Science.gov

Sample records for relevant visual information

  1. Task relevance of emotional information affects anxiety-linked attention bias in visual search.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Helen F; Vogt, Julia; Turkileri, Nilgun; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-01-01

    Task relevance affects emotional attention in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether the association between anxiety and attention bias is affected by the task relevance of emotion during an attention task. Participants completed two visual search tasks. In the emotion-irrelevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of neutral, middle-aged faces was old or young. Irrelevant to the task, target faces displayed angry, happy, or neutral expressions. In the emotion-relevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of middle-aged neutral faces was happy or angry (target faces also varied in age). Trait anxiety was not associated with attention in the emotion-relevant task. However, in the emotion-irrelevant task, trait anxiety was associated with a bias for angry over happy faces. These findings demonstrate that the task relevance of emotional information affects conclusions about the presence of an anxiety-linked attention bias.

  2. Attentional demand and processing of relevant visual information during simulated driving: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    Fort, Alexandra; Martin, Robert; Jacquet-Andrieu, Armelle; Combe-Pangaud, Chantal; Foliot, Gérald; Daligault, Sébastien; Delpuech, Claude

    2010-12-02

    It is a well-known fact that attention is crucial for driving a car. This innovative study aims to assess the impact of attentional workload modulation on cerebral activity during a simulated driving task using magnetoencephalography (MEG). A car simulator equipped with a steering wheel, turn indicators, an accelerator and a brake pedal has been specifically designed to be used with MEG. Attentional demand has been modulated using a radio broadcast. During half of the driving scenarios, subjects could ignore the broadcast (simple task, ST) and during the other half, they had to actively listen to it in order to answer 3 questions (dual task, DT). Evoked magnetic responses were computed in both conditions separately for two visual stimuli of interest: traffic lights (from green to amber) and direction signs (arrows to the right or to the left) shown on boards. The cortical sources of these activities have been estimated using a minimum-norm current estimates modeling technique. Results show the activation of a large distributed network similar in ST and DT and similar for both the traffic lights and the direction signs. This network mainly involves sensory visual areas as well as parietal and frontal regions known to play a role in selective attention and motor areas. The increase of attentional demand affects the neuronal processing of relevant visual information for driving, as early as the perceptual stage. By demonstrating the feasibility of recording MEG activity during an interactive simulated driving task, this study opens new possibilities for investigating issues regarding drivers' activity.

  3. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams.

    PubMed

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.

  4. Is Information Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  5. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  6. Normalized medical information visualization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  7. Visualizing Qualitative Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

  8. Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot (CoRLEGO): The motor system guides visual attention to movement-relevant information.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Soeren; Woodgate, Philip J W; Sami, Saber A; Heinke, Dietmar

    2015-12-01

    We present an extension of a neurobiologically inspired robotics model, termed CoRLEGO (Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot). CoRLEGO models experimental evidence from choice reaching tasks (CRT). In a CRT participants are asked to rapidly reach and touch an item presented on the screen. These experiments show that non-target items can divert the reaching movement away from the ideal trajectory to the target item. This is seen as evidence attentional selection of reaching targets can leak into the motor system. Using competitive target selection and topological representations of motor parameters (dynamic neural fields) CoRLEGO is able to mimic this leakage effect. Furthermore if the reaching target is determined by its colour oddity (i.e. a green square among red squares or vice versa), the reaching trajectories become straighter with repetitions of the target colour (colour streaks). This colour priming effect can also be modelled with CoRLEGO. The paper also presents an extension of CoRLEGO. This extension mimics findings that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex modulates the colour priming effect (Woodgate et al., 2015). The results with the new CoRLEGO suggest that feedback connections from the motor system to the brain's attentional system (parietal cortex) guide visual attention to extract movement-relevant information (i.e. colour) from visual stimuli. This paper adds to growing evidence that there is a close interaction between the motor system and the attention system. This evidence contradicts the traditional conceptualization of the motor system as the endpoint of a serial chain of processing stages. At the end of the paper we discuss CoRLEGO's predictions and also lessons for neurobiologically inspired robotics emerging from this work.

  9. Science information systems: Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Ray J.

    1991-01-01

    Future programs in earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics will involve complex instruments that produce data at unprecedented rates and volumes. Current methods for data display, exploration, and discovery are inadequate. Visualization technology offers a means for the user to comprehend, explore, and examine complex data sets. The goal of this program is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of scientists in extracting scientific information from large volumes of instrument data.

  10. Information efficiency in visual communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the quantization process in the context of the end-to-end performance of the visual-communication channel. Results show that the trade-off between data transmission and visual quality revolves around the information in the acquired signal, not around its energy. Improved information efficiency is gained by frequency dependent quantization that maintains the information capacity of the channel and reduces the entropy of the encoded signal. Restorations with energy bit-allocation lose both in sharpness and clarity relative to restorations with information bit-allocation. Thus, quantization with information bit-allocation is preferred for high information efficiency and visual quality in optimized visual communication.

  11. Finding Relevant Items: Attentional Guidance Improves Visual Selection Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, Sonja; Hild, Isabella; Wiesbeck, Mathey; Zaeh, Michael F.; Schubö, Anna

    In daily life and at work people are confronted with complex information. Especially elderly or disabled users might be overburdened by the amount of information and distracted by irrelevant items. Due to this, they possibly fail to find and select relevant items in visual search. This could be demotivating for the use of media like the internet or could result in an inability to achieve certain job requirements. A method for supporting performance in visual search tasks is the guidance of attention. The present study compares different methods for attentional guidance. Results show a benefit for peripheral exogenous cues realized as luminance changes in comparison to endogenous central cues. Possible applications for the proposed attentional guidance method are discussed.

  12. Task-relevant information is prioritized in spatiotemporal contextual cueing.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yoko; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Hirokazu; Saiki, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.

  13. Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James J.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

  14. Neural correlates for task-relevant facilitation of visual inputs during visually-guided hand movements.

    PubMed

    Lebar, Nicolas; Bernier, Pierre-Michel; Guillaume, Alain; Mouchnino, Laurence; Blouin, Jean

    2015-11-01

    response to visual inputs but increased the latencies of the responses in the occipital, temporal, and parietal regions. However, the HP group showed cortical responses that largely differed from those displayed by the LP group. Specifically, the HP group demonstrated movement-related increases of visual sensitivity in regions of the visual cortex that were not observed in the LP group. These increased responses to visual inputs were evidenced in the posterior inferior parietal, temporal-occipital, and inferior-temporal regions. Overall, our results are in line with the assertion that increasing the sensitivity to visual inputs serves to promote relevant visual information for the different processes involved during visually-guided hand movements. Our results also suggest that maintaining accurate hand tracing movements in the presence of discrepant visual and somatosensory feedback requires additional perceptual and spatial information processing that is tightly linked to visual inputs.

  15. A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

  16. Visual representation of scientific information.

    PubMed

    Wong, Bang

    2011-02-15

    Great technological advances have enabled researchers to generate an enormous amount of data. Data analysis is replacing data generation as the rate-limiting step in scientific research. With this wealth of information, we have an opportunity to understand the molecular causes of human diseases. However, the unprecedented scale, resolution, and variety of data pose new analytical challenges. Visual representation of data offers insights that can lead to new understanding, whether the purpose is analysis or communication. This presentation shows how art, design, and traditional illustration can enable scientific discovery. Examples will be drawn from the Broad Institute's Data Visualization Initiative, aimed at establishing processes for creating informative visualization models.

  17. Information Visualization for Biological Data.

    PubMed

    Czauderna, Tobias; Schreiber, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Visualization is a powerful method to present and explore a large amount of data. It is increasingly important in the life sciences and is used for analyzing different types of biological data, such as structural information, high-throughput data, and biochemical networks. This chapter gives a brief introduction to visualization methods for bioinformatics, presents two commonly used techniques in detail, and discusses a graphical standard for biological networks and cellular processes.

  18. Information measures for terrain visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaventura, Xavier; Sima, Aleksandra A.; Feixas, Miquel; Buckley, Simon J.; Sbert, Mateu; Howell, John A.

    2017-02-01

    Many quantitative and qualitative studies in geoscience research are based on digital elevation models (DEMs) and 3D surfaces to aid understanding of natural and anthropogenically-influenced topography. As well as their quantitative uses, the visual representation of DEMs can add valuable information for identifying and interpreting topographic features. However, choice of viewpoints and rendering styles may not always be intuitive, especially when terrain data are augmented with digital image texture. In this paper, an information-theoretic framework for object understanding is applied to terrain visualization and terrain view selection. From a visibility channel between a set of viewpoints and the component polygons of a 3D terrain model, we obtain three polygonal information measures. These measures are used to visualize the information associated with each polygon of the terrain model. In order to enhance the perception of the terrain's shape, we explore the effect of combining the calculated information measures with the supplementary digital image texture. From polygonal information, we also introduce a method to select a set of representative views of the terrain model. Finally, we evaluate the behaviour of the proposed techniques using example datasets. A publicly available framework for both the visualization and the view selection of a terrain has been created in order to provide the possibility to analyse any terrain model.

  19. Making Information Visual: Seventh Grade Art Information and Visual Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Joel; Schau, Elizabeth; Ayers, Rachael

    2008-01-01

    Seventh grade students entering South East Junior High in Iowa City come from eight elementary feeder schools, as well as from schools around the world. Their information literacy skills and knowledge of reference sources vary, but since all seventh graders and new eighth graders are required to take one trimester of Visual Studies, all entering…

  20. Mobile medical visual information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Duc, Samuel; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose mobile access to peer-reviewed medical information based on textual search and content-based visual image retrieval. Web-based interfaces designed for limited screen space were developed to query via web services a medical information retrieval engine optimizing the amount of data to be transferred in wireless form. Visual and textual retrieval engines with state-of-the-art performance were integrated. Results obtained show a good usability of the software. Future use in clinical environments has the potential of increasing quality of patient care through bedside access to the medical literature in context.

  1. Priming by the variability of visual information

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This “priming by variance” phenomenon occurred with prime–target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visual information, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visual information is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice. PMID:24821803

  2. Can Visualizing Document Space Improve Users' Information Foraging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Min

    1998-01-01

    This study shows how users access relevant information in a visualized document space and determine whether BiblioMapper, a visualization tool, strengthens an information retrieval (IR) system and makes it more usable. BiblioMapper, developed for a CISI collection, was evaluated by accuracy, time, and user satisfaction. Users' navigation…

  3. Stimulus relevance modulates contrast adaptation in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Andreas J; Houlton, Rachael; Kampa, Björn M; Lesica, Nicholas A; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D; Keller, Georg B; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2017-01-01

    A general principle of sensory processing is that neurons adapt to sustained stimuli by reducing their response over time. Most of our knowledge on adaptation in single cells is based on experiments in anesthetized animals. How responses adapt in awake animals, when stimuli may be behaviorally relevant or not, remains unclear. Here we show that contrast adaptation in mouse primary visual cortex depends on the behavioral relevance of the stimulus. Cells that adapted to contrast under anesthesia maintained or even increased their activity in awake naïve mice. When engaged in a visually guided task, contrast adaptation re-occurred for stimuli that were irrelevant for solving the task. However, contrast adaptation was reversed when stimuli acquired behavioral relevance. Regulation of cortical adaptation by task demand may allow dynamic control of sensory-evoked signal flow in the neocortex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21589.001 PMID:28130922

  4. Visual-textual joint relevance learning for tag-based social image search.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Wang, Meng; Zha, Zheng-Jun; Shen, Jialie; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong

    2013-01-01

    Due to the popularity of social media websites, extensive research efforts have been dedicated to tag-based social image search. Both visual information and tags have been investigated in the research field. However, most existing methods use tags and visual characteristics either separately or sequentially in order to estimate the relevance of images. In this paper, we propose an approach that simultaneously utilizes both visual and textual information to estimate the relevance of user tagged images. The relevance estimation is determined with a hypergraph learning approach. In this method, a social image hypergraph is constructed, where vertices represent images and hyperedges represent visual or textual terms. Learning is achieved with use of a set of pseudo-positive images, where the weights of hyperedges are updated throughout the learning process. In this way, the impact of different tags and visual words can be automatically modulated. Comparative results of the experiments conducted on a dataset including 370+images are presented, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. The Research Uses of Visual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jussim, Estelle

    1977-01-01

    Visual information is not yet in common usage among librarians. It is hoped that the term will be adopted by the information profession at large as new areas of research develop which depend largely on nonverbal documents. A decision must be made as to which forms of visual information will be needed for--scholarly and scientific use. (Author/AP)

  6. Task relevance induces momentary changes in the functional visual field during reading.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, Johanna K; Hyönä, Jukka

    2014-02-01

    In the research reported here, we examined whether task demands can induce momentary tunnel vision during reading. More specifically, we examined whether the size of the functional visual field depends on task relevance. Forty participants read an expository text with a specific task in mind while their eye movements were recorded. A display-change paradigm with random-letter strings as preview masks was used to study the size of the functional visual field within sentences that contained task-relevant and task-irrelevant information. The results showed that orthographic parafoveal-on-foveal effects and preview benefits were observed for words within task-irrelevant but not task-relevant sentences. The results indicate that the size of the functional visual field is flexible and depends on the momentary processing demands of a reading task. The higher cognitive processing requirements experienced when reading task-relevant text rather than task-irrelevant text induce momentary tunnel vision, which narrows the functional visual field.

  7. Processing Of Visual Information In Primate Brains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Van Essen, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.

  8. The shaping of information by visual metaphors.

    PubMed

    Ziemkiewicz, Caroline; Kosara, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The nature of an information visualization can be considered to lie in the visual metaphors it uses to structure information. The process of understanding a visualization therefore involves an interaction between these external visual metaphors and the user's internal knowledge representations. To investigate this claim, we conducted an experiment to test the effects of visual metaphor and verbal metaphor on the understanding of tree visualizations. Participants answered simple data comprehension questions while viewing either a treemap or a node-link diagram. Questions were worded to reflect a verbal metaphor that was either compatible or incompatible with the visualization a participant was using. The results (based on correctness and response time) suggest that the visual metaphor indeed affects how a user derives information from a visualization. Additionally, we found that the degree to which a user is affected by the metaphor is strongly correlated with the user's ability to answer task questions correctly. These findings are a first step towards illuminating how visual metaphors shape user understanding, and have significant implications for the evaluation, application, and theory of visualization.

  9. Discrimination of Visual Categories Based on Behavioral Relevance in Widespread Regions of Frontoparietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, John

    2015-01-01

    Allocating attentional resources to currently relevant information in a dynamically changing environment is critical to goal-directed behavior. Previous studies in nonhuman primates (NHPs) have demonstrated modulation of neural representations of stimuli, in particular visual categorizations, by behavioral significance in the lateral prefrontal cortex. In the human brain, a network of frontal and parietal regions, the “multiple demand” (MD) system, is involved in cognitive and attentional control. To test for the effect of behavioral significance on categorical discrimination in the MD system in humans, we adapted a previously used task in the NHP and used multivoxel pattern analysis for fMRI data. In a cued-detection categorization task, participants detected whether an image from one of two target visual categories was present in a display. Our results revealed that categorical discrimination is modulated by behavioral relevance, as measured by the distributed pattern of response across the MD network. Distinctions between categories with different behavioral status (e.g., a target and a nontarget) were significantly discriminated. Category distinctions that were not behaviorally relevant (e.g., between two targets) were not discriminated. Other aspects of the task that were orthogonal to the behavioral decision did not modulate categorical discrimination. In a high visual region, the lateral occipital complex, modulation by behavioral relevance was evident in its posterior subregion but not in the anterior subregion. The results are consistent with the view of the MD system as involved in top-down attentional and cognitive control by selective coding of task-relevant discriminations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Control of cognitive demands fundamentally involves flexible allocation of attentional resources depending on a current behavioral context. Essential to such a mechanism is the ability to select currently relevant information and at the same time filter

  10. The Extraction of Information From Visual Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    This research sought to distinguish among three concepts of visual persistence by substituting the physical presence of the target stimulus while simultaneously inhibiting the formation of a persisting representation. Reportability of information about the stimuli was compared to a condition in which visual persistence was allowed to fully develop…

  11. Information, entropy and fidelity in visual communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  12. Testing the idea of privileged awareness of self-relevant information.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Siebold, Alisha; van Zoest, Wieske

    2016-03-01

    Self-relevant information is prioritized in processing. Some have suggested the mechanism driving this advantage is akin to the automatic prioritization of physically salient stimuli in information processing (Humphreys & Sui, 2015). Here we investigate whether self-relevant information is prioritized for awareness under continuous flash suppression (CFS), as has been found for physical salience. Gabor patches with different orientations were first associated with the labels You or Other. Participants were more accurate in matching the self-relevant association, replicating previous findings of self-prioritization. However, breakthrough into awareness from CFS did not differ between self- and other-associated Gabors. These findings demonstrate that self-relevant information has no privileged access to awareness. Rather than modulating the initial visual processes that precede and lead to awareness, the advantage of self-relevant information may better be characterized as prioritization at later processing stages.

  13. Novel Scientific Visualization Interfaces for Interactive Information Visualization and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2012-12-01

    As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and

  14. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  15. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  16. Framework for an Information Visualization System

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, John; Dowson, Scott; Hatley, Wes

    2006-08-11

    The Program is a suite of Windows-based software applications and services for ingesting, storing, and analyzing large quantities of disparate inforamtion. The software supports the ingestion and storage of any information that can be represented in eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. Stored information can be subsequently retrieved via search operations, then "visualized" in multiple ways using a client application that supports a variety of analytical functions. Visualization capabilities include tools for depicting a variety of relationships that may be present in the information, including geospatial, temporal, topical, categorical, and network relationships.

  17. Adaptive information interactive mechanism for multi-UAV visual navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-06-01

    Multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) cooperative communication for visual navigation has recently generated significant concern. It has large amounts of visual information to be transmitted and processed among UAVs with realtime requirements. And the UAV clusters have self-organized, time-varying and high dynamic characteristics. Considering the above conditions, we propose an adaptive information interactive mechanism (AIIM) for multi-UAV visual navigation. In the mechanism, the function modules for UAV inter-communication interface are designed, the mobility-based link lifetime is established and the information interactive protocol is presented. Thus we combine the mobility of UAVs with the corresponding communication requirements to make effective information interaction for UAVs. Task-oriented distributed control is adopted to improve the collaboration flexibility in the multi-UAV visual navigation system. In order to timely obtain the necessary visual information, each UAV can cooperate with other relevant UAVs which meet some certain terms such as situation, task or environmental conditions. Simulation results are presented to show the validity of the proposed mechanism in terms of end-to-end delay and links stability.

  18. Why relevant chemical information cannot be exchanged without disclosing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, Dmitry; Poroikov, Vladimir

    2005-09-01

    Both society and industry are interested in increasing the safety of pharmaceuticals. Potentially dangerous compounds could be filtered out at early stages of R&D by computer prediction of biological activity and ADMET characteristics. Accuracy of such predictions strongly depends on the quality & quantity of information contained in a training set. Suggestion that some relevant chemical information can be added to such training sets without disclosing chemical structures was generated at the recent ACS Symposium. We presented arguments that such safety exchange of relevant chemical information is impossible. Any relevant information about chemical structures can be used for search of either a particular compound itself or its close analogues. Risk of identifying such structures is enough to prevent pharma industry from relevant chemical information exchange.

  19. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  20. Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

  1. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  2. Software Helps Retrieve Information Relevant to the User

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James

    2003-01-01

    The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.

  3. Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

  4. Information visualization of the minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Herbert, R. D.; Webber, R.

    2008-02-01

    Many dynamical systems produce large quantities of data. How can the system be understood from the output data? Often people are simply overwhelmed by the data. Traditional tools such as tables and plots are often not adequate, and new techniques are needed to help people to analyze the system. In this paper, we propose the use of two spacefilling visualization tools to examine the output from a complex agent-based financial model. We measure the effectiveness and performance of these tools through usability experiments. Based on the experimental results, we develop two new visualization techniques that combine the advantages and discard the disadvantages of the information visualization tools. The model we use is an evolutionary version of the Minority Game which simulates a financial market.

  5. Visual communication - Information and fidelity. [of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.

  6. Mathematically-Relevant Input during Play of a Caregiver with a Visual Impairment and Her Toddler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanne; Kotsopoulos, Donna; Stordy, Caryl-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated play between two caregivers, one with a visual impairment, and their 15-month-old daughter. The mother has a visual impairment. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences in mathematically-relevant input by comparing the 30-min naturalistic play session conducted separately between the mother-daughter and the…

  7. Proactive Support of Internet Browsing when Searching for Relevant Health Information.

    PubMed

    Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend.

  8. Preattentive Processing of Numerical Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Philipp N.; Schmitt, Constanze; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Bremmer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Humans can perceive and estimate approximate numerical information, even when accurate counting is impossible e.g., due to short presentation time. If the number of objects to be estimated is small, typically around 1–4 items, observers are able to give very fast and precise judgments with high confidence—an effect that is called subitizing. Due to its speed and effortless nature subitizing has usually been assumed to be preattentive, putting it into the same category as other low level visual features like color or orientation. More recently, however, a number of studies have suggested that subitizing might be dependent on attentional resources. In our current study we investigated the potentially preattentive nature of visual numerical perception in the subitizing range by means of EEG. We presented peripheral, task irrelevant sequences of stimuli consisting of a certain number of circular patches while participants were engaged in a demanding, non-numerical detection task at the fixation point drawing attention away from the number stimuli. Within a sequence of stimuli of a given number of patches (called “standards”) we interspersed some stimuli of different numerosity (“oddballs”). We compared the evoked responses to visually identical stimuli that had been presented in two different conditions, serving as standard in one condition and as oddball in the other. We found significant visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) responses over parieto-occipital electrodes. In addition to the event-related potential (ERP) analysis, we performed a time-frequency analysis (TFA) to investigate whether the vMMN was accompanied by additional oscillatory processes. We found a concurrent increase in evoked theta power of similar strength over both hemispheres. Our results provide clear evidence for a preattentive processing of numerical visual information in the subitizing range. PMID:28261078

  9. Preattentive Processing of Numerical Visual Information.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Philipp N; Schmitt, Constanze; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Bremmer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Humans can perceive and estimate approximate numerical information, even when accurate counting is impossible e.g., due to short presentation time. If the number of objects to be estimated is small, typically around 1-4 items, observers are able to give very fast and precise judgments with high confidence-an effect that is called subitizing. Due to its speed and effortless nature subitizing has usually been assumed to be preattentive, putting it into the same category as other low level visual features like color or orientation. More recently, however, a number of studies have suggested that subitizing might be dependent on attentional resources. In our current study we investigated the potentially preattentive nature of visual numerical perception in the subitizing range by means of EEG. We presented peripheral, task irrelevant sequences of stimuli consisting of a certain number of circular patches while participants were engaged in a demanding, non-numerical detection task at the fixation point drawing attention away from the number stimuli. Within a sequence of stimuli of a given number of patches (called "standards") we interspersed some stimuli of different numerosity ("oddballs"). We compared the evoked responses to visually identical stimuli that had been presented in two different conditions, serving as standard in one condition and as oddball in the other. We found significant visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) responses over parieto-occipital electrodes. In addition to the event-related potential (ERP) analysis, we performed a time-frequency analysis (TFA) to investigate whether the vMMN was accompanied by additional oscillatory processes. We found a concurrent increase in evoked theta power of similar strength over both hemispheres. Our results provide clear evidence for a preattentive processing of numerical visual information in the subitizing range.

  10. Natural brain-information interfaces: Recommending information by relevance inferred from human brain signals

    PubMed Central

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M.; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user’s interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their EEG was recorded. Based on the prediction of word relevance, the individual’s search intent was modeled and successfully used for retrieving new relevant documents from the whole English Wikipedia corpus. The results show that the users’ interests toward digital content can be modeled from the brain signals evoked by reading. The introduced brain-relevance paradigm enables the recommendation of information without any explicit user interaction and may be applied across diverse information-intensive applications. PMID:27929077

  11. Natural brain-information interfaces: Recommending information by relevance inferred from human brain signals.

    PubMed

    Eugster, Manuel J A; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel

    2016-12-08

    Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user's interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their EEG was recorded. Based on the prediction of word relevance, the individual's search intent was modeled and successfully used for retrieving new relevant documents from the whole English Wikipedia corpus. The results show that the users' interests toward digital content can be modeled from the brain signals evoked by reading. The introduced brain-relevance paradigm enables the recommendation of information without any explicit user interaction and may be applied across diverse information-intensive applications.

  12. Natural brain-information interfaces: Recommending information by relevance inferred from human brain signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M.; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel

    2016-12-01

    Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user’s interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their EEG was recorded. Based on the prediction of word relevance, the individual’s search intent was modeled and successfully used for retrieving new relevant documents from the whole English Wikipedia corpus. The results show that the users’ interests toward digital content can be modeled from the brain signals evoked by reading. The introduced brain-relevance paradigm enables the recommendation of information without any explicit user interaction and may be applied across diverse information-intensive applications.

  13. Environmental information system for visualizing environmental impact assessment information.

    PubMed

    Cserny, Angelika; Kovács, Zsófia; Domokos, Endre; Rédey, Akos

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Engineering at the University of Pannonia has undertaken the challenge to develop an online environmental information system. This system is able to receive and process the collected environmental data via Internet. The authors have attached importance to the presentation of the data and have included other comprehensible information for laymen as well in order to work out visualisation techniques that are expressive and attract attention for environmental questions through the developed information system. The ways of visualizing physical and chemical parameters of surface water and the effects of motorway construction were examined.

  14. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  15. Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Park, Stephen K. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the NASA conference on Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics. The conference was held at the Williamsburg Hilton, Williamsburg, Virginia on May 10 to 12, 1989. The conference was sponsored jointly by NASA Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and Space Science and Applications (OSSA) and the NASA Langley Research Center. The presentations were grouped into three sessions: Image Gathering, Coding, and Advanced Concepts; Systems; and Technologies. The program was organized to provide a forum in which researchers from industry, universities, and government could be brought together to discuss the state of knowledge in image gathering, coding, and processing methods.

  16. Informal interprofessional learning: visualizing the clinical workplace.

    PubMed

    Wagter, Judith Martine; van de Bunt, Gerhard; Honing, Marina; Eckenhausen, Marina; Scherpbier, Albert

    2012-05-01

    Daily collaboration of senior doctors, residents and nurses involves a major potential for sharing knowledge between professionals. Therefore, more attention needs to be paid to informal learning to create strategies and appropriate conditions for enhancing and effectuating informal learning in the workplace. The aim of this study is to visualize and describe patterns of informal interprofessional learning relations among staff in complex care. Questionnaires with four network questions - recognized as indicators of informal learning in the clinical workplace - were handed out to intensive and medium care unit (ICU/MCU) staff members (N = 108), of which 77% were completed and returned. Data were analyzed using social network analysis and Mokken scale analysis. Densities, tie strength and reciprocity of the four networks created show MCU and ICU nurses as subgroups within the ward and reveal central but relatively one-sided relations of senior doctors with nurses and residents. Based on the analyses, we formulated a scale of intensity of informal learning relations that can be used to understand and stimulate informal interprofessional learning.

  17. A content relevance model for social media health information.

    PubMed

    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.

  18. Multimedia, visual computing, and the information superhighway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitson, Frederick L.

    1996-04-01

    The data types of graphics, images, audio and video or collectively multimedia are becoming standard components of most computer interfaces and applications. Medical imaging in particular will be able to exploit these capabilities in concert with the database engines or 'information furnaces' that will exist as part of the information superhighway. The ability to connect experts with patients electronically enables care delivery from remote diagnostics to remote surgery. Traditional visual computing tasks such as MRI, volume rendering, computer vision or image processing may also be available to more clinics and researchers as they become 'electronically local.' Video is the component of multimedia that provides the greatest sense of presence or visual realism yet has been the most difficult to offer digitally due to its high transmission, storage and computation requirements. Advanced 3D graphics have also been a scarce or at least expensive resource. This paper addresses some of the recent innovations in media processing and client/server technology that will facilitate PCs, workstations or even set-top/TV boxes to process both video and graphics in real-time.

  19. Acoustic-tactile rendering of visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pubudu Madhawa; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Atkins, Joshua; West, James E.; Hartmann, William M.

    2012-03-01

    In previous work, we have proposed a dynamic, interactive system for conveying visual information via hearing and touch. The system is implemented with a touch screen that allows the user to interrogate a two-dimensional (2-D) object layout by active finger scanning while listening to spatialized auditory feedback. Sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used both for pointing and for kinesthetic feedback. Our previous work considered shape and size perception of simple objects via hearing and touch. The focus of this paper is on the perception of a 2-D layout of simple objects with identical size and shape. We consider the selection and rendition of sounds for object identification and localization. We rely on the head-related transfer function for rendering sound directionality, and consider variations of sound intensity and tempo as two alternative approaches for rendering proximity. Subjective experiments with visually-blocked subjects are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Our results indicate that intensity outperforms tempo as a proximity cue, and that the overall system for conveying a 2-D layout is quite promising.

  20. Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…

  1. A Notation for Rapid Specification of Information Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Yun

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a notation for rapid specification of information visualization, which can be used as a theoretical framework of integrating various types of information visualization, and its applications at a conceptual level. The notation is devised to codify the major characteristics of data/visual structures in conventionally-used…

  2. Information integration: its relevance to brain function and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tononi, G

    2010-09-01

    A proper understanding of cognitive functions cannot be achieved without an understanding of consciousness, both at the empirical and at the theoretical level. This paper argues that consciousness has to do with a system's capacity for information integration. In this approach, every causal mechanism capable of choosing among alternatives generates information, and information is integrated to the extent that it is generated by a system above and beyond its parts. The set of integrated informational relationships generated by a complex of mechanisms--its quale--specify both the quantity and the quality of experience. As argued below, depending on the causal structure of a system, information integration can reach a maximum value at a particular spatial and temporal grain size. It is also argued that changes in information integration reflect a system's ability to match the causal structure of the world, both on the input and the output side. After a brief review suggesting that this approach is consistent with several experimental and clinical observations, the paper concludes with some prospective remarks about the relevance of understanding information integration for analyzing cognitive function, both normal and pathological.

  3. Visual information about object size and object position are retained differently in the visual brain: Evidence from grasping studies.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Constanze; Miller, Louisa; Buckingham, Gavin

    2016-10-01

    Many experiments have examined how the visual information used for action control is represented in our brain, and whether or not visually-guided and memory-guided hand movements rely on dissociable visual representations that are processed in different brain areas (dorsal vs. ventral). However, little is known about how these representations decay over longer time periods and whether or not different visual properties are retained in a similar fashion. In three experiments we investigated how information about object size and object position affect grasping as visual memory demands increase. We found that position information decayed rapidly with increasing delays between viewing the object and initiating subsequent actions - impacting both the accuracy of the transport component (lower end-point accuracy) and the grasp component (larger grip apertures) of the movement. In contrast, grip apertures and fingertip forces remained well-adjusted to target size in conditions in which positional information was either irrelevant or provided, regardless of delay, indicating that object size is encoded in a more stable manner than object position. The findings provide evidence that different grasp-relevant properties are encoded differently by the visual system. Furthermore, we argue that caution is required when making inferences about object size representations based on alterations in the grip component as these variations are confounded with the accuracy with which object position is represented. Instead fingertip forces seem to provide a reliable and confound-free measure to assess internal size estimations in conditions of increased visual uncertainty.

  4. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements.

  5. Hierarchical aggregation for information visualization: overview, techniques, and design guidelines.

    PubMed

    Elmqvist, Niklas; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present a model for building, visualizing, and interacting with multiscale representations of information visualization techniques using hierarchical aggregation. The motivation for this work is to make visual representations more visually scalable and less cluttered. The model allows for augmenting existing techniques with multiscale functionality, as well as for designing new visualization and interaction techniques that conform to this new class of visual representations. We give some examples of how to use the model for standard information visualization techniques such as scatterplots, parallel coordinates, and node-link diagrams, and discuss existing techniques that are based on hierarchical aggregation. This yields a set of design guidelines for aggregated visualizations. We also present a basic vocabulary of interaction techniques suitable for navigating these multiscale visualizations.

  6. Visual Information Literacy: Reading a Documentary Photograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Like a printed text, an architectural blueprint, a mathematical equation, or a musical score, a visual image is its own language. Visual literacy has three components: (1) learning; (2) thinking; and (3) communicating. A "literate" person is able to decipher the basic code and syntax, interpret the signs and symbols, correctly apply terms from an…

  7. Visual information, sparse decomposition, and transmission for multi- UAV visual navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, visual navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been an active area of research. There is a large amount of visual information to be processed and transmitted with real-time requirements for the flight scenes change rapidly. However, it has already become one of the major factors that block the cooperative communication in multi-UAV visual navigation. The traditional video image orthogonal decomposition methods can not be well adapted to the multi-UAV visual navigation system, because with the compression ratio increases, there is a sharp decline in video image quality. This paper proposes a novel visual information sparse decomposition and transmission (VSDT) framework for multi-UAV visual navigation. In the framework, aiming at the visual information characteristics, firstly we pre-process the video images by introducing a multi-scale visual information acquisition mechanism. Then a fast video image sparse decomposition is made for transmission. It can greatly reduce the original video information amount, while the quality of visual information needed for navigation is guaranteed. Finally, based on data correlations and feature matching, a real-time transmission scheme is designed to make the receiver UAV can quickly reconstruct the flight scene information for navigation. The simulated results are presented and discussed. The main advantage of this framework lies in the ability to reduce the visual information transmission amount while ensuring the quality of visual information needed for navigation and solve the cooperative communication problems such as information lag, data conjunction and match error often encountered in multi-UAV visual navigation environment.

  8. Visual face-movement sensitive cortex is relevant for auditory-only speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Philipp; Ragert, Patrick; Schelinski, Stefanie; Kiebel, Stefan J; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the recruitment of visual areas during audition is not relevant for performing auditory tasks ('auditory-only view'). According to an alternative view, however, the recruitment of visual cortices is thought to optimize auditory-only task performance ('auditory-visual view'). This alternative view is based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. These studies have shown, for example, that even if there is only auditory input available, face-movement sensitive areas within the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) are involved in understanding what is said (auditory-only speech recognition). This is particularly the case when speakers are known audio-visually, that is, after brief voice-face learning. Here we tested whether the left pSTS involvement is causally related to performance in auditory-only speech recognition when speakers are known by face. To test this hypothesis, we applied cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the pSTS during (i) visual-only speech recognition of a speaker known only visually to participants and (ii) auditory-only speech recognition of speakers they learned by voice and face. We defined the cathode as active electrode to down-regulate cortical excitability by hyperpolarization of neurons. tDCS to the pSTS interfered with visual-only speech recognition performance compared to a control group without pSTS stimulation (tDCS to BA6/44 or sham). Critically, compared to controls, pSTS stimulation additionally decreased auditory-only speech recognition performance selectively for voice-face learned speakers. These results are important in two ways. First, they provide direct evidence that the pSTS is causally involved in visual-only speech recognition; this confirms a long-standing prediction of current face-processing models. Secondly, they show that visual face-sensitive pSTS is causally involved in optimizing auditory-only speech recognition. These results are in line

  9. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy Through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-04-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.

  10. 32 CFR 811.2 - Release of visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of visual information materials. 811.2 Section 811.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.2 Release of...

  11. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selling visual information materials. 811.4 Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.4 Selling...

  12. On the assessment of visual communication by information theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication integrates the optical design of the image-gathering device with the digital processing for image coding and restoration. Results show that informationally optimized image gathering ordinarily can be relied upon to maximize the information efficiency of decorrelated data and the visual quality of optimally restored images.

  13. Divided attention selectively impairs memory for self-relevant information.

    PubMed

    Turk, David J; Brady-van den Bos, Mirjam; Collard, Philip; Gillespie-Smith, Karri; Conway, Martin A; Cunningham, Sheila J

    2013-05-01

    Information that is relevant to oneself tends to be remembered more than information that relates to other people, but the role of attention in eliciting this "self-reference effect" is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the importance of attention in self-referential encoding using an ownership paradigm, which required participants to encode items under conditions of imagined ownership by themselves or by another person. Previous work has established that this paradigm elicits a robust self-reference effect, with more "self-owned" items being remembered than "other-owned" items. Access to attentional resources was manipulated using divided-attention tasks at encoding. A significant self-reference effect emerged under full-attention conditions and was related to an increase in episodic recollection for self-owned items, but dividing attention eliminated this memory advantage. These findings are discussed in relation to the nature of self-referential cognition and the importance of attentional resources at encoding in the manifestation of the self-reference effect in memory.

  14. Illustrative Visualization Techniques for Hurricane Advisory Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    scientific visualization. Although they studied many oil paintings from the Impressionist period, most of the techniques developed are based on...studied oil paintings from Impressionist artists to find effective methods to encode multiple variables in a single display. More specifically, their...they apply paint pigment to a canvas. Healey and his colleagues tested their visualization techniques in a system that displays monthly weather

  15. Relevant information retrieval and fusion of anatomic, physiologic, and metabolic neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erberich, Stephan G.; Nielsen, Jon F.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Bluml, Stefan; Seri, Istvan; Nelson, Marvin D.

    2005-04-01

    MRI Neuroimaging provides a rich source of image content including structural (MRI, Diffusion DTI), functional (fMRI, Perfusion ASL), and metabolic (MRS) information. Today MRI capabilities allow to acquire these imaging techniques in one session in most cases. In order to be of diagnostic value, the immense and diverse data needs to be (i) automatically post-processed to extract the relevant information, e.g. 3D brain maps from 4D fMRI, and to be (ii) fused and visualized to correlate the voxel-based findings. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of automatic relevant information retrieval and fusion of MRI, fMRI, DTI, ASL, and MRS data of a pediatric population into a single semantic data representation. By using advanced imaging, we may able to detect a larger spectrum of abnormalities in the neonatal brain. Each imaging application, provides unique information about the physiology (fMRI, ASL), the anatomy (DTI), and the biochemistry (MRS) of the newborn brain in relation to normal development and brain injury. By being able to integrate this technology, we will be able to combine biochemical, physiologic and anatomic information which can provide unique insight about not only the normal development of the brain, but also injury of the neonatal brain.

  16. Use of visual information in speech perception: evidence for a visual rate effect both with and without a McGurk effect.

    PubMed

    Brancazio, Lawrence; Miller, Joanne L

    2005-07-01

    The McGurk effect, where an incongruent visual syllable influences identification of an auditory syllable, does not always occur, suggesting that perceivers sometimes fail to use relevant visual phonetic information. We tested whether another visual phonetic effect, which involves the influence of visual speaking rate on perceived voicing (Green & Miller, 1985), would occur in instances when the McGurk effect does not. In Experiment 1, we established this visual rate effect using auditory and visual stimuli matching in place of articulation, finding a shift in the voicing boundary along an auditory voice-onset-time continuum with fast versus slow visual speech tokens. In Experiment 2, we used auditory and visual stimuli differing in place of articulation and found a shift in the voicing boundary due to visual rate when the McGurk effect occurred and, more critically, when it did not. The latter finding indicates that phonetically relevant visual information is used in speech perception even when the McGurk effect does not occur, suggesting that the incidence of the McGurk effect underestimates the extent of audio-visual integration.

  17. Experience and information loss in auditory and visual memory.

    PubMed

    Gloede, Michele E; Paulauskas, Emily E; Gregg, Melissa K

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies show that recognition memory for sounds is inferior to memory for pictures. Four experiments were conducted to examine the nature of auditory and visual memory. Experiments 1-3 were conducted to evaluate the role of experience in auditory and visual memory. Participants received a study phase with pictures/sounds, followed by a recognition memory test. Participants then completed auditory training with each of the sounds, followed by a second memory test. Despite auditory training in Experiments 1 and 2, visual memory was superior to auditory memory. In Experiment 3, we found that it is possible to improve auditory memory, but only after 3 days of specific auditory training and 3 days of visual memory decay. We examined the time course of information loss in auditory and visual memory in Experiment 4 and found a trade-off between visual and auditory recognition memory: Visual memory appears to have a larger capacity, while auditory memory is more enduring. Our results indicate that visual and auditory memory are inherently different memory systems and that differences in visual and auditory recognition memory performance may be due to the different amounts of experience with visual and auditory information, as well as structurally different neural circuitry specialized for information retention.

  18. An information-theoretic framework for flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijie; Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The process of visualization can be seen as a visual communication channel where the input to the channel is the raw data, and the output is the result of a visualization algorithm. From this point of view, we can evaluate the effectiveness of visualization by measuring how much information in the original data is being communicated through the visual communication channel. In this paper, we present an information-theoretic framework for flow visualization with a special focus on streamline generation. In our framework, a vector field is modeled as a distribution of directions from which Shannon's entropy is used to measure the information content in the field. The effectiveness of the streamlines displayed in visualization can be measured by first constructing a new distribution of vectors derived from the existing streamlines, and then comparing this distribution with that of the original data set using the conditional entropy. The conditional entropy between these two distributions indicates how much information in the original data remains hidden after the selected streamlines are displayed. The quality of the visualization can be improved by progressively introducing new streamlines until the conditional entropy converges to a small value. We describe the key components of our framework with detailed analysis, and show that the framework can effectively visualize 2D and 3D flow data.

  19. Data Visualization in Information Retrieval and Data Mining (SIG VIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance…

  20. Cortical Integration of Audio-Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wyk, Brent C.; Ramsay, Gordon J.; Hudac, Caitlin M.; Jones, Warren; Lin, David; Klin, Ami; Lee, Su Mei; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of audio-visual processing in speech and non-speech stimuli. Physically identical auditory stimuli (speech and sinusoidal tones) and visual stimuli (animated circles and ellipses) were used in this fMRI experiment. Relative to unimodal stimuli, each of the multimodal conjunctions showed increased activation in largely non-overlapping areas. The conjunction of Ellipse and Speech, which most resembles naturalistic audiovisual speech, showed higher activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyri, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Tone, an arbitrary audio-visual pairing with no speech association, activated middle temporal gyri and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Speech showed activation in lateral occipital cortex, and the conjunction of Ellipse and Tone did not show increased activation relative to unimodal stimuli. Further analysis revealed that middle temporal regions, although identified as multimodal only in the Circle-Tone condition, were more strongly active to Ellipse-Speech or Circle-Speech, but regions that were identified as multimodal for Ellipse-Speech were always strongest for Ellipse-Speech. Our results suggest that combinations of auditory and visual stimuli may together be processed by different cortical networks, depending on the extent to which speech or non-speech percepts are evoked. PMID:20709442

  1. Information Processing in Auditory-Visual Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henker, Barbara A.; Whalen, Carol K.

