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  1. How Do Pain Relievers Work? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... two pain relievers kids take most often are ibuprofen (say: i-byoo-PRO-fen) and acetaminophen (say: ... away! When you take a pain reliever like ibuprofen, it keeps injured or damaged cells from making ...

  2. Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for You Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Pin it Email Print PDF version (447KB) (NAPS) -- Pain relievers, when used correctly, are safe and effective. Millions ...

  3. How Do Pain Relievers Work? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Short All About Puberty How Do Pain Relievers Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Do Pain Relievers Work? Print A A A en español ¿Cómo actúan ... the spot that hurts so much. Pain relievers work with your cells, your body's nerve endings, your ...

  4. Relieving pain with nerve blocks.

    PubMed

    Carron, H

    1978-04-01

    Pain syndromes in elderly patients are seldom psychogenic or due merely to "old age." Careful differential diagnosis is important, as judicious use of nerve blocks as adjunctive therapy often can relieve pain and restore activity. In the acute phase of shoulder pain, intrabursal injection of local anesthetic and steroid inhibits the inflammatory process. In the later stages, suprascapular nerve block relieves pain and interrupts afferent pain pathways. The occipital pain and headache of cervical arthritis also often respond to injection of 2 to 3 ml of long-acting anesthetic into the greater and lesser occipital nerves at the sites where they pierce the trapezius. Minor causalgia, shoulder-arm syndrome, or chronic traumatic edema may follow either forearm fracture or inflammation around the shoulder joint. Five stellate ganglion blocks with 1% lidocaine on alternate days, followed by 3 to 4 months of active and passive exercise, is the most effective treatment. This regimen usually produces a fully functional extremity. In degenerative disk disease, osteoarthritis, and metastatic disease, the cause of back pain is essentially the same--edema and inflammation of nerve roots at the intervertebral foramina. Injection of local anesthetic and steroid into the epidural space usually reduces swelling and inflammation. Patients are evaluated in 2 weeks and reblocked if improvement has plateaued. Pain relief most often is prompt and persists for an indefinite period.

  5. 46 CFR 58.20-10 - Pressure relieving devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... before relieving to atmosphere. When relieving to atmosphere, a relief valve shall be fitted in the... relieve to the condenser which in turn may relieve either to the low side or to atmosphere. It shall be...

  6. 46 CFR 58.20-10 - Pressure relieving devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... before relieving to atmosphere. When relieving to atmosphere, a relief valve shall be fitted in the... relieve to the condenser which in turn may relieve either to the low side or to atmosphere. It shall be...

  7. 46 CFR 58.20-10 - Pressure relieving devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... before relieving to atmosphere. When relieving to atmosphere, a relief valve shall be fitted in the... relieve to the condenser which in turn may relieve either to the low side or to atmosphere. It shall be...

  8. Misión de operaciones en ambientes extremos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    ¿En qué lugar del planeta se puede entrenar un astronauta en un entorno similar al espacio? ¿Qué les parece bajo el agua? NEEMO es un proyecto que envía a grupos de astronautas, ingenieros, médicos...

  9. Inversion Therapy: Can It Relieve Back Pain?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain Does inversion therapy relieve back pain? Is it safe? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. ... t provide lasting relief from back pain, and it's not safe for everyone. Inversion therapy involves hanging ...

  10. Pain Relievers: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish Pain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC Options (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish Latest News Addictive Opioids Common for People on ...

  11. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... and joint pain relievers containing the active ingredients menthol, methyl salicylate and capsaicin. These cases were uncovered ... of people who purchase these products, Tan notes. Menthol, methyl salicylate and capsaicin create sensations of local ...

  12. Can Botox Injections Relieve Arthritis Pain?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Botox injections relieve arthritis pain? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Botox injections into arthritic joints ... focus of most arthritis treatment plans. With April Chang-Miller, M.D. References Hameed F, et al. ...

  13. Carpal Tunnel Exercises: Can They Relieve Symptoms?

    MedlinePlus

    ... carpal tunnel syndrome. Would regular hand and wrist exercises help me avoid surgery? Answers from Peter C. ... D. Probably not. When used alone, carpal tunnel exercises aren't likely to relieve symptoms, such as ...

  14. Case reports: compounding to relieve arthritis pain.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Robert; Vidaurri, Vincent A; Boomsma, Diane; Buchta, Anthony J; Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Arthritis is an ancient disorder that defies cure. The management of arthritis may require medication, surgery, and/or nonpharmacologic treatment, and patients whose pain responds to drug therapy often achieve substantial benefit from a compounded preparation. Customized to include analgesics in combinations and concentrations not found in commercially manufactured medications, a pain-relieving compound can be prepared in a transdermal form that minimizes the risk of adverse effects associated with some oral medications. In this article, we present case reports of patients whose arthritic pain was relieved by a pharmaceutical compound. Formulations effective in treating inflammatory pain are also provided.

  15. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.

  16. Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

  17. Urban-Rural Education: "Relieving the Tension".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Edgar M.

    As part of a panel on rural education, Dr. Edgar M. Easley spoke on the topic "Urban-Rural Education - Relieving the Tension". Based on findings from literature of adult migration to urban areas, Dr. Easley stated the following implications for adult education teachers and administrators: (1) that the tension found in rural migrants related to…

  18. Pain Relievers - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Pain Relievers - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  19. Hand-held instrument should relieve hematoma pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raggio, L. J.; Robertson, T. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable instrument relieves hematomas beneath fingernails and toenails without surgery. This device simplifies the operative procedure with an instant variable heating tip, adjustable depth settings and interchangeable tip sizes for cauterizing small areas and relieving pressurized clots.

  20. 46 CFR 58.20-10 - Pressure relieving devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relieving devices. 58.20-10 Section 58.20-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-10 Pressure relieving devices. (a) Each pressure vessel containing refrigerants, which may be isolated, shall be protected by a relief valve set...

  1. 46 CFR 58.20-10 - Pressure relieving devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relieving devices. 58.20-10 Section 58.20-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-10 Pressure relieving devices. (a) Each pressure vessel containing refrigerants, which may be isolated, shall be protected by a relief valve set...

