998-01-01

    Background—No cause has been determined for chest pain that is neither cardiac nor oesophageal in origin. 
Aims—To compare the prevalence of lifetime psychiatric disorders and current psychological distress in three consecutive series of patients with chronic chest or abdominal pain. 
Patients—Thirty nine patients with non-cardiac chest pain and no abnormality on oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, oesophageal manometry, and 24 hour pH monitoring; 22 patients with non-cardiac chest pain having endoscopic abnormality, oesophageal dysmotility, and/or pathological reflux; and 36 patients with biliary colic. 
Methods—The Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the 28 item General Health Questionnaire were administered to all patients. 
Results—Patients with non-cardiac chest pain and no upper gastrointestinal disease had a higher proportion of panic disorder (15%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (21%), and major depressive episodes (28%) than patients with gallstone disease (0%, p<0.02; 3%, p<0.02; and 8%, p<0.05, respectively). In contrast, there were no differences between patients with non-cardiac chest pain and upper gastrointestinal disease and patients with gallstone disease in any of the DSM-111 defined lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Using the General Health Questionnaire, 49% of patients with non-cardiac chest pain without upper gastrointestinal disease scored above the cut off point (that is, more than 4), which was considered indicative of non-psychotic psychiatric disturbance, whereas only 14% of patients with gallstones did so (p<0.005). The proportions of such cases were however similar between patients with non-cardiac chest pain and upper gastrointestinal disease (27%) and patients with gallstones. 
Conclusions—Psychological factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of chest pain that is neither cardiac nor oesophagogastric in origin. Keywords: chest pain;  oesophageal manometry;  gastro-oesophageal reflux disease;  oesophageal p

  18. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. Methods The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was used to assess the correlation between Pap smear test usage and several variables. Logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the factors that influence Pap smear test usage. Results The results show that 4.83% (n =880) of women with intellectual disabilities underwent Pap smear tests. Pap smear test usage rates exhibit a declining trend with increases in age. Factors that significantly influence Pap smear test use include age, urbanization level of resident area, monthly salary, aboriginal status, marital status, existence of DM, severity of disability. Conclusions The women with intellectual disabilities had a low use rate of Pap smear test, which is significantly less than the 28.8% usage rate for the general population of women aged 30 years and above. PMID:24890828

  19. Relevance of the transcription factor PdSte12 in Penicillium digitatum conidiation and virulence during citrus fruit infection.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Laura; Teixidó, Neus; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Torres, Paloma

    2016-10-17

    Green mould, resulting from Penicillium digitatum, is the most important postharvest disease of citrus. In a previous study, the PdSte12 transcription factor gene was identified, and disruption mutants were obtained. In the present study, the ΔPdSte12 mutants generated through gene replacement showed significantly reduced virulence during citrus fruit infection. Virulence was affected not only in mature fruit but also in immature fruit, and disease severity was markedly reduced when the oranges were stored at 20 or 4°C. In addition, the ΔPdSte12 mutants were defective in asexual reproduction, producing few conidia. The conidiophores of these mutants had longer metulae with fewer branches at the tip of the hyphae. Gene expression analysis revealed that PdSte12 might act as a negative regulator of several transporter-encoding genes and a positive regulator of two sterol demethylases, all of which are involved in fungicide resistance and fungal virulence. Moreover, PdSte12 exhibited the negative regulation of another transcription factor PdMut3, putatively involved in fungal pathogenesis but with no effect on the MAPK SLT2 P. digitatum orthologue belonging to different transcription pathways relevant to cell integrity. These results indicate the PdSte12 transcription factor is functionally conserved in P. digitatum for infection and asexual reproduction, similar to other Ste12 fungal plant pathogens.

  20. Relevance of the transcription factor PdSte12 in Penicillium digitatum conidiation and virulence during citrus fruit infection.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Laura; Teixidó, Neus; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Torres, Paloma

    2016-10-17

    Green mould, resulting from Penicillium digitatum, is the most important postharvest disease of citrus. In a previous study, the PdSte12 transcription factor gene was identified, and disruption mutants were obtained. In the present study, the ΔPdSte12 mutants generated through gene replacement showed significantly reduced virulence during citrus fruit infection. Virulence was affected not only in mature fruit but also in immature fruit, and disease severity was markedly reduced when the oranges were stored at 20 or 4°C. In addition, the ΔPdSte12 mutants were defective in asexual reproduction, producing few conidia. The conidiophores of these mutants had longer metulae with fewer branches at the tip of the hyphae. Gene expression analysis revealed that PdSte12 might act as a negative regulator of several transporter-encoding genes and a positive regulator of two sterol demethylases, all of which are involved in fungicide resistance and fungal virulence. Moreover, PdSte12 exhibited the negative regulation of another transcription factor PdMut3, putatively involved in fungal pathogenesis but with no effect on the MAPK SLT2 P. digitatum orthologue belonging to different transcription pathways relevant to cell integrity. These results indicate the PdSte12 transcription factor is functionally conserved in P. digitatum for infection and asexual reproduction, similar to other Ste12 fungal plant pathogens. PMID:27479695

  1. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles.

    PubMed

    Kocken, Pl; van Dorst, Ag; Schaalma, H

    2006-04-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power relationships is addressed. The study was conducted among 346 Dutch Antilleans from a random sample of an Antillean population aged 15-50 years. The response rate was 37.8%. The results showed that condom-use intentions were primarily determined by perceived subjective norms, the perceived taboo on discussing sex, machismo attitudes, gender, age and educational background. Moreover, the respondent's opinion regarding machismo was an effect modificator for the association between condom-use intentions and subjective social norm. It is concluded that, in predicting condom-use intentions, factors specific to the culture of a population contribute significantly to the determinants drawn from the general social-cognition models. It is recommended that future research should use measurement instruments that are adapted to culture-specific beliefs, and should explore the influence of cultural factors on actual condom use. Moreover, interventions promoting condom use among migrant populations should target the cultural correlates of condom use.

  2. Luminosity and redshift dependence of the covering factor of active galactic nuclei viewed with WISE and Sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Toba, Y.; Matsuhara, H.; Oyabu, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Gandhi, P.; Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Shirahata, M.; Oi, N.; Takita, S.; Yano, K.; Ohyama, Y.; Yamauchi, C.

    2014-06-10

    In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and the redshift. We constructed 12 and 22 μm luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 ≤z ≤ 0.3 using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. Combining the WISE catalog with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data, we selected 223,982 galaxies at 12 μm and 25,721 galaxies at 22 μm for spectroscopic classification. We then identified 16,355 AGNs at 12 μm and 4683 AGNs at 22 μm by their optical emission lines and cataloged classifications in the SDSS. Following that, we estimated the CF as the fraction of Type 2 AGN in all AGNs whose MIR emissions are dominated by the active nucleus (not their host galaxies) based on their MIR colors. We found that the CF decreased with increasing MIR luminosity, regardless of the choice of Type 2 AGN classification criteria, and the CF did not change significantly with redshift for z ≤ 0.2. Furthermore, we carried out various tests to determine the influence of selection bias and confirmed that similar dependences exist, even when taking these uncertainties into account. The luminosity dependence of the CF can be explained by the receding torus model, but the 'modified' receding torus model gives a slightly better fit, as suggested by Simpson.

  3. Luminosity and Redshift Dependence of the Covering Factor of Active Galactic Nuclei viewed with WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Malkan, M. A.; Gandhi, P.; Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Shirahata, M.; Oi, N.; Ohyama, Y.; Takita, S.; Yamauchi, C.; Yano, K.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and the redshift. We constructed 12 and 22 μm luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 <=z <= 0.3 using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. Combining the WISE catalog with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data, we selected 223,982 galaxies at 12 μm and 25,721 galaxies at 22 μm for spectroscopic classification. We then identified 16,355 AGNs at 12 μm and 4683 AGNs at 22 μm by their optical emission lines and cataloged classifications in the SDSS. Following that, we estimated the CF as the fraction of Type 2 AGN in all AGNs whose MIR emissions are dominated by the active nucleus (not their host galaxies) based on their MIR colors. We found that the CF decreased with increasing MIR luminosity, regardless of the choice of Type 2 AGN classification criteria, and the CF did not change significantly with redshift for z <= 0.2. Furthermore, we carried out various tests to determine the influence of selection bias and confirmed that similar dependences exist, even when taking these uncertainties into account. The luminosity dependence of the CF can be explained by the receding torus model, but the "modified" receding torus model gives a slightly better fit, as suggested by Simpson.

  4. Land cover or climate? In search of dominant factors inducing groundwater recharge and fen hydrology in European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygoruk, Mateusz; Kotowski, Wiktor

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater recharge plays the crucial role in development and stability of fens. It was hypothesized that the mid- and late-Holocene acceleration of fens' development in Europe could have been induced by changes in land cover: decreasing areas of forests resulting from the expanding agriculture have enhanced groundwater recharge by decreasing evapotranspiration and interception and promoting infiltration. However, regardless human-related changes of the landscape, recorded climatic fluctuations could also be considered as drivers of changing groundwater recharge that affects fen stability and development. Nowadays, when up to 90% of European wetlands is considered degraded, assessing vulnerability of groundwater recharge to changing landscape and climate is of the crucial importance for setting fen restoration and management strategies. Main goal of our study was to assess the magnitude of changes in groundwater recharge estimation resulting from modelled changes of the landscape and climatic features in >300 fens located in Poland, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, UK and Norway. In our approach we (1) delineated the most probable extents of catchments of particular fens analysed, (2) assumed hypothetical and the most probable changes of land cover within these catchments, (3) assumed the most probable ranges of climatic changes in each of the catchments including historical reconstructions (Holocene) and future projections (A1B scenario, CSIRO:MK3 and UKMO:HADCM3 GCM-RCM ensembles), (4) developed, tested and calibrated automatic, GIS-based groundwater recharge calculation algorithm to be applied in the study, (5) calculated groundwater recharge in multiple probable combinations of landscape and climatic conditions and (6) performed statistical analysis in order to reveal whether the climate or landscape changes were the dominant factors that could have probably influenced groundwater recharge in catchments of fens analysed. We revealed that in the case of 80% of

  5. Proteomic Assessment of the Relevant Factors Affecting Pork Meat Quality Associated with Longissimus dorsi Muscles in Duroc Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ra Ham; Jeon, Young-Joo; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Kim, Seok-Ho; Jeong, Jin Young; Kang, Hyun-sung; Choi, Nag-Jin; Seo, Kang Seok; Cho, Young Sik; Kim, MinSeok S.; Ko, Sungho; Seo, Jae-Min; Lee, Seung-Youp; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD) and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD) from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)–based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20) and LQLD (n = 20) Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%), ATPase activity (19%), oxidoreductase activity (13%), cytoskeletal protein binding (13%), actin binding (12%), calcium ion binding (6%), and structural constituent of muscle (6%). Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of meat

  6. [Monitoring of seasonal variation of vegetation cover and evaluation of biological-control factor in orchards of China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Wen-bo; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-03-01

    Biological-control factor (B) can quantitatively reflect the effect of vegetation on soil erosion. Vertical photography method was used to monitor the seasonal changes of orchard coverage in 18 small watersheds, covering all five water erosion zones in China. The canopy coverage and ground green coverage were then calculated, and the B values were estimated. The result indicated that the orchard canopy coverage varied with season and distributed with a bell shape. The trend of ground green coverage and total coverage changed with season and was affected by the land management. For the orchard where the land surface was not treated and the weeds could grow freely, the distribution of the green coverage season change for all five soil erosion zones had a bell shape. The total coverage in the Northwest Loess Plateau area changed with season with a bell shape as well. The total coverage in the other four areas did not vary with the season and almost kept constant. For the orchard where land surface was cleaned up from time to time, the green coverage and total coverage in all five water erosion areas irregularly varied with season. The average B value of orchards in Northeast black soil area was the minimum with a value of 0.0006, while that in the Northwest Loess Plateau area was the maximum (0.1212). The average orchard B values in the Northern rocky earthy area, the Southern red soil area and the Southwest rocky earthy area were not significantly different and were 0.0548, 0.0627 and 0.0639, respectively.

  7. [Monitoring of seasonal variation of vegetation cover and evaluation of biological-control factor in orchards of China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Wen-bo; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-03-01

    Biological-control factor (B) can quantitatively reflect the effect of vegetation on soil erosion. Vertical photography method was used to monitor the seasonal changes of orchard coverage in 18 small watersheds, covering all five water erosion zones in China. The canopy coverage and ground green coverage were then calculated, and the B values were estimated. The result indicated that the orchard canopy coverage varied with season and distributed with a bell shape. The trend of ground green coverage and total coverage changed with season and was affected by the land management. For the orchard where the land surface was not treated and the weeds could grow freely, the distribution of the green coverage season change for all five soil erosion zones had a bell shape. The total coverage in the Northwest Loess Plateau area changed with season with a bell shape as well. The total coverage in the other four areas did not vary with the season and almost kept constant. For the orchard where land surface was cleaned up from time to time, the green coverage and total coverage in all five water erosion areas irregularly varied with season. The average B value of orchards in Northeast black soil area was the minimum with a value of 0.0006, while that in the Northwest Loess Plateau area was the maximum (0.1212). The average orchard B values in the Northern rocky earthy area, the Southern red soil area and the Southwest rocky earthy area were not significantly different and were 0.0548, 0.0627 and 0.0639, respectively. PMID:26211057

  8. The level of knowledge and awareness about prostate cancer in the Turkish male and the relevant effective factors

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; Doğan, Faruk; Ekmekçioğlu, Ozan; Çolak, Aslıhan; Kalkan, Mehmet; Şahin, Çoşkun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the general knowledge and awareness levels, information sources, and the state of medical check-up for prostate cancer (PCa) and relevant effective factors. Material and methods The participants were asked to answer to 14 questions of a questionnaire about age, education, economic and social condition, knowledge about PCa, state of being examined and their related factors. According to demographic characteristics of the participants, levels of awareness about PCa, sources of information, affecting factors and their interrelationships were examined. Two groups were formed according to age (<60 years, >60 years) and variations according to ages were investigated. Results Two hundred and ninety-three men with an average age of 57 years (range 40–85) were included in the study. Our findings showed that 68.3% of the participants were thinking that PCa is a frequently seen disease, 88.4% were thinking that it can be treated and 62.8% of men specified that their information sources are doctors. We also found that 60.8% of the participants had not undergone prostate examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) control. The most reason for not having annual examinations was (44.4%) “negligence”. Significantly greater number of men with higher education (high school/university) were highly informed about PCa (p=0.037). Check-up rates were statistically significantly higher among men with intermediate income (p=0.041). Curability of PCa diagnosed at an early stage was acknowledged by statistically higher number of individuals under the age 60 (p<0.05). Health control, prostate examination and/or PSA control rates were higher in men with a family history of PCa and in the group of >60 years. Conclusion Although PCa has a high prevalence and mortality rates, personal and social information and sensitivity levels must be increased as it can be treated if diagnosed at an early stage. We think that social and medical impact of the

  9. The level of knowledge and awareness about prostate cancer in the Turkish male and the relevant effective factors

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; Doğan, Faruk; Ekmekçioğlu, Ozan; Çolak, Aslıhan; Kalkan, Mehmet; Şahin, Çoşkun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the general knowledge and awareness levels, information sources, and the state of medical check-up for prostate cancer (PCa) and relevant effective factors. Material and methods The participants were asked to answer to 14 questions of a questionnaire about age, education, economic and social condition, knowledge about PCa, state of being examined and their related factors. According to demographic characteristics of the participants, levels of awareness about PCa, sources of information, affecting factors and their interrelationships were examined. Two groups were formed according to age (<60 years, >60 years) and variations according to ages were investigated. Results Two hundred and ninety-three men with an average age of 57 years (range 40–85) were included in the study. Our findings showed that 68.3% of the participants were thinking that PCa is a frequently seen disease, 88.4% were thinking that it can be treated and 62.8% of men specified that their information sources are doctors. We also found that 60.8% of the participants had not undergone prostate examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) control. The most reason for not having annual examinations was (44.4%) “negligence”. Significantly greater number of men with higher education (high school/university) were highly informed about PCa (p=0.037). Check-up rates were statistically significantly higher among men with intermediate income (p=0.041). Curability of PCa diagnosed at an early stage was acknowledged by statistically higher number of individuals under the age 60 (p<0.05). Health control, prostate examination and/or PSA control rates were higher in men with a family history of PCa and in the group of >60 years. Conclusion Although PCa has a high prevalence and mortality rates, personal and social information and sensitivity levels must be increased as it can be treated if diagnosed at an early stage. We think that social and medical impact of the

  10. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjoy K.; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Esnault, Jacques; Driguez, Pierre-Alexandre; Duchaussoy, Philippe; Sizun, Philippe; Hérault, Jean-Pascal; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Petitou, Maurice; Sinaÿ, Pierre

    2001-05-01

    The cover picture shows how thrombosis occurs in the deep veins of the lower limbs. Stasis, which results from slow and turbulent blood flow, combined with hypercoagulation, caused, for example, by a surgical procedure, may result in thrombus formation. The synthetic sulfated pentasaccharide shown in part is a potent antithrombotic compound that exerts its effect by activation of the plasma protein antithrombin III. Conformationally locked monosaccharides have now been synthesized to demonstrate that L-iduronic acid, one part of the pentasaccharide, must adopt an unusual distorted conformation to activate antithrombin III. Such conformational effects might be relevant in explaining the unique biological properties of glycosaminoglycans that contain L-iduronic acid. In the background of the picture, a flight of vampire bats is attracted by the pentasaccharide. Vampire was the name given to South American blood-sucking bats (Latin name: desmodus rotundus) in 1761 by the French naturalist Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon (1707-1788). These bats are known to attack cattle and, very rarely, sleeping human beings. Although their saliva has been shown to contain an anticoagulant compound, they would also be happy to benefit from the pentasaccharide mentioned above, to suck the blood out of the vein more easily. More details about this compound which would be helpful to vampire bats are reported by Petitou, Sinaÿ et al. on p. 1670 ff.

  11. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing the long-term stability of covers on waste rock piles in the uranium mining district of Saxony and Thuringia (Germany)

    SciTech Connect

    Heinze, M.; Koehler, M.; Saenger, H.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of basic investigations of root penetration on various partially covered excavation discard material mounds of the Saxonian-Thuringian uranium mining region (Germany) in comparison to root penetration in autochthonous (native) soils. Bioturbation is an essential, unavoidable impact to consider in addition to root penetration. With increasing age, the functionality of each layer of a cover system becomes diminished through the workings of the local flora and fauna. Pedological cover layers can only temporarily maintain their initial positions and technical functionality. Considering actual prevailing biotic and abiotic influences (e.g., site-specific transpiration rates), the planning and installation of cover systems should take into account (within acceptable balances) factors which are able to at least partially compensate for eventual diminishing of technical functionality.

  12. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Sorption of emitted gas-phase organic compounds onto material surfaces affects environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) composition and exposures indoors. We have introduced a new metric, the exposure relevant emission factor (EREF) that accounts for sorptive uptake and reemission to give the mass of individual ETS constituents available for exposure over a day in which smoking occurs. This paper describes month-long experiments to investigate sorption effects on EREFs and potential ETS exposures under habitual smoking conditions. Cigarettes were smoked in a 50-m 3 furnished room over a 3-h period 6-7 days per week, with continuous ventilation at 0.3, 0.6, or 2.1 h -1. Organic gas concentrations were measured every few days over 4-h "smoking", 10-h "post-smoking" and 10-h "background" periods. Concentration patterns of volatile ETS components including 1,3-butadiene, benzene and acrolein were similar to those calculated for a theoretical non-sorbing tracer, indicating limited sorption. Concentrations of ETS tracers, e.g. 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, and lower volatility toxic air contaminants including phenol, cresols, and naphthalene increased as experiments progressed, indicating mass accumulation on surfaces and higher desorption rates. Daily patterns stabilized after week 2, yielding a steady daily cycle of ETS concentrations associated with habitual smoking. EREFs for sorbing compounds were higher under steady cycle versus single-day smoking conditions by ˜50% for 3-EP, and by 2-3 times for nicotine, phenol, cresols, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes. Our results provide relevant information about potential indirect exposures from residual ETS (non-smoker enters room shortly after smoker finishes) and from reemission, and their importance relative to direct exposures (non-smoker present during smoking). Under the conditions examined, indirect exposures accounted for a larger fraction of total potential exposures for sorbing versus non-sorbing compounds

  13. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  14. Fine scale spatial urban land cover factors associated with adult mosquito abundance and risk in Tucson, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Landau, Katheryn I; van Leeuwen, Willem J D

    2012-12-01

    It is currently unclear what role microhabitat land cover plays in determining the seasonal spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, disease vectors of dengue and West Nile Virus, respectively, in Tucson, AZ. We compared mosquito abundance to sixteen land cover variables derived from 2010 NAIP multispectral data and 2008 LiDAR height data. Mosquitoes were trapped with 30-9 traps from May to October of 2010 and 2011. Variables were extracted for five buffer zones (10-50 m radii at 10 m intervals) around trapping sites. Stepwise regression was performed to determine the best scale for observation and the influential land cover variables. The 30 m radius buffer was determined to be the best for observing the land cover-mosquito abundance relationship. Ae. aegypti presence was positively associated with structure and medium height trees and negatively associated with bare earth; Cx. quinquefasciatus presence was positively associated with pavement and medium height trees and negatively associated with shrubs. These findings emphasize vegetation, impervious surfaces, and soil influences on mosquito presence in an urban setting. Lastly, the land cover-mosquito abundance relationships were used to produce risk maps of seasonal presence that highlight high risk areas in Tucson, which may be useful for focusing mosquito control program actions. PMID:23181866

  15. Preliminary study of blood methylmercury effects on reproductive hormones and relevant factors among infertile and pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiao-Ling; Wei, Hsiao-Jui; Chen, Po-Hsi; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most poisonous mercury species and an endocrine-disrupting chemical that could cause reproductive and developmental harm effects in animals. In this study, we recruited 310 infertile women and 57 pregnant women and investigated their blood MeHg levels. The distribution of blood reproductive hormone, selenium and zinc levels, and the difference of relevant factors by the reference level of blood MeHg (5.8 μg/L) of infertile women were further examined. Results showed that greater percentages of sashimi consumption, frequencies of Chinese herbal medicine use, alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity were observed in infertile women than those for pregnant women. Blood MeHg concentration was significantly greater in infertile than that in pregnant women. Significant concentration differences for FSH and LH by the dichotomized reference level of blood MeHg (5.8 μg/L) in infertile women were not observed, which may stem from that these reproductive hormones in participated infertile women were mostly in the normal reference range. Consumption of fish and sashimi represented the major source of MeHg exposure in infertile women. MeHg levels were elevated in infertile women, and consistent with fish consumption frequency. Compared to the referent level of blood MeHg levels <5.8 μg/L, the elevated blood MeHg levels (⩾5.8 μg/L) in infertile women were 3.35 and 4.42 folds risk in categorized frequencies of fish consumption 1-2 meals per week and more than 3 meals per week, respectively. The obtained results provide evidences and help updating the advisory of fish consumption and improving women's reproductive health. PMID:26002048

  16. Variation of crack intensity factor in three compacted clay liners exposed to annual cycle of atmospheric conditions with and without geotextile cover.

    PubMed

    Safari, E; Jalili Ghazizade, M; Abduli, M A; Gatmiri, B

    2014-08-01

    Performance of compacted clay liners commonly used as landfill barrier systems can be subject to decline in terms of hydraulic conductivity if left exposed to atmospheric conditions for an extended period of time prior to placement of overlaying layers. The resulting desiccation cracking can lead to increased hydraulic conductivity. Desiccation crack intensity was studied for three clayey soils commonly used for construction of landfill barrier system in a relatively large scale test setup exposed to real time atmospheric conditions over a complete annual cycle. A white separator geotextile cover was presumed to be capable of reducing the intensity of desiccation cracking through absorbing and maintaining higher amounts of moisture and reducing the temperature of the soil surface in comparison to a directly exposed soil surface. Desiccation cracking was monitored using a digital imaging technique for three compacted clay liners in two sets, one open to air and the second covered with the white geotextile. Crack intensity factor approached a relatively stable phase after certain cycles corresponding to atmospheric dry wet cycles. The results indicated that the white separator geotextile was capable of reducing the crack intensity factor by 37.4-45.9% throughout the experiment including the cyclic phase of desiccation cracking. During the stable phase, the maximum reduction in crack intensity factor of 90.4% as a result of applying geotextile cover was observed for the soil with the lowest plastic index and clay content and therefore the lowest magnitude of crack intensity factor. The other two soils with similar clay content but different plastic index showed 23.6% and 52.2% reductions in crack intensity factor after cyclic phase when covered with geotextile.

  17. Variation of crack intensity factor in three compacted clay liners exposed to annual cycle of atmospheric conditions with and without geotextile cover.

    PubMed

    Safari, E; Jalili Ghazizade, M; Abduli, M A; Gatmiri, B

    2014-08-01

    Performance of compacted clay liners commonly used as landfill barrier systems can be subject to decline in terms of hydraulic conductivity if left exposed to atmospheric conditions for an extended period of time prior to placement of overlaying layers. The resulting desiccation cracking can lead to increased hydraulic conductivity. Desiccation crack intensity was studied for three clayey soils commonly used for construction of landfill barrier system in a relatively large scale test setup exposed to real time atmospheric conditions over a complete annual cycle. A white separator geotextile cover was presumed to be capable of reducing the intensity of desiccation cracking through absorbing and maintaining higher amounts of moisture and reducing the temperature of the soil surface in comparison to a directly exposed soil surface. Desiccation cracking was monitored using a digital imaging technique for three compacted clay liners in two sets, one open to air and the second covered with the white geotextile. Crack intensity factor approached a relatively stable phase after certain cycles corresponding to atmospheric dry wet cycles. The results indicated that the white separator geotextile was capable of reducing the crack intensity factor by 37.4-45.9% throughout the experiment including the cyclic phase of desiccation cracking. During the stable phase, the maximum reduction in crack intensity factor of 90.4% as a result of applying geotextile cover was observed for the soil with the lowest plastic index and clay content and therefore the lowest magnitude of crack intensity factor. The other two soils with similar clay content but different plastic index showed 23.6% and 52.2% reductions in crack intensity factor after cyclic phase when covered with geotextile. PMID:24820661

  18. Young, Black, and Male in Foster Care: Relationship of Negative Social Contextual Experiences to Factors Relevant to Mental Health Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lionel D.; Davis, Larry E.

    2006-01-01

    Among a small, cross-sectional sample of young Black males transitioning from foster care (n=74), this study explored the relationship of their negative social contextual experiences to two factors relevant to the delivery of mental health services to them: cultural mistrust of mental health professionals and attitudes toward seeking professional…

  19. Overlapping Leaves Covering Flowers in the Alpine Species Eriophyton wallichii (Lamiaceae): Key Driving Factors and Their Potential Impact on Pollination

    PubMed Central

    Peng, De-Li; Song, Bo; Yang, Yang; Niu, Yang; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Extrafloral structures are supposed to have evolved to protect flowers from harsh physical environments but might have effects on pollination. Overlapping leaves cover flowers in Eriophyton wallichii, an alpine perennial endemic to the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. In previous study, it has showed that these extrafloral leaves can protect interior flowers from temperature fluctuations caused by drastic solar radiation fluctuations, but these leaves may also protect interior flowers from rain wash and UVB damage, and we do not know which one is the main function. In this study, we investigated whether rain and UVB protection are the main functions of overlapping leaves covering flowers and their potential impact on pollination. We first measured the intensities of UVB radiation in open air, beneath leaves and corollas, and then examined pollen susceptibility to different intensities of UVB and rain in the laboratory to estimate whether corollas per se protect interior pollen from UVB and rain damage. We also carried out pollination treatments and observed pollinator visitation of flowers with and without leaves in the field to assess whether the overlapping leaves covering flowers impair pollinator attraction. Our results showed that (1) water and strong UVB significantly decreased pollen germinability, but corollas per se could protect pollen from UVB and rain damage; (2) no autonomous self-pollination and apomixis occurred, and pollinators were essential for the reproduction of E. wallichii; however, flower coverage by overlapping leaves did not limit pollination. We suggested that rain and UVB protection was not the main function of overlapping leaves covered flowers, given that this protection can be provided by corollas per se. Alternatively, this extrafloral structure in E. wallichii may have evolved in response to extreme high temperatures associated with the strong solar radiation fluctuations. This indicates that, even in alpine plants, extreme high

  20. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  1. Covering Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Ted; Krajicek, David; Hackney, Suzette; Moore, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents four brief articles on covering crime. Notes that reporting on crimes requires special skills for student reporters, editors, and photographers. Explains how to gain access to scenes, to develop journalistic ethics, and how to cover crime and its victims. Discusses the relation of race and ethnic issues to crime, and how visual…

  2. [Academic discussion of adverse reaction of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-ping; Yu, Ming; Wang, Li; Jiang, Xi-ren; Li, Xiao-bin; Wang, Hua-wei; Cao, Ying; Liu, Kai; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-01-01

    Data of clinical trial projects involved by clinical trial institutions certified by the State Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to November 2012 were collected to summarize adverse reactions in project summary/statistical reports, analyze the rate of adverse reactions of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors, and increase the awareness of the safety of new traditional Chinese medicines. A total of 73 050 cases in 209 projects of 14 specialties were collected, including 49 689 cases in the new traditional Chinese medicine group and 271 adverse reaction cases, with an incidence rate of adverse reactions at 0.55%. The adverse reaction rate in 3 months < middle long course ≤ 6 months was the highest (1.04%), whereas that in short course ≤ half a month was the lowest (0.48%). The adverse reaction was closely related with the route of administration, 1.28% for topical > 0.63% for injection > 0.50% for oral. In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate of patches was the highest (2.68%), whereas that of aerosols and suppositories was lowest (0). In the combined administration of the test drug and the simulation agent, the adverse reaction rate of external test patch + capsule was the highest (3.38%), whereas that of capsule + oral liquid, pills + granules, tablets + oral liquid, tablets + pills, tablet + capsule was the lowest (0). In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate was 0.47%; In the combined administration with simulation agent (drug volume increase), the adverse reaction rate was 0.74%. Different doses caused adverse reaction different rates; The adverse reaction rate of drugs with whole-course dose between 1 100-1 200 g was the highest (3.36%), that for whole-course doses of 500-600, 900-1 000, 1 400-1 500, 1 600-1 700, 1 800-1 900 g was the lowest (0). In conclusion, the adverse reaction rate of new traditional Chinese medicines was still up to 0

  3. Evaluation and comparison of benchmark QSAR models to predict a relevant REACH endpoint: The bioconcentration factor (BCF)

    SciTech Connect

    Gissi, Andrea; Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Gadaleta, Domenico; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Nicolotti, Orazio; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-02-15

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is an important bioaccumulation hazard assessment metric in many regulatory contexts. Its assessment is required by the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) and by CLP (Classification, Labeling and Packaging). We challenged nine well-known and widely used BCF QSAR models against 851 compounds stored in an ad-hoc created database. The goodness of the regression analysis was assessed by considering the determination coefficient (R{sup 2}) and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE); Cooper's statistics and Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) were calculated for all the thresholds relevant for regulatory purposes (i.e. 100 L/kg for Chemical Safety Assessment; 500 L/kg for Classification and Labeling; 2000 and 5000 L/kg for Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) and very Persistent, very Bioaccumulative (vPvB) assessment) to assess the classification, with particular attention to the models' ability to control the occurrence of false negatives. As a first step, statistical analysis was performed for the predictions of the entire dataset; R{sup 2}>0.70 was obtained using CORAL, T.E.S.T. and EPISuite Arnot–Gobas models. As classifiers, ACD and log P-based equations were the best in terms of sensitivity, ranging from 0.75 to 0.94. External compound predictions were carried out for the models that had their own training sets. CORAL model returned the best performance (R{sup 2}{sub ext}=0.59), followed by the EPISuite Meylan model (R{sup 2}{sub ext}=0.58). The latter gave also the highest sensitivity on external compounds with values from 0.55 to 0.85, depending on the thresholds. Statistics were also compiled for compounds falling into the models Applicability Domain (AD), giving better performances. In this respect, VEGA CAESAR was the best model in terms of regression (R{sup 2}=0.94) and classification (average sensitivity>0.80). This model also showed the best regression (R{sup 2

  4. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  5. Effects of forest cover and topographic factors on TOC and associated metals at various scales in western Scotland.