    1972-01-01

    The present study used a set of bimodal (auditory-visual) conflict designed specifically for the preschool child. The basic component was a match-to-sample sequence designed to reduce the often-found contaminating factors in studies with young children: failure to understand or remember instructions, inability to perform the indicator response, or…

  2. Information Design for Visualizing History Museum Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yulin; Lai, Tingsheng; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, museum visualization systems have become a hot topic that attracts many researchers' interests. Several systems provide Web services for browsing museum collections through the Web. In this paper, we proposed an intelligent museum system for history museum artifacts, and described a study in which we enable access to China…

  3. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  4. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Gage, Rachel; Baek, Yihwa; Bochsler, Tiana M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms. Methods Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135) and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900) conditions, and a Narrow Field (8°) condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating. Results With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition. Discussion If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment. PMID:26943674

  5. Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Komine, Okiru; Sato, Katsushige; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Uchimura, Motoaki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    Background Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. Results A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. Conclusion These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium. PMID:17101060

  6. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: a Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, Lucy T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Ted E.

    2001-08-20

    Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. In using an information visualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for users to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions developed for two visual analysis tools, the SPIRE Galaxies visualization and the SPIRE ThemeView?.

  7. Processing of Visual Information in Mantis Shrimps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-05

    peaking at around 500 nm. Gonodactylus chiragra is rather exceptional as this species lacks coloured and polarized body markings. G) Behavioural...question for the future would be if stomatopods also use circular polarized body markings for signalling as they do use linear polarized body ...a Golgi-staining-method ( Cajal and Sanchez, 1915) for stomatopod tissue to explore the structure and connectivity of the visual neuropils. We also

  8. Task Demands Control Acquisition and Storage of Visual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droll, Jason A.; Hayhoe, Mary M.; Triesch, Jochen; Sullivan, Brian T.

    2005-01-01

    Attention and working memory limitations set strict limits on visual representations, yet researchers have little appreciation of how these limits constrain the acquisition of information in ongoing visually guided behavior. Subjects performed a brick sorting task in a virtual environment. A change was made to 1 of the features of the brick being…

  9. Social Class and the Motivational Relevance of Other Human Beings: Evidence From Visual Attention.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Pia; Knowles, Eric D

    2016-11-01

    We theorize that people's social class affects their appraisals of others' motivational relevance-the degree to which others are seen as potentially rewarding, threatening, or otherwise worth attending to. Supporting this account, three studies indicate that social classes differ in the amount of attention their members direct toward other human beings. In Study 1, wearable technology was used to film the visual fields of pedestrians on city streets; higher-class participants looked less at other people than did lower-class participants. In Studies 2a and 2b, participants' eye movements were tracked while they viewed street scenes; higher class was associated with reduced attention to people in the images. In Study 3, a change-detection procedure assessed the degree to which human faces spontaneously attract visual attention; faces proved less effective at drawing the attention of high-class than low-class participants, which implies that class affects spontaneous relevance appraisals. The measurement and conceptualization of social class are discussed.

  10. Visual similarity in masking and priming: The critical role of task relevance

    PubMed Central

    Enns, James T.; Oriet, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive scientists use rapid image sequences to study both the emergence of conscious perception (visual masking) and the unconscious processes involved in response preparation (masked priming). The present study asked two questions: (1) Does image similarity influence masking and priming in the same way? (2) Are similarity effects in both tasks governed by the extent of feature overlap in the images or only by task-relevant features? Participants in Experiment 1 classified human faces using a single dimension even though the faces varied in three dimensions (emotion, race, sex). Abstract geometric shapes and colors were tested in the same way in Experiment 2. Results showed that similarity reduced the visibility of the target in the masking task and increased response speed in the priming task, pointing to a double-dissociation between the two tasks. Results also showed that only task-relevant (not objective) similarity influenced masking and priming, implying that both tasks are influenced from the beginning by intentions of the participant. These findings are interpreted within the framework of a reentrant theory of visual perception. They imply that intentions can influence object formation prior to the separation of vision for perception and vision for action. PMID:20517510

  11. Visual control of navigation in insects and its relevance for robotics.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-08-01

    Flying insects display remarkable agility, despite their diminutive eyes and brains. This review describes our growing understanding of how these creatures use visual information to stabilize flight, avoid collisions with objects, regulate flight speed, detect and intercept other flying insects such as mates or prey, navigate to a distant food source, and orchestrate flawless landings. It also outlines the ways in which these insights are now being used to develop novel, biologically inspired strategies for the guidance of autonomous, airborne vehicles.

  12. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    PubMed

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses.

  13. Visualization of information with an established order

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak Chung; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  14. Visual Information for the Desktop, version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-29

    VZIN integrates visual analytics capabilities into popular desktop tools to aid a user in searching and understanding an information space. VZIN allows users to Drag-Drop-Visualize-Explore-Organize information within tools such as Microsoft Office, Windows Explorer, Excel, and Outlook. VZIN is tailorable to specific client or industry requirements. VZIN follows the desktop metaphors so that advanced analytical capabilities are available with minimal user training.

  15. Visual information for judging temporal range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Mowafy, Lyn

    1993-01-01

    Work in our laboratory suggests that pilots can extract temporal range information (i.e., the time to pass a given waypoint) directly from out-the-window motion information. This extraction does not require the use of velocity or distance, but rather operates solely on a 2-D motion cue. In this paper, we present the mathematical derivation of this information, psychophysical evidence of human observers' sensitivity, and possible advantages and limitations of basing vehicle control on this parameter.

  16. The Attraction Effect in Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Dimara, Evanthia; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The attraction effect is a well-studied cognitive bias in decision making research, where one's choice between two alternatives is influenced by the presence of an irrelevant (dominated) third alternative. We examine whether this cognitive bias, so far only tested with three alternatives and simple presentation formats such as numerical tables, text and pictures, also appears in visualizations. Since visualizations can be used to support decision making - e.g., when choosing a house to buy or an employee to hire - a systematic bias could have important implications. In a first crowdsource experiment, we indeed partially replicated the attraction effect with three alternatives presented as a numerical table, and observed similar effects when they were presented as a scatterplot. In a second experiment, we investigated if the effect extends to larger sets of alternatives, where the number of alternatives is too large for numerical tables to be practical. Our findings indicate that the bias persists for larger sets of alternatives presented as scatterplots. We discuss implications for future research on how to further study and possibly alleviate the attraction effect.

  17. Is Information Literacy Relevant in the Real World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the corporate sector is aware of information literacy as a new economy skills set and a solution to information overload. Discusses terminology used in the business sector to describe aspects of information literacy and explains the definition of information literacy used by Australian academic libraries. (Author/LRW)

  18. Culturally-Relevant Information Literacy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Information Literacy is a process for finding, using, evaluating and incorporating information into an individuals' knowledge base. This process has been formalized into the "ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education." The concept of Information Literacy as articulated in the "ACRL Standards" is…

  19. Decoding information about dynamically occluded objects in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Caplovitz, Gideon P

    2017-02-01

    During dynamic occlusion, an object passes behind an occluding surface and then later reappears. Even when completely occluded from view, such objects are experienced as continuing to exist or persist behind the occluder even though they are no longer visible. The contents and neural basis of this persistent representation remain poorly understood. Questions remain as to whether there is information maintained about the object itself (i.e. its shape or identity) or non-object-specific information such as its position or velocity as it is tracked behind an occluder, as well as which areas of visual cortex represent such information. Recent studies have found that early visual cortex is activated by "invisible" objects during visual imagery and by unstimulated regions along the path of apparent motion, suggesting that some properties of dynamically occluded objects may also be neurally represented in early visual cortex. We applied functional magnetic resonance imaging in human subjects to examine representations within visual cortex during dynamic occlusion. For gradually occluded, but not for instantly disappearing objects, there was an increase in activity in early visual cortex (V1, V2, and V3). This activity was spatially-specific, corresponding to the occluded location in the visual field. However, the activity did not encode enough information about object identity to discriminate between different kinds of occluded objects (circles vs. stars) using MVPA. In contrast, object identity could be decoded in spatially-specific subregions of higher-order, topographically organized areas such as ventral, lateral, and temporal occipital areas (VO, LO, and TO) as well as the functionally defined LOC and hMT+. These results suggest that early visual cortex may only represent the dynamically occluded object's position or motion path, while later visual areas represent object-specific information.

  20. Decreasing predictability of visual motion enhances feed-forward processing in visual cortex when stimuli are behaviorally relevant.

    PubMed

    Kellermann, Thilo; Scholle, Ruben; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2017-03-01

    Recent views of information processing in the (human) brain emphasize the hierarchical structure of the central nervous system, which is assumed to form the basis of a functional hierarchy. Hierarchical predictive processing refers to the notion that higher levels try to predict activity in lower areas, while lower levels transmit a prediction error up the hierarchy whenever the predictions fail. The present study aims at testing hypothetical modulatory effects of unpredictable visual motion on forward connectivities within the visual cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from 35 healthy volunteers while viewing a moving ball under three different levels of predictability. In two different runs subjects were asked to attend to direction changes in the ball's motion, where a button-press was required in one of these runs only. Dynamic causal modeling was applied to a network comprising V1, V5 and posterior parietal cortex in the right hemisphere. The winning model of a Bayesian model selection indicated an enhanced strength in the forward connection from V1 to V5 with decreasing predictability for the run requiring motor response. These results support the notion of hierarchical predictive processing in the sense of an augmented bottom-up transmission of prediction error with increasing uncertainty about motion direction. This finding may be of importance for promoting our understanding of trait characteristics in psychiatric disorders, as an increased forward propagation of prediction error is assumed to underlie schizophrenia and may be observable at early stages of the disease.

  1. The Role of Global and Local Visual Information during Gaze-Cued Orienting of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Munsters, Nicolette M.; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Hooge, Ignace T. C.; Kemner, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Gaze direction is an important social communication tool. Global and local visual information are known to play specific roles in processing socially relevant information from a face. The current study investigated whether global visual information has a primary role during gaze-cued orienting of attention and, as such, may influence quality of interaction. Adults performed a gaze-cueing task in which a centrally presented face cued (valid or invalid) the location of a peripheral target through a gaze shift. We measured brain activity (electroencephalography) towards the cue and target and behavioral responses (manual and saccadic reaction times) towards the target. The faces contained global (i.e. lower spatial frequencies), local (i.e. higher spatial frequencies), or a selection of both global and local (i.e. mid-band spatial frequencies) visual information. We found a gaze cue-validity effect (i.e. valid versus invalid), but no interaction effects with spatial frequency content. Furthermore, behavioral responses towards the target were in all cue conditions slower when lower spatial frequencies were not present in the gaze cue. These results suggest that whereas gaze-cued orienting of attention can be driven by both global and local visual information, global visual information determines the speed of behavioral responses towards other entities appearing in the surrounding of gaze cue stimuli. PMID:27560368

  2. Visual User Interfaces for Information Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneiderman, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of human-computer interfaces focuses on the use of graphical and direct manipulation approaches to improve the user interface. Topics discussed include information seeking; computerized search capabilities, including full-text string searches, index searches, and hypertext; Boolean expressions; dynamic or direct manipulation queries;…

  3. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  4. Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of task relevance on P3 (waveform of human evoked potential) waves and the methodologies used to deal with them are outlined. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from normal adult subjects performing in a visual discrimination task. Subjects counted the number of presentations of the numeral 4 which was interposed rarely and randomly within a sequence of tachistoscopically flashed background stimuli. Intrusive, task-irrelevant (not counted) stimuli were also interspersed rarely and randomly in the sequence of 2s; these stimuli were of two types: simples, which were easily recognizable, and novels, which were completely unrecognizable. It was found that the simples and the counted 4s evoked posteriorly distributed P3 waves while the irrelevant novels evoked large, frontally distributed P3 waves. These large, frontal P3 waves to novels were also found to be preceded by large N2 waves. These findings indicate that the P3 wave is not a unitary phenomenon but should be considered in terms of a family of waves, differing in their brain generators and in their psychological correlates.

  5. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  6. Visual Representations in Second Graders' Information Book Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…

  7. [3D visualization and information interaction in biomedical applications].

    PubMed

    Pu, F; Fan, Y; Jiang, W; Zhang, M; Mak, A F; Chen, J

    2001-06-01

    3D visualization and virtual reality are important trend in the development of modern science and technology, and as well in the studies on biomedical engineering. This paper presents a computer procedure developed for 3D visualization in biomedical applications. The biomedical models are constructed in slice sequences based on polygon cells and information interaction is realized on the basis of OpenGL selection mode in particular consideration of the specialties in this field such as irregularity in geometry and complexity in material etc. The software developed has functions of 3D model construction and visualization, real-time modeling transformation, information interaction and so on. It could serve as useful platform for 3D visualization in biomedical engineering research.

  8. Biofluorescence in Catsharks (Scyliorhinidae): Fundamental Description and Relevance for Elasmobranch Visual Ecology.

    PubMed

    Gruber, David F; Loew, Ellis R; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Akkaynak, Derya; Gaffney, Jean P; Smith, W Leo; Davis, Matthew P; Stern, Jennifer H; Pieribone, Vincent A; Sparks, John S

    2016-04-25

    Biofluorescence has recently been found to be widespread in marine fishes, including sharks. Catsharks, such as the Swell Shark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) from the eastern Pacific and the Chain Catshark (Scyliorhinus retifer) from the western Atlantic, are known to exhibit bright green fluorescence. We examined the spectral sensitivity and visual characteristics of these reclusive sharks, while also considering the fluorescent properties of their skin. Spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor cells in these sharks revealed the presence of a single visual pigment in each species. Cephaloscyllium ventriosum exhibited a maximum absorbance of 484 ± 3 nm and an absorbance range at half maximum (λ1/2max) of 440-540 nm, whereas for S. retifer maximum absorbance was 488 ± 3 nm with the same absorbance range. Using the photoreceptor properties derived here, a "shark eye" camera was designed and developed that yielded contrast information on areas where fluorescence is anatomically distributed on the shark, as seen from other sharks' eyes of these two species. Phylogenetic investigations indicate that biofluorescence has evolved at least three times in cartilaginous fishes. The repeated evolution of biofluorescence in elasmobranchs, coupled with a visual adaptation to detect it; and evidence that biofluorescence creates greater luminosity contrast with the surrounding background, highlights the potential importance of biofluorescence in elasmobranch behavior and biology.

  9. Biofluorescence in Catsharks (Scyliorhinidae): Fundamental Description and Relevance for Elasmobranch Visual Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, David F.; Loew, Ellis R.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Akkaynak, Derya; Gaffney, Jean P.; Smith, W. Leo; Davis, Matthew P.; Stern, Jennifer H.; Pieribone, Vincent A.; Sparks, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Biofluorescence has recently been found to be widespread in marine fishes, including sharks. Catsharks, such as the Swell Shark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) from the eastern Pacific and the Chain Catshark (Scyliorhinus retifer) from the western Atlantic, are known to exhibit bright green fluorescence. We examined the spectral sensitivity and visual characteristics of these reclusive sharks, while also considering the fluorescent properties of their skin. Spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor cells in these sharks revealed the presence of a single visual pigment in each species. Cephaloscyllium ventriosum exhibited a maximum absorbance of 484 ± 3 nm and an absorbance range at half maximum (λ1/2max) of 440–540 nm, whereas for S. retifer maximum absorbance was 488 ± 3 nm with the same absorbance range. Using the photoreceptor properties derived here, a “shark eye” camera was designed and developed that yielded contrast information on areas where fluorescence is anatomically distributed on the shark, as seen from other sharks’ eyes of these two species. Phylogenetic investigations indicate that biofluorescence has evolved at least three times in cartilaginous fishes. The repeated evolution of biofluorescence in elasmobranchs, coupled with a visual adaptation to detect it; and evidence that biofluorescence creates greater luminosity contrast with the surrounding background, highlights the potential importance of biofluorescence in elasmobranch behavior and biology. PMID:27109385

  10. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, Lucille T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Theodore E.

    2001-08-20

    AbstractChange blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. If people use an infor-mation visualization system to compare document collec-tion subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blind-ness makes it impossible for them to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions de-veloped for two visual analysis tools, a dot plot (SPIRE Galaxies) and landscape (ThemeView?) visualizations.

  11. The visual analysis of textual information: Browsing large document sets

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Pennock, K.; Fiegel, T.; Wise, J.; Pottier, M.; Schur, A.; Crow, V.; Lantrip, D.

    1995-05-01

    Visualization tools have been invaluable in the process of scientific discovery by providing researchers with insights gained through graphical tools and techniques. At PNL, the Multidimensional Visualization and Advanced Browsing (MVAB) project is extending visualization technology to the problems of intelligence analysis of textual documents by creating spatial representations of textual information. By representing an entire corpus of documents as points in a coordinate space of two or more dimensions, the tools developed by the MVAB team give the analyst the ability to quickly browse the entire document base and determine relationships among documents and publication patterns not readily discernible through traditional lexical means.

  12. Modeling and visualizing borehole information on virtual globes using KML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Advances in virtual globes and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) are providing the Earth scientists with the universal platforms to manage, visualize, integrate and disseminate geospatial information. In order to use KML to represent and disseminate subsurface geological information on virtual globes, we present an automatic method for modeling and visualizing a large volume of borehole information. Based on a standard form of borehole database, the method first creates a variety of borehole models with different levels of detail (LODs), including point placemarks representing drilling locations, scatter dots representing contacts and tube models representing strata. Subsequently, the level-of-detail based (LOD-based) multi-scale representation is constructed to enhance the efficiency of visualizing large numbers of boreholes. Finally, the modeling result can be loaded into a virtual globe application for 3D visualization. An implementation program, termed Borehole2KML, is developed to automatically convert borehole data into KML documents. A case study of using Borehole2KML to create borehole models in Shanghai shows that the modeling method is applicable to visualize, integrate and disseminate borehole information on the Internet. The method we have developed has potential use in societal service of geological information.

  13. The Visual Uncertainty Paradigm for Controlling Screen-Space Information in Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Aritra

    2012-01-01

    The information visualization pipeline serves as a lossy communication channel for presentation of data on a screen-space of limited resolution. The lossy communication is not just a machine-only phenomenon due to information loss caused by translation of data, but also a reflection of the degree to which the human user can comprehend visual…

  14. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    PubMed

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  15. Relevant Information and Informed Consent in Research: In Defense of the Subjective Standard of Disclosure.

    PubMed

    Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, talk to patients to be better able to understand what can be potentially different concerns and interests prevalent in the target population. The subjective standard of disclosure should be seen as a moral ideal that perhaps can never be perfectly implemented but still can and should be used as a normative ideal guiding research practice. In the light of these discussions, we call for more empirical research on what considerations are likely to be perceived as relevant by potential research participants recruited from different socio-economic and cultural groups.

  16. WebTheme: Understanding Web Information through Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

    2002-06-09

    WebTheme combines the power of software agent-based information retrieval with visual analytics to provide users with a new tool for understanding web information. WebTheme allows users to both quickly comprehend large collections of information from the Web and drill down into interesting portions of a collection. Software agents work for users to perform controlled harvesting of web material of interest. Visualization and analysis tools allow exploration of the resulting document space. Information spaces are organized and presented according to their topical context. Tools that display how documents were collected by the agents, where they were gathered, and how they are linked further enhance users? understanding of information and its context. WebTheme is a significant tool in the pursuit of the Semantic Web. In particular, it supports enhanced user insight into semantics of large, pre-structured or ad-hoc, web information collections.

  17. Preferential Reactivation of Motivationally Relevant Information in the Ventral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Lansink, Carien S.; Goltstein, Pieter M.; Lankelma, Jan V.; Joosten, Ruud N. J. M. A.; McNaughton, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous “off-line” reactivation of neuronal activity patterns may contribute to the consolidation of memory traces. The ventral striatum exhibits reactivation and has been implicated in the processing of motivational information. It is unknown, however, whether reactivating neuronal ensembles specifically recapitulate information relating to rewards that were encountered during wakefulness. We demonstrate a prolonged reactivation in rat ventral striatum during quiet wakefulness and slow-wave but not rapid eye movement sleep. Reactivation of reward-related information processed in this structure was particularly prominent, and this was primarily attributable to spike trains temporally linked to reward sites. It was accounted for by small, strongly correlated subgroups in recorded cell assemblies and can thus be characterized as a sparse phenomenon. Our results indicate that reactivated memory traces may not only comprise feature- and context-specific information but also contain a value component. PMID:18562607

  18. Using volunteered geographic information to visualize ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), specifically geotagged photographs available from social media platforms, is a promising technology that can be utilized to identify public values for ecosystem goods and services in a defined geographic area. VGI can help researchers indirectly survey and report on the values and preferences of communities involved in restoration and revitalization projects. We are using geotagged images from three social media platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Images are obtained for the neighborhoods to the St. Louis River in the Duluth, MN and analyzed along several dimensions including the spatial distribution of images from each platform and the types and frequencies of social values and ecosystem service depicted. This study will demonstrate a method for translating the values of ecosystem goods and services as captured in social media into spatially-explicit data. Study outcomes are the incorporation of social media-derived indicators of ecosystems services into City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development Sustainable and Healthy Community research. Not applicable

  19. The Development of Sensitivity to Causally Relevant Dynamic Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    Examines whether kindergarteners, second-graders, fourth-graders, and adults can extract relative weight information from observing collisions and lifting events, and if they can judge whether or not collisions are momentum-conserving. Subjects saw either videotapes of events or sequences of static images; younger children appeared to be…

  20. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing.

    PubMed

    Orbán, Levente L; Chartier, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Untrained, "flower-naïve" bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees' unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators' cognitive constraints.

  1. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  2. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization.

  3. Corticocortical and thalamocortical information flow in the primate visual system.

    PubMed

    Van Essen, David C

    2005-01-01

    Visual cortex in primates contains a mosaic of several dozen visual areas that collectively occupy a large fraction of cerebral cortex (approximately 50% in the macaque; approximately 25% in humans). These areas are richly interconnected by hundreds of reciprocal corticocortical pathways that underlie an anatomically based hierarchy containing multiple processing streams. In addition, there is a complex pattern of reciprocal connections with the pulvinar, which itself contains about 10 architectonically distinct subdivisions. Information flow through these corticocortical and corticothalamic circuits is regulated very dynamically by top-down as well as bottom-up processes, including directed visual attention. This chapter evaluates current hypotheses and evidence relating to the interaction between thalamocortical and corticocortical circuitry in the dynamic regulation of information flow.

  4. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-06-24

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001.

  5. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001 PMID:24963138

  6. Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Understanding Relevance for Information Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of information science and its understanding of and approach to relevance; explains human categorization theory and applies it to the idea of relevance; shows that information science research is flawed because it fails to adequately explain experience; and suggests implications for future research. (17 references) (LRW)

  7. Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visual information only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.

  8. Modes of Visual Recognition and Perceptually Relevant Sketch-based Coding for Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    A review of visual recognition studies is used to define two levels of information requirements. These two levels are related to two primary subdivisions of the spatial frequency domain of images and reflect two distinct different physical properties of arbitrary scenes. In particular, pathologies in recognition due to cerebral dysfunction point to a more complete split into two major types of processing: high spatial frequency edge based recognition vs. low spatial frequency lightness (and color) based recognition. The former is more central and general while the latter is more specific and is necessary for certain special tasks. The two modes of recognition can also be distinguished on the basis of physical scene properties: the highly localized edges associated with reflectance and sharp topographic transitions vs. smooth topographic undulation. The extreme case of heavily abstracted images is pursued to gain an understanding of the minimal information required to support both modes of recognition. Here the intention is to define the semantic core of transmission. This central core of processing can then be fleshed out with additional image information and coding and rendering techniques.

  9. Auditory, Tactile, and Audiotactile Information Processing Following Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…

  10. Chromatic Information and Feature Detection in Fast Visual Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Del Viva, Maria M.; Punzi, Giovanni; Shevell, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    The visual system is able to recognize a scene based on a sketch made of very simple features. This ability is likely crucial for survival, when fast image recognition is necessary, and it is believed that a primal sketch is extracted very early in the visual processing. Such highly simplified representations can be sufficient for accurate object discrimination, but an open question is the role played by color in this process. Rich color information is available in natural scenes, yet artist's sketches are usually monochromatic; and, black-and-white movies provide compelling representations of real world scenes. Also, the contrast sensitivity of color is low at fine spatial scales. We approach the question from the perspective of optimal information processing by a system endowed with limited computational resources. We show that when such limitations are taken into account, the intrinsic statistical properties of natural scenes imply that the most effective strategy is to ignore fine-scale color features and devote most of the bandwidth to gray-scale information. We find confirmation of these information-based predictions from psychophysics measurements of fast-viewing discrimination of natural scenes. We conclude that the lack of colored features in our visual representation, and our overall low sensitivity to high-frequency color components, are a consequence of an adaptation process, optimizing the size and power consumption of our brain for the visual world we live in. PMID:27478891

  11. Chromatic Information and Feature Detection in Fast Visual Analysis.

    PubMed

    Del Viva, Maria M; Punzi, Giovanni; Shevell, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    The visual system is able to recognize a scene based on a sketch made of very simple features. This ability is likely crucial for survival, when fast image recognition is necessary, and it is believed that a primal sketch is extracted very early in the visual processing. Such highly simplified representations can be sufficient for accurate object discrimination, but an open question is the role played by color in this process. Rich color information is available in natural scenes, yet artist's sketches are usually monochromatic; and, black-and-white movies provide compelling representations of real world scenes. Also, the contrast sensitivity of color is low at fine spatial scales. We approach the question from the perspective of optimal information processing by a system endowed with limited computational resources. We show that when such limitations are taken into account, the intrinsic statistical properties of natural scenes imply that the most effective strategy is to ignore fine-scale color features and devote most of the bandwidth to gray-scale information. We find confirmation of these information-based predictions from psychophysics measurements of fast-viewing discrimination of natural scenes. We conclude that the lack of colored features in our visual representation, and our overall low sensitivity to high-frequency color components, are a consequence of an adaptation process, optimizing the size and power consumption of our brain for the visual world we live in.

  12. Infants' Coordination of Auditory and Visual Depth Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Fenwick, Kimberley D.

    1991-01-01

    Infants of five, seven, and nine months were shown two video images on monitors placed side by side. Images were accompanied by a soundtrack that matched one of the images. Results indicated that age-related changes in infants' coordination of auditory and visual depth information took place between the ages of five and nine months. (SH)

  13. Influence of Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keintz, Connie K.; Bunton, Kate; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of visual information on speech intelligibility for a group of speakers with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Eight speakers with Parkinson's disease and dysarthria were recorded while they read sentences. Speakers performed a concurrent manual task to facilitate typical speech production.…

  14. How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

  15. Utilization and Organization of Visually Presented Information. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, A. O.

    The experiments discussed in this report do not have a direct relationship to each other but represent work on a series of sub-issues within the general framework of visual processing of information. Because of this discreteness, the report is organized into a series of papers. The first is a general review of tachistoscopic work on iconic memory…

  16. Chromatic information and feature detection in fast visual analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Del Viva, Maria M.; Punzi, Giovanni; Shevell, Steven K.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The visual system is able to recognize a scene based on a sketch made of very simple features. This ability is likely crucial for survival, when fast image recognition is necessary, and it is believed that a primal sketch is extracted very early in the visual processing. Such highly simplified representations can be sufficient for accurate object discrimination, but an open question is the role played by color in this process. Rich color information is available in natural scenes, yet artist's sketches are usually monochromatic; and, black-andwhite movies provide compelling representations of real world scenes. Also, the contrast sensitivity ofmore » color is low at fine spatial scales. We approach the question from the perspective of optimal information processing by a system endowed with limited computational resources. We show that when such limitations are taken into account, the intrinsic statistical properties of natural scenes imply that the most effective strategy is to ignore fine-scale color features and devote most of the bandwidth to gray-scale information. We find confirmation of these information-based predictions from psychophysics measurements of fast-viewing discrimination of natural scenes. As a result, we conclude that the lack of colored features in our visual representation, and our overall low sensitivity to high-frequency color components, are a consequence of an adaptation process, optimizing the size and power consumption of our brain for the visual world we live in.« less

  17. Chromatic information and feature detection in fast visual analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Del Viva, Maria M.; Punzi, Giovanni; Shevell, Steven K.; Solomon, Samuel G.

    2016-08-01

    The visual system is able to recognize a scene based on a sketch made of very simple features. This ability is likely crucial for survival, when fast image recognition is necessary, and it is believed that a primal sketch is extracted very early in the visual processing. Such highly simplified representations can be sufficient for accurate object discrimination, but an open question is the role played by color in this process. Rich color information is available in natural scenes, yet artist's sketches are usually monochromatic; and, black-andwhite movies provide compelling representations of real world scenes. Also, the contrast sensitivity of color is low at fine spatial scales. We approach the question from the perspective of optimal information processing by a system endowed with limited computational resources. We show that when such limitations are taken into account, the intrinsic statistical properties of natural scenes imply that the most effective strategy is to ignore fine-scale color features and devote most of the bandwidth to gray-scale information. We find confirmation of these information-based predictions from psychophysics measurements of fast-viewing discrimination of natural scenes. As a result, we conclude that the lack of colored features in our visual representation, and our overall low sensitivity to high-frequency color components, are a consequence of an adaptation process, optimizing the size and power consumption of our brain for the visual world we live in.

  18. Meaningful auditory information enhances perception of visual biological motion.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Roberto; Marini, Francesco; Burr, David

    2009-04-30

    Robust perception requires efficient integration of information from our various senses. Much recent electrophysiology points to neural areas responsive to multisensory stimulation, particularly audiovisual stimulation. However, psychophysical evidence for functional integration of audiovisual motion has been ambiguous. In this study we measure perception of an audiovisual form of biological motion, tap dancing. The results show that the audio tap information interacts with visual motion information, but only when in synchrony, demonstrating a functional combination of audiovisual information in a natural task. The advantage of multimodal combination was better than the optimal maximum likelihood prediction.

  19. DUAL PATHWAYS FOR HAPTIC AND VISUAL PERCEPTION OF SPATIAL AND TEXTURE INFORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Sathian, K.; Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Gibson, Gregory O.; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; LaConte, Stephen; Glielmi, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Segregation of information flow along a dorsally directed pathway for processing object location and a ventrally directed pathway for processing object identity is well established in the visual and auditory systems, but is less clear in the somatosensory system. We hypothesized that segregation of location vs. identity information in touch would be evident if texture is the relevant property for stimulus identity, given the salience of texture for touch. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the pathways for haptic and visual processing of location and texture are segregated, and the extent of bisensory convergence. Haptic texture-selectivity was found in the parietal operculum and posterior visual cortex bilaterally, and in parts of left inferior frontal cortex. There was bisensory texture-selectivity at some of these sites in posterior visual and left inferior frontal cortex. Connectivity analyses demonstrated, in each modality, flow of information from unisensory non-selective areas to modality-specific texture-selective areas and further to bisensory texture-selective areas. Location-selectivity was mostly bisensory, occurring in dorsal areas, including the frontal eye fields and multiple regions around the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Many of these regions received input from unisensory areas in both modalities. Together with earlier studies, the activation and connectivity analyses of the present study establish that somatosensory processing flows into segregated pathways for location and object identity information. The location-selective somatosensory pathway converges with its visual counterpart in dorsal frontoparietal cortex, while the texture-selective somatosensory pathway runs through the parietal operculum before converging with its visual counterpart in visual and frontal cortex. Both segregation of sensory processing according to object property and multisensory convergence appear to be universal

  20. Visual sensory networks and effective information transfer in animal groups.

    PubMed

    Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Twomey, Colin R; Bode, Nikolai W F; Kao, Albert B; Katz, Yael; Ioannou, Christos C; Rosenthal, Sara B; Torney, Colin J; Wu, Hai Shan; Levin, Simon A; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-09-09

    Social transmission of information is vital for many group-living animals, allowing coordination of motion and effective response to complex environments. Revealing the interaction networks underlying information flow within these groups is a central challenge. Previous work has modeled interactions between individuals based directly on their relative spatial positions: each individual is considered to interact with all neighbors within a fixed distance (metric range), a fixed number of nearest neighbors (topological range), a 'shell' of near neighbors (Voronoi range), or some combination (Figure 1A). However, conclusive evidence to support these assumptions is lacking. Here, we employ a novel approach that considers individual movement decisions to be based explicitly on the sensory information available to the organism. In other words, we consider that while spatial relations do inform interactions between individuals, they do so indirectly, through individuals' detection of sensory cues. We reconstruct computationally the visual field of each individual throughout experiments designed to investigate information propagation within fish schools (golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas). Explicitly considering visual sensing allows us to more accurately predict the propagation of behavioral change in these groups during leadership events. Furthermore, we find that structural properties of visual interaction networks differ markedly from those of metric and topological counterparts, suggesting that previous assumptions may not appropriately reflect information flow in animal groups.

  1. A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

    1994-01-01

    Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

  2. RELEVANCE OF VISUAL EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional measures of neurotoxicity have included assessment of sensory, cognitive, and motor function. Visual system function and the neurobiological substrates are well characterized across species. Dysfunction in the visual system may be specific or may be surrogate for mor...

  3. A unified toolkit for information and scientific visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Brian; Baumes, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    We present an expansion of the popular open source Visualization Toolkit (VTK) to support the ingestion, processing, and display of informatics data. The result is a flexible, component-based pipeline framework for the integration and deployment of algorithms in the scientific and informatics fields. This project, code named "Titan", is one of the first efforts to address the unification of information and scientific visualization in a systematic fashion. The result includes a wide range of informatics-oriented functionality: database access, graph algorithms, graph layouts, views, charts, UI components and more. Further, the data distribution, parallel processing and client/server capabilities of VTK provide an excellent platform for scalable analysis.

  4. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known

  5. 32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of the visual information documentation... AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program. Using various visual and audio media, the Air Force VIDOC...

  6. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  7. Investigating cultural diversity for extrafoveal information use in visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Miellet, Sébastien; Zhou, Xinyue; He, Lingnan; Rodger, Helen; Caldara, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Culture shapes how people gather information from the visual world. We recently showed that Western observers focus on the eyes region during face recognition, whereas Eastern observers fixate predominantly the center of faces, suggesting a more effective use of extrafoveal information for Easterners compared to Westerners. However, the cultural variation in eye movements during scene perception is a highly debated topic. Additionally, the extent to which those perceptual differences across observers from different cultures rely on modulations of extrafoveal information use remains to be clarified. We used a gaze-contingent technique designed to dynamically mask central vision, the Blindspot, during a visual search task of animals in natural scenes. We parametrically controlled the Blindspots and target animal sizes (0°, 2°, 5°, or 8°). We processed eye-tracking data using an unbiased data-driven approach based on fixation maps and we introduced novel spatiotemporal analyses in order to finely characterize the dynamics of scene exploration. Both groups of observers, Eastern and Western, showed comparable animal identification performance, which decreased as a function of the Blindspot sizes. Importantly, dynamic analysis of the exploration pathways revealed identical oculomotor strategies for both groups of observers during animal search in scenes. Culture does not impact extrafoveal information use during the ecologically valid visual search of animals in natural scenes.

  8. Searching the Visual Arts: An Analysis of Online Information Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Darlene; Serban, William

    1981-01-01

    A search for stained glass bibliographic information using DIALINDEX identified 57 DIALOG files from a variety of subject categories and 646 citations as relevant. Files include applied science, biological sciences, chemistry, engineering, environment/pollution, people, business research, and public affairs. Eleven figures illustrate the search…

  9. Discovering unexpected information using a building energy visualization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B.; Rodriguez, N.; Puech, W.; Vasques, X.

    2013-03-01

    Building energy consumption is an important problem in construction field, old buildings are gap of energy and they need to be refactored. Energy footprint of buildings needs to be reduced. New buildings are designed to be suitable with energy efficiency paradigm. To improve energy efficiency, Building Management Systems (BMS) are used: BMS are IT (Information Technology) systems composed by a rules engine and a database connected to sensors. Unfortunately, BMS are only monitoring systems: they cannot predict and mine efficiently building information. RIDER project has emerged from this observation. This project is conducted by several French companies and universities, IBM at Montpellier, France, leads the project. The main goal of this project is to create a smart and scalable BMS. This new kind of BMS will be able to dig into data and predict events. This IT system is based on component paradigm and the core can be extended with external components. Some of them are developed during the project: data mining, building generation model and visualization. All of these components will provide new features to improve rules used by the core. In this paper, we will focus on the visualization component. This visualization use a volume rendering method based on sensors data interpolation and a correlation method to create new views. We will present the visualization method used and which rules can be provided by this component.

  10. Integrating visual information across camera movements with a visual-motor calibration map

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopowicz, P.N.; Cooper, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Facing the competing demands for wider field of view and higher spatial resolution, computer vision will evolve toward greater use of foveal sensors and frequent camera movements. Integration of visual information across movements becomes a fundamental problem. We show that integration is possible using a biologically-inspired representation we call the visual-motor calibration map. The map is a memory-based model of the relationship between camera movements and corresponding pixel locations before and after any movement. The map constitutes a self-calibration that can compensate for non-uniform sampling, lens distortion, mechanical misalignments, and arbitrary pixel reordering. Integration takes place entirely in a retinotopic frame, using a short-term, predictive visual memory.

  11. Curvature and the Visual Perception of Shape: Theory on Information along Object Boundaries and the Minima Rule Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ik Soo; Leek, E. Charles

    2012-01-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately,…

  12. Local versus Global Information Relevance in Website Use: A Case Study with the Information Literacy Portal AlfinEEES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marco, Francisco Javier Garcia; Pinto, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: A model to explore the relations among local and global relevance-based information behaviour is proposed that is based on objective and subjective measures of the relevance of the Website contents. Method: Global interest for the Website was researched using data on visits, while local use was explored with two surveys on the…

  13. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Toshihiko; Katsuki, Satomi; Kishimoto, Junji; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ogata, Katsuya; Yamasaki, Takao; Ueno, Takefumi; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD) is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN) and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli. Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant) and white circle (target) stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard), 10% (deviant), and 10% (target) probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus. Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls. Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in BD, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli. Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD. PMID:23898256

  14. Behavioral and Event-Related-Potential Correlates of Processing Congruent and Incongruent Self-Relevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheri L.

    2013-01-01

    People want to be viewed by others as they view themselves. Being confronted with self-relevant information that is either congruent or incongruent with one's self-view has been shown to differentially affect subsequent behavior, memory for the information, and evaluation of the source of the information. However, no research has examined…

  15. On Using Genetic Algorithms for Multimodal Relevance Optimization in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughanem, M.; Christment, C.; Tamine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a genetic relevance optimization process performed in an information retrieval system that uses genetic techniques for solving multimodal problems (niching) and query reformulation techniques. Explains that the niching technique allows the process to reach different relevance regions of the document space, and that query reformulations…

  16. Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Meijer, Frank; Theeuwes, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by…

  17. Tactical decisions for changeable cuttlefish camouflage: visual cues for choosing masquerade are relevant from a greater distance than visual cues used for background matching.

    PubMed

    Buresch, Kendra C; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Cramer, Corinne; McAnulty, Sarah; Davison, William; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-10-01

    Cuttlefish use multiple camouflage tactics to evade their predators. Two common tactics are background matching (resembling the background to hinder detection) and masquerade (resembling an uninteresting or inanimate object to impede detection or recognition). We investigated how the distance and orientation of visual stimuli affected the choice of these two camouflage tactics. In the current experiments, cuttlefish were presented with three visual cues: 2D horizontal floor, 2D vertical wall, and 3D object. Each was placed at several distances: directly beneath (in a circle whose diameter was one body length (BL); at zero BL [(0BL); i.e., directly beside, but not beneath the cuttlefish]; at 1BL; and at 2BL. Cuttlefish continued to respond to 3D visual cues from a greater distance than to a horizontal or vertical stimulus. It appears that background matching is chosen when visual cues are relevant only in the immediate benthic surroundings. However, for masquerade, objects located multiple body lengths away remained relevant for choice of camouflage.

  18. Yet More Visualized JAMSTEC Cruise and Dive Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, T.; Hase, H.; Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Kayo, M.; Matsuda, S.; Azuma, S.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, JAMSTEC performs about a hundred of research cruises and numerous dive surveys using its research vessels and submersibles. JAMSTEC provides data and samples obtained during these cruises and dives to international users through a series of data sites on the Internet. The "DARWIN (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/darwin/e)" data site disseminates cruise and dive information. On DARWIN, users can search interested cruises and dives with a combination search form or an interactive tree menu, and find lists of observation data as well as links to surrounding databases. Document catalog, physical sample databases, and visual archive of dive surveys (e. g. in http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jmedia/portal/e) are directly accessible from the lists. In 2014, DARWIN experienced an update, which was arranged mainly for enabling on-demand data visualization. Using login users' functions, users can put listed data items into the virtual basket and then trim, plot and download the data. The visualization tools help users to quickly grasp the quality and characteristics of observation data. Meanwhile, JAMSTEC launched a new data site named "JDIVES (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jdives/e)" to visualize data and sample information obtained by dive surveys. JDIVES shows tracks of dive surveys on the "Google Earth Plugin" and diagrams of deep-sea environmental data such as temperature, salinity, and depth. Submersible camera images and links to associated databases are placed along the dive tracks. The JDVIES interface enables users to perform so-called virtual dive surveys, which can help users to understand local geometries of dive spots and geological settings of associated data and samples. It is not easy for individual researchers to organize a huge amount of information recovered from each cruise and dive. The improved visibility and accessibility of JAMSTEC databases are advantageous not only for second-hand users, but also for on-board researchers themselves.