  2. Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone brick pattern from earlier cooking fireplace at back, southeast wall looking southeast - Kingston-Upon-Hill, Kitts Hummock Road, Dover, Kent County, DE

  3. Halfcellar underneath original house showing fireplace relieving arch at northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Half-cellar underneath original house showing fireplace relieving arch at northwest end; enclosed "cheese" room to right - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  4. Reviewing the Literature on the Effectiveness of Pressure Relieving Movements

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, May

    2013-01-01

    Sitting for prolonged periods of time increases seating interface pressures, which is known to increase the risk of developing pressure ulcers. Those at risk of developing pressure ulcers are advised to perform pressure relieving movements such as “pushups” or “forward leans” in order to reduce the duration and magnitude of pressure acting on the vulnerable ischial tuberosity region. The aim of this review was to synthesize and critique the existing literature investigating the effectiveness of pressure relieving movements on seating interface pressures. The twenty-seven articles included in this paper highlight the need for further research investigating the effect of recommended pressure relieving movements on the pressures around the ischial tuberosities. Furthermore, this review found that the majority of individuals at risk of developing pressure ulcers do not adhere with the pressure relieving frequency or magnitude of movements currently recommended, indicating a need for pressure ulcer prevention to be explored further. PMID:23365733

  5. Inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia relieved by microscopic endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Yatsuhashi, Takaaki; Nakagawa, Kan-Ichi; Matsumoto, Miho; Kasahara, Masataka; Igarashi, Tomoko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2003-11-01

    We experienced two cases of inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia caused by root canal medicaments, which were successfully relieved by microscopic endodontic treatment. In the first case, the paresthesia might have been attributable to infiltration of calcium hydroxide into the mandibular canal through the root canals of the mandibular left second molar tooth. In the second case, the paresthesia might have been attributable to infiltration of paraformaldehyde through the root canals of the mandibular right second molar tooth. The paresthesia was relieved in both cases by repetitive microscopic endodontic irrigation using physiological saline solution in combination with oral vitamin B12 and adenosine triphosphate.

  6. INTERIOR DETAIL, SECONDSTORY JOISTS, SUBFLOORING, AND FIREPLACE HEARTH RELIEVING ARCH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, SECOND-STORY JOISTS, SUBFLOORING, AND FIREPLACE HEARTH RELIEVING ARCH. THESE FEATURES WERE MADE VISIBLE AFTER A 2002 FAILURE OF WHAT WAS LIKELY THE ORIGINAL EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY CEILING PLASTER IN THE SOUTHWEST CABINET - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Precipitating and relieving factors of migraine versus tension type headache

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the differences of precipitating and relieving factors between migraine and tension type headache. Methods This is a cross sectional study. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 250 migraine patients and 250 patients diagnosed as tension type headache from the specialized headache clinic in Dept. of Neurology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Data were collected through a predesigned questionnaire containing information on age, sex, social status and a predetermined list of precipitating and relieving factors. Results In this study, the female patients predominated (67%). Most of the patients were within 21–30 years age group (58.6%). About 58% of them belonged to middle class families. The common precipitating factors like stress, anxiety, activity, journey, reading, cold and warm were well distributed among both the migraine and tension type headache (TTH) patients. But significant difference was demonstrated for fatigue (p < 0.05), sleep deprivation (p < 0.05), sunlight (p < 0.01) and food (p < 0.05), which were common among migraineurs. In consideration of relieving factors of pain, different maneuvers were commonly tried by migraineurs and significant difference were observed for both analgesic drug and massage (p < 0.05), which relieved migraine headache. But maneuvers like sleep, rest and posture were used by both groups. Conclusion The most frequent precipitating factors for headache appear to be identical for both migraine and TTH patients. Even though some factors like fatigue, sleep deprivation, sunlight and food significantly precipitate migraine and drug, massage are effective maneuver for relieving pain among migrianeurs. PMID:22920541

  8. Precipitating and relieving factors of migraine versus tension type headache.

    PubMed

    Haque, Badrul; Rahman, Kazi Mohibur; Hoque, Azharul; Hasan, A T M Hasibul; Chowdhury, Rajib Nayan; Khan, Sharif Uddin; Alam, Mondal Badrul; Habib, Mansur; Mohammad, Quazi Deen

    2012-08-25

    To determine the differences of precipitating and relieving factors between migraine and tension type headache. This is a cross sectional study. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 250 migraine patients and 250 patients diagnosed as tension type headache from the specialized headache clinic in Dept. of Neurology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Data were collected through a predesigned questionnaire containing information on age, sex, social status and a predetermined list of precipitating and relieving factors. In this study, the female patients predominated (67%). Most of the patients were within 21-30 years age group (58.6%). About 58% of them belonged to middle class families. The common precipitating factors like stress, anxiety, activity, journey, reading, cold and warm were well distributed among both the migraine and tension type headache (TTH) patients. But significant difference was demonstrated for fatigue (p < 0.05), sleep deprivation (p < 0.05), sunlight (p < 0.01) and food (p < 0.05), which were common among migraineurs. In consideration of relieving factors of pain, different maneuvers were commonly tried by migraineurs and significant difference were observed for both analgesic drug and massage (p < 0.05), which relieved migraine headache. But maneuvers like sleep, rest and posture were used by both groups. The most frequent precipitating factors for headache appear to be identical for both migraine and TTH patients. Even though some factors like fatigue, sleep deprivation, sunlight and food significantly precipitate migraine and drug, massage are effective maneuver for relieving pain among migrianeurs.

  9. Degradación de Marismas Costera: el Impacto de la Eutrofización en la Supervivencia del las Marismas Costeras en New England y Central California, USA. (Salt Marsh Deterioration in New England and Central California: Impacts of Eutrophication on Salt Marsh Survival.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las marismas costeras proporcionan numerosos beneficios a los ecosistemas, incluyendo la proporción del hábitat de la flora y fauna, la protección de las zonas costeras contra inundaciones durante eventos extremos, mejoran la calidad del agua para las almejas y ostras a través de...

  10. Degradación de Marismas Costera: el Impacto de la Eutrofización en la Supervivencia del las Marismas Costeras en New England y Central California, USA. (Salt Marsh Deterioration in New England and Central California: Impacts of Eutrophication on Salt Marsh Survival.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las marismas costeras proporcionan numerosos beneficios a los ecosistemas, incluyendo la proporción del hábitat de la flora y fauna, la protección de las zonas costeras contra inundaciones durante eventos extremos, mejoran la calidad del agua para las almejas y ostras a través de...