    PubMed

    Grieve, I C; Marsden, R L

    2001-01-29

    Studies at the stream catchment scale have yielded inconclusive evidence of the effects of forest land use on the concentrations of organic carbon in drainage waters. The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of forests on carbon in drainage waters at the plot scale by comparing concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and associated metals in soil solutions from sites under forest and moorland vegetation. At an upland site in south-west Scotland soil solution TOC, aluminium and iron concentrations varied with land cover. Mean concentrations of all three determinands were at least 1.5 times greater under forest than under moorland, despite considerable spatial and temporal (seasonal) variability. TOC in soil solutions was also found to vary significantly with both relief and altitude. The altitude effect was particularly marked, with an increase of 26 mg x l(-1) x 100 m(-1) increase in altitude found at an upland site in west-central Scotland. There were no differences in chloride, sulphate or base cation concentrations between forest and moorland sites. Differences in aluminium concentrations could not be linked to atmospheric scavenging at the forest sites, but were closely linked to differences in TOC.

  6. Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Long, Charles N.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-07-09

    Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical Atlantic Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean. Only over the Atlantic Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South Atlantic. Over the 10-year period under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOT asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South Atlantic, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the Atlantic was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this period the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South Atlantic was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North Atlantic. During the same 10-year period, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.

  7. Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    DOE PAGES

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Long, Charles N.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-07-09

    Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical Atlantic Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean. Only over the Atlantic Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South Atlantic. Over the 10-year period under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOTmore » asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South Atlantic, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the Atlantic was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this period the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South Atlantic was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North Atlantic. During the same 10-year period, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.« less

  8. Relevancy 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Newman, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Where we present an overview on why relevancy is a problem, how important it is and how we can improve it. The topic of relevancy is becoming increasingly important in earth data discovery as our audience is tuned to the accuracy of standard search engines like Google.

  9. Synthesis of bradyrhizose, a unique inositol-fused monosaccharide relevant to a Nod-factor independent nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Yu, Biao

    2015-04-25

    The symbiosis of Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi1 with its host plant Aeschynomene indica relies on a Nod-factor independent mechanism, wherein the Bradyrhizobium O-antigen is regarded as a key factor. This O-antigen polysaccharide is composed of a unique C10 monosaccharide, namely bradyrhizose, which has a galactose-inositol trans-fused scaffold, via a homogeneous α-(1 → 7)-linkage. Herein, we report the first synthesis of bradyrhizose. The scalable synthesis requires 26 steps in a high overall yield of 9%, with the inositol scaffold being constructed effectively via a Ferrier II rearrangement from a fully functionalized C2 and C4 branched pyranose derivative.

  10. Partitioning the variation within the acid neutralizing capacity of surface waters in Scotland in relation to land cover, soil and atmospheric depositional factors.

    PubMed

    Kernan, M R; Helliwell, R C

    2001-01-29

    A method of decomposing the variation in the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of surface waters in Scotland is described. Using national datasets, a series of variables relating to 703 catchments across Scotland is divided into three components representing (i) land cover, (ii) soil and (iii) atmospheric deposition/altitude. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and (partial) redundancy analysis are used to quantify the amount of variation in ANC uniquely attributable to each of these components, independent of the effects of the others. The variation accounted for by covarying combinations of these components is also determined. Approximately 55% of the total variation in ANC across the 703 sites is explained by the variables representing catchment characteristics and atmospheric deposition. Of this, 8.5%, 2.4% and 6.9% are uniquely attributable to the land cover, soil and deposition/altitude components, respectively. A further 38% of ANC variation is associated with the covariation between components, with 18% accounted for by the combination of all three. Approximately 45% of the variation in ANC remains unexplained. The results reflect the integrated nature of catchment processes and demonstrate, for these data, that it is a combination of land cover, soil and deposition and altitude factors which most explain variation in freshwater ANC level. The approach offers a tool with which to assess the sensitivity of surface waters to acid deposition at a regional scale and provides a way of identifying regional differences in catchment response to acid loading.

  11. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  12. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  13. Assessment of Relevant Parenting Factors in Families of Clinically Anxious Children: The Family Assessment Clinician-Rated Interview (FACI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Micco, Jamie A.; Fisher, Paige H.; Warner, Carrie Masia

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research on child and adolescent anxiety disorders has seen a surge in investigations of parenting factors potentially associated with their etiology. However, many of the well-established parenting measures are limited by over-reliance on self-report or lengthy behavioral observation procedures. Such measures may not assess factors…

  14. Are opossums a relevant factor associated with asymptomatic Leishmania infection in the outskirts of the largest Brazilian cities?

    PubMed

    Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    A population survey was conducted to explore the prevalence and factors associated with Leishmania infection in the Fercal region of the Federal District. The Fercal region is a group of neighborhoods in Brasília in which the first cases of visceral leishmaniasis were described. Leishmania infection was established by a positive leishmanin test. Although other tests were performed in the study (an immunochromatographic assay (Kalazar detect(®)) and a molecular assay), only the leishmanin skin test provided sufficient results for the measurement of the disease prevalence. Data on the epidemiological, clinical and environmental characteristics of individuals were collected along with the diagnostic tests. After sampling and enrollment, seven hundred people from 2 to 14 years of age were included in the study. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was 33.28% (95% CI 29.87-36.84). The factors associated with Leishmania infection according to the multivariate analysis were age of more than seven years and the presence of opossums near the home. Age is a known factor associated with Leishmania infection; however, the presence of wild animals, as described, is an understudied factor. The presence of opossums, which are known reservoirs of Leishmania, in peri-urban areas could be the link between the rural and urban occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in the outskirts of largest Brazilian cities, as suggested by previous studies. PMID:26867473

  15. Are opossums a relevant factor associated with asymptomatic Leishmania infection in the outskirts of the largest Brazilian cities?

    PubMed

    Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    A population survey was conducted to explore the prevalence and factors associated with Leishmania infection in the Fercal region of the Federal District. The Fercal region is a group of neighborhoods in Brasília in which the first cases of visceral leishmaniasis were described. Leishmania infection was established by a positive leishmanin test. Although other tests were performed in the study (an immunochromatographic assay (Kalazar detect(®)) and a molecular assay), only the leishmanin skin test provided sufficient results for the measurement of the disease prevalence. Data on the epidemiological, clinical and environmental characteristics of individuals were collected along with the diagnostic tests. After sampling and enrollment, seven hundred people from 2 to 14 years of age were included in the study. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was 33.28% (95% CI 29.87-36.84). The factors associated with Leishmania infection according to the multivariate analysis were age of more than seven years and the presence of opossums near the home. Age is a known factor associated with Leishmania infection; however, the presence of wild animals, as described, is an understudied factor. The presence of opossums, which are known reservoirs of Leishmania, in peri-urban areas could be the link between the rural and urban occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in the outskirts of largest Brazilian cities, as suggested by previous studies.

  16. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Manohara, S R; Hanagodimath, S M; Gerward, L

    2011-11-15

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4-component), for the photon energy range 0.015-15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Z(eff). These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues. With the proper knowledge of buildup factors of human organs and tissues, energy absorption in the human body can be carefully controlled. The present results will help in estimating safe dose levels for radiotherapy patients and also useful in diagnostics and dosimetry. The tissue-equivalent materials for skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, cortical bone, and lung tissue are also discussed. It is observed that water and MS20 are good tissue equivalent materials for skeletal muscle in the extended energy range.

  17. Epidemiological profiles of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections in Malian women: Risk factors and relevance of disparities

    PubMed Central

    Bouare, Nouhoum; Gothot, Andre; Delwaide, Jean; Bontems, Sebastien; Vaira, Dolores; Seidel, Laurence; Gerard, Paul; Gerard, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To document the epidemiologic patterns and risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Mali in order to develop prevention means for both diseases. METHODS: Two prospective studies were conducted in Bamako in 2009 among 1000 pregnant women (i.e., young women) who consulted six reference health centers, and in 2010, among 231 older women who attended general practice in two hospitals. Antibody tests and molecular analysis (performed only for HCV) were used to quantify the frequencies of both infections. The data were collected from patients recruited through a questionnaire. Transmission risk factors of both diseases were identified by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: HCV seroprevalence was 0.2% for young and 6.5% for older women. HIV prevalence was similar in both populations (4.1% vs 6.1%). In older women, the analysis of risk factors highlighted an association between HCV infection and episodes of hospitalization (P < 0.01). The study did not show an association between HIV infection and the variables such as hospitalization, transfusion, tattoo, dental care, and endoscopy. A significant decrease of HIV seroprevalence was detected in young women who used condoms for contraception more than for other purposes (P < 0.01). By contrast, HIV seroprevalence was significantly increased in young women using condoms mainly to prevent sexual infections rather than for contraception (P < 0.01). No HCV/HIV coinfection was detected in our study. CONCLUSION: Risk factors and epidemiologic data of HIV and HCV as well as the absence of co-infection strongly suggest epidemiological disparities between these diseases. PMID:23671724

  18. Psychological Factors in Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women: Relevance and Application of the Fear-Avoidance Model of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain in women is a debilitating, costly condition often treated by physical therapists. The etiology of this condition is multifactorial and poorly understood, given the complex interplay of muscles, bones, and soft tissue that comprise the pelvis. There are few guidelines directing treatment interventions for this condition. In the last decade, several investigators have highlighted the role of psychological variables in conditions such as vulvodynia and painful bladder syndrome. Pain-related fear is the focus of the fear-avoidance model (FAM) of pain, which theorizes that some people are more likely to develop and maintain pain after an injury because of their emotional and behavioral responses to pain. The FAM groups people into 2 classes on the basis of how they respond to pain: people who have low fear, confront pain, and recover from injury and people who catastrophize pain—a response that leads to avoidance/escape behaviors, disuse, and disability. Given the presence of pain-related cognitions in women with chronic pelvic pain, including hypervigilance, catastrophizing, and anxiety, research directed toward the application of the FAM to guide therapeutic interventions is warranted. Isolated segments of the FAM have been studied to theorize why traditional approaches (ie, medications and surgery) may not lead to successful outcomes. However, the explicit application of the FAM to guide physical therapy interventions for women with chronic pelvic pain is not routine. Integrating the FAM might direct physical therapists' clinical decision making on the basis of the pain-related cognitions and behaviors of patients. The aims of this article are to provide information about the FAM of musculoskeletal pain and to provide evidence for the relevance of the FAM to chronic pelvic pain in women. PMID:21835893

  19. Influence of clinically relevant factors on the immediate biomechanical surrounding for a series of dental implant designs.

    PubMed

    Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Gupta, Nikhil; Pessoa, Roberto Sales; Janal, Malvin N; Coelho, Paulo G

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of various clinically relevant scenarios on the strain distribution in the biomechanical surrounding of five different dental implant macrogeometries. The biomechanical environment surrounding an implant, i.e., the cortical and trabecular bone, was modeled along with the implant. These models included two different values of the study parameters including loading conditions, trabecular bone elastic modulus, cortical/trabecular bone thickness ratio, and bone loss for five implant designs. Finite element analysis was conducted on the models and strain in the bones surrounding the implant was calculated. Bone volumes having strains in four different windows of 0-200 με, 200-1000 με, 1000-3000 με, and > 3000 με were measured and the effect of each biomechanical variable and their two-way interactions were statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance method. This study showed that all the parameters included in this study had an effect on the volume of bones in all strain windows, except the implant design, which affected only the 0-200 με and >3000 με windows. The two-way interaction results showed that interactions existed between implant design and bone loss, and loading condition, bone loss in the 200-1000 με window, and between implant design and loading condition in the 0-200 με window. Within the limitations of the present methodology, it can be concluded that although some unfavorable clinical scenarios demonstrated a higher volume of bone in deleterious strain levels, a tendency toward the biomechanical equilibrium was evidenced regardless of the implant design.

  20. Blood lead and cadmium levels and relevant factors among children from an e-waste recycling town in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Liangkai; Wu Kusheng; Li Yan; Qi Zongli; Han Dai; Zhang Bao; Gu Chengwu; Chen Gangjian; Liu Junxiao; Chen Songjian; Xu Xijin; Huo Xia

    2008-09-15

    Background: Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is ongoing in Guiyu, and thus toxic heavy metals may keep on threatening to the health of local children. Some related factors may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) or blood cadmium levels (BCLs). Objective: To investigate the children's BLLs and BCLs in Guiyu and Chendian as compare to discuss the effects of primitive e-waste recycling activities on children's health. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight children less than 8 years who lived in Guiyu and Chendian were observed, and their BLLs and BCLs were determined by graphite atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Questionnaire survey for risk factors was also performed and data were analyzed using spearman correlation analyses and logistic regression analyses. Results: Children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs and BCLs as compared with those living in Chendian (p<0.01). In Guiyu, 70.8% of children (109/154) had BLLs>10 {mu}g/dL, and 20.1% of children (31/154) had BCLs>2 {mu}g/L, compared with 38.7% of children (48/124) had BLLs>10 {mu}g/dL and 7.3% of children (9/124) had BCLs>2 {mu}g/L in Chendian (p<0.01, respectively). We also observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p<0.01). Mean height of children in Guiyu was significantly lower than that in Chendian (p<0.01). The risk factors related to children's BLLs and BCLs mainly included father's engagement in the work related to e-waste, children's residence in Guiyu and the amount of time that children played outside near the road everyday. Conclusions: There are close relationships between the BLLs, BCLs in children and the primitive e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu. Environmental pollution, especially lead pollution, has threatened the health of children living around e-waste recycling site.

  1. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    mortality due to coyote predation was documented and disease was a major mortality source for foxes. The declining relative abundance of gray fox in Illinois is likely a result of a combination of factors. Assessment of habitat associations indicated that urban mesopredators, particularly coyotes and foxes, perceived the landscape as relatively homogeneous and that urban mesopredators interacted with the environment at scales larger than that accommodated by remnant habitat patches. Coyote and fox presence was found to be associated with a high degree of urban development at large and intermediate spatial scales. However, at a small spatial scale fox presence was associated with high density urban land cover whereas coyote presence was associated with urban development with increased forest cover. Urban habitats can offer a diversity of prey items and anthropogenic resources and natural land cover could offer coyotes daytime resting opportunities in urban areas where they may not be as tolerated as smaller foxes. Raccoons and opossums were found to utilize moderately developed landscapes with interspersed natural and semi-natural land covers at a large spatial scale, which may facilitate dispersal movements. At intermediate and small spatial scales, both species were found to utilize areas that were moderately developed and included forested land cover. These results indicated that raccoons and opossums used natural areas in proximity to anthropogenic resources. At a large spatial scale, skunk presence was associated with highly developed landscapes with interspersed natural and semi-natural land covers. This may indicate that skunks perceived the urban matrix as more homogeneous than raccoons or opossums. At an intermediate spatial scale skunks were associated with moderate levels of development and increased forest cover, which indicated that they might utilize natural land cover in proximity to human-dominated land cover. At the smallest spatial scale skunk presence was

  2. Brain-immune interactions in neuropsychiatry: highlights of the basic science and relevance to pathogenic factors and epiphenomena.

    PubMed

    Petitto, J M; Repetto, M J; Hartemink, D A

    2001-05-01

    Unraveling the significant complexity of brain-immune interactions could provide essential new insights and potential treatment considerations for the clinical neurosciences. Despite considerable research relating immunological changes to major neuropsychiatric disorders, it has been difficult to establish that immunological processes are involved in the development of central nervous system pathology associated with these disorders. This brief article highlights some of the landmark basic studies and seeks to convey essential principles guiding research in brain-immune interactions. Research in this area often incorporates several disciplines, ranging from psychology and neuroscience to immunology and molecular genetics. The clinical implications of this area of research are discussed, with emphasis on the challenge of disentangling pathogenic factors and valid markers of disease from epiphenomena.

  3. Uncovering the uncertainty: Risk factors and clinical relevance of P1 lesions on small bowel capsule endoscopy of anemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Cúrdia Gonçalves, Tiago; Barbosa, Mara; Rosa, Bruno; Moreira, Maria João; Cotter, José

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify risk factors for P1 lesions on small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) and to describe the natural history of anemic patients with such type of lesions. METHODS One hundred patients were consecutively selected for a case-control analysis performed between 37 cases with P1 lesions and 63 controls with negative SBCE. Age, gender, comorbidities and regular medication were collected. Rebleeding, further investigational studies and death were also analyzed during the follow-up. RESULTS No significant differences on gender, median age or Charlson index were found between groups. Although no differences were found on the use of proton pump inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) was associated with a higher risk of P1 lesions (OR = 12.00, 95%CI: 1.38-104.1). From the 87 patients followed at our center, 39 were submitted to additional studies for investigation of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), and this was significantly more common in those patients with no findings on SBCE (53.7% vs 30.3%, P = 0.033). A total of 29 patients had at least one rebleeding or IDA recurrence episode and 9 patients died of non-anemia related causes but no differences were found between cases and controls. CONCLUSION P1 lesions are commonly found in patients with IDA submitted to SBCE. The use of NSAID seems to be a risk factor for P1 lesions. The outcomes of patients with P1 lesions do not differ significantly from those with P0 lesions or normal SBCE. PMID:27784969

  4. Environmental factors and public health policy associated with human and rodent infection by leptospirosis: a land cover-based study in Nan province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Della Rossa, P; Tantrakarnapa, K; Sutdan, D; Kasetsinsombat, K; Cosson, J-F; Supputamongkol, Y; Chaisiri, K; Tran, A; Supputamongkol, S; Binot, A; Lajaunie, C; Morand, S

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis incidence has increased markedly since 1995 in Thailand, with the eastern and northern parts being the most affected regions, particularly during flooding events. Here, we attempt to overview the evolution of human prevalence during the past decade and identify the environmental factors that correlate with the incidence of leptospirosis and the clinical incidence in humans. We used an extensive survey of Leptospira infection in rodents conducted in 2008 and 2009 and the human incidence of the disease from 2003 to 2012 in 168 villages of two districts of Nan province in Northern Thailand. Using an ad-hoc developed land-use cover implemented in a geographical information system we showed that humans and rodents were not infected in the same environment/habitat in the land-use cover. High village prevalence was observed in open habitat near rivers for the whole decade, or in 2008-2009 mostly in rice fields prone to flooding, whereas infected rodents (2008-2009) were observed in patchy habitat with high forest cover, mostly situated on sloping ground areas. We also investigated the potential effects of public health campaigns conducted after the dramatic flood event of 2006. We showed that, before 2006, human incidence in villages was explained by the population size of the village according to the environmental source of infection of this disease, while as a result of the campaigns, human incidence in villages after 2006 appeared independent of their population size. This study confirms the role of the environment and particularly land use, in the transmission of bacteria, emphasized by the effects of the provincial public health campaigns on the epidemiological pattern of incidence, and questions the role of rodents as reservoirs.

  5. Relevance of psychosocial factors to quality of life in oral cancer and oral lichen planus: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madiha; Kanatas, Anastasios; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Majeed

    2015-09-01

    We can improve our understanding of how patients cope with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by making a comparison with their processes of coping and those used in other conditions. We have therefore compared quality of life (QoL), severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and factors that influence coping between patients with oral SCC and those with oral lichen planus. We asked 104 patients with oral SCC and 51 with oral lichen planus to complete questionnaires about their coping strategies, social support, locus of control, spirituality, QoL, and severity of symptoms. The outcome was that patients with oral SCC were far more likely to resort to coping strategies such as depressive coping, distraction, and self-motivation. The groups also differed regarding QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC had a poorer QoL and higher depression scores, whereas patients with oral lichen planus had better scores in the social support and spirituality categories. Patients with oral SCC generally had more distress than those with oral lichen planus. Not only did the former resort to depressive coping strategies, but they also had poorer QoL and higher values for depression. For the patients with oral lichen planus, social support and spirituality were protective, whereas they were associated with distress by patients with oral SCC.

  6. Vision and Relevant Risk Factor Interventions for Preventing Falls among Older People: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-05-28

    Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V + E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V + HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V + E + HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V + E + S), vision plus hearing interventions (V + H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V + VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V + VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V + VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (≥65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis.

  7. Variability and reduced performance of preschool- and early school-aged children on psychoacoustic tasks: What are the relevant factors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Prudence

    2003-04-01

    Young children typically perform more poorly on psychoacoustic tasks than do adults, with large individual differences. When performance is averaged across children within age groups, the data suggest a gradual change in performance with increasing age. However, an examination of individual data suggests that the performance matures more rapidly, although at different times for different children. The mechanisms of development responsible for these changes are likely very complex, involving both sensory and cognitive processes. This paper will discuss some previously suggested mechanisms including attention and cue weighting, as well as possibilities suggested from more recent studies in which learning effects were examined. In one task, a simple frequency discrimination was required, while in another the listener was required to extract regularities in complex sequences of sounds that varied from trial to trial. Results suggested that the ability to select and consistently employ an effective listening strategy was especially important in the performance of the more complex task, while simple stimulus exposure and motivation contributed to the simpler task. These factors are important for understanding the perceptual development and for the subsequent application of psychoacoustic findings to clinical populations. [Work supported by the NSERC and the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network.

  8. The impact factor of a journal is a poor measure of the clinical relevance of its papers.

    PubMed

    Kodumuri, P; Ollivere, B; Holley, J; Moran, C G

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the top 13 journals in trauma and orthopaedics by impact factor and looked at the longer-term effect regarding citations of their papers. All 4951 papers published in these journals during 2007 and 2008 were reviewed and categorised by their type, subspecialty and super-specialty. All citations indexed through Google Scholar were reviewed to establish the rate of citation per paper at two, four and five years post-publication. The top five journals published a total of 1986 papers. Only three (0.15%) were on operative orthopaedic surgery and none were on trauma. Most (n = 1084, 54.5%) were about experimental basic science. Surgical papers had a lower rate of citation (2.18) at two years than basic science or clinical medical papers (4.68). However, by four years the rates were similar (26.57 for surgery, 30.35 for basic science/medical), which suggests that there is a considerable time lag before clinical surgical research has an impact. We conclude that high impact journals do not address clinical research in surgery and when they do, there is a delay before such papers are cited. We suggest that a rate of citation at five years post-publication might be a more appropriate indicator of importance for papers in our specialty.

  9. The impact factor of a journal is a poor measure of the clinical relevance of its papers.

    PubMed

    Kodumuri, P; Ollivere, B; Holley, J; Moran, C G

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the top 13 journals in trauma and orthopaedics by impact factor and looked at the longer-term effect regarding citations of their papers. All 4951 papers published in these journals during 2007 and 2008 were reviewed and categorised by their type, subspecialty and super-specialty. All citations indexed through Google Scholar were reviewed to establish the rate of citation per paper at two, four and five years post-publication. The top five journals published a total of 1986 papers. Only three (0.15%) were on operative orthopaedic surgery and none were on trauma. Most (n = 1084, 54.5%) were about experimental basic science. Surgical papers had a lower rate of citation (2.18) at two years than basic science or clinical medical papers (4.68). However, by four years the rates were similar (26.57 for surgery, 30.35 for basic science/medical), which suggests that there is a considerable time lag before clinical surgical research has an impact. We conclude that high impact journals do not address clinical research in surgery and when they do, there is a delay before such papers are cited. We suggest that a rate of citation at five years post-publication might be a more appropriate indicator of importance for papers in our specialty. PMID:24589801

  10. Vision and Relevant Risk Factor Interventions for Preventing Falls among Older People: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V + E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V + HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V + E + HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V + E + S), vision plus hearing interventions (V + H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V + VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V + VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V + VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (≥65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis. PMID:26020415

  11. Vision and Relevant Risk Factor Interventions for Preventing Falls among Older People: A Network Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V + E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V + HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V + E + HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V + E + S), vision plus hearing interventions (V + H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V + VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V + VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V + VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (≥65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis. PMID:26020415

  12. Behavior of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli relevant to lettuce washing processes and consideration of factors for evaluating washing process surrogates.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kaiping; Wang, Xue; Yen, Li-Han; Ding, Hongliu; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2014-11-01

    Postharvest processes for fresh produce commonly include washing in water containing antimicrobial chemicals, such as chlorine; however, if the antimicrobials are not present in sufficient levels, washing can promote the spread of contamination that might be present. To understand cross-contamination risk during washing, we tested a collection of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), including O157:H7 and other non-O157 strains, for certain traits during washing of fresh-cut lettuce, i.e., sensitivity to sublethal chlorine levels and ability to cross-contaminate (detach from and attach to) lettuce in the presence of sublethal chlorine levels. Nonpathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and Pediococcus pentosaceus lactic acid bacterial species (LAB) were included as potential washing process validation surrogates. As measured by extension of the lag phase of growth in media containing 0.15 ppm of chlorine, chlorine sensitivity varied among the STECs. Cross-contamination was assessed by evaluating transfer of bacteria from inoculated to uninoculated leaves during washing. Without chlorine, similar transfer to wash water and uninoculated leaves was shown. In 1 ppm of chlorine, cross-contamination was not detected with most strains, except for the substantial transfer by a STEC O111 strain and EcN in some replicates. Strain O111 and EcN showed less inactivation in 0.25 ppm of chlorine water compared with O157 (P < 0.05). LAB showed similar transfer and similar chlorine inactivation to O157. Considering together the sublethal chlorine sensitivity and detachment/attachment traits, neither EcN nor LAB displayed optimal characteristics as washing process surrogates for the STEC strains, although further evaluation is needed. This work demonstrated a range of behaviors of STEC strains during lettuce washing and may be helpful in hazard characterization, identifying factors to consider for evaluating washing process efficacy, and identifying phenotypic traits to select

  13. Why are women so intelligent? The effect of maternal IQ on childhood mortality may be a relevant evolutionary factor.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    Humans are an unusual species because they exhibit an economic division of labour. Most theories concerning the evolution of specifically human intelligence have focused either on economic problems or sexual selection mechanisms, both of which apply more to men than women. Yet while there is evidence for men having a slightly higher average IQ, the sexual dimorphism of intelligence is not obvious (except at unusually high and low levels). However, a more female-specific selection mechanism concerns the distinctive maternal role in child care during the offspring's early years. It has been reported that increasing maternal intelligence is associated with reducing child mortality. This would lead to a greater level of reproductive success for intelligent women, and since intelligence is substantially heritable, this is a plausible mechanism by which natural selection might tend to increase female intelligence in humans. Any effect of maternal intelligence on improving child survival would likely be amplified by assortative mating for IQ by which people tend to marry others of similar intelligence - combining female maternal and male economic or sexual selection factors. Furthermore, since general intelligence seems to have the functional attribute of general purpose problem-solving and more rapid learning, the advantages of maternal IQ are likely to be greater as the environment for child-rearing is more different from the African hunter-gatherer society and savannah environment in which ancestral humans probably evolved. However, the effect of maternal IQ on child mortality would probably only be of major evolutionary significance in environments where childhood mortality rates were high. The modern situation is that population growth is determined mostly by birth rates; so in modern conditions, maternal intelligence may no longer have a significant effect on reproductive success; the effect of female IQ on reproductive success is often negative. Nonetheless, in the

  14. CTLA-4 in mesothelioma patients: tissue expression, body fluid levels and possible relevance as a prognostic factor.

    PubMed

    Roncella, Silvio; Laurent, Stefania; Fontana, Vincenzo; Ferro, Paola; Franceschini, Maria Cristiana; Salvi, Sandra; Varesano, Serena; Boccardo, Simona; Vigani, Antonella; Morabito, Anna; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Giannoni, Ugo; Rosenberg, Ilan; Valentino, Alessandro; Fedeli, Franco; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Ceppi, Marcello; Riggio, Salvatore; Romani, Massimo; Saverino, Daniele; Poggi, Alessandro; Pistillo, Maria Pia

    2016-08-01

    CTLA-4 function as a negative regulator of T cell-mediated immune response is well established, whereas much less is known about the immunoregulatory role of its soluble isoform (sCTLA-4). No data are available on CTLA-4 expression and prognostic impact in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We investigated, by immunohistochemistry, CTLA-4 expression in tumor tissues and, by ELISA, sCTLA-4 levels in sera and matched pleural effusions from 45 MPM patients. Prognostic effect of CTLA-4 expression on overall survival (OS) was assessed through Cox regression and prognostic significance expressed as death rate ratio (HR). We found that 56.0 % of MPM tissues expressed CTLA-4 with variable intensity and percentage of positive cells estimated by the immunoreactive score. sCTLA-4 levels were significantly higher in sera (S-sCTLA-4) than in pleural effusions (PE-sCTLA-4) (geometric mean ratio = 2.70, P value = 0.020). CTLA-4 expression at the tissue level was higher in the epithelioid histological subtype than in the sarcomatoid, whereas at the serum level, it was higher in the sarcomatoid subtype. A homogeneous favorable prognostic effect was found for CTLA-4 overexpression in tissue, serum and pleural effusion. Interestingly, only the PE-sCTLA-4 was found to be a statistically significant positive prognostic factor (HR = 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.18-0.77, P value = 0.007). Indeed, PE-sCTLA-4 correlated with CTLA-4 expression in tissues, whereas this latter expression showed a weak association with OS. To confirm our findings, further experimental evidences obtained from a larger cohort of MPM patients are required. However, our results would indicate a positive correlation of PE-sCTLA-4 levels and OS in MPM patients.