  19. Phase synchronization of delta and theta oscillations increase during the detection of relevant lexical information

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Enzo; Maldonado, Pedro E.; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, a central aspect to elucidate is how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on “kept in mind” rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge), and the lexical semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments occurred irrespective of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions. PMID:23785341

  20. Visual search in depth: The neural correlates of segmenting a display into relevant and irrelevant three-dimensional regions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Allen, Harriet A.; Dent, Kevin; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is facilitated by the ability to selectively attend to relevant parts of the world and to ignore irrelevant regions or features. In visual search tasks, viewers are able to segment displays into relevant and irrelevant items based on a number of factors including the colour, motion, and temporal onset of the target and distractors. Understanding the process by which viewers prioritise relevant parts of a display can provide insights into the effect of top-down control on visual perception. Here, we investigate the behavioural and neural correlates of segmenting a display according to the expected three-dimensional (3D) location of a target. We ask whether this segmentation is based on low-level visual features (e.g. common depth or common surface) or on higher-order representations of 3D regions. Similar response-time benefits and neural activity were obtained when items fell on common surfaces or within depth-defined volumes, and when displays were vertical (such that items shared a common depth/disparity) or were tilted in depth. These similarities indicate that segmenting items according to their 3D location is based on attending to a 3D region, rather than a specific depth or surface. Segmenting the items in depth was mainly associated with increased activation in depth-sensitive parietal regions rather than in depth-sensitive visual regions. We conclude that segmenting items in depth is primarily achieved via higher-order, cue invariant representations rather than through filtering in lower-level perceptual regions. PMID:26220748

  1. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety

  2. Relevance of visual cues for orientation at familiar sites by homing pigeons: an experiment in a circular arena.

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardo, A.; Odetti, F.; Ioalè, P.

    2001-01-01

    Whether pigeons use visual landmarks for orientation from familiar locations has been a subject of debate. By recording the directional choices of both anosmic and control pigeons while exiting from a circular arena we were able to assess the relevance of olfactory and visual cues for orientation from familiar sites. When the birds could see the surroundings, both anosmic and control pigeons were homeward oriented. When the view of the landscape was prevented by screens that surrounded the arena, the control pigeons exited from the arena approximately in the home direction, while the anosmic pigeons' distribution was not different from random. Our data suggest that olfactory and visual cues play a critical, but interchangeable, role for orientation at familiar sites. PMID:11571054

  3. TUTORIAL: Development of a cortical visual neuroprosthesis for the blind: the relevance of neuroplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, E.; Pelayo, F.; Romero, S.; Bongard, M.; Marin, C.; Alfaro, A.; Merabet, L.

    2005-12-01

    Clinical applications such as artificial vision require extraordinary, diverse, lengthy and intimate collaborations among basic scientists, engineers and clinicians. In this review, we present the state of research on a visual neuroprosthesis designed to interface with the occipital visual cortex as a means through which a limited, but useful, visual sense could be restored in profoundly blind individuals. We review the most important physiological principles regarding this neuroprosthetic approach and emphasize the role of neural plasticity in order to achieve desired behavioral outcomes. While full restoration of fine detailed vision with current technology is unlikely in the immediate near future, the discrimination of shapes and the localization of objects should be possible allowing blind subjects to navigate in a unfamiliar environment and perhaps even to read enlarged text. Continued research and development in neuroprosthesis technology will likely result in a substantial improvement in the quality of life of blind and visually impaired individuals.

  4. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators' use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science…

  5. 76 FR 34075 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... regarding the possible development of a public-private partnership (PPP) designed to facilitate the... Public or Private Entities with an Interest in Biovigilance.'' An extension is being provided to all who... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public...

  6. Electrophysiological measurement of information flow during visual search.

    PubMed

    Cosman, Joshua D; Arita, Jason T; Ianni, Julianna D; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2016-04-01

    The temporal relationship between different stages of cognitive processing is long debated. This debate is ongoing, primarily because it is often difficult to measure the time course of multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. We employed a manipulation that allowed us to isolate ERP components related to perceptual processing, working memory, and response preparation, and then examined the temporal relationship between these components while observers performed a visual search task. We found that, when response speed and accuracy were equally stressed, our index of perceptual processing ended before both the transfer of information into working memory and response preparation began. However, when we stressed speed over accuracy, response preparation began before the completion of perceptual processing or transfer of information into working memory on trials with the fastest reaction times. These findings show that individuals can control the flow of information transmission between stages, either waiting for perceptual processing to be completed before preparing a response or configuring these stages to overlap in time.

  7. Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

  8. 77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    .... Ryan Burnette, OFPP, at (202) 395- 7724 or rburnette@omb.eop.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To access.../omb/procurement/frn/frn-access-to-relevant-integrity-information-public-comments.pdf . Joseph G... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT...

  9. Prioritising the relevant information for learning and decision making within orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Mark E; Chau, Bolton K H; Kennerley, Steven W

    2016-01-01

    Our environment and internal states are frequently complex, ambiguous and dynamic, meaning we need to have selection mechanisms to ensure we are basing our decisions on currently relevant information. Here, we review evidence that orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) play conserved, critical but distinct roles in this process. While OFC may use specific sensory associations to enhance task-relevant information, particularly in the context of learning, VMPFC plays a role in ensuring irrelevant information does not impinge on the decision in hand. PMID:26937446

  10. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization.

    PubMed

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source's position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot's mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system's performance and discuss possible areas of application.

  11. Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

  12. Information Visualization Using Internet for Activation of Shopping Streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Ippei; Okada, Yousuke; Onogi, Manabu; Niwa, Takahito; Ishii, Naohiro

    This paper attempts to activate a large scale shopping streets (shotengai) using Internet technique. Shotengai is a style of Japanese commercial district street. Recently, decline in shotengai is a serious problem. So, we take up “Osu” which is famous shotengai in Nagoya, Japan. We architect Web visualization system, which has useful usability and findability for Osu shotengai information. We also develop methods for competing for a store owner with another one by their prominency and for attractive design to increase motivation of store owners. The number of users of Osu map is increased rapidly. We hope to apply our instance to the activation of shotengai in Japan.

  13. Reinforcing Visual Grouping Cues to Communicate Complex Informational Structure.

    PubMed

    Bae, Juhee; Watson, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    In his book Multimedia Learning [7], Richard Mayer asserts that viewers learn best from imagery that provides them with cues to help them organize new information into the correct knowledge structures. Designers have long been exploiting the Gestalt laws of visual grouping to deliver viewers those cues using visual hierarchy, often communicating structures much more complex than the simple organizations studied in psychological research. Unfortunately, designers are largely practical in their work, and have not paused to build a complex theory of structural communication. If we are to build a tool to help novices create effective and well structured visuals, we need a better understanding of how to create them. Our work takes a first step toward addressing this lack, studying how five of the many grouping cues (proximity, color similarity, common region, connectivity, and alignment) can be effectively combined to communicate structured text and imagery from real world examples. To measure the effectiveness of this structural communication, we applied a digital version of card sorting, a method widely used in anthropology and cognitive science to extract cognitive structures. We then used tree edit distance to measure the difference between perceived and communicated structures. Our most significant findings are: 1) with careful design, complex structure can be communicated clearly; 2) communicating complex structure is best done with multiple reinforcing grouping cues; 3) common region (use of containers such as boxes) is particularly effective at communicating structure; and 4) alignment is a weak structural communicator.

  14. Visualizing nursing workforce distribution: policy evaluation using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Karen L

    2005-12-01

    Health services literature suggests that geographic information systems (GIS) are useful policy evaluation tools when policy success is dependent on location. Nursing workforce distribution is an inherently local issue and nursing shortages present serious concerns for local, state and national governments. In 1991, Missouri enacted a nurse recruitment and retention policy targeting underserved (HPSA-designated) counties. Following Institutional Review Board approval, policy effectiveness was explored using a combination of GIS data visualization, spatial and classic statistics. Results of both data visualization and statistical methods do not demonstrate an expected trend of decreasing group differences between HPSA and non-HPSA-designated counties over time. Only two of the five time periods studied had significant group differences. Between 1993 and 1995, the loss in nurse to population ratios in HPSA counties was significant (U=1020, p<0.001); however, between 1999 and 2001, the growth in nurse to population ratio changes in HPSA counties was significant (U=1032, p=0.001). The GIS data visualization and statistical techniques performed suggest that current policy definitions of underserved areas may not be effective in defining areas of nursing shortages and the existing policy implementation may not be achieving the stated goals.

  15. Why High Performance Visual Data Analytics is both Relevant and Difficult

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Byna, Suren; Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, K. John; Wehner, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Data visualization, as well as data analysis and data analytics, are all an integral part of the scientific process. Collectively, these technologies provide the means to gain insight into data of ever-increasing size and complexity. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of visualization, analysis, and analytics R&D has focused on the challenges posed by increasing data size and complexity, as well as on the increasing complexity of a rapidly changing computational platform landscape. While some of this research focuses on solely on technologies, such as indexing and searching or novel analysis or visualization algorithms, other R&D projects focus on applying technological advances to specific application problems. Some of the most interesting and productive results occur when these two activities R&D and application are conducted in a collaborative fashion, where application needs drive R&D, and R&D results are immediately applicable to real world problems.

  16. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official requests for visual information... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air...

  17. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipping or transmitting visual information... AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.5 Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

  18. Energy-Efficient Information Transfer by Visual Pathway Synapses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julia J; Jolivet, Renaud; Engl, Elisabeth; Attwell, David

    2015-12-21

    The architecture of computational devices is shaped by their energy consumption. Energetic constraints are used to design silicon-based computers but are poorly understood for neural computation. In the brain, most energy is used to reverse ion influxes generating excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and action potentials. Thus, EPSCs should be small to minimize energy use, but not so small as to impair information transmission. We quantified information flow through the retinothalamic synapse in the visual pathway in brain slices, with cortical and inhibitory input to the postsynaptic cell blocked. Altering EPSC size with dynamic clamp, we found that a larger-than-normal EPSC increased information flow through the synapse. Thus, the evolutionarily selected EPSC size does not maximize retinal information flow to the cortex. By assessing the energy used on postsynaptic ion pumping and action potentials, we show that, instead, the EPSC size optimizes the ratio of retinal information transmitted to energy consumed. These data suggest maximization of information transmission per energy used as a synaptic design principle.

  19. Energy-Efficient Information Transfer by Visual Pathway Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Julia J.; Jolivet, Renaud; Engl, Elisabeth; Attwell, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary The architecture of computational devices is shaped by their energy consumption. Energetic constraints are used to design silicon-based computers but are poorly understood for neural computation. In the brain, most energy is used to reverse ion influxes generating excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and action potentials. Thus, EPSCs should be small to minimize energy use, but not so small as to impair information transmission. We quantified information flow through the retinothalamic synapse in the visual pathway in brain slices, with cortical and inhibitory input to the postsynaptic cell blocked. Altering EPSC size with dynamic clamp, we found that a larger-than-normal EPSC increased information flow through the synapse. Thus, the evolutionarily selected EPSC size does not maximize retinal information flow to the cortex. By assessing the energy used on postsynaptic ion pumping and action potentials, we show that, instead, the EPSC size optimizes the ratio of retinal information transmitted to energy consumed. These data suggest maximization of information transmission per energy used as a synaptic design principle. PMID:26671670

  20. Oculomotor Remapping of Visual Information to Foveal Retinotopic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Knapen, Tomas; Swisher, Jascha D.; Tong, Frank; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Our eyes continually jump around the visual scene to bring the high-resolution, central part of our vision onto objects of interest. We are oblivious to these abrupt shifts, perceiving the visual world to appear reassuringly stable. A process called remapping has been proposed to mediate this perceptual stability for attended objects by shifting their retinotopic representation to compensate for the effects of the upcoming eye movement. In everyday vision, observers make goal-directed eye movements towards items of interest bringing them to the fovea and, for these items, the remapped activity should impinge on foveal regions of the retinotopic maps in visual cortex. Previous research has focused instead on remapping for targets that were not saccade goals, where activity is remapped to a new peripheral location rather than to the foveal representation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a phase-encoding design to investigate remapping of spatial patterns of activity towards the fovea/parafovea for saccade targets that were removed prior to completion of the eye movement. We found strong evidence of foveal remapping in retinotopic visual areas, which failed to occur when observers merely attended to the same peripheral target without making eye movements towards it. Significantly, the spatial profile of the remapped response matched the orientation and size of the saccade target, and was appropriately scaled to reflect the retinal extent of the stimulus had it been foveated. We conclude that this remapping of spatially structured information to the fovea may serve as an important mechanism to support our world-centered sense of location across goal-directed eye movements under natural viewing conditions. PMID:27445715

  1. From paragraph to graph: Latent semantic analysis for information visualization

    PubMed Central

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Laham, Darrell; Derr, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Most techniques for relating textual information rely on intellectually created links such as author-chosen keywords and titles, authority indexing terms, or bibliographic citations. Similarity of the semantic content of whole documents, rather than just titles, abstracts, or overlap of keywords, offers an attractive alternative. Latent semantic analysis provides an effective dimension reduction method for the purpose that reflects synonymy and the sense of arbitrary word combinations. However, latent semantic analysis correlations with human text-to-text similarity judgments are often empirically highest at ≈300 dimensions. Thus, two- or three-dimensional visualizations are severely limited in what they can show, and the first and/or second automatically discovered principal component, or any three such for that matter, rarely capture all of the relations that might be of interest. It is our conjecture that linguistic meaning is intrinsically and irreducibly very high dimensional. Thus, some method to explore a high dimensional similarity space is needed. But the 2.7 × 107 projections and infinite rotations of, for example, a 300-dimensional pattern are impossible to examine. We suggest, however, that the use of a high dimensional dynamic viewer with an effective projection pursuit routine and user control, coupled with the exquisite abilities of the human visual system to extract information about objects and from moving patterns, can often succeed in discovering multiple revealing views that are missed by current computational algorithms. We show some examples of the use of latent semantic analysis to support such visualizations and offer views on future needs. PMID:15037748

  2. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory.

  3. How visual and semantic information influence learning in familiar contexts.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R; Ehinger, Krista A

    2012-10-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical contextual cuing procedure was adapted to use meaningless but nevertheless visually complex images. The data in reaction time and in eye movements show that, like scenes, such repeated contexts can trigger large, stable, and explicit cuing effects, and that those effects result from facilitated attentional guidance. Like simpler stimulus arrays, however, those effects were impaired by a sudden change of a repeating image's color scheme at the end of the learning phase (Experiment 1), or when the repeated images were presented in a different and unique color scheme across each presentation (Experiment 2). In both cases, search was driven by explicit memory. Collectively, these results suggest that semantic information is not required for conscious awareness of context-target covariation, but it plays a primary role in overcoming variability in specific features within familiar displays.

  4. Ultrafast scene detection and recognition with limited visual information.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Potter, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Humans can detect target color pictures of scenes depicting concepts like picnic or harbor in sequences of six or twelve pictures presented as briefly as 13 ms, even when the target is named after the sequence (Potter, Wyble, Hagmann, & McCourt, 2014). Such rapid detection suggests that feedforward processing alone enabled detection without recurrent cortical feedback. There is debate about whether coarse, global, low spatial frequencies (LSFs) provide predictive information to high cortical levels through the rapid magnocellular (M) projection of the visual path, enabling top-down prediction of possible object identities. To test the "Fast M" hypothesis, we compared detection of a named target across five stimulus conditions: unaltered color, blurred color, grayscale, thresholded monochrome, and LSF pictures. The pictures were presented for 13-80 ms in six-picture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequences. Blurred, monochrome, and LSF pictures were detected less accurately than normal color or grayscale pictures. When the target was named before the sequence, all picture types except LSF resulted in above-chance detection at all durations. Crucially, when the name was given only after the sequence, performance dropped and the monochrome and LSF pictures (but not the blurred pictures) were at or near chance. Thus, without advance information, monochrome and LSF pictures were rarely understood. The results offer only limited support for the Fast M hypothesis, suggesting instead that feedforward processing is able to activate conceptual representations without complementary reentrant processing.

  5. Visual attention is available at a task-relevant location rapidly after a saccade

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Tao; Ketkar, Madhura; Treue, Stefan; Krishna, B Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining attention at a task-relevant spatial location while making eye-movements necessitates a rapid, saccade-synchronized shift of attentional modulation from the neuronal population representing the task-relevant location before the saccade to the one representing it after the saccade. Currently, the precise time at which spatial attention becomes fully allocated to the task-relevant location after the saccade remains unclear. Using a fine-grained temporal analysis of human peri-saccadic detection performance in an attention task, we show that spatial attention is fully available at the task-relevant location within 30 milliseconds after the saccade. Subjects tracked the attentional target veridically throughout our task: i.e. they almost never responded to non-target stimuli. Spatial attention and saccadic processing therefore co-ordinate well to ensure that relevant locations are attentionally enhanced soon after the beginning of each eye fixation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18009.001 PMID:27879201

  6. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-02-01

    The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

    Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
    Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one

  7. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity.

  8. Information Visualization and Proposing New Interface for Movie Retrieval System (IMDB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etemadpour, Ronak; Masood, Mona; Belaton, Bahari

    2010-01-01

    This research studies the development of a new prototype of visualization in support of movie retrieval. The goal of information visualization is unveiling of large amounts of data or abstract data set using visual presentation. With this knowledge the main goal is to develop a 2D presentation of information on movies from the IMDB (Internet Movie…

  9. 32 CFR 811.6 - Visual information product/material loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual information product/material loans. 811.6 Section 811.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.6 Visual...

  10. Informal Assessment of Developmental Skills for Visually Handicapped Students. AFB Practice Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swallow, Rose-Marie, Ed.; And Others

    The booklet presents a compilation of informal checklists and inventories to help in assessing the developmental skills of visually handicapped students from birth through senior high school. Part 1, "Informal Assessment of School Age Visually Handicapped Students," covers the following areas: visual functioning; unique academic needs (such as…

  11. TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

  12. Relevance Thresholds: A Multi-stage Predictive Method of How Users Evaluate Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greisdorf, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Examines end-user judgment and evaluation behavior during information retrieval (IR) system interactions and extends previous research surrounding relevance as a key construct for representing the value end-users ascribe to items retrieved from IR systems. The self-reporting worksheet is appended. (Author/AEF)

  13. A Methodological Approach To Eliciting Information Relevant to Alcohol Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, K.; And Others

    To attempt to incorporate the perceptions of consumers of alcohol education programs about topic relevance and importance, a modified version of a methodology that extracts, evaluates, and combines information from novices and experts to determine commonly held scripts and schema was used. In the first of two studies, 37 students at Texas…

  14. A Relevance-based Quantitative Measure for Internet Information Retrieval Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a metric for comparing the performance of common classes of Internet information retrieval tools, including human indexed catalogs of Web resources and automatically indexed databases of Web pages. The benefit of the proposed metric is that it is relevance-based, and it facilitates the comparison of the performance of different classes of…

  15. Electrophysiological measurement of information flow during visual search

    PubMed Central

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Arita, Jason T.; Ianni, Julianna D.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2016-01-01

    The temporal relationship between different stages of cognitive processing is long-debated. This debate is ongoing, primarily because it is often difficult to measure the time course of multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. We employed a manipulation that allowed us to isolate ERP components related to perceptual processing, working memory, and response preparation, and then examined the temporal relationship between these components while observers performed a visual search task. We found that when response speed and accuracy were equally stressed, our index of perceptual processing ended before both the transfer of information into working memory and response preparation began. However, when we stressed speed over accuracy response preparation began before the completion of perceptual processing or transfer of information into working memory on trials with the fastest reaction times. These findings show that individuals can control the flow of information transmission between stages, either waiting for perceptual processing to be completed before preparing a response or configuring these stages to overlap in time. PMID:26669285

  16. The Effects of Presentation Method and Information Density on Visual Search Ability and Working Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ting-Wen; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity…

  17. Two Visual Pathways in Primates Based on Sampling of Space: Exploitation and Exploration of Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Bhavin R.; Young, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is strong that the visual pathway is segregated into two distinct streams—ventral and dorsal. Two proposals theorize that the pathways are segregated in function: The ventral stream processes information about object identity, whereas the dorsal stream, according to one model, processes information about either object location, and according to another, is responsible in executing movements under visual control. The models are influential; however recent experimental evidence challenges them, e.g., the ventral stream is not solely responsible for object recognition; conversely, its function is not strictly limited to object vision; the dorsal stream is not responsible by itself for spatial vision or visuomotor control; conversely, its function extends beyond vision or visuomotor control. In their place, we suggest a robust dichotomy consisting of a ventral stream selectively sampling high-resolution/focal spaces, and a dorsal stream sampling nearly all of space with reduced foveal bias. The proposal hews closely to the theme of embodied cognition: Function arises as a consequence of an extant sensory underpinning. A continuous, not sharp, segregation based on function emerges, and carries with it an undercurrent of an exploitation-exploration dichotomy. Under this interpretation, cells of the ventral stream, which individually have more punctate receptive fields that generally include the fovea or parafovea, provide detailed information about object shapes and features and lead to the systematic exploitation of said information; cells of the dorsal stream, which individually have large receptive fields, contribute to visuospatial perception, provide information about the presence/absence of salient objects and their locations for novel exploration and subsequent exploitation by the ventral stream or, under certain conditions, the dorsal stream. We leverage the dichotomy to unify neuropsychological cases under a common umbrella, account for the increased

  18. Two Visual Pathways in Primates Based on Sampling of Space: Exploitation and Exploration of Visual Information.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Bhavin R; Young, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is strong that the visual pathway is segregated into two distinct streams-ventral and dorsal. Two proposals theorize that the pathways are segregated in function: The ventral stream processes information about object identity, whereas the dorsal stream, according to one model, processes information about either object location, and according to another, is responsible in executing movements under visual control. The models are influential; however recent experimental evidence challenges them, e.g., the ventral stream is not solely responsible for object recognition; conversely, its function is not strictly limited to object vision; the dorsal stream is not responsible by itself for spatial vision or visuomotor control; conversely, its function extends beyond vision or visuomotor control. In their place, we suggest a robust dichotomy consisting of a ventral stream selectively sampling high-resolution/focal spaces, and a dorsal stream sampling nearly all of space with reduced foveal bias. The proposal hews closely to the theme of embodied cognition: Function arises as a consequence of an extant sensory underpinning. A continuous, not sharp, segregation based on function emerges, and carries with it an undercurrent of an exploitation-exploration dichotomy. Under this interpretation, cells of the ventral stream, which individually have more punctate receptive fields that generally include the fovea or parafovea, provide detailed information about object shapes and features and lead to the systematic exploitation of said information; cells of the dorsal stream, which individually have large receptive fields, contribute to visuospatial perception, provide information about the presence/absence of salient objects and their locations for novel exploration and subsequent exploitation by the ventral stream or, under certain conditions, the dorsal stream. We leverage the dichotomy to unify neuropsychological cases under a common umbrella, account for the increased

  19. Spatial Information Processing: Standards-Based Open Source Visualization Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2009-12-01

    . Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required: data delivery (server technology), data access (client technology), and data processing (information intelligence). NASA World Wind provides open source client and server technologies based on open standards. The possibilities for data processing and data sharing are enhanced by this inclusive infrastructure for geographic information. It is interesting that this open source and open standards approach, unfettered by proprietary constraints, simultaneously provides for entirely proprietary use of this same technology. 1. WHY WORLD WIND? NASA World Wind began as a single program with specific functionality, to deliver NASA content. But as the possibilities for virtual globe technology became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information technology, we were also getting in the way. Researchers, developers and even users expressed their desire for World Wind functionality in ways that would service their specific needs. They want it in their web pages. They want to add their own features. They want to manage their own data. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential for this technology be truly realized. World Wind client technology is a set of development tools, a software development kit (SDK) that allows a software engineer to create applications requiring geographic visualization technology. 2. MODULAR COMPONENTRY Accelerated evolution of a technology requires that the essential elements of that technology be modular components such that each can advance independent of the other

  20. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System.

    PubMed

    Roth, Zvi N

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream.

  1. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Zvi N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream. PMID:27242455

  2. Drama advertisements: moderating effects of self-relevance on the relations among empathy, information processing, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chebat, Jean-Charles; Vercollier, Sarah Drissi; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2003-06-01

    The effects of drama versus lecture format in public service advertisements are studied in a 2 (format) x 2 (malaria vs AIDS) factorial design. Two structural equation models are built (one for each level of self-relevance), showing two distinct patterns. In both low and high self-relevant situations, empathy plays a key role. Under low self-relevance conditions, drama enhances information processing through empathy. Under high self-relevant conditions, the advertisement format has neither significant cognitive or empathetic effects. The information processing generated by the highly relevant topic affects viewers' empathy, which in turn affects the attitude the advertisement and the behavioral intent. As predicted by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, the advertisement format enhances the attitudes and information processing mostly under low self-relevant conditions. Under low self-relevant conditions, empathy enhances information processing while under high self-relevance, the converse relation holds.

  3. Indexing of Internet resources in order to improve the provision of problem-relevant medical information.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf Kurt; Boettcher, Hanno; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Due to the information overload and the unstructured access to (medical) information of the internet, it isn't hardly possible to find problem-relevant medical information in an appropriate time (e.g. during a consultation). The web offers a mixture of web pages, forums, newsgroups and databases. The search for problem-relevant information for a certain knowledge area encounters on two basic problems. On the one hand, you have to find in the jungle of the information, relevant resources for your individual clinical case (treatment, diagnosis, therapeutic option etc..). The second problem consists of being able to judge the quality of individual contents of inteernet pages. On the basis of the different informational needs of health care professionals and patients a catalog with inteernet resources was created to tumor diseases such as lung cancer (small cell and non-small cell carcinoma), colorectal cancer and thyroid cancer. Explicit and implicit metainformation, if available, such as the title of the document, language, date or keywords are stored in the database. The database entries are editorially revised, so that further specific metainformation is available for the information retrieval. Our pragmatic approach of searching, editing, and archiving of internet content is still necessary since most of the web documents are based on HTML, which doesn't allow for structuring (medical) information and assigning metainformation sufficiently. The use of specific metainformation is crucial in order to improve the recall and precision of internet searches. In the future, XML and related technologies (RDF) will meet these requirements.

  4. Interrelation of attention and prediction in visual processing: Effects of task-relevance and stimulus probability.

    PubMed

    Marzecová, Anna; Widmann, Andreas; SanMiguel, Iria; Kotz, Sonja A; Schröger, Erich

    2017-03-09

    The potentially interactive influence of attention and prediction was investigated by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in a spatial cueing task with attention (task-relevant) and prediction (probabilistic) cues. We identified distinct processing stages of this interactive influence. Firstly, in line with the attentional gain hypothesis, a larger amplitude response of the contralateral N1, and Nd1 for attended gratings was observed. Secondly, conforming to the attenuation-by-prediction hypothesis, a smaller negativity in the time window directly following the peak of the N1 component for predicted compared to unpredicted gratings was observed. In line with the hypothesis that attention and prediction interface, unpredicted/unattended stimuli elicited a larger negativity at central-parietal sites, presumably reflecting an increased prediction error signal. Thirdly, larger P3 responses to unpredicted stimuli pointed to the updating of an internal model. Attention and prediction can be considered as differentiated mechanisms that may interact at different processing stages to optimise perception.

  5. Visualizing patient trajectories on wall-mounted boards - information security challenges.

    PubMed

    Faxvaag, Arild; Røstad, Lillian; Tøndel, Inger A; Seim, Andreas R; Toussaint, Pieter J

    2009-01-01

    Since operating room departments are among the costliest resources at a hospital, much attention is devoted to maximize their utilization. Operating room activities are however notoriously hard to plan in advance. This has to do with the unpredictable, problem-solving nature of the work and that the work is carried out by a multidisciplinary team of health personnel, members of which also have commitments outside the operating room department. We assume that operating room teams have the capacity to coordinate themselves and that coordination might be facilitated by visualizing relevant information on wall-mounted boards. To characterize clinical situations that require coordination and re-planning of the teams' work, we have developed a realistic scenario. We analyse and discuss the information security challenges that follow from displaying information on the whereabouts of other teams, actors and patients on wall-mounted boards in the operating rooms. Information security threats could be mitigated by de-identification techniques. Information demands could thereby be met without sacrificing the privacy of those whose information is displayed.

  6. Visual cues are relevant in behavioral control measures for Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Raman, A

    2011-04-01

    Trap designs for banana root borer, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been done essentially on the understanding that C. sordidus rely primarily on chemical cues. Our present results indicate that these borers also rely on visual cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that among the eight differently colored traps tested in the field, brown traps were the most effective compared with the performances of yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green traps; mahogany-brown was more effective than other shades of brown.In the current study, efficiency of ground traps with different colors was evaluated in the laboratory for the capture of C. sordidius. Response of C. sordidus to pheromone-baited ground traps of several different colors (used either individually or as 1:1 mixtures of two different colors) were compared with the standardized mahogany-brown traps. Traps with mahogany-brown mixed with different colors had no significant effect. In contrast, a laboratory color-choice tests indicated C. sordidus preferred black traps over other color traps, with no specific preferences for different shades of black. Here again, traps with black mixed with other colors (1:1) had no influence on the catches. Therefore, any other color that mixes with mahogany-brown or black does not cause color-specific dilution of attractiveness. By exploiting these results, it may be possible to produce efficacious trapping systems that could be used in a behavioral approach to banana root borer control.

  7. An information integration model of the primary visual cortex under grating stimulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhizhong; Shi, Li; Wan, Hong; Niu, Xiaoke

    2011-09-16

    During the course of information processing, a visual system extracts characteristic information of the visual image and integrates the spatial and temporal visual information simultaneously. In this study, we investigate the integration effect of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1 area) under the grating stimulation. First, an information integration model was established based on the receptive field properties of the extracted features of the visual images features, the interaction between neurons and the nonlinear integration of those neurons. Then the neuropsychological experiments were designed both to provide parameters for the model and to verify its effect. The experimental results with factual visual image were largely consistent with the model's forecast output. This demonstrates that our model can truly reflect the integration effect of the primary visual system when being subjected to grating stimulations with different orientations. Our results indicate the primary visual system integrates the visual information in the following manner: it first extracts visual information through different types of receptive field, and then its neurons interact with each other in a non-linear manner, finally the neurons fire spikes recorded as responses to the visual stimulus.

  8. Action video game players' visual search advantage extends to biologically relevant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli.

  9. Visual object recognition for mobile tourist information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletta, Lucas; Fritz, Gerald; Seifert, Christin; Luley, Patrick; Almer, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    We describe a mobile vision system that is capable of automated object identification using images captured from a PDA or a camera phone. We present a solution for the enabling technology of outdoors vision based object recognition that will extend state-of-the-art location and context aware services towards object based awareness in urban environments. In the proposed application scenario, tourist pedestrians are equipped with GPS, W-LAN and a camera attached to a PDA or a camera phone. They are interested whether their field of view contains tourist sights that would point to more detailed information. Multimedia type data about related history, the architecture, or other related cultural context of historic or artistic relevance might be explored by a mobile user who is intending to learn within the urban environment. Learning from ambient cues is in this way achieved by pointing the device towards the urban sight, capturing an image, and consequently getting information about the object on site and within the focus of attention, i.e., the users current field of view.

  10. Visualization of the Meridian System Based on Biomedical Information about Acupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the concept of the meridian system is closely connected with the treatment effects of acupuncture, and it serves as an empirical reference system in the clinical setting. Understanding the meridian channels would be a first step in enhancing the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment. To understand the relationship between the location of the disease and the sites of relevant acupoints, we investigated acupuncture treatment regimens for low-back pain in 37 clinical studies. We found that the most frequently used acupoints in the treatment of low-back pain were BL23 (51%), BL25 (43%), BL24 (32%), BL40 (32%), BL60 (32%), GB30 (32%), BL26 (28%), BL32 (28%), and GB34 (21%). For the example of low-back pain, we visualized the biomedical information (frequency rates) about acupuncture treatment on the meridians of a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human body. We found that both local and distal acupoints were used to treat low-back pain in clinical trials based on the meridian theory. We suggest a new model for the visualization of a data-driven 3D meridian system of biomedical information about the meridians and acupoints. These findings may be helpful in understanding the meridian system and revealing the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment. PMID:23781270

  11. Testing Visual Information Retrieval Methodologies Case Study: Comparative Analysis of Textual, Icon, Graphical, and "Spring" Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Emile; Lewis, Michael; Olsen, Kai A.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of visual information retrieval systems focuses on an approach for testing novel interfaces that uses bottom-up, stepwise testing to allow evaluation of a visualization itself, rather than restricting evaluation to the system instantiating it. Presents a case study of undergraduates that compares a new visualization technique to more…

  12. Enhanced Local Processing of Dynamic Visual Information in Autism: Evidence from Speed Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Y.; Norton, D. J.; McBain, R.; Gold, J.; Frazier, J. A.; Coyle, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visual information, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal signals…

  13. Encoding Visual Information in Retinal Ganglion Cells with Prosthetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel K; Rizzo, Joseph F; Fried, Shelley I

    2011-01-01

    Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visual information is encoded in ganglion cell spike trains, and how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. The goal of the current review is to bring together these two concepts in order to guide the development of more effective stimulation strategies. We review the experiments to date that have studied how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation and discuss these findings in the context of known retinal signaling strategies. The results from such in vitro studies reveal the advantages and disadvantages of activating the ganglion cell directly with the electric stimulus (direct activation) as compared to activation of neurons that are presynaptic to the ganglion cell (indirect activation). While direct activation allows high temporal but low spatial resolution, indirect activation yields improved spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Finally, we use knowledge gained from in vitro experiments to infer the patterns of elicited activity in ongoing human trials, providing insights into some of the factors limiting the quality of prosthetic vision. PMID:21593546

  14. Engaging Patients with Advance Directives using an Information Visualization Approach

    PubMed Central

    Woollen, Janet; Bakken, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Despite the benefits of advance directives (AD) to both patients and care providers, they are often not completed due to lack of patient awareness. The purpose of this paper is to advocate for creation and use of an innovative information visualization (infovisual) as a health communication tool aimed at improving AD dissemination and engagement. The infovisual would promote AD awareness by engaging patients to learn about their options and inspire contemplation and conversation regarding patients’ end-of-life (EOL) journey. An infovisual may be able to communicate insights that are often communicated in words, but are much more powerfully communicated by example. Furthermore, an infovisual could facilitate vivid understanding of options and inspire the beginning of often-difficult conversations between care providers, patients and loved ones. It may also save clinicians’ time, as care providers may be able to spend less time explaining details of EOL care options. Use of an infovisual could assist in ensuring a well-planned EOL. PMID:26273950

  15. Neural correlate of filtering of irrelevant information from visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Shahin; Moeeny, Ali; Esteky, Hossein

    2008-09-26

    In a dynamic environment stimulus task relevancy could be altered through time and it is not always possible to dissociate relevant and irrelevant objects from the very first moment they come to our sight. In such conditions, subjects need to retain maximum possible information in their WM until it is clear which items should be eliminated from WM to free attention and memory resources. Here, we examined the neural basis of irrelevant information filtering from WM by recording human ERP during a visual change detection task in which the stimulus irrelevancy was revealed in a later stage of the task forcing the subjects to keep all of the information in WM until test object set was presented. Assessing subjects' behaviour we found that subjects' RT was highly correlated with the number of irrelevant objects and not the relevant one, pointing to the notion that filtering, and not selection, process was used to handle the distracting effect of irrelevant objects. In addition we found that frontal N150 and parietal N200 peak latencies increased systematically as the amount of irrelevancy load increased. Interestingly, the peak latency of parietal N200, and not frontal N150, better correlated with subjects' RT. The difference between frontal N150 and parietal N200 peak latencies varied with the amount of irrelevancy load suggesting that functional connectivity between modules underlying fronto-parietal potentials vary concomitant with the irrelevancy load. These findings suggest the existence of two neural modules, responsible for irrelevant objects elimination, whose activity latency and functional connectivity depend on the number of irrelevant object.

  16. Crossmodal interactions of haptic and visual texture information in early sensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Eck, Judith; Kaas, Amanda L; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-07-15

    Both visual and haptic information add to the perception of surface texture. While prior studies have reported crossmodal interactions of both sensory modalities at the behavioral level, neuroimaging studies primarily investigated texture perception in separate visual and haptic paradigms. These experimental designs, however, only allowed to identify overlap in both sensory processing streams but no interaction of visual and haptic texture processing. By varying texture characteristics in a bimodal task, the current study investigated how these crossmodal interactions are reflected at the cortical level. We used fMRI to compare cortical activation in response to matching versus non-matching visual-haptic texture information. We expected that passive simultaneous presentation of matching visual-haptic input would be sufficient to induce BOLD responses graded with varying texture characteristics. Since no cognitive evaluation of the stimuli was required, we expected to find changes primarily at a rather early processing stage. Our results confirmed our assumptions by showing crossmodal interactions of visual-haptic texture information in early somatosensory and visual cortex. However, the nature of the crossmodal effects was slightly different in both sensory cortices. In early visual cortex, matching visual-haptic information increased the average activation level and induced parametric BOLD signal variations with varying texture characteristics. In early somatosensory cortex only the latter was true. These results challenge the notion that visual and haptic texture information is processed independently and indicate a crossmodal interaction of sensory information already at an early cortical processing stage.

  17. Multi-modal information processing for visual workload relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, M. W.; Gilson, R. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The simultaneous performance of two single-dimensional compensatory tracking tasks, one with the left hand and one with the right hand, is discussed. The tracking performed with the left hand was considered the primary task and was performed with a visual display or a quickened kinesthetic-tactual (KT) display. The right-handed tracking was considered the secondary task and was carried out only with a visual display. Although the two primary task displays had afforded equivalent performance in a critical tracking task performed alone, in the dual-task situation the quickened KT primary display resulted in superior secondary visual task performance. Comparisons of various combinations of primary and secondary visual displays in integrated or separated formats indicate that the superiority of the quickened KT display is not simply due to the elimination of visual scanning. Additional testing indicated that quickening per se also is not the immediate cause of the observed KT superiority.

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Visual Variables for Geographic Information Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlandini, Simone; Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    We propose an empirical, perception-based evaluation approach for assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of longstanding cartographic design principles applied to 2D map displays. The approach includes bottom-up visual saliency models that are compared with eye-movement data collected in human-subject experiments on map stimuli embedded in the so-called flicker paradigm. The proposed methods are applied to the assessment of four commonly used visual variables for designing 2D maps: size, color value, color hue, and orientation. The empirical results suggest that the visual variable size is the most efficient (fastest) and most effective (accurate) visual variable to detect change under flicker conditions. The visual variable orientation proved to be the least efficient and effective of the tested visual variables. These empirical results shed new light on the implied ranking of the visual variables that have been proposed over 40 years ago. With the presented approach we hope to provide cartographers, GIScientists and visualization designers a systematic assessment method to develop effective and efficient geovisualization displays.

  19. Colorgorical: Creating discriminable and preferable color palettes for information visualization.

    PubMed

    Gramazio, Connor C; Laidlaw, David H; Schloss, Karen B

    2017-01-01

    We present an evaluation of Colorgorical, a web-based tool for creating discriminable and aesthetically preferable categorical color palettes. Colorgorical uses iterative semi-random sampling to pick colors from CIELAB space based on user-defined discriminability and preference importances. Colors are selected by assigning each a weighted sum score that applies the user-defined importances to Perceptual Distance, Name Difference, Name Uniqueness, and Pair Preference scoring functions, which compare a potential sample to already-picked palette colors. After, a color is added to the palette by randomly sampling from the highest scoring palettes. Users can also specify hue ranges or build off their own starting palettes. This procedure differs from previous approaches that do not allow customization (e.g., pre-made ColorBrewer palettes) or do not consider visualization design constraints (e.g., Adobe Color and ACE). In a Palette Score Evaluation, we verified that each scoring function measured different color information. Experiment 1 demonstrated that slider manipulation generates palettes that are consistent with the expected balance of discriminability and aesthetic preference for 3-, 5-, and 8-color palettes, and also shows that the number of colors may change the effectiveness of pair-based discriminability and preference scores. For instance, if the Pair Preference slider were upweighted, users would judge the palettes as more preferable on average. Experiment 2 compared Colorgorical palettes to benchmark palettes (ColorBrewer, Microsoft, Tableau, Random). Colorgorical palettes are as discriminable and are at least as preferable or more preferable than the alternative palette sets. In sum, Colorgorical allows users to make customized color palettes that are, on average, as effective as current industry standards by balancing the importance of discriminability and aesthetic preference.

  20. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air Force... statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture...

  1. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air Force... statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture...

  2. A Visualization System Using Data Mining Techniques for Identifying Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Richard H.; Karadayi, Tarkan; Chen, Zhixiang; Meng, Xiannong; Fowler, Wendy A. Lawrence

    The Visual Analysis System (VAS) was developed to couple emerging successes in data mining with information visualization techniques in order to create a richly interactive environment for information retrieval from the World Wide Web. VAS's retrieval strategy operates by first using a conventional search engine to form a core set of retrieved…

  3. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  4. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward.

  5. Integration of Auditory and Visual Spatial Information During Early Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    An experiment was performed to show that infants perceive auditory and visual stimuli within a common space and that they perceive the sound as an attribute of the visual object. Subjects were 22 infants aged 3 to 5 months. Each infant was presented with a toy that moved in a small arc from side to side of a small window at the rate of one arc per…

  6. Sourcebook of Temporal Factors Affecting Information Transfer from Visual Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    stationary patterns need to be roughly proxi- mate with respect to the visual field, they do not have to be alike. Grindley and Wilkinson ( 1953 ) asked...some long and constant dura- tion. Riopelle and Bevan ( 1953 , cited in Haines, 1975) examined abso- lute sensitivity at many points throughout the visual...the frequency at which the flicker appears to fuse. Ginsburg (1970) compiled a bibliography on CFF covering the period 1953 to 1968 and numbering 1293

  7. Reconstructions of information in visual spatial working memory degrade with memory load

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T

    2014-01-01

    Summary Working memory (WM) enables the maintenance and manipulation of information relevant to behavioral goals. Variability in WM ability is strongly correlated with IQ [1] and WM function is impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders [2, 3], suggesting that this system is a core component of higher cognition. WM storage is thought to be mediated by patterns of activity in neural populations selective for specific properties (e.g., color, orientation, location, motion direction) of memoranda [4–13]. Accordingly, many models propose that differences in the amplitude of these population responses should be related to differences in memory performance [14, 15]. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an image reconstruction technique based on a spatial encoding model [16] to visualize and quantify population-level memory representations supported by multivoxel patterns of activation within regions of occipital, parietal and frontal cortex while participants precisely remembered the location(s) of 0, 1, or 2 small stimuli. We successfully reconstructed images containing representations of the remembered – but not forgotten – locations within regions of occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex using delay-period activation patterns. Critically, the amplitude of representations of remembered locations and behavioral performance both decreased with increasing memory load. These results suggest that differences in visual WM performance between memory load conditions are mediated by changes in the fidelity of large-scale population response profiles distributed across multiple areas of human cortex. PMID:25201683

  8. Information processing in the primate visual system - An integrated systems perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, David C.; Anderson, Charles H.; Felleman, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The primate visual system contains dozens of distinct areas in the cerebral cortex and several major subcortical structures. These subdivisions are extensively interconnected in a distributed hierarchical network that contains several intertwined processing streams. A number of strategies are used for efficient information processing within this hierarchy. These include linear and nonlinear filtering, passage through information bottlenecks, and coordinated use of multiple types of information. In addition, dynamic regulation of information flow within and between visual areas may provide the computational flexibility needed for the visual system to perform a broad spectrum of tasks accurately and at high resolution.