  11. Do OTC remedies relieve cough in acute URIs?

    PubMed

    Dealleaume, Lauren; Tweed, Beth; Neher, Jon O

    2009-10-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) for adults and honey for children provide some relief. DM may modestly decrease cough in adults compared with placebo. The data supporting zinc for the common cold are mixed. Antihistamines, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, and guaifenesin do not provide greater relief than placebo in adults. In children, antihistamines, decongestants, DM, or combinations of them do not relieve cough better than placebo. Honey may modestly decrease frequency and severity of cough compared with DM or no treatment.

  12. [Clinical research of music in relieving orthodontic pain].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Lihua; Jiang, Yahua; Huang, Yue; Huang, Suhua; Yang, Siwei

    2013-08-01

    To discuss the effect of music in relieving pain during orthodontic treatment. One hundred and sixty-five cases who wore arches the first time were selected and treated. These patients were randomly divided into two groups: Music group and blank group. The music intervention was used in reducing orthodontic treatment pain, while blank group experienced no intervention measures. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were adopted to record patients' perception of pain, and Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) to evaluate personality traits of all samples. In 165 patients, 85.45% were effective. The music group showed significantly less pain than the blank group (P < 0.05). In music and blank group, the pain was stronger in the patients with a tendency of introversion than those with a tendency of extroversion, as well as the irritability ones than steady-minded (P < 0.05). In music group, the pain was stronger in the females than the males (P < 0.05). Music helps to relieve pain during orthodontics treatment. The effect of music to relieve the pain during orthodontics treatment for the males are better than that for the females, extroverted personality ones are superior to introversive personality ones, and the steady-minded patients are better than irritability ones.

  13. Best Way to Take Your Over-the-Counter Pain Reliever? Seriously.

    MedlinePlus

    ... best way to take your over-the-counter pain reliever? Seriously. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print (PDF version - 6MB) Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers/fever reducers (the kind you can buy without ...

  14. 31 CFR 585.521 - Donations of food to relieve human suffering authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations of food to relieve human... Donations of food to relieve human suffering authorized. (a) Specific licenses may be issued on a case-by-case basis to permit exportation to the FRY (S&M) of donated food intended to relieve human suffering...

  15. Robot Drills Holes To Relieve Excess Tire Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrott, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Small, relatively inexpensive, remotely controlled robot called "tire assault vehicle" (TAV) developed to relieve excess tire pressures to protect ground crew, aircraft equipment, and nearby vehicles engaged in landing tests of CV-990 Landing System Research Aircraft. Reduces costs and saves time in training, maintenance, and setup related to "yellow" and "red" tire conditions. Adapted to any heavy-aircraft environment in which ground-crew safety at risk because of potential for tire explosions. Also ideal as scout vehicle for performing inspections in hazardous locations.

  16. Amitriptyline effectively relieves neuropathic pain following treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kalso, E; Tasmuth, T; Neuvonen, P J

    1996-02-01

    The effectiveness of amitriptyline in relieving neuropathic pain following treatment of breast cancer was studied in 15 patients in a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. The dose was escalated from 25 mg to 100 mg per day in 4 weeks. The placebo and amitriptyline phases were separated by a 2-week wash-out period. Visual analogue and verbal rating scales were used for the assessment of pain intensity and pain relief. Other measures included the number of daily activities disturbed by the pain, the Finnish McGill Pain Questionnaire, adverse effects, anxiety, depression, pressure threshold and grip strength. Amitriptyline significantly relieved neuropathic pain both in the arm and around the breast scar. Eight out of 15 patients had a more than 50% decrease in the pain intensity ('good responders') with a median dose of 50 mg of amitriptyline. The 7 patients who had a less than 50% effect had drug concentrations equaling those of the good responders. The 'poor responders' reported significantly more adverse effects with amitriptyline and placebo than the good responders. It is concluded that amitriptyline effectively reduced neuropathic pain following treatment of breast cancer. However, the adverse effects of amitriptyline put most of the patients off from using the drug regularly.

  17. Pain-relieving effect of local steroid injection in uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hirunwiwatkul, P

    2001-06-01

    An analytical prospective study was performed to determine the post-operative pain-relieving effect of local steroid suspension injection in uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. From February 2000 to October 2000, 48 adult patients from 20 to 67 years of age, were scheduled to receive uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Triamcinolone acetonide (Kenacort A) was injected onto the raw surface of the left-sided tonsillar fossa and left-sided soft palate after tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Other preoperative and post-operative medications including antibiotics, anesthesia and surgical techniques were standardized. Visual analog scales were used to assess the level of pain sensation on the left and right side of the throat daily from day 0 (Operative day) to post-operative day 10. A paired t-test showed significant differences in post-operative pain level between the study side (left) and the control side (right) at day 2, day 4, and in the overall analysis (p < 0.05).

  18. Nonmedical prescription pain reliever and alcohol consumption among cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Novak, Scott P; Peiper, Nicholas C; Zarkin, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    This study examined poly-drug use involving the use of cannabis with nonmedical prescription pain reliever use (NMPR) and alcohol use. Computer-assisted survey data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health were examined. The NSDUH is an annual, cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized citizens in the United States (ages 12+). Replicate analyses were conducted using the 2013 and 2003 survey waves. Higher levels of cannabis use were consistently associated with more frequent consumption of prescription pain relievers, with findings replicating in both 2013 and 2003. While the prevalence of dual users declined from 2003 (2.5%) to 2013 (2.3%), the average number of days used among dual users increased by an average of 20 days over that period. These changes largely occurred among those aged 35 or older, males, whites, and non-illicit drug users. Past-year marijuana use increased by 16% (10.8-12.6%, p-value<.001) whereas NMPR decreased by 15% (4.9-4.2%, p-value<.001). The largest changes occurred after 2011. Persons using the most cannabis generally had higher levels of alcohol use relative to those using the least amount of cannabis. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of dual use between 2003 (10.2%) and 2013 (11.6%), while the prevalence of past-year alcohol use remained relatively stable. Clinical efforts and public health interventions should consider the possible co-ingestion of cannabis with NMPR and alcohol, as concomitant use may portend negative health effects in the short and long-term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonmedical prescription pain reliever and alcohol consumption among cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Scott P.; Peiper, Nicholas C.; Zarkin, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study examined poly-drug use involving the use of cannabis with nonmedical prescription pain reliever use (NMPR) and alcohol use. Methods Computer-assisted survey data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health were examined. The NSDUH is an annual, cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized citizens in the United States (ages 12+). Replicate analyses were conducted using the 2013 and 2003 survey waves. Results Higher levels of cannabis use were consistently associated with more frequent consumption of prescription pain relievers, with findings replicating in both 2013 and 2003. While the prevalence of dual users declined from 2003 (2.5%) to 2013 (2.3%), the average number of days used among dual users increased by an average of 20 days over that period. These changes largely occurred among those aged 35 or older, males, whites, and non-illicit drug users. Past-year marijuana use increased by 16% (10.8–12.6%, p-value < .001) whereas NMPR decreased by 15% (4.9–4.2%, p-value < .001). The largest changes occurred after 2011. Persons using the most cannabis generally had higher levels of alcohol use relative to those using the least amount of cannabis. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of dual use between 2003 (10.2%) and 2013 (11.6%), while the prevalence of past-year alcohol use remained relatively stable. Conclusions Clinical efforts and public health interventions should consider the possible co-ingestion of cannabis with NMPR and alcohol, as concomitant use may portend negative health effects in the short and long-term. PMID:26748409