  15. Why are women so intelligent? The effect of maternal IQ on childhood mortality may be a relevant evolutionary factor.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    Humans are an unusual species because they exhibit an economic division of labour. Most theories concerning the evolution of specifically human intelligence have focused either on economic problems or sexual selection mechanisms, both of which apply more to men than women. Yet while there is evidence for men having a slightly higher average IQ, the sexual dimorphism of intelligence is not obvious (except at unusually high and low levels). However, a more female-specific selection mechanism concerns the distinctive maternal role in child care during the offspring's early years. It has been reported that increasing maternal intelligence is associated with reducing child mortality. This would lead to a greater level of reproductive success for intelligent women, and since intelligence is substantially heritable, this is a plausible mechanism by which natural selection might tend to increase female intelligence in humans. Any effect of maternal intelligence on improving child survival would likely be amplified by assortative mating for IQ by which people tend to marry others of similar intelligence - combining female maternal and male economic or sexual selection factors. Furthermore, since general intelligence seems to have the functional attribute of general purpose problem-solving and more rapid learning, the advantages of maternal IQ are likely to be greater as the environment for child-rearing is more different from the African hunter-gatherer society and savannah environment in which ancestral humans probably evolved. However, the effect of maternal IQ on child mortality would probably only be of major evolutionary significance in environments where childhood mortality rates were high. The modern situation is that population growth is determined mostly by birth rates; so in modern conditions, maternal intelligence may no longer have a significant effect on reproductive success; the effect of female IQ on reproductive success is often negative. Nonetheless, in the

  16. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  17. Heparin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Loaded Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) Nanofiber Covered Stent-Graft for Aneurysm Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; An, Qingzhu; Li, Dawei; Wu, Tong; Chen, Weiming; Sun, Binbin; El-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Zhu, Wei; Mo, Xiumei

    2015-11-01

    Restenosis caused by thrombopoiesis is one of the biggest hinders of endovascular stent-graft used in small-diameter vessels. Rapid endothelialization of the lumen of stent is a promising approach to prevent thrombosis. In this study, we aimed at loading heparin, a potent anticoagulants, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into the core of poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) nanofiber via emulsion electrospinning. The nanofiber was covered on the stent and applied in the treatment of vascular diseases such as aneurysm. The morphologies of the emulsion electrospun nanofibers and core--shell structure were observed by scanning electron microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope. The release profiles of heparin and VEGF, degradation rate of nanofiber mats and cell proliferation in vitro were investigated. It was found that the release of both heparin and VEGF from the nanofiber lasted for more than 30 days without serious initial burst release. The degradation rate of nanofiber mats containing heparin and VEGF was faster than that of pure PLCL nanofiber mats. Moreover, the released VEGF could promote the proliferation of Pig iliac endothelial cells (PIECs) cultured on the nanofiber mat, which was of great benefit to stent endothelialization. The results of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) follow-up indicated the aneurysm was obliterated by separating the aneurysm dome from the blood circulation and the parent artery kept long-term patency. Results of the study demonstrated that the heparin and VEGF loaded nanofiber could provide an approach to fabricate covered stent-graft with properties of anticoagulation and induction of rapid endothelialization.

  18. A review of foot-and-mouth disease with special consideration for the clinical and epidemiological factors relevant to predictive modelling of the disease.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P; Hutber, A M; Thrusfield, M V

    2005-03-01

    Modelling the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been undertaken since the early 1970s. We review here clinical factors and modelling procedures that have been used in the past, differentiating between those that have proved to be more relevant in controlling FMD epidemics, and those that have showed less significance. During the 2001 UK FMD epidemic, many previously developed FMD models were available for consideration and use. Accurate epidemiological models can become useful tools for determining relevant control policies for different scenarios and, conversely, inaccurate models may become an abuse for disease control. Inaccuracy presents two opposing difficulties. Firstly, too much control (in terms of animal slaughter for 2001) would negatively impact the farming community for many subsequent years, whilst too little control would permit an epidemic to persist. Accuracy however, presents the optimal permutation of control measures that could be implemented for a given set of conditions, and is a prerequisite to boosting public confidence in the use of epidemiological models for future epidemics.

  19. Impaired immune responses in diabetes mellitus: analysis of the factors and mechanisms involved. Relevance to the increased susceptibility of diabetic patients to specific infections.

    PubMed

    Moutschen, M P; Scheen, A J; Lefebvre, P J

    1992-01-01

    The reasons why diabetic patients present with an increased susceptibility to frequent and protracted infections remain unclear. The virtual absence of epidemiological studies of the independent risk factors involved contrasts with the multitude of in vitro models focused on the metabolism and function of immune cells from diabetic patients. This review analyzes some of these models and their clinical relevance. The different levels of diabetes pathogenesis: genetic (Type 1), autoimmune (Type 1) and metabolic (Type 1 and Type 2) are responsible for immune abnormalities demonstrated in in vitro models. The participation of genetic and autoimmune factors has been mainly characterized on T lymphocyte function. The B8 DR3 haplotype is associated with several minor immunologic abnormalities in vitro. However, the high frequency of this haplotype in healthy individuals argues against its involvement in significant defects of antimicrobial immunity. Genetic deficiency of C4, present in 25% of Type 1 diabetic patients could, on the other hand, be responsible for opsonization defects against encapsulated pathogens. Several immunological abnormalities related to the autoimmune process preceding the onset of Type 1 diabetes mellitus, such as the depletion of memory CD4+ cells and the defective natural killer activity could transiently impair host defences against viral diseases. Several in vitro functional defects of the immune system have been correlated with the metabolic control of diabetic patients. This suggests the involvement of insulinopenia in some of the abnormalities observed. Insulinopenia-induced enzymatic defects have often been proposed to inhibit energy-requiring functions of phagocytes and lymphocytes. However, the relevance of this mechanism could be confined to patients with extremely severe metabolic abnormalities. The importance of systemic consequences of insulinopenia such as hyperglycaemia and ketosis has also been addressed. Usually, the defects

  20. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  1. Decadal to seasonal evolution of small debris-covered glaciers in permafrost environments in relation to their internal structure and climatic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosson, Jean-Baptiste; Maxime, Capt; Lambiel, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Debris-covered zones are extending on numerous glacier systems in mountainous regions. This situation results from an increase in debris supply and from a decrease of sediment evacuation capacity in glacier systems in the negative mass balance context. The progressive covering of ice mass affects particularly small cirque glacier systems (<0.5 km2) present in alpine permafrost environments. Indeed, in comparison with other glaciers, these systems have several characteristics (thin ice body, polythermal regime, a high debris content and glacier-permafrost interactions) that limit glacial dynamic and related sediment evacuation. Associating massive glacier ice, ice-debris mixtures and deglaciated debris under permafrost conditions, these systems are experiencing specific and complex response to climate forcing. However, despite their important role on alpine water and sediment flux systems and because they are situated at the frontier between glacial and periglacial researches, the characterisation of these systems and of their current evolution remains a challenging task. Specific needs concern especially the precise knowledge of their composition, the detection and the quantification of ongoing processes and the recognition of the main factors controlling the evolution of the different system components. Exploring and synthetizing the results of a multi-site (Rognes, Tsarmine, Entre la Reille), multi-temporal (from seasons to decades) and multi-method (ERT, GPR, dGPS, Lidar, photogrammetry, thermal monitoring, etc.) research led in the NW European Alps between 2011 and 2015, this contribution tries to enlighten and explain the different situations encountered in these complex systems. Three main zones, with specific behaviours can be distinguished according to the internal structure: - The larger zone corresponds to the strictly glacial zone. In comparison with the other zones, the responses to climate signal are rapid, illustrating the local high sensitivity to

  2. Interethnic differences in the relevance of CYP2C9 genotype and environmental factors for diclofenac metabolism in Hispanics from Cuba and Spain.

    PubMed

    Llerena, A; Alvarez, M; Dorado, P; González, I; Peñas-LLedó, E; Pérez, B; Cobaleda, J; Calzadilla, L R

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the diclofenac metabolism in Hispanics from Cuba and Spain and its relation to ethnicity, CYP2C9 genotypes and environmental factors. Diclofenac hydroxylation capacity (concentration ratios of diclofenac/metabolites in 8-h urine) was studied in 160 Cuban (classified as 76 Cuban-Whites-CWs and 84 Cuban-Mestizos-CMs) and 148 Spaniard (SPs) healthy volunteers. Diclofenac and its main metabolites, 4'-hydroxy (OH), 3'-OH and 5-OH diclofenac, and CYP2C9*2 to *6 and *8 alleles were also determined in 132 and 128 CWs and CMs, respectively. Gender, tobacco, caffeine and ethanol consumption were also evaluated. The mean diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratio was higher in CMs (0.72±0.25) than in CWs (0.64±0.20; P<0.05) and SPs (0.57±0.26; P<0.001). The mean diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratio was higher (P<0.05) in subjects with CYP2C9*1/*3 (0.77±0.19; n=22) and CYP2C9*1/*8 (0.93±0.33; n=4) genotypes than with CYP2C9*1/*1 (0.65±0.24; n=90). Environmental factors did not seem to influence the diclofenac metabolism in these populations. The present findings show for the first time interethnic differences between Hispanic groups in urinary diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratios, and the relevance of CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*8 alleles.

  3. Heritable major histocompatibility complex class II-associated differences in production of tumor necrosis factor. alpha. : Relevance to genetic predisposition to systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, C.O.; Fronek, Z.; Koo, M.; McDevitt, H.O. ); Lewis, G.C. ); Hansen, J.A. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors report on the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and TNF-{beta} by mitogen-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes or enriched monocyte subpopulations from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed healthy subjects. The results indicate that HLA-DR2- and DQw1-positive donors frequently exhibit low production of TNF-{alpha}, whereas DR3- and DR4-positive subjects show high levels of TNF-{alpha} production. No correlation between TNF-{alpha} levels and HLA-A, -B, and -C genotype was found. The relevance of this quantitative polymorphism to the genetic predisposition to lupus nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients was investigated. DR2, DQw1-positive SLE patients show low levels of TNF-{alpha} inducibility; this genotype is also associated with an increased incidence of lupus nephritis. DR3-positive SLE patients, on the other hand, are not predisposed to nephritis, and these patients have high TNF-{alpha} production. DR4 haplotype is associated with high TNF-{alpha} inducibility and is negatively correlated with lupus nephritis. These data may help explain the strong association between HLA-DR2, DQw1 in SLE patients and their susceptibility to nephritis.

  4. Stability of the Transthyretin Molecule as a Key Factor in the Interaction with A-Beta Peptide - Relevance in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carlos A.; Saraiva, Maria João; Cardoso, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) protects against A-Beta toxicity by binding the peptide thus inhibiting its aggregation. Previous work showed different TTR mutations interact differently with A-Beta, with increasing affinities correlating with decreasing amyloidogenecity of the TTR mutant; this did not impact on the levels of inhibition of A-Beta aggregation, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Our work aimed at probing differences in binding to A-Beta by WT, T119M and L55P TTR using quantitative assays, and at identifying factors affecting this interaction. We addressed the impact of such factors in TTR ability to degrade A-Beta. Using a dot blot approach with the anti-oligomeric antibody A11, we showed that A-Beta formed oligomers transiently, indicating aggregation and fibril formation, whereas in the presence of WT and T119M TTR the oligomers persisted longer, indicative that these variants avoided further aggregation into fibrils. In contrast, L55PTTR was not able to inhibit oligomerization or to prevent evolution to aggregates and fibrils. Furthermore, apoptosis assessment showed WT and T119M TTR were able to protect against A-Beta toxicity. Because the amyloidogenic potential of TTR is inversely correlated with its stability, the use of drugs able to stabilize TTR tetrameric fold could result in increased TTR/A-Beta binding. Here we showed that iododiflunisal, 3-dinitrophenol, resveratrol, [2-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)amino] (DCPA) and [4-(3,5-difluorophenyl)] (DFPB) were able to increase TTR binding to A-Beta; however only DCPA and DFPB improved TTR proteolytic activity. Thyroxine, a TTR ligand, did not influence TTR/A-Beta interaction and A-Beta degradation by TTR, whereas RBP, another TTR ligand, not only obstructed the interaction but also inhibited TTR proteolytic activity. Our results showed differences between WT and T119M TTR, and L55PTTR mutant regarding their interaction with A-Beta and prompt the stability of TTR as a key factor in this interaction

  5. Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors and other factors to the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen: patient-level meta-analysis of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG)

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background As trials of 5 years of tamoxifen in early breast cancer mature, the relevance of hormone receptor measurements (and other patient characteristics) to long-term outcome can be assessed increasingly reliably. We report updated meta-analyses of the trials of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. Methods We undertook a collaborative meta-analysis of individual patient data from 20 trials (n=21 457) in early breast cancer of about 5 years of tamoxifen versus no adjuvant tamoxifen, with about 80% compliance. Recurrence and death rate ratios (RRs) were from log-rank analyses by allocated treatment. Findings In oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease (n=10 645), allocation to about 5 years of tamoxifen substantially reduced recurrence rates throughout the first 10 years (RR 0·53 [SE 0·03] during years 0–4 and RR 0·68 [0·06] during years 5–9 [both 2p<0·00001]; but RR 0·97 [0·10] during years 10–14, suggesting no further gain or loss after year 10). Even in marginally ER-positive disease (10–19 fmol/mg cytosol protein) the recurrence reduction was substantial (RR 0·67 [0·08]). In ER-positive disease, the RR was approximately independent of progesterone receptor status (or level), age, nodal status, or use of chemotherapy. Breast cancer mortality was reduced by about a third throughout the first 15 years (RR 0·71 [0·05] during years 0–4, 0·66 [0·05] during years 5–9, and 0·68 [0·08] during years 10–14; p<0·0001 for extra mortality reduction during each separate time period). Overall non-breast-cancer mortality was little affected, despite small absolute increases in thromboembolic and uterine cancer mortality (both only in women older than 55 years), so all-cause mortality was substantially reduced. In ER-negative disease, tamoxifen had little or no effect on breast cancer recurrence or mortality. Interpretation 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen safely reduces 15-year risks of breast cancer recurrence and death. ER status was the

  6. CoverCAM - a land cover composition change assessment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Bie, C. D.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The cover-composition on a specific piece of land can change over time due to natural and anthropogenic factors. Accurate detection of where and when changes occur requires a method that uses remotely sensed imagery that represents a continuous and consistent record on the state of the green land-cover. Such data are offered through hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery. Until recently, NDVI-images were mainly used for anomaly mapping to monitor the influence of weather on vegetation; the monitoring basically assume that, over time, the land cover composition of a studied area remains static. This study presents a novel cover change assessment method, labelled ';CoverCAM' that extracts from hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery the probabilities that the original land cover composition did change. CoverCAM, unlike all existing change-detection methods, makes adjustments based on seasonal NDVI-anomalies experienced at landscape level. We tested the method by processing SPOT-VGT NDVI-imagery (10-day Maximum Value Composites; 1km pixels) for Andalucía, Spain. CoverCAM requires specification that two time periods are specified: a reference period (we used 2000-04), and a change detection period (we used 2005-10). All images of the reference period were classified using the ISODATA algorithm and by evaluating divergence statistics. The generated map depicts strata (group of polygons), characterized by temporal NDVI and standard deviation (SD) profiles. For the change assessment period, first, mean NDVI-values were calculated by decade and polygon (NDVId,p), and then for each pixel of the polygon its pixel change values specified through the remaining difference between the pixel NDVI and [NDVId,p × the SD value of the stratum for that decade]. The above process was repeated to produce decadal land cover change probability maps, each with its own undefined scale. The decadal change maps were then aggregated to annual change probability maps. This validation was only carried out for

  7. Anatomy relevant to conservative mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the nipple and breast skin is fundamental to any surgeon practicing conservative mastectomies. In this paper, the relevant clinical anatomy will be described, mainly focusing on the anatomy of the “oncoplastic plane”, the ducts and the vasculature. We will also cover more briefly the nerve supply and the arrangement of smooth muscle of the nipple. Finally the lymphatic drainage of the nipple and areola will be described. An appreciation of the relevant anatomy, together with meticulous surgical technique may minimise local recurrence and ischaemic complications. PMID:26645002

  8. Anatomy relevant to conservative mastectomy.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the nipple and breast skin is fundamental to any surgeon practicing conservative mastectomies. In this paper, the relevant clinical anatomy will be described, mainly focusing on the anatomy of the "oncoplastic plane", the ducts and the vasculature. We will also cover more briefly the nerve supply and the arrangement of smooth muscle of the nipple. Finally the lymphatic drainage of the nipple and areola will be described. An appreciation of the relevant anatomy, together with meticulous surgical technique may minimise local recurrence and ischaemic complications. PMID:26645002

  9. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  10. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  11. Key Factors in the Rise of Mass Popular Education and Their Relevance for Education in Southern Africa in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Niekerk, E. J.

    This paper identifies the historical factors that played a key role in the rise of mass popular education and describes how these factors relate to education in Southern Africa in the 21st century. The broad overview of developments since the Renaissance begins with the Protestant Reformation, which established a theoretical basis for elementary…

  12. Centenarians as super-controls to assess the biological relevance of genetic risk factors for common age-related diseases: a proof of principle on type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Garagnani, Paolo; Giuliani, Cristina; Pirazzini, Chiara; Olivieri, Fabiola; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Ostan, Rita; Mari, Daniela; Passarino, Giuseppe; Monti, Daniela; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Boemi, Massimo; Ceriello, Antonio; Genovese, Stefano; Sevini, Federica; Luiselli, Donata; Tieri, Paolo; Capri, Miriam; Salvioli, Stefano; Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Delledonne, Massimo; Testa, Roberto; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-05-01

    Genetic association studies of age-related, chronic human diseases often suffer from a lack of power to detect modest effects. Here we propose an alternative approach of including healthy centenarians as a more homogeneous and extreme control group. As a proof of principle we focused on type 2 diabetes (T2D) and assessed /genotypic associations of 31 SNPs associated with T2D, diabetes complications and metabolic diseases and SNPs of genes relevant for telomere stability and age-related diseases. We hypothesized that the frequencies of risk variants are inversely correlated with decreasing health and longevity. We performed association analyses comparing diabetic patients and non-diabetic controls followed by association analyses with extreme phenotypic groups (T2D patients with complications and centenarians). Results drew attention to rs7903146 (TCF7L2 gene) that showed a constant increase in the frequencies of risk genotype (TT) from centenarians to diabetic patients who developed macro-complications and the strongest genotypic association was detected when diabetic patients were compared to centenarians (p_value = 9.066*10⁻⁷). We conclude that robust and biologically relevant associations can be obtained when extreme phenotypes, even with a small sample size, are compared.

  13. Cover Your Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Cover Your Cough Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Posters only available as PDF files. Cover Your Cough, Flyer for Health Care Settings English [324 KB] ...

  14. Cover crops for Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are grown to benefit the following crop as well as to improve the soil, but they are normally not intended for harvest. Selecting the right cover crops for farming operations can improve yields, soil and water conservation and quality, and economic productivity. Properly managed cover ...

  15. Earthdata Search: The Relevance of Relevance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Through recent usability studies, the issue of relevance became increasingly clear in the Earthdata Search Client. After all, if a user can't find the data they are looking for, nothing else we do matters. This presentation walks through usability testing findings and recent relevance improvements made to the Earthdata Search Client.

  16. Sequential hepatogenic transdifferentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells: relevance of different extracellular signaling molecules, transcription factors involved, and expression of new key marker genes.

    PubMed

    Bonora-Centelles, A; Jover, R; Mirabet, V; Lahoz, A; Carbonell, F; Castell, J V; Gómez-Lechón, M J

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) population known as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) capable of differentiating into different cell types. Our aim was to induce hepatic transdifferentiation of ASCs by sequential exposure to several combinations of cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. The most efficient hepatogenic protocol includes fibroblastic growth factors (FGF) 2 and 4 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (step 1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), FGF2, FGF4, and nicotinamide (Nic) (step 2), and oncostatin M (OSM), dexamethasone (Dex), and insulin-tranferrin-selenium (step 3). This protocol activated transcription factors [GATA6, Hex, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and beta (CEBPalpha and beta), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1alpha), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4alpha)], which promoted a characteristic hepatic phenotype, as assessed by new informative markers for the step-by-step hepatic transdifferentiation of hMSC [early markers: albumin (ALB), alpha-2-macroglobuline (alpha2M), complement protein C3 (C3), and selenoprotein P1 (SEPP1); late markers: cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), apolipoprotein E (APOE), acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), and angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AGTR1)]. The loss of adipose adult stem cell phenotype was detected by losing expression of Thy1 and inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (Id3). The reexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate corboxykinase (PEPCK), apolipoprotein C3 (APOCIII), aldolase B (ALDOB), and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) was achieved by transduction with a recombinant adenovirus for HNF4alpha and finally hepatic functionality was also assessed by analyzing specific biochemical markers. We conclude that ASCs could represent an alternative tool in clinical therapy for liver dysfunction and regenerative medicine.

  17. Cover times of random searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  18. The Cover Time of Cartesian Product Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohammed; Cooper, Colin; Radzik, Tomasz

    Let P = G□H be the cartesian product of graphs G,H. We relate the cover time COV[P] of P to the cover times of its factors. When one of the factors is in some sense larger than the other, its cover time dominates, and can become of the same order as the cover time of the product as a whole. Our main theorem effectively gives conditions for when this holds. The probabilistic technique which we introduce, based on the blanket time, is more general and may be of independent interest, as might some of our lemmas.

  19. Study of Disease Progression and Relevant Risk Factors in Diabetic Foot Patients Using a Multistate Continuous-Time Markov Chain Model.

    PubMed

    Begun, Alexander; Morbach, Stephan; Rümenapf, Gerhard; Icks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The diabetic foot is a lifelong disease. The longer patients with diabetes and foot ulcers are observed, the higher the likelihood that they will develop comorbidities that adversely influence ulcer recurrence, amputation and survival (for example peripheral arterial disease, renal failure or ischaemic heart disease). The purpose of our study was to quantify person and limb-related disease progression and the time-dependent influence of any associated factors (present at baseline or appearing during observation) based on which effective prevention and/or treatment strategies could be developed. Using a nine-state continuous-time Markov chain model with time-dependent risk factors, all living patients were divided into eight groups based on their ulceration (previous or current) and previous amputation (none, minor or major) status. State nine is an absorbing state (death). If all transitions are fully observable, this model can be decomposed into eight submodels, which can be analyzed using the methods of survival analysis for competing risks. The dependencies of the risk factors (covariates) were included in the submodels using Cox-like regression. The transition intensities and relative risks for covariates were calculated from long-term data of patients with diabetic foot ulcers collected in a single specialized center in North-Rhine Westphalia (Germany). The detected estimates were in line with previously published, but scarce, data. Together with the interesting new results obtained, this indicates that the proposed model may be useful for studying disease progression in larger samples of patients with diabetic foot ulcers.

  20. The role of growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) in the induction and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurones: relevance to Parkinson's disease treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Aideen M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2005-01-01

    Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily which has potent effects on dopaminergic neurones in vitro and in vivo. GDF5 is under investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurones projecting from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum. In the rat ventral mesencephalon (VM; the developing SN), GDF5 expression peaks at embryonic day 14, the time at which dopaminergic neurones undergo terminal differentiation. Addition of GDF5 protein to cultures of embryonic rat VM increases the survival and improves the morphology of dopaminergic neurones in these cultures. GDF5 treatment also increases the number of cells which adopt a dopaminergic phenotype in cultures of VM progenitor cells. Intracerebral administration of GDF5 has potent neuroprotective and restorative effects on the nigrostriatal pathway in animal models of PD. Furthermore, addition of GDF5 protein to embryonic rat dopaminergic neuronal transplants improves their survival and function in a rat model of PD. Thus, GDF5 has potential applications to PD therapy as a dopaminergic neuroprotective agent and as a factor that may induce a dopaminergic neuronal fate in unrestricted progenitor cells. PMID:16185246

  1. Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings.

    PubMed

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van der Valk, Renate; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2015-02-28

    High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and the liability for OCS in patients with psychotic disorders and in their un-affected siblings. FFM traits, occurrence and severity of OCS and (subclinical) psychotic symptoms were assessed in 208 patients and in 281 siblings. Differences in FFM traits between participants with vs. without comorbid OCS were examined and the predictive value of FFM traits on group categorization was evaluated. Associations between FFM traits and OCS severity were investigated. Patients and siblings with OCS showed significantly higher Neuroticism compared to their counterparts without OCS. Neuroticism was positively associated with higher OCS severity and significantly predicted group assignment in both patients and in siblings. Patients with comorbid OCS presented with lower scores on Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Higher Neuroticism, and to a lesser degree lower Extraversion and Conscientiousness might add to the vulnerability of patients with a psychotic disorder to also develop OCS. Future prospective studies are needed to elucidate proposed personality-psychopathology interrelations and possible mediating factors.

  2. Immunohistochemical assay for epidermal growth factor receptor on paraffin-embedded sections: validation against ligand-binding assay and clinical relevance in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, J. C.; A'Hern, R. P.; Leek, R. D.; Smith, I. E.; Harris, A. L.; Dowsett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been the subject of much research since it was first described as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. The assay methods used and results obtained vary widely between studies. In this study 88 primary breast cancers were assayed for EGFR using a novel immunohistochemical assay performed on paraffin-embedded sections. The monoclonal antibody used was raised against purified, denatured EGFR, reacts with an epitope on the external domain and does not interfere with ligand binding. Twenty-two per cent of the tumours were EGFR positive using this assay. The results obtained were significantly correlated with those obtained by ligand-binding assay (r = 0.621, P = 0.011). The concordance rate was 82% (P < 0.001). The majority of discordant results could be explained by the presence of benign breast tissue and other non-malignant elements which could be seen to express EGFR on the immunohistochemical assay and were excluded from the score for this, but would be incorporated into ligand-binding assay results. The well-established inverse relationship between EGFR (as measured by this assay) and oestrogen receptor (ER) was seen (chi 2 = 24.9, P < 0.0001). In addition, in this exploratory study on a limited tumour set, EGFR was a significant adverse prognostic factor (on univariate but not multivariate analysis) for both relapse-free survival (P = 0.02) and overall survival (P = 0.03) when measured by this immunohistochemical assay, but was not significant when measured by ligand-binding assay. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7779717

  3. Study of Disease Progression and Relevant Risk Factors in Diabetic Foot Patients Using a Multistate Continuous-Time Markov Chain Model

    PubMed Central

    Begun, Alexander; Morbach, Stephan; Rümenapf, Gerhard; Icks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The diabetic foot is a lifelong disease. The longer patients with diabetes and foot ulcers are observed, the higher the likelihood that they will develop comorbidities that adversely influence ulcer recurrence, amputation and survival (for example peripheral arterial disease, renal failure or ischaemic heart disease). The purpose of our study was to quantify person and limb-related disease progression and the time-dependent influence of any associated factors (present at baseline or appearing during observation) based on which effective prevention and/or treatment strategies could be developed. Using a nine-state continuous-time Markov chain model with time-dependent risk factors, all living patients were divided into eight groups based on their ulceration (previous or current) and previous amputation (none, minor or major) status. State nine is an absorbing state (death). If all transitions are fully observable, this model can be decomposed into eight submodels, which can be analyzed using the methods of survival analysis for competing risks. The dependencies of the risk factors (covariates) were included in the submodels using Cox-like regression. The transition intensities and relative risks for covariates were calculated from long-term data of patients with diabetic foot ulcers collected in a single specialized center in North-Rhine Westphalia (Germany). The detected estimates were in line with previously published, but scarce, data. Together with the interesting new results obtained, this indicates that the proposed model may be useful for studying disease progression in larger samples of patients with diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:26814723

  4. Study of Disease Progression and Relevant Risk Factors in Diabetic Foot Patients Using a Multistate Continuous-Time Markov Chain Model.

    PubMed

    Begun, Alexander; Morbach, Stephan; Rümenapf, Gerhard; Icks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The diabetic foot is a lifelong disease. The longer patients with diabetes and foot ulcers are observed, the higher the likelihood that they will develop comorbidities that adversely influence ulcer recurrence, amputation and survival (for example peripheral arterial disease, renal failure or ischaemic heart disease). The purpose of our study was to quantify person and limb-related disease progression and the time-dependent influence of any associated factors (present at baseline or appearing during observation) based on which effective prevention and/or treatment strategies could be developed. Using a nine-state continuous-time Markov chain model with time-dependent risk factors, all living patients were divided into eight groups based on their ulceration (previous or current) and previous amputation (none, minor or major) status. State nine is an absorbing state (death). If all transitions are fully observable, this model can be decomposed into eight submodels, which can be analyzed using the methods of survival analysis for competing risks. The dependencies of the risk factors (covariates) were included in the submodels using Cox-like regression. The transition intensities and relative risks for covariates were calculated from long-term data of patients with diabetic foot ulcers collected in a single specialized center in North-Rhine Westphalia (Germany). The detected estimates were in line with previously published, but scarce, data. Together with the interesting new results obtained, this indicates that the proposed model may be useful for studying disease progression in larger samples of patients with diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:26814723

  5. Investigation into the phenomena affecting the retention behavior of basic analytes in chaotropic chromatography: Joint effects of the most relevant chromatographic factors and analytes' molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Čolović, Jelena; Kalinić, Marko; Vemić, Ana; Erić, Slavica; Malenović, Anđelija

    2015-12-18

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the phenomena affecting the retention behavior of structurally diverse basic drugs in ion-interaction chromatographic systems with chaotropic additives. To this end, the influence of three factors was studied: pH value of the aqueous phase, concentration of sodium hexafluorophosphate, and content of acetonitrile in the mobile phase. Mobile phase pH was found to affect the thermodynamic equilibria in the studied system beyond its effects on the analytes' ionization state. Specifically, increasing pH from 2 to 4 led to longer retention times, even with analytes which remain completely protonated. An explanation for this phenomenon was sought by studying the adsorption behavior of acetonitrile and chaotropic additive onto stationary phase. It was shown that the magnitude of the developed surface potential, which significantly affects retention - increases with pH, and that this can be attributed to the larger surface excess of acetonitrile. To study how analytes' structural properties influence their retention, quantitative structure-retention modeling was performed next. A support vector machine regression model was developed, relating mobile phase constituents and structural descriptors with retention data. While the ETA_EtaP_B_RC and XlogP can be considered as molecular descriptors which describe factors affecting retention in any RP-HPLC system, TDB9p and RDF45p are molecular descriptors which account for spatial arrangement of polarizable atoms and they can clearly relate to analytes' behavior on the stationary phase surface, where the electrostatic potential develops. Complementarity of analytes' structure with that of the electric double layer can be seen as a key factor influencing their retention behavior. Structural diversity of analytes and good predictive capabilities over a range of experimental conditions make the established model a useful tool in predicting retention behavior in the studied

  6. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  7. Function of all-trans retinoic acid observation on similar myopia changes in cultivated rabbit retinal pigment epithelium and relation with myopia relevant factors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bin

    2016-03-01

    To observe the role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during the similar myopia changes of cultured rabbit retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, as well as the variation changes and relationships with myopic correlation factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and matrix metalloprateinase-2 (MMP-2). Rabbit RPE cells of primary generation were selected and cultured to fifth generation by subculture. Then the morphology of RPE cells were observed and cell vitality was analyzed by using the Trypan blue reject test. The expressions of HGF and MMP-2 in RPE cells were tested by using an immunobistochemistry method. The HGF concentration in RPE cell culture fluid was detected by applying enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA). As the ATRA concentration enhanced and action time prolonged, the survival rate of RPE cells was reduced, but the expressions of HGF and MMP-2 increased, so did the secretion of HGF. ATRA concentration with no less than 5 nM/ml was able to induce the growth inhibition of RPE cells and the decrease in survival rate, which was similar to the changes in RPE cells in myopia. With the actin of ATRA, the expressions of HGF and MMP-2 increased in RPE cells, with more distinct in HGF increase.