  9. Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Tomáš; Gálová, Linda; Ďuračiová, Renata; Fencík, Róbert; Kliment, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder Updates – Relevant Information for Early Interventionists to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention. PMID:27840812

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder Updates - Relevant Information for Early Interventionists to Consider.

    PubMed

    Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.

  12. Seasonal forecasts of impact-relevant climate information indices developed as part of the EUPORIAS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Climate information indices (CIIs) represent a way to communicate climate conditions to specific sectors and the public. As such, CIIs provide actionable information to stakeholders in an efficient way. Due to their non-linear nature, such CIIs can behave differently than the underlying variables, such as temperature. At the same time, CIIs do not involve impact models with different sources of uncertainties. As part of the EU project EUPORIAS (EUropean Provision Of Regional Impact Assessment on a Seasonal-to-decadal timescale) we have developed examples of seasonal forecasts of CIIs. We present forecasts and analyses of the skill of seasonal forecasts for CIIs that are relevant to a variety of economic sectors and a range of stakeholders: heating and cooling degree days as proxies for energy demand, various precipitation and drought-related measures relevant to agriculture and hydrology, a wild fire index, a climate-driven mortality index and wind-related indices tailored to renewable energy producers. Common to all examples is the finding of limited forecast skill over Europe, highlighting the challenge for providing added-value services to stakeholders operating in Europe. The reasons for the lack of forecast skill vary: often we find little skill in the underlying variable(s) precisely in those areas that are relevant for the CII, in other cases the nature of the CII is particularly demanding for predictions, as seen in the case of counting measures such as frost days or cool nights. On the other hand, several results suggest there may be some predictability in sub-regions for certain indices. Several of the exemplary analyses show potential for skillful forecasts and prospect for improvements by investing in post-processing. Furthermore, those cases for which CII forecasts showed similar skill values as those of the underlying meteorological variables, forecasts of CIIs provide added value from a user perspective.

  13. Visual attention spreads broadly but selects information locally

    PubMed Central

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Honjyo, Hajime; Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Visual attention spreads over a range around the focus as the spotlight metaphor describes. Spatial spread of attentional enhancement and local selection/inhibition are crucial factors determining the profile of the spatial attention. Enhancement and ignorance/suppression are opposite effects of attention, and appeared to be mutually exclusive. Yet, no unified view of the factors has been provided despite their necessity for understanding the functions of spatial attention. This report provides electroencephalographic and behavioral evidence for the attentional spread at an early stage and selection/inhibition at a later stage of visual processing. Steady state visual evoked potential showed broad spatial tuning whereas the P3 component of the event related potential showed local selection or inhibition of the adjacent areas. Based on these results, we propose a two-stage model of spatial attention with broad spread at an early stage and local selection at a later stage. PMID:27759056

  14. Cross-Modal Sensory Integration of Visual-Tactile Motion Information: Instrument Design and Human Psychophysics

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Yu; Lee, Tsung-Chi; Saha, Sudipta; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Chou, Shih-Wei; Wong, Alice M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Information obtained from multiple sensory modalities, such as vision and touch, is integrated to yield a holistic percept. As a haptic approach usually involves cross-modal sensory experiences, it is necessary to develop an apparatus that can characterize how a biological system integrates visual-tactile sensory information as well as how a robotic device infers object information emanating from both vision and touch. In the present study, we develop a novel visual-tactile cross-modal integration stimulator that consists of an LED panel to present visual stimuli and a tactile stimulator with three degrees of freedom that can present tactile motion stimuli with arbitrary motion direction, speed, and indentation depth in the skin. The apparatus can present cross-modal stimuli in which the spatial locations of visual and tactile stimulations are perfectly aligned. We presented visual-tactile stimuli in which the visual and tactile directions were either congruent or incongruent, and human observers reported the perceived visual direction of motion. Results showed that perceived direction of visual motion can be biased by the direction of tactile motion when visual signals are weakened. The results also showed that the visual-tactile motion integration follows the rule of temporal congruency of multi-modal inputs, a fundamental property known for cross-modal integration. PMID:23727955

  15. Visual Representations of Academic Misconduct: Enhancing Information Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancic, Sonia R.; Hosek, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This unit activity is suited for courses with research and source citation components, such as the Basic Communication; Interpersonal, and Organizational Communication courses. Objectives: Students will (a) visually interpret and analyze instances of plagiarism; (b) revise their work to use proper citations and reduce instances of…

  16. The Impact of Visualizations in Promoting Informed Natural Resource Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    The research in this dissertation was conducted in order to understand the ways in which scientific visualizations can influence the decision process of non-scientists. A wide variety of classical and novel methods were used in order to capture and analyze the decision process. Data were collected from non-scientists through role-play interviews…

  17. Reversal of cortical information flow during visual imagery as compared to visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Dentico, Daniela; Cheung, Bing Leung; Chang, Jui-Yang; Guokas, Jeffrey; Boly, Melanie; Tononi, Giulio; Van Veen, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The role of bottom-up and top-down connections during visual perception and the forming of mental images was examined by analyzing high-density EEG recordings of brain activity using two state-of-the-art methods for assessing the directionality of cortical signal flow: state-space Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling. We quantified the directionality of signal flow in an occipito-parieto-frontal cortical network during perception of movie clips versus mental replay of the movies and free visual imagery. Both Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed increased top-down signal flow in parieto-occipital cortices during mental imagery as compared to visual perception. These results are the first direct demonstration of a reversal of the predominant direction of cortical signal flow during mental imagery as compared to perception. PMID:24910071

  18. Reversal of cortical information flow during visual imagery as compared to visual perception.

    PubMed

    Dentico, Daniela; Cheung, Bing Leung; Chang, Jui-Yang; Guokas, Jeffrey; Boly, Melanie; Tononi, Giulio; Van Veen, Barry

    2014-10-15

    The role of bottom-up and top-down connections during visual perception and the formation of mental images was examined by analyzing high-density EEG recordings of brain activity using two state-of-the-art methods for assessing the directionality of cortical signal flow: state-space Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling. We quantified the directionality of signal flow in an occipito-parieto-frontal cortical network during perception of movie clips versus mental replay of the movies and free visual imagery. Both Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed an increased top-down signal flow in parieto-occipital cortices during mental imagery as compared to visual perception. These results are the first direct demonstration of a reversal of the predominant direction of cortical signal flow during mental imagery as compared to perception.

  19. Haptic over visual information in the distribution of visual attention after tool-use in near and far space.

    PubMed

    Park, George D; Reed, Catherine L

    2015-10-01

    Despite attentional prioritization for grasping space near the hands, tool-use appears to transfer attentional bias to the tool's end/functional part. The contributions of haptic and visual inputs to attentional distribution along a tool were investigated as a function of tool-use in near (Experiment 1) and far (Experiment 2) space. Visual attention was assessed with a 50/50, go/no-go, target discrimination task, while a tool was held next to targets appearing near the tool-occupied hand or tool-end. Target response times (RTs) and sensitivity (d-prime) were measured at target locations, before and after functional tool practice for three conditions: (1) open-tool: tool-end visible (visual + haptic inputs), (2) hidden-tool: tool-end visually obscured (haptic input only), and (3) short-tool: stick missing tool's length/end (control condition: hand occupied but no visual/haptic input). In near space, both open- and hidden-tool groups showed a tool-end, attentional bias (faster RTs toward tool-end) before practice; after practice, RTs near the hand improved. In far space, the open-tool group showed no bias before practice; after practice, target RTs near the tool-end improved. However, the hidden-tool group showed a consistent tool-end bias despite practice. Lack of short-tool group results suggested that hidden-tool group results were specific to haptic inputs. In conclusion, (1) allocation of visual attention along a tool due to tool practice differs in near and far space, and (2) visual attention is drawn toward the tool's end even when visually obscured, suggesting haptic input provides sufficient information for directing attention along the tool.

  20. A Method to Quantify Visual Information Processing in Children Using Eye Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kooiker, Marlou J.G.; Pel, Johan J.M.; van der Steen-Kant, Sanny P.; van der Steen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Visual problems that occur early in life can have major impact on a child's development. Without verbal communication and only based on observational methods, it is difficult to make a quantitative assessment of a child's visual problems. This limits accurate diagnostics in children under the age of 4 years and in children with intellectual disabilities. Here we describe a quantitative method that overcomes these problems. The method uses a remote eye tracker and a four choice preferential looking paradigm to measure eye movement responses to different visual stimuli. The child sits without head support in front of a monitor with integrated infrared cameras. In one of four monitor quadrants a visual stimulus is presented. Each stimulus has a specific visual modality with respect to the background, e.g., form, motion, contrast or color. From the reflexive eye movement responses to these specific visual modalities, output parameters such as reaction times, fixation accuracy and fixation duration are calculated to quantify a child's viewing behavior. With this approach, the quality of visual information processing can be assessed without the use of communication. By comparing results with reference values obtained in typically developing children from 0-12 years, the method provides a characterization of visual information processing in visually impaired children. The quantitative information provided by this method can be advantageous for the field of clinical visual assessment and rehabilitation in multiple ways. The parameter values provide a good basis to: (i) characterize early visual capacities and consequently to enable early interventions; (ii) compare risk groups and follow visual development over time; and (iii), construct an individual visual profile for each child. PMID:27500922

  1. Intelligent Visualization of Geo-Information on the Future Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slusallek, P.; Jochem, R.; Sons, K.; Hoffmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Visualization is a key component of the "Observation Web" and will become even more important in the future as geo data becomes more widely accessible. The common statement that "Data that cannot be seen, does not exist" is especially true for non-experts, like most citizens. The Web provides the most interesting platform for making data easily and widely available. However, today's Web is not well suited for the interactive visualization and exploration that is often needed for geo data. Support for 3D data was added only recently and at an extremely low level (WebGL), but even the 2D visualization capabilities of HTML e.g. (images, canvas, SVG) are rather limited, especially regarding interactivity. We have developed XML3D as an extension to HTML-5. It allows for compactly describing 2D and 3D data directly as elements of an HTML-5 document. All graphics elements are part of the Document Object Model (DOM) and can be manipulated via the same set of DOM events and methods that millions of Web developers use on a daily basis. Thus, XML3D makes highly interactive 2D and 3D visualization easily usable, not only for geo data. XML3D is supported by any WebGL-capable browser but we also provide native implementations in Firefox and Chromium. As an example, we show how OpenStreetMap data can be mapped directly to XML3D and visualized interactively in any Web page. We show how this data can be easily augmented with additional data from the Web via a few lines of Javascript. We also show how embedded semantic data (via RDFa) allows for linking the visualization back to the data's origin, thus providing an immersive interface for interacting with and modifying the original data. XML3D is used as key input for standardization within the W3C Community Group on "Declarative 3D for the Web" chaired by the DFKI and has recently been selected as one of the Generic Enabler for the EU Future Internet initiative.

  2. Information and repetition change children's visual strategies when viewing magic tricks with and without gaze cues.

    PubMed

    Ordqvist, Anna; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Leung, Denise; Fleischer, Håkan; Dahlman, Joakim; Girdler, Sonya; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2013-02-01

    Gaze cues and direct gaze attract visual attention. However, few studies have explored visual cues in children within realistic contexts. The effect of information and repetitive stimulus presentation has not been thoroughly studied with dynamic stimuli. The aim of the present study was to investigate how information affects the visual strategies of children measured by the number of fixations on certain areas of interest and their durations. Furthermore, this study examined the effect of gaze cues and direct gaze. In two consecutive experiments, children's visual strategies when viewing magic tricks were measured by an eye tracker. Gaze cues were only present in Experiment 1.The results showed that repetitive stimulus presentation and information caused children to change their visual strategies when viewing magic tricks with and without gaze cues. However, the effect was larger when the gaze cues were not present. These findings in children were similar to those in adults.

  3. Effects of auditory information on self-motion perception during simultaneous presentation of visual shearing motion

    PubMed Central

    Tanahashi, Shigehito; Ashihara, Kaoru; Ujike, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that self-motion perception induced by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion is facilitated when the directions of visual and auditory motion stimuli are identical. They did not, however, examine possible contributions of auditory motion information for determining direction of self-motion perception. To examine this, a visual stimulus projected on a hemisphere screen and an auditory stimulus presented through headphones were presented separately or simultaneously, depending on experimental conditions. The participant continuously indicated the direction and strength of self-motion during the 130-s experimental trial. When the visual stimulus with a horizontal shearing rotation and the auditory stimulus with a horizontal one-directional rotation were presented simultaneously, the duration and strength of self-motion perceived in the opposite direction of the auditory rotation stimulus were significantly longer and stronger than those perceived in the same direction of the auditory rotation stimulus. However, the auditory stimulus alone could not sufficiently induce self-motion perception, and if it did, its direction was not consistent within each experimental trial. We concluded that auditory motion information can determine perceived direction of self-motion during simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion information, at least when visual stimuli moved in opposing directions (around the yaw-axis). We speculate that the contribution of auditory information depends on the plausibility and information balance of visual and auditory information. PMID:26113828

  4. A Hybrid Approach to Finding Relevant Social Media Content for Complex Domain Specific Information Needs

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Delroy; Sheth, Amit P.; Jaykumar, Nishita; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Anand, Gaurish; Smith, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    While contemporary semantic search systems offer to improve classical keyword-based search, they are not always adequate for complex domain specific information needs. The domain of prescription drug abuse, for example, requires knowledge of both ontological concepts and “intelligible constructs” not typically modeled in ontologies. These intelligible constructs convey essential information that include notions of intensity, frequency, interval, dosage and sentiments, which could be important to the holistic needs of the information seeker. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach to domain specific information retrieval that integrates ontology-driven query interpretation with synonym-based query expansion and domain specific rules, to facilitate search in social media on prescription drug abuse. Our framework is based on a context-free grammar (CFG) that defines the query language of constructs interpretable by the search system. The grammar provides two levels of semantic interpretation: 1) a top-level CFG that facilitates retrieval of diverse textual patterns, which belong to broad templates and 2) a low-level CFG that enables interpretation of specific expressions belonging to such textual patterns. These low-level expressions occur as concepts from four different categories of data: 1) ontological concepts, 2) concepts in lexicons (such as emotions and sentiments), 3) concepts in lexicons with only partial ontology representation, called lexico-ontology concepts (such as side effects and routes of administration (ROA)), and 4) domain specific expressions (such as date, time, interval, frequency and dosage) derived solely through rules. Our approach is embodied in a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE, which provides search support for complex domain specific information needs in prescription drug abuse epidemiology. When applied to a corpus of over 1 million drug abuse-related web forum posts, our search framework proved effective in retrieving

  5. Enhancing Policymakers’ Understanding of Disparities: Relevant Data from an Information-Rich Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Noralou P; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Fuller, Emma L

    2010-01-01

    Context: Information-rich environments, with access and funding provided by government, make it possible to organize longitudinal administrative data to support analyses of policy-relevant questions. This paper describes insights into children's well-being and social equity obtained from data available in Manitoba, Canada, and highlights findings that have engaged policymakers. Methods: Analyses draw on Manitoba-linked data providing information over time (going back to 1970 in some files) and across space (with residential location documented every six months) for each provincial resident. Routinely collected data from the Ministries of Health, Education, and Family Services and Consumer Affairs have been integrated with a population registry. Findings: Identifying risk factors and presenting outcomes by social groups and by local communities capture the attention of policymakers. Linking an individual's area of residence to census and health data has led to developing measures of population health status and socioeconomic status. These measures focus on whether delivery patterns track health and educational needs, and a population registry makes it possible to describe who is (and is not) served by each program. Conclusions: The nature of health and social research has been changed by the development of information-rich environments. Many findings in Manitoba could not be replicated without a population registry. Engaging decision makers through effective presentations can ensure continuing support for diverse efforts based on these environments, and this article suggests ways of better communicating with policymakers. PMID:20860576

  6. Information Processing Analysis of Visual Perception: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    opposite extreme of stressing the wholistic features of perception to the detriment of the possibility of partitioning the perceptual process...occurring at the same or higher levels (using ’levels’ in the rather careful sense that ^as laid out in the previous section). This analysis will...version of the template matching paradigm, which holds that the primary task of a visual system is recognition, i.e. matching an imape (of an

  7. SVEN: Informative Visual Representation of Complex Dynamic Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    placement of storylines to decrease clutter (line crossings, straightness, and bends) in the drawing . This paper demonstrates SVEN on several different...of storylines to decrease clutter (line crossings, straightness, and bends) in the drawing . This paper demon- strates SVEN on several different flavors...visualization of graphs (i.e., graph drawing ) has been an active area of research for the past several decades. However, the world is a dynamic place, so

  8. Improving Readability of an Evaluation Tool for Low-Income Clients Using Visual Information Processing Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Marilyn S.; Sylva, Kathryn; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Wooten-Swanson, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Literacy is an issue for many low-income audiences. Using visual information processing theories, the goal was improving readability of a food behavior checklist and ultimately improving its ability to accurately capture existing changes in dietary behaviors. Using group interviews, low-income clients (n = 18) evaluated 4 visual styles. The text…

  9. Hippocampus Contributes to the Maintenance but Not the Quality of Visual Information over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Cohen, Neal J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has recently been implicated in the brief representation of visual information, but its specific role is not well understood. We investigated this role using a paradigm that distinguishes quantity and quality of visual memory as described in a previous study. We found that amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage (N = 5)…

  10. Visual and Auditory Information Processing in Dyslexia: The Possibility of Subtypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddington, John M.; Cameron, Kel D.

    1991-01-01

    This study of visual and auditory problems in 17 children (ages 7-10) with dyslexia concluded that, although eye tracking and binocular fusion problems should always be considered in the assessment of dyslexics, factors involved in information processing in auditory and visual perception appear to be more highly implicated. (Author/JDD)

  11. Computations Underlying Social Hierarchy Learning: Distinct Neural Mechanisms for Updating and Representing Self-Relevant Information.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Banino, Andrea; Blundell, Charles; Hassabis, Demis; Dayan, Peter

    2016-12-07

    Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus. In contrast, we observed domain-general coding of rank in the amygdala and hippocampus, even when the task did not require it. Our findings reveal the computations underlying a core aspect of social cognition and provide new evidence that self-relevant information may indeed be afforded a unique representational status in the brain.

  12. Pattern recognition, attention, and information bottlenecks in the primate visual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Essen, David; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Anderson, Clifford H.; Gallant, J. T.

    1991-07-01

    In its evolution, the primate visual system has developed impressive capabilities for recognizing complex patterns in natural images. This process involves many stages of analysis and a variety of information processing strategies. This paper concentrates on the importance of 'information bottlenecks,' which restrict the amount of information that can be handled at different stages of analysis. These steps are crucial for reducing the overwhelming computational complexity associated with recognizing countless objects from arbitrary viewing angles, distances, and perspectives. The process of directed visual attention is an especially important information bottleneck because of its flexibility in determining how information is routed to high-level pattern recognition centers.

  13. NOAA's Honua: Visualizations of Complex Environmental Information in Formal and Informal Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, M. A.; Stovall, W. K.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center supports a data visualization program, called NOAA's Honua, for the presentation of geophysical processes and environmental data in both formal and informal education settings using 3-D technology. Many display systems are available for the virtual representation of global environmental data, including Google Earth, NASA World Wind, and ESRI's ArcGIS Explorer. All present global data on virtual 3-D platforms using industry standard vector and raster data sources. Other products project earth system data on 3-D spherical platforms: NOAA's Science on a Sphere, Global Imagination's Magic Planet, and the OmniGlobe spherical display system. The NOAA Pacific Services Center provides resources for formal education in the form of lesson plans that cover ocean, climate, and hazards science. Components of NOAA's Honua also utilize spherical display systems for public outreach in a variety of venues, including conferences, community events, and science learning centers. In these settings, NOAA's Honua combines written narratives and accompanying audio in an interactive kiosk. Web-based 3-D interactive components are available and complement both the formal and informal education components. The strength of this program is that complex geophysical processes are presented in intuitive and compelling formats that are readily accessible via the Internet and can be viewed at science centers and museums.

  14. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... Force record center accessioning point. (c) Identification of VIDOC materials. Clearly identify...

  15. Infographics And Public Policy: Using Data Visualization To Convey Complex Information.

    PubMed

    Otten, Jennifer J; Cheng, Karen; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Data visualization combines principles from psychology, usability, graphic design, and statistics to highlight important data in accessible and appealing formats. Doing so helps bridge knowledge producers with knowledge users, who are often inundated with information and increasingly pressed for time.

  16. Introduction to Information Visualization (InfoVis) Techniques for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindiy, Oleg; Litomisky, Krystof; Davidoff, Scott; Dekens, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents insights that conform to numerous system modeling languages/representation standards. The insights are drawn from best practices of Information Visualization as applied to aerospace-based applications.

  17. Visually Induced Inhibition of Return Affects the Integration of Auditory and Visual Information.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W; Spence, C

    2016-08-02

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and exogenous spatial attention can both speedup responses to perceptual events. Recently, it has been shown that audiovisual integration at exogenously attended locations is reduced relative to unattended locations. This effect was observed at short cue-target intervals (200-250 ms). At longer intervals, however, the initial benefits of exogenous shifts of spatial attention at the cued location are often replaced by response time (RT) costs (also known as Inhibition of Return, IOR). Given these opposing cueing effects at shorter versus longer intervals, we decided to investigate whether MSI would also be affected by IOR. Uninformative exogenous visual spatial cues were presented between 350 and 450 ms prior to the onset of auditory, visual, and audiovisual targets. As expected, IOR was observed for visual targets (invalid cue RT < valid cue RT). For auditory and audiovisual targets, neither IOR nor any spatial cueing effects were observed. The amount of relative multisensory response enhancement and race model inequality violation was larger for uncued as compared with cued locations indicating that IOR reduces MSI. The results are discussed in the context of changes in unisensory signal strength at cued as compared with uncued locations.

  18. The Effectiveness of Verbal Information Provided by Electronic Travel Aids for Visually Impaired Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…

  19. The Deceptively Simple N170 Reflects Network Information Processing Mechanisms Involving Visual Feature Coding and Transfer Across Hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Robin A. A.; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Gross, Joachim; Panzeri, Stefano; van Rijsbergen, Nicola J.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2016-01-01

    A key to understanding visual cognition is to determine “where”, “when”, and “how” brain responses reflect the processing of the specific visual features that modulate categorization behavior—the “what”. The N170 is the earliest Event-Related Potential (ERP) that preferentially responds to faces. Here, we demonstrate that a paradigmatic shift is necessary to interpret the N170 as the product of an information processing network that dynamically codes and transfers face features across hemispheres, rather than as a local stimulus-driven event. Reverse-correlation methods coupled with information-theoretic analyses revealed that visibility of the eyes influences face detection behavior. The N170 initially reflects coding of the behaviorally relevant eye contralateral to the sensor, followed by a causal communication of the other eye from the other hemisphere. These findings demonstrate that the deceptively simple N170 ERP hides a complex network information processing mechanism involving initial coding and subsequent cross-hemispheric transfer of visual features. PMID:27550865

  20. Direct neural pathways convey distinct visual information to Drosophila mushroom bodies

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Katrin; Aso, Yoshinori; Hige, Toshihide; Knapek, Stephan; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Friedrich, Anja B; Turner, Glenn C; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that visual and olfactory associative memories of Drosophila share mushroom body (MB) circuits (Vogt et al., 2014). Unlike for odor representation, the MB circuit for visual information has not been characterized. Here, we show that a small subset of MB Kenyon cells (KCs) selectively responds to visual but not olfactory stimulation. The dendrites of these atypical KCs form a ventral accessory calyx (vAC), distinct from the main calyx that receives olfactory input. We identified two types of visual projection neurons (VPNs) directly connecting the optic lobes and the vAC. Strikingly, these VPNs are differentially required for visual memories of color and brightness. The segregation of visual and olfactory domains in the MB allows independent processing of distinct sensory memories and may be a conserved form of sensory representations among insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14009.001 PMID:27083044

  1. The most informative spacing test effectively discovers biologically relevant outliers or multiple modes in expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Edmonson, Michael; Liu, Zhifa; Gruber, Tanja; Zhang, Jinghui; Pounds, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Several outlier and subgroup identification statistics (OASIS) have been proposed to discover transcriptomic features with outliers or multiple modes in expression that are indicative of distinct biological processes or subgroups. Here, we borrow ideas from the OASIS methods in the bioinformatics and statistics literature to develop the ‘most informative spacing test’ (MIST) for unsupervised detection of such transcriptomic features. In an example application involving 14 cases of pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, MIST more robustly identified features that perfectly discriminate subjects according to gender or the presence of a prognostically relevant fusion-gene than did seven other OASIS methods in the analysis of RNA-seq exon expression, RNA-seq exon junction expression and micorarray exon expression data. MIST was also effective at identifying features related to gender or molecular subtype in an example application involving 157 adult cases of acute myeloid leukemia. Availability: MIST will be freely available in the OASIS R package at http://www.stjuderesearch.org/site/depts/biostats Contact: stanley.pounds@stjude.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24458951

  2. Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Kumiko

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions (e.g., firefighter) given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions (e.g., man) more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only when the referent lacked the visual attributes associated with the expressions (e.g., the referent was in plain clothes rather than in a firefighter uniform), so there was no other contextual cue available for the identification of the referent. This suggests that speakers flexibly use different contextual cues to help their addressee map the referring expression onto the intended referent. In addition, speakers used fewer pronouns when the addressee did not hear the linguistic antecedent than when s/he did. This suggests that although speakers may be egocentric during anaphoric reference (Fukumura & Van Gompel, 2012), they can cooperatively avoid pronouns when the linguistic antecedents were not shared with their addressee during initial reference.

  3. Comparing the quality of accessing medical literature using content-based visual and textual information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Henning; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Hersh, William

    2009-02-01

    Content-based visual information (or image) retrieval (CBIR) has been an extremely active research domain within medical imaging over the past ten years, with the goal of improving the management of visual medical information. Many technical solutions have been proposed, and application scenarios for image retrieval as well as image classification have been set up. However, in contrast to medical information retrieval using textual methods, visual retrieval has only rarely been applied in clinical practice. This is despite the large amount and variety of visual information produced in hospitals every day. This information overload imposes a significant burden upon clinicians, and CBIR technologies have the potential to help the situation. However, in order for CBIR to become an accepted clinical tool, it must demonstrate a higher level of technical maturity than it has to date. Since 2004, the ImageCLEF benchmark has included a task for the comparison of visual information retrieval algorithms for medical applications. In 2005, a task for medical image classification was introduced and both tasks have been run successfully for the past four years. These benchmarks allow an annual comparison of visual retrieval techniques based on the same data sets and the same query tasks, enabling the meaningful comparison of various retrieval techniques. The datasets used from 2004-2007 contained images and annotations from medical teaching files. In 2008, however, the dataset used was made up of 67,000 images (along with their associated figure captions and the full text of their corresponding articles) from two Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) scientific journals. This article describes the results of the medical image retrieval task of the ImageCLEF 2008 evaluation campaign. We compare the retrieval results of both visual and textual information retrieval systems from 15 research groups on the aforementioned data set. The results show clearly that, currently

  4. Asynchronous Visualization of Spatiotemporal Information for Multiple Moving Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huadong

    2013-01-01

    In the modern information age, the quantity and complexity of spatiotemporal data is increasing both rapidly and continuously. Sensor systems with multiple feeds that gather multidimensional spatiotemporal data will result in information clusters and overload, as well as a high cognitive load for users of these systems. To meet future…

  5. A Software Developer’s Guide to Informal Evaluation of Visual Analytics Environments Using VAST Challenge Information

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Kris A.; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2015-12-07

    The VAST Challenge has been a popular venue for academic and industry participants for over ten years. Many participants comment that the majority of their time in preparing VAST Challenge entries is discovering elements in their software environments that need to be redesigned in order to solve the given task. Fortunately, there is no need to wait until the VAST Challenge is announced to test out software systems. The Visual Analytics Benchmark Repository contains all past VAST Challenge tasks, data, solutions and submissions. This paper details the various types of evaluations that may be conducted using the Repository information. In this paper we describe how developers can do informal evaluations of various aspects of their visual analytics environments using VAST Challenge information. Aspects that can be evaluated include the appropriateness of the software for various tasks, the various data types and formats that can be accommodated, the effectiveness and efficiency of the process supported by the software, and the intuitiveness of the visualizations and interactions. Researchers can compare their visualizations and interactions to those submitted to determine novelty. In addition, the paper provides pointers to various guidelines that software teams can use to evaluate the usability of their software. While these evaluations are not a replacement for formal evaluation methods, this information can be extremely useful during the development of visual analytics environments.

  6. Effects of frequency shifts and visual gender information on vowel category judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glidden, Catherine; Assmann, Peter F.

    2003-10-01

    Visual morphing techniques were used together with a high-quality vocoder to study the audiovisual contribution of talker gender to the identification of frequency-shifted vowels. A nine-step continuum ranging from ``bit'' to ``bet'' was constructed from natural recorded syllables spoken by an adult female talker. Upward and downward frequency shifts in spectral envelope (scale factors of 0.85 and 1.0) were applied in combination with shifts in fundamental frequency, F0 (scale factors of 0.5 and 1.0). Downward frequency shifts generally resulted in malelike voices whereas upward shifts were perceived as femalelike. Two separate nine-step visual continua from ``bit'' to ``bet'' were also constructed, one from a male face and the other a female face, each producing the end-point words. Each step along the two visual continua was paired with the corresponding step on the acoustic continuum, creating natural audiovisual utterances. Category boundary shifts were found for both acoustic cues (F0 and formant frequency shifts) and visual cues (visual gender). The visual gender effect was larger when acoustic and visual information were matched appropriately. These results suggest that visual information provided by the speech signal plays an important supplemental role in talker normalization.

  7. Expert vs. novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: evidence from eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions. PMID:25202298

  8. The effects of lossy compression on diagnostically relevant seizure information in EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Higgins, G; McGinley, B; Faul, S; McEvoy, R P; Glavin, M; Marnane, W P; Jones, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of compression on EEG signals, in the context of automated detection of epileptic seizures. Specifically, it examines the use of lossy compression on EEG signals in order to reduce the amount of data which has to be transmitted or stored, while having as little impact as possible on the information in the signal relevant to diagnosing epileptic seizures. Two popular compression methods, JPEG2000 and SPIHT, were used. A range of compression levels was selected for both algorithms in order to compress the signals with varying degrees of loss. This compression was applied to the database of epileptiform data provided by the University of Freiburg, Germany. The real-time EEG analysis for event detection automated seizure detection system was used in place of a trained clinician for scoring the reconstructed data. Results demonstrate that compression by a factor of up to 120:1 can be achieved, with minimal loss in seizure detection performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the seizure detection system.

  9. Have Maryland local health departments effectively put in place the information technology relevant to emergency preparedness?

    PubMed

    Nguh, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the federal government has increased funding for emergency preparedness. However, the literature continues to document several areas of weaknesses in public health emergency management by local health departments (LHD). This lack of preparedness affects the entire public. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not Maryland LHDs have effectively put in place the information technology (IT) that is relevant for emergency preparedness. Base Firm-wide IT Infrastructure Services and the Feeny/Willcocks Framework for Core IS Capabilities are the two conceptual frameworks used in this study. This qualitative study used the survey method and the data were analyzed through content analysis. The results revealed that utilization, practice, and performance of IT by Maryland LHDs are not efficient or effective. Recommendations included the development of "best practices," increased funding for IT infrastructure and the establishment of strategic management framework for IT initiatives. Implications for positive social change include the development of recommendations to enhance emergency preparedness practice, and advancement of knowledge so as to facilitate the functions, and duties of health departments in emergency preparedness operations.

  10. Visualization support for risk-informed decision making when planning and managing software developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Menzies, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Key decisions are made in the early stages of planning and management of software developments. The information basis for these decisions is often a mix of analogy with past developments, and the best judgments of domain experts. Visualization of this information can support to such decision making by clarifying the status of the information and yielding insights into the ramifications of that information vis-a-vis decision alternatives.

  11. Humans use visual and remembered information about object location to plan pointing movements.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Knill, David C

    2009-01-21

    We investigated whether humans use a target's remembered location to plan reaching movements to targets according to the relative reliabilities of visual and remembered information. Using their index finger, subjects moved a virtual object from one side of a table to the other, and then went back to a target. In some trials, the target shifted unnoticed while the finger made the first movement. We regressed subjects' movement trajectories against the initial and shifted target locations to infer the weights that subjects gave to remembered and visual locations. We measured the reliability of vision and memory by adding conditions in which the target only appeared after subjects made the first movement (vision only) and in which the target was initially present but disappeared during the first movement (memory only). When both visual and remembered information were available, movement trajectories were biased to the remembered target location. The different weights that subjects gave to memory and visual information on average matched the weights predicted by the variance associated with the use of vision and memory alone. This suggests that humans integrate remembered information about object locations with peripheral visual information by taking into account the relative reliability of the two sources of information.

  12. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  13. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  14. Distinct representation and distribution of visual information by specific cell types in mouse superficial superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Gale, Samuel D; Murphy, Gabe J

    2014-10-01

    The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) occupies a critical node in the mammalian visual system; it is one of two major retinorecipient areas, receives visual cortical input, and innervates visual thalamocortical circuits. Nonetheless, the contribution of sSC neurons to downstream neural activity and visually guided behavior is unknown and frequently neglected. Here we identified the visual stimuli to which specific classes of sSC neurons respond, the downstream regions they target, and transgenic mice enabling class-specific manipulations. One class responds to small, slowly moving stimuli and projects exclusively to lateral posterior thalamus; another, comprising GABAergic neurons, responds to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli and projects to multiple areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus. A third class exhibits direction-selective responses and targets deeper SC layers. Together, our results show how specific sSC neurons represent and distribute diverse information and enable direct tests of their functional role.

  15. Assisting the visually impaired to deal with telephone interview jobs using information and commutation technology.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Fung-Huei; Yang, Chung-Chieh

    2014-12-01

    This study proposed a new information and commutation technology assisted blind telephone interview (ICT-ABTI) system to help visually impaired people to do telephone interview jobs as normal sighted people and create more diverse employment opportunities for them. The study also used an ABAB design to assess the system with seven visually impaired people. As the results, they can accomplish 3070 effective telephone interviews per month independently. The results also show that working performance of the visually impaired can be improved effectively with appropriate design of operation working flow and accessible software. The visually impaired become productive, lucrative, and self-sufficient by using ICT-ABTI system to do telephone interview jobs. The results were also shared through the APEC Digital Opportunity Center platform to help visually impaired in Philippines, Malaysia and China.

  16. Stimulus-response correspondence effect as a function of temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant information processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Yuan Debbie; Richard, F Dan; Ray, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    The stimulus-response correspondence (SRC) effect refers to advantages in performance when stimulus and response correspond in dimensions or features, even if the common features are irrelevant to the task. Previous research indicated that the SRC effect depends on the temporal course of stimulus information processing. The current study investigated how the temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant stimulus processing influences the SRC effect. In this experiment, the irrelevant stimulus (a previously associated tone) preceded the relevant stimulus (a coloured rectangle). The irrelevant and relevant stimuli onset asynchrony was varied to manipulate the temporal overlap between the irrelevant and relevant stimuli processing. Results indicated that the SRC effect size varied as a quadratic function of the temporal overlap between the relevant stimulus and irrelevant stimulus. This finding extends previous experimental observations that the SRC effect size varies in an increasing or decreasing function with reaction time. The current study demonstrated a quadratic function between effect size and the temporal overlap.

  17. Improving protein–protein interactions prediction accuracy using protein evolutionary information and relevance vector machine model

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji‐Yong; Meng, Fan‐Rong; Chen, Xing; Yan, Gui‐Ying; Hu, Ji‐Pu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Predicting protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is a challenging task and essential to construct the protein interaction networks, which is important for facilitating our understanding of the mechanisms of biological systems. Although a number of high‐throughput technologies have been proposed to predict PPIs, there are unavoidable shortcomings, including high cost, time intensity, and inherently high false positive rates. For these reasons, many computational methods have been proposed for predicting PPIs. However, the problem is still far from being solved. In this article, we propose a novel computational method called RVM‐BiGP that combines the relevance vector machine (RVM) model and Bi‐gram Probabilities (BiGP) for PPIs detection from protein sequences. The major improvement includes (1) Protein sequences are represented using the Bi‐gram probabilities (BiGP) feature representation on a Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM), in which the protein evolutionary information is contained; (2) For reducing the influence of noise, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method is used to reduce the dimension of BiGP vector; (3) The powerful and robust Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) algorithm is used for classification. Five‐fold cross‐validation experiments executed on yeast and Helicobacter pylori datasets, which achieved very high accuracies of 94.57 and 90.57%, respectively. Experimental results are significantly better than previous methods. To further evaluate the proposed method, we compare it with the state‐of‐the‐art support vector machine (SVM) classifier on the yeast dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our RVM‐BiGP method is significantly better than the SVM‐based method. In addition, we achieved 97.15% accuracy on imbalance yeast dataset, which is higher than that of balance yeast dataset. The promising experimental results show the efficiency and robust of the proposed method, which can be an automatic

  18. Generalized information fusion and visualization using spatial voting and data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel and innovative information fusion and visualization framework for multi-source intelligence (multiINT) data using Spatial Voting (SV) and Data Modeling. We describe how different sources of information can be converted into numerical form for further processing downstream, followed by a short description of how this information can be fused using the SV grid. As an illustrative example, we show the modeling of cyberspace as cyber layers for the purpose of tracking cyber personas. Finally we describe a path ahead for creating interactive agile networks through defender customized Cyber-cubes for network configuration and attack visualization.

  19. Image-Enabled Discourse: Investigating the Creation of Visual Information as Communicative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has clarified a thought or prompted a response during a conversation by drawing a picture has exploited the potential of image making as an interactive tool for conveying information. Images are increasingly ubiquitous in daily communication, in large part due to advances in visually enabled information and communication technologies…

  20. Describing Images: A Case Study of Visual Literacy among Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined the development of pedagogical methods for increasing the visual literacy skills of a group of library and information science students. Through a series of three assignments, students were asked to provide descriptive information for a set of historical photographs and record reflections on their…

  1. The Time Course of Visual Information Utilization during Fixations in Reading. Technical Report No. 278.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Harry E.; And Others

    A study investigated at what point during eye fixations visual information is used in furthering the reading process. The study identified two aspects of information processing: registration, in which a light pattern on the retina triggers a pattern of neural activity in the visula cortex; and utilization, in which the registered pattern has an…

  2. Tool kit development to refine and visualize essential climate data and information for marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, L.; Stachniewicz, J.; Shein, K. A.; Ansari, S.; Jarvis, C.

    2013-05-01

    Marine ecosystem responses to climate variability and change such as changing water temperature, water chemistry (e.g., pH, salinity), water level, or storminess may result in adverse impacts including mass mortality, loss of habitat, increased disease susceptibility, and trophic cascade feedbacks. Unfortunately, while marine ecosystem resource managers are aware of these threats, they often lack sufficient expertise with identifying, accessing and using the many large and complex climate data products that would inform ecosystem-scale climate impact assessments. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has been working with the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Ocean Climate Center to enhance and expand the functionality of NCDC's Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) to begin to address this limitation. The WCT is a freely available, Java-based user interface (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wct/) designed to access, analyze, and display a variety of NCDC's georeferenced climate data products (e.g., satellite data, radar, reanalysis datasets, in-situ observations). However, the WCT requires the user to have already identified a data set of interest and gained access to it. This can limit its utility by users who are not knowledgeable about which data sets are relevant to their needs and where those data sets can be found. The Integrated Marine Protected Area Climate Tools (IMPACT) prototype modification to the WCT addresses those requirements through an iterative process between climate scientists and resource managers. The WCT-IMPACT prototype couples a user query approach with a quasi-expert system that determines, retrieves, and loads the appropriate data products for visualization and analysis by the user. Relevant data products are identified based on the environmental variables in which ecosystem managers have indicated an importance to their ecosystems. To improve response time, the user, through the WCT-IMPACT interface, crops (or subsets) the

  3. ARN: Analysis and Visualization System for Adipogenic Regulation Network Information.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Li; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2016-12-16

    Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation through which preadipocytes become adipocytes. Lots of research is currently ongoing to identify genes, including their gene products and microRNAs, that correlate with fat cell development. However, information fragmentation hampers the identification of key regulatory genes and pathways. Here, we present a database of literature-curated adipogenesis-related regulatory interactions, designated the Adipogenesis Regulation Network (ARN, http://210.27.80.93/arn/), which currently contains 3101 nodes (genes and microRNAs), 1863 regulatory interactions, and 33,969 expression records associated with adipogenesis, based on 1619 papers. A sentence-based text-mining approach was employed for efficient manual curation of regulatory interactions from approximately 37,000 PubMed abstracts. Additionally, we further determined 13,103 possible node relationships by searching miRGate, BioGRID, PAZAR and TRRUST. ARN also has several useful features: i) regulatory map information; ii) tests to examine the impact of a query node on adipogenesis; iii) tests for the interactions and modes of a query node; iv) prediction of interactions of a query node; and v) analysis of experimental data or the construction of hypotheses related to adipogenesis. In summary, ARN can store, retrieve and analyze adipogenesis-related information as well as support ongoing adipogenesis research and contribute to the discovery of key regulatory genes and pathways.