  20. Association between Nonmedical Marijuana and Pain Reliever Uses among Individuals Aged 50.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Choi, Bryan Y

    2017-07-12

    Marijuana and pain reliever use for medical and nonmedical purposes has been increasing among older adults. Using the 2012-2013 U.S. National Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III), this study examined: (1) the association between past-year nonmedical marijuana and pain reliever use among adults aged 50+ years (N = 14,715); and (2) sociodemographic, health, and pain-related correlates of nonmedical marijuana and/or pain reliever use. The findings show that 3.87% and 3.12%, respectively, used marijuana and pain relievers nonmedically and 14.40% of marijuana users, compared to 2.67% of nonusers, used pain relievers nonmedically. Controlling for sociodemographics, health status, pain interference, and mental and other substance use disorders, marijuana use anduse disorder were significantly associated with nonmedical pain reliever use and opioid use disorder, respectively. Compared to marijuana users (with or without nonmedical use of pain relievers), nonmedical pain reliever users (without marijuana) are older, married, and women. Users of both substances nonmedically are a small group (0.56% of the 50+ age group), but they are at greatest risk of lifetime opioid, alcohol, and nicotine use disorders. Pain interference is a significant correlate of nonmedical pain reliever use. Healthcare providers should assess for the nonmedical use of these medicines/drugs and help older adults receive effective pain treatment.

  1. Relieving patients' pain with expectation interventions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peerdeman, Kaya J; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; Keij, Sascha M; Vase, Lene; Rovers, Maroeska M; Peters, Madelon L; Evers, Andrea W M

    2016-06-01

    Patients' expectations are important predictors of the outcome of analgesic treatments, as demonstrated predominantly in research on placebo effects. Three commonly investigated interventions that have been found to induce expectations (verbal suggestion, conditioning, and mental imagery) entail promising, brief, and easy-to-implement adjunctive procedures for optimizing the effectiveness of analgesic treatments. However, evidence for their efficacy stems mostly from research on experimentally evoked pain in healthy samples, and these findings might not be directly transferable to clinical populations. The current meta-analysis investigated the effects of these expectation inductions on patients' pain relief. Five bibliographic databases were systematically searched for studies that assessed the effects of brief verbal suggestion, conditioning, or imagery interventions on pain in clinical populations, with patients experiencing experimental, acute procedural, or chronic pain, compared with no treatment or control treatment. Of the 15,955 studies retrieved, 30 met the inclusion criteria, of which 27 provided sufficient data for quantitative analyses. Overall, a medium-sized effect of the interventions on patients' pain relief was observed (Hedges g = 0.61, I = 73%), with varying effects of verbal suggestion (k = 18, g = 0.75), conditioning (always paired with verbal suggestion, k = 3, g = 0.65), and imagery (k = 6, g = 0.27). Subset analyses indicated medium to large effects on experimental and acute procedural pain and small effects on chronic pain. In conclusion, patients' pain can be relieved with expectation interventions; particularly, verbal suggestion for acute procedural pain was found to be effective.

  2. Use of opioid pain relievers following extraction of third molars.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Breanna M; Wach, Anthony G; Kanar, Brent P; Castele, Matthew T; Sosovicka, Mark F; Cooke, Matthew R; Moore, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    Following extraction of third molars, it is common practice for oral and maxillofacial surgeons to provide a prescription for an opioid-containing analgesic such as hydrocodone with acetaminophen. Because the instructions for use most often indicate that these analgesics are to be taken "as needed for pain," it is unknown how many of the prescribed postoperative analgesic tablets are needed and actually taken. Therefore, an assessment of patient pain experiences and actual opioid analgesic usage was carried out using structured telephone interviews of patients performed 1 and 7 days following their thirdmolar extraction surgery. Forty-eight adolescents and young adults, ages 15 to 30 years, participated in this assessment. A review of the surgeon's notes indicated that the median number of prescribed opioid-containing analgesics (ie, Vicodin®, Norco®, Lorcet®, Percocet®) was 20 tablets (range 10 to 40). The median consumption during the first 24 hours was reported to be three tablets (range 0 to 10), and the total consumption for all 7 days was eight tablets (range 0 to 34). Four patients reported nausea or vomiting in the first 24 hours, and six patients reported nausea or vomiting during the following 6 days of recovery. The initial prescriptions provided adequate relief for 45 of the 48 patients. Higher consumption of opioid pain relievers (OPRs) was associated with a longer duration of surgery and the occurrence of postoperative infections.