  8. Function of all-trans retinoic acid observation on similar myopia changes in cultivated rabbit retinal pigment epithelium and relation with myopia relevant factors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bin

    2016-03-01

    To observe the role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during the similar myopia changes of cultured rabbit retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, as well as the variation changes and relationships with myopic correlation factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and matrix metalloprateinase-2 (MMP-2). Rabbit RPE cells of primary generation were selected and cultured to fifth generation by subculture. Then the morphology of RPE cells were observed and cell vitality was analyzed by using the Trypan blue reject test. The expressions of HGF and MMP-2 in RPE cells were tested by using an immunobistochemistry method. The HGF concentration in RPE cell culture fluid was detected by applying enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA). As the ATRA concentration enhanced and action time prolonged, the survival rate of RPE cells was reduced, but the expressions of HGF and MMP-2 increased, so did the secretion of HGF. ATRA concentration with no less than 5 nM/ml was able to induce the growth inhibition of RPE cells and the decrease in survival rate, which was similar to the changes in RPE cells in myopia. With the actin of ATRA, the expressions of HGF and MMP-2 increased in RPE cells, with more distinct in HGF increase. PMID:27113312

  9. Dietary Intake, Food Processing, and Cooking Methods Among Amish and Non-Amish Adults Living in Ohio Appalachia: Relevance to Nutritional Risk Factors for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuyun Carter, Gebra B.; Katz, Mira L.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Clinton, Steven K.; Grainger, Elizabeth M.; Paskett, Electra D.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2013-01-01

    This study’s purpose was to examine the source, storage, preparation, and intake of food among Amish and non-Amish adults to understand dietary practices as a potential contributing factor to lower cancer incidence rates. Interviews were conducted with a random sample of 134 Amish and 154 non-Amish adults including questions about dietary practices and a 24-h dietary recall. Amish compared to non-Amish adults reported (1) less refrigeration in homes (85% vs. 100%, P < .01); (2) rarely/never obtaining food from restaurants and grocery stores (P < .01); (3) consuming less alcohol (P < .01); (4) consuming fewer daily servings of vegetables (males: 1.2 vs. 1.9 servings/day, P < .01; females: 1.0 vs. 2.1 servings/day, P < .01); and (5) a greater percentage of energy from saturated fat (males: 16.7% vs. 12.6%, P < .01; females: 16.3% vs. 12.0%, P < .01). Amish males reported greater amount of energy intake (2780 kcal vs. 2298 kcal, P = .03) compared to non-Amish males. Amish and non-Amish dietary patterns show some differences that may impact cancer although neither group achieves current diet and cancer prevention guidelines. Lifestyle factors, screening, and healthcare access may be contributing to the lower cancer incidence rates among the Amish and these results suggest areas of intervention to reduce the cancer burden. PMID:22026912

  10. How relevant is the deposition of mercury onto snowpacks? - Part 1: A statistical study on~the~impact of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durnford, D. A.; Dastoor, A. P.; Steen, A. O.; Berg, T.; Ryzhkov, A.; Figueras-Nieto, D.; Hole, L. R.; Pfaffhuber, K. A.; Hung, H.

    2012-10-01

    deposited through wet processes is more strongly retained by snowpacks than mercury deposited through dry processes. Revolatilization of mercury deposited through wet processes may be inhibited through burial by fresh snowfalls and/or by its more central location, compared to that of mercury deposited through dry deposition, within snowpack snow grains. The two depositions of oxidized mercury together explain 84% of the variability in observed concentrations of mercury in surface snow, 52% of the variability of observed concentrations of mercury in seasonal snowpacks and their meltwater's ionic pulse, and only 20% of the variability of observed concentrations of mercury in long-term snowpack-related records; other environmental controls seemingly gain in relevance as time passes. The concentration of mercury in long-term records is apparently primarily affected by latitude; both the primary sources of anthropogenic mercury and the strong upper-level zonal winds are located in the midlatitudes.

  11. Prime Time Sister Circles: evaluating a gender-specific, culturally relevant health intervention to decrease major risk factors in mid-life African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Marilyn Hughes; Porter, Gayle K.; Thomas, Veronica G.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Prime Time Sister Circles (PTSC), a curriculum-based, culture- and gender-specific health intervention, in assisting mid-life African-American women to decrease the major risk factors of physical inactivity, poor nutrition and stress. METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-four African-American women were involved in 11 sites across the country in PTSC and comparison groups. PTSC uses a cognitive behavioral modality based on three theoretical approaches to reduce risk factors and promote positive health changes. Pretest and posttest (10 weeks, and six and 12 months) data were collected on various indicators. RESULTS: t test analyses demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the women's involvement in physical activity at 10 weeks, and six and 12 months. A significant 10-week difference was found in the women's diet, with them reporting eating more nutritious foods, t(77) = 3.32, p < 0.001. The women also indicated from pretest to 10 weeks, and six and 12 months that they changed what they ate to prevent disease (40.4%, 62.8%, 97.5% and 100%, respectively). A majority of the women at 10 weeks (62.7%) and 12 months (65.9%) reported utilizing stress management strategies. There was also a 60% increase in yearly mammograms and a 54% increase in blood pressures checks. Finally, 83.7% of the women at 12 months felt that the positive changes could be maintained over their lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTSC in modifying health-related knowledge, attitudes and certain high-risk behaviors in mid-life African-American women. PMID:17444433

  12. On the Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Kate F.

    2006-01-01

    This is a discussion with Judith Warren regarding her painting on the cover of the present issue of American Psychologist. To Warren, the painting on the cover of this issue, Pentimento, speaks to the interplay of spontaneity and intentionality in psychotherapy.

  13. Silostop Bunker Covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of the seal provided by the plastic cover is a key issue for minimizing losses in bunker and pile silos. Most bunker covers are 6 to 8 mil polyethylene sheets held in place by tires or tire sidewalls. Frequently there are problems with spoilage at the shoulders (i.e., against the walls),...

  14. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  15. Regulation of fatty acid binding proteins by hypoxia inducible factors 1α and 2α in the placenta: relevance to pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Ayesha; Cunningham, Phil; McDermott, Lindsay C

    2015-02-01

    Pre-eclampsia is characterized by placental hypoxia and dyslipidemia. Arachidonic and docosahexanoic acids are essential maternal nutrients for fetal development. They are transported via placental trophoblast cells by membrane and cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins. Others report the expressions of these proteins which are increased in hypoxic trophoblasts. Using bioinformatics, BeWo cells, reporter assays, quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia inducible factors 1α (HIF-1α) and/or 2α (HIF-2α) regulate the expressions of FABP1, FABP3, FABP4 and FATP2 proteins. Three hypoxia responsive elements (HRE) were identified in FABP1 which cumulatively responded strongly to HIF-1α and weakly to HIF-2α. FABP3 expression partially responded to HIF-1α. Two putative HRE were validated in FABP4 both of which responded weakly to HIF-1α and HIF-2α. FATP2 protein expression reacted positively to hypoxia. Thus, fetal essential fatty acid supply via the placenta is protected under hypoxia. It will be interesting to determine if our findings are replicated in human pre-eclamptic placenta. PMID:25305177

  16. Incidence and predictive factors of first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis with ascites: relevance of ascitic fluid protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Llach, J; Rimola, A; Navasa, M; Ginès, P; Salmerón, J M; Ginès, A; Arroyo, V; Rodés, J

    1992-09-01

    To investigate the long-term probability of the appearance of the first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis with ascites and to identify predictors of this complication, we closely followed throughout their illness 127 patients consecutively admitted to our unit for the treatment of an episode of ascites without prior spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (follow-up period: 21 +/- 22 mo). Thirteen patients (10%) had the first spontaneous bacterial peritonitis episode during follow-up. The appearance probability of this complication is 11% at 1 yr and 15% at 3 yr. Thirty-three variables obtained at admission (including clinical data, standard liver and kidney function test results, ascitic fluid protein concentrations and hemodynamic parameters) were analyzed in relation to their value in predicting spontaneous bacterial peritonitis development. In univariate analysis (Kaplan-Meier curves) five variables reached statistical significance (p less than 0.05) as predictive factors for the development of the first spontaneous bacterial peritonitis episode. These five variables were poor nutritional status, increased serum bilirubin levels, increased serum AST levels, decreased prothrombin activity and reduced total protein concentration in ascitic fluid. When these five variables were introduced in a multivariate analysis, only the ascitic fluid protein concentration was found to correlate independently with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis development (p = 0.002). The probability of first spontaneous bacterial peritonitis after 3 yr of follow-up was 24% and 4% in patients with ascitic fluid protein content lower than 1 gm/dl and greater than or equal to 1 gm/dl, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1505916

  17. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    PubMed

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  18. Covering the State Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Stephen C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes how journalism majors at Ball State University are required to cover the annual sessions of the Indiana legislature, and discusses some of the experiences and problems that were encountered. (RB)

  19. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  20. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  1. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J.; Brennan, Sue E.; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    commitment, but relatively low change efficacy). Regarding implementation processes, the importance of (visible) senior leadership for all professions involved was identified as a critical factor. An unpredictable and hectic environment brings challenges in creating an environment in which team-based and organisational learning can thrive (system antecedents for innovation). In addition, the position of the ED as the entry-point of the hospital points to the relevance of securing buy-in from other units. Conclusions We identified several organisational factors relevant to realising change in ED management of patients who present with mild head injuries. These factors will inform the intervention design and process evaluation in a trial evaluating the effectiveness of our implementation intervention. PMID:26845772

  2. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-08-10

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. As a result, these graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays are illustrated with a few examples.

  3. Methods for Cloud Cover Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glackin, D. L.; Huning, J. R.; Smith, J. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for cloud cover estimation are described relevant to assessing the performance of a ground-based network of solar observatories. The methods rely on ground and satellite data sources and provide meteorological or climatological information. One means of acquiring long-term observations of solar oscillations is the establishment of a ground-based network of solar observatories. Criteria for station site selection are: gross cloudiness, accurate transparency information, and seeing. Alternative methods for computing this duty cycle are discussed. The cycle, or alternatively a time history of solar visibility from the network, can then be input to a model to determine the effect of duty cycle on derived solar seismology parameters. Cloudiness from space is studied to examine various means by which the duty cycle might be computed. Cloudiness, and to some extent transparency, can potentially be estimated from satellite data.

  4. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Many teachers have only a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. Culturally relevant pedagogy is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet people tend to appreciate culturally…

  5. Making Science Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles; Deutsch, Bill; Fuller, Jennifer; Scott, Fletcher

    2008-01-01

    Science teachers are always looking for ways to demonstrate the relevance of science to students. By connecting science learning to important societal issues, teachers can motivate students to both enjoy and engage in relevant science (Bennet, Lubben, and Hogarth 2007). To develop that connection, teachers can help students take an active role in…

  6. Reusable pipe flange covers

    DOEpatents

    Holden, James Elliott; Perez, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  7. Covering All Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  8. Issue Cover (June 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Cover legend: Yeast cells were labeled with the fluorescent viability dyes propidium iodide (Red) and DiBAC4(3) (green) and the nucleus was stained with DAPI (blue). Cells were visualized using wide-field fluorescent microscopy. See Chadwick et al. Traffic 2016; 17(6):689-703. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12391. PMID:27174376

  9. Issue Cover (September 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Cover legend: Macrophages phagocytosing RFP-labeled E.coli. GFP-APPL2 labels the phagosomal membrane. Image produced by N. Condon. See Yeo et al. Traffic 2016; 17(9):1014-1026. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12415. PMID:27510703

  10. 33 CFR 51.8 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUARD DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD § 51.8 Relevant considerations. In determining the equity and propriety of... applicant's capability to serve, the DRB considers such factors as the applicant's age and...

  11. Relevance is Primary in Secondary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Uri

    1985-01-01

    Describes how relevant aspects of environmental education can be integrated within the framework of contemporary high school chemistry. Examples which show how students can examine the chemical consequences of such social factors as smoking and drinking are provided. (JN)

  12. The Relevant Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Edwin L.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the questions of school counselors' obsolescence and relevance. Cites examples of national indicators of support for school counselors. Suggests the need for sharpening the counselor's role and reducing the unevenness in guidance services' availability. (ABB)

  13. Issue Cover (July 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Cover legend: N-cadherin clusters colocalize with Rab5 at the macropinosomes. Confocal microscopy image of an Ncad-GFP (green) transfected COS7 cell fed with fluorescent-dextran to label macropinosomes (blue) followed by immunofluorescence staining of Rab5 (red) and the nucleus (cyan). See Wen et al. Traffic 2016; 17(7):769-785. Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/tra.12402. PMID:27297702

  14. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction.

    PubMed

    Diener, S; Andreas, L; Herrmann, I; Ecke, H; Lagerkvist, A

    2010-01-01

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature. PMID:19836224

  15. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, S.; Andreas, L.; Herrmann, I.; Ecke, H.; Lagerkvist, A.

    2010-01-15

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  16. Relevance, Derogation and Permission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolpe, Audun

    We show that a recently developed theory of positive permission based on the notion of derogation is hampered by a triviality result that indicates a problem with the underlying full-meet contraction operation. We suggest a solution that presupposes a particular normal form for codes of norms, adapted from the theory of relevance through propositional letter sharing. We then establish a correspondence between contractions on sets of norms in input/output logic (derogations), and AGM-style contractions on sets of formulae, and use it as a bridge to migrate results on propositional relevance from the latter to the former idiom. Changing the concept accordingly we show that positive permission now incorporates a relevance requirement that wards off triviality.

  17. The Limits to Relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  18. Issue Cover (August 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Cover legend: Absence of the novel endolysosomal trafficking regulator WDR81 (green) induces the accumulation of tetherin (red) in enlarged early endosomes. WDR81 knock-out HeLa cells were genetically complemented with an HA-tagged WDR81 construct and imaged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. The original image was processed with photo editing software and overlaid with artistic effects. See Rapiteanu et al. Traffic 2016; 17(8):940-958. Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/tra.12409. PMID:27412792

  19. Relevance of fruits, vegetables and flavonoids from fruits and vegetables during early life, mid-childhood and adolescence for levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas; Penczynski, Katharina J; Bolzenius, Katja; Wudy, Stefan A; Buyken, Anette E

    2016-02-14

    The growth hormone (GH) insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been linked to insulin metabolism and cancer risk. Experimental evidence indicates that the GH-IGF axis itself can be influenced by dietary flavonoids. As fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a major source of flavonoid consumption, FV's beneficial health effects may be explained via flavonoids' influence on the GH-IGF axis, but observational evidence is currently rare. We used data from Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants to analyse prospective associations between FV, fruit intake and flavonoid intake from FV (FlavFV) with IGF-1 and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3. Subjects needed to provide a fasting blood sample in adulthood (18-39 years) and at least two 3-d weighed dietary records in early life (0·5-2 years, n 191), mid-childhood (3-7 years, n 265) or adolescence (girls: 9-15 years, boys: 10-16 years, n 261). Additional analyses were conducted among those providing at least three 24-h urine samples in adolescence (n 236) to address the predictor urinary hippuric acid (HA), a biomarker of polyphenol intake. Higher fruit intake in mid-childhood and adolescence was related to higher IGFBP-2 in adulthood (P=0·03 and P=0·045). Comparable trends (P=0·045-0·09) were discernable for FV intake (but not FlavFV) in all three time windows. Similarly, higher adolescent HA excretion tended to be related (P=0·06) to higher adult IGFBP-2 levels. Regarding IGFBP-3, a marginal (P=0·08) positive association was observed with FlavFV in mid-childhood only. None of the investigated dietary factors was related to IGF-1. In conclusion, higher fruit and FV intakes during growth may be relevant for adult IGFBP-2, but probably not for IGFBP-3 or IGF-1.

  20. Is Information Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  1. The Relevance of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    The "legacy" of the humanities is discussed in terms of relevance, involvement, and other philosophical considerations. Reasons for studying foreign literature in language classes are developed in the article. Comment is also made on attitudes and ideas culled from the writings of Clifton Fadiman, Jean Paul Sartre, and James Baldwin. (RL)

  2. Relevance and Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Rita

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether the use of superordinate terms in 206 children's definitions is predictable by relevance theory. Children (ages 5-10) gave definitions for 16 basic-level words and 4 superordinate words from natural kind and artifact semantic domains. Superordinate terms were used more frequently when they supported more inferences. Findings…

  3. Reading, Writing and Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Mary

    This monograph presents classroom activities that were designed to encourage children to read and write in a self-reliant and responsible manner. The activities were chosen for their relevance to the children involved and because the vocabulary involved was interesting, familiar, and worth remembering and using again. The topics are arranged in…

  4. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms—formation, biology, and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Tomas; Köller, Thomas; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS) is an exclusive human bacterial pathogen. The virulence potential of this species is tremendous. Interactions with humans range from asymptomatic carriage over mild and superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes up to systemic purulent toxic-invasive disease manifestations. Particularly the latter are a severe threat for predisposed patients and lead to significant death tolls worldwide. This places GAS among the most important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Many recent reviews have highlighted the GAS repertoire of virulence factors, regulators and regulatory circuits/networks that enable GAS to colonize the host and to deal with all levels of the host immune defense. This covers in vitro and in vivo studies, including animal infection studies based on mice and more relevant, macaque monkeys. It is now appreciated that GAS, like many other bacterial species, do not necessarily exclusively live in a planktonic lifestyle. GAS is capable of microcolony and biofilm formation on host cells and tissues. We are now beginning to understand that this feature significantly contributes to GAS pathogenesis. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on GAS biofilm formation, the biofilm-phenotype associated virulence factors, regulatory aspects of biofilm formation, the clinical relevance, and finally contemporary treatment regimens and future treatment options. PMID:25717441

  5. Hatch Cover Slides Through Hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, Charles; Okane, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Hatch cover for pressurized vessel provides tight seal but opened quickly from either side. In opening or closing, cover sweeps out relatively little volume within vessel, so it does not hinder movement of people or objects from vessel to outside or placement of people or objects near hatch. Cover uses internal pressure to create seal when closed. Design of cover eliminates leakage paths, and cover immune to hazards of sudden decompression or jamming when bolts and latches fail.

  6. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-08-10

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. As a result, these graphical methods formore » evaluating covering arrays are illustrated with a few examples.« less

  7. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375{degrees} to 1250{degrees}C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250{degrees}C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375{degrees} to 1250{degrees}C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure.

  8. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  9. [Genetics as a relevant factor for the purpose of judging criminal imputability. Status of the issue and critical perspective. Considering particularly the Decision of the Trieste Court of Appeals (Italy) of September 18, 2009].

    PubMed

    Urruela Mora, Asier

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution analyses the relevance of the genetic predispositions in the field of Criminal Law. Its principal effect is basically associated with the sphere of the Insanity Defense, due to the fact that a number of psychiatric alterations or abnormalities relevant for the Insanity Defense show a genetic basis. This statement has been recently confirmed by new scientific evidences and in the judicial framework by the Sentence of the Court of Appeal of Trieste (Italy) from 18th September 2009 which accepts the genetic characteristics of the defendant as a relevant data in order to cut the sentence given to a person convicted of murder.

  10. Cover crops and N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  11. Insurance covered and non-covered complementary and alternative medicine utilisation among adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shu-Fang; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Kuo, Ken N

    2008-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been characterized by prevalence, cost, and patterns of use. Factors determining its utilization have also been analyzed, either generally or for specific diseases, but few studies have considered the determinants of its frequency of use. Taiwan's pluralistic health care system and comprehensive insurance program covering Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provide an interesting case to explore what forms of CAM people use, why and how often they use them. By using Taiwan's 2001 National Health Interview Survey and linking it with National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data, this study aims to investigate the socio-demographic, economic, behavioral and health determinants of use and frequency of use for both non-covered and covered CAM in Taiwan. The former consists of services practiced by non-regulated or non-NHI contracted practitioners and the latter includes those TCM covered by NHI. Our study showed that the determinants of using non-covered and covered CAM differ with respect to socio-demographic and behavioral factors, and health needs. Our evidence suggests that future CAM research must delineate between use and frequency of use to better understand the underlying factors contributing to initiation and continuity of CAM use.

  12. Absence of snow cover reduces understory plant cover and alters plant community composition in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Kreyling, Juergen; Haei, Mahsa; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2012-02-01

    Snow regimes affect biogeochemistry of boreal ecosystems and are altered by climate change. The effects on plant communities, however, are largely unexplored despite their influence on relevant processes. Here, the impact of snow cover on understory community composition and below-ground production in a boreal Picea abies forest was investigated using a long-term (8-year) snow cover manipulation experiment consisting of the treatments: snow removal, increased insulation (styrofoam pellets), and control. The snow removal treatment caused longer (118 vs. 57 days) and deeper soil frost (mean minimum temperature -5.5 vs. -2.2°C) at 10 cm soil depth in comparison to control. Understory species composition was strongly altered by the snow cover manipulations; vegetation cover declined by more than 50% in the snow removal treatment. In particular, the dominant dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus (-82%) and the most abundant mosses Pleurozium schreberi (-74%) and Dicranum scoparium (-60%) declined strongly. The C:N ratio in V. myrtillus leaves and plant available N in the soil indicated no altered nitrogen nutrition. Fine-root biomass in summer, however, was negatively affected by the reduced snow cover (-50%). Observed effects are attributed to direct frost damage of roots and/ or shoots. Besides the obvious relevance of winter processes on plant ecology and distribution, we propose that shifts in the vegetation caused by frost damage may be an important driver of the reported alterations in biogeochemistry in response to altered snow cover. Understory plant performance clearly needs to be considered in the biogeochemistry of boreal systems in the face of climate change.

  13. Absence of snow cover reduces understory plant cover and alters plant community composition in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Kreyling, Juergen; Haei, Mahsa; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2012-02-01

    Snow regimes affect biogeochemistry of boreal ecosystems and are altered by climate change. The effects on plant communities, however, are largely unexplored despite their influence on relevant processes. Here, the impact of snow cover on understory community composition and below-ground production in a boreal Picea abies forest was investigated using a long-term (8-year) snow cover manipulation experiment consisting of the treatments: snow removal, increased insulation (styrofoam pellets), and control. The snow removal treatment caused longer (118 vs. 57 days) and deeper soil frost (mean minimum temperature -5.5 vs. -2.2°C) at 10 cm soil depth in comparison to control. Understory species composition was strongly altered by the snow cover manipulations; vegetation cover declined by more than 50% in the snow removal treatment. In particular, the dominant dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus (-82%) and the most abundant mosses Pleurozium schreberi (-74%) and Dicranum scoparium (-60%) declined strongly. The C:N ratio in V. myrtillus leaves and plant available N in the soil indicated no altered nitrogen nutrition. Fine-root biomass in summer, however, was negatively affected by the reduced snow cover (-50%). Observed effects are attributed to direct frost damage of roots and/ or shoots. Besides the obvious relevance of winter processes on plant ecology and distribution, we propose that shifts in the vegetation caused by frost damage may be an important driver of the reported alterations in biogeochemistry in response to altered snow cover. Understory plant performance clearly needs to be considered in the biogeochemistry of boreal systems in the face of climate change. PMID:21850524

  14. FLOOR COVERING--PART 1, RESILIENT COVERINGS. WORKBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTER, RALPH; AND OTHERS

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE IN RELATED TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION IN APPRENTICE TRAINING FOR THE FLOOR COVERING TRADE. THE MATERIAL WAS WRITTEN BY TRADE INSTRUCTORS AND JOURNEYMEN UNDER THE DIRECTION AND COORDINATION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE FLOOR COVERING TRADE AND OTHERS. THE UNITS ARE (1)…

  15. 10 CFR 709.24 - Other information provided to a covered person prior to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... examination; (c) Explain to the covered person the physical operation of the instrument and the procedures to be followed during the examination; (d) Review with the covered person the relevant questions to...

  16. Labor Education as an Important Factor in Resolving the Problem of Making the School Relevant to Life (Based on the Example of Nationality Schools in the Siberian Far North in the 1920s and Early 1930s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirshova, O. P.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the development of rural Siberian polytechnical education during the 1920s. To fulfill the demands of economic development and the need for relevant education, polytechnical education centers were set up to train students in hunting and fishing, agriculture, skilled trades, and meteorology, as well as teaching, social work, and…

  17. Psychological Relevance and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the theory of psychological relevance and its relationship to information retrieval, and provides an extended example. Topics discussed include information need, the search process, the nature of information, topical relevance, relevance judgments and retrieval testing, information retrieval and bibliometrics, and suggestions for further…

  18. "Proximal Sensing" capabilities for snow cover monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valt, Mauro; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Plini, Paolo; Salzano, Roberto; Giusti, Marco; Montagnoli, Mauro; Sigismondi, Daniele; Cagnati, Anselmo

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal snow cover represents one of the most important land cover class in relation to environmental studies in mountain areas, especially considering its variation during time. Snow cover and its extension play a relevant role for the studies on the atmospheric dynamics and the evolution of climate. It is also important for the analysis and management of water resources and for the management of touristic activities in mountain areas. Recently, webcam images collected at daily or even hourly intervals are being used as tools to observe the snow covered areas; those images, properly processed, can be considered a very important environmental data source. Images captured by digital cameras become a useful tool at local scale providing images even when the cloud coverage makes impossible the observation by satellite sensors. When suitably processed these images can be used for scientific purposes, having a good resolution (at least 800x600x16 million colours) and a very good sampling frequency (hourly images taken through the whole year). Once stored in databases, those images represent therefore an important source of information for the study of recent climatic changes, to evaluate the available water resources and to analyse the daily surface evolution of the snow cover. The Snow-noSnow software has been specifically designed to automatically detect the extension of snow cover collected from webcam images with a very limited human intervention. The software was tested on images collected on Alps (ARPAV webcam network) and on Apennine in a pilot station properly equipped for this project by CNR-IIA. The results obtained through the use of Snow-noSnow are comparable to the one achieved by photo-interpretation and could be considered as better as the ones obtained using the image segmentation routine implemented into image processing commercial softwares. Additionally, Snow-noSnow operates in a semi-automatic way and has a reduced processing time. The analysis

  19. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  20. 31 CFR 800.301 - Transactions that are covered transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Coverage § 800.301 Transactions that are covered transactions... the acquisition of shares in a newly incorporated subsidiary. Assuming no other relevant...

  1. Corn Belt Assessment of Cover Crop Management and Preferences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveying end-users about their use of technologies and preferences provides information for researchers and educators to develop relevant research and educational programs. A mail survey was sent to Corn Belt farmers during 2006 to quantify cover crop management and preferences. Results indicated t...

  2. Effect of ice cover on hydropower production

    SciTech Connect

    Yapa, P.D.; Shen H.T.

    1984-09-01

    For hydropower developments in northern regions, the annual occurrence of river ice cover presents various problems of operation and management. The existence of an ice cover can lead to a substantial loss in power production. This loss in power due to the presence of ice cover, however, can be minimized with appropriate ice control measures. In this technical note, a quantitative analysis of power loss is carried out for the St. Lawrence Power Project. Major factors that affect the magnitude of power loss are examined to provide some information for future ice-related hydropower operations. The St. Lawrence River, which conveys water from the Great Lakes Basin to the Atlantic Ocean, has been utilized for hydroelectric power production since the early 1900's. The St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project, constructed in 1954-58, developed the hydropower potential of the upper St. Lawrence River. The Moses-Saunders Power Dam is located about 100 miles downstream of the outlet of Lake Ontario. Since the development of this power project, the regulation of flow through the dam in relation to the ice conditions has been an important element in its winter operation. The existence of an ice cover reduces the power production capability of the river significantly.

  3. Dielectric covered microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Lisa M.

    1988-11-01

    Microstrip antennas have many properties that make them suitable for airborne and satellite communications systems. These antennas are low in cost and lightweight. For these reasons, Rome Air Development Center is interested in verifying and augmenting existing design models for these antennas. The theory and results are presented for modeling microstrip antennas that are covered with a sheet of dielectric material. There are several reasons for designing a microstrip antenna covered with a dielectric material. This configuration would allow the modeling of antennas with an integrated radome. A cover layer could possibly be used to support a polarizer; to mount additional antenna elements on top of the cover layer to provide bandwidth enhancements; or to be used as a dual frequency antenna.

  4. Monitoring urban land cover change by updating the national land cover database impervious surface products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 is widely used as a baseline for national land cover and impervious conditions. To ensure timely and relevant data, it is important to update this base to a more recent time period. A prototype method was developed to update the land cover and impervious surface by individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season from both 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, impervious surface was estimated for areas of change by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain a variety of metropolitan areas. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of impervious surface changes associated with urban developments were accurately captured and updated. The approach optimizes mapping efficiency and can provide users a flexible method to generate updated impervious surface at national and regional scales. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  5. Land-cover change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  6. Controlling for causally relevant third variables.

    PubMed

    Goodie, Adam S; Williams, Cristina C; Crooks, C L

    2003-10-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors tested the conditions under which 3rd variables are controlled for in making causal judgments. The authors hypothesized that 3rd variables are controlled for when the 3rd variables are themselves perceived as causal. In Experiment 1, the participants predicted test performance after seeing information about wearing a lucky garment, taking a test-preparation course, and staying up late. The course (perceived as more causally relevant) was controlled for more than was the garment (perceived as less causally relevant) in assessing the effectiveness of staying up late. In Experiments 2 and 3, to obviate the many alternative accounts that arise from the realistic cover story of Experiment 1, participants predicted flowers' blooming after the presentation or nonpresentation of liquids. When one liquid was trained as causal, it was controlled for more in judging another liquid than when it was trained as neutral. Overall, stimuli perceived as causal were controlled for more when judging other stimuli. The authors concluded that the effect of perceived causal relevance on causal conditionalizing is real and normatively reasonable. PMID:14672103

  7. Thermal properties for vegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, D.; Motenko, R.

    2011-12-01

    Different samples of undisturbed vegetation cover were studied under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from New Chara city, north of the Chita region. Vegetation cover in this area is represented by moss, lichen and tussock growth. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter), the freezing temperature was studied by cryoscopic methods. The dry density of sampled specimens varies from 0.04 to 0.24 g/cm3, and humidity varies from 250 to 375 percent. The freezing temperature depends on moisture content and varies from -0.2 to 0 degrees centigrade. The vegetation cover had low thermal conductivities which varies from 0.05 to 0.46 W/(m*K) in unfrozen conditions, and from 0.07 to 1.14 W/(m*K) in frozen conditions, according to density and moisture content. Diffusivity of samples varies from 0.073*10-6 to 0.114*10-6 m2/s in thawed conditions, and from 0.174*10-6 to 0.584*10-6 m2/s in frozen conditions. The sod (bottom of vegetation cover) had relatively high thermal properties. Thermal properties of vegetation cover and peat (turf) were compared. The thermal conductivity of peat was much higher than thermal conductivity of vegetation cover. This data may be used for modeling of the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer and ground temperature variation. The knowledge of thermal properties of these samples allows us to view vegetation cover as a separate layer of geological section.