  4. ARN: Analysis and Visualization System for Adipogenic Regulation Network Information

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Li; Zan, Lin-sen

    2016-01-01

    Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation through which preadipocytes become adipocytes. Lots of research is currently ongoing to identify genes, including their gene products and microRNAs, that correlate with fat cell development. However, information fragmentation hampers the identification of key regulatory genes and pathways. Here, we present a database of literature-curated adipogenesis-related regulatory interactions, designated the Adipogenesis Regulation Network (ARN, http://210.27.80.93/arn/), which currently contains 3101 nodes (genes and microRNAs), 1863 regulatory interactions, and 33,969 expression records associated with adipogenesis, based on 1619 papers. A sentence-based text-mining approach was employed for efficient manual curation of regulatory interactions from approximately 37,000 PubMed abstracts. Additionally, we further determined 13,103 possible node relationships by searching miRGate, BioGRID, PAZAR and TRRUST. ARN also has several useful features: i) regulatory map information; ii) tests to examine the impact of a query node on adipogenesis; iii) tests for the interactions and modes of a query node; iv) prediction of interactions of a query node; and v) analysis of experimental data or the construction of hypotheses related to adipogenesis. In summary, ARN can store, retrieve and analyze adipogenesis-related information as well as support ongoing adipogenesis research and contribute to the discovery of key regulatory genes and pathways. PMID:27982098

  5. What and where information in the caudate tail guides saccades to visual objects

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Monosov, Ilya E.; Yasuda, Masaharu; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2012-01-01

    We understand the world by making saccadic eye movements to various objects. However, it is unclear how a saccade can be aimed at a particular object, because two kinds of visual information, what the object is and where it is, are processed separately in the dorsal and ventral visual cortical pathways. Here we provide evidence suggesting that a basal ganglia circuit through the tail of the monkey caudate nucleus (CDt) guides such object-directed saccades. First, many CDt neurons responded to visual objects depending on where and what the objects were. Second, electrical stimulation in the CDt induced saccades whose directions matched the preferred directions of neurons at the stimulation site. Third, many CDt neurons increased their activity before saccades directed to the neurons’ preferred objects and directions in a free-viewing condition. Our results suggest that CDt neurons receive both ‘what’ and ‘where’ information and guide saccades to visual objects. PMID:22875934

  6. Adaptation to recent conflict in the classical color-word Stroop-task mainly involves facilitation of processing of task-relevant information

    PubMed Central

    Purmann, Sascha; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4α), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information. PMID:25784868

  7. [Effect of self-relevance of a non-critical item on physiological responding on the Concealed Information Test].

    PubMed

    Hanayama, Aiko; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Shibuya, Yusuke

    2011-12-01

    The effect of self-relevance of a non-critical item in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) was investigated. Respiration, skin conductance response (SCR), heart rate, and normalized pulse volume were recorded while performing the CIT using a stimulus set composed of 4 items (with one self-relevant item). Thirty participants were instructed to recognize one item as critical and the remaining items as non-critical (positive group), and 33 participants were instructed to recognize all items as non-critical (negative group). In the positive group, a differential reactivity was observed between the critical and non-critical items, despite the self-relevance of the non-critical item. In the negative group, a differential reactivity between the self-relevant and non-self-relevant items was observed for SCR only. However, when individual data were analyzed, there was a differential reactivity between self-relevant and non-self-relevant items on physiological measures other than SCR for some participants in the negative group. These results suggest that the self-relevance of a non-critical item might cause false positive results in "negative" participants, particularly when only SCR is used to assess differential reactivity.

  8. S`COOL: Leveraging Information Technology Advances to Present K-12 Students with Specifically Relevant Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Rogerson, T. M.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.

    2007-12-01

    The Students` Cloud Observations On-Line (S`COOL) Project began in 1997 as a way to connect K-12 classrooms directly with ongoing NASA Earth Science research. Through the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, students as young as kindergarten have been involved for more than 10 years in providing ground truth observations of cloud cover and type. NASA scientists use these observations as part of the validation effort for understanding cloud effects on the Earth's energy budget. In addition, since the beginning, the project has also focused on students doing their own data analysis. However, not very many S`COOL participants actually performed much data analysis in the first years of the project. Over the last year and a half, the S`COOL team has worked to provide additional scaffolding for student data analysis, by leveraging emerging information technology developments to select and present specifically relevant satellite data to the students. In addition to the simple, standard visualization of the ground and satellite cloud information, we have provided a direct link to the specific 5-minute MODIS image, through the MODIS Rapid Response website. Over the summer, we added tutorials explaining how students can also bring in the atmospheric profiles from CALIPSO and/or CloudSat, when there is a near overhead pass of these satellites. In addition to the direct links to satellite imagery and data, we have also implemented a web-based classification and comment system. S`COOL participants can provide additional comments on the ground to satellite correspondence, after the satellite data are processed by FLASHFlux about a week after the student ground observation. Comments are emailed to the S`COOL team and enable additional interaction with the participants. Finally, new data analysis tools focusing on commonly-used spreadsheet software were developed over the summer by a team of college student interns. The addition of all these new resources

  9. Deviations from mirroring in interpersonal multifrequency coordination when visual information is occluded.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Crites, Michael J; Gipson, Christina L

    2017-02-10

    In activities such as dancing and sports, people synchronize behaviors in many different ways. Synchronization between people has traditionally been characterized as either perfect mirroring (1:1 in-phase synchronization, spontaneous synchrony, and mimicry) or reflectional mirroring (1:1 antiphase synchronization), but most activities require partners to synchronize more complicated patterns. We asked visually coupled dyads to coordinate finger movements to perform multifrequency ratios (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, and 5:1). Because these patterns are coordinated across and not just within individual physiological and motor systems, we based our predictions on frequency-locking dynamics, which is a general coordination principle that is not limited to physiological explanations. Twenty dyads performed five multifrequency ratios under three levels of visual coupling, with half using a subcritical visual information update rate. The dynamical principle was supported, such that multifrequency performance tends to abide by the strictures of frequency locking. However, these constraints are relaxed if the visual information rate is beyond the critical information update rate. An analysis of turning points in the oscillatory finger movements suggested that dyads did not rely on this visual information to stabilize coordination. How the laboratory findings align with naturalistic observations of multifrequency performance in actual sports teams (Double Dutch) is discussed. Frequency-locking accounts not only for the human propensity for perfect mirroring but also for variations in performance when dyads deviate from mirroring.

  10. Postural control and automaticity in dyslexic children: the relationship between visual information and body sway.

    PubMed

    Barela, Jose A; Dias, Josenaldo L; Godoi, Daniela; Viana, André R; de Freitas, Paulo B

    2011-01-01

    Difficulty with literacy acquisition is only one of the symptoms of developmental dyslexia. Dyslexic children also show poor motor coordination and postural control. Those problems could be associated with automaticity, i.e., difficulty in performing a task without dispending a fair amount of conscious efforts. If this is the case, dyslexic children would show difficulties in using "unperceived" sensory cues to control body sway. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine postural control performance and the coupling between visual information and body sway in dyslexic children. Ten dyslexic children and 10 non-dyslexic children stood upright inside a moving room that remained stationary or oscillated back and forward at frequencies of 0.2 or 0.5 Hz. Body sway magnitude and the relationship between the room's movement and body sway were examined. The results indicated that dyslexic children oscillated more than non-dyslexic children in both stationary and oscillating conditions. Visual manipulation induced body sway in all children but the coupling between visual information and body sway was weaker and more variable in dyslexic children. Based upon these results, we can suggest that dyslexic children use visual information to postural control with the same underlying processes as non-dyslexic children; however, dyslexic children show poorer performance and more variability while relating visual information and motor action even in a task that does not require an active cognitive and conscious motor involvement, which may be a further evidence of automaticity problem.

  11. Visual representation of statistical information improves diagnostic inferences in doctors and their patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Doctors and patients have difficulty inferring the predictive value of a medical test from information about the prevalence of a disease and the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the test. Previous research has established that communicating such information in a format the human mind is adapted to-namely natural frequencies-as compared to probabilities, boosts accuracy of diagnostic inferences. In a study, we investigated to what extent these inferences can be improved-beyond the effect of natural frequencies-by providing visual aids. Participants were 81 doctors and 81 patients who made diagnostic inferences about three medical tests on the basis of information about prevalence of a disease, and the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the tests. Half of the participants received the information in natural frequencies, while the other half received the information in probabilities. Half of the participants only received numerical information, while the other half additionally received a visual aid representing the numerical information. In addition, participants completed a numeracy scale. Our study showed three important findings: (1) doctors and patients made more accurate inferences when information was communicated in natural frequencies as compared to probabilities; (2) visual aids boosted accuracy even when the information was provided in natural frequencies; and (3) doctors were more accurate in their diagnostic inferences than patients, though differences in accuracy disappeared when differences in numerical skills were controlled for. Our findings have important implications for medical practice as they suggest suitable ways to communicate quantitative medical data.

  12. Simulating prosthetic vision: Optimizing the information content of a limited visual display.

    PubMed

    van Rheede, Joram J; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L

    2010-12-29

    Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes.

  13. Providing Decision-Relevant Information for a State Climate Change Action Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed

  14. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  15. Effects of Partial Absence of Visual Feedback Information on Gait Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Jae; Kayitesi, Marie Aimee; Chan, Amy; Graham, Kimberli

    2017-03-14

    The incorporation of real-time visual feedback during gait rehabilitation can improve the efficacy of training. Our prior work demonstrated that the imposed distortion of simple visual feedback information of step lengths entails an unintentional adaptive process in the subjects' spatial gait pattern, thereby suggesting the important role of implicit learning in the context of gait rehabilitation that employs visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the removal of a portion of visual feedback information-after it had initially been provided-had any impact on gait symmetry. Eighteen healthy subjects walked on a treadmill for 10-min periods at their preferred walking speed and at a slower walking speed (1.3 mph) during the experimental trials, in which two simple vertical bars corresponding to subject's right and left step length were displayed on a computer screen. Halfway through the trial, one of the bars was removed from the visual feedback via random selection. Subjects were instructed to continually walk normally and also look at the visual feedback until the trials were completed. The changes in step length symmetry ratio were computed and analyzed. We found that displaying only one side of visual feedback influenced subjects to spontaneously modulate gait symmetry away from the baseline, and also that the amount of modulated gait symmetry slightly increased when their walking speed decreased. The changes in gait symmetry occurred by producing either longer right steps produced than left steps or vice versa, but we were unable to find any correlation between side of removal (right or left side) and the different types of trend in response. This warrants further investigation in a study with a larger population. Nonetheless, the results of this study demonstrated the effect of partial absence of visual feedback on changes in step symmetry, and that the perturbation of visual information caused implicit (unintentional) motor

  16. GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the

  17. The DeepTree Exhibit: Visualizing the Tree of Life to Facilitate Informal Learning.

    PubMed

    Block, F; Horn, M S; Phillips, B C; Diamond, J; Evans, E M; Shen, Chia

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present the DeepTree exhibit, a multi-user, multi-touch interactive visualization of the Tree of Life. We developed DeepTree to facilitate collaborative learning of evolutionary concepts. We will describe an iterative process in which a team of computer scientists, learning scientists, biologists, and museum curators worked together throughout design, development, and evaluation. We present the importance of designing the interactions and the visualization hand-in-hand in order to facilitate active learning. The outcome of this process is a fractal-based tree layout that reduces visual complexity while being able to capture all life on earth; a custom rendering and navigation engine that prioritizes visual appeal and smooth fly-through; and a multi-user interface that encourages collaborative exploration while offering guided discovery. We present an evaluation showing that the large dataset encouraged free exploration, triggers emotional responses, and facilitates visitor engagement and informal learning.

  18. Helping Learners Think More Hopefully about Life after School: The Usefulness of Participatory Visual Strategies to Make Career Education More Contextually Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Suegnet; Wood, Lesley; Neethling, Marinda

    2015-01-01

    Learners living in challenging socio-economic circumstances face limited opportunities for further education and employment. In this context, formal career guidance which merely provides information about specific jobs and how to access them may be of little use. This article explores the usefulness of participatory visual strategies as a…

  19. Preliminary review of mass transfer and flow visualization studies and techniques relevant to the study of erosion-corrosion of reactor piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Halle, H.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides some background information on the failed piping at the Surry-2 reactor; a summary of pertinent literature on mass transfer in related geometries; and a description of methodologies for visualization and erosion rate measurements in laboratory model studies that can provide greater insight into the role of flow geometry in erosion-corrosion. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effects of contextual information and stimulus ambiguity on overt visual sampling behavior.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, T C; König, P

    2015-05-01

    The sampling of our visual environment through saccadic eye movements is an essential function of the brain, allowing us to overcome the limits of peripheral vision. Understanding which parts of a scene attract overt visual attention is subject to intense research, and considerable progress has been made in unraveling the underlying cortical mechanisms. In contrast to spatial aspects, however, relatively little is understood about temporal aspects of overt visual sampling. At every fixation, the oculomotor system faces the decision whether to keep exploring different aspects of an object or scene or whether to remain fixated to allow for in-depth cortical processing - a situation that can be understood in terms of an exploration-exploitation dilemma. To improve our understanding of the factors involved in these decisions, we here investigate how the level of visual information, experimentally manipulated by scene context and stimulus ambiguity, changes the sampling behavior preceding the recognition of centrally presented ambiguous and disambiguated objects. Behaviorally, we find that context, although only presented until the first voluntary saccade, biases the perceptual outcome and significantly reduces reaction times. Importantly, we find that increased information about an object significantly alters its visual exploration, as evident through increased fixation durations and reduced saccade amplitudes. These results demonstrate that the initial sampling of an object, preceding its recognition, is subject to change based on the amount of information available in the system: increased evidence for its identity biases the exploration-exploitation strategy towards in-depth analyses.

  1. The Superior-Subordinate Relationship: A Preliminary Study of Downward Task-Relevant Confidential Information Disclosure in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanguri, Deloris McGee

    A questionnaire was administered to 94 first- and middle-level managers from 19 different state agencies in Texas in an effort to analyze conditions under which managers were most likely to disclose task-relevant confidential information to their subordinates. The open-ended items on the questionnaire investigated the types of confidential…

  2. The contribution of synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia to the processing of visual information.

    PubMed

    Sil'kis, I G

    2007-10-01

    A mechanism for the involvement of the basal ganglia in the processing of visual information, based on dopamine-dependent modulation of the efficiency of synaptic transmission in interconnected parallel associative and limbic cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuits, is proposed. Each circuit consists of a visual or prefrontal area of the cortex connected with the thalamic nucleus and the corresponding areas in different nuclei of the basal ganglia. The circulation of activity in these circuits is supported by the recurrent arrival of information in the thalamus and cortex. Dopamine released in response to a visual stimulus modulates the efficiencies of "strong" and "weak" corticostriatal inputs in different directions, and the subsequent reorganization of activity in the circuit leads to disinhibition (inhibition) of the activity of those cortical neurons which are "strongly" ("weakly") excited by the visual stimulus simultaneously with dopaminergic cells. The pattern in each cortical area is the neuronal reflection of the properties of the visual stimulus processed by this area. Excitation of dopaminergic cells by the visual stimulus via the superior colliculi requires parallel activation of the disinhibitory input to the superior colliculi via the thalamus and the "direct" pathway" in the basal ganglia. The prefrontal cortex, excited by the visual stimulus via the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, mediates the descending influence on the activity of dopaminergic cells, simultaneously controlling dopamine release in different areas of the striatum and thus facilitating the mutual selection of neural reflections of the individual properties of the visual stimulus and their binding into an integral image.

  3. LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE SHAPES PROCESSING OF PITCH RELEVANT INFORMATION IN THE HUMAN BRAINSTEM AND AUDITORY CORTEX: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2015-01-01

    Pitch is a robust perceptual attribute that plays an important role in speech, language, and music. As such, it provides an analytic window to evaluate how neural activity relevant to pitch undergo transformation from early sensory to later cognitive stages of processing in a well coordinated hierarchical network that is subject to experience-dependent plasticity. We review recent evidence of language experience-dependent effects in pitch processing based on comparisons of native vs. nonnative speakers of a tonal language from electrophysiological recordings in the auditory brainstem and auditory cortex. We present evidence that shows enhanced representation of linguistically-relevant pitch dimensions or features at both the brainstem and cortical levels with a stimulus-dependent preferential activation of the right hemisphere in native speakers of a tone language. We argue that neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the brainstem and early sensory level processing in the auditory cortex is shaped by the perceptual salience of domain-specific features. While both stages of processing are shaped by language experience, neural representations are transformed and fundamentally different at each biological level of abstraction. The representation of pitch relevant information in the brainstem is more fine-grained spectrotemporally as it reflects sustained neural phase-locking to pitch relevant periodicities contained in the stimulus. In contrast, the cortical pitch relevant neural activity reflects primarily a series of transient temporal neural events synchronized to certain temporal attributes of the pitch contour. We argue that experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation for Chinese listeners most likely reflects an interaction between higher-level cognitive processes and early sensory-level processing to improve representations of behaviorally-relevant features that contribute optimally to perception. It is our view that long

  4. Effective visualization of integrated knowledge and data to enable informed decisions in drug development and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Brynne, Lena; Bresell, Anders; Sjögren, Niclas

    2013-10-08

    Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding.Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be.The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes.The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a

  5. On Assisting a Visual-Facial Affect Recognition System with Keyboard-Stroke Pattern Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.

    Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.

  6. Characterizing the information content of a newly hatched chick's first visual object representation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2015-03-01

    How does object recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, I examined the information content of the first visual object representation built by newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus). In their first week of life, chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object rotating around a single axis. In their second week of life, I tested whether subjects had encoded information about the identity and viewpoint of the virtual object. The results showed that chicks built object representations that contained both object identity information and view-specific information. However, there was a trade-off between these two types of information: subjects who were more sensitive to identity information were less sensitive to view-specific information, and vice versa. This pattern of results is predicted by iterative, hierarchically organized visual processing machinery, the machinery that supports object recognition in adult primates. More generally, this study shows that invariant object recognition is a core cognitive ability that can be operational at the onset of visual object experience.

  7. Relevance of electronic health information to doctors in the developing world: results of the Ptolemy Project's Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS).

    PubMed

    Burton, Kirsteen R; Howard, Andrew; Beveridge, Massey

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand.

  8. Animating Talk and Texts: Culturally Relevant Teacher Read-Alouds of Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the classroom interactions surrounding teacher read-alouds of nonfiction texts in the classroom of a teacher who strived for cultural relevancy. Participants in this study were one European American teacher and her upper-elementary students who lived in the surrounding working-class neighborhood; all but two students…

  9. Relevant Repositories of Public Knowledge? Libraries, Museums and Archives in "The Information Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usherwood, Bob; Wilson, Kerry; Bryson, Jared

    2005-01-01

    In a project funded by the AHRB, researchers at the University of Sheffield used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to examine the perceived contemporary relevance of archives, libraries and museums. The research sought to discern how far the British people value access to these established repositories of public…

  10. Transformational Teaching in the Information Age: Making Why and How We Teach Relevant to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosebrough, Thomas R.; Leverett, Ralph G.

    2011-01-01

    Yes, it's true that today's students have tons of distractions that take their attention away from the hard work of learning. That's why it's more important than ever to establish a teaching relationship with students that makes academic learning relevant to their lives. Here's a book that explains how to do that by changing teaching practices…

  11. Visual Statistical Learning Based on the Perceptual and Semantic Information of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…

  12. Interactive Visualization Systems and Data Integration Methods for Supporting Discovery in Collections of Scientific Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Visualization, and Bibliometrics : Multimedia Information Retrieval” and throughout the duration of my studies. He was always available with an open...door for discussions. Xia Lin guided me on my work with the ipl2 and provided some of the foundational contributions to the field of Bibliometric ... Bibliometrics .......................................................................................................................... 18 PageRank

  13. Young Children's Comprehension of Television: The Role of Visual Information and Intonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Shalom M.; Brown, Susan K. McCann; Cohen, David I.

    Several current television series for preschool children convey stories, not through meaningful dialogue, but through visual information and intonational cues embedded within nonsensical dialogue. This study examined young children's ability to construct meaning from such materials. Participating were 135 preschoolers, 3 to 5 years old. Subjects…

  14. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  15. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  16. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  17. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  18. How Do Expert Soccer Players Encode Visual Information to Make Decisions in Simulated Game Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplu, Gerald; Ripoll, Hubert; Mavromatis, Sebastien; Baratgin, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine what visual information expert soccer players encode when they are asked to make a decision. We used a repetition-priming paradigm to test the hypothesis that experts encode a soccer pattern's structure independently of the players' physical characteristics (i.e., posture and morphology). The participants…

  19. Prestimulus oscillatory phase at 7 Hz gates cortical information flow and visual perception.

    PubMed

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Volberg, Gregor; Wimber, Maria; Dalal, Sarang S; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-11-18

    Although we have the impression that visual information flows continuously from our sensory channels, recent studies indicate that this is likely not the case. Rather, we sample visual stimuli rhythmically, oscillating at 5-10 Hz. Electroencephalography (EEG) studies have demonstrated that this rhythmicity is reflected by the phase of ongoing brain oscillations in the same frequency. Theoretically, brain oscillations could underlie the rhythmic nature of perception by providing transient time windows for information exchange, but this question has not yet been systematically addressed. We recorded simultaneous EEG-fMRI while human participants performed a contour integration task and show that ongoing brain oscillations prior to stimulus onset predict functional connectivity between higher and lower level visual processing regions. Specifically, our results demonstrate that the phase of a 7 Hz oscillation prior to stimulus onset predicts perceptual performance and the bidirectional information flow between the left lateral occipital cortex and right intraparietal sulcus, as indicated by psychophysiological interaction and dynamic causal modeling. These findings suggest that human brain oscillations periodically gate visual perception at around 7 Hz by providing transient time windows for long-distance cortical information transfer. Such gating might be a general mechanism underlying the rhythmic nature of human perception.

  20. The Effects of Relaxation and Visualization on Information Retention in Fifth Grade Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabot, Kathy L.

    This paper examines the effectiveness and feasibility of introducing relaxation and visualization techniques as study skills. Fifth grade science students from Charlottesville, Virginia (N=43) received six 20-minute classes using relaxation to study information on famous scientists. Results of this study indicate that relaxation and visualization…

  1. The Role of Sensory-Motor Information in Object Recognition: Evidence from Category-Specific Visual Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, D.A.; Coslett, H.B.; Glosser, G.

    2005-01-01

    The role of sensory-motor representations in object recognition was investigated in experiments involving AD, a patient with mild visual agnosia who was impaired in the recognition of visually presented living as compared to non-living entities. AD named visually presented items for which sensory-motor information was available significantly more…

  2. A Review and Meta Analysis of Vibrotactile and Visual Information Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    15 4.1 Adding Tactile Cues to Support Performance ...............................................................15 4.2 Use of Multisensory Cues...of multisensory devices, or devices which convey task information through multiple or alternative sensory channels instead of the visual channel...and three-dimensional (3-D) (e.g., virtual reality, 3-D audio). Two theories predict gains from a multisensory display of information. First, Wickens

  3. Oculo-motor stabilization reflexes: integration of inertial and visual information.

    PubMed

    Panerai, Francesco; Sandini, Giulio

    1998-10-01

    STABILIZATION OF GAZE IS A FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENT OF AN ACTIVE VISUAL SYSTEM FOR AT LEAST TWO REASONS: (i) to increase the robustness of dynamic visual measures during observer's motion; (ii) to provide a reference with respect to the environment ([Ballard and Brown, 1992]). The aim of this paper is to address the former issue by investigating the role of integration of visuo-inertial information in gaze stabilization. The rationale comes from observations of how the stabilization problem is solved in biological systems and experimental results based on an artificial visual system equipped with space-variant visual sensors and an inertial sensor are presented. In particular the following issues are discussed: (i) the relations between eye-head geometry, fixation distance and stabilization performance; (ii) the computational requirements of the visuo-inertial stabilization approach compared to a visual stabilization approach; (iii) the evaluation of performance of the visuo-inertial strategy in a real-time monocular stabilization task. Experiments are performed to quantitatively describe the performance of the system with respect to different choices of the principal parameters. The results show that the integrated approach is indeed valuable: it makes use of visual computational resources more efficiently, extends the range of motions or external disturbances the system can effectively deal with, and reduces system complexity.

  4. [Activation-dependent characteristics of the electroencephalogram during visual information--processing: Results of an automatic interval analysis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bastek, R; Gille, H G; Gruner, P; Otto, E; Ullsperger, P

    1976-01-01

    EEG signal from fronto-occipital derivation was recorded in 16 Ss during a mental performance test (modified "Konzentrations-Leistungs-Test" including four levels of performance). A balanced changer-over design was used. Interval histograms in four frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta-1 and beta-2 bands) were determined on the basis of peak detection. A total of 44 characteristics were derived and tested (multi-factor analyses of variance, multiple mean comparison and rank tests). Twenty eight of these characteristics were proved to be dependent on activation. In the visual information-processing performances chosen, it could be demonstrated that the intraindividual changes of the spontaneous EEG activity were related predominantly to the perceptual components of the performance. On the other hand, the influence of the performance rate and of the mental-arithmetic itself was of minor relevance. During higher activation an increase in the relative abudance of the theta-band activity was also observed.

  5. Image gathering and coding for digital restoration: Information efficiency and visual quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; John, Sarah; Mccormick, Judith A.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar

    1989-01-01

    Image gathering and coding are commonly treated as tasks separate from each other and from the digital processing used to restore and enhance the images. The goal is to develop a method that allows us to assess quantitatively the combined performance of image gathering and coding for the digital restoration of images with high visual quality. Digital restoration is often interactive because visual quality depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations, and these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The approach is based on the theoretical treatment of image gathering as a communication channel (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A2, 1644(1985);5,285(1988). Initial results suggest that the practical upper limit of the information contained in the acquired image data range typically from approximately 2 to 4 binary information units (bifs) per sample, depending on the design of the image-gathering system. The associated information efficiency of the transmitted data (i.e., the ratio of information over data) ranges typically from approximately 0.3 to 0.5 bif per bit without coding to approximately 0.5 to 0.9 bif per bit with lossless predictive compression and Huffman coding. The visual quality that can be attained with interactive image restoration improves perceptibly as the available information increases to approximately 3 bifs per sample. However, the perceptual improvements that can be attained with further increases in information are very subtle and depend on the target and the desired enhancement.

  6. The working memory Ponzo illusion: Involuntary integration of visuospatial information stored in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mowei; Xu, Haokui; Zhang, Haihang; Shui, Rende; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Jifan

    2015-08-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) has been traditionally viewed as a mental structure subsequent to visual perception that stores the final output of perceptual processing. However, VWM has recently been emphasized as a critical component of online perception, providing storage for the intermediate perceptual representations produced during visual processing. This interactive view holds the core assumption that VWM is not the terminus of perceptual processing; the stored visual information rather continues to undergo perceptual processing if necessary. The current study tests this assumption, demonstrating an example of involuntary integration of the VWM content, by creating the Ponzo illusion in VWM: when the Ponzo illusion figure was divided into its individual components and sequentially encoded into VWM, the temporally separated components were involuntarily integrated, leading to the distorted length perception of the two horizontal lines. This VWM Ponzo illusion was replicated when the figure components were presented in different combinations and presentation order. The magnitude of the illusion was significantly correlated between VWM and perceptual versions of the Ponzo illusion. These results suggest that the information integration underling the VWM Ponzo illusion is constrained by the laws of visual perception and similarly affected by the common individual factors that govern its perception. Thus, our findings provide compelling evidence that VWM functions as a buffer serving perceptual processes at early stages.

  7. Alcohol-related visual cues impede the ability to process auditory information: Seeing but not hearing.

    PubMed

    Monem, Ramey G; Fillmore, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    Studies of visual attention find that drinkers spend more time attending to images of alcohol-related stimuli compared to neutral images. It is believed that this attentional bias contributes to the maintenance of alcohol use. However, no research has examined the possibility that this bias of visual attention might actually impede the functioning of other modalities, such as the processing of accompanying auditory stimuli. This study aimed to determine if alcohol-related images engender greater sensory dominance than neutral images, such that processing accompanying information from another modality (audition) would be impeded. Drinkers who had an attentional bias to alcohol-related images performed a multisensory perception task that measured how alcohol-related versus neutral visual images affected their ability to detect and respond to simultaneously presented auditory signals. In accord with the hypothesis, compared with neutral images, the presentation of alcohol-related images impaired the ability to detect and respond to auditory signals. Increased dominance of the visual modality was demonstrated by more bimodal targets being misclassified as visual-only targets in the alcohol target condition compared with that of the neutral. Findings suggest that increased processing of alcohol-related stimuli may impede an individual's ability to encode and interpret information obtained from other sensory modalities.

  8. Registration of infrared and visual images based on phase grouping and mutual information of gradient orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhilong; Yang, Guopeng; Chen, Dong; Li, Jicheng; Yang, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel infrared and visual image registration method based on phase grouping and mutual information of gradient orientation. The method is specially designed for infrared image navigation, which is different from familiar multi-sensor image registration methods in the field of remote sensing. The central idea is to firstly extract common salient structural features from visual and infrared images through phase grouping, then registering infrared image to visual image and estimating the exterior parameters of the infrared camera. Two subjects are involved in this reports: (1) In order to estimate image gradient orientation accurately, a new method based on Leguerre-Gauss filter is presented. Then the image are segmented by grouping of pixels based on their gradient orientations and ling support regions are extracted as common salient structural features from infrared and visual images of the same ground scene. (2)In order for registering infrared and visual image, coordinate systems are constructed, coordinate transformations are formularized, and the new similarity measures based on orientation mutual information is presented. Quantitative evaluations on real and simulated image data reviews that the proposed method can provide registration results with improved robustness and accuracy.

  9. Processing of visual information compromises the ability of older adults to control novel fine motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Harsimran S; Kwon, MinHyuk; Onushko, Tanya; Wright, David L; Corcos, Daniel M; Christou, Evangelos A

    2015-12-01

    We performed two experiments to determine whether amplified motor output variability and compromised processing of visual information in older adults impair short-term adaptations when learning novel fine motor tasks. In Experiment 1, 12 young and 12 older adults underwent training to learn how to accurately trace a sinusoidal position target with abduction-adduction of their index finger. They performed 48 trials, which included 8 blocks of 6 trials (the last trial of each block was performed without visual feedback). Afterward, subjects received an interference task (watched a movie) for 60 min. We tested retention by asking subjects to perform the sinusoidal task (5 trials) with and without visual feedback. In Experiment 2, 12 young and 10 older adults traced the same sinusoidal position target with their index finger and ankle at three distinct visual angles (0.25°, 1° and 5.4°). In Experiment 1, the movement error and variability were greater for older adults during the visual feedback trials when compared with young adults. In contrast, during the no-vision trials, age-associated differences in movement error and variability were ameliorated. Short-term adaptations in learning the sinusoidal task were similar for young and older adults. In Experiment 2, lower amount of visual feedback minimized the age-associated differences in movement variability for both the index finger and ankle movements. We demonstrate that although short-term adaptations are similar for young and older adults, older adults do not process visual information as well as young adults and that compromises their ability to control novel fine motor tasks during acquisition, which could influence long-term retention and transfer.

  10. The biomechanics of walking shape the use of visual information during locomotion over complex terrain

    PubMed Central

    Matthis, Jonathan Samir; Barton, Sean L.; Fajen, Brett R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how visual information is used to control stepping during locomotion over terrain that demands precision in the placement of the feet. More specifically, we sought to determine the point in the gait cycle at which visual information about a target is no longer needed to guide accurate foot placement. Subjects walked along a path while stepping as accurately as possible on a series of small, irregularly spaced target footholds. In various conditions, each of the targets became invisible either during the step to the target or during the step to the previous target. We found that making targets invisible after toe off of the step to the target had little to no effect on stepping accuracy. However, when targets disappeared during the step to the previous target, foot placement became less accurate and more variable. The findings suggest that visual information about a target is used prior to initiation of the step to that target but is not needed to continuously guide the foot throughout the swing phase. We propose that this style of control is rooted in the biomechanics of walking, which facilitates an energetically efficient strategy in which visual information is primarily used to initialize the mechanical state of the body leading into a ballistic movement toward the target foothold. Taken together with previous studies, the findings suggest the availability of visual information about the terrain near a particular step is most essential during the latter half of the preceding step, which constitutes a critical control phase in the bipedal gait cycle. PMID:25788704

  11. D Visualization of Volcanic Ash Dispersion Prediction with Spatial Information Open Platform in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, J.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    Visualization of disaster dispersion prediction enables decision makers and civilian to prepare disaster and to reduce the damage by showing the realistic simulation results. With advances of GIS technology and the theory of volcanic disaster prediction algorithm, the predicted disaster dispersions are displayed in spatial information. However, most of volcanic ash dispersion predictions are displayed in 2D. 2D visualization has a limitation to understand the realistic dispersion prediction since its height could be presented only by colour. Especially for volcanic ash, 3D visualization of dispersion prediction is essential since it could bring out big aircraft accident. In this paper, we deals with 3D visualization techniques of volcanic ash dispersion prediction with spatial information open platform in Korea. First, time-series volcanic ash 3D position and concentrations are calculated with WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model and Modified Fall3D algorithm. For 3D visualization, we propose three techniques; those are 'Cube in the air', 'Cube in the cube', and 'Semi-transparent plane in the air' methods. In the 'Cube in the Air', which locates the semitransparent cubes having different color depends on its particle concentration. Big cube is not realistic when it is zoomed. Therefore, cube is divided into small cube with Octree algorithm. That is 'Cube in the Cube' algorithm. For more realistic visualization, we apply 'Semi-transparent Volcanic Ash Plane' which shows the ash as fog. The results are displayed in the 'V-world' which is a spatial information open platform implemented by Korean government. Proposed techniques were adopted in Volcanic Disaster Response System implemented by Korean Ministry of Public Safety and Security.

  12. Does the type of anonymity matter? The impact of visualization on information sharing in online groups.

    PubMed

    Wodzicki, Katrin; Schwämmlein, Eva; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    Groups who share information in computer-mediated settings often have to deal with the issue of anonymity. Previous research has shown that only people with a prosocial orientation--that is, those whose main interest is to add to the benefit of the group as a whole--are willing to share information in anonymous situations. The willingness to share information by those people with a proself orientation--that is, those who put more emphasis on their personal benefit--can be increased by providing photographs of the other group members. The information-sharing behavior of prosocials, however, suffers from such a deletion of anonymity. In an online experiment, we examined how information-sharing behavior of proselfs may be increased without negatively influencing the information-sharing behavior of prosocials in an online setting. It was shown that even proselfs share information if the group members are visualized in a homogeneous way, while prosocials' information-sharing behavior is not impaired by this visualization. In addition, the results suggest that people's perceived homogeneity of the online group, as well as the importance of the collective goal, are the underlying processes of this effect. These results have important practical implications for the design of online information-sharing settings.

  13. DI2ADEM: an adaptive hypermedia designed to improve access to relevant medical information.

    PubMed

    Pagesy, R; Soula, G; Fieschi, M

    2000-01-01

    The World Wide Web (web) provides the same type of information to widely different users and these users must then find the information suitable for their use in the package offered. The authors present the DI2ADEM project designed to take the user into account and intended to provide this user with appropriate medical information. To do that, DI2ADEM is suggesting an adaptive hypermedia based on the management of a meta-knowledge of the user and a knowledge of the information that can be circulated. An adaptive hypermedia prototype devoted to paediatric oncology was implemented on the intranet network of a university hospital.

  14. Data Flow Analysis and Visualization for Spatiotemporal Statistical Data without Trajectory Information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seokyeon; Jeong, Seongmin; Woo, Insoo; Jang, Yun; Maciejewski, Ross; Ebert, David

    2017-02-08

    Geographic visualization research has focused on a variety of techniques to represent and explore spatiotemporal data. The goal of those techniques is to enable users to explore events and interactions over space and time in order to facilitate the discovery of patterns, anomalies and relationships within the data. However, it is difficult to extract and visualize data flow patterns over time for non-directional statistical data without trajectory information. In this work, we develop a novel flow analysis technique to extract, represent, and analyze flow maps of non-directional spatiotemporal data unaccompanied by trajectory information. We estimate a continuous distribution of these events over space and time, and extract flow fields for spatial and temporal changes utilizing a gravity model. Then, we visualize the spatiotemporal patterns in the data by employing flow visualization techniques. The user is presented with temporal trends of geo-referenced discrete events on a map. As such, overall spatiotemporal data flow patterns help users analyze geo-referenced temporal events, such as disease outbreaks, crime patterns, etc. To validate our model, we discard the trajectory information in an origin-destination dataset and apply our technique to the data and compare the derived trajectories and the original. Finally, we present spatiotemporal trend analysis for statistical datasets including twitter data, maritime search and rescue events, and syndromic surveillance.

  15. Integration of audio-visual information for spatial decisions in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Marko; Bales, Jennifer; Mareschal, Denis

    2016-09-01

    In adults, decisions based on multisensory information can be faster and/or more accurate than those relying on a single sense. However, this finding varies significantly across development. Here we studied speeded responding to audio-visual targets, a key multisensory function whose development remains unclear. We found that when judging the locations of targets, children aged 4 to 12 years and adults had faster and less variable response times given auditory and visual information together compared with either alone. Comparison of response time distributions with model predictions indicated that children at all ages were integrating (pooling) sensory information to make decisions but that both the overall speed and the efficiency of sensory integration improved with age. The evidence for pooling comes from comparison with the predictions of Miller's seminal 'race model', as well as with a major recent extension of this model and a comparable 'pooling' (coactivation) model. The findings and analyses can reconcile results from previous audio-visual studies, in which infants showed speed gains exceeding race model predictions in a spatial orienting task (Neil et al., 2006) but children below 7 years did not in speeded reaction time tasks (e.g. Barutchu et al., 2009). Our results provide new evidence for early and sustained abilities to integrate visual and auditory signals for spatial localization from a young age.

  16. Octopus vulgaris uses visual information to determine the location of its arm.

    PubMed

    Gutnick, Tamar; Byrne, Ruth A; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael

    2011-03-22

    Octopuses are intelligent, soft-bodied animals with keen senses that perform reliably in a variety of visual and tactile learning tasks. However, researchers have found them disappointing in that they consistently fail in operant tasks that require them to combine central nervous system reward information with visual and peripheral knowledge of the location of their arms. Wells claimed that in order to filter and integrate an abundance of multisensory inputs that might inform the animal of the position of a single arm, octopuses would need an exceptional computing mechanism, and "There is no evidence that such a system exists in Octopus, or in any other soft bodied animal." Recent electrophysiological experiments, which found no clear somatotopic organization in the higher motor centers, support this claim. We developed a three-choice maze that required an octopus to use a single arm to reach a visually marked goal compartment. Using this operant task, we show for the first time that Octopus vulgaris is capable of guiding a single arm in a complex movement to a location. Thus, we claim that octopuses can combine peripheral arm location information with visual input to control goal-directed complex movements.

  17. Identified circuit in rat postrhinal cortex encodes essential information for performing specific visual shape discriminations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-rong; Cao, Haiyan; Kong, Lingxin; O'Brien, Jennifer; Baughns, Andrew; Jan, Mary; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Xiaodan; Lu, Xiu-gui; Cook, Robert G; Geller, Alfred I

    2010-08-10

    Learning theories hypothesize specific circuits encode essential information for performance. For simple tasks in invertebrates and mammals, the essential circuits are known, but for cognitive functions, the essential circuits remain unidentified. Here, we show that some essential information for performing a choice task is encoded in a specific circuit in a neocortical area. Rat postrhinal (POR) cortex is required for visual shape discriminations, protein kinase C (PKC) pathways mediate changes in neuronal physiology that support learning, and specific PKC genes are required for multiple learning tasks. We used direct gene transfer of a constitutively active PKC to prime a specific POR cortex circuit for learning visual shape discriminations. In the experiment, rats learned a discrimination, received gene transfer, learned new discriminations, received a small lesion that ablated approximately 21% of POR cortex surrounding the gene transfer site, and were tested for performance for discriminations learned either before or after gene transfer. Lesions of the genetically targeted circuit selectively interfered with performance for discriminations learned after gene transfer. Activity-dependent gene imaging confirmed increased activity in the genetically targeted circuit during learning and showed the essential information was sparse-coded in approximately 500 neurons in the lesioned area. Wild-type rats contained circuits with similar increases in activity during learning, but these circuits were located at unpredictable, different positions in POR cortex. These results establish that some essential information for performing specific visual discriminations can be encoded in a small, identified, neocortical circuit and provide a foundation for characterizing the circuit and essential information.

  18. Toward a two-dimensional barcode with visual information using perceptual shaping watermarking in mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jen-Chang; Shieh, Hsiang-An

    2011-01-01

    Traditional two-dimensional (2-D) barcodes, such as the QR code and PDF417, do not carry visual information. This work proposes a visually meaningful 2-D barcode (or 2-D image code) that carries not only hidden information, but also visual information. Watermarking is employed to hide information in a meaningful cover image to produce the 2-D image code. The 2-D image code can be printed or displayed and then captured using a camera-equipped mobile device. The hidden information is extracted for innovative applications. To resist distortions in the print-and-photo process, a perceptual shaping algorithm, based on Watson's DCT-based perceptual model, is proposed for use in the data hiding procedure. The detection performance that can be achieved using two classes of position-detection patterns is evaluated, and the best pattern is then used as a part of the 2-D image code. A web service is provided for generating the 2-D image codes and a Java-based decoder is developed for mobile phones. The results of practical experiments reveal the applicability, robustness, and high capacity of the proposed 2-D image code.

  19. Providing Families with Relevant Information: How Can We Improve Our Service System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertoy, Marilyn K.

    2011-01-01

    It is puzzling with clinicians' ready access to computers and technology that families are not more satisfied with the information clinicians provide. It seems odd that clinicians would be reluctant to provide as much information as possible to families in their care. Expert clinicians view their educational role seriously and recognize that…

  20. The Usefulness of Coroners' Data on Suicides for Providing Information Relevant to Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennewith, Olive; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Sutton, Lesley; Kapur, Navneet; Turnbull, Pauline; Gunnell, David

    2005-01-01

    Coroners' records are an accessible source of information on suicides. To assess their usefulness in relation to the investigation of specific methods of suicide, we examined coroners records for 492 suicides across 24 jurisdictions in England. Generally data on demographic variables were well recorded. Information on contact with general…

  1. How Relevant Are Library and Information Science Curricula outside Their Geographic Domain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Lawrence Wai-hong; Harvey, Ross; Mills, John

    2007-01-01

    Australian library and information science (LIS) courses are popular outside Australia, and Australia is a popular study destination for students in the region. This paper takes a comparative approach to attempt to determine whether ALIA (the Australian Library and Information Association)'s core curriculum for LIS education is appropriate outside…

  2. A concept-based interactive biomedical image retrieval approach using visualness and spatial information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md M.; Antani, Sameer K.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts and represent images in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term concept refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist user in interactively select a Region-Of-Interest (ROI) and search for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a post-processing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval, is validated through experiments on a data set of 450 lung CT images extracted from journal articles from four different collections.

  3. Learning style, judgements of learning, and learning of verbal and visual information.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Abby R; Otani, Hajime; Skeel, Reid L; Van Horn, K Roger

    2016-09-13

    The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning.