  3. Activation of Corticostriatal Circuitry Relieves Chronic Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle; Manders, Toby R.; Eberle, Sarah E.; Su, Chen; D'amour, James; Yang, Runtao; Lin, Hau Yueh; Deisseroth, Karl; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Neural circuits that determine the perception and modulation of pain remain poorly understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down control of sensory and affective processes. While animal and human imaging studies have shown that the PFC is involved in pain regulation, its exact role in pain states remains incompletely understood. A key output target for the PFC is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important component of the reward circuitry. Interestingly, recent human imaging studies suggest that the projection from the PFC to the NAc is altered in chronic pain. The function of this corticostriatal projection in pain states, however, is not known. Here we show that optogenetic activation of the PFC produces strong antinociceptive effects in a rat model (spared nerve injury model) of persistent neuropathic pain. PFC activation also reduces the affective symptoms of pain. Furthermore, we show that this pain-relieving function of the PFC is likely mediated by projections to the NAc. Thus, our results support a novel role for corticostriatal circuitry in pain regulation. PMID:25834050

  4. Depletion of intracellular polyamines relieves inward rectification of potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Shyng, S L; Sha, Q; Ferrigni, T; Lopatin, A N; Nichols, C G

    1996-10-15

    Two different approaches were used to examine the in vivo role of polyamines in causing inward rectification of potassium channels. In two-microelectrode voltage-clamp experiments, 24-hr incubation of Xenopus oocytes injected with 50 nl of difluoromethylornithine (5 mM) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (1 mM) caused an approximate doubling of expressed Kir2.1 currents and relieved rectification by causing an approximately +10-mV shift of the voltage at which currents are half-maximally inhibited. Second, a putrescine auxotrophic, ornithine decarboxylase-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (O-CHO) cell line was stably transfected with the cDNA encoding Kir2.3. Withdrawal of putrescine from the medium led to rapid (1-day) loss of the instantaneous phase of Kir2.3 channel activation, consistent with a decline of intracellular putrescine levels. Four days after putrescine withdrawal, macroscopic conductance, assessed using an 86Rb+ flux assay, was approximately doubled, and this corresponded to a +30-mV shift of V1/2 of rectification. With increasing time after putrescine withdrawal, there was an increase in the slowest phase of current activation, corresponding to an increase in the spermine-to-spermidine ratio over time. These results provide direct evidence for a role of each polyamine in induction of rectification, and they further demonstrate that in vivo modulation of rectification is possible by manipulation of polyamine levels using genetic and pharmacological approaches.

  5. Emergency pulpotomy in relieving acute dental pain among Tanzanian patients

    PubMed Central

    Nyerere, Joachim W; Matee, Mecky I; Simon, Elison NM

    2006-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, oral health services are mostly in the form of dental extractions aimed at alleviating acute dental pain. Conservative methods of alleviating acute dental pain are virtually non-existent. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine treatment success of emergency pulpotomy in relieving acute dental pain. Methods Setting: School of Dentistry, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Study design: Longitudinal study. Participants: 180 patients who presented with dental pain due to acute irreversible pulpitis during the study period between July and August 2001. Treatment and evaluation: Patients were treated by emergency pulpotomy on permanent posterior teeth and were evaluated for pain after one, three and six week's post-treatment. Pain, if present, was categorised as either mild or acute. Results Of the patients with treated premolars, 25 (13.9%) patients did not experience pain at all while 19 (10.6%) experienced mild pain. None of the patients with treated premolars experienced acute pain. Among 136 patients with treated molars 56 (31%) did not experience any pain, 76 (42.2%) experienced mild pain and the other 4 (2.2%) suffered acute pain. Conclusion The short term treatment success of emergency pulpotomy was high being 100% for premolars and 97.1% for molars, suggesting that it can be recommended as a measure to alleviate acute dental pain while other conservative treatment options are being considered. PMID:16426455

  6. New pain-relieving strategies for topical photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldin, Christina B.; Paoli, John; Sandberg, Carin; Ericson, Marica B.; Gonzalez, Helena; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2009-06-01

    PDT is an effective method when treating multiple actinic keratoses (field cancerization). The major side effect is pain. Our objectives were to investigate the pain-relieving effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and peripheral nerve blocks during PDT of field cancerization (FC) of the face and scalp. Patients with field cancerization were included in three studies. In the first study, we examined TENS with an application site on the adjacent dermatome from the PDT area in order to allow the use of water spray during PDT for FC of the scalp and face. In the second study, patients with FC in the facial area received unilateral supraorbital, infraorbital and/or mental nerve blocks. The non-anaesthetised side of the treatment area served as control. In the third study, with similar methodology as in the second study, occipital and supraorbital nerve blocks were combined for FC of the forehead and scalp. The results of the studies strongly support the use of nerve blocks as pain relief during PDT. The use of TENS provided a limited pain reduction, but TENS might be an alternative if the patient disapproves of the use of nerve blocks or is afraid of injections.

  7. Relieving pain using dose-extending placebos: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Colloca, Luana; Enck, Paul; DeGrazia, David

    2016-08-01

    Placebos are often used by clinicians, usually deceptively and with little rationale or evidence of benefit, making their use ethically problematic. In contrast with their typical current use, a provocative line of research suggests that placebos can be intentionally exploited to extend analgesic therapeutic effects. Is it possible to extend the effects of drug treatments by interspersing placebos? We reviewed a database of placebo studies, searching for studies that indicate that placebos given after repeated administration of active treatments acquire medication-like effects. We found a total of 22 studies in both animals and humans hinting of evidence that placebos may work as a sort of dose extender of active painkillers. Wherever effective in relieving clinical pain, such placebo use would offer several advantages. First, extending the effects of a painkiller through the use of placebos may reduce total drug intake and side effects. Second, dose-extending placebos may decrease patient dependence. Third, using placebos along with active medication, for part of the course of treatment, should limit dose escalation and lower costs. Provided that nondisclosure is preauthorized in the informed consent process and that robust evidence indicates therapeutic benefit comparable to that of standard full-dose therapeutic regimens, introducing dose-extending placebos into the clinical arsenal should be considered. This novel prospect of placebo use has the potential to change our general thinking about painkiller treatments, the typical regimens of painkiller applications, and the ways in which treatments are evaluated.