  8. Estimation of vegetation cover at subpixel resolution using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1986-01-01

    The present report summarizes the various approaches relevant to estimating canopy cover at subpixel resolution. The approaches are based on physical models of radiative transfer in non-homogeneous canopies and on empirical methods. The effects of vegetation shadows and topography are examined. Simple versions of the model are tested, using the Taos, New Mexico Study Area database. Emphasis has been placed on using relatively simple models requiring only one or two bands. Although most methods require some degree of ground truth, a two-band method is investigated whereby the percent cover can be estimated without ground truth by examining the limits of the data space. Future work is proposed which will incorporate additional surface parameters into the canopy cover algorithm, such as topography, leaf area, or shadows. The method involves deriving a probability density function for the percent canopy cover based on the joint probability density function of the observed radiances.

  9. Is shared governance still relevant?

    PubMed

    Porter-O'Grady, T

    2001-10-01

    Is shared governance still relevant in this era of significant changes in healthcare? Requisites to support nurses and others are more important now than ever before. Shared decision-making is not only relevant, it is essential. The road to empowerment is not easy. Many patterns of organization and relationship must be changed forever through commitment and leadership today.

  10. Comparative analysis of selected snow cover characteristics in Slovakia within the 1950/1951-1979-1980 and 1980/1981-2009/2010 winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, Jozef; Faško, Pavel; Mikulová, Katarína; Å¥Astný, Pavel Å.; Nejedlík, Pavol; Košå¥Álová, Júlia

    2010-05-01

    Snow cover and its characteristics are pretty sensitive to any kind of air temperature and precipitation changes. In association with long-term changes of the air temperature as well as precipitation through the last two or three decades (from the beginning of 80s) it would be very interesting to compare a regime of snow cover in the periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010, respectively. In particular, we have recognized notable snow cover changes in different regions from the beginning of 90s. Slovakia situated in the western part of the Carpathians, has the complex geographical conditions and from this reason there has not been recorded similar snow cover trends even in the similar altitudes. Moreover, some mountainous regions with high altitude (the High and Low Tatras, and especially numerous mid-altitude localities, etc.) show the evidences of existing significantly negative trends of some selected characteristics of snow cover. It is well-known that snow cover and precipitation regime of selected region in Slovakia are substantially influenced by the circulation patterns in wider European space, and furthermore in the Carpathians, analogously to the situation in the Alps, windward as well as leeward effects have also relevant consequences in the mountainous regions. Moreover, climate differences between northern and southern, as well as western and eastern regions in Slovakia also play the crucial role. These factors markedly influence the long-term tendencies of snow cover characteristics in particular localities.

  11. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  12. How Scientists Differentiate Between Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Before scientists can transform raw satellite image data into land cover maps, they must decide on what categories of land cover they would like to use. Categories are simply the types of landscape that the scientists are trying to map and can vary greatly from map to map. For flood maps, there may be only two categories-dry land and wet land-while a standard global land cover map may have seventeen categories including closed shrub lands, savannas, evergreen needle leaf forest, urban areas, and ice/snow. The only requirement for any land cover category is that it have a distinct spectral signature that a satellite can record. As can be seen through a prism, many different colors (wavelengths) make up the spectra of sunlight. When sunlight strikes objects, certain wavelengths are absorbed and others are reflected or emitted. The unique way in which a given type of land cover reflects and absorbs light is known as its spectral signature. Anyone who has flown over the midwestern United States has seen evidence of this phenomenon. From an airplane window, the ground appears as a patchwork of different colors formed by the fields of crops planted there. The varying pigments of the leaves, the amount of foliage per square foot, the age of the plants, and many other factors create this tapestry. Most imaging satellites are sensitive to specific wavelengths of light, including infrared wavelengths that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Passive satellite remote sensors-such as those flown on Landsat 5, Landsat 7, and Terra-have a number of light detectors (photoreceptors) on board that measure the energy reflected or emitted by the Earth. One light detector records only the blue part of the spectrum coming off the Earth. Another observes all the yellow-green light and still another picks up on all the near-infrared light. The detectors scan the Earth's surface as the satellite travels in a circular orbit very nearly from pole-to-pole. To differentiate between types of

  13. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  14. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  15. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Rosemary T.; Egeghy, Peter P.; Hakkinen, Pertti J.

    2016-01-01

    This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children’s toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment. PMID:27455300

  16. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments.

    PubMed

    Zaleski, Rosemary T; Egeghy, Peter P; Hakkinen, Pertti J

    2016-07-22

    This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children's toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment.

  17. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments.

    PubMed

    Zaleski, Rosemary T; Egeghy, Peter P; Hakkinen, Pertti J

    2016-01-01

    This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children's toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment. PMID:27455300

  18. Using a Mixed Methods Sequential Design to Identify Factors Associated with African American Mothers' Intention to Vaccinate Their Daughters Aged 9 to 12 for HPV with a Purpose of Informing a Culturally-Relevant, Theory-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential, explanatory mixed methods research study was to understand what factors influenced African American maternal intentions to get their daughters aged 9 years to 12 years vaccinated in Alabama. In the first, quantitative phase of the study, the research questions focused on identifying the predictive power of eleven…

  19. A relevance theory of induction.

    PubMed

    Medin, Douglas L; Coley, John D; Storms, Gert; Hayes, Brett K

    2003-09-01

    A framework theory, organized around the principle of relevance, is proposed for category-based reasoning. According to the relevance principle, people assume that premises are informative with respect to conclusions. This idea leads to the prediction that people will use causal scenarios and property reinforcement strategies in inductive reasoning. These predictions are contrasted with both existing models and normative logic. Judgments of argument strength were gathered in three different countries, and the results showed the importance of both causal scenarios and property reinforcement in category-based inferences. The relation between the relevance framework and existing models of category-based inductive reasoning is discussed in the light of these findings.

  20. Eolian cover sands: a sedimentologic model and paleoenvironmental implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    In periglacial areas, accumulations of eolian sand commonly form low-relief blankets without well-developed dunes. Internally, these sandsheet deposits exhibit subhorizontal lamination rather than high-angle cross-bedding. Such cover sands of late-Pleistocene age mantle extensive areas in northern Europe, but have been reported more rarely from North America. The processes by which cover sands, as opposed to dunes, accumulate have not yet been determined conclusively. Wind ripples and sand dunes do not form a continuum; flow separation and avalanching and negligible in the former and vital in the latter. Accretion of a sand patch into a mound sufficient to cause flow separation and dune growth requires a consistently available supply of loose sand. In cover-sand areas, sand may be immobilized prior to dune development by several factors: (1) a sparse vegetation cover, (2) moist ground conditions, (3) snow cover, and (4) a shallow permafrost table and/or an ice-cemented active layer. Detailed sedimentologic studies may allow discrimination among these various controls. The importance of the individual controlling factors can vary seasonally in a given deposit, as well as between deposits in different paleogeographic settings. However, all factors imply more mesic conditions than those associated with many dune deposits. The association of cover sands with paraboloid dunes is also consistent with somewhat moist conditions. The relatively mesic nature of cover sands controls their Pleistocene distribution; they become decreasingly important relative to dunes in maritime-to-continental transects across Alaska and northern Europe.

  1. The Spatiotemporal Land use/cover Change of Adana City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akın, A.; Erdoğan, M. A.; Berberoğlu, S.

    2013-10-01

    The major driving factors for land use planning are largely limited to socio-economic inputs that do not completely represent the spatio-temporal patterns and ecological inputs have often been neglected. Integration of remote sensing and GIS techniques enabled successful applications in characterizing the spatiotemporal trends of land use/land cover (LULC) change. This study demonstrated an approach that combines remote sensing, landscape metrics, and LULC change analysis as a promising tool for understanding spatiotemporal patterns of Adana city. Calculation of spatial metrics was based on a categorical, patch-based representation of the landscape. Landscape metrics are conceptual framework for sustainable landscape and ecological planning. LULC change analysis was performed by considering the metric calculation. Post-classification technique was used for the metric based change detection and two different remotely sensed data set recorded in 1967 (CORONA) and 2007 (ALOS AVNIR) were used for the analysis. Additionally, a LULC projection for the year 2023 was also generated and integrated to the change analysis. SLEUTH model was utilised as a urban growth model for the future developments of study area in the scope of Cellular Automata (CA). SLEUTH model contains the main elements that characterize the core characteristics of CA: it works in a grid space of homogeneous cells, with a neighburhood of eight cells, two cell states and five transition rules that act in sequential time steps. Most useful and relevant metrics for landscape including: percentage of landscape, patch density, edge density, largest patch index, Euclidian mean nearest neighbor distance, area weighted mean patch fractal dimension and contagion were calculated for the 1967, 2007 and 2023 LULC maps and temporal changes were determined for the study area. Most considerable change was observed on the agricultural areas. Urban sprawl is the major driving factor of the LULC change.

  2. Saving the Kilgore Covered Bridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Wilma

    1988-01-01

    Describes an American literature class project to save a covered bridge from collapse. Illustrates how student initiative in contacting government agencies and news media, learning the history of the bridge, and raising public awareness about the project led to a joint county agreement to preserve the historic span. (DHP)

  3. COVERING A CORE BY EXTRUSION

    DOEpatents

    Karnie, A.J.

    1963-07-16

    A method of covering a cylindrical fuel core with a cladding metal ms described. The metal is forced between dies around the core from both ends in two opposing skirts, and as these meet the ends turn outward into an annular recess in the dics. By cutting off the raised portion formed by the recess, oxide impurities are eliminated. (AEC)

  4. ESTIMATING AND PROJECTING IMPERVIOUS COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective methods to estimate and project impervious cover can help identify areas where a watershed is at risk of changing rapidly from one with relatively pristine streams to one with streams with significant symptoms of degradation. In collaboration with the USEPA, Region 4, ...

  5. Resumes, Applications, and Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Good resumes, applications, and cover letters broadcast one's abilities. They tell employers how one's qualifications match a job's responsibilities. If these critical preliminaries are constructed well, one has a better chance of landing interviews--and, eventually, a job. This article provides some guidelines for creating resumes and cover…

  6. The Great Cover-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leigh Ann

    2007-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the author created a short, online questionnaire to capture data about middle schoolers and book covers, and after several pilot studies she posted it to SurveyMonkey.com. The study includes the fiction books for middle school from the 2005 Quick Picks list. Over the course of a week, participants reported to the school…

  7. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    PubMed

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication.

  8. "Gastric cytoprotection" is still relevant.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Sandor

    2014-12-01

    rapid vascular changes (e.g. increased VP and blood flow), followed by cellular events (e.g. infiltration by acute and chronic inflammatory cells). Thus, PG and histamine, by increasing VP create a perivascular edema that dilutes and delays toxic agents reaching the subepithelial capillaries. Otherwise, damaging chemicals may induce severe early vascular injury resulting in blood flow stasis, hypoxia, and necrosis of surrounding epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this complex response, increased mucus and/or bicarbonate secretion seem to cause luminal dilution of gastrotoxic chemicals that is further reinforced by a perivascular, histodilutional component. This mechanistic explanation would encompass the protective actions of diverse agents as PG, small doses of histamine, motility stimulants, and dilute irritants (i.e. "adaptive cytoprotection"). Thus, although markedly increased VP is pathologic, slight increase in VP seems to be protective, that is, a key element in the complex pathophysiologic response during acute gastroprotection. Over the years, "gastroprotection" was also applied to accelerated healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcers without reduction of acid secretion. The likely main mechanism here is the binding of angiogenic growth factors (e.g. basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor) to the heparin-like structures of sucralfate and sofalcone. Thus, despite intensive research of the last 30 years, gastroprotection is incompletely understood, and we are still far away from effectively treating Helicobacter pylori-negative ulcers and preventing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-caused erosions and ulcers in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract; hence "gastric cytoprotection" research is still relevant.

  9. The Ugandan Youth Quality of Life index: assessing the relevance of incorporating perceived importance into the quality of life measure and factors associated with the quality of life among youth in slum areas of Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Kamara, Joseph Kihika; Kamanga, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Background While quality of life (QoL) has long been an explicit policy goal for international development programmes, no instruments have specifically been developed for measuring health-related QoL in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a QoL instrument for use in international aid and development programmes and to assess factors associated with QoL among youth participating in a civic engagement project in Kampala. Design Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala. The QoL questionnaire included 36 questions divided into a two-part scale: 18 questions rated for satisfaction (Part 1) and 18 other questions rated on importance (Part 2). The total sample was randomly divided into two split-half samples: one for the exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N=310) and the other for the confirmatorty factor analysis (CFA; N=353). The effect of demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors on QoL was assessed using linear regressions. Results The EFA yielded three factors: living conditions and lifestyle (seven items, α=0.84), social relationships (five items, α=0.86), and personal independence (five items, α=0.76). In the CFA, the initial model demonstrated a poor to marginal fit model. Its re-specification by examining modification indices resulted in a good model fit: Comparative Fit Index=0.95, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.06, and p of Close Fit >0.05. The model incorporating perceived importance had lower Akaike Information Criteria and Bayesian Information Criteria values than the unweighted model, thereby providing very strong support to weight satisfaction scores with importance ratings when measuring QoL in Uganda. Poor QoL was associated with poor educational attainment, drug and substance misuse, and family disruption. Conclusions The findings suggest that there is a relationship between QoL and lifestyle and structural issues among

  10. Connecting Green Space, Tree Cover, and Birth Outcomes in Durham-Chapel Hill, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green space provides many ecosystem services relevant to human health. We investigated associations between green space, tree cover, and near-road tree cover with birth weight (BWT), pre-term birth (PTB), and low birth weight (LBW). Births occurring around Durham-Chapel Hill, NC,...

  11. 31 CFR 800.302 - Transactions that are not covered transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Coverage § 800.302 Transactions that are not covered.... Assuming no other relevant facts, the acquisition of additional shares is not a covered transaction. (b)...

  12. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  13. ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS COVER FROM REGIONALLY AVAILABLE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the reliability of different approaches for estimating impervious cover including three empirical formulations for estimating impervious cover from population density data, estimation from categorized land cover data, and to ...

  14. Chromosomal data relevant for Q values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. A.

    1992-07-01

    It has been known for many years that relationships between absorbed dose and biological effect vary with the type of radiation. In particular, neutrons and alpha particles are more damaging than x or γ radiations. This applies to a range of biological effects such as cell killing, chromosome aberrations, cell mutation, cell transformation as well as life shortening and cancer induction in animals. The application of this knowledge to devise a scheme for specifying the quality factor (Q) in radiological protection has been the subject of much debate. There are no tumour data in humans from which the quality factor may be derived. The problems of using animal and cell transformation data which are probably the next best choice are discussed. The extensive data base on chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes is described and discussed in terms of relevance to deducing quality factors. Particular emphasis is placed on data obtained at low doses and low dose rates.

  15. Sky Cover from MFRSR Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  16. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J. C.; Berg, L. K.; Flynn, C.; Long, C. N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  17. Mapping Surface Cover Parameters Using Aggregation Rules and Remotely Sensed Cover Classes. Version 1.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arain, Altaf M.; Shuttleworth, W. James; Yang, Z-Liang; Michaud, Jene; Dolman, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    A coupled model, which combines the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) with an advanced atmospheric boundary-layer model, was used to validate hypothetical aggregation rules for BATS-specific surface cover parameters. The model was initialized and tested with observations from the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observational Study and used to simulate surface fluxes for rain forest and pasture mixes at a site near Manaus in Brazil. The aggregation rules are shown to estimate parameters which give area-average surface fluxes similar to those calculated with explicit representation of forest and pasture patches for a range of meteorological and surface conditions relevant to this site, but the agreement deteriorates somewhat when there are large patch-to-patch differences in soil moisture. The aggregation rules, validated as above, were then applied to remotely sensed 1 km land cover data set to obtain grid-average values of BATS vegetation parameters for 2.8 deg x 2.8 deg and 1 deg x 1 deg grids within the conterminous United States. There are significant differences in key vegetation parameters (aerodynamic roughness length, albedo, leaf area index, and stomatal resistance) when aggregate parameters are compared to parameters for the single, dominant cover within the grid. However, the surface energy fluxes calculated by stand-alone BATS with the 2-year forcing, data from the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) CDROM were reasonably similar using aggregate-vegetation parameters and dominant-cover parameters, but there were some significant differences, particularly in the western USA.

  18. Covers by polars of arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Eaves, B.C. . Systems Optimization Lab.); Hoffman, A.J. )

    1990-08-01

    For a collection of hyperplanes passing through the origin in euclidean space let S be the induced subdivision. Let T be the collection of polars of the full cells of S. If only the origin lies in all hyperplanes, T forms a {kappa} {approximately} fold cover of euclidean space. If, in addition, the collection of hyperplanes is of size m and is regular, then {kappa} is m {minus} 1 choose n {minus} 1. Other similar results relate to spheres, hemispheres, and linear programming.

  19. Influence of cover defects on the attenuation of radon with earthen covers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkwarf, D.R.; Mayer, D.W.

    1983-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical evaluations of radon flux through laboratory-scale defective soil columns are presented together with a survey of literature on the formation and prevention of defects in soil covers. This report focuses on air-filled, centimeter-scale defects that are most probable in earthen covers for attenuating radon emission from uranium-mill tailings. Examples include shirnkage and erosion cracks, erosion piping, animal burrows and air channels formed by the biodegradation of vegetation roots. Calculations based on mathematical models indicate that collections of defects which could increase the radon flux from an earthen cover by a factor of two would be easily detected by visual inspection. However, these models ignore air-turbulence in the defect and drying of the soil around the defect. Laboratory measurements showed that turbulent diffusion of radon occurred through defects as narrow as 0.3 cm when subjected to a transverse air velocity of 1 to 6 miles per hour at the surface. Both turbulence and more-rapid drying of soil can accelerate radon flux to the cover surface. Consequently, recommended methods to inhibit defect formation should be applied. 29 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Visual Experience Enhances Infants' Use of Task-Relevant Information in an Action Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Kohne, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether infants' use of task-relevant information in an action task could be facilitated by visual experience in the laboratory. Twelve- but not 9-month-old infants spontaneously used height information and chose an appropriate (taller) cover in search of a hidden tall toy. After watching examples of covering events in a…

  1. New Role for Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor-Induced Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in Histone Modification and Retinoic Acid Receptor α Recruitment to Gene Promoters: Relevance to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cell Differentiation ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cassinat, B.; Zassadowski, F.; Ferry, C.; Llopis, L.; Bruck, N.; Lainey, E.; Duong, V.; Cras, A.; Despouy, G.; Chourbagi, O.; Beinse, G.; Fenaux, P.; Rochette Egly, C.; Chomienne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The induction of the granulocytic differentiation of leukemic cells by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) has been a major breakthrough in terms of survival for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. Here we highlight the synergism and the underlying novel mechanism between RA and the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to restore differentiation of RA-refractory APL blasts. First, we show that in RA-refractory APL cells (UF-1 cell line), PML-RA receptor alpha (RARα) is not released from target promoters in response to RA, resulting in the maintenance of chromatin repression. Consequently, RARα cannot be recruited, and the RA target genes are not activated. We then deciphered how the combination of G-CSF and RA successfully restored the activation of RA target genes to levels achieved in RA-sensitive APL cells. We demonstrate that G-CSF restores RARα recruitment to target gene promoters through the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the subsequent derepression of chromatin. Thus, combinatorial activation of cytokines and RARs potentiates transcriptional activity through epigenetic modifications induced by specific signaling pathways. PMID:21262770

  2. UMTRA project disposal cell cover biointrusion sensitivity assessment, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This study provides an analysis of potential changes that may take place in a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell cover system as a result of plant biointrusion. Potential changes are evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis of the relative impact of root penetrations on radon flux out of the cell cover and/or water infiltration into the cell cover. Data used in this analysis consist of existing information on vegetation growth on selected cell cover systems and information available from published studies and/or other available project research. Consistent with the scope of this paper, no new site-specific data were collected from UMTRA Project sites. Further, this paper does not focus on the issue of plant transport of radon gas or other contaminants out of the disposal cell cover though it is acknowledged that such transport has the potential to be a significant pathway for contaminants to reach the environment during portions of the design life of a disposal cell where plant growth occurs. Rather, this study was performed to evaluate the effects of physical penetration and soil drying caused by plant roots that have and are expected to continue to grow in UMTRA Project disposal cell covers. An understanding of the biological and related physical processes that take place within the cover systems of the UMTRA Project disposal cells helps the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determine if the presence of a plant community on these cells is detrimental, beneficial, or of mixed value in terms of the cover system`s designed function. Results of this investigation provide information relevant to the formulation of a vegetation control policy.

  3. The Nature of Partial Covering in Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighly, Karen

    2012-10-01

    Ejected gas is seen as broad absorption lines in 20% of quasars. It has been known for 15 years that prominent lines such as CIV are usually saturated but not black because the absorbing gas only partially covers the continuum emission region. Therefore, column densities estimated from these lines are only lower limits. Accurate column densities can be obtained from rare ions that have two or more transitions from the same lower level, so that the optical depth and covering fraction can be solved for simultanously. Suitable lines are hard to find, so such measurements are rare. We have found that metastable helium is particularly useful for these measurements. Yet despite these advances, partial covering remains a just a parameter and its physical nature is not understood.We propose a unique experiment to constrain the physical nature of partial covering. We will compare the covering fraction measured from PV {a doublet in the far UV} with that measured from metastable HeI {optical and IR}. The ions creating these lines are relatively rare, and they present similar opacity over a wide range of gas parameters. But due to their wide wavelength separation, these lines probe dramatically different regions of the continuum source, the temperature-dependent accretion disk. So we expect different covering fraction behavior for different partial covering scenarios. This experiment is relevant for understanding the geometry and clumpiness of the outflow, and the results may impact our understanding of the global covering fraction, a parameter critical for determining the outflow kinetic luminosity, and thereby estimating feedback efficiency for broad absorption line outflows.

  4. Factors Influencing Help Seeking, Hearing Aid Uptake, Hearing Aid Use and Satisfaction With Hearing Aids: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Line Vestergaard; Öberg, Marie; Nielsen, Claus; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This descriptive summary of the literature provides an overview of the available studies (published between January 1980 and January 2009) on correlates of help-seeking behavior for hearing loss, hearing-aid uptake, hearing-aid use, and satisfaction with the device. Methods: Publications were identified by structured searches in Pubmed and Cinahl and by inspecting the reference lists of relevant articles. The articles covered different stages that a person with hearing impairment may go through: prior to hearing aid fitting, the period covering the fitting and the period post hearing aid fitting. Inclusion of articles occurred according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. Thirty-nine papers were included that identified 31 factors examined in relation to the four outcome measures. These covered personal factors (e.g., source of motivation, expectation, attitude), demographic factors (e.g., age, gender) and external factors (e.g., cost, counseling). Only two studies covered the actual fitting process. There was only one factor positively affecting all four outcome variables. This was self-reported hearing disability. The vast majority of studies showed no relationship of age and gender with any of the outcome domains. Discussion and conclusion: Whereas research of the last 28 years yielded valuable information regarding relevant and irrelevant factors in hearing aid health care, there are still many relevant issues that have never been investigated in controlled studies. These are discussed. PMID:21109549

  5. Are biodiversity indices of spontaneous grass covers in olive orchards good indicators of soil degradation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguas, E. V.; Arroyo, C.; Lora, A.; Guzmán, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Gómez, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous grass covers are an inexpensive soil erosion control measure in olive orchards. Olive farmers allow grass to grow on sloping terrain to comply with the basic environmental standards derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, to date there are very few studies assessing the environmental quality and extent of such covers. In this study, we described and compared the biodiversity indicators associated to herbaceous vegetation in two contrasting olive orchards in order to evaluate its relevance and quality. In addition, biodiversity patterns and their relationships with environmental factors such as soil type and properties, precipitation, topography and soil management were analyzed. Different grass cover biodiversity indices were evaluated in two olive orchard catchments under conventional tillage and no tillage with grass cover, during 3 hydrological years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples ha-1) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shannon's and Pielou's indices. Sorensen's index obtained in the two olive orchard catchments showed notable differences in composition, probably linked with the different site conditions. The catchment with the best site conditions (deeper soil and higher precipitation), with average annual soil losses over 10 t ha-1 and a more intense management, presented the highest biodiversity indices. In absolute terms, the diversity indices were reasonably high in both catchments, despite the fact that agricultural activity usually severely limits the landscape and the variety of species. Finally, a significantly higher content of organic matter in the first 10 cm of soil was found in the catchment with the worst site conditions, average annual soil losses of 2 t ha-1 and the least intense management. Therefore, the biodiversity indicators associated to weeds were not found to be

  6. Medical Scenarios Relevant to Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacal, Kira; Hurs, Victor; Doerr, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Operational Support Team (MOST) was tasked by the JSC Space Medicine and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) to incorporate medical simulation into 1) medical training for astronaut-crew medical officers (CMO) and medical flight control teams and 2) evaluations of procedures and resources required for medical care aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Development of evidence-based medical scenarios that mimic the physiology observed during spaceflight will be needed for the MOST to complete these two tasks. The MOST used a human patient simulator, the ISS-like resources in the Medical Simulation Laboratory (MSL), and evidence from space operations, military operations and medical literature to develop space relevant medical scenarios. These scenarios include conditions concerning airway management, Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) and mitigating anaphylactic symptoms. The MOST has used these space relevant medical scenarios to develop a preliminary space medical training regimen for NASA flight surgeons, Biomedical Flight Controllers (Biomedical Engineers; BME) and CMO-analogs. This regimen is conducted by the MOST in the MSL. The MOST has the capability to develop evidence-based space-relevant medical scenarios that can help SLSD I) demonstrate the proficiency of medical flight control teams to mitigate space-relevant medical events and 2) validate nextgeneration medical equipment and procedures for space medicine applications.

  7. Making Plant Biology Curricula Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews rationale, purposes, challenges, and relevance of hands-on, plant biology curricula that have been developed in response to the limited use of plants in biology education. Discusses methods to maintain both instructional rigor and student interest in the following topics: cut flowers, container-growing media, fertilizers, hydroponics,…

  8. What's Relevant in Classical Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Sara

    1970-01-01

    Argues the relevance of various aspects of the Thebian trilogy, "The Iliad," The Odyssey," Great Expectations," and Hamlet" to the concerns of today's high school students; a paper presented at annual convention of National Council of Teachers of English (59th, Washington, D.C., November 29, 1969). (RD)

  9. Experiments on Bedrock Cover in a Highly Sinuous Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, G.; Fernandez, R.; Stark, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    One of several mechanisms by which bedrock rivers can incise is abrasion of the bedrock surface by colliding sediment particles. This effect has been captured in terms of a "cover factor" corresponding to the areal fraction p of the bed that is covered with sediment. According to this formulation, a value of p equal to 1 corresponds to complete alluvial cover: sediment particles strike each other and no bedrock abrasion is accomplished. Correspondingly, a value of p equal to 0 corresponds to the absence of sediment: no particles are available to strike the bed, and again no bedrock abrasion is accomplished. Thus the condition 0 < p < 1 is hypothesized to be the condition for incision driven by abrasion. At the microscopic level, however, p can take only the binary values 0 and 1: either a point on the bedrock surface is covered or is not covered. Therefore, the value of p that enters into any morphodynamic formulation of cover must represent an average over some spatiotemporal window. Here we consider the case of a highly sinuous meandering flume. The bed is set in concrete to take the topography corresponding to purely alluvial mobile-bed equilibrium. The recirculation of sediment over this bed at below-capacity conditions leads to a complex pattern of free and forced bars that only partially cover the bed. At certain locations, such as near the inside of bends, the bed is always covered, where at other locations, such as right near the apexes of the very tight bends in the flume, the bed is almost never covered. At other locations, the instantaneous cover fluctuates between the binary values 0 and 1, reflecting the migration of bars of various sizes over the bedrock surface. The averaging of these binary values over appropriate time windows allows determination of the local spatial variation of p that can serve as input to a numerical model of the evolution of bedrock meandering channels.

  10. Managing water services in tropical regions: From land cover proxies to hydrologic fluxes.

    PubMed

    Ponette-González, Alexandra G; Brauman, Kate A; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Farley, Kathleen A; Weathers, Kathleen C; Young, Kenneth R; Curran, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Watershed investment programs frequently use land cover as a proxy for water-based ecosystem services, an approach based on assumed relationships between land cover and hydrologic outcomes. Water flows are rarely quantified, and unanticipated results are common, suggesting land cover alone is not a reliable proxy for water services. We argue that managing key hydrologic fluxes at the site of intervention is more effective than promoting particular land-cover types. Moving beyond land cover proxies to a focus on hydrologic fluxes requires that programs (1) identify the specific water service of interest and associated hydrologic flux; (2) account for structural and ecological characteristics of the relevant land cover; and, (3) determine key mediators of the target hydrologic flux. Using examples from the tropics, we illustrate how this conceptual framework can clarify interventions with a higher probability of delivering desired water services than with land cover as a proxy. PMID:25432319

  11. Managing water services in tropical regions: From land cover proxies to hydrologic fluxes.

    PubMed

    Ponette-González, Alexandra G; Brauman, Kate A; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Farley, Kathleen A; Weathers, Kathleen C; Young, Kenneth R; Curran, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Watershed investment programs frequently use land cover as a proxy for water-based ecosystem services, an approach based on assumed relationships between land cover and hydrologic outcomes. Water flows are rarely quantified, and unanticipated results are common, suggesting land cover alone is not a reliable proxy for water services. We argue that managing key hydrologic fluxes at the site of intervention is more effective than promoting particular land-cover types. Moving beyond land cover proxies to a focus on hydrologic fluxes requires that programs (1) identify the specific water service of interest and associated hydrologic flux; (2) account for structural and ecological characteristics of the relevant land cover; and, (3) determine key mediators of the target hydrologic flux. Using examples from the tropics, we illustrate how this conceptual framework can clarify interventions with a higher probability of delivering desired water services than with land cover as a proxy.

  12. Classification of impervious land cover using fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quackenbush, Lindi J.