  4. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    PubMed

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  5. The Role of Pulvinar in the Transmission of Information in the Visual Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Nelson; van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Visual receptive field (RF) attributes in visual cortex of primates have been explained mainly from cortical connections: visual RFs progress from simple to complex through cortico-cortical pathways from lower to higher levels in the visual hierarchy. This feedforward flow of information is paired with top-down processes through the feedback pathway. Although the hierarchical organization explains the spatial properties of RFs, is unclear how a non-linear transmission of activity through the visual hierarchy can yield smooth contrast response functions in all level of the hierarchy. Depending on the gain, non-linear transfer functions create either a bimodal response to contrast, or no contrast dependence of the response in the highest level of the hierarchy. One possible mechanism to regulate this transmission of visual contrast information from low to high level involves an external component that shortcuts the flow of information through the hierarchy. A candidate for this shortcut is the Pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus. To investigate representation of stimulus contrast a hierarchical model network of ten cortical areas is examined. In each level of the network, the activity from the previous layer is integrated and then non-linearly transmitted to the next level. The arrangement of interactions creates a gradient from simple to complex RFs of increasing size as one moves from lower to higher cortical levels. The visual input is modeled as a Gaussian random input, whose width codes for the contrast. This input is applied to the first area. The output activity ratio among different contrast values is analyzed for the last level to observe sensitivity to a contrast and contrast invariant tuning. For a purely cortical system, the output of the last area can be approximately contrast invariant, but the sensitivity to contrast is poor. To account for an alternative visual processing pathway, non-reciprocal connections from and to a parallel pulvinar like structure

  6. The role of pulvinar in the transmission of information in the visual hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Nelson; van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2012-01-01

    VISUAL RECEPTIVE FIELD (RF) ATTRIBUTES IN VISUAL CORTEX OF PRIMATES HAVE BEEN EXPLAINED MAINLY FROM CORTICAL CONNECTIONS: visual RFs progress from simple to complex through cortico-cortical pathways from lower to higher levels in the visual hierarchy. This feedforward flow of information is paired with top-down processes through the feedback pathway. Although the hierarchical organization explains the spatial properties of RFs, is unclear how a non-linear transmission of activity through the visual hierarchy can yield smooth contrast response functions in all level of the hierarchy. Depending on the gain, non-linear transfer functions create either a bimodal response to contrast, or no contrast dependence of the response in the highest level of the hierarchy. One possible mechanism to regulate this transmission of visual contrast information from low to high level involves an external component that shortcuts the flow of information through the hierarchy. A candidate for this shortcut is the Pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus. To investigate representation of stimulus contrast a hierarchical model network of ten cortical areas is examined. In each level of the network, the activity from the previous layer is integrated and then non-linearly transmitted to the next level. The arrangement of interactions creates a gradient from simple to complex RFs of increasing size as one moves from lower to higher cortical levels. The visual input is modeled as a Gaussian random input, whose width codes for the contrast. This input is applied to the first area. The output activity ratio among different contrast values is analyzed for the last level to observe sensitivity to a contrast and contrast invariant tuning. For a purely cortical system, the output of the last area can be approximately contrast invariant, but the sensitivity to contrast is poor. To account for an alternative visual processing pathway, non-reciprocal connections from and to a parallel pulvinar like structure

  7. Rapid Integration of Tactile and Visual Information by a Newly Sighted Child.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Wu, En-De; Chen, Xin; Zhu, Lu-He; Li, Xiaoman; Thorn, Frank; Ostrovsky, Yuri; Qu, Jia

    2016-04-25

    How we learn to interact with and understand our environment for the first time is an age-old philosophical question. Scientists have long sought to understand what is the origin of egocentric spatial localization and the perceptual integration of touch and visual information. It is difficult to study the beginnings of intermodal visual-motor and visual-tactile linkages in early infancy since infants' muscular strength and control cannot accurately guide visual-motor behavior and they do not concentrate well [1-6]. Alternatively, one can examine young children who have a restored congenital sensory modality loss. They are the best infant substitute if they are old enough for good muscle control and young enough to be within the classic critical period for neuroplasticity [7, 8]. Recovery studies after removal of dense congenital cataracts are examples of this, but most are performed on older subjects [9-14]. We report here the results of video-recorded experiments on a congenitally blind child, beginning immediately after surgical restoration of vision. Her remarkably rapid development of accurate reaching and grasping showed that egocentric spatial localization requires neural circuitry needing less than a half hour of spatially informative experience to be calibrated. 32 hr after first sight, she visually recognized an object that she had simultaneously looked at and held, even though she could not use single senses alone (vision to vision; touch to touch) to perform this recognition until the following day. Then she also performed intersensory transfer of tactile object experience to visual object recognition, demonstrating that the two senses are prearranged to immediately become calibrated to one another.

  8. Modulation of Visually Evoked Postural Responses by Contextual Visual, Haptic and Auditory Information: A ‘Virtual Reality Check’

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Georg F.; Shao, Fei; White, Mark D.; Hopkins, Carl; Robotham, Antony J.

    2013-01-01

    Externally generated visual motion signals can cause the illusion of self-motion in space (vection) and corresponding visually evoked postural responses (VEPR). These VEPRs are not simple responses to optokinetic stimulation, but are modulated by the configuration of the environment. The aim of this paper is to explore what factors modulate VEPRs in a high quality virtual reality (VR) environment where real and virtual foreground objects served as static visual, auditory and haptic reference points. Data from four experiments on visually evoked postural responses show that: 1) visually evoked postural sway in the lateral direction is modulated by the presence of static anchor points that can be haptic, visual and auditory reference signals; 2) real objects and their matching virtual reality representations as visual anchors have different effects on postural sway; 3) visual motion in the anterior-posterior plane induces robust postural responses that are not modulated by the presence of reference signals or the reality of objects that can serve as visual anchors in the scene. We conclude that automatic postural responses for laterally moving visual stimuli are strongly influenced by the configuration and interpretation of the environment and draw on multisensory representations. Different postural responses were observed for real and virtual visual reference objects. On the basis that automatic visually evoked postural responses in high fidelity virtual environments should mimic those seen in real situations we propose to use the observed effect as a robust objective test for presence and fidelity in VR. PMID:23840760

  9. Automatic processing of unattended lexical information in visual oddball presentation: neurophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shtyrov, Yury; Goryainova, Galina; Tugin, Sergei; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Shestakova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies of automatic language processing revealed early (100–200 ms) reflections of access to lexical characteristics of speech signal using the so-called mismatch negativity (MMN), a negative ERP deflection elicited by infrequent irregularities in unattended repetitive auditory stimulation. In those studies, lexical processing of spoken stimuli became manifest as an enhanced ERP in response to unattended real words, as opposed to phonologically matched but meaningless pseudoword stimuli. This lexical ERP enhancement was explained by automatic activation of word memory traces realized as distributed strongly intra-connected neuronal circuits, whose robustness guarantees memory trace activation even in the absence of attention on spoken input. Such an account would predict the automatic activation of these memory traces upon any presentation of linguistic information, irrespective of the presentation modality. As previous lexical MMN studies exclusively used auditory stimulation, we here adapted the lexical MMN paradigm to investigate early automatic lexical effects in the visual modality. In a visual oddball sequence, matched short word and pseudoword stimuli were presented tachistoscopically in perifoveal area outside the visual focus of attention, as the subjects' attention was concentrated on a concurrent non-linguistic visual dual task in the center of the screen. Using EEG, we found a visual analogue of the lexical ERP enhancement effect, with unattended written words producing larger brain response amplitudes than matched pseudowords, starting at ~100 ms. Furthermore, we also found significant visual MMN, reported here for the first time for unattended perifoveal lexical stimuli. The data suggest early automatic lexical processing of visually presented language which commences rapidly and can take place outside the focus of attention. PMID:23950740

  10. The Contribution of Visual and Vestibular Information to Spatial Orientation by 6- to 14-Month-Old Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Hatton, Fran; Foster, Kirsty A.; Mason, Uschi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is much research on infants' ability to orient in space, little is known regarding the information they use to do so. This research uses a rotating room to evaluate the relative contribution of visual and vestibular information to location of a target following bodily rotation. Adults responded precisely on the basis of visual flow…

  11. Toward an Improved Haptic Zooming Algorithm for Graphical Information Accessed by Individuals Who Are Blind and Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing amount of information content used in school, work, and everyday living is presented in graphical form. Unfortunately, it is difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired to access this information, especially when many diagrams are needed. One problem is that details, even in relatively simple visual diagrams, can be very…

  12. Visualizing electrocardiographic information on a patient specific model of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Buck, Stijn; Maes, Frederik; Anne, Wim; Bogaert, Jan; Dymarkowski, Steven; Heidbuchel, Hein; Suetens, Paul

    2003-05-01

    The treatment of atrial tachycardia by radio-frequency ablation is a complex and minimally invasive procedure. In most cases the surgeon uses fluoroscopic imaging to guide catheters into the atria. After recording activation potentials from the electrodes on the catheter, which has to be done for different catheter positions, the physiologist has to fuse both the activation times derived from the potentials with the fluoroscopic images and extract from these a 3D anatomical model of the atrium. This model will provide him with the necessary information to locate the ablation regions. To alleviate the problem of mentally reconstructing these different sources of information, we propose a virtual environment that has the ability to visualize the electrodes information onto a patient specific model of the atria. This 3D atrium surface model is derived from pre-operatively taken MR-images. Within the system this model is visualized in 3 different ways: two views correspond to the 2 fluoroscopes images, which are shown registred in the background while the third one can be freely manipulated by the physiologist. The system allows to annotate measurements onto the 3D model. Since the heart is not a static organ, tools are provided to modify previous annotations interactively. The information contained in the measurements can than be dispersed across the heart after extrapolation and interpolation and subsequently visualized by color coding the surface model. Preliminary clinical evaluation on 30 patients indicates that the combined representation of the activation times and the heart model provides a thorough and more accurate insight into the possible causes and solutions to the tachycardia than would be obtained using solely the fluoroscopes images and mental reconstruction. Unlike other tachycardia visualization software, our approach starts with a patient specific surface model which in itself provides extra insight into the problem. Furthermore it can be used very

  13. Visual-vestibular stimulation interferes with information processing in young and older humans.

    PubMed

    Furman, Joseph M; Müller, Martijn L T M; Redfern, Mark S; Jennings, J Richard

    2003-10-01

    Attention has been implicated in postural control and other tasks requiring sensory integration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of attention in sensory-motor processing of vestibular and combined visual-vestibular information during seated rotations using a dual-task interference approach. We hypothesized that auditory information processing would be influenced by concurrent visual-ocular, vestibulo-ocular, or combined visual-vestibulo-ocular processing. We further hypothesized that the effect would be greater in older subjects. Twenty older subjects (10 women, 10 men, 69.3+/-3.2 years) and 20 young subjects (10 women, 10 men, 23.5+/-2.9 years) were asked to perform information-processing tasks while they underwent several types of vestibular, visual-vestibular, and ocular motor paradigms. The information-processing tasks were: (1) an auditory simple reaction-time task (SRT), (2) an auditory go-no-go (disjunctive) reaction-time task (DRT), and (3) an auditory forced-choice task (CRT). The visual-vestibular-ocular motor conditions included: (1) no movement/darkness (NO), (2) no movement/fixation (FIX), (3) no movement/pursuit (P), (4) earth-vertical axis rotation (EVAR) in darkness, (5) EVAR with fixation (E-FIX), (6) off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) in darkness, and (7) OVAR with fixation (O-FIX). Results showed that older subjects had longer reaction times for all combinations of stimulus condition and reaction-time task compared with young subjects. Compared with the NO baseline, reaction times during EVAR were longer for young and older subjects and during OVAR were longer for the young subjects. For FIX and P, the reaction times during P exceeded those during FIX and during NO for both groups. For E-FIX and O-FIX, reaction times did not differ from those during EVAR and OVAR. The interference with information processing by concurrent vestibular stimulation in the dark may be based upon cortical inhibition of auditory processes by

  14. Social relevance: toward understanding the impact of the individual in an information cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.; Fields, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Information Cascades (IC) through a social network occur due to the decision of users to disseminate content. We define this decision process as User Diffusion (UD). IC models typically describe an information cascade by treating a user as a node within a social graph, where a node's reception of an idea is represented by some activation state. The probability of activation then becomes a function of a node's connectedness to other activated nodes as well as, potentially, the history of activation attempts. We enrich this Coarse-Grained User Diffusion (CGUD) model by applying actor type logics to the nodes of the graph. The resulting Fine-Grained User Diffusion (FGUD) model utilizes prior research in actor typing to generate a predictive model regarding the future influence a user will have on an Information Cascade. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of Information Resonance that is used to aid in predictions regarding user behavior.

  15. Mapping brain activation and information during category-specific visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Linden, David E J; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N; Klein, Christoph; Downing, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    How is working memory for different visual categories supported in the brain? Do the same principles of cortical specialization that govern the initial processing and encoding of visual stimuli also apply to their short-term maintenance? We investigated these questions with a delayed discrimination paradigm for faces, bodies, flowers, and scenes and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Activity during encoding followed the well-known specialization in posterior areas. During the delay interval, activity shifted to frontal and parietal regions but was not specialized for category. Conversely, activity in visual areas returned to baseline during that interval but showed some evidence of category specialization on multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA). We conclude that principles of cortical activation differ between encoding and maintenance of visual material. Whereas perceptual processes rely on specialized regions in occipitotemporal cortex, maintenance involves the activation of a frontoparietal network that seems to require little specialization at the category level. We also confirm previous findings that MVPA can extract information from fMRI signals in the absence of suprathreshold activation and that such signals from visual areas can reflect the material stored in memory.

  16. Integration of visual and somatosensory target information in goal-directed eye and arm movements.

    PubMed

    Neggers, S F; Bekkering, H

    1999-03-01

    In this study, we compared separate and coordinated eye and hand movements towards visual or somatosensory target stimuli in a dark room, where no visual position information about the hand could be obtained. Experiment 1 showed that saccadic reaction times (RTs) were longer when directed to somatosensory targets than when directed to visual targets in both single- and dual-task conditions. However, for hand movements, this pattern was only found in the dual-task condition and not in the single-task condition. Experiment 1 also showed that correlations between saccadic and hand RTs were significantly higher when directed towards somatosensory targets than when directed towards visual targets. Importantly, experiment 2 indicated that this was not caused by differences in processing times at a perceptual level. Furthermore, hand-pointing accuracy was found to be higher when subjects had to move their eyes as well (dual task) compared to a single-task hand movement. However, this effect was more pronounced for movements to visual targets than to somatosensory targets. A schematic model of sensorimotor transformations for saccadic eye and goal-directed hand movements is proposed and possible shared mechanisms of the two motor systems are discussed.

  17. Working Memory Inefficiency: Minimal Information Is Utilized in Visual Recognition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Can people make perfect use of task-relevant information in working memory (WM)? Specifically, when questioned about an item in an array that does not happen to be in WM, can participants take into account other items that are in WM, eliminating them as response candidates? To address this question, an ideal-responder model that assumes perfect…

  18. A Unified Computational Architecture for Preprocessing Visual Information in Space and Time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Josef

    1986-06-01

    The success of autonomous mobile robots depends on the ability to understand continuously changing scenery. Present techniques for analysis of images are not always suitable because in sequential paradigm, computation of visual functions based on absolute values of stimuli is inefficient. Important aspects of visual information are encoded in discontinuities of intensity, hence a representation in terms of relative values seems advantageous. We present the computing architecture of a massively parallel vision module which optimizes the detection of relative intensity changes in space and time. Visual information must remain constant despite variation in ambient light level or velocity of target and robot. Constancy can be achieved by normalizing motion and lightness scales. In both cases, basic computation involves a comparison of the center pixels with the context of surrounding values. Therefore, a similar computing architecture, composed of three functionally-different and hierarchically-arranged layers of overlapping operators, can be used for two integrated parts of the module. The first part maintains high sensitivity to spatial changes by reducing noise and normalizing the lightness scale. The result is used by the second part to maintain high sensitivity to temporal discontinuities and to compute relative motion information. Simulation results show that response of the module is proportional to contrast of the stimulus and remains constant over the whole domain of intensity. It is also proportional to velocity of motion limited to any small portion of the visual field. Uniform motion throughout the visual field results in constant response, independent of velocity. Spatial and temporal intensity changes are enhanced because computationally, the module resembles the behavior of a DOG function.

  19. In the Dark: Young Men’s Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the effectiveness of abstinence only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on sexual health/behavior. Findings indicate that information related to gay men’s sexuality is not readily available from family, friends or schools. At initiation of anal intercourse, respondents generally had limited information about HIV and STIs. In some cases, this resulted in the perception that activities such as unprotected sex were “low risk”. Many mentioned they first learned about anal sex during their sexual debut, describing painful and/or unpleasant experiences. Some relied on older/more experienced partners, the internet and pornography for information. Findings are discussed in relation to how providers can help YMSM build solid foundations of sexual education to protect them from STI and HIV infection. PMID:19574587

  20. CellBase, a comprehensive collection of RESTful web services for retrieving relevant biological information from heterogeneous sources

    PubMed Central

    Bleda, Marta; Tarraga, Joaquin; de Maria, Alejandro; Salavert, Francisco; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Celma, Matilde; Martin, Ainoha; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase. PMID:22693220

  1. CellBase, a comprehensive collection of RESTful web services for retrieving relevant biological information from heterogeneous sources.

    PubMed

    Bleda, Marta; Tarraga, Joaquin; de Maria, Alejandro; Salavert, Francisco; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Celma, Matilde; Martin, Ainoha; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

    2012-07-01

    During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase.

  2. Behavioural evidence for parallel information processing in the visual system of insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Srinivasan, M V

    1993-01-01

    Many flying insects display remarkable visual agility in capturing prey or pursuing a potential mate. They are capable of detecting, recognising, tracking and capturing a rapidly moving object on the wing. These manoeuvres are usually completed in a couple of seconds. The interval of time between the absorption of light quanta by the photoreceptors and the generation of an appropriate behavioural response is very short, encompassing only a few tens of milliseconds. In this time the visual nervous system has abstracted the essential features of the object, and recognized it (where appropriate), or measured its movement and computed an interception course. As an elementary unit of computation, we know that a neuron in the nervous system is considerably slower than, say, a flip-flop in the CPU of a modern computer. However, it is evident from the visual performance of an insect that the nervous system as a whole processes optical information much faster than a modern computer does. Rapid processing of visual information by animals therefore has to be attributed to the structure and the modus operandi of the nervous system.

  3. Enhanced local processing of dynamic visual information in autism: evidence from speed discrimination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Norton, D J; McBain, R; Gold, J; Frazier, J A; Coyle, J T

    2012-04-01

    An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visual information, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal signals but requires the comparison of information from more than a single spatial location or temporal point. This study examined speed discrimination in adolescents (ages 13-18 years old) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Compared to healthy controls (n=17), individuals with ASD (n=19) showed similarly precise speed discrimination when two comparison motion stimuli (random dot patterns) were presented closely in time (0.5s). With a longer temporal interval (3s) between the motion stimuli, individuals with ASD outperformed healthy controls on speed discrimination. On a second task--global motion perception--in which individuals were asked to detect coherent motion, individuals with ASD exhibited slightly degraded performance levels. The observed temporally selective enhancement in speed discrimination indicates that a local processing advantage in autism develops over a longer temporal range and is not limited to the spatial domain. These results suggest a dynamic perceptual mechanism for understanding, and therapeutically addressing, atypical visual processing in this neurodevelopmental disorder.

  4. Visual field information in Nap-of-the-Earth flight by teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kohn, S.; Merhav, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The human ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proved to be effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo-vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the Helmet-Mounted Display, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.

  5. Evidence for continuous processing of visual information in a manual video-aiming task.

    PubMed

    Proteau, Luc; Roujoula, Adel; Messier, Julie

    2009-05-01

    Research shows that individuals are able to correct for an experimentally-induced and unexpected aiming error (i.e., a cursor jump), even when they do not detect it consciously. Researchers have interpreted these results to be evidence of continuous processing of visual afferent information for movement control. The authors conducted 2 experiments to determine whether they would gain additional support for this proposition by showing that correction for a cursor jump can be initiated outside the central visual field. In addition, the authors wanted to determine whether the normally occurring modulation of the ongoing movement is affected by detection and correction of the cursor jump. Participants performed video-aiming movements in which a 30-mm cursor jump occurred in a small proportion of the trials. The results indicate that correction for the cursor jump was initiated when the cursor was as far as 15 degrees of visual angle from the target. In addition, the authors observed accurate corrections when vision of the cursor was withdrawn soon after the cursor jump. Last, online control processes reducing initial movement variability were not significantly affected by the detection and correction for the cursor jump. The results suggest near continuous monitoring of visual afferent information but a more discrete movement-correction process.

  6. Making sense of competitive intelligence with TIGER: an information visualization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Barbara E.; Flast, Robert; Gershman, Anatole; Gottsman, Edward J.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a joint research project in data visualization between MetLife and the CSTAR group at Andersen Consulting. The goal of the project was to produce a tool for retrieval, display, and analyzing competitive information that would run on conventional PC platforms. As part of the visualization scheme, icon clusters provide a graphical representation of each case's salient features, while 1, 2, or 3 dimensional maps of clusters reveal relationships among the cases. A graphical query facility allows users to specify cluster maps dynamically. In addition, the tool supports an ever-present 'bird's-eye-view' of the information space being analyzed. The tool is particularly valuable for exploring patterns among stories grouped and viewed in the 2 and 3 dimensional views which would be difficult to discern from a hardcopy version.

  7. Target-present guessing as a function of target prevalence and accumulated information in visual search.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2017-02-09

    Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response. However, researchers have found very high false alarms in high-prevalence searches, suggesting that prevalence rates may be used as a source of information to make "educated guesses" after search termination. Here, we further examine the ability for prevalence level and knowledge gained during visual search to influence guessing rates. We manipulate target prevalence and the amount of information that an observer accumulates about a search display prior to making a response to test if these sources of evidence are used to inform target present guess rates. We find that observers use both information about target prevalence rates and information about the proportion of the array inspected prior to making a response allowing them to make an informed and statistically driven guess about the target's presence.

  8. Dyslexic children suffer from less informative visual cues to control posture.

    PubMed

    Razuk, Milena; Barela, Jose A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulation of the characteristics of visual stimulus on postural control in dyslexic children. A total of 18 dyslexic and 18 non-dyslexic children stood upright inside a moving room, as still as possible, and looked at a target at different conditions of distance between the participant and a moving room frontal wall (25-150 cm) and vision (full and central). The first trial was performed without vision (baseline). Then four trials were performed in which the room remained stationary and eight trials with the room moving, lasting 60s each. Mean sway amplitude, coherence, relative phase, and angular deviation were calculated. The results revealed that dyslexic children swayed with larger magnitude in both stationary and moving conditions. When the room remained stationary, all children showed larger body sway magnitude at 150 cm distance. Dyslexic children showed larger body sway magnitude in central compared to full vision condition. In the moving condition, body sway magnitude was similar between dyslexic and non-dyslexic children but the coupling between visual information and body sway was weaker in dyslexic children. Moreover, in the absence of peripheral visual cues, induced body sway in dyslexic children was temporally delayed regarding visual stimulus. Taken together, these results indicate that poor postural control performance in dyslexic children is related to how sensory information is acquired from the environment and used to produce postural responses. In conditions in which sensory cues are less informative, dyslexic children take longer to process sensory stimuli in order to obtain precise information, which leads to performance deterioration.

  9. Visual Hallucinations in the Psychosis Spectrum and Comparative Information From Neurodegenerative Disorders and Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; ffytche, Dominic H.; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

  10. #FluxFlow: Visual Analysis of Anomalous Information Spreading on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Nan; Wen, Zhen; Song, Yale; Lin, Yu-Ru; Collins, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We present FluxFlow, an interactive visual analysis system for revealing and analyzing anomalous information spreading in social media. Everyday, millions of messages are created, commented, and shared by people on social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook. This provides valuable data for researchers and practitioners in many application domains, such as marketing, to inform decision-making. Distilling valuable social signals from the huge crowd's messages, however, is challenging, due to the heterogeneous and dynamic crowd behaviors. The challenge is rooted in data analysts' capability of discerning the anomalous information behaviors, such as the spreading of rumors or misinformation, from the rest that are more conventional patterns, such as popular topics and newsworthy events, in a timely fashion. FluxFlow incorporates advanced machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies, and offers a set of novel visualization designs for presenting the detected threads for deeper analysis. We evaluated FluxFlow with real datasets containing the Twitter feeds captured during significant events such as Hurricane Sandy. Through quantitative measurements of the algorithmic performance and qualitative interviews with domain experts, the results show that the back-end anomaly detection model is effective in identifying anomalous retweeting threads, and its front-end interactive visualizations are intuitive and useful for analysts to discover insights in data and comprehend the underlying analytical model.

  11. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat’s long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat’s short axis direction than in the bat’s long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat’s short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay. PMID:26848742

  12. Influence of information sources on hepatitis B screening behavior and relevant psychosocial factors among Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-08-01

    This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured.

  13. Perception and performance in flight simulators: The contribution of vestibular, visual, and auditory information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The pilot's perception and performance in flight simulators is examined. The areas investigated include: vestibular stimulation, flight management and man cockpit information interfacing, and visual perception in flight simulation. The effects of higher levels of rotary acceleration on response time to constant acceleration, tracking performance, and thresholds for angular acceleration are examined. Areas of flight management examined are cockpit display of traffic information, work load, synthetic speech call outs during the landing phase of flight, perceptual factors in the use of a microwave landing system, automatic speech recognition, automation of aircraft operation, and total simulation of flight training.

  14. The Impact of New Electronic Imaging Systems on U.S. Air Force Visual Information Professionals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Tekcvvxunikatn Tcmo= Max 85287-1305 (602) %55011 FROM: Maj Lee E. Thomas 20 Jan 1993 2336 W. Nopal Ave. Mesa, AZ 85202 (602) 820-5213 SUBJECT: Request for...Visual Information (VI) Personnel Requestor Information: Major Lee E. Thomas 2336 W. Nopal Ave. Mesa, AZ 85202 Ph: (602) 820-5213 Statement of Survey...1993 2336 W. Nopal Ave. Mesa, AZ 85202 (602) 820-5213 SUBJECT: Request for Assistance and Survey Sponsorship TO: HQ USAF/SCMV Lt Col Cultice 1. My

  15. Developing visual images for communicating information aboutantiretroviral side effects to a low-literate population.

    PubMed

    Dowse, Ros; Ramela, Thato; Barford, Kirsty-Lee; Browne, Sara

    2010-09-01

    The side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are linked to altered quality of life and adherence. Poor adherence has also been associated with low health-literacy skills, with an uninformed patient more likely to make ARV-related decisions that compromise the efficacy of the treatment. Low literacy skills disempower patients in interactions with healthcare providers and preclude the use of existing written patient information materials, which are generally written at a high reading level. Visual images or pictograms used as a counselling tool or included in patient information leaflets have been shown to improve patients' knowledge, particularly in low-literate groups. The objective of this study was to design visuals or pictograms illustrating various ARV side effects and to evaluate them in a low-literate South African Xhosa population. Core images were generated either from a design workshop or from posed photos or images from textbooks. The research team worked closely with a graphic artist. Initial versions of the images were discussed and assessed in group discussions, and then modified and eventually evaluated quantitatively in individual interviews with 40 participants who each had a maximum of 10 years of schooling. The familiarity of the human body, its facial expressions, postures and actions contextualised the information and contributed to the participants' understanding. Visuals that were simple, had a clear central focus and reflected familiar body experiences (e.g. vomiting) were highly successful. The introduction of abstract elements (e.g. fever) and metaphorical images (e.g. nightmares) presented problems for interpretation, particularly to those with the lowest educational levels. We recommend that such visual images should be designed in collaboration with the target population and a graphic artist, taking cognisance of the audience's literacy skills and culture, and should employ a multistage iterative process of modification and

  16. Effects of Visual Information on Wind-Evoked Escape Behavior of the Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Kanou, Masamichi; Matsuyama, Akane; Takuwa, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of visual information on wind-evoked escape behavior in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Most agitated crickets were found to retreat into a shelter made of cardboard installed in the test arena within a short time. As this behavior was thought to be a type of escape, we confirmed how a visual image of a shelter affected wind-evoked escape behavior. Irrespective of the brightness of the visual background (black or white) or the absence or presence of a shelter, escape jumps were oriented almost 180° opposite to the source of the air puff stimulus. Therefore, the direction of wind-evoked escape depends solely depended on the direction of the stimulus air puff. In contrast, the turning direction of the crickets during the escape was affected by the position of the visual image of the shelter. During the wind-evoked escape jump, most crickets turned in the direction in which a shelter was presented. This behavioral nature is presumably necessary for crickets to retreat into a shelter within a short time after their escape jump.

  17. Seeing is believing: information content and behavioural response to visual and chemical cues

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálvez, Francisco G.; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues. PMID:23698013

  18. RGB-D SLAM Combining Visual Odometry and Extended Information Filter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yanli; Tan, Jindong; Xiong, Naixue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel RGB-D SLAM system based on visual odometry and an extended information filter, which does not require any other sensors or odometry. In contrast to the graph optimization approaches, this is more suitable for online applications. A visual dead reckoning algorithm based on visual residuals is devised, which is used to estimate motion control input. In addition, we use a novel descriptor called binary robust appearance and normals descriptor (BRAND) to extract features from the RGB-D frame and use them as landmarks. Furthermore, considering both the 3D positions and the BRAND descriptors of the landmarks, our observation model avoids explicit data association between the observations and the map by marginalizing the observation likelihood over all possible associations. Experimental validation is provided, which compares the proposed RGB-D SLAM algorithm with just RGB-D visual odometry and a graph-based RGB-D SLAM algorithm using the publicly-available RGB-D dataset. The results of the experiments demonstrate that our system is quicker than the graph-based RGB-D SLAM algorithm. PMID:26263990

  19. Seeing is believing: information content and behavioural response to visual and chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, Francisco G; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A

    2013-07-22

    Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues.

  20. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    PubMed

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.

  1. Chaining of web services and its application in geographic information integration and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuanbin; Wu, Qunyong; Chen, Chongcheng; Chen, Han

    2005-11-01

    The rapid development of web services technology ushers Geographical Information Systems (GISs) into the era of geographic information web services (GIWS), which requires a scalable and extensible GISs model to deliver distributed geographic information and GISs functions integrated as independently-provided, interoperable services in a distributed computing environment. Several distributed services can be dynamically chained as a new service to accomplish a specific task. Such a model of service chaining is one of the most important research topics of next generation GISs. The paper highlights the issues of service chaining, the process of combining several distributed, interoperable GIWS dynamically to construct customized applications, and analyses characters of each pattern. Then, based on pattern of client-coordinated chaining, we design a service chaining which is developed in a J2EE development environment using web services technology, and construct a web services-oriented Geo-spatial data integration and visualization platform in order to integrate multi-sources and heterogeneous Geo-spatial data using Geography Markup Language (GML) and Geo-spatial data integration technology, and to visualize geographic information using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and JavaScript technology. During the process of design, several GIWS are defined, and functions, interfaces and related methods of these services are discussed in detail. The paper focuses on the method for chaining distributed GIWS, the mechanism for geographic information dissemination and error handling. Finally, forest Geo-spatial Data which have two typical types of data E00 and Shapefile (SHP) was used to test the platform. The result indicates that using service chaining for multi-sources and heterogeneous Geo-spatial data integration and visualization can efficiently meet customized needs, but further research is needed for better application.

  2. The price of information: Increased inspection costs reduce the confirmation bias in visual search.

    PubMed

    Rajsic, Jason; Wilson, Daryl E; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-31

    In visual search, there is a confirmation bias such that attention is biased towards stimuli that match a target template, which has been attributed to covert costs of updating the templates that guide search [Rajsic, Wilson, & Pratt, 2015. Confirmation bias in visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/xhp0000090 ]. In order to provide direct evidence for this speculation, the present study increased the cost of inspections in search by using gaze- and mouse-contingent searches, which restrict the manner in which information in search displays can be accrued, and incur additional motor costs (in the case of mouse-contingent searches). In a fourth experiment, we rhythmically mask elements in the search display to induce temporal inspection costs. Our results indicated that confirmation bias is indeed attenuated when inspection costs are increased. We conclude that confirmation bias results from the low-cost strategy of matching information to a single, concrete visual template, and that more sophisticated guidance strategies will be used when sufficiently beneficial. This demonstrates that search guidance itself comes at a cost, and that the form of guidance adopted in a given search depends on a comparison between guidance costs and the expected benefits of their implementation.

  3. The role of visual speech cues in reducing energetic and informational masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfer, Karen S.; Freyman, Richard L.

    2005-02-01

    Two experiments compared the effect of supplying visual speech information (e.g., lipreading cues) on the ability to hear one female talker's voice in the presence of steady-state noise or a masking complex consisting of two other female voices. In the first experiment intelligibility of sentences was measured in the presence of the two types of maskers with and without perceived spatial separation of target and masker. The second study tested detection of sentences in the same experimental conditions. Results showed that visual cues provided more benefit for both recognition and detection of speech when the masker consisted of other voices (versus steady-state noise). Moreover, visual cues provided greater benefit when the target speech and masker were spatially coincident versus when they appeared to arise from different spatial locations. The data obtained here are consistent with the hypothesis that lipreading cues help to segregate a target voice from competing voices, in addition to the established benefit of supplementing masked phonetic information. .

  4. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

  5. Application of Information Visualization Techniques in Representing Patients' Temporal Personal History Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Shahrul Azman; Yaakob, Suraya; Shahar, Suzana

    The anthropometries and nutrients records of patients are usually vast in quantity, complex and exhibit temporal features. Therefore, the information acceptance among users will become blur and give cognitive burden if such data is not displayed using effective techniques. The aim of this study is to apply, use and evaluate Information Visualization (IV) techniques for displaying the Personal History Data (PHD) of patients for dietitians during counseling sessions. Since PHD values change consistently with the counseling session, our implementation mainly focused on quantitative temporal data such as Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure and blood glucose readings. This data is mapped into orientation circle type of visual representation, whereas data about medicinal and supplement intake are mapped into timeline segment which is based on the thickness of lines as well as the colors. A usability testing has been conducted among dietitians at Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, UKM. The result of the testing has shown that the use of visual representations capable of summarising complex data which ease the dietitian task of checking the PHD.

  6. D Web Visualization of Environmental Information - Integration of Heterogeneous Data Sources when Providing Navigation and Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, L.; Řezník, T.

    2015-08-01

    3D information is essential for a number of applications used daily in various domains such as crisis management, energy management, urban planning, and cultural heritage, as well as pollution and noise mapping, etc. This paper is devoted to the issue of 3D modelling from the levels of buildings to cities. The theoretical sections comprise an analysis of cartographic principles for the 3D visualization of spatial data as well as a review of technologies and data formats used in the visualization of 3D models. Emphasis was placed on the verification of available web technologies; for example, X3DOM library was chosen for the implementation of a proof-of-concept web application. The created web application displays a 3D model of the city district of Nový Lískovec in Brno, the Czech Republic. The developed 3D visualization shows a terrain model, 3D buildings, noise pollution, and other related information. Attention was paid to the areas important for handling heterogeneous input data, the design of interactive functionality, and navigation assistants. The advantages, limitations, and future development of the proposed concept are discussed in the conclusions.

  7. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

  8. Visual information processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 14-16, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Juday, Richard D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Various papers on visual information processing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: aliasing as noise, satellite image processing using a hammering neural network, edge-detetion method using visual perception, adaptive vector median filters, design of a reading test for low-vision image warping, spatial transformation architectures, automatic image-enhancement method, redundancy reduction in image coding, lossless gray-scale image compression by predictive GDF, information efficiency in visual communication, optimizing JPEG quantization matrices for different applications, use of forward error correction to maintain image fidelity, effect of peanoscanning on image compression. Also discussed are: computer vision for autonomous robotics in space, optical processor for zero-crossing edge detection, fractal-based image edge detection, simulation of the neon spreading effect by bandpass filtering, wavelet transform (WT) on parallel SIMD architectures, nonseparable 2D wavelet image representation, adaptive image halftoning based on WT, wavelet analysis of global warming, use of the WT for signal detection, perfect reconstruction two-channel rational filter banks, N-wavelet coding for pattern classification, simulation of image of natural objects, number-theoretic coding for iconic systems.

  9. Iowa Flood Information System: Towards Integrated Data Management, Analysis and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2012-04-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities

  10. The integration of visual context information in facial emotion recognition in 5- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Theurel, Anne; Witt, Arnaud; Malsert, Jennifer; Lejeune, Fleur; Fiorentini, Chiara; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Gentaz, Edouard

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of congruent visual context information in the recognition of facial emotional expression in 190 participants from 5 to 15years of age. Children performed a matching task that presented pictures with different facial emotional expressions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, and sadness) in two conditions: with and without a visual context. The results showed that emotions presented with visual context information were recognized more accurately than those presented in the absence of visual context. The context effect remained steady with age but varied according to the emotion presented and the gender of participants. The findings demonstrated for the first time that children from the age of 5years are able to integrate facial expression and visual context information, and this integration improves facial emotion recognition.

  11. Putting Security in Context: Visual Correlation of Network Activity with Real-World Information

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, William A.; Scherrer, Chad; Zabriskie, Sean J.

    2008-06-04

    To effectively identify and respond to cyber threats, computer security analysts must understand the scale, motivation, methods, source, and target of an attack. Central to developing this situational awareness is the analyst’s world knowledge that puts these attributes in context. What known exploits or new vulnerabilities might an anomalous traffic pattern suggest? What organizational, social, or geopolitical events help forecast or explain attacks and anomalies? Few visualization tools support creating, maintaining, and applying this knowledge of the threat landscape. Through a series of formative workshops with practicing security analysts, we have developed a visualization approach inspired by the human process of contextualization; this system, called NUANCE, creates evolving behavioral models of network actors at organizational and regional levels, continuously monitors external textual information sources for themes that indicate security threats, and automatically determines if behavior indicative of those threats is present on a network.

  12. The oral health status of adults with a visual impairment, their dental care and oral health information needs.

    PubMed

    Watson, E K; Moles, D R; Kumar, N; Porter, S R

    2010-04-24

    AIM There is little information available concerning the impact of visual impairment upon oral health. The present study sought to identify the oral health and experiences of adults with a visual impairment together with the nature, source and access to oral health information. In addition the study evaluated the oral health status of a group of individuals with a visual impairment with respect to oral health markers, treatment choice and attendance patterns in comparison to a reference group from the general population in the United Kingdom. METHOD One hundred adults with a visual impairment were examined and completed a questionnaire concerning their experience of oral health care and available information sources. The information collected was directly compared with data from the Adult Dental Health Survey 1998 for the south region of England. RESULTS The present group of individuals with a visual impairment had better oral hygiene practices, and similar levels of oral hygiene and hard tissue disease to those of a comparable group of the Adult Dental Health Survey 1998 (ADHS 1998). However 24% of those with a visual impairment were not registered with a dentist and 26% of the patients wished for appropriate information concerning oral health care. CONCLUSIONS There is a need to develop oral health promotion that ensures patients with a visual impairment have appropriate information regarding oral health care and its provision.

  13. Bengali-English Relevant Cross Lingual Information Access Using Finite Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Avishek; Bhattacharyya, Swapan; Hazra, Simanta; Mondal, Shatabdi

    2010-10-01

    CLIR techniques searches unrestricted texts and typically extract term and relationships from bilingual electronic dictionaries or bilingual text collections and use them to translate query and/or document representations into a compatible set of representations with a common feature set. In this paper, we focus on dictionary-based approach by using a bilingual data dictionary with a combination to statistics-based methods to avoid the problem of ambiguity also the development of human computer interface aspects of NLP (Natural Language processing) is the approach of this paper. The intelligent web search with regional language like Bengali is depending upon two major aspect that is CLIA (Cross language information access) and NLP. In our previous work with IIT, KGP we already developed content based CLIA where content based searching in trained on Bengali Corpora with the help of Bengali data dictionary. Here we want to introduce intelligent search because to recognize the sense of meaning of a sentence and it has a better real life approach towards human computer interactions.

  14. Triplet excited States as a source of relevant (bio)chemical information.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and α1-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external quenchers. With proteins, formation of spatially confined triplet excited states is favored over competitive processes affording ionic species. Remarkably, under aerobic atmosphere, the triplet decay of drug@protein complexes is dramatically longer than in bulk solution. This offers a convenient dynamic range for assignment of different triplet populations or for stereochemical discrimination. In this review, selected examples of the application of the laser flash photolysis technique are described, including drug distribution between the bulk solution and the protein cavities, or between two types of proteins, detection of drug-drug interactions inside proteins, and enzyme-like activity processes mediated by proteins. Finally, protein encapsulation can also modify the photoreactivity of the guest. This is illustrated by presenting an example of retarded photooxidation.

  15. Active recognition enhances the representation of behaviorally relevant information in single auditory forebrain neurons.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Daniel P; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2013-04-01

    Sensory systems are dynamic. They must process a wide range of natural signals that facilitate adaptive behaviors in a manner that depends on an organism's constantly changing goals. A full understanding of the sensory physiology that underlies adaptive natural behaviors must therefore account for the activity of sensory systems in light of these behavioral goals. Here we present a novel technique that combines in vivo electrophysiological recording from awake, freely moving songbirds with operant conditioning techniques that allow control over birds' recognition of conspecific song, a widespread natural behavior in songbirds. We show that engaging in a vocal recognition task alters the response properties of neurons in the caudal mesopallium (CM), an avian analog of mammalian auditory cortex, in European starlings. Compared with awake, passive listening, active engagement of subjects in an auditory recognition task results in neurons responding to fewer song stimuli and a decrease in the trial-to-trial variability in their driven firing rates. Mean firing rates also change during active recognition, but not uniformly. Relative to nonengaged listening, active recognition causes increases in the driven firing rates in some neurons, decreases in other neurons, and stimulus-specific changes in other neurons. These changes lead to both an increase in stimulus selectivity and an increase in the information conveyed by the neurons about the animals' behavioral task. This study demonstrates the behavioral dependence of neural responses in the avian auditory forebrain and introduces the starling as a model for real-time monitoring of task-related neural processing of complex auditory objects.

  16. Splitting Attention across the Two Visual Fields in Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Holt, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevant visual information from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…

  17. Constructing and Modifying Sequence Statistics for relevent Using informR in 𝖱

    PubMed Central

    Marcum, Christopher Steven; Butts, Carter T.