  8. Relieving Pain using Dose-Extending Placebos: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Colloca, Luana; Enck, Paul; DeGrazia, David

    2017-01-01

    Placebos are often used by clinicians, usually deceptively and with little rationale or evidence of benefit, making their use ethically problematic. In contrast with their typical current use, a provocative line of research suggests that placebos can be intentionally exploited to extend analgesic therapeutic effects. Is it possible to extend the effects of drug treatments by interspersing placebos? We reviewed a database of placebo studies, searching for studies that indicate that placebos given after repeated administration of active treatments acquire medication-like effects. We found a total of 22studies in both animals and humans hinting of evidence that placebos may work as a sort of dose extender of active painkillers. Wherever effective in relieving clinical pain, such placebo use would offer several advantages. First, extending the effects of a painkiller through the use of placebos may reduce total drug intake and side effects. Second, dose-extending placebos may decrease patient dependence. Third, using placebos along with active medication, for part of the course of treatment, should limit dose escalation and lower costs. Importantly, provided that nondisclosure is pre-authorized in the informed consent process and that robust evidence indicates therapeutic benefit comparable to that of standard full-dose therapeutic regimens, introducing dose-extending placebos into the clinical arsenal should be considered. This novel prospect of placebo use has the potential to change our general thinking about painkiller treatments, the typical regimens of painkiller applications, and the ways in which treatments are evaluated. PMID:27023425

  9. Psychological stress-relieving effects of chewing - Relationship between masticatory function-related factors and stress-relieving effects.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, Akinori; Kikuchi, Manaki; Nakanishi, Kousuke; Ueda, Takayuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels. Saliva was collected at three time points: before stress loading, immediately after stress loading, and 10min after stress loading. Compared to resting, chewing produced a significantly greater reduction in the rate of change in salivary cortisol levels 10min after stress loading. A negative correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and the number of chewing strokes. No significant correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and other measurement items. In healthy dentulous people, the number of chewing strokes has been shown to be a masticatory function-related factor that affects stress relief from chewing, suggesting the possibility that more appropriate chewing would produce a greater effect psychological stress relief. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 49 CFR 192.201 - Required capacity of pressure relieving and limiting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required capacity of pressure relieving and... Design of Pipeline Components § 192.201 Required capacity of pressure relieving and limiting stations. (a... protect a pipeline must have enough capacity, and must be set to operate, to insure the following: (1) In...

  11. Self-administered pain-relieving manoeuvres in primary headaches.

    PubMed

    Zanchin, G; Maggioni, F; Granella, F; Rossi, P; Falco, L; Manzoni, G C

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the use of self-administered pain-relieving manoeuvres on a sample of 400 patients with primary headaches--represented by an even distribution of migraine without aura (MO), migraine with aura (MA), episodic tension-type headache (TH), and cluster headache (CH)--consecutively seen at Padua and Parma Headache Centres. Manoeuvres on various regions of the head were used by 258 patients (65% of the cases). The most applied procedures were: compression (114 out of 382 manoeuvres; 30%), application of cold (27%), massage (25%) and application of heat (8%). A significant (P < 0.001) relationship was found between headache diagnoses and type of manoeuvre. In MO patients the application of cold (38% of the manoeuvres) and compression (36%), used mainly on the forehead and temples, prevailed; compression, mainly on the temples, was the most frequent procedure (44%) in MA patients. Massage on the temples and nape was the predominant manoeuvre (43%) in TH patients, whereas in the CH group, which more often required heterogeneous procedures, none of the above-mentioned manoeuvres was prevalent. Compression, as a diagnostic criterion for MO, had a sensitivity of 33% and a specificity of 86%; for the application of cold the figures were 36% and 84%, respectively. Massage had a sensitivity of 33% and a specificity of 80% for TH. The efficacy of the self-administered manoeuvres in reducing pain was scarce. Only 8% of the manoeuvres, in fact, resulted in a good or excellent pain control. Moreover, the efficacy of the manoeuvre was often momentary, wearing off when the manoeuvre stopped. In spite of this, 46% of the subjects used the manoeuvres constantly, at each attack.

  12. Efficacy of Carbon Microcoils in Relieving Cervicogenic Dizziness

    PubMed Central

    Bittar, Roseli; Alves, Nédison Gomes Paim; Bertoldo, César; Brugnera, Cibele; Oiticica, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cervical pain contributes to postural deviations and imbalance. Nanotechnology may be used for the treatment of neck pain by fixing to the skin small rounds silicone patches containing double spiral carbon nanotubes arranged in the form of a coil (Helical), which would then relieve dizziness caused by muscular contraction. Objective The objective of this study is to Evaluate pain and dizziness scores before and after Helical patches effect on cervicogenic dizziness treatment. Methods The selected patients should have neck pain arising from muscle contraction with loss of balance or instability lasting more than 90 days and normal electrooculography. Treatment consisted of placing 10 Helical patches distributed as follows: two in the upper cervical area, two in the lower cervical area (near the 5th and 6th vertebrae), two in the upper trapezius muscle area (between neck and shoulder), and four in the tender point area (as reported by the patient). Using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), we matched pain and dizziness scores from Day 1 to those from Day 15 and Day 30 using Mann-Whitney test. Results There was a significant difference between pain score reported on Day 1 and Day 15 (Z = 2.43, U = 5, p = 0.01). We also found significant differences between dizziness scores reported on days 1 and 15 (Z = 2.62, U = 3.5, p = 0.01) and days 1 and 30 (Z = 2.36, U = 5.5, p = 0.01). Conclusion The Helical patches seem to be an effective treatment for cervicogenic dizziness. PMID:28050200

  13. A novel TRPM8 agonist relieves dry eye discomfort.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jee Myung; Li, Fengxian; Liu, Qin; Rüedi, Marco; Wei, Edward Tak; Lentsman, Michael; Lee, Hyo Seok; Choi, Won; Kim, Seong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2017-06-26

    Physical cooling of the eye surface relieves ocular discomfort, but translating this event to drug treatment of dry eye discomfort not been studied. Here, we synthesized a water-soluble TRPM8 receptor agonist called cryosim-3 (C3, 1-diisopropylphosphorylnonane) which selectively activates TRPM8 (linked to cooling) but not TRPV1 or TRPA1 (linked to nociception) and tested C3 in subjects with mild forms of dry eye disease. A set of 1-dialkylphosphoryalkanes were tested for activation of TRPM8, TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors in transfected cells. The bioactivity profiles were compared by perioral, topical, and intravenous delivery to anesthetized rats. The selected lead candidate C3 or vehicle (water) was applied with a cotton gauze pad to upper eyelids of patients with dry eye disease (n = 30). Cooling sensation, tear film break-up time (TBUT), basal tear secretion, and corneal staining were evaluated. C3 was then applied four times daily for 2 weeks to patients using a pre-loaded single unit applicator containing 2 mg/mL of C3 in water (n = 20) or water only. TBUT, basal tear secretion, and corneal staining, and three questionnaires surveys of ocular discomfort (VAS scale, OSDI, and CVS symptoms) were analyzed before and at 1 and 2 weeks thereafter. C3 was a selective and potent TRPM8 agonist without TRPV1 or TRPA1 activity. In test animals, the absence of shaking behavior after C3 perioral administration made it the first choice for further study. C3 increased tear secretion in an animal model of dry eye disease and did not irritate when wiped on eyes of volunteers. C3 singly applied (2 mg/ml) produced significant cooling in <5 min, an effecting lasting 46 min with an increase in tear secretion for 60 min. C3 applied for 2 weeks also significantly increased basal tear secretion with questionnaire surveys of ocular discomfort indices clearly showing improvement of symptoms at 1 and 2 weeks. No complaints of irritation or pain were reported by any subject. C3

  14. Misuse of Prescription Pain Relievers: The Buzz Takes Your Breath Away. Permanently.

    MedlinePlus

    ... street names: ac/dc, coties, demmies, dillies, hillbilly heroin, o.c., oxy, oxycotton, percs and vics to ... prescription pain relievers is like being hooked on heroin and the withdrawal isn't much different: bone ...