    Runoff from urban areas is a leading source of nonpoint source pollution in estuaries, lakes, and streams. The extent and type of impervious land cover are considered to be critical factors in evaluating runoff amounts and the potential for environmental damage. Land cover information for watershed modeling is frequently derived using remote sensing techniques, and improvements in image classification are expected to enhance the reliability of runoff models. In order to understand potential pollutant loads there is a need to characterize impervious areas based on land use. However, distinguishing between impervious features such as roofs and roads using only spectral information is often challenging due to the similarity in construction materials. Since spectral information alone is often lacking, spatial complexity measured using fractal dimension was analyzed to determine its utility in performing detailed classification. Fractal dimension describes the complexity of curves and surfaces in non-integer dimensions. Statistical analysis demonstrated that fractal dimension varies between roofs, roads, and driveways. Analysis also observed the impact of scale by determining statistical differences in fractal dimension, based on the size of the window considered and the ground sampled distance of the pixels under consideration. The statistical differences in fractal dimension translated to minor improvements in classification accuracy when separating roofs, roads, and driveways.

  13. CASA Forest Cover Change Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation and forest fires are global land cover changes that can be caused by both natural and human factors. Although monitoring forest fires in near-real time is critical for operational wildfire management, mapping historical wildfires in a spatially explicit fashion is also important for a number of reasons, including climate change studies (e.g., examining the relationship between rising temperatures and frequency of fires), fuel load management (e.g., deciding when and where to conduct controlled burns), and carbon cycle studies (e.g., quantifying how much CO2 is emitted by fires and for emissions reduction efforts under the United Nations programs for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation -- REDD).

  14. Fines migration from soil daily covers in Hong Kong landfills.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kelvin T W; Lo, Irene M C

    2010-11-01

    Laboratory tests using 240 mm diameter columns were conducted to study fines migration in conditions that simulate daily soil covers in Hong Kong municipal solid waste landfills. Five factors suspected to affect fines migration were examined: moisture content at soil compaction, overburden pressure, pumping rate, cover thickness, and soil-waste interface condition. The results show that moisture content at compaction, cover thickness, and soil-waste interface are the most influential parameters on fines migration in completely decomposed granite daily covers. The measured equivalent sizes of migratory fines from the soil covers were in the range of 4-140 μm. The majority of migratory fines migrated during first permeations, representing 64-86% of the total by mass. Larger particles tended to migrate from the soil mass during the saturation process. In a typical run, about 0.0018% of the total cover soil (by dry weight) was washed out during a typical 1h rainfall event. The results of the laboratory studies point to important engineering implications on the operation of local MSW landfills regarding the use of sandy daily covers.

  15. Comparison of Ground Techniques Used to Estimate Cloud Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugal, W.; Echer, M. P. D. S.; Martins, F. R.; Pinto, M. L. D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds are the most important factor modulating the solar radiation incident on the earth's surface. Information on cloud cover state also play significant role for several applications, as weather forecast and climate knowledge. Several studies have been conducted to establish a methodology and experimental setup in order to acquire reliable cloud cover data from remote sense observations performed on the surface. This work comparing ground data acquired by different systems for the same atmospheric scenario regarding cloud cover. We used two ground sites located at Florianópolis, Brazil, where cloud cover and solar irradiance data were acquired. Solar radiation data and sky images were acquired at SONDA station (-27◦28', -48◦29', 15m asl) and cloud cover data collected at the international airport meteorological station (-27◦40', -48◦29'). This study compares these two datasets for sky scenarios presenting only stratocumulus cloud cover. The results show the complexity of the interaction process between solar irradiance and cloud cover and how it affects ground observations. It can be seen that even when sky is completely cloudy (8/8 or 100%) by a single type of cloud, the ratio between global and diffuse irradiance varied from 0.75 till 0.98.

  16. The architectural relevance of cybernetics

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    This title is taken from an article by Gordon Pask in Architectural Design September 1969. It raises a number of questions which this article attempts to answer. How did Gordon come to be writing for an architectural publication? What was his contribution to architecture? How does he now come to be on the faculty of a school of architecture? And what indeed is the architectural relevance of cybernetics? 12 refs.

  17. The boiling crisis phenomenon on capillary-porous covering

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasiev, B.A.; Smirnov, G.F.; Poniewski, M.E.; Wojcik, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    Physical foundations and mathematical model of the boiling crisis phenomenon on capillary-porous covering -- based on modified Kutateladze-Zuber hydrodynamic hypothesis -- have been formulated. The modification has included new factors in boiling mechanism on capillary-porous covering, such as energy losses due to liquid and vapor transportation through pores, droplet ejection, and capillary potential. The theoretical model was verified against experimental data for water and ethanol, and for metallic screen coverings featuring varying parameters, such as porosity, thickness of the porous layer, pore cell diameter, and pressure. A semi-empirical formula that was drawn up from the model matches the experimental data quite well. It will allow one to determine the optimum porous structure to transfer maximum heat flux in heat pipes and other types of boiling heat transfer devices with porous coverings.

  18. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  19. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  20. Comparison of Theory with Experimental Data For a Partially Covered Double-Sandwich Cantilever Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Qinghua; Levy, Cesar

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, vibration characteristics of a partially covered, double-sandwich cantilever beam are evaluated experimentally and compared to the theoretical results of Levy and Chen for partially covered beams with and without end mass. The results obtained indicate that the theoretical models serve very well in providing the frequency factors and loss factors for the system being investigated.

  1. Differential Soil Acidity Tolerance of Tropical Legume Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In tropical regions, soil acidity and low soil fertility are the most important yield limiting factors for sustainable crop production. Using legume cover crops as mulch is an important strategy not only to protect the soil loss from erosion but also ameliorating soil fertility. Information is limit...

  2. The self-relevance system?

    PubMed

    Conway, Martin A; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Turk, David J

    2016-01-01

    We suggest that the Self Attention Network (SAN) maybe part of a larger self-regulatory system, which we term the Self-Relevance System (SRS) of which the "core" or default network is a major part. It is within the core network that memories are generated and the future imagined. Such memories and imaginings are the basis of preoccupations. Within the SRS then preoccupations drive the emergence of attentional biases (ABs). ABs in turn are modulated by the SAN activating and inhibiting circuits that shape behavior. We consider briefly how this might function in dysfunctional appetitive behaviors, e.g., substance abuse. PMID:26305290

  3. Critical Factors in Cultural Immersion: A Synthesis of Relevant Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Sejal M.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis of the literature on cross-cultural immersion experiences gives emphasis to the need for effective pedagogy for enhancing multicultural counseling competency, with cultural immersion being a potentially valuable training tool. The authors examine the empirical literature towards identifying both helpful and hindering structural and…

  4. Some Factors Relevant to Group Activities in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugglestone, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the handling of groups. The teacher should be aware of variables: size of group, composition (by ability, needs, etc.), seating arrangement, group structure, etc. Cooperative, competitive or individual work should be used, depending on the learning goal. The teacher must be perceptive, flexible, and must have good organizing ability.…

  5. Potential for Monitoring Snow Cover in Boreal Forests by Combining MODIS Snow Cover and AMSR-E SWE Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of snow cover extent and snow water equivalent (SWE) in boreal forests is important for determining the amount of potential runoff and beginning date of snowmelt. The great expanse of the boreal forest necessitates the use of satellite measurements to monitor snow cover. Snow cover in the boreal forest can be mapped with either the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) or the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) microwave instrument. The extent of snow cover is estimated from the MODIS data and SWE is estimated from the AMSR-E. Environmental limitations affect both sensors in different ways to limit their ability to detect snow in some situations. Forest density, snow wetness, and snow depth are factors that limit the effectiveness of both sensors for snow detection. Cloud cover is a significant hindrance to monitoring snow cover extent Using MODIS but is not a hindrance to the use of the AMSR-E. These limitations could be mitigated by combining MODIS and AMSR-E data to allow for improved interpretation of snow cover extent and SWE on a daily basis and provide temporal continuity of snow mapping across the boreal forest regions in Canada. The purpose of this study is to investigate if temporal monitoring of snow cover using a combination of MODIS and AMSR-E data could yield a better interpretation of changing snow cover conditions. The MODIS snow mapping algorithm is based on snow detection using the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to enhance snow detection in dense vegetation. (Other spectral threshold tests are also used to map snow using MODIS.) Snow cover under a forest canopy may have an effect on the NDVI thus we use the NDVI in snow detection. A MODIS snow fraction product is also generated but not used in this study. In this study the NDSI and NDVI components of the snow mapping algorithm were calculated and analyzed to determine how they changed

  6. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 'tween-decks unless all hatch beams are in place under the hatch covers. (c) Missing, broken, or poorly... covers and hatch beams not of uniform size shall be placed only in the hatch, deck, and section in...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 'tween-decks unless all hatch beams are in place under the hatch covers. (c) Missing, broken, or poorly... covers and hatch beams not of uniform size shall be placed only in the hatch, deck, and section in...

  8. Comparative spatial and statistical analysis of selected snow cover climatological characteristics and extremes in Slovakia within the 1950/1951-1979-1980 and 1980/1981-2009/2010 winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Mikulová, K.; Nejedlík, P.; Å¥Astný, P. Å.; Košå¥Álová, J.

    2010-09-01

    Snow cover and its characteristics are pretty sensitive to any kind of air temperature and precipitation changes. In association with long-term changes of the air temperature as well as precipitation through the last two or three decades (from the beginning of 80s) it would be very interesting to compare a regime of snow cover in the periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010, respectively. In particular, we have recognized notable snow cover changes in different regions from the beginning of 90s. Slovakia situated in the western part of the Carpathians, has the komplex geographical conditions and from this reason there has not been recorded similar snow cover trends even in the similar altitudes. Moreover, some mountainous regions with high altitude (the High and Low Tatras, and especially numerous mid-altitude localities, etc.) show the evidences of existing significantly negative trends of some selected characteristics of snow cover. It is well-known that snow cover and precipitation regime of selected region in Slovakia are substantially influenced by the circulation patterns in wider European space, and furthermore in the Carpathians, analogously to the situation in the Alps, windward as well as leeward effects have also relevant consequences in the mountainous regions. Moreover, climate differences between northern and southern, as well as western and eastern regions in Slovakia also play the crucial role. These factors markedly influence the long-term tendencies of snow cover characteristics in particular localities.

  9. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  10. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  11. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  12. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  13. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  14. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  15. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or...

  20. Selection of fungi by candidate cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified cropping systems that incorporate year-round ground cover, are known to maintain healthy soils. Information is available for producers regarding the benefits of specific cover crop species for soil fertility, weed and pest management. Even though it is widely recognized that cover crops ...

  1. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.327 Cover. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c), (e), (f), and (g) of this section, each buried transmission line must be installed with a minimum cover as follows: Location Normal... of a transmission line or main with the minimum cover, the transmission line or main may be...

  2. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.327 Cover. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c), (e), (f), and (g) of this section, each buried transmission line must be installed with a minimum cover as follows: Location Normal... of a transmission line or main with the minimum cover, the transmission line or main may be...

  3. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  4. The Constraints of Relevance on Prevocational Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on how relevance has been invoked as a curricular principle, both by students and teachers, in curriculum documents and in curriculum theory, to explore its variously conceived parameters and conditions. By posing the questions "relevant to whom?", "relevant to what?", "relevant how?" and…

  5. The Need for Culturally Relevant Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy-Brown, Nyama

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for culturally relevant teaching in dance education. Many dance teachers have heard the buzz words "culturally relevant teaching methods." Yet these dance educators acknowledge that the "dance culture" is not always synonymous with "culturally relevant." This paper examines the issue of culturally relevant teaching methods in dance…

  6. Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2006 land cover and impervious surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, James D.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Gass, Leila; Dewitz, Jon; Fry, Joyce A.; Wade, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    Release of NLCD 2006 provides the first wall-to-wall land-cover change database for the conterminous United States from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2006 focused on four primary products: 2001 land cover, 2006 land cover, land-cover change between 2001 and 2006, and impervious surface change between 2001 and 2006. The accuracy assessment was conducted by selecting a stratified random sample of pixels with the reference classification interpreted from multi-temporal high resolution digital imagery. The NLCD Level II (16 classes) overall accuracies for the 2001 and 2006 land cover were 79% and 78%, respectively, with Level II user's accuracies exceeding 80% for water, high density urban, all upland forest classes, shrubland, and cropland for both dates. Level I (8 classes) accuracies were 85% for NLCD 2001 and 84% for NLCD 2006. The high overall and user's accuracies for the individual dates translated into high user's accuracies for the 2001–2006 change reporting themes water gain and loss, forest loss, urban gain, and the no-change reporting themes for water, urban, forest, and agriculture. The main factor limiting higher accuracies for the change reporting themes appeared to be difficulty in distinguishing the context of grass. We discuss the need for more research on land-cover change accuracy assessment.

  7. Cardiac Physiology for Radiologists: Review of Relevant Physiology for Interpretation of Cardiac MR Imaging and CT.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Pooja J; Danton, Gary H; Siegel, Yoel; Kardon, Richard E; Infante, Juan C; Ghersin, Eduard; Fishman, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provide clinicians with important insights into cardiac physiology and pathology. However, not all radiologists understand the language and concepts of cardiac physiology that are used daily by cardiologists. This review article covers basic cardiac physiology as it relates to cardiac CT and MR imaging. Topics include a review of the cardiac cycle and left ventricular pressure-volume loops as they relate to different pathologic states, evaluation of cardiac function, and calculation of key parameters such as left ventricular volumes and the ejection fraction. The hemodynamics of cardiac shunts are covered, with an emphasis on factors important to cardiologists, including the ratio of pulmonary flow to systemic flow. Additionally, valvular physiologic function is reexamined, with a focus on understanding pressure gradients within the heart and also the changes associated with valvular pathologic conditions, including measurement of regurgitant fractions in patients with valvular insufficiency. Understanding these basic concepts will help radiologists tailor the reporting of cardiac studies to clinically relevant information.

  8. Spatiotemporal patterns of soil CO2 efflux in drylands are modulated by the type of cover: The role of biocrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Cantón, Yolanda; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Domingo, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Although the quantification of carbon (C) flux dynamics in arid and semiarid ecosystems has acquired relevant interest, it is recognized that C fluxes of drylands have been poorly measured and modeled, despite these regions represent 40% of the Earth land's surface and are known to play a crucial role in the global C cycle. Scarce vegetation and heterogeneity of non vegetated areas contributes to significant uncertainty in evaluating the roles of these ecosystems in C fluxes. In addition, interplant soils in most arid and semiarid areas are covered by biocrusts (communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses in association with soil particles) which strongly affect C uptake and release and also contribute to increasing uncertainty in the assessment of C balance in these ecosystems. A better understanding of CO2 efflux in different soil covers and how they are regulated by environmental factors is necessary for identifying the relationships between C sinks and sources of arid and semiarid ecosystems. Our goal was to analyse temporal dynamics of soil CO2 on representative cover types of semiarid ecosystems (soil under plant, biocrusts and bare soil) and the influence of environmental factors (soil moisture and temperature) on soil CO2 patterns. The study area chosen was a badlands site (El Cautivo, Almería, SE Spain) where biocrusts occupy up to 50% of soil surface. Soil CO2 molar fraction (χc) was continuously monitored using small solid-state CO2 sensors (GM222, Vaisala, Helsinki, Finland) buried at 5 cm under the different covers, during one year. Soil temperature and soil moisture were also measured under these covers. From the CO2 time-series measured, we calculated soil CO2 efflux (Fs) from the 0-5 cm soil profile using Fick's law of diffusion. Our results demonstrate that soil moisture was the main factor driving soil χc. During summer, when soil was dry, all cover types showed similar soil χc. Following a rain, there was a rapid increase in soil

  9. Relevance in the science classroom: A multidimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwell, Matthew F.

    While perceived relevance is considered a fundamental component of adaptive learning, the experience of relevance and its conceptual definition have not been well described. The mixed-methods research presented in this dissertation aimed to clarify the conceptual meaning of relevance by focusing on its phenomenological experience from the students' perspective. Following a critical literature review, I propose an identity-based model of perceived relevance that includes three components: a contextual target, an identity target, and a connection type, or lens. An empirical investigation of this model that consisted of two general phases was implemented in four 9th grade-biology classrooms. Participants in Phase 1 (N = 118) completed a series of four open-ended writing activities focused on eliciting perceived personal connections to academic content. Exploratory qualitative content analysis of a 25% random sample of the student responses was used to identify the main meaning-units of the proposed model as well as different dimensions of student relevance perceptions. These meaning-units and dimensions provided the basis for the construction of a conceptual mapping sentence capturing students' perceived relevance, which was then applied in a confirmatory analysis to all other student responses. Participants in Phase 2 (N = 139) completed a closed survey designed based on the mapping sentence to assess their perceived relevance of a biology unit. The survey also included scales assessing other domain-level motivational processes. Exploratory factor analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated a coherent conceptual structure, which included a primary interpretive relevance dimension. Comparison of the conceptual structure across various groups (randomly-split sample, gender, academic level, domain-general motivational profiles) provided support for its ubiquity and insight into variation in the experience of perceived relevance among students of different

  10. Wheelspace windage cover plate for turbine

    DOEpatents

    Lathrop, Norman Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Windage cover plates are secured between the wheels and spacer of a turbine rotor to prevent hot flow path gas ingestion into the wheelspace cavities. Each cover plate includes a linear, axially extending body curved circumferentially with a radially outwardly directed wall at one axial end. The wall defines a axially opening recess for receiving a dovetail lug. The cover plate includes an axially extending tongue received in a circumferential groove of the spacer. The cover plate is secured with the tongue in the groove and dovetail lug in the recess. Lap joints between circumferentially adjacent cover plates are provided.

  11. Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

  12. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  13. Internal combustion engine timing chain cover

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, A.

    1991-03-12

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine end and timing chain cover for a multi-cylinder, automotive vehicle type engine having a generally horizontally arranged engine block with a forward end and upper and lower portions, and a generally horizontally extending crankshaft with a forward end portion, and a timing chain mechanism on the block forward end above crankshaft: It comprises: a unitary, a cast metal, dish-like, cover having a forward wall surrounded by an integral edge wall shaped to fit over and mount upon the forward end of the engine block with the cover forming an enclosed cavity at the front end of the engine and with the cover cavity adapted to receive and enclose the engine timing chain mechanism portions located on the engine forward end; the cover having a hole formed in its lower portion in alignment with the engine crankshaft, and with the engine crankshaft forward end portion extending through the hole and being surrounded by a seal; the seal being mounted within the hole in the cover, within an open, rabbit-like groove surrounding the hold and opening forwardly of the cover, so that the seal may be removed in a forward direction relative to the engine and replaced without removing the cover when the cover is mounted upon the block with the crankshaft extending therethrough; and bolt receiving openings formed on the cover edge wall through which mounting bolts may be positioned for fastening the cover upon the engine.

  14. Student perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life: A study in higher education biology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himschoot, Agnes Rose

    The purpose of this mixed method case study was to examine the effects of methods of instruction on students' perception of relevance in higher education non-biology majors' courses. Nearly ninety percent of all students in a liberal arts college are required to take a general biology course. It is proposed that for many of those students, this is the last science course they will take for life. General biology courses are suspected of discouraging student interest in biology with large enrollment, didactic instruction, covering a huge amount of content in one semester, and are charged with promoting student disengagement with biology by the end of the course. Previous research has been aimed at increasing student motivation and interest in biology as measured by surveys and test results. Various methods of instruction have been tested and show evidence of improved learning gains. This study focused on students' perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life and the methods of instruction that increase it. A quantitative survey was administered to assess perception of relevance pre and post instruction over three topics typically taught in a general biology course. A second quantitative survey of student experiences during instruction was administered to identify methods of instruction used in the course lecture and lab. While perception of relevance dropped in the study, qualitative focus groups provided insight into the surprising results by identifying topics that are more relevant than the ones chosen for the study, conveying the affects of the instructor's personal and instructional skills on student engagement, explanation of how active engagement during instruction promotes understanding of relevance, the roll of laboratory in promoting students' understanding of relevance as well as identifying external factors that affect student engagement. The study also investigated the extent to which gender affected changes in students' perception of

  15. LEO effects on candidate solar cell cover materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    In 1984, the LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) was placed in LEO (Low Earth Orbit) for a mission planned to last approximately one year. Due to a number of factors, retrieval was delayed until 1990. An experiment, prepared under the direction of JPL, consisted of a test plate with thirty (30) individual thin silicon solar cell/cover samples. The covers consisted of conventional cerium doped microsheet platelets and potential candidate materials, such as FEP Teflon, silicon RTV's, glass resins, polyimides, and a silicone-polyimide copolymer encapsulant. The effects of the LDEF mission environment (micrometeorite/debris impacts, atomic oxygen, UV, and particulate radiation) on the samples are discussed.

  16. Impact Response Study on Covering Cap of Aircraft Big-Size Integral Fuel Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Jia, Senqing; Wang, Yi; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-05-01

    In order to assess various design concepts and choose a kind of covering cap design scheme which can meet the requirements of airworthiness standard and ensure the safety of fuel tank. Using finite element software ANSYS/LS- DYNA, the impact process of covering cap of aircraft fuel tank by projectile were simulated, in which dynamical characteristics of simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap impacted by titanium alloy projectile and rubber projectile were studied, as well as factor effects on simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap under impact region, impact angle and impact energy were also studied. Though the comparison of critical damage velocity and element deleted number of the covering caps, it shows that the external covering cap has a good protection effect on internal covering cap. The regions close to boundary are vulnerable to appear impact damage with titanium alloy projectile while the regions close to center is vulnerable to occur damage with rubber projectile. Equivalent strain in covering cap is very little when impact angle is less than 15°. Element deleted number in covering cap reaches the maximum when impact angle is between 60°and 65°by titanium alloy projectile. While the bigger the impact angle and the more serious damage of the covering cap will be when rubber projectile impact composite covering cap. The energy needed for occurring damage on external covering cap and internal covering cap is less than and higher than that when single covering cap occur damage, respectively. The energy needed for complete breakdown of double-layer covering cap is much higher than that of single covering cap.

  17. Impact Response Study on Covering Cap of Aircraft Big-Size Integral Fuel Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Jia, Senqing; Wang, Yi; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-10-01

    In order to assess various design concepts and choose a kind of covering cap design scheme which can meet the requirements of airworthiness standard and ensure the safety of fuel tank. Using finite element software ANSYS/LS- DYNA, the impact process of covering cap of aircraft fuel tank by projectile were simulated, in which dynamical characteristics of simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap impacted by titanium alloy projectile and rubber projectile were studied, as well as factor effects on simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap under impact region, impact angle and impact energy were also studied. Though the comparison of critical damage velocity and element deleted number of the covering caps, it shows that the external covering cap has a good protection effect on internal covering cap. The regions close to boundary are vulnerable to appear impact damage with titanium alloy projectile while the regions close to center is vulnerable to occur damage with rubber projectile. Equivalent strain in covering cap is very little when impact angle is less than 15°. Element deleted number in covering cap reaches the maximum when impact angle is between 60°and 65°by titanium alloy projectile. While the bigger the impact angle and the more serious damage of the covering cap will be when rubber projectile impact composite covering cap. The energy needed for occurring damage on external covering cap and internal covering cap is less than and higher than that when single covering cap occur damage, respectively. The energy needed for complete breakdown of double-layer covering cap is much higher than that of single covering cap.

  18. Physiologically relevant organs on chips.

    PubMed

    Yum, Kyungsuk; Hong, Soon Gweon; Healy, Kevin E; Lee, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in integrating microengineering and tissue engineering have generated promising microengineered physiological models for experimental medicine and pharmaceutical research. Here we review the recent development of microengineered physiological systems, or also known as "ogans-on-chips", that reconstitute the physiologically critical features of specific human tissues and organs and their interactions. This technology uses microengineering approaches to construct organ-specific microenvironments, reconstituting tissue structures, tissue-tissue interactions and interfaces, and dynamic mechanical and biochemical stimuli found in specific organs, to direct cells to assemble into functional tissues. We first discuss microengineering approaches to reproduce the key elements of physiologically important, dynamic mechanical microenvironments, biochemical microenvironments, and microarchitectures of specific tissues and organs in microfluidic cell culture systems. This is followed by examples of microengineered individual organ models that incorporate the key elements of physiological microenvironments into single microfluidic cell culture systems to reproduce organ-level functions. Finally, microengineered multiple organ systems that simulate multiple organ interactions to better represent human physiology, including human responses to drugs, is covered in this review. This emerging organs-on-chips technology has the potential to become an alternative to 2D and 3D cell culture and animal models for experimental medicine, human disease modeling, drug development, and toxicology.

  19. Evolution of the soil cover of soccer fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belobrov, V. P.; Zamotaev, I. V.

    2014-04-01

    A soccer field can be considered a soil-like technogenic formation (STF). According to the theory of soil cover patterns, the artificially constructed (anthropogenic) soil cover of a soccer field is an analogue of a relatively homogeneous elementary soil area. However, the spatial homogeneity of the upper part (50-80 cm) of the STF of soccer fields is unstable and is subjected to gradual transformation under the impact of pedogenetic processes, agrotechnical loads, and mechanical loads during the games. This transformation is favored by the initial heterogeneity of the deep (buried) parts of the STF profile. The technogenic factors and elementary pedogenetic processes specify the dynamic functioning regime of the STF. In 50-75 years, the upper part of the STF is transformed into soil-like bodies with properties close to those in zonal soils. Certain micro- and nanopatterns of the soil cover are developed within the field creating its spatial heterogeneity.

  20. Surface covering of downed logs: drivers of a neglected process in dead wood ecology.

    PubMed

    Dynesius, Mats; Gibb, Heloise; Hjältén, Joakim

    2010-10-07

    Many species use coarse woody debris (CWD) and are disadvantaged by the forestry-induced loss of this resource. A neglected process affecting CWD is the covering of the surfaces of downed logs caused by sinking into the ground (increasing soil contact, mostly covering the underside of the log), and dense overgrowth by ground vegetation. Such cover is likely to profoundly influence the quality and accessibility of CWD for wood-inhabiting organisms, but the factors affecting covering are largely unknown. In a five-year experiment we determined predictors of covering rate of fresh logs in boreal forests and clear-cuts. Logs with branches were little covered because they had low longitudinal ground contact. For branchless logs, longitudinal ground contact was most strongly related to estimated peat depth (positive relation). The strongest predictor for total cover of branchless logs was longitudinal ground contact. To evaluate the effect on cover of factors other than longitudinal ground contact, we separately analyzed data from only those log sections that were in contact with the ground. Four factors were prominent predictors of percentage cover of such log sections: estimated peat depth, canopy shade (both increasing cover), potential solar radiation calculated from slope and slope aspect, and diameter of the log (both reducing cover). Peat increased cover directly through its low resistance, which allowed logs to sink and soil contact to increase. High moisture and low temperatures in pole-ward facing slopes and under a canopy favor peat formation through lowered decomposition and enhanced growth of peat-forming mosses, which also proved to rapidly overgrow logs. We found that in some boreal forests, peat and fast-growing mosses can rapidly cover logs lying on the ground. When actively introducing CWD for conservation purposes, we recommend that such rapid covering is avoided, thereby most likely improving the CWD's longevity as habitat for many species.

  1. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. PMID:22520196

  2. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis.

  3. [Markov process of vegetation cover change in arid area of northwest China based on FVC index].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Chang, Shun-li; Shi, Qing-dong; Ma, Ke; Liang, Feng-chao

    2010-05-01

    Based on the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) data of 1982-2000 NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) images, the whole arid area of Northwest China was divided into three sub-areas, and then, the vegetation cover in each sub-area was classified by altitude. Furthermore, the Markov process of vegetation cover change was analyzed and tested through calculating the limit probability of any two years and the continuous and interval mean transition matrixes of vegetation cover change with 8 km x 8 km spatial resolution. By this method, the Markov process of vegetation cover change and its indicative significance were approached. The results showed that the vegetation cover change in the study area was controlled by some random processes and affected by long-term stable driving factors, and the transitional change of vegetation cover was a multiple Markov process. Therefore, only using two term image data, no matter they were successive or intervallic, Markov process could not accurately estimate the trend of vegetation cover change. As for the arid area of Northwest China, more than 10 years successive data could basically reflect all the factors affecting regional vegetation cover change, and using long term average transition matrix data could reliably simulate and predict the vegetation cover change. Vegetation cover change was a long term dynamic balance. Once the balance was broken down, it should be a long time process to establish a new balance.

  4. Development of a resettable, flexible aperture cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A flexible aperture cover and latch were developed for the Thermal Ion Detection Experiment (TIDE). The latch utilized a high-output paraffin (HOP) linear motor to supply the force to operate the latch. The initial approach for the cover was to use a heat-treated, coiled strip of 0.05 mm (.002-inch)-thick beryllium-copper as the cover. Development test results showed that one end of the cover developed a trajectory during release that threatened to impact against adjacent instruments. An alternative design utilizing constant force springs and a flexible, metallized Kapton cover was then tested. Results from development tests, microgravity tests, and lessons learned during the development of the aperture cover are discussed.

  5. A new porous polyetherurethane wound covering.

    PubMed

    Bruin, P; Jonkman, M F; Meijer, H J; Pennings, A J

    1990-02-01

    A polyetherurethane (PEU) wound covering with non-interconnected micropores up to approximately 5 microns has been prepared by means of a phase inversion process. This highly elastic, very thin (15-20 microns), pliable wound covering showed good, immediate adherence to wet wound surfaces and high water vapor permeability, but was impermeable to bacteria. In guinea pigs epidermal wound healing of partial-thickness wounds under PEU wound coverings was accelerated compared with uncovered controls and an occlusive wound covering, OpSite. Water in liquid form or wound exudate could not leak through the PEU covering, but its high water vapor permeability induced concentration of the wound exudate into a jellylike clot layer, which apparently accelerated reepithelialization. The main conclusion from a clinical study on 20 donor sites was that the use of the PEU covering reduced pain, besides prevention of fluid retention. No differences in epithelialization were seen in comparison to tulle gras-treated wounds.

  6. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  7. Global climate changes and the soil cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeyarov, V. N.; Demkin, V. A.; Gilichinskii, D. A.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Rozhkov, V. A.

    2009-09-01

    The relationships between climate changes and the soil cover are analyzed. The greenhouse effect induced by the rising concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, and many other trace gases in the air has been one of the main factors of the global climate warming in the past 30-40 years. The response of soils to climate changes is considered by the example of factual data on soil evolution in the dry steppe zone of Russia. Probable changes in the carbon cycle under the impact of rising CO2 concentrations are discussed. It is argued that this rise may have an effect of an atmospheric fertilizer and lead to a higher productivity of vegetation, additional input of organic residues into the soils, and activation of soil microflora. Soil temperature and water regimes, composition of soil gases, soil biotic parameters, and other dynamic soil characteristics are most sensitive to climate changes. For the territory of Russia, in which permafrost occupies more than 50% of the territory, the response of this highly sensitive natural phenomenon to climate changes is particularly important. Long-term data on soil temperatures at a depth of 40 cm are analyzed for four large regions of Russia. In all of them, except for the eastern sector of Russian Arctic, a stable trend toward the rise in the mean annual soil temperature. In the eastern sector (the Verkhoyansk weather station), the soil temperature remains stable.