    2015-01-01

    The informR package greatly simplifies the analysis of complex event histories in 𝖱 by providing user friendly tools to build sufficient statistics for the relevent package. Historically, building sufficient statistics to model event sequences (of the form a→b) using the egocentric generalization of Butts’ (2008) relational event framework for modeling social action has been cumbersome. The informR package simplifies the construction of the complex list of arrays needed by the rem() model fitting for a variety of cases involving egocentric event data, multiple event types, and/or support constraints. This paper introduces these tools using examples from real data extracted from the American Time Use Survey. PMID:26185488

  18. Dynamic information flow analysis in Vascular Dementia patients during the performance of a visual oddball task.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Jin; Lou, Wutao; Zhao, Songzhen

    2014-09-19

    This study investigated the information flow in patients with Vascular Dementia (VaD). Twelve VaD patients and twelve age-matched controls participated in the study. EEG signal was recorded when subjects were performing a visual oddball task. Information flow was analyzed between 9 electrodes in frontal, central, and parietal lobes using short-window Directed Transfer Function (sDTF). VaD patients presented a significant decline in the information flow from parietal to frontal and central lobes, compared with the healthy elderly. This decline mainly occurred in delta, theta, and lower alpha bands, from about 200ms to 300ms after target stimulus onset. The findings indicated an impaired parietal-to-frontal and parietal-to-central connectivity in VaD patients, which may be one reason for the cognitive deficits in VaD patients.

  19. Spatial information mining and visualization for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's literature based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuemei; Ma, Mingguo

    2009-10-01

    The subject intersection becomes a hot research topic recently. This paper tried to couple the Bibliometrics and Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies for studying on the spatial information mining and visualization from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's literature. All the literatures about Qinghai-Tibet Plateau research were indexed in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The statistical tables about the authors were extracted from the papers by using the method of bibliometrics. The spatial information of the author's countries was linked with the GIS database. The spatial distribution was presented by the format of maps based on the GIS technologies. Comparing with the regular presentation forms of the bibliometrical analysis, the spatial distribution maps can afford more abundant and intuitive senses for the users.

  20. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  1. Improving Nigerian health policymakers’ capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers’ ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  2. Visual graph query formulation and exploration: a new perspective on information retrieval at the edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Knight, Joanne A.; Su, Yu; Yan, Xifeng

    2016-05-01

    Within operational environments decisions must be made quickly based on the information available. Identifying an appropriate knowledge base and accurately formulating a search query are critical tasks for decision-making effectiveness in dynamic situations. The spreading of graph data management tools to access large graph databases is a rapidly emerging research area of potential benefit to the intelligence community. A graph representation provides a natural way of modeling data in a wide variety of domains. Graph structures use nodes, edges, and properties to represent and store data. This research investigates the advantages of information search by graph query initiated by the analyst and interactively refined within the contextual dimensions of the answer space toward a solution. The paper introduces SLQ, a user-friendly graph querying system enabling the visual formulation of schemaless and structureless graph queries. SLQ is demonstrated with an intelligence analyst information search scenario focused on identifying individuals responsible for manufacturing a mosquito-hosted deadly virus. The scenario highlights the interactive construction of graph queries without prior training in complex query languages or graph databases, intuitive navigation through the problem space, and visualization of results in graphical format.

  3. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Schwab, Markus; Simic, Stana; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2015-11-09

    Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants' skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates.

  4. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Schwab, Markus; Simic, Stana; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants’ skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates. PMID:26569274

  5. Lack of habituation of evoked visual potentials in analytic information processing style: evidence in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Buonfiglio, Marzia; Toscano, M; Puledda, F; Avanzini, G; Di Clemente, L; Di Sabato, F; Di Piero, V

    2015-03-01

    Habituation is considered one of the most basic mechanisms of learning. Habituation deficit to several sensory stimulations has been defined as a trait of migraine brain and also observed in other disorders. On the other hand, analytic information processing style is characterized by the habit of continually evaluating stimuli and it has been associated with migraine. We investigated a possible correlation between lack of habituation of evoked visual potentials and analytic cognitive style in healthy subjects. According to Sternberg-Wagner self-assessment inventory, 15 healthy volunteers (HV) with high analytic score and 15 HV with high global score were recruited. Both groups underwent visual evoked potentials recordings after psychological evaluation. We observed significant lack of habituation in analytical individuals compared to global group. In conclusion, a reduced habituation of visual evoked potentials has been observed in analytic subjects. Our results suggest that further research should be undertaken regarding the relationship between analytic cognitive style and lack of habituation in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  6. Visual apparent motion can be modulated by task-irrelevant lexical information.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly demonstrated the impact of Gestalt structural grouping principles upon the parsing of motion correspondence in ambiguous apparent motion. Here, by embedding Chinese characters in a visual Ternus display that comprised two stimulus frames, we showed that the perception of visual apparent motion can be modulated by activation of task-irrelevant lexical representations. Each frame had two disks, with the second disk of the first frame and the first disk of the second frame being presented at the same location. Observers could perceive either "element motion," in which the endmost disk is seen as moving back and forth while the middle disk at the central position remains stationary, or "group motion," in which both disks appear to move laterally as a whole. More reports of group motion, as opposed to element motion, were obtained when the embedded characters formed two-character compound words than when they formed nonwords, although this lexicality effect appeared to be attenuated by the use of the same characters at the overlapping position across the two frames. Thus, grouping of visual elements in a changing world can be guided by both structural principles and prior world knowledge, including lexical information.

  7. Motor adaptation in complex sports - the influence of visual context information on the adaptation of the three-point shot to altered task demands in expert basketball players.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Fries, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of visual context information on skilled motor behaviour and motor adaptation in basketball. The rules of basketball in Europe have recently changed, such that that the distance for three-point shots increased from 6.25 m to 6.75 m. As such, we tested the extent to which basketball experts can adapt to the longer distance when a) only the unfamiliar, new three-point line was provided as floor markings (NL group), or b) the familiar, old three-point line was provided in addition to the new floor markings (OL group). In the present study 20 expert basketball players performed 40 three-point shots from 6.25 m and 40 shots from 6.75 m. We assessed the percentage of hits and analysed the landing position of the ball. Results showed better adaptation of throwing performance to the longer distance when the old three-point line was provided as a visual landmark, compared to when only the new three-point line was provided. We hypothesise that the three-point line delivered relevant information needed to successfully adapt to the greater distance in the OL group, whereas it disturbed performance and ability to adapt in the NL group. The importance of visual landmarks on motor adaptation in basketball throwing is discussed relative to the influence of other information sources (i.e. angle of elevation relative to the basket) and sport practice.

  8. The Display of Visual Information in Mission Command Systems: Implications for Cognitive Performance in the Command Post of the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or...the presence of large volumes of time critical information. CPOF was designed to support the Army transformation to network-enabled operations. The...Cognitive Performance The visual display of information is vital to cognitive performance. For example, the poor visual design of the radar display

  9. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  10. [Deficit in suppression of interference in visual information processing by schizophrenic subjects].

    PubMed

    Gagnon, J F; Everett, J; LaJeunesse, C; Gosselin, N; Lavoie, K

    2000-01-01

    Although many studies have indicated information processing deficits in schizophrenic patients, the precise nature and underlying causes of these deficits remain largely uncertain. One prominent hypothesis is that these patients show insufficient attentional inhibition. This deficit to inhibition has been linked to certain cognitive disorders in schizophrenic patients, including attention deficits, as well as to some clinical symptoms, especially those involving delusional thought, hallucinations,and poor contact with reality. The hypothesis of deficient attentional inhibition, although attractive in some ways, is difficult to work with, because it is not easy to directly measure "attentional inhibition". Several studies involving normal subjects have linked attentional inhibition with performance on a task demanding the suppression of distracting information: the presumption is that efficient attentional inhibition will permit rapid responses because the distracting information will be quickly suppressed, allowing undistracted processing of the target information. The present study measures schizophrenic patients' performance on a task demanding suppression of rapidly-presented visual information. An important methodological feature of this study is that performance is measured in terms of "percent correct responses" rather than the reaction time measures typically used in tasks demanding distractor suppression, such as Stroop-like selective attention tasks. Since reaction times are not considered, the results cannot be interpreted in terms of deficient response organization and execution. Schizophrenic (18) and normal (18) subjects underwent trials in which a visual target was the second of two stimuli presented in rapid succession. Interference produced by a non-target significantly impaired perception of the target for schizophrenic patients. This effect persisted longer in the schizophrenic subjects possibly because of deficient attentional inhibition.

  11. Visualization of Time-Series Sensor Data to Inform the Design of Just-In-Time Adaptive Stress Interventions.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Moushumi; Raij, Andrew; Epstien, David; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Beck, J Gayle; Vhaduri, Sudip; Preston, Kenzie; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-09-01

    We investigate needs, challenges, and opportunities in visualizing time-series sensor data on stress to inform the design of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs). We identify seven key challenges: massive volume and variety of data, complexity in identifying stressors, scalability of space, multifaceted relationship between stress and time, a need for representation at multiple granularities, interperson variability, and limited understanding of JITAI design requirements due to its novelty. We propose four new visualizations based on one million minutes of sensor data (n=70). We evaluate our visualizations with stress researchers (n=6) to gain first insights into its usability and usefulness in JITAI design. Our results indicate that spatio-temporal visualizations help identify and explain between- and within-person variability in stress patterns and contextual visualizations enable decisions regarding the timing, content, and modality of intervention. Interestingly, a granular representation is considered informative but noise-prone; an abstract representation is the preferred starting point for designing JITAIs.

  12. Designing stereoscopic information visualization for 3D-TV: What can we can learn from S3D gaming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores graphical design and spatial alignment of visual information and graphical elements into stereoscopically filmed content, e.g. captions, subtitles, and especially more complex elements in 3D-TV productions. The method used is a descriptive analysis of existing computer- and video games that have been adapted for stereoscopic display using semi-automatic rendering techniques (e.g. Nvidia 3D Vision) or games which have been specifically designed for stereoscopic vision. Digital games often feature compelling visual interfaces that combine high usability with creative visual design. We explore selected examples of game interfaces in stereoscopic vision regarding their stereoscopic characteristics, how they draw attention, how we judge effect and comfort and where the interfaces fail. As a result, we propose a list of five aspects which should be considered when designing stereoscopic visual information: explicit information, implicit information, spatial reference, drawing attention, and vertical alignment. We discuss possible consequences, opportunities and challenges for integrating visual information elements into 3D-TV content. This work shall further help to improve current editing systems and identifies a need for future editing systems for 3DTV, e.g., live editing and real-time alignment of visual information into 3D footage.

  13. Add a picture for suspense: neural correlates of the interaction between language and visual information in the perception of fear

    PubMed Central

    Clevis, Krien; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how visual and linguistic information interact in the perception of emotion. We borrowed a phenomenon from film theory which states that presentation of an as such neutral visual scene intensifies the percept of fear or suspense induced by a different channel of information, such as language. Our main aim was to investigate how neutral visual scenes can enhance responses to fearful language content in parts of the brain involved in the perception of emotion. Healthy participants’ brain activity was measured (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) while they read fearful and less fearful sentences presented with or without a neutral visual scene. The main idea is that the visual scenes intensify the fearful content of the language by subtly implying and concretizing what is described in the sentence. Activation levels in the right anterior temporal pole were selectively increased when a neutral visual scene was paired with a fearful sentence, compared to reading the sentence alone, as well as to reading of non-fearful sentences presented with the same neutral scene. We conclude that the right anterior temporal pole serves a binding function of emotional information across domains such as visual and linguistic information. PMID:20530540

  14. Add a picture for suspense: neural correlates of the interaction between language and visual information in the perception of fear.

    PubMed

    Willems, Roel M; Clevis, Krien; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-09-01

    We investigated how visual and linguistic information interact in the perception of emotion. We borrowed a phenomenon from film theory which states that presentation of an as such neutral visual scene intensifies the percept of fear or suspense induced by a different channel of information, such as language. Our main aim was to investigate how neutral visual scenes can enhance responses to fearful language content in parts of the brain involved in the perception of emotion. Healthy participants' brain activity was measured (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) while they read fearful and less fearful sentences presented with or without a neutral visual scene. The main idea is that the visual scenes intensify the fearful content of the language by subtly implying and concretizing what is described in the sentence. Activation levels in the right anterior temporal pole were selectively increased when a neutral visual scene was paired with a fearful sentence, compared to reading the sentence alone, as well as to reading of non-fearful sentences presented with the same neutral scene. We conclude that the right anterior temporal pole serves a binding function of emotional information across domains such as visual and linguistic information.

  15. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments associated with reaching movements are programmed according to the availability of visual information.

    PubMed

    Esposti, Roberto; Bruttini, Carlo; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2017-02-17

    During goal-directed arm movements, the eyes, head, and arm are coordinated to look at and reach the target. We examined whether the expectancy of visual information about the target modifies Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs). Ten standing subjects had to (1) move the eyes, head and arm, so as to reach, with both gaze and index-finger, a target of known position placed outside their visual field (Gaze-Reach); (2) look at the target while reaching it (Reach in Full Vision); (3) keep the gaze away until having touched it (Reach then Gaze) and (4) just Gaze without Reach the target. We recorded eye, head, right arm, and acromion kinematics, EMGs from upper- and lower-limb muscles, and forces exerted on the ground. In Gaze-Reach, two coordination strategies were found: when gaze preceded arm muscle recruitment (Gaze-first) and when the opposite occurred (Reach-first). APAs in acromion kinematics, leg muscles, and ground forces started significantly earlier in Gaze-first vs. Reach-first (mean time advance: 44.3 ± 8.9 ms), as it was in Reach in Full Vision vs. Reach then Gaze (39.5 ± 7.9 ms). The Gaze-first to Reach-first time-shift was similar to that between Reach in Full Vision and Reach then Gaze (p = 0.58). Moreover, Gaze without Reach data witnessed that the head-induced postural actions did not affect the APA onset in Gaze-first and Reach-first. In conclusion, in Gaze-first, the central control of posture considers visual information while planning the movement, like in Reach in Full Vision; while Reach-first is more similar to Reach then Gaze, where vision is not required.

  16. Parsed and fixed block representations of visual information for image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

    2009-02-01

    The theory of linguistics teaches us the existence of a hierarchical structure in linguistic expressions, from letter to word root, and on to word and sentences. By applying syntax and semantics beyond words, one can further recognize the grammatical relationship between among words and the meaning of a sequence of words. This layered view of a spoken language is useful for effective analysis and automated processing. Thus, it is interesting to ask if a similar hierarchy of representation of visual information does exist. A class of techniques that have a similar nature to the linguistic parsing is found in the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing scheme. Based on a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithms extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing, a new framework for image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of the incremental parsing algorithm, was proposed recently. With the incremental parsing technique, a given image is decomposed into a number of patches, called a parsed representation. This representation can be thought of as a morphological interface between elementary pixel and a higher level representation. In this work, we examine the properties of two-dimensional parsed representation in the context of imagery information retrieval and in contrast to vector quantization; i.e. fixed square-block representations and minimum average distortion criteria. We implemented four image retrieval systems for the comparative study; three, called IPSILON image retrieval systems, use parsed representation with different perceptual distortion thresholds and one uses the convectional vector quantization for visual pattern analysis. We observe that different perceptual distortion in visual pattern matching does not have serious effects on the retrieval precision although allowing looser perceptual thresholds in image compression result poor reconstruction fidelity. We compare the effectiveness of the use of the

  17. Contrast Sensitivity With a Subretinal Prosthesis and Implications for Efficient Delivery of Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Georges; Smith, Richard; Lei, Xin; Galambos, Ludwig; Kamins, Theodore; Mathieson, Keith; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the contrast sensitivity of a degenerate retina stimulated by a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, and assess the impact of low contrast sensitivity on transmission of visual information. Methods We measure ex vivo the full-field contrast sensitivity of healthy rat retina stimulated with white light, and the contrast sensitivity of degenerate rat retina stimulated with a subretinal prosthesis at frequencies exceeding flicker fusion (>20 Hz). Effects of eye movements on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activity are simulated using a linear–nonlinear model of the retina. Results Retinal ganglion cells adapt to high frequency stimulation of constant intensity, and respond transiently to changes in illumination of the implant, exhibiting responses to ON-sets, OFF-sets, and both ON- and OFF-sets of light. The percentage of cells with an OFF response decreases with progression of the degeneration, indicating that OFF responses are likely mediated by photoreceptors. Prosthetic vision exhibits reduced contrast sensitivity and dynamic range, with 65% contrast changes required to elicit responses, as compared to the 3% (OFF) to 7% (ON) changes with visible light. The maximum number of action potentials elicited with prosthetic stimulation is at most half of its natural counterpart for the ON pathway. Our model predicts that for most visual scenes, contrast sensitivity of prosthetic vision is insufficient for triggering RGC activity by fixational eye movements. Conclusions Contrast sensitivity of prosthetic vision is 10 times lower than normal, and dynamic range is two times below natural. Low contrast sensitivity and lack of OFF responses hamper delivery of visual information via a subretinal prosthesis. PMID:26540657

  18. GFFview: A Web Server for Parsing and Visualizing Annotation Information of Eukaryotic Genome.

    PubMed

    Deng, Feilong; Chen, Shi-Yi; Wu, Zhou-Lin; Hu, Yongsong; Jia, Xianbo; Lai, Song-Jia

    2017-03-29

    Owing to wide application of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology, more and more eukaryotic genomes have been extensively annotated, such as the gene structure, alternative splicing, and noncoding loci. Annotation information of genome is prevalently stored as plain text in General Feature Format (GFF), which could be hundreds or thousands Mb in size. Therefore, it is a challenge for manipulating GFF file for biologists who have no bioinformatic skill. In this study, we provide a web server (GFFview) for parsing the annotation information of eukaryotic genome and then generating statistical description of six indices for visualization. GFFview is very useful for investigating quality and difference of the de novo assembled transcriptome in RNA-seq studies.

  19. Predicting age-related differences in visual information processing using a two-stage queuing model.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R D; Goldberg, J H; Detweiler, M C

    1996-05-01

    Recent work on age-related differences in some types of visual information processing has qualitatively stated that younger adults are able to develop parallel processing capability, while older adults remain serial processors. A mathematical model based on queuing theory was used to quantitatively predict and parameterize age-related differences in the perceptual encoding and central decision-making aspects of a multiple-frame search task. Statistical results indicated main effects for frame duration, display load, age group, and session of practice. Comparison of the full model and a restricted model indicated an efficient contribution of the encoding speed parameter. The best-fitting parameter set indicated that (1) younger participants processed task information with a two-channel parallel system, while older participants were serial processors; and (2) perceptual encoding had a large impact on age-related differences in task performance. Results are discussed with implications for human factors design principles.

  20. The influence of visual contextual information on the emergence of the especial skill in basketball.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Breslin, Gavin

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball.

  1. Perceptive visual attention model based on depth information for free viewpoint video rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-05-01

    How to detect meaningful video representation becomes an interesting problem in various research communities. Visual attention system detects "Region of Interesting" from input video sequence. Generally the attended regions correspond to visually prominent object in the image in video sequence. In this paper, we have improved previous approaches using spatiotemporal attention modules. We proposed to make use of 3D depth map information in addition to spatiotemporal features. Therefore, the proposed method can compensate typical spatiotemporal saliency approaches for their inaccuracy. Motion is important cue when we derive temporal saliency. On the other hand noise information that deteriorates accuracy of temporal saliency is also obtained during the computation. To obtain the saliency map with more accuracy the noise should be removed. In order to settle down the problem, we used the result of psychological studies on "double opponent receptive field" and "noise filtration" in Middle Temporal area. We also applied "FlagMap" on each frame to prevent "Flickering" of global-area noise. As a result of this consideration, our system can detect the salient regions in the image with higher accuracy while removing noise effectively. It has been applied to several image sequences as a result the proposed method can describe the salient regions with more accuracy in another higher domain than the typical approach does. The obtained result can be applied to generate a spontaneous viewpoint offered by the system itself for "3-D imaging projector" or 3-DTV.

  2. Visual cortical activity reflects faster accumulation of information from cortically blind fields

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tim; Das, Anasuya; Huxlin, Krystel R.

    2012-01-01

    Brain responses (from functional magnetic resonance imaging) and components of information processing were investigated in nine cortically blind observers performing a global direction discrimination task. Three of these subjects had responses in perilesional cortex in response to blind field stimulation, whereas the others did not. We used the EZ-diffusion model of decision making to understand how cortically blind subjects make a perceptual decision on stimuli presented within their blind field. We found that these subjects had slower accumulation of information in their blind fields as compared with their good fields and to intact controls. Within cortically blind subjects, activity in perilesional tissue, V3A and hMT+ was associated with a faster accumulation of information for deciding direction of motion of stimuli presented in the blind field. This result suggests that the rate of information accumulation is a critical factor in the degree of impairment in cortical blindness and varies greatly among affected individuals. Retraining paradigms that seek to restore visual functions might benefit from focusing on increasing the rate of information accumulation. PMID:23169923

  3. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1-2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices.

  4. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1–2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices

  5. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2001-01-01

    The two official sources for aviation weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE) presents aviation specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.

  6. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) spontaneously use visual but not acoustic information to find hidden food items.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins' ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visual information related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visual information to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visual information. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task's contingencies.

  7. Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Information Improves Predictive Modeling of Disease Relevance of Non-Coding Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Towfique; McGeachie, Michael J.; Qiu, Weiliang; Ziniti, John P.; Stubbs, Benjamin J.; Liang, Liming; Martinez, Fernando D.; Strunk, Robert C.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Liu, Andrew H.; Stranger, Barbara E.; Carey, Vincent J.; Raby, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Disease-associated loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) frequently localize to non-coding sequence. We and others have demonstrated strong enrichment of such single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), supporting an important role for regulatory genetic variation in complex disease pathogenesis. Herein we describe our initial efforts to develop a predictive model of disease-associated variants leveraging eQTL information. We first catalogued cis-acting eQTLs (SNPs within 100kb of target gene transcripts) by meta-analyzing four studies of three blood-derived tissues (n = 586). At a false discovery rate < 5%, we mapped eQTLs for 6,535 genes; these were enriched for disease-associated genes (P < 10−04), particularly those related to immune diseases and metabolic traits. Based on eQTL information and other variant annotations (distance from target gene transcript, minor allele frequency, and chromatin state), we created multivariate logistic regression models to predict SNP membership in reported GWAS. The complete model revealed independent contributions of specific annotations as strong predictors, including evidence for an eQTL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2–2.0, P < 10−11) and the chromatin states of active promoters, different classes of strong or weak enhancers, or transcriptionally active regions (OR = 1.5–2.3, P < 10−11). This complete prediction model including eQTL association information ultimately allowed for better discrimination of SNPs with higher probabilities of GWAS membership (6.3–10.0%, compared to 3.5% for a random SNP) than the other two models excluding eQTL information. This eQTL-based prediction model of disease relevance can help systematically prioritize non-coding GWAS SNPs for further functional characterization. PMID:26474488

  8. Mismatch and Lexical Retrieval Gestures are Associated with Visual Information Processing, Verbal Production, and Symptomatology in Youth at High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Millman, Zachary B.; Goss, James; Schiffman, Jason; Mejias, Johana; Gupta, Tina; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gesture is integrally linked with language and cognitive systems, and recent years have seen a growing attention to these movements in patients with schizophrenia. To date, however, there have been no investigations of gesture in youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Examining gesture in UHR individuals may help to elucidate other widely recognized communicative and cognitive deficits in this population and yield new clues for treatment development. Method In this study, mismatch (indicating semantic incongruency between the content of speech and a given gesture) and retrieval (used during pauses in speech while a person appears to be searching for a word or idea) gestures were evaluated in 42 UHR individuals and 36 matched healthy controls. Cognitive functions relevant to gesture production (i.e., speed of visual information processing and verbal production) as well as positive and negative symptomatology were assessed. Results Although the overall frequency of cases exhibiting these behaviors was low, UHR individuals produced substantially more mismatch and retrieval gestures than controls. The UHR group also exhibited significantly poorer verbal production performance when compared with controls. In the patient group, mismatch gestures were associated with poorer visual processing speed and elevated negative symptoms, while retrieval gestures were associated with higher speed of visual information-processing and verbal production, but not symptoms. Conclusions Taken together these findings indicate that gesture abnormalities are present in individuals at high risk for psychosis. While mismatch gestures may be closely related to disease processes, retrieval gestures may be employed as a compensatory mechanism. PMID:25000911

  9. Shifts of Gamma Phase across Primary Visual Cortical Sites Reflect Dynamic Stimulus-Modulated Information Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Besserve, Michel; Lowe, Scott C.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Panzeri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Distributed neural processing likely entails the capability of networks to reconfigure dynamically the directionality and strength of their functional connections. Yet, the neural mechanisms that may allow such dynamic routing of the information flow are not yet fully understood. We investigated the role of gamma band (50–80 Hz) oscillations in transient modulations of communication among neural populations by using measures of direction-specific causal information transfer. We found that the local phase of gamma-band rhythmic activity exerted a stimulus-modulated and spatially-asymmetric directed effect on the firing rate of spatially separated populations within the primary visual cortex. The relationships between gamma phases at different sites (phase shifts) could be described as a stimulus-modulated gamma-band wave propagating along the spatial directions with the largest information transfer. We observed transient stimulus-related changes in the spatial configuration of phases (compatible with changes in direction of gamma wave propagation) accompanied by a relative increase of the amount of information flowing along the instantaneous direction of the gamma wave. These effects were specific to the gamma-band and suggest that the time-varying relationships between gamma phases at different locations mark, and possibly causally mediate, the dynamic reconfiguration of functional connections. PMID:26394205

  10. Viewpoint-dependent representation of contextual information in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Papenmeier, Frank; Huff, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Objects are not represented individually in visual working memory (VWM), but in relation to the contextual information provided by other memorized objects. We studied whether the contextual information provided by the spatial configuration of all memorized objects is viewpoint-dependent. We ran two experiments asking participants to detect changes in locations between memory and probe for one object highlighted in the probe image. We manipulated the changes in viewpoint between memory and probe (Exp. 1: 0°, 30°, 60°; Exp. 2: 0°, 60°), as well as the spatial configuration visible in the probe image (Exp. 1: full configuration, partial configuration; Exp. 2: full configuration, no configuration). Location change detection was higher with the full spatial configuration than with the partial configuration or with no spatial configuration at viewpoint changes of 0°, thus replicating previous findings on the nonindependent representations of individual objects in VWM. Most importantly, the effect of spatial configurations decreased with increasing viewpoint changes, suggesting a viewpoint-dependent representation of contextual information in VWM. We discuss these findings within the context of this special issue, in particular whether research performed within the slots-versus-resources debate and research on the effects of contextual information might focus on two different storage systems within VWM.

  11. Ambient visual information confers a context-specific, long-term benefit on memory for haptic scenes.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, Achille; Finucane, Ciara M; Newell, Fiona N

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of indirect, ambient visual information on haptic spatial memory. Using touch only, participants first learned an array of objects arranged in a scene and were subsequently tested on their recognition of that scene which was always hidden from view. During haptic scene exploration, participants could either see the surrounding room or were blindfolded. We found a benefit in haptic memory performance only when ambient visual information was available in the early stages of the task but not when participants were initially blindfolded. Specifically, when ambient visual information was available a benefit on performance was found in a subsequent block of trials during which the participant was blindfolded (Experiment 1), and persisted over a delay of one week (Experiment 2). However, we found that the benefit for ambient visual information did not transfer to a novel environment (Experiment 3). In Experiment 4 we further investigated the nature of the visual information that improved haptic memory and found that geometric information about a surrounding (virtual) room rather than isolated object landmarks, facilitated haptic scene memory. Our results suggest that vision improves haptic memory for scenes by providing an environment-centred, allocentric reference frame for representing object location through touch.

  12. London through Rose-Colored Graphics: Visual Rhetoric and Information Graphic Design in Charles Booth's Maps of London Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine a historical information graphic--Charles Booth's maps of London poverty (1889-1902)--to analyze the cultural basis of ideas of transparency and clarity in information graphics. I argue that Booth's maps derive their rhetorical power from contemporary visual culture as much as from their scientific authority. The visual…

  13. A Geographic Information System framework for the dataset visualization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shufean, Md Abu

    In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), collecting data from sensor nodes and analyzing them is a challenging task. A Geographic Information System (GIS) could be a better way to analyze, manage, and represent the dataset collected by sensor nodes. Motivated by these considerations, we proposed a system to visualize the WSN dataset in real time using a software implementation of the GIS framework called ArcGIS. In this research, we have implemented our proposed system where a couple of sensor nodes has been deployed to collect Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and water pH value continuously from the John Gray Center pond of Lamar University. To keep track of each sensor node we have accumulated their precise location, sensing time, and corresponding data in our lab. After analyzing couple of data storing technique, we have decided to use PostGIS (a geospatial database) to store data and developed an ArcGIS centric application. Finally, with the help of that application, a web map was designed combining all different data source layers for end users where all the technical details have been encapsulated behind a base map. This web map has been hosted in a web server so that users sitting in any location can easily access and visualize desired data with a real time update. This research work has been supported by National Science Foundation under Grants CNS-0922888 and CNS-1427838.

  14. A scheme for racquet sports video analysis with the combination of audio-visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Liyuan; Ye, Qixiang; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yu, Hua

    2005-07-01

    As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visual information. Firstly, a supervised classification method is employed to detect important audio symbols including impact (ball hit), audience cheers, commentator speech, etc. Meanwhile an unsupervised algorithm is proposed to group video shots into various clusters. Then, by taking advantage of temporal relationship between audio and visual signals, we can specify the scene clusters with semantic labels including rally scenes and break scenes. Thirdly, a refinement procedure is developed to reduce false rally scenes by further audio analysis. Finally, an exciting model is proposed to rank the detected rally scenes from which many exciting video clips such as game (match) points can be correctly retrieved. Experiments on two types of representative racquet sports video, table tennis video and tennis video, demonstrate encouraging results.

  15. Classroom Interpreting and Visual Information Processing in Mainstream Education for Deaf Students: Live or Memorex®?

    PubMed Central

    Marschark, Marc; Pelz, Jeff B.; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Arndt, Mary Ellen; Seewagen, Rosemarie

    2006-01-01

    This study examined visual information processing and learning in classrooms including both deaf and hearing students. Of particular interest were the effects on deaf students’ learning of live (three-dimensional) versus video-recorded (two-dimensional) sign language interpreting and the visual attention strategies of more and less experienced deaf signers exposed to simultaneous, multiple sources of visual information. Results from three experiments consistently indicated no differences in learning between three-dimensional and two-dimensional presentations among hearing or deaf students. Analyses of students’ allocation of visual attention and the influence of various demographic and experimental variables suggested considerable flexibility in deaf students’ receptive communication skills. Nevertheless, the findings also revealed a robust advantage in learning in favor of hearing students. PMID:16628250

  16. Comparison of visual information processing in school-age dyslexics and normal readers via motion-onset visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Kubová, Zuzana; Kuba, Miroslav; Kremláček, Jan; Langrová, Jana; Szanyi, Jana; Vít, František; Chutná, Marie

    2015-06-01

    Standard pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and motion-onset VEPs (M-VEPs) were tested in 19 dyslexics and 19 normal readers aged 7-13 years in order to evaluate the feasibility of M-VEPs for the objective diagnostics of a visual subtype of dyslexia, in which a dysfunction of the magnocellular subsystem/dorsal stream of the visual pathway is suspected. The set of VEPs consisted of the pattern-reversal VEPs with check sizes of 20', two types of translational motion (with low and high contrast) and two types of radial motion (in the full field or the periphery). While the P100 peak parameters in pattern-reversal VEPs did not differ between the group of dyslexics and controls, the group of dyslexics displayed significantly longer N2 latencies in all types of M-VEPs. Abnormal N2 latencies were found in 35-56% of dyslexics in different types of M-VEPs, with translational motion with high contrast being the most sensitive stimulation. A receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the latencies of M-VEPs displayed higher discrimination potential than M-VEPs amplitudes. The study confirms a "magnocellular pathway/dorsal stream deficit" in approximately half of dyslexics.

  17. Technique for using a geometry and visualization system to monitor and manipulate information in other codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    A technique was developed to allow the Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS), a geometry and visualization system, to be used as a dynamic real-time geometry monitor, manipulator, and interrogator for other codes. This technique involves the direct connection of AGPS with one or more external codes through the use of Unix pipes. AGPS has several commands that control communication with the external program. The external program uses several special subroutines that allow simple, direct communication with AGPS. The external program creates AGPS command lines and transmits the line over the pipes or communicates on a subroutine level. AGPS executes the commands, displays graphics/geometry information, and transmits the required solutions back to the external program. The basic ideas discussed in this paper could easily be implemented in other graphics/geometry systems currently in use or under development.

  18. Visual information processing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-22, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Juday, Richard D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Topics discussed in these proceedings include nonlinear processing and communications; feature extraction and recognition; image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; image coding; and wavelet transform. Papers are presented on noise reduction for signals from nonlinear systems; driving nonlinear systems with chaotic signals; edge detection and image segmentation of space scenes using fractal analyses; a vision system for telerobotic operation; a fidelity analysis of image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; restoration of images degraded by motion; and information, entropy, and fidelity in visual communication. Attention is also given to image coding methods and their assessment, hybrid JPEG/recursive block coding of images, modified wavelets that accommodate causality, modified wavelet transform for unbiased frequency representation, and continuous wavelet transform of one-dimensional signals by Fourier filtering.

  19. Pigeons use low rather than high spatial frequency information to make visual category discriminations.

    PubMed

    Lea, Stephen E G; De Filippo, Guido; Dakin, Ruth; Meier, Christina

    2013-10-01

    Pigeons were trained to discriminate photographs of cat faces from dog faces. They were then presented with test stimuli involving high- and low-pass spatial frequency filtering. Discrimination was maintained with both types of filtered stimuli, though it was increasingly impaired the more information was filtered out, and high-pass filtering impaired discrimination more than low-pass filtering. The pigeons were then exposed to hybrid stimuli in which high-pass filtered dog faces were combined with low-pass filtered cat faces, and vice versa. Response to hybrid stimuli was determined more by the low spatial frequency content than by the high-frequency content, whereas humans viewing the same stimuli at corresponding viewing distance respond more strongly to the high-frequency content. These results are unexpected given that, compared with humans, pigeons' behavior tends to be controlled by the local details of visual stimuli rather than their global appearance.

  20. Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system and an orographic precipitation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.; Knapp, L.

    1996-01-01

    Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.

  1. Touch Accelerates Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Lo Verde, Luca; Alais, David

    2017-01-01

    To efficiently interact with the external environment, our nervous system combines information arising from different sensory modalities. Recent evidence suggests that cross-modal interactions can be automatic and even unconscious, reflecting the ecological relevance of cross-modal processing. Here, we use continuous flash suppression (CFS) to directly investigate whether haptic signals can interact with visual signals outside of visual awareness. We measured suppression durations of visual gratings rendered invisible by CFS either during visual stimulation alone or during visuo-haptic stimulation. We found that active exploration of a haptic grating congruent in orientation with the suppressed visual grating reduced suppression durations both compared with visual-only stimulation and to incongruent visuo-haptic stimulation. We also found that the facilitatory effect of touch on visual suppression disappeared when the visual and haptic gratings were mismatched in either spatial frequency or orientation. Together, these results demonstrate that congruent touch can accelerate the rise to consciousness of a suppressed visual stimulus and that this unconscious cross-modal interaction depends on visuo-haptic congruency. Furthermore, since CFS suppression is thought to occur early in visual cortical processing, our data reinforce the evidence suggesting that visuo-haptic interactions can occur at the earliest stages of cortical processing. PMID:28210486

  2. Data and Visualizations in the Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System (FIS) provides a single point of access to fault-related data and models from multiple databases and datasets. The FIS is built of computer code, metadata and Web interfaces based on Web services technology, which enables queries and data interchange irrespective of computer software or platform. Currently we have working prototypes of programmatic and browser-based access. The first generation FIS may be searched and downloaded live, by automated processes, as well as interactively, by humans using a browser. Users get ascii data in plain text or encoded in XML. Via the Earthquake Information Technology (EIT) Interns (Juve and others, this meeting), we are also testing the effectiveness of querying multiple databases using a fault database ontology. For more than a decade, the California Geological Survey (CGS), SCEC, and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) have put considerable, shared resources into compiling and assessing published fault data, then providing the data on the Web. Several databases now exist, with different formats, datasets, purposes, and users, in various stages of completion. When fault databases were first envisioned, the full power of today's internet was not yet recognized, and the databases became the Web equivalents of review papers, where one could read an overview summation of a fault, then copy and paste pertinent data. Today, numerous researchers also require rapid queries and downloads of data. Consequently, the first components of the FIS are MySQL databases that deliver numeric values from earlier, text-based databases. Another essential service provided by the FIS is visualizations of fault representations such as those in SCEC's Community Fault Model. The long term goal is to provide a standardized, open-source, platform-independent visualization technique. Currently, the FIS makes available fault model viewing software for users with access to Matlab or Java3D

  3. Integrated information visualization to support decision making for use of antibiotics in intensive care: design and usability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Johanna; Anani, Nadim; Eghdam, Aboozar; Falkenhav, Magnus; Koch, Sabine

    2013-12-01

    Overuse of antibiotics is a critical problem in intensive care today. The situation is further complicated by the extremely data-intensive environment with clinical data presented in distributed, often stand-alone information systems. To access and interpret all data is a complex and time-consuming technical and cognitive challenge. We propose a holistic integrated visualization in the form of a patient overview to support physicians in decision making for use of antibiotics at intensive care units. Special emphasis is put on analysis of work processes to identify information needs, the development of a visualization tool based on an integrated data model, and usability testing of the tool in combination with an eye-tracking technology. The visualization tool was highly rated in terms of user performance and preferences, and the analysis of users' visual patterns showed that different types of data visualization may benefit specialist and resident intensive care physicians depending on the task to be performed. A highly interactive tool for integrated information visualization could potentially increase the understanding of a patient's infection status and ultimately enhance decision making for the use of antibiotics.

  4. Electrocorticography Reveals Enhanced Visual Cortex Responses to Visual Speech.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Inga M; Yoshor, Daniel; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Human speech contains both auditory and visual components, processed by their respective sensory cortices. We test a simple model in which task-relevant speech information is enhanced during cortical processing. Visual speech is most important when the auditory component is uninformative. Therefore, the model predicts that visual cortex responses should be enhanced to visual-only (V) speech compared with audiovisual (AV) speech. We recorded neuronal activity as patients perceived auditory-only (A), V, and AV speech. Visual cortex showed strong increases in high-gamma band power and strong decreases in alpha-band power to V and AV speech. Consistent with the model prediction, gamma-band increases and alpha-band decreases were stronger for V speech. The model predicts that the uninformative nature of the auditory component (not simply its absence) is the critical factor, a prediction we tested in a second experiment in which visual speech was paired with auditory white noise. As predicted, visual speech with auditory noise showed enhanced visual cortex responses relative to AV speech. An examination of the anatomical locus of the effects showed that all visual areas, including primary visual cortex, showed enhanced responses. Visual cortex responses to speech are enhanced under circumstances when visual information is most important for comprehension.

  5. Electrocorticography Reveals Enhanced Visual Cortex Responses to Visual Speech

    PubMed Central

    Schepers, Inga M.; Yoshor, Daniel; Beauchamp, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Human speech contains both auditory and visual components, processed by their respective sensory cortices. We test a simple model in which task-relevant speech information is enhanced during cortical processing. Visual speech is most important when the auditory component is uninformative. Therefore, the model predicts that visual cortex responses should be enhanced to visual-only (V) speech compared with audiovisual (AV) speech. We recorded neuronal activity as patients perceived auditory-only (A), V, and AV speech. Visual cortex showed strong increases in high-gamma band power and strong decreases in alpha-band power to V and AV speech. Consistent with the model prediction, gamma-band increases and alpha-band decreases were stronger for V speech. The model predicts that the uninformative nature of the auditory component (not simply its absence) is the critical factor, a prediction we tested in a second experiment in which visual speech was paired with auditory white noise. As predicted, visual speech with auditory noise showed enhanced visual cortex responses relative to AV speech. An examination of the anatomical locus of the effects showed that all visual areas, including primary visual cortex, showed enhanced responses. Visual cortex responses to speech are enhanced under circumstances when visual information is most important for comprehension. PMID:24904069

  6. Controlling the Flow of Visual Information through the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus: From Single Cells to Neural Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-31

    Department of Anesthesiology at the Medical School of the University of Rochester, Dr. Francis Crick at the Salk Institute in La Jolla and Prof. Heinz...by a single object in coherent motion. Given the great relevance we attach to synchronously firing neuronal populations (see Crick and Koch, 1990 and...considered to be an epiphenomenon. The neuronal basis of visual awareness We published several papers ( Crick and Koch, 1990, 1991; Koch and Crick , 1991

  7. [The effects of information relevance to speaker vs. hearer on the use of comment expressions and interrogative sentences in the Japanese language].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, S

    1995-12-01

    This study examined how the relevance of information to the speaker and the hearer affected the use of comments and interrogative sentences. Subjects read scenarios and rated the necessity of an expression (Experiment 1) or the naturalness of expressions (Experiment 2) in each of the situations. Experiment 1 investigated the use of comments, which preceded the information, to show the speaker's uncertainty about the information contents (subjects: 138 undergraduates). The less the information was relevant to the speaker and/or the more it was relevant to the hearer, the more the comments were judged to be necessary. Experiment 2 investigated the use of interrogative sentences, declarative sentences, and declarative sentences + a sentence final particle 'ne' (subjects: 96 undergraduates). Interrogative sentences were judged to be the most natural in the conditions where the information was relevant to the hearer and not to the speaker, whereas declarative sentences were judged to be the most natural where the information was relevant to the speaker and not to the hearer. Declarative sentences + 'ne' showed intermediate patterns of use between interrogative sentences and declarative sentences.