  15. Obstetrical Pain-relieving Drugs as Predictors of Infant Behavior Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleksandrowicz, Malca K.; Aleksandrowicz, Dov R.

    1974-01-01

    A study of the relationship between pain-relieving drugs given to mothers during labor and delivery and neonatal behavior as assessed by the Brazelton Scales. Tested 44 infants on eight different days during their first month of life. (SDH)

  16. Method of forming a stress relieved amorphous tetrahedrally-coordinated carbon film

    DOEpatents

    Friedmann, Thomas A.; Sullivan, John P.

    2000-01-01

    A stress-relieved amorphous-diamond film is formed by depositing an amorphous diamond film with specific atomic structure and bonding on to a substrate, and annealing the film at sufficiently high temperature to relieve the compressive stress in said film without significantly softening said film. The maximum annealing temperature is preferably on the order of 650.degree. C., a much lower value than is expected from the annealing behavior of other materials.

  17. Reliever salbutamol use as a measure of exacerbation risk in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Christine R; Postma, Dirkje S; Anzueto, Antonio R; Make, Barry J; Peterson, Stefan; Eriksson, Göran; Calverley, Peter M

    2015-08-21

    Debate exists regarding which endpoints most sensitively reflect day-to-day variation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms and are most useful in clinical practice to predict COPD exacerbations. We hypothesized that short-acting β2-agonist (SABA) reliever use would predict short- and long-term exacerbation risk in COPD patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from a study (ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT00419744) comparing budesonide/formoterol 320/9 μg with formoterol 9 μg (both twice daily) in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD; reliever salbutamol 90 μg was provided. First occurrence of reliever use >4 (low), >10 (medium), and >20 (high) inhalations/day was assessed as a predictor of short-term (3-week) exacerbation risk. Mean daily reliever use in the week preceding the 2-month visit was investigated as a predictor of the long-term (10-month) exacerbation risk, using intervals of 2-5, 6-9, and ≥10 inhalations/day. Overall, 810 patients were included (61 % male; mean age 63.2 years; post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s 37.7 % of predicted). First occurrence of low, medium, or high reliever use was predictive of an exacerbation within the following 3 weeks; exacerbation risk increased significantly with increasing reliever use. Mean reliever use over 1 week was predictive of long-term exacerbation risk. Patients with mean use of 2-5, 6-9, and ≥10 inhalations/day exhibited 21 %, 67 %, and 135 % higher exacerbation rates, respectively, in the following 10 months, compared with <2 inhalations/day. Budesonide/formoterol was associated with lower short- and long-term exacerbation risk than formoterol in all reliever-use groups. SABA reliever use is a predictor of short- and long-term exacerbation risk in moderate-to-very-severe COPD patients with a history of exacerbations receiving budesonide/formoterol or formoterol.

  18. [Theory analysis and clinical application of spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method].

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Tang, Lewei; Du, Huaibin; Zheng, Hui; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical foundation and scientific connotation of spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method as well as its clinical application for pain are discussed. During spirit regulation, attention should be paid on regulating heart and brain, while acupoints should be selected mainly from the Heart Meridian, Pericardium Meridian and Governor Vessel. It has significant efficacy for refractory pain in clinical treatment. Spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method is development of acupuncture treating spirit, and it is an important method for pain in clinic. Improvement on sensitization of pain center and brain function is considered as one of the mechanisms in spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method.

  19. Novel technique for relieving anastomotic tension using halo-vest immobilization after tracheal sleeve resection.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Saito, Hajime; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Kasukawa, Yuji; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Motoyama, Satoru; Sato, Yusuke; Shimada, Yoichi; Ogawa, Jun-ichi

    2013-07-01

    We describe a novel technique of using halo-vest-enforced immobilization to relieve anastomotic tension after tracheal sleeve resection. Immediately after the tracheal sleeve resection, four halo titanium pins were inserted in the skulls of the patients to secure the halo-vest. All patients fitted with halo-vests were able to eat and drink and their clinical course was good. Bronchoscopy confirmed the absence of anastomotic leaks and stenoses, and there were no complications associated with the halo-vest. We believe that ensuring neck flexion using a halo-vest after tracheal sleeve resection is an excellent way of relieving anastomotic tension that would predispose the wound to dehiscence.

  20. Incorporation of another person's limb into body image relieves phantom limb pain: a case study.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Sharon R; Tsao, Jack W

    2010-12-01

    Phantom limb phenomena are well characterized, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report a patient who relieves his phantom sensations and pain, experienced as itching and cramping, through scratching or massaging his prosthesis or the leg of another person. This pain relief occurs only when phantom limb sensations are present. We hypothesize that symptom relief results from incorporation of the foreign limb into the patient's body image, mediated by the sensory mirror neuron system, relieving pain by restoring concordance between sensory systems.

  1. X-ray structure of the first `extremo-α-carbonic anhydrase', a dimeric enzyme from the thermophilic bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Anna; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Monti, Simona Maria; Carginale, Vincenzo; Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea; Pedone, Carlo; Rossi, Mosè; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2013-06-01

    SspCA, a novel `extremo-α-carbonic anhydrase' isolated from the thermophilic bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1, is an efficient catalyst for the hydration of CO2 and presents exceptional thermostability. Indeed, SspCA retains a high catalytic activity even after being heated to 343-373 K for several hours. Here, the crystallographic structure of this α-carbonic anhydrase (α-CA) is reported and the factors responsible for its function at high temperature are elucidated. In particular, the study suggests that increased structural compactness, together with an increased number of charged residues on the protein surface and a greater number of ionic networks, seem to be the key factors involved in the higher thermostability of this enzyme with respect to its mesophilic homologues. These findings are of extreme importance, since they provide a structural basis for the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for thermal stability in the α-CA family for the first time. The data obtained offer a tool that can be exploited to engineer α-CAs in order to obtain enzymes with enhanced thermostability for use in the harsh conditions of the CO2 capture and sequestration processes.