  8. Ice-covered water volcanism on Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Clifford, S. M.

    1987-07-01

    Eruption of liquid H2O magmas along extensional fractures and graben-bounding normal faults may have played a critical role in the development of Ganymede's grooved terrain. The resurfacing potential of a water magma is dependent on a variety of factors, including the areal extent of the source region, the rate of discharge, the thickness of the flow, and the time that it takes the flow to completely freeze to its base. In this paper the thermal evolution of such a flow is considered in detail. The minimum unfrozen lifetime of a 5-m flow is approximately 12.5 days while a 10-m flow would survive for at least 50 days. Heating resulting from frictional head loss could reasonably extend these lifetimes by 50 percent or more. With a discharge rate of the order of 1-10 cu km/d, an individual volcanic water flow could flood an area of about 10,000 sq km before freezing. As the flow solidifies, its volume will increase, thus lifting and arching its protective ice cover. Extensional fractures may then develop in the ice subparallel to the graben walls. These fractures could result in grooves directly, given a sufficiently thick (1 km) flow, or they may simply act to concentrate various tectonic forces that could initiate groove-producing faults.

  9. Alpine Snow Cover - Water Resources in Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czyzowska, E. H.; Van Leeuwen, W. J.; Hirschboeck, K. K.; Wisniewski, W. T.; Marsh, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    There is an undisputed need to increase accuracy of snow cover estimation in regions of complex terrain, especially in areas dependent on winter snow accumulation for a substantial portion of their water supply, such as the Western United States, Central Asia, and the Andes. Presently, the most pertinent monitoring and research needs related to alpine snow cover extent (SCE) are: (1) to improve SCE monitoring by providing detailed fractional snow cover (FSC) products which perform well in temporal/spatial heterogeneous forested and/or alpine terrains; (2) to provide accurate measurements of FSC at the watershed scale for use in snow water equivalent (SWE) estimation for regional water management; (3) to provide detailed distributions of FSC in mountainous regions to investigate the temporal/spatial distribution of SCE/SWE in relation to recent climate changes; (4) to use FSC products as input for climate models at multiple scales; and (5) to estimate SCE and SWE for use in ecological studies (e.g., vegetation cover, water stress, primary production, fire, insect outbreaks, and pulses in tree demography). To address the above our approach is based on Landsat/MODIS Fractional Snow Cover (LandsatFSC, ModisFSC), as a measure of the temporal/spatial distribution of alpine SCE. We used a fusion methodology between remotely sensed multispectral data from Landsat TM/ETM+/MODIS and Ikonos utilized at their highest respective spatial resolutions. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are used to capture the multi-scale information structure of the data by means of the ANN training process, followed by the ANN extracting FSC from all available information in the Landsat images. The LandsatFSC/ModisFSC algorithms were validated (RMSE ~ 0.09; mean error ~ 0.001-0.01 FSC) in watersheds characterized by diverse environmental factors such as: terrain, slope, exposition, vegetation cover, and wide-ranging snow cover conditions.

  10. On Relevance Weight Estimation and Query Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    A Bayesian argument is used to suggest modifications to the Robertson and Jones relevance weighting formula to accommodate the addition to the query of terms taken from the relevant documents identified during the search. (Author)

  11. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  12. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  13. [Effects of seasonal snow cover on soil nitrogen transformation in alpine ecosystem: a review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Wu, Yan; He, Yi-xin; Wu, Ning; Sun, Geng; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Jun-jun

    2011-08-01

    Seasonal snow cover has pronounced effects on the soil nitrogen concentration and transformation in alpine ecosystem. Snowfall is an important form of nitrogen deposition, which directly affects the content of soil available nitrogen. Different depths and different duration of snow cover caused by snowfall may lead the heterogeneity of abiotic factors (soil temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (soil microbes, alpine plants, and alpine animals), and further, produce complicated effects on the mineralization and immobilization of soil nitrogen. This paper introduced in emphasis the inherent mechanisms of soil nitrogen mineralization and leaching under the effects of frequent freeze-thaw events during the durative melting of snow cover, and summarized the main research results of field in situ experiments about the effects of seasonal snow cover on soil nitrogen in alpine ecosystem based on the possible changes in snow cover in the future. Some suggestions with regard to the effects of seasonal snow cover on soil nitrogen were put forward.

  14. [Effects of seasonal snow cover on soil nitrogen transformation in alpine ecosystem: a review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Wu, Yan; He, Yi-xin; Wu, Ning; Sun, Geng; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Jun-jun

    2011-08-01

    Seasonal snow cover has pronounced effects on the soil nitrogen concentration and transformation in alpine ecosystem. Snowfall is an important form of nitrogen deposition, which directly affects the content of soil available nitrogen. Different depths and different duration of snow cover caused by snowfall may lead the heterogeneity of abiotic factors (soil temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (soil microbes, alpine plants, and alpine animals), and further, produce complicated effects on the mineralization and immobilization of soil nitrogen. This paper introduced in emphasis the inherent mechanisms of soil nitrogen mineralization and leaching under the effects of frequent freeze-thaw events during the durative melting of snow cover, and summarized the main research results of field in situ experiments about the effects of seasonal snow cover on soil nitrogen in alpine ecosystem based on the possible changes in snow cover in the future. Some suggestions with regard to the effects of seasonal snow cover on soil nitrogen were put forward. PMID:22097387

  15. Identification of aspects of functioning, disability and health relevant to patients experiencing vertigo: a qualitative study using the international classification of functioning, disability and health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Aims of this study were to identify aspects of functioning and health relevant to patients with vertigo expressed by ICF categories and to explore the potential of the ICF to describe the patient perspective in vertigo. Methods We conducted a series of qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews using a descriptive approach. Data was analyzed using the meaning condensation procedure and then linked to categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Results From May to July 2010 12 interviews were carried out until saturation was reached. Four hundred and seventy-one single concepts were extracted which were linked to 142 different ICF categories. 40 of those belonged to the component body functions, 62 to the component activity and participation, and 40 to the component environmental factors. Besides the most prominent aspect “dizziness” most participants reported problems within “Emotional functions (b152), problems related to mobility and carrying out the daily routine. Almost all participants reported “Immediate family (e310)” as a relevant modifying environmental factor. Conclusions From the patients’ perspective, vertigo has impact on multifaceted aspects of functioning and disability, mainly body functions and activities and participation. Modifying contextual factors have to be taken into account to cover the complex interaction between the health condition of vertigo on the individuals’ daily life. The results of this study will contribute to developing standards for the measurement of functioning, disability and health relevant for patients suffering from vertigo. PMID:22738067

  16. Developing a cloud mask climatology covering two Meteosat satellite generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, Rebekka; Stöckli, Reto; Liniger, Mark A.

    2013-04-01

    Long term cloud cover observations from satellites are fundamental for climate model validation and climate monitoring. Further, they support ground-based observations in regions with sparse coverage. Additionally, information on cloud cover is needed to derive other physical parameters such as surface radiation fluxes or clear sky and cloudy atmospheric states and is of high relevance for the solar energy sector. Within the current project phase of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) an algorithm to calculate a climatological cloud mask (or cloud cover probability) from Meteosat satellites is developed. The algorithm shall be applicable for both Meteosat first generation (1983-2005) and Meteosat second generation (2004-present) which significantly differ in their spectral properties. The algorithm linearly aggregates a set of continuous scores instead of the commonly used decision tree approach. The scores are calculated for different channels as well as different spatial and temporal settings. Each score yields a probability for the pixel's cloud cover. The final result, the cloud cover probability, is obtained by combining all available scores taking into account the varying performance of the scores during day and night and over snow. The uncertainty of the final cloud cover estimate is an inherent part of the probability. The algorithm is calibrated using cloud cover measurements from SYNOP stations located on the Meteosat disc. The subsequent validation is done at an independent set of collocated SYNOP/ARSA (Automated Radiosonde Archive) stations. The presentation introduces the applied cloud mask algorithm and presents the results of the validation for both satellite generations. The comparison of the two satellite generations addresses the climatological homogeneity of the future cloud mask climate data record which will be distributed by CM SAF after 2016. Special attention is also drawn to issues like the day-night-bias of

  17. 42 CFR 418.202 - Covered services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures necessary for pain control or acute or chronic symptom management. Inpatient care may also be... terminal illness are covered. Appliances may include covered durable medical equipment as described in... or management of the patient's terminal illness. Equipment is provided by the hospice for use in...

  18. 42 CFR 418.202 - Covered services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... procedures necessary for pain control or acute or chronic symptom management. Inpatient care may also be... terminal illness are covered. Appliances may include covered durable medical equipment as described in... or management of the patient's terminal illness. Equipment is provided by the hospice for use in...

  19. 42 CFR 418.202 - Covered services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... procedures necessary for pain control or acute or chronic symptom management. Inpatient care may also be... terminal illness are covered. Appliances may include covered durable medical equipment as described in... or management of the patient's terminal illness. Equipment is provided by the hospice for use in...

  20. 42 CFR 418.202 - Covered services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... procedures necessary for pain control or acute or chronic symptom management. Inpatient care may also be... terminal illness are covered. Appliances may include covered durable medical equipment as described in... or management of the patient's terminal illness. Equipment is provided by the hospice for use in...

  1. Urban land cover classification using hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, G.; Ahamed, J. Mohammed; Hebbar, R.; Raj, U.

    2014-11-01

    Urban land cover classification using remote sensing data is quite challenging due to spectrally and spatially complex urban features. The present study describes the potential use of hyperspectral data for urban land cover classification and its comparison with multispectral data. EO-1 Hyperion data of October 05, 2012 covering parts of Bengaluru city was analyzed for land cover classification. The hyperspectral data was initially corrected for atmospheric effects using MODTRAN based FLAASH module and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation was applied to reduce data dimensionality. The threshold Eigen value of 1.76 in VNIR region and 1.68 in the SWIR region was used for selection of 145 stable bands. Advanced per pixel classifiers viz., Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used for general urban land cover classification. Accuracy assessment of the classified data revealed that SVM was quite superior (82.4 per cent) for urban land cover classification as compared to SAM (67.1 per cent). Selecting training samples using end members significantly improved the classification accuracy by 20.1 per cent in SVM. The land cover classification using multispectral LISS-III data using SVM showed lower accuracy mainly due to limitation of spectral resolution. The study indicated the requirement of additional narrow bands for achieving reasonable classification accuracy of urban land cover. Future research is focused on generating hyperspectral library for different urban features.

  2. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... soil Consolidated rock Inches (Millimeters) Class 1 locations 30 (762) 18 (457) Class 2, 3, and 4... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation.... (d) A main may be installed with less than 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover if the law of...

  3. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... soil Consolidated rock Inches (Millimeters) Class 1 locations 30 (762) 18 (457) Class 2, 3, and 4... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation.... (d) A main may be installed with less than 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover if the law of...

  4. 10 CFR 1040.14 - Covered employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., color, national origin, or sex (when covered by section 16 and section 401) in its employment practices... provide work experience which contributes to the education or training of the individuals involved; (iii... origin, or sex (when covered by section 16 or section 401) in such employment practices tends to...

  5. 49 CFR 15.7 - Covered persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Covered persons. 15.7 Section 15.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.7 Covered persons. Persons subject to the requirements of part 15 are: (a) Each airport operator and...

  6. 42 CFR 6.4 - Covered individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered individuals. 6.4 Section 6.4 Public Health... COVERAGE OF CERTAIN GRANTEES AND INDIVIDUALS § 6.4 Covered individuals. (a) Officers and employees of a... if they meet the requirements of section 224(g)(5) of the Act. (c) An individual physician or...

  7. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  8. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  9. AsMA journal covers, a history.

    PubMed

    Day, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    The cover of our journal has changed quite often over the years. As we look forward to changing the name and design of the journal, it seems appropriate to reflect on the previous journal titles and covers. A brief history follows.

  10. Roadmap to increased cover crop adoption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are increasingly utilized by farmers and promoted by agronomists for the multiple benefits they contribute to soil and crop management systems. Yet, only a small percentage of cropland is planted to cover crops. In June of 2012, the National Wildlife Federation brought together 36 of the...

  11. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  12. 7 CFR 353.4 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products covered. 353.4 Section 353.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT CERTIFICATION § 353.4 Products covered. Plants and plant products...

  13. 16 CFR 700.1 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products covered. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.1 Products covered. (a)...

  14. 16 CFR 700.1 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products covered. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.1 Products covered. (a)...

  15. 16 CFR 700.1 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products covered. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.1 Products covered. (a)...

  16. 16 CFR 700.1 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Products covered. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.1 Products covered. (a)...

  17. 16 CFR 700.1 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products covered. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.1 Products covered. (a)...

  18. Landfill Gas Effects on Evapotranspirative Landfill Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, M. A.; Mattson, E.; Ankeny, M.; Kelsey, J.

    2005-05-01

    The performance of an evapotranspirative landfill cover can be adversely affected by transport of landfill gases to the plant root zone. Healthy plant communities are critical to the success and effectiveness of these vegetated landfill covers. Poor vegetative cover can result in reduced transpiration, increased percolation, and increased erosion regardless of the thickness of the cover. Visual inspections of landfill covers indicate that vegetation-free areas are not uncommon at municipal waste landfills. Data from soil profiles beneath these areas suggest that anaerobic conditions in the plant-rooting zone are controlling plant distribution. On the same landfill, aerobic conditions exist at similar depths beneath well-vegetated areas. The movement of methane and carbon dioxide, generated by degradation of organic wastes, into the overlying soil cover displaces oxygen in the root zone. Monitoring data from landfills in semi-arid areas indicate that barometric pumping can result in hours of anaerobic conditions in the root zone. Microbial consumption of oxygen in the root zone reduces the amount of oxygen available for plant root respiration but consumption of oxygen and methane also produce water as a reaction byproduct. This biogenic water production can be on the order of centimeters of water per year which, while increasing water availability, also has a negative feedback on transport of landfill gases through the cover. Accounting for these processes can improve evapotranspirative landfill cover design at other sites.

  19. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section...

  1. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section...

  2. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section...

  3. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section...

  4. Timely precipitation drives cover crop outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops can expand ecosystem services, though sound management recommendations for their use within semi-arid cropping systems is currently constrained by a lack of information. This study was conducted to determine agroecosystem responses to late-summer seeded cover crops under no-till managem...

  5. On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, M.; Montenegro, H.

    Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m). In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

  6. Energy saving cover for mobile home

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, M.L.

    1980-06-10

    An insulating and weatherproof protective cover adapted to protect and insulate a mobile home has an outer layer of waterproof material and an inner layer preferably of foam-type insulating material bonded to the outer layer for enclosing the roof and side walls of a mobile home. Openings are cut in the sides to permit the opening and closing of windows and doors. Transparent coverings may be provided which roll up and away from the window openings. Door panels may be provided and hinged from the sides of the mobile home cover to insulate the door. Tiedowns are provided along the lower edge of the cover and may be used to secure the cover to the undercarriage of the mobile home or its supporting pad.

  7. Controls of biological soil crust cover and composition shift with succession in sagebrush shrub-steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettweiler-Robinson, E.; Bakker, J.D.; Grace, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Successional stage may determine strength and causal direction of interactions among abiotic and biotic factors; e.g., species that facilitate the establishment of other species may later compete with them. We evaluated multivariate hypotheses about abiotic and biotic factors shaping biological soil crusts (BSCs) in early and late successional stages. We surveyed vegetation and BSC in the shrub-steppe ecosystem of the Columbia Basin. We analyzed the relationships with bryophyte and lichen covers using structural equation models, and analyzed the relationships with BSC composition using Indicator Species Analysis and distance-based linear models. Cover, indicator species, and composition varied with successional stage. Increasing elevation and bryophyte cover had higher lichen cover early in succession; these relationships were negative in the later successional stage. Lichen cover did not appear to impede B. tectorum cover, but B. tectorum appeared to strongly negatively affect lichen cover in both stages. Biological soil crust composition varied with bunchgrass cover in the early successional stage, but with elevation and B. tectorum cover later in succession. Our findings support the hypotheses that as succession progresses, the strength and direction of certain community interactions shift, and B. tectorum leads to reductions in biological soil crust cover regardless of successional stage.

  8. Do cover crops increase or decrease nitrous oxide emissions? A meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined the factors that affect the impact of cover crops on nitrous oxide emissions. A meta-analysis of the data obtained from twenty-six peer reviewed articles was conducted using the natural log of the nitrous oxide flux with a cover crop divided by the nitrous oxide flux withou...

  9. Soil phosphorous influence on growth and nutrition of tropical legume cover crops in acidic soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In tropical regions, the use of cover crops in crop production is an important strategy in maintaining sustainability of cropping systems. Phosphorus deficiency in tropical soils is one of the most yield limiting factors for successful production of cover crops. A greenhouse experiment was conduct...

  10. Teachers' beliefs about culturally relevant teaching in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Jackson, Charlease Plushette

    In many of our nations' schools, African American students are experiencing inequitable opportunities to quality science. Since science teachers are one of the most influential factors on science learning and they are charged with instructing African American students, their beliefs and practices are vital to the understanding of this paradox. This mixed method study sought to investigate science teachers' beliefs about the importance of culturally relevant teaching in the classroom and their beliefs about critical issues and practices of culturally relevant teaching. Two research questions guided the conceptualization and implementation of this study: (1) Do science teachers believe culturally relevant teaching is an important part of their instruction; (2) What are science teachers' perceptions about critical issues and practices of culturally relevant teaching? The study was conducted in three phases. Survey data in Phase One revealed that 100% of the respondents believed culturally relevant teaching is important when working with culturally diverse students. Data also showed a significant consensus among the following pluralist statements; 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 14, 16, and 17. The statement, "culturally relevant practice is essential for creating an inclusive classroom environment" was endorsed (75%) by the respondents while 25% strongly agreed with the statement. Similarly, respondents strongly agreed (75%) with the statement "encouraging respect for cultural diversity is essential for creating an inclusive classroom environment" while 25% agreed. Interview results in Phase Two revealed that teachers had a general idea about culturally relevant pedagogy. Data further showed that three of the four teachers supported culturally relevant teaching in theory, but their support was not reflected in their daily classroom instruction. Misconceptions and/misunderstandings about culturally relevant teaching fell under several common themes: knowledge, teacher beliefs

  11. Biology relevant to space radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1996-08-01

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors.

  12. The Development of Human Factor Guidelines for Unmanned Aircraft System Control Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine beyond-line-of-sight operations in the US national airspace system (NAS). To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material may already provide adequate coverage of certain issues. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  13. Relevance of postprandial lipemia in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined by the aggregation of interconnected cardiometabolic risk factors which increase the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease (CVD). MetS is currently a matter of concern and it will continue to be in the future, since there is likely to be a dramatic increase in its prevalence, and subjects with MetS will have an increased risk of mortality, mainly through CVD. Moreover, the implications on the global health burden and the worldwide epidemic of this complex disorder will impact greatly on socioeconomic cost. MetS is therefore a matter of serious concern and we need to understand its etiology in order to improve strategies of treatment and prevention. In this regard, postprandial lipemia has increased in importance over the last few years as it has been demonstrated to influence the development of atherosclerosis. In addition, in modern times, fasting is not the typical physiological state of humans; in fact, they spend most of the time in the postprandial state. However, although it is obvious that postprandial lipemia is present in conditions of obesity, little is known about the relevance of postprandial lipemia in MetS. In the current review, we will explore some aspects of postprandial lipemia which could be of interest for understanding the pathogenesis of this complex disorder and which may help us advance towards more personalized nutrition. PMID:24168444

  14. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.

  15. Astrobiology of Antarctic ice Covered Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, P. T.; Fritsen, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Antarctica contains a number of permanently ice-covered lakes which have often been used as analogs of purported lakes on Mars in the past. Antarctic subglacial lakes, such as Lake Vostok, have also been viewed as excellent analogs for an ice covered ocean on the Jovian moon Europa, and to a lesser extend on Mars. Lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of East Antarctica have ice covers that range from 3 to 20 meters thick. Water salinities range from fresh to hypersaline. The thinner ice-covered lakes have a well-documented ecology that relies on the limited available nutrients and the small amount of light energy that penetrates the ice covers. The thickest ice-covered lake (Lake Vida in Victoria Valley) has a brine beneath 20 m of ice that is 7 times sea water and maintains a temperature below -10 degrees Celsius. This lake is vastly different from the thinner ice-covered lakes in that there is no communication with the atmosphere. The permanent ice cover is so thick, that summer melt waters can not access the sub-ice brine and so the ice grows from the top up, as well as from the bottom down. Brine trapped beneath the ice is believed to be ancient, stranded thousands of years ago when the ice grew thick enough to isolate it from the surface. We view Lake Vida as an excellent analog for the last aquatic ecosystem to have existed on Mars under a planetary cooling. If, as evidence is now increasingly supporting, standing bodies of water existed on Mars in the past, their fate under a cooling would be to go through a stage of permanent ice cover establishment, followed by a thickening of that ice cover until the final stage just prior to a cold extinction would be a Lake Vida-like lake. If dust storms or mass movements covered these ancient lakes, remnants may well be in existence in the subsurface today. A NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) project will drill the Lake Vida ice cover and access the brine and sediments beneath in

  16. Development of integral covers on solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P.; Somberg, H.

    1971-01-01

    The electron-beam technique for evaporating a dielectric material onto solar cells is investigated. A process has been developed which will provide a highly transparent, low stress, 2 mil thick cover capable of withstanding conventional space type qualification tests including humidity, thermal shock, and thermal cycling. The covers have demonstrated the ability to withstand 10 to the 15th power 1 MeV electrons and UV irradiation with minor darkening. Investigation of the cell AR coating has produced a space qualifiable titanium oxide coating which will give an additional 6% current output over similar silicon oxide coated cells when covered by glass.

  17. 77 FR 48733 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definitions of Covered Business Method...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Covered Business Method Patents, 77 FR 7080 (Feb. 10, 2012), to provide rules specific to the transitional... Method Patents, 77 FR 7080 (Feb. 10, 2012) and Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents... Covered Business Method Patents, 77 FR 7080 (Feb. 10, 2012) (notice of proposed rulemaking)...

  18. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  19. Observations of the snow cover in the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefedeva, Y. A.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the snow cover, as a function of various natural factors, in sectors of the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic were examined. The thawing process is also discussed.

  20. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  1. Measured impact of neighborhood tree cover on microclimate

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, D.J.; Rainer, L.; Akbari, H.

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we present results of our investigation into the relationship between urban microclimate and the local density of tree cover as measured in Sacramento, California. These results were obtained through analysis of data collected in a two-month long monitoring program with automatic weather stations installed at 15 residential locations throughout the city. Measured wind speeds showed a highly negative correlation with respect to tree cover. Daily peak air temperatures showed significant variation often differing from site to site by 2 to 4{degrees}C ({approx}3.5 to 7{degrees}F). A complex interaction between several competing factors is discussed leading to the conclusion that additional tree cover may actually increase urban air temperatures on synoptically cool days. It is suggested that this does not have a significant adverse affect in terms of overall summer urban cooling load. This is supported by an integrated analysis of the temperature data which yielded preliminary estimates indicating that residential cooling local (as measured by cooling degree days) may decrease by 5 to 10% per 10% increase in tree cover.

  2. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.; Gladney, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers.

  3. Constraints of Predicting Land Cover Changes from Bioclimatic Models - with Special Regard to Forest Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyas, C.; Rasztovits, E.

    2009-04-01

    The determination of "climatic envelopes" of biota and especially of forests has attained a sudden actuality in the context of expected climatic changes, as zonal vegetation types serve as convenient climate indicators. Studies on bioclimatic modelling and on climate change-triggered vegetation shifts are abundant and have been considered also in the fourth report of IPCC. Present and predicted distribution of forest biota provide an illustrative impression of shift of potential land cover changes. There are, however, certain assumptions which remain often unmentioned, and which - if left unconsidered - may compromise the outcome. The bioclimatic models of actual biome or species distributions may be biased, because: (1) Present "natural" vegetation cover types are in most part of the world under strong human influence. In Europe, even the few remaining close to natural landscapes are the results of long lasting human interference of the past which continue also in the present. (2) It is a well known ecological rule that actual ranges of species and biota are regulated by complex, often hidden interactions which may modify distributions. Physiologically (more accurately: genetically) set potential limits may be per definitionem wider than the realized, actual ones. To include extrazonal outliers in bioclimatic models may cause errors. (3) The longevity and persistence of forest trees may be deceptive for climatic modelling at the retreating, xeric limits. The climatic zones move usually faster than the land (forest) cover indicating those zones. (4) Climate envelopes use standard (mean) climate parameters. It is however the effect of the sequence of consecutive extreme weather events and linked biotic damages which will concretely decide over survival or mortality. Therefore the use of climate means should be regarded only as surrogates for weather extremes. (5) The change of climatic environment may alter the phenologic behaviour which cannot be tested in advance

  4. 46 CFR 45.145 - Hatchway covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be at least 4.25 times the maximum stress in the structure calculated with the following assumed...) of this section and the thickness of mild steel plating forming the tops of covers must be at least...

  5. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  6. Land cover mapping from remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Saleh, N. M.; Wong, C. J.; AlSultan, Sultan

    2006-04-01

    Remote sensing data have been widely used for land cover mapping using supervised and unsupervised methods. The produced land cover maps are useful for various applications. This paper examines the use of remote sensing data for land cover mapping over Saudi Arabia. Three supervised classification techniques Maximum Likelihood, ML, Minimum Distance-to-Mean, MDM, and Parallelepiped, P were applied to the imageries to extract the thematic information from the acquired scene by using PCI Geomatica software. Training sites were selected within each scene. This study shows that the ML classifier was the best classifier and produced superior results and achieved a high degree of accuracy. The preliminary analysis gave promising results of land cover mapping over Saudi Arabia by using Landsat TM imageries.

  7. Dust mite-proof pillow cover (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount of dust mites encase mattresses, box springs, and pillows with mite-proof covers. Further methods consist of washing bedding once a week in hot water, and dusting with a wet cloth once a ...

  8. Cyclic covers that are not stably rational

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliot-Thélène, J.-L.; Pirutka, A.

    2016-08-01

    Using methods developed by Kollár, Voisin, ourselves and Totaro, we prove that a cyclic cover of P C^n, n≥ 3, of prime degree p, ramified along a very general hypersurface f(x_0,\\dots , x_n)=0 of degree mp, is not stably rational if m(p-1) . In dimension 3 we recover double covers of P^3 C ramified along a very general surface of degree 4 (Voisin) and double covers of P^3 C ramified along a very general surface of degree 6 (Beauville). We also find double covers of P^4 C ramified along a very general hypersurface of degree 6. This method also enables us to produce examples over a number field.

  9. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

  10. Relevant Linguistics: An Introduction to the Structure and Use of English for Teachers. CSLI Lecture Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Paul W.

    This book addresses the growing need to familiarize classroom teachers with the structure and use of language. Written with future teachers in mind, it addresses the core areas they will find most relevant, introducing them to various types of linguistic analysis while covering the basics of phonetics, phonology, morphology, and syntax. Seven…

  11. Coverings of topological semi-abelian algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucuk, Osman; Demir, Serap

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we study on a category of topological semi-abelian algebras which are topological models of given an algebraic theory T whose category of models is semi-abelian; and investigate some results on the coverings of topological models of such theories yielding semi-abelian categories. We also consider the internal groupoid structure in the semi-abelian category of T-algebras, and give a criteria for the lifting of internal groupoid structure to the covering groupoids.

  12. Repositioning of Covered Stents: The Grip Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, John Martin; Guo Xiaofeng; Midia, Mehran

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: Retrieval and repositioning of a stent deployed beyond its intended target region may be a difficult technical challenge. Materials and Methods: A balloon-mounted snare technique, a variant of the coaxial loop snare technique, is described. Results: The technique is described for the repositioning of a covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent and a covered biliary stent. Conclusion: The balloon-mounted snare technique is a useful technique for retrieval of migrated stents.

  13. Land cover classification for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff and shows characteristic flashy streamflow and poor water quality commonly associated with urban streams. This data set represents the floodplain land cover as derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographic imagery. The land cover classifications represent current conditions (2009).

  14. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  15. Special study on vegetative covers. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

  17. Vegetative soil covers for hazardous waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peace, Jerry L.

    Shallow land burial has been the preferred method for disposing of municipal and hazardous wastes in the United States because it is the simplest, cheapest, and most cost-effective method of disposal. Arid and semiarid regions of the western United States have received considerable attention over the past two decades in reference to hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste disposal. Disposal is based upon the premise that low mean annual precipitation, high evapotranspiration, and low or negligible recharge, favor waste isolation from the environment for long periods of time. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that containment of municipal and hazardous wastes in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers utilizing natural soils and native vegetation i.e., vegetative soil covers, will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for hazardous waste landfills. Vegetative soil cover design combines layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem that maintains the natural water balance. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards' equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data from 1919 to 1996 are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 1 m (3 ft) cover is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  18. [Genomic diagnosis of thrombophilia in women: clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2007-02-01

    The detection of the DNA-sequence of human coagulation factors and inhibitors has introduced the possibility of differentiated mutation analysis in patients with venous thrombosis. Since venous thromboembolism is a multifactorial disease, women are at an increased risk to develop venous thrombosis due to hormonal contraception, during pregnancy and the puerperium. In addition, pregnancy complications like early or late fetal loss, pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and very recently recurrent embryo implantation failure have been suspected to be associated with thrombophilia. Therefore, it is of major importance to define inherited thrombophilic disorders, in which genetic diagnosis is of clinical relevance. While most of the genetic defects described so far represent a risk factor for venous thrombosis, only a minority of these defects actually needs DNA analysis to be detected: mutation analysis is clinically relevant, when factor V Leiden mutation is suspected, because relative risks concerning venous thrombosis as well as pregnancy complications clearly differ between homozygote and heterozygote forms of this frequently observed mutation. Similarly detection of the prothrombin mutation G20210A is of clinical relevance, although data for the very rarely observed homozygote variant are not sufficiently available. In contrast, detection of the homozygote variant of the MTHFR-mutation C677T is not useful, since clinical relevance could not be proven in a majority of studies concerning women specific risk situations. Inherited deficiencies of antithrombin, protein C and protein S are rare with high rates of different mutations. Genetic analysis seems only useful in patients with wide intraindividual variations of coagulation inhibitor activities. Genetic analysis concerning the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism or the factor XIII Val34Leu polymorphism can not be recommended in women specific risk situations because of insufficient data. PMID:17279273

  19. Culture, Relevance, and Schooling: Exploring Uncommon Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherff, Lisa, Ed.; Spector, Karen, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In "Culture, Relevance, and Schooling: Exploring Uncommon Ground," Lisa Scherff, Karen Spector, and the contributing authors conceive of culturally relevant and critically minded pedagogies in terms of opening up new spatial, discursive, and/or embodied learning terrains. Readers will traverse multiple landscapes and look into a variety of spaces…

  20. The Semantic Distance Model of Relevance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the Semantic Distance Model (SDM) of Relevance Assessment, a cognitive model of the relationship between semantic distance and relevance assessment. Discusses premises of the model such as the subjective nature of information and the metaphor of semantic distance. Empirical results illustrate the effects of semantic distance and semantic…

  1. 12 CFR 308.157 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 308.157 Section 308.157 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures and Standards Applicable to an Application Pursuant to Section 19 of the FDIA § 308.157 Relevant considerations....