  8. The Effects of Information Concerning the Attributes of Concept Instances and Recall of Relevant Subconcepts on the Level of Mastery of Certain Geometric Concepts. Working Paper 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Barbara Jones

    This paper is a master's thesis reporting research on the effects of two instructional variables, recall of relevant subconcepts and information regarding the attributes of the concept instances on immediate concept learning, transfer and retention. Three sets of instructions were written varying in the amount and type of information given. These…

  9. Statewide Measures Inventory. An Inventory of Information Relevant to Statewide Postsecondary Education Planning and Management. Technical Report 48A. Field Review Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, James N.; And Others

    The Statewide Measures Inventory is essentially a list of items of information along with concise definitions and other information of interest, relevant to statewide postsecondary education planning and management. It has been designed primarily as a working document for use by state level postsecondary education planners and decisionmakers. The…

  10. Information-Limited Parallel Processing in Difficult Heterogeneous Covert Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosher, Barbara Anne; Han, Songmei; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Difficult visual search is often attributed to time-limited serial attention operations, although neural computations in the early visual system are parallel. Using probabilistic search models (Dosher, Han, & Lu, 2004) and a full time-course analysis of the dynamics of covert visual search, we distinguish unlimited capacity parallel versus serial…

  11. Visualization to support identification, exploitation, and fusion of data and information delivered from heterogeneous sources in ISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamboti, Kavyashree; Van de Camp, Florian; Kuwertz, Achim; Haferkorn, Daniel; Eck, Ralf; Grasemann, Gunther

    2016-05-01

    In ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance), heterogeneous sources deliver data and information having spatial and temporal attributes. Real time and non-real time data created for various purposes, present in different formats has to be exploited and fused. The Coalition Shared Data (CSD) concept makes the interoperable sharing of ISR data and information possible. The concept itself and a technical approach for it were developed within the multinational projects CAESAR, MAJIIC and MAJIIC 2 and tested in coalition exercises. The interfaces of software systems providing access to CSD data must allow the user to intuitively use the system and form a substantial part with regard to user acceptance. We describe different systems and approaches we designed and developed to access CSD data that can locate and present the data to the user based on his specific demands. Visualization forms an important part of these systems which share the common challenge of representing data and information with spatial and temporal attributes. The visualization of data and information has to be designed in a manner that supports efficient access, discovery and optionally additional processing (such as filtering and sorting). Given the large amount of data and information that may be available, visualization taking into account their quality and inherent uncertainty is an additional challenge. This publication provides an overview of the systems and approaches we developed to present CSD data and identifies challenges common to these systems. To tackle these challenges, we present new research results regarding visualization of data and information with temporal and spatial attributes.

  12. Assessing the potential information content of multicomponent visual signals: a machine learning approach

    PubMed Central

    Allen, William L.; Higham, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Careful investigation of the form of animal signals can offer novel insights into their function. Here, we deconstruct the face patterns of a tribe of primates, the guenons (Cercopithecini), and examine the information that is potentially available in the perceptual dimensions of their multicomponent displays. Using standardized colour-calibrated images of guenon faces, we measure variation in appearance both within and between species. Overall face pattern was quantified using the computer vision ‘eigenface’ technique, and eyebrow and nose-spot focal traits were described using computational image segmentation and shape analysis. Discriminant function analyses established whether these perceptual dimensions could be used to reliably classify species identity, individual identity, age and sex, and, if so, identify the dimensions that carry this information. Across the 12 species studied, we found that both overall face pattern and focal trait differences could be used to categorize species and individuals reliably, whereas correct classification of age category and sex was not possible. This pattern makes sense, as guenons often form mixed-species groups in which familiar conspecifics develop complex differentiated social relationships but where the presence of heterospecifics creates hybridization risk. Our approach should be broadly applicable to the investigation of visual signal function across the animal kingdom. PMID:25652832

  13. Empirical Study on the Impact of a Tactical Biosurveillance Information Visualization on Users' Situational Awareness.

    PubMed

    Kettelhut, Valeriya V; Vanschooneveld, Trevor C; McClay, James C; Mercer, David F; Fruhling, Ann; Meza, Jane L

    2017-03-01

    Decisions on antibiotic-resistant infection (ARI) prevention in dynamic health care settings should be agile and target the right process at the right time. Health information technologies can aid the recognition of high-risk situations for ARI transmission and timely facilitate operators' situational awareness (SA) in various military and civilian health care locations or transport platforms. High SA is one of the significant predictors of better performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the developed health information visualization (VIZ) on the users' SA regarding situations when risks of ARI transmission and exposure are high. The enrolled 19 subjects assessed the proposed VIZ artifacts representing 1 scenario, compared the VIZ effectiveness against the currently employed local methods, and reported their SA (perception and comprehension) with the use of a pre- and post-self-rating questionnaire. The results showed that the VIZ significantly increased SA in the study subjects and revealed the importance of communicating the risk of exposure to ARIs. The VIZ enabled the participants to quickly acknowledge the high-risk individuals (super-spreaders), locations (hot spots), and biosafety (deficient infection prevention). The study concluded that SA-oriented technologies may be promising for promoting better infection prevention practices.

  14. Communicating textual health information to the mobile phones of visually-impaired users.

    PubMed

    Kummervold, Per Egil; Holthe, Halgeir

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how short messages communicating health information would best be distributed to people with vision difficulties using mobile phones. Twelve visually-impaired persons who were unable to read short message service (SMS) messages directly compared three methods of presenting text messages as speech: (1) ordinary SMS messages were sent to the users and converted into speech by the mobile phone; (2) multimedia messages were sent to the users with prerecorded speech-synthesized information; and (3) mobile phone calls were placed to the users and prerecorded speech-synthesized messages were streamed to them. The latter two approaches used server-generated sound files. Over a three-month trial period, we sent a total of 88 SMS messages to the subjects, 111 multimedia messaging service (MMS) messages and 104 telephone calls. All of the SMS messages, 88% of the MMS messages and 69% of the telephone calls were received. In subsequent interviews, we asked the users which presentation method they preferred. SMS scored significantly better than both MMS (P = 0.033) and telephones (P = 0.006). All three methods had serious drawbacks. However, the study suggests that it might be possible to develop suitable technology for communicating with people with vision difficulties by mobile phone.

  15. From Objects to Landmarks: The Function of Visual Location Information in Spatial Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Edgar; Baumann, Oliver; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Landmarks play an important role in guiding navigational behavior. A host of studies in the last 15 years has demonstrated that environmental objects can act as landmarks for navigation in different ways. In this review, we propose a parsimonious four-part taxonomy for conceptualizing object location information during navigation. We begin by outlining object properties that appear to be important for a landmark to attain salience. We then systematically examine the different functions of objects as navigational landmarks based on previous behavioral and neuroanatomical findings in rodents and humans. Evidence is presented showing that single environmental objects can function as navigational beacons, or act as associative or orientation cues. In addition, we argue that extended surfaces or boundaries can act as landmarks by providing a frame of reference for encoding spatial information. The present review provides a concise taxonomy of the use of visual objects as landmarks in navigation and should serve as a useful reference for future research into landmark-based spatial navigation. PMID:22969737

  16. Too much information: visual research ethics in the age of wearable cameras.

    PubMed

    Mok, Tze Ming; Cornish, Flora; Tarr, Jen

    2015-06-01

    When everything you see is data, what ethical principles apply? This paper argues that first-person digital recording technologies challenge traditional institutional approaches to research ethics, but that this makes ethics governance more important, not less so. We review evolving ethical concerns across four fields: Visual ethics; ubiquitous computing; mobile health; and grey literature from applied or market research. Collectively, these bodies of literature identify new challenges to traditional notions of informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, privacy, beneficence and maleficence. Challenges come from the ever-increasing power, breadth and multi-functional integration of recording technologies, and the ubiquity and normalization of their use by participants. Some authors argue that these evolving relationships mean that institutional ethics governance procedures are irrelevant or no longer apply. By contrast, we argue that the fundamental principles of research ethics frameworks have become even more important for the protection of research participants, and that institutional frameworks need to adapt to keep pace with the ever-increasing power of recording technologies and the consequent risks to privacy. We conclude with four recommendations for efforts to ensure that contemporary visual recording research is held appropriately accountable to ethical standards: (i) minimizing the detail, scope, integration and retention of captured data, and limiting its accessibility; (ii) formulating an approach to ethics that takes in both the 'common rule' approaches privileging anonymity and confidentiality together with principles of contextual judgement and consent as an ongoing process; (iii) developing stronger ethical regulation of research outside academia; (iv) engaging the public and research participants in the development of ethical guidelines.

  17. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus) use spatial and visual information during within-patch foraging.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Daniela Fichtner; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2012-01-01

    Foraging in large-scale (navigation between patches), small-scale (choice of within-patch feeding sites), and micro-scale (close inspection of food items) space presents variable cognitive challenges. The reliability and usefulness of spatial memory and perceptual cues during food search in a forest environment vary among these spatial scales. This research applied an experimental field design to test the ability of a free-ranging group composed of eight black-horned capuchin monkeys, Cebus nigritus, inhabiting a forest fragment in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to use food-associated spatial, visual, olfactory, and quantitative (amount of food) cues during small-scale foraging decisions. The experimental design involved the establishment of a feeding station composed of eight feeding platforms distributed in a circular arrangement. A series of six experiments, each lasting 20 days, was conducted from March to August 2005. Two feeding platforms in each experimental session contained a food reward (real banana), whereas the remaining six platforms contained either a sham banana or an inaccessible real banana. Data on capuchin monkey foraging behavior at the feeding stations were collected by the "all occurrences" sampling method. The performance of the capuchins in the experiments was analyzed based on the first two platforms inspected in each session. The study group inspected feeding platforms in 571 occasions during 113 sessions. Capuchins used visual cues and spatial information (and adopted a win-return strategy) for finding the platforms baited with real bananas and showed weak evidence of the integration of spatial and quantitative cues, but failed to show evidence of using olfactory cues. In addition, individual differences in social rank and foraging behavior affected opportunities for learning and the performance in the cognitive tasks.

  18. Divergent Trajectories in the Aging Mind: Changes in Working Memory for Affective Versus Visual Information With Age

    PubMed Central

    Mikels, Joseph A.; Larkin, Gregory R.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visual information. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visual information. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern. PMID:16420130

  19. Predictive information in spike trains from the blowfly and monkey visual systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, Seth Daniel

    1998-12-01

    One of the principal goals of the study of neural computation is to understand how the phenomenology of the brain arises from an assemblage of computational subunits called neurons. An aspect of this problem is that of relating, where possible, signals recorded from individual neurons, called spike trains, to concurrently recorded stimuli or behavioral responses. In this dissertation, we introduce time-domain analogs of real-space renormalization procedures for this purpose. For these procedures, block variable transformations are selected to preserve the information that blocks have about their neighbors and, for comparison, to preserve information that blocks have about stimuli or responses. We propose that, as a spike train is iteratively coarse-grained, information about stimuli or responses, that is available within the spike train on successively longer time scales, may be extracted. To test this idea, we apply it to the analysis of spike trains recorded from a motion-sensitive neuron in the visual system of a blowfly (Calliphora erythrocephela ) and to spike trains recorded from a pattern-selective neuron in the inferior temporal cortex of a monkey (Macaca mulatto) trained to report the exclusive perception of any one of several images. We find that the temporal correlations in the activity of these neurons can be used to identify features of the spike train that provide real-time information about stimuli or reports. Additionally, in the case of the monkey, we find that for periods when the monkey views static ambiguous stimuli, we are able to extract a statistically significant amount of information about the monkey's report from the spike train, supporting the claim that the activity of this neuron reflects internal perceptual state as opposed to strictly retinal stimulation. Finally, we generalize our renormalization procedure for application to three-dimensional Ising spin systems. We find that, for a ferromagnet and antiferromagnet this yields a

  20. Visual but not trigeminal mediation of magnetic compass information in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Hein, Christine M; Engels, Svenja; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Hans, Jörg; Weiler, Simon; Dreyer, David; Kishkinev, Dmitry; Wild, J Martin; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2009-10-29

    Magnetic compass information has a key role in bird orientation, but the physiological mechanisms enabling birds to sense the Earth's magnetic field remain one of the unresolved mysteries in biology. Two biophysical mechanisms have become established as the most promising magnetodetection candidates. The iron-mineral-based hypothesis suggests that magnetic information is detected by magnetoreceptors in the upper beak and transmitted through the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve to the brain. The light-dependent hypothesis suggests that magnetic field direction is sensed by radical pair-forming photopigments in the eyes and that this visual signal is processed in cluster N, a specialized, night-time active, light-processing forebrain region. Here we report that European robins with bilateral lesions of cluster N are unable to show oriented magnetic-compass-guided behaviour but are able to perform sun compass and star compass orientation behaviour. In contrast, bilateral section of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve in European robins did not influence the birds' ability to use their magnetic compass for orientation. These data show that cluster N is required for magnetic compass orientation in this species and indicate that it may be specifically involved in processing of magnetic compass information. Furthermore, the data strongly suggest that a vision-mediated mechanism underlies the magnetic compass in this migratory songbird, and that the putative iron-mineral-based receptors in the upper beak connected to the brain by the trigeminal nerve are neither necessary nor sufficient for magnetic compass orientation in European robins.

  1. Developmental change in young children's use of haptic information in a visual task: the role of hand movements.

    PubMed

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S

    2011-02-01

    Preschoolers who explore objects haptically often fail to recognize those objects in subsequent visual tests. This suggests that children may represent qualitatively different information in vision and haptics and/or that children's haptic perception may be poor. In this study, 72 children (2½-5 years of age) and 20 adults explored unfamiliar objects either haptically or visually and then chose a visual match from among three test objects, each matching the exemplar on one perceptual dimension. All age groups chose shape-based matches after visual exploration. Both 5-year-olds and adults also chose shape-based matches after haptic exploration, but younger children did not match consistently in this condition. Certain hand movements performed by children during haptic exploration reliably predicted shape-based matches but occurred at very low frequencies. Thus, younger children's difficulties with haptic-to-visual information transfer appeared to stem from their failure to use their hands to obtain reliable haptic information about objects.

  2. OVERVIEW: USING MODE OF ACTION AND LIFE STAGE INFORMATION TO EVALUATE THE HUMAN RELEVANCE OF ANIMAL TOXICITY DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript summarizes a workshop aimed at developing a framework to determine the relevancy of animal modes-of-action for extrapolation to humans. A complete mode of action human relevance analysis - as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone - depends on robust info...

  3. Visual information transfer. 1: Assessment of specific information needs. 2: The effects of degraded motion feedback. 3: Parameters of appropriate instrument scanning behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. R., Jr.; Kirby, R. H.; Coates, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot and flight crew assessment of visually displayed information is examined as well as the effects of degraded and uncorrected motion feedback, and instrument scanning efficiency by the pilot. Computerized flight simulation and appropriate physiological measurements are used to collect data for standardization.

  4. Longer storage of auditory than of visual information in the rabbit brain: evidence from dorsal hippocampal electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Astikainen, Piia; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Korhonen, Tapani

    2005-01-01

    Whereas sensory memory in humans has been found to store auditory information for a longer time than visual information, it is unclear whether this is the case also in other species. We recorded hippocampal event-related potentials (ERPs) in awake rabbits exposed to occasional changes in a repeated 50-ms acoustic (1000 versus 2000 Hz) and visual (vertical versus horizontal orientation) stimulus. Three intervals (500, 1500, or 3000 ms) between stimulus repetitions were applied. Whereas acoustic changes significantly affected ERPs with the repetition intervals of 500 and 1500 ms, visual changes did so only with the repetition interval of 500 ms. Our finding, thus, suggests a similarity in sensory processing abilities between human and non-human mammals.

  5. Head Stability and Head-Trunk Coordination in Horseback Riders: The Contribution of Visual Information According to Expertise.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Agnès; Faugloire, Elise; Lejeune, Laure; Biau, Sophie; Isableu, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium while riding a horse is a challenging task that involves complex sensorimotor processes. We evaluated the relative contribution of visual information (static or dynamic) to horseback riders' postural stability (measured from the variability of segment position in space) and the coordination modes they adopted to regulate balance according to their level of expertise. Riders' perceptual typologies and their possible relation to postural stability were also assessed. Our main assumption was that the contribution of visual information to postural control would be reduced among expert riders in favor of vestibular and somesthetic reliance. Twelve Professional riders and 13 Club riders rode an equestrian simulator at a gallop under four visual conditions: (1) with the projection of a simulated scene reproducing what a rider sees in the real context of a ride in an outdoor arena, (2) under stroboscopic illumination, preventing access to dynamic visual cues, (3) in normal lighting but without the projected scene (i.e., without the visual consequences of displacement) and (4) with no visual cues. The variability of the position of the head, upper trunk and lower trunk was measured along the anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML), and vertical (V) axes. We computed discrete relative phase to assess the coordination between pairs of segments in the anteroposterior axis. Visual field dependence-independence was evaluated using the Rod and Frame Test (RFT). The results showed that the Professional riders exhibited greater overall postural stability than the Club riders, revealed mainly in the AP axis. In particular, head variability was lower in the Professional riders than in the Club riders in visually altered conditions, suggesting a greater ability to use vestibular and somesthetic information according to task constraints with expertise. In accordance with this result, RFT perceptual scores revealed that the Professional riders were less dependent

  6. Head Stability and Head-Trunk Coordination in Horseback Riders: The Contribution of Visual Information According to Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Agnès; Faugloire, Elise; Lejeune, Laure; Biau, Sophie; Isableu, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium while riding a horse is a challenging task that involves complex sensorimotor processes. We evaluated the relative contribution of visual information (static or dynamic) to horseback riders' postural stability (measured from the variability of segment position in space) and the coordination modes they adopted to regulate balance according to their level of expertise. Riders' perceptual typologies and their possible relation to postural stability were also assessed. Our main assumption was that the contribution of visual information to postural control would be reduced among expert riders in favor of vestibular and somesthetic reliance. Twelve Professional riders and 13 Club riders rode an equestrian simulator at a gallop under four visual conditions: (1) with the projection of a simulated scene reproducing what a rider sees in the real context of a ride in an outdoor arena, (2) under stroboscopic illumination, preventing access to dynamic visual cues, (3) in normal lighting but without the projected scene (i.e., without the visual consequences of displacement) and (4) with no visual cues. The variability of the position of the head, upper trunk and lower trunk was measured along the anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML), and vertical (V) axes. We computed discrete relative phase to assess the coordination between pairs of segments in the anteroposterior axis. Visual field dependence-independence was evaluated using the Rod and Frame Test (RFT). The results showed that the Professional riders exhibited greater overall postural stability than the Club riders, revealed mainly in the AP axis. In particular, head variability was lower in the Professional riders than in the Club riders in visually altered conditions, suggesting a greater ability to use vestibular and somesthetic information according to task constraints with expertise. In accordance with this result, RFT perceptual scores revealed that the Professional riders were less dependent

  7. Semantic integration of audio-visual information of polyphonic characters in a sentence context: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Gaoyan; Liu, Baolin

    2017-04-01

    In the Chinese language, a polyphone is a kind of special character that has more than one pronunciation, with each pronunciation corresponding to a different meaning. Here, we aimed to reveal the cognitive processing of audio-visual information integration of polyphones in a sentence context using the event-related potential (ERP) method. Sentences ending with polyphones were presented to subjects simultaneously in both an auditory and a visual modality. Four experimental conditions were set in which the visual presentations were the same, but the pronunciations of the polyphones were: the correct pronunciation; another pronunciation of the polyphone; a semantically appropriate pronunciation but not the pronunciation of the polyphone; or a semantically inappropriate pronunciation but also not the pronunciation of the polyphone. The behavioral results demonstrated significant differences in response accuracies when judging the semantic meanings of the audio-visual sentences, which reflected the different demands on cognitive resources. The ERP results showed that in the early stage, abnormal pronunciations were represented by the amplitude of the P200 component. Interestingly, because the phonological information mediated access to the lexical semantics, the amplitude and latency of the N400 component changed linearly across conditions, which may reflect the gradually increased semantic mismatch in the four conditions when integrating the auditory pronunciation with the visual information. Moreover, the amplitude of the late positive shift (LPS) showed a significant correlation with the behavioral response accuracies, demonstrating that the LPS component reveals the demand of cognitive resources for monitoring and resolving semantic conflicts when integrating the audio-visual information.

  8. Visual agnosia.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Masjuan, J

    2016-03-01

    Visual agnosia is defined as an impairment of object recognition, in the absence of visual acuity or cognitive dysfunction that would explain this impairment. This condition is caused by lesions in the visual association cortex, sparing primary visual cortex. There are 2 main pathways that process visual information: the ventral stream, tasked with object recognition, and the dorsal stream, in charge of locating objects in space. Visual agnosia can therefore be divided into 2 major groups depending on which of the two streams is damaged. The aim of this article is to conduct a narrative review of the various visual agnosia syndromes, including recent developments in a number of these syndromes.

  9. Effects of Visual Information on Intelligibility of Open and Closed Class Words in Predictable Sentences Produced by Speakers with Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Dardis, Caitlin M.; Mccourt, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the independent and interactive effects of visual information and linguistic class of words on intelligibility of dysarthric speech. Seven speakers with dysarthria participated in the study, along with 224 listeners who transcribed speech samples in audiovisual (AV) or audio-only (AO) listening conditions. Orthographic…

  10. Changes in the Management of Information in Audio-Visual Archives following Digitization: Current and Future Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to offer an overview of the current changes that are being experienced in the management of audio-visual documentation and those that can be forecast in the future as a result of the migration from analogue to digital information. For this purpose the documentary chain will be used as a basis to analyse individually the tasks…

  11. What Visual Information Do Children and Adults Consider while Switching between Tasks? Eye-Tracking Investigation of Cognitive Flexibility Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Blaye, Agnes; Dufau, Stephane; Lucenet, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the visual information that children and adults consider while switching or maintaining object-matching rules. Eye movements of 5- and 6-year-old children and adults were collected with two versions of the Advanced Dimensional Change Card Sort, which requires switching between shape- and color-matching rules. In addition to…

  12. Developmental Change in Young Children's Use of Haptic Information in a Visual Task: The Role of Hand Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers who explore objects haptically often fail to recognize those objects in subsequent visual tests. This suggests that children may represent qualitatively different information in vision and haptics and/or that children's haptic perception may be poor. In this study, 72 children (2 1/2-5 years of age) and 20 adults explored unfamiliar…

  13. Goal-Directed Grasping: The Dimensional Properties of an Object Influence the Nature of the Visual Information Mediating Aperture Shaping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Scott A.; Heath, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    An issue of continued debate in the visuomotor control literature surrounds whether a 2D object serves as a representative proxy for a 3D object in understanding the nature of the visual information supporting grasping control. In an effort to reconcile this issue, we examined the extent to which aperture profiles for grasping 2D and 3D objects…

  14. E-Books Plus: Role of Interactive Visuals in Exploration of Mathematical Information and E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowhani, Sonja; Sedig, Kamran

    2005-01-01

    E-books promise to become a widespread delivery mechanism for educational resources. However, current e-books do not take full advantage of the power of computing tools. In particular, interaction with the content is often reduced to navigation through the information. This article investigates how adding interactive visuals to an e-book…

  15. Teaching Poverty with Geographic Visualization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of East Buffalo and Food Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Jung, Jin-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…

  16. Performance of visual search tasks from various types of contour information.

    PubMed

    Itan, Liron; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2013-03-01

    A recently proposed visual aid for patients with a restricted visual field (tunnel vision) combines a see-through head-mounted display and a simultaneous minified contour view of the wide-field image of the environment. Such a widening of the effective visual field is helpful for tasks, such as visual search, mobility, and orientation. The sufficiency of image contours for performing everyday visual tasks is of major importance for this application, as well as for other applications, and for basic understanding of human vision. This research aims is to examine and compare the use of different types of automatically created contours, and contour representations, for practical everyday visual operations using commonly observed images. The visual operations include visual searching for items, such as cutlery, housewares, etc. Considering different recognition levels, identification of an object is distinguished from mere detection (when the object is not necessarily identified). Some nonconventional visual-based contour representations were developed for this purpose. Experiments were performed with normal-vision subjects by superposing contours of the wide field of the scene over a narrow field (see-through) background. From the results, it appears that about 85% success is obtained for searched object identification when the best contour versions are employed. Pilot experiments with video simulations are reported at the end of the paper.

  17. Social learning of predators in the dark: understanding the role of visual, chemical and mechanical information

    PubMed Central

    Manassa, R. P.; McCormick, M. I.; Chivers, D. P.; Ferrari, M. C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context. PMID:23804616

  18. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-04

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing.

  19. Social learning of predators in the dark: understanding the role of visual, chemical and mechanical information.

    PubMed

    Manassa, R P; McCormick, M I; Chivers, D P; Ferrari, M C O

    2013-08-22

    The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context.

  20. Visualization of Time-Series Sensor Data to Inform the Design of Just-In-Time Adaptive Stress Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Moushumi; Raij, Andrew; Epstien, David; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Beck, J. Gayle; Vhaduri, Sudip; Preston, Kenzie; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    We investigate needs, challenges, and opportunities in visualizing time-series sensor data on stress to inform the design of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs). We identify seven key challenges: massive volume and variety of data, complexity in identifying stressors, scalability of space, multifaceted relationship between stress and time, a need for representation at multiple granularities, interperson variability, and limited understanding of JITAI design requirements due to its novelty. We propose four new visualizations based on one million minutes of sensor data (n=70). We evaluate our visualizations with stress researchers (n=6) to gain first insights into its usability and usefulness in JITAI design. Our results indicate that spatio-temporal visualizations help identify and explain between- and within-person variability in stress patterns and contextual visualizations enable decisions regarding the timing, content, and modality of intervention. Interestingly, a granular representation is considered informative but noise-prone; an abstract representation is the preferred starting point for designing JITAIs. PMID:26539566

  1. Visual motion-sensitive neurons in the bumblebee brain convey information about landmarks during a navigational task

    PubMed Central

    Mertes, Marcel; Dittmar, Laura; Egelhaaf, Martin; Boeddeker, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Bees use visual memories to find the spatial location of previously learnt food sites. Characteristic learning flights help acquiring these memories at newly discovered foraging locations where landmarks—salient objects in the vicinity of the goal location—can play an important role in guiding the animal's homing behavior. Although behavioral experiments have shown that bees can use a variety of visual cues to distinguish objects as landmarks, the question of how landmark features are encoded by the visual system is still open. Recently, it could be shown that motion cues are sufficient to allow bees localizing their goal using landmarks that can hardly be discriminated from the background texture. Here, we tested the hypothesis that motion sensitive neurons in the bee's visual pathway provide information about such landmarks during a learning flight and might, thus, play a role for goal localization. We tracked learning flights of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in an arena with distinct visual landmarks, reconstructed the visual input during these flights, and replayed ego-perspective movies to tethered bumblebees while recording the activity of direction-selective wide-field neurons in their optic lobe. By comparing neuronal responses during a typical learning flight and targeted modifications of landmark properties in this movie we demonstrate that these objects are indeed represented in the bee's visual motion pathway. We find that object-induced responses vary little with object texture, which is in agreement with behavioral evidence. These neurons thus convey information about landmark properties that are useful for view-based homing. PMID:25309374

  2. Information Accumulation over Time in Monkey Inferior Temporal Cortex Neurons Explains Pattern Recognition Reaction Time under Visual Noise

    PubMed Central

    Kuboki, Ryosuke; Sugase-Miyamoto, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Narihisa; Richmond, Barry J.; Shidara, Munetaka

    2017-01-01

    We recognize objects even when they are partially degraded by visual noise. We studied the relation between the amount of visual noise (5, 10, 15, 20, or 25%) degrading 8 black-and-white stimuli and stimulus identification in 2 monkeys performing a sequential delayed match-to-sample task. We measured the accuracy and speed with which matching stimuli were identified. The performance decreased slightly (errors increased) as the amount of visual noise increased for both monkeys. The performance remained above 80% correct, even with 25% noise. However, the reaction times markedly increased as the noise increased, indicating that the monkeys took progressively longer to decide what the correct response would be as the amount of visual noise increased, showing that the monkeys trade time to maintain accuracy. Thus, as time unfolds the monkeys act as if they are accumulating the information and/or testing hypotheses about whether the test stimulus is likely to be a match for the sample being held in short-term memory. We recorded responses from 13 single neurons in area TE of the 2 monkeys. We found that stimulus-selective information in the neuronal responses began accumulating when the match stimulus appeared. We found that the greater the amount of noise obscuring the test stimulus, the more slowly stimulus-related information by the 13 neurons accumulated. The noise induced slowing was about the same for both behavior and information. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that area TE neuron population carries information about stimulus identity that accumulates over time in such a manner that it progressively overcomes the signal degradation imposed by adding visual noise. PMID:28127279

  3. Information Accumulation over Time in Monkey Inferior Temporal Cortex Neurons Explains Pattern Recognition Reaction Time under Visual Noise.

    PubMed

    Kuboki, Ryosuke; Sugase-Miyamoto, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Narihisa; Richmond, Barry J; Shidara, Munetaka

    2016-01-01

    We recognize objects even when they are partially degraded by visual noise. We studied the relation between the amount of visual noise (5, 10, 15, 20, or 25%) degrading 8 black-and-white stimuli and stimulus identification in 2 monkeys performing a sequential delayed match-to-sample task. We measured the accuracy and speed with which matching stimuli were identified. The performance decreased slightly (errors increased) as the amount of visual noise increased for both monkeys. The performance remained above 80% correct, even with 25% noise. However, the reaction times markedly increased as the noise increased, indicating that the monkeys took progressively longer to decide what the correct response would be as the amount of visual noise increased, showing that the monkeys trade time to maintain accuracy. Thus, as time unfolds the monkeys act as if they are accumulating the information and/or testing hypotheses about whether the test stimulus is likely to be a match for the sample being held in short-term memory. We recorded responses from 13 single neurons in area TE of the 2 monkeys. We found that stimulus-selective information in the neuronal responses began accumulating when the match stimulus appeared. We found that the greater the amount of noise obscuring the test stimulus, the more slowly stimulus-related information by the 13 neurons accumulated. The noise induced slowing was about the same for both behavior and information. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that area TE neuron population carries information about stimulus identity that accumulates over time in such a manner that it progressively overcomes the signal degradation imposed by adding visual noise.

  4. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  5. The Significance of Visual Information Processing in Reading: Insights from Hemianopic Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuett, Susanne; Heywood, Charles A.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Zihl, Josef

    2008-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive review of research into hemianopic dyslexia since Mauthner's original description of 1881. We offer an explanation of the reading impairment in patients with unilateral homonymous visual field disorders and clarify its functional and anatomical bases. The major focus of our review is on visual information…

  6. Visual Form, Ethics, and a Typology of Purpose: Teaching Effective Information Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenquist, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Stallworth Williams introduces concepts of visual rhetoric and ethics for a classroom exercise in the analysis and revision of a sales letter. This article revisits Stallworth Williams's proposed teaching strategies, suggesting that not only do students need to be instructed in elements of visual design, but they must also be taught to link those…

  7. Prototyping Visual Learning Analytics Guided by an Educational Theory Informed Goal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillaire, Garron; Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Ducharme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Prototype work can support the creation of data visualizations throughout the research and development process through paper prototypes with sketching, designed prototypes with graphic design tools, and functional prototypes to explore how the implementation will work. One challenging aspect of data visualization work is coordinating the expertise…

  8. Usability and Visual Communication for Southern California Tsunami Evacuation Information: The importance of information design in disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenichen, C.; Schandler, S.; Wells, M.; Danielsen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Evacuation behavior, including participation and response, is rarely an individual and isolated process and the outcomes are usually systemic. Ineffective evacuation information can easily attribute to delayed evacuation response. Delays increase demands on already extended emergency personal, increase the likelihood of traffic congestion, and can cause harm to self and property. From an information design perspective, addressing issues in cognitive recall and emergency psychology, this case study examines evacuation messaging including written, audio, and visual presentation of information, and describes the application of design principles and role of visual communication for Southern California tsunami evacuation outreach. The niche of this project is the inclusion of cognitive processing as the driving influence when making formal design decisions and measurable data from a 4-year cognitive recall study to support the solution. Image included shows a tsunami evacaution map before and after the redesign.

  9. Comparison of the distortion of probability information in decision under risk and an equivalent visual task.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Craig; Trommershäuser, Julia; Mamassian, Pascal; Maloney, Laurence T

    2012-04-01

    Decision makers typically overweight small probabilities and underweight large probabilities. However, there are recent reports that when probability is presented in the form of relative frequencies, this typical pattern reverses. We tested this hypothesis by comparing decision making in two tasks: In one task, probability was stated numerically, and in the other task, it was conveyed through a visual representation. In the visual task, participants chose whether a "stochastic bullet" should be fired at either a large target for a small reward or a small target for a large reward. Participants' knowledge of probability in the visual task was the result of extensive practice firing bullets at targets. In the classical numerical task, participants chose between pairs of lotteries with probabilities and rewards matched to the probabilities and rewards in the visual task. We found that participants' probability-weighting functions were significantly different in the two tasks, but the pattern for the visual task was the typical, not the reversed, pattern.

  10. SocialMood: an information visualization tool to measure the mood of the people in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Guilherme; Franco, Roberto; Moraes, Rodolfo; Figueiredo, Bruno; Miranda, João.; Dobrões, José; Afonso, Ricardo; Meiguins, Bianchi

    2013-12-01

    Based on the arena of social networks, the tool developed in this study aims to identify trends mood among undergraduate students. Combining the methodology Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), which originated in the field of Psychology, the system filters the content provided on the Web and isolates certain words, establishing a range of values as perceived positive, negative or neutral. A Big Data summarizing the results, assisting in the construction and visualization of behavioral profiles generic, so we have a guideline for the development of information visualization tools for social networks.

  11. Realizing Relevance: The Influence of Domain-Specific Information on Generation of New Knowledge Through Integration in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In accumulating knowledge, direct modes of learning are complemented by productive processes, including self-generation based on integration of separate episodes. Effects of the number of potentially relevant episodes on integration were examined in 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 121; racially/ethnically heterogeneous sample, English speakers, from large metropolitan area). Information was presented along with unrelated or related episodes; the latter challenged children to identify the relevant subset of episodes for integration. In Experiment 1, 4- and 6-year-olds integrated in the unrelated context. Six-year-olds also succeeded in the related context in forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, 8-year-olds succeeded in open-ended and forced-choice testing. Results illustrate a developmental progression in productive extension of knowledge due in part to age-related increases in identification of relevant information.

  12. Accurately decoding visual information from fMRI data obtained in a realistic virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Floren, Andrew; Naylor, Bruce; Miikkulainen, Risto; Ress, David

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactive virtual environments (VEs) are a powerful tool for brain-imaging based cognitive neuroscience that are presently under-utilized. This paper presents machine-learning based methods for identifying brain states induced by realistic VEs with improved accuracy as well as the capability for mapping their spatial topography on the neocortex. VEs provide the ability to study the brain under conditions closer to the environment in which humans evolved, and thus to probe deeper into the complexities of human cognition. As a test case, we designed a stimulus to reflect a military combat situation in the Middle East, motivated by the potential of using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Each subject experienced moving through the virtual town where they encountered 1–6 animated combatants at different locations, while fMRI data was collected. To analyze the data from what is, compared to most studies, more complex and less controlled stimuli, we employed statistical machine learning in the form of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) with special attention given to artificial Neural Networks (NN). Extensions to NN that exploit the block structure of the stimulus were developed to improve the accuracy of the classification, achieving performances from 58 to 93% (chance was 16.7%) with six subjects. This demonstrates that MVPA can decode a complex cognitive state, viewing a number of characters, in a dynamic virtual environment. To better understand the source of this information in the brain, a novel form of sensitivity analysis was developed to use NN to quantify the degree to which each voxel contributed to classification. Compared with maps produced by general linear models and the searchlight approach, these sensitivity maps revealed a more diverse pattern of information relevant to the classification of cognitive state. PMID:26106315

  13. Gunslinger Effect and Müller-Lyer Illusion: Examining Early Visual Information Processing for Late Limb-Target Control.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James W; Lyons, Jim L; Garcia, Daniel B L; Burgess, Raquel; Elliott, Digby

    2016-08-19

    The multiple process model contends that there are two forms of online control for manual aiming: impulse regulation and limb-target control. This study examined the impact of visual information processing for limb-target control. We amalgamated the Gunslinger protocol (i.e., faster movements following a reaction to an external trigger compared to the spontaneous initiation of movement) and Müller-Lyer target configurations into the same aiming protocol. The results showed the Gunslinger effect was isolated at the early portions of the movement (peak acceleration and peak velocity). Reacted aims reached a longer displacement at peak deceleration, but no differences for movement termination. The target configurations manifested terminal biases consistent with the illusion. We suggest the visual information processing demands imposed by reacted aims can be adapted by integrating early feedforward information for limb-target control.

  14. Dynamic visual information plays a critical role for spatial navigation in water but not on solid ground.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Chiara Sajidha; Cocchi, Luca; Schenk, Françoise

    2008-12-12

    In the Morris water maze (MWM) task, proprioceptive information is likely to have a poor accuracy due to movement inertia. Hence, in this condition, dynamic visual information providing information on linear and angular acceleration would play a critical role in spatial navigation. To investigate this assumption we compared rat's spatial performance in the MWM and in the homing hole board (HB) tasks using a 1.5 Hz stroboscopic illumination. In the MWM, rats trained in the stroboscopic condition needed more time than those trained in a continuous light condition to reach the hidden platform. They expressed also little accuracy during the probe trial. In the HB task, in contrast, place learning remained unaffected by the stroboscopic light condition. The deficit in the MWM was thus complete, affecting both escape latency and discrimination of the reinforced area, and was thus task specific. This dissociation confirms that dynamic visual information is crucial to spatial navigation in the MWM whereas spatial navigation on solid ground is mediated by a multisensory integration, and thus less dependent on visual information.

  15. [Visualization and analysis of drug information on adverse reactions using data mining method, and its clinical application].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Junko

    2014-01-01

    Sources of drug information such as package inserts (PIs) and interview forms (IFs) and existing drug information databases provide primarily document-based and numerical information. For this reason, it is not easy to obtain a complete picture of the information concerning many drugs with similar effects or to understand differences among drugs. The visualization of drug information may help provide a large amount of information in a short period, relieve the burden on medical workers, facilitate a comprehensive understanding and comparison of drugs, and contribute to improvements in patients' QOL. At our department, we are developing an approach to convert information on side effects obtained from PIs of many drugs with similar effects into visual maps reflecting the data structure through competitive learning using the self-organizing map (SOM) technique of Kohonen, which is a powerful method for pattern recognition, to facilitate the grasping of all available information and differences among drugs, to anticipate the appearance of side effects; we are also evaluating the possibility of its clinical application. In this paper, this approach is described by taking the examples of antibiotics, antihypertensive drugs, and diabetes drugs.

  16. High Performance Real-Time Visualization of Voluminous Scientific Data Through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.; Joyce, J.; Smith, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Within our community data volume is rapidly expanding. These data have limited value if one cannot interact or visualize the data in a timely manner. The scientific community needs the ability to dynamically visualize, analyze, and interact with these data along with other environmental data in real-time regardless of the physical location or data format. Within the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is actively developing the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). Previously, the NEIS team investigated methods of data discovery and interoperability. The recent focus shifted to high performance real-time visualization allowing NEIS to bring massive amounts of 4-D data, including output from weather forecast models as well as data from different observations (surface obs, upper air, etc...) in one place. Our server side architecture provides a real-time stream processing system which utilizes server based NVIDIA Graphical Processing Units (GPU's) for data processing, wavelet based compression, and other preparation techniques for visualization, allows NEIS to minimize the bandwidth and latency for data delivery to end-users. Client side, users interact with NEIS services through the visualization application developed at ESRL called TerraViz. Terraviz is developed using the Unity game engine and takes advantage of the GPU's allowing a user to interact with large data sets in real time that might not have been possible before. Through these technologies, the NEIS team has improved accessibility to 'Big Data' along with providing tools allowing novel visualization and seamless integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. These capabilities provide the ability to see the global interactions and their importance for weather prediction. Additionally, they allow greater access than currently exists helping to foster scientific collaboration and new

  17. The influence of matching degrees of synchronous auditory and visual information in videos of real-world events on cognitive integration: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wang, Z; Li, J

    2011-10-27

    In this article, we aim to study the influence of matching degrees of synchronous natural auditory and visual information on cognitive integration. Videos with matched, moderately matched, and mismatched audio-visual information were used as stimuli. The results showed that videos with moderately matched audio-visual information could elicit N400, P600, and late negativity (LN) effects, while videos with mismatched audio-visual information could elicit N400 and late negativity effects as compared with those with matched audio-visual information. It was further proven that N400 might reflect the connection process during multisensory integration, and P600 was more related to the evaluation process on the matching degrees of the audio-visual information in videos. Late negativity under the mismatched condition might be the combination of late frontal negativity (LFN) and late posterior negativity (LPN), which reflected the attention reallocating process and the recognition process, while late negativity under the moderately matched condition might be the LPN, which was related to the recognition process in the human brain. It was demonstrated that cognitive integration of synchronous audio-visual information would be modulated by different matching degrees of audio-visual information as indexed by different event-related potential (ERP) effects.

  18. Information Visualization: The State of the Art for Maritime Domain Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    96 3.3.11.10 Jellyfish .......................................................................... 96...Aperture software is focused on IT infrastructure management and visualization. 3.3.11.10 Jellyfish Ref: http://www.carohorn.de/ jellyfish /index.htm 96

  19. A Draft Conceptual Framework of Relevant Theories to Inform Future Rigorous Research on Student Service-Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Meredith A.

    2014-01-01

    While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…

  20. Predictive information speeds up visual awareness in an individuation task by modulating threshold setting, not processing efficiency.

    PubMed

    De Loof, Esther; Van Opstal, Filip; Verguts, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Theories on visual awareness claim that predicted stimuli reach awareness faster than unpredicted ones. In the current study, we disentangle whether prior information about the upcoming stimulus affects visual awareness of stimulus location (i.e., individuation) by modulating processing efficiency or threshold setting. Analogous research on stimulus identification revealed that prior information modulates threshold setting. However, as identification and individuation are two functionally and neurally distinct processes, the mechanisms underlying identification cannot simply be extrapolated directly to individuation. The goal of this study was therefore to investigate how individuation is influenced by prior information about the upcoming stimulus. To do so, a drift diffusion model was fitted to estimate the processing efficiency and threshold setting for predicted versus unpredicted stimuli in a cued individuation paradigm. Participants were asked to locate a picture, following a cue that was congruent, incongruent or neutral with respect to the picture's identity. Pictures were individuated faster in the congruent and neutral condition compared to the incongruent condition. In the diffusion model analysis, the processing efficiency was not significantly different across conditions. However, the threshold setting was significantly higher following an incongruent cue compared to both congruent and neutral cues. Our results indicate that predictive information about the upcoming stimulus influences visual awareness by shifting the threshold for individuation rather than by enhancing processing efficiency.