  2. 12 CFR 108.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 108.11 Section 108.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  3. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  4. 12 CFR 108.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 108.11 Section 108.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  5. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  6. Collective Bargaining in Public Community Colleges; A Survey of Relevant Contract Provisions from 84 Professional Contracts Covering 120 Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Board of Regional Community Colleges, Boston.

    This study was undertaken in an effort to provide community college administrators with a resource tool from which they may readily obtain comparative data on current negotiated contract provisions at other institutions. The report is the first in a projected series of nationwide studies conducted by the Massachusetts State Board of Regional…

  7. Guidelines for selection of radiological protective head covering

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, G.R. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    The hood is recognized throughout the nuclear industry as the standard radiological protective head covering for use in radioactively contaminated work environments. As of June 15, 1995, hoods were required for all activities performed in contaminated areas at the Y-12 Plant. The use of hoods had historically been limited to those radiological activities with a high potential for personnel contamination. Due to the large size of many posted contaminated areas at the Y-12 Plant, and compounding safety factors, requirements for the use of hoods are being reevaluated. The purpose of the evaluation is to develop technically sound guidelines for the selection of hoods when prescribing radiological protective head covering. This report presents the guidelines for selection of radiological protective hoods.

  8. AVHRR channel selection for land cover classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Hoffer, R.M.; Chapman, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Mapping land cover of large regions often requires processing of satellite images collected from several time periods at many spectral wavelength channels. However, manipulating and processing large amounts of image data increases the complexity and time, and hence the cost, that it takes to produce a land cover map. Very few studies have evaluated the importance of individual Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels for discriminating cover types, especially the thermal channels (channels 3, 4 and 5). Studies rarely perform a multi-year analysis to determine the impact of inter-annual variability on the classification results. We evaluated 5 years of AVHRR data using combinations of the original AVHRR spectral channels (1-5) to determine which channels are most important for cover type discrimination, yet stabilize inter-annual variability. Particular attention was placed on the channels in the thermal portion of the spectrum. Fourteen cover types over the entire state of Colorado were evaluated using a supervised classification approach on all two-, three-, four- and five-channel combinations for seven AVHRR biweekly composite datasets covering the entire growing season for each of 5 years. Results show that all three of the major portions of the electromagnetic spectrum represented by the AVHRR sensor are required to discriminate cover types effectively and stabilize inter-annual variability. Of the two-channel combinations, channels 1 (red visible) and 2 (near-infrared) had, by far, the highest average overall accuracy (72.2%), yet the inter-annual classification accuracies were highly variable. Including a thermal channel (channel 4) significantly increased the average overall classification accuracy by 5.5% and stabilized inter-annual variability. Each of the thermal channels gave similar classification accuracies; however, because of the problems in consistently interpreting channel 3 data, either channel 4 or 5 was found to be a more

  9. Near-real-time cheatgrass percent cover in the Northern Great Basin, USA, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2016-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dramatically changes shrub steppe ecosystems in the Northern Great Basin, United States.Current-season cheatgrass location and percent cover are difficult to estimate rapidly.We explain the development of a near-real-time cheatgrass percent cover dataset and map in the Northern Great Basin for the current year (2015), display the current year’s map, provide analysis of the map, and provide a website link to download the map (as a PDF) and the associated dataset.The near-real-time cheatgrass percent cover dataset and map were consistent with non-expedited, historical cheatgrass percent cover datasets and maps.Having cheatgrass maps available mid-summer can help land managers, policy makers, and Geographic Information Systems personnel as they work to protect socially relevant areas such as critical wildlife habitats.

  10. Blast noise propagation above a snow cover.

    PubMed

    Albert, D G; Hole, L R

    2001-06-01

    A porous medium model of a snow cover, rather than a viscoelastic treatment, has been used to simulate measured, horizontally traveling acoustic waveform propagation above a dry snow cover 11-20 cm thick. The waveforms were produced by explosions of 1-kg charges at propagation distances of 100 to 1400 m. These waveforms, with a peak frequency around 30 Hz, show pulse broadening effects similar to those previously seen for higher-frequency waves over shorter propagation distances. A rigid-ice-frame porous medium ("rigid-porous") impedance model, which includes the effect of the pores within the snow but ignores any induced motion of the ice particles, is shown to produce much better agreement with the measured waveforms compared with a viscoelastic solid treatment of the snow cover. From the acoustic waveform modeling, the predicted average snow cover depth of 18 cm and effective flow resistivities of 16-31 kPa s m(-2) agree with snow pit observations and with previous acoustic measurements over snow. For propagation in the upwind direction, the pulse broadening caused by the snow cover interaction is lessened, but the overall amplitude decay is greater because of refraction of the blast waves. PMID:11425110

  11. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankaran, M.; Hanan, N.P.; Scholes, R.J.; Ratnam, J.; Augustine, D.J.; Cade, B.S.; Gignoux, J.; Higgins, S.I.; Le, Roux X.; Ludwig, F.; Ardo, J.; Banyikwa, F.; Bronn, A.; Bucini, G.; Caylor, K.K.; Coughenour, M.B.; Diouf, A.; Ekaya, W.; Feral, C.J.; February, E.C.; Frost, P.G.H.; Hiernaux, P.; Hrabar, H.; Metzger, K.L.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ringrose, S.; Sea, W.; Tews, J.; Worden, J.; Zambatis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties 1-3. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance regimes (fire, herbivory) are thought to be important in regulating woody cover1,2,4,5, but perceptions differ on which of these are the primary drivers of savanna structure. Here we show, using data from 854 sites across Africa, that maximum woody cover in savannas receiving a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of less than ???650 mm is constrained by, and increases linearly with, MAP. These arid and semi-arid savannas may be considered 'stable' systems in which water constrains woody cover and permits grasses to coexist, while fire, herbivory and soil properties interact to reduce woody cover below the MAP-controlled upper bound. Above a MAP of ???650 mm, savannas are 'unstable' systems in which MAP is sufficient for woody canopy closure, and disturbances (fire, herbivory) are required for the coexistence of trees and grass. These results provide insights into the nature of African savannas and suggest that future changes in precipitation 6 may considerably affect their distribution and dynamics. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Monthly fractional green vegetation cover associated with land cover classes of the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Tarpley, Dan; Mitchell, Ken; Csiszar, Ivan; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Reed, Bradley C.

    2001-01-01

    The land cover classes developed under the coordination of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) have been analyzed for a study area that includes the Conterminous United States and portions of Mexico and Canada. The 1-km resolution data have been analyzed to produce a gridded data set that includes within each 20-km grid cell: 1) the three most dominant land cover classes, 2) the fractional area associated with each of the three dominant classes, and 3) the fractional area covered by water. Additionally, the monthly fraction of green vegetation cover (fgreen) associated with each of the three dominant land cover classes per grid cell was derived from a 5-year climatology of 1-km resolution NOAA-AVHRR data. The variables derived in this study provide a potential improvement over the use of monthly fgreen linked to a single land cover class per model grid cell.

  13. Improving Land Cover Product-Based Estimates of the Extent of Fragmented Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changing land use/land cover on regional and global climate ecosystems depends on accurate estimates of the extent of critical land cover types such as Arctic wetlands and fire scars in boreal forests. To address this information requirement, land cover products at coarse spatial resolution such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) -based maps and the MODIS Land Cover Product are being produced. The accuracy of the extent of highly fragmented cover types such as fire scars and ponds is in doubt because much (the numerous scars and ponds smaller than the pixel size) is missed. A promising method for improving areal estimates involves modeling the observed distribution of the fragment sizes as a type of truncated distribution, then estimating the sum of unobserved sizes in the lower, truncated tail and adding it to the sum of observed fragment sizes. The method has been tested with both simulated and actual cover products.

  14. Land Cover Mapping Using SENTINEL-1 SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdikan, S.; Sanli, F. B.; Ustuner, M.; Calò, F.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the potential of using free-of-charge Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery for land cover mapping in urban areas is investigated. To this aim, we use dual-pol (VV+VH) Interferometric Wide swath mode (IW) data collected on September 16th 2015 along descending orbit over Istanbul megacity, Turkey. Data have been calibrated, terrain corrected, and filtered by a 5x5 kernel using gamma map approach. During terrain correction by using a 25m resolution SRTM DEM, SAR data has been resampled resulting into a pixel spacing of 20m. Support Vector Machines (SVM) method has been implemented as a supervised pixel based image classification to classify the dataset. During the classification, different scenarios have been applied to find out the performance of Sentinel-1 data. The training and test data have been collected from high resolution image of Google Earth. Different combinations of VV and VH polarizations have been analysed and the resulting classified images have been assessed using overall classification accuracy and Kappa coefficient. Results demonstrate that, combining opportunely dual polarization data, the overall accuracy increases up to 93.28% against 73.85% and 70.74% of using individual polarization VV and VH, respectively. Our preliminary analysis points out that dual polarimetric Sentinel-1SAR data can be effectively exploited for producing accurate land cover maps, with relevant advantages for urban planning and management of large cities.

  15. Use of lodgepole pine cover types by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are a large and dynamic part of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) habitat in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Research in other areas suggests that grizzly bears select for young open forest stands, especially for grazing and feeding on berries. Management guidelines accordingly recommend timber harvest as a technique for improving habitat in areas potentially dominated by lodgepole pine. In this paper I examine grizzly bear use of lodgepole pine forests in the Yellowstone area, and test several hypotheses with relevance to a new generation of management guidelines. Differences in grizzly bear selection of lodgepole pine cover types (defined on the basis of stand age and structure) were not pronounced. Selection furthermore varied among years, areas, and individuals. Positive selection for any lodgepole pine type was uncommon. Estimates of selection took 5-11 years or 4-12 adult females to stabilize, depending upon the cover type. The variances of selection estimates tended to stabilize after 3-5 sample years, and were more-or-less stable to slightly increasing with progressively increased sample area. There was no conclusive evidence that Yellowstone's grizzlies favored young (<40 yr) stands in general or for their infrequent use of berries. On the other hand, these results corroborated previous observations that grizzlies favored open and/or young stands on wet and fertile sites for grazing. These results also supported the proposition that temporally and spatially robust inferences require extensive, long-duration studies, especially for wide-ranging vertebrates like grizzly bears.

  16. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  17. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  18. Some new worldwide cloud-cover models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, S. J.; Somerville, P. N.

    1981-01-01

    Using daily measurements of day and night infrared, and incoming and absorbed solar radiation obtained from a Tiros satellite over a period of approximately 45 months, and integrated over 2.5 deg latitude-longitude grids, the proportion of cloud cover over each grid each day was derived for the entire period. For each of four 3-month periods, for each grid location, estimates a and b of the two parameters of the best-fit beta distribution were obtained. The (a, b) plane was divided into a number of regions. All the geographical locations whose (a, b) estimates were in the same region in the (a, b) plane were said to have the same cloud cover type for that season. For each season, the world is thus divided into separate cloud-cover types.

  19. Ecoregions and land cover trends in Senegal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Sall, M.; Wood, E.C.; Cushing, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines long-term changes in Senegal's natural resources. We monitor and quantify land use and land cover changes occurring across Senegal using nearly 40 years of satellite imagery, aerial surveys, and fieldwork. We stratify Senegal into ecological regions and present land use and land cover trends for each region, followed by a national summary. Results aggregated to the national level show moderate change, with a modest decrease in savannas from 74 to 70 percent from 1965 to 2000, and an expansion of cropland from 17 to 21 percent. However, at the ecoregion scale, we observed rapid change in some and relative stability in others. One particular concern is the decline in Senegal's biodiverse forests. However, in the year 2000, Senegal's savannas, woodlands, and forests still cover more than two-thirds of the country, and the rate of agricultural expansion has slowed.

  20. Classifying Land Cover Using Spectral Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawiye, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studying land cover has become increasingly important as countries try to overcome the destruction of wetlands; its impact on local climate due to seasonal variation, radiation balance, and deteriorating environmental quality. In this investigation, we have been studying the spectral signatures of the Jamaica Bay wetland area based on remotely sensed satellite input data from LANDSAT TM and ASTER. We applied various remote sensing techniques to generate classified land cover output maps. Our classifiers relied on input from both the remote sensing and in-situ spectral field data. Based upon spectral separability and data collected in the field, a supervised and unsupervised classification was carried out. First results suggest good agreement between the land cover units mapped and those observed in the field.

  1. Conventional and fuzzy comparisons of large scale land cover products: Application to CORINE, GLC2000, MODIS and GlobCover in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Hoyos, A.; García-Haro, F. J.; San-Miguel-Ayanz, J.

    2012-11-01

    One of the major drawbacks of land cover products is the lack of interoperability among them. Since their development was driven by different national or international initiatives, they were developed for different purposes and hold diverse technical characteristics. Thus, comparison among products and quality monitoring is necessary in assessing their usefulness. This paper provides a methodology to compare global land cover maps that allows for differences in legend definitions among products. Two different approaches were considered for map comparison, a Boolean approach and a new methodology based on fuzzy set theory in which the Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) acted as a general bridging system. The fuzzy approach let us reconcile legends in terms of a set of nine selected attributes. The methodology is illustrated over Europe using four different land cover products: CORINE, GLC2000, MODIS land cover (MODISLC) and GlobCover. Overall accuracies between datasets based on a generalized nomenclature ranged from 35% (GlobCover-MODISLC) to 57% (CORINE-GLC2000). A further assessment based on a flexible Boolean comparison allowed us to minimize part of the uncertainty introduced by ambiguity of legends, resulting in an overall increase of agreement of around 10% in absolute terms. Reduction of positional errors produced an agreement increase of around 5%. The fuzzy approach allowed us to examine certain criteria used in classification systems to better understand the causes of discrepancies among datasets and express them in terms of relevant land attributes, irrespective of class names. This method served to highlight the consistency of the land cover maps under consideration, especially for datasets that showed higher divergences. In particular, it allows the identification of areas that are very close in land attributes, even when a Boolean comparison shows them as different.

  2. Application of Remote Sensing Technologies for Forest Cover Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agoltsov, Alexander; Sizov, Oleg; Rubtsova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Today we don't have full and reliable information about forests in Russia, so it is impossible to make any well-timed decision for forest management. Update of all this information by means of traditional methods (fieldwork) is a time-consuming and in fact impossible task. Also we do not think that using of the reports without objective information for cameral data actualization is an appropriate method in such situation. So our company uses remote sensing data and technologies to resolve this problem. Nowadays numerous satellites record numerous images every day. Remote sensing data are widespread and accessible, so we can use them as the source of actual and reliable information about current status of the Forest Fund. Furthermore regular monitoring allows extracting the information about the location and intensity of forests' changes like degradation and destruction. First of all we create a georeferenced data set to cover the area of interest with orthomosaic in targeting scale depending on the goals of the project (1:25 000 - 1:10 000). For example, we can do a mosaic from RapidEye (Germany) imagery with GSD = 6.5 m or from WorldView-2 (USA) imagery with GSD = 0.5 m. The next step is to create vector layers to describe the content of images. We use visual and contemporary automatic interpretation techniques. The benefit of such approach that we can extract not only information about forests (like boundary) but also the information about roads, hydrographic objects, power lines and so on. During vectorization except relevant orthomosaic we can use multi-temporal composites of images based on archive of satellite imagery. This helps us not only to detect general changes but detect illegal logging, areas affected by fires, windfalls. Then this information can be used for different products e.g. forest cover statistics, forest cover change statistics, maps of forest management and also we can analyze transport accessibility and economic assessment of forests.

  3. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, J.A.; Coan, M.J.; Homer, C.G.; Meyer, D.K.; Wickham, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

  4. Thematic accuracy of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 land cover for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Stehman, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 Alaska land cover classification is the first 30-m resolution land cover product available covering the entire state of Alaska. The accuracy assessment of the NLCD 2001 Alaska land cover classification employed a geographically stratified three-stage sampling design to select the reference sample of pixels. Reference land cover class labels were determined via fixed wing aircraft, as the high resolution imagery used for determining the reference land cover classification in the conterminous U.S. was not available for most of Alaska. Overall thematic accuracy for the Alaska NLCD was 76.2% (s.e. 2.8%) at Level II (12 classes evaluated) and 83.9% (s.e. 2.1%) at Level I (6 classes evaluated) when agreement was defined as a match between the map class and either the primary or alternate reference class label. When agreement was defined as a match between the map class and primary reference label only, overall accuracy was 59.4% at Level II and 69.3% at Level I. The majority of classification errors occurred at Level I of the classification hierarchy (i.e., misclassifications were generally to a different Level I class, not to a Level II class within the same Level I class). Classification accuracy was higher for more abundant land cover classes and for pixels located in the interior of homogeneous land cover patches. ?? 2011.

  5. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  6. COVER Project and Earth resources research transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Results of research in the remote sensing of natural boreal forest vegetation (the COVER project) are summarized. The study objectives were to establish a baseline forest test site; develop transforms of LANDSAT MSS and TM data for forest composition, biomass, leaf area index, and net primary productivity; and perform tasks required for testing hypotheses regarding observed spectral responses to changes in leaf area index in aspen. In addition, the transfer and documentation of data collected in the COVER project (removed from the Johnson Space Center following the discontinuation of Earth resources research at that facility) is described.

  7. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  8. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  9. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  10. Edwards plateau: Analysis of land cover trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, B.A.; Hester, D.J.; Casey, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends project studies the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) change in land use and land cover in the United States on an ecoregional basis. The Edwards Plateau ecoregion is the focus of this report. Landsat imagery from five dates during a nearly 30-year period are interpreted for randomly selected sample blocks. The resulting data provide the foundation for estimating change. Along with the image analysis, site visits to 90% of the sampled areas, geographical profiles, and socioeconomic data for the ecoregion are synthesized to assess regional driving forces and consequences of change. Complete project methodology can be found in Loveland et al [1].

  11. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-02-13

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  12. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  13. Meeting the Challenges of Diversity and Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwan-Smith, Margaret; Silver, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the QUASAR Project, which has worked with middle school teachers in disadvantaged communities in order to help increase the relevance of mathematics by making connections between the mathematics taught in school and the lives of students. (16 references) (MKR)

  14. Sandia programs relevant to microelectronics fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, S.T.; Vook, F.L.; Gregory, B.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report was prepared for the Semiconductor Industry and the National Laboratories Workshop held at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, February 24, 1987. It details the current Sandia program activities relevant to microelectronics fabrication.

  15. Mother Goose Is Alive and Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that Mother Goose rhymes are culturally relevant. Offers ways in which Mother Goose can be used in the classroom. Discusses activities for language arts, movement, art, music, science, and mathematics instruction. (PRA)

  16. Relevance of ellipse eccentricity for camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordwinzew, W.; Tietz, B.; Boochs, F.; Paulus, D.

    2015-05-01

    Plane circular targets are widely used within calibrations of optical sensors through photogrammetric set-ups. Due to this popularity, their advantages and disadvantages are also well studied in the scientific community. One main disadvantage occurs when the projected target is not parallel to the image plane. In this geometric constellation, the target has an elliptic geometry with an offset between its geometric and its projected center. This difference is referred to as ellipse eccentricity and is a systematic error which, if not treated accordingly, has a negative impact on the overall achievable accuracy. The magnitude and direction of eccentricity errors are dependent on various factors. The most important one is the target size. The bigger an ellipse in the image is, the bigger the error will be. Although correction models dealing with eccentricity have been available for decades, it is mostly seen as a planning task in which the aim is to choose the target size small enough so that the resulting eccentricity error remains negligible. Besides the fact that advanced mathematical models are available and that the influence of this error on camera calibration results is still not completely investigated, there are various additional reasons why bigger targets can or should not be avoided. One of them is the growing image resolution as a by-product from advancements in the sensor development. Here, smaller pixels have a lower S/N ratio, necessitating more pixels to assure geometric quality. Another scenario might need bigger targets due to larger scale differences whereas distant targets should still contain enough information in the image. In general, bigger ellipses contain more contour pixels and therefore more information. This supports the target-detection algorithms to perform better even at non-optimal conditions such as data from sensors with a high noise level. In contrast to rather simple measuring situations in a stereo or multi-image mode, the impact

  17. 7 CFR 319.8-10 - Covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... an approved mill or plant for utilization. When such covers are forwarded from a northern port to a mill or plant in California for utilization, or from a California port to another California...

  18. 39 CFR 960.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES RELATIVE TO IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO... initiating the proceeding or designating the matter for hearing. The failure to designate a proceeding as an... proceedings on the application. (c) If a proceeding includes both matters covered by the Act and...

  19. 31 CFR 800.207 - Covered transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered transaction. 800.207 Section 800.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS,...

  20. Unique cover crops for Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane production practices provide a tremendous opportunity for the use of cover crops following the final sugarcane harvest in the fall of one year and prior to replanting sugarcane during the summer of the next year. A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years...

  1. 29 CFR 16.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 16.104 Proceedings covered. (a... labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act at 29 U.S.C. 216(e) and 29 CFR part 579. (ii) Violations and debarment in Federal contracts under the Walsh-Healey Act at 41 U.S.C. 39 and 41 CFR...

  2. 7 CFR 319.8-10 - Covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States may be authorized either (1) through a Mexican border port named in the permit for vacuum... vacuum fumigation by an approved method or without vacuum fumigation when the covers are to be moved to... northern port for vacuum fumigation thereat or for movement to a mill or plant for utilization...

  3. 5 CFR 890.903 - Covered services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... participation agreements with the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) consistent with sections 1814(a) and 1866 of the Social Security Act, and receive Medicare part A payments in accordance with the...) of the Social Security Act), which are: (1) Covered under both Medicare part B and the...

  4. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use of mail covers as an investigative technique for law enforcement or the protection of national... of mail matter as allowed by law, to obtain information in order to: (i) Protect national security... identification of property, proceeds or assets forfeitable under law. (2) For the purposes of § 233.3 record is...

  5. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.105 - Cover page.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.105... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cover page. 1710.105 Section 1710.105 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  7. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Covered entities. 46.5 Section 46.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT PUBLIC UTILITY FILING REQUIREMENTS AND FILING...

  8. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  9. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  10. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  11. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  12. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  13. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  14. GENERATING HIGH QUALITY IMPERVIOUS COVER DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) from urban/ suburban areas is rapidly increasing as the population increases in the United States. Research in recent years has consistently shown a strong relationship between the percentage of impervious cover in a drainage basin and the health...

  15. 45 CFR 13.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 13.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These rules...)(2) of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7(f), 1320a-7a(c)(2), or 1395u(j)(2). If a...

  16. 29 CFR 16.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 16.104 Proceedings covered. (a... labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act at 29 U.S.C. 216(e) and 29 CFR part 579. (ii) Violations and debarment in Federal contracts under the Walsh-Healey Act at 41 U.S.C. 39 and 41 CFR...

  17. 29 CFR 16.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 16.104 Proceedings covered. (a... labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act at 29 U.S.C. 216(e) and 29 CFR part 579. (ii) Violations and debarment in Federal contracts under the Walsh-Healey Act at 41 U.S.C. 39 and 41 CFR...

  18. 29 CFR 16.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 16.104 Proceedings covered. (a... labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act at 29 U.S.C. 216(e) and 29 CFR part 579. (ii) Violations and debarment in Federal contracts under the Walsh-Healey Act at 41 U.S.C. 39 and 41 CFR...

  19. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transcription, photograph, photocopy or any other facsimile of the image of the outside cover, envelope, wrapper... Inspector may also delegate any or all authority to the Manager, Inspector Service Operations Support Group... Support Group, may delegate this authority to no more than two designees at each Operations Support...

  20. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use of mail covers as an investigative technique for law enforcement or the protection of national... of mail matter as allowed by law, to obtain information in order to: (i) Protect national security... commission or attempted commission of acts constituting a crime, or (ii) Protect the national security....

  1. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use of mail covers as an investigative technique for law enforcement or the protection of national... of mail matter as allowed by law, to obtain information in order to: (i) Protect national security... commission or attempted commission of acts constituting a crime, or (ii) Protect the national security....

  2. Judge a Book by Its Cover?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Steven C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the reaction of feminist students at Vanderbilt University (Tennessee) to a photograph, "Heaven and Hell" (A. Serrano), on the cover of the book "Arresting Images: Impolitic Art and Uncivil Actions" (S. Dubin). Their position that the photograph promotes violence toward women is one interpretation; another is that it is a powerful…

  3. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.31 Hatch coverings. (a) No cargo... unless the working area available for such employees extends for a distance of 10 feet (3.05 m) or...

  4. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... organization primarily engaged in the business of providing financial services or credit, a mutual savings bank... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.5 Covered entities. Entities to which the general rule in § 46.4(b) applies are the following: (a) Any investment bank, bank holding company, foreign...

  5. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Any proceeding in which the Department may prescribe a lawful present or future rate is not covered by....S.C. 1766) Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 604, 606, 607(e), 608, 671) Federal Seed Act (7...

  6. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Any proceeding in which the Department may prescribe a lawful present or future rate is not covered by....S.C. 1766) Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 604, 606, 607(e), 608, 671) Federal Seed Act (7...

  7. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Any proceeding in which the Department may prescribe a lawful present or future rate is not covered by....S.C. 1766) Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 604, 606, 607(e), 608, 671) Federal Seed Act (7...

  8. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An... section 501(1) and (3) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA) (29......

  9. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An... with section 501(1) and (3) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA) (29......

  10. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An... section 501(1) and (3) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA) (29......

  11. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An... with section 501(1) and (3) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA) (29......

  12. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An... with section 501(1) and (3) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA) (29......

  13. 45 CFR 13.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 13.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These rules apply only to adversary adjudications. For the purpose of these rules, only an adjudication required to... and participates in the proceeding, constitutes an adversary adjudication. These rules do not apply...

  14. 22 CFR 171.41 - Covered employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PUBLIC Ethics in Government Act Provisions § 171.41 Covered employees. (a) Officers and employees (including special Government employees as defined in 18 U.S.C. 202) whose positions are classified at grades... Director of the Office of Government Ethics to be of equal classification to GS-16; (c) Employees in...

  15. 22 CFR 171.41 - Covered employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PUBLIC Ethics in Government Act Provisions § 171.41 Covered employees. (a) Officers and employees (including special Government employees as defined in 18 U.S.C. 202) whose positions are classified at grades... Director of the Office of Government Ethics to be of equal classification to GS-16; (c) Employees in...

  16. 17 CFR 148.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... denial actions under section 8c of the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 U.S.C. 12c, and registered futures association disciplinary and membership denial actions under section 17 of the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 U.S.C... covered if they are otherwise adjudicatory proceedings. For the Commission, the types of...

  17. 14 CFR 120.215 - Covered employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered employees. 120.215 Section 120.215 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements...

  18. Management of Overwintering Cover Crops Influences Floral Resources and Visitation by Native Bees.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Katherine E; Barbercheck, Mary E

    2015-08-01

    The incorporation of cover crops into annual crop rotations is one practice that is used in the Mid-Atlantic United States to manage soil fertility, suppress weeds, and control erosion. Additionally, flowering cover crops have the potential to support beneficial insect communities, such as native bees. Because of the current declines in managed honey bee colonies, the conservation of native bee communities is critical to maintaining "free" pollination services. However, native bees are negatively affected by agricultural intensification and are also in decline across North America. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of flowering cover crops to act as a conservation resource for native bees. We evaluated the effects of cover crop diversity and fall planting date on floral resource availability and visitation by native bees for overwintering flowering cover crop species commonly used in the Mid-Atlantic region. Cover crop species, crop rotation schedule, and plant diversity significantly influenced floral resource availability. Different cover crop species not only had different blooming phenologies and winter survival responses to planting date, but attracted unique bee communities. Flower density was the primary factor influencing frequency of bee visitation across cover crop diversity and fall planting date treatments. The results from these experiments will be useful for informing recommendations on the applied use of flowering cover crops for pollinator conservation purposes.

  19. Management of Overwintering Cover Crops Influences Floral Resources and Visitation by Native Bees.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Katherine E; Barbercheck, Mary E

    2015-08-01

    The incorporation of cover crops into annual crop rotations is one practice that is used in the Mid-Atlantic United States to manage soil fertility, suppress weeds, and control erosion. Additionally, flowering cover crops have the potential to support beneficial insect communities, such as native bees. Because of the current declines in managed honey bee colonies, the conservation of native bee communities is critical to maintaining "free" pollination services. However, native bees are negatively affected by agricultural intensification and are also in decline across North America. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of flowering cover crops to act as a conservation resource for native bees. We evaluated the effects of cover crop diversity and fall planting date on floral resource availability and visitation by native bees for overwintering flowering cover crop species commonly used in the Mid-Atlantic region. Cover crop species, crop rotation schedule, and plant diversity significantly influenced floral resource availability. Different cover crop species not only had different blooming phenologies and winter survival responses to planting date, but attracted unique bee communities. Flower density was the primary factor influencing frequency of bee visitation across cover crop diversity and fall planting date treatments. The results from these experiments will be useful for informing recommendations on the applied use of flowering cover crops for pollinator conservation purposes. PMID:26314045

  20. Assessing Landslide Risk Areas Using Statistical Models and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. G.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Ahn, Y.; Sung, S.; Park, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, damages due to landslides have increased in Republic of Korea. Extreme weathers like typhoon, heavy rainfall related to climate change are the main factor of the damages. Especially, Inje-gun, Gangwon-do had severe landslide damages in 2006 and 2007. In Inje-gun, 91% areas are forest, therefore, many land covers related to human activities were adjacent to forest land. Thus, establishment of adaptation plans to landslides was urgently needed. Landslide risk assessment can serve as a good information to policy makers. The objective of this study was assessing landslide risk areas to support establishment of adaptation plans to reduce landslide damages. Statistical distribution models (SDMs) were used to evaluate probability of landslide occurrence. Various SDMs were used to make landslide probability maps considering uncertainty of SDMs. The types of land cover were classified into 5 grades considering vulnerable level to landslide. The landslide probability maps were overlaid with land cover map to calculate landslide risk. As a result of overlay analysis, landslide risk areas were derived. Especially agricultural areas and transportation areas showed high risk and large areas in the risk map. In conclusion, policy makers in Inje-gun must consider the landslide risk map to establish adaptation plans effectively.