  2. Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

  3. Effects of herbal medicine Sijunzi decoction on rabbits after relieving intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Zou, C; Zhou, Z; Yu, X

    2017-09-21

    Intestinal obstruction leads to blockage of the movement of intestinal contents. After relieving the obstruction, patients might still suffer with compromised immune function and nutritional deficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Sijunzi decoction on restoring the immune function and nutritional status after relieving the obstruction. Experimental rabbits (2.5±0.2 kg) were randomly divided into normal control group, 2-day intestinal obstruction group, 2-day natural recovery group, 4-day natural recovery group, 2-day treated group, and 4-day treated group. Sijunzi decoction was given twice a day to the treated groups. The concentration of markers was analyzed to evaluate the immune function and nutritional status. The concentration of interleukin-2, immunoglobulins and complement components of the treated groups were significantly higher than the natural recovery group (P<0.05). The levels of CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ increased then decreased in the treated groups. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and CD8+ were significantly lower than the natural recovery group. The level of total protein in the treated groups also increased then decreased after relieving the obstruction. The levels of albumin, prealbumin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were significantly higher in the treated groups than in the natural recovery group (P<0.05). Transferrin level in the treated groups was significantly higher than the obstruction group (P<0.05). Sijunzi decoction can lessen the inflammatory response and improve the nutrition absorption after relieving the obstruction.

  4. UV photolysis for relieved inhibition of sulfadiazine (SD) to biomass growth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shihui; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Yongming; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-05-01

    UV photolysis was used to relieve inhibition of biomass growth by sulfadiazine (SD), a broad-spectrum anti-microbial. To investigate the effects of SD on biomass growth, three substrates-glucose alone (G), glucose plus sulfadiazine (G+SD), and glucose plus photolyzed SD (G+PSD)-were used to culture the bacteria acclimated to glucose. The biomass was strongly inhibited when SD was added into the glucose solution, but inhibition was relieved to a significant degree when the SD was treated with UV irradiation as a pretreatment. The biomass growth kinetics were described well by the Monod model when glucose was used as a substrate alone, but the kinetics followed a hybrid Aiba model for non-competitive inhibition when SD was added to the solution. When photolyzed SD was added to glucose solution to replace original SD, the growth still followed Aiba inhibition, but inhibition was significantly relieved: the maximum specific growth rate (μ max) increased by 17 %, and the Aiba inhibition concentration increased by 60 %. Aniline, a major product of UV photolysis, supported the growth of the glucose-biodegrading bacteria. Thus, UV photolysis of SD significantly relieved inhibition by lowering the SD concentration and by generating a biodegradable product.

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Aspirin, Salicylamide, and Caffeine in Pain Relievers by Target Factor Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Charles, Melissa J.; Martin, Nea W.

    1997-09-01

    A factor analysis-based experiment for the undergraduate instrumental analysis labs is reported. Target factor analysis (TFA) is investigated as an option to the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the analysis of a pain reliever sample containing aspirin, caffeine, and salicylamide.

  6. Nitrous oxide by itself is insufficient to relieve pain due to castration in piglet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surgical castration is performed on all male pigs in the United States. However, castration is painful and analgesics have been considered to relieve pain. Inhalant gases with analgesic properties allow for a fast induction, short-term and reversible effects, and are a needle-free option. Nitrous ox...

  7. Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

  8. 21 CFR 868.5115 - Device to relieve acute upper airway obstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device to relieve acute upper airway obstruction. 868.5115 Section 868.5115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5115 Device...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5115 - Device to relieve acute upper airway obstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Device to relieve acute upper airway obstruction. 868.5115 Section 868.5115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5115 Device to...

  10. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Garam

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Methods Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. Results The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. Conclusion From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed. PMID:26929847

  11. Volar denervation and osteophyte resection to relieve volar CMC joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, A. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract At mean 125.6 months, pain was reduced from mean of 8.7 to 0.67, p < .001. Each of three patients, two of whom were musicians, returned to full professional ability. It is concluded that volar CMC joint denervation is a useful procedure, preserving joint function and relieving pain long-term. PMID:28243611

  12. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Garam

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.

  13. Non-prescribed use of pain relievers among adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Patkar, Ashwin A

    2008-04-01

    We examined gender-specific prevalences, patterns, and correlates of non-prescribed use of pain relievers - mainly opioids - in a representative sample of American adolescents (N=18,678). Data were drawn from the public use data file of the 2005 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a survey of non-institutionalized American household residents. The patterns of non-prescribed use of prescription pain relievers were examined, and logistic regression procedures were conducted to identify correlates of non-prescribed use. Approximately one in 10 adolescents aged 12-17 years reported non-prescribed use of pain relievers in their lifetime (9.3% in males and 10.3% in females). The mean age of first non-prescribed use was 13.3 years, which was similar to the mean age of first use of alcohol and marijuana but older than the age of first inhalant use. Among all non-prescribed users, 52% reported having used hydrocodone products (Vicodin, Lortab, Lorcet, and Lorcet Plus, and hydrocodone), 50% had used propoxyphene (Darvocet or Darvon) or codeine (Tylenol with codeine), and 24% had used oxycodone products (OxyContin, Percocet, Percodan, and Tylox). Approximately one quarter (26%) of all non-prescribed users had never used other non-prescribed or illicit drugs. There were gender variations in correlates of non-prescribed use. Use of non-prescribed pain relievers occurs early in adolescence. Research is needed to understand whether early use of non-prescribed pain relievers is related to later drug use.

  14. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and delayed urination. There is a lack of adequate data to establish general recognition of the safety... drug product that is labeled, represented, or promoted to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic... drug product labeled, represented, or promoted for OTC use to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic...

  15. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and delayed urination. There is a lack of adequate data to establish general recognition of the safety... drug product that is labeled, represented, or promoted to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic... drug product labeled, represented, or promoted for OTC use to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic...

  16. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and delayed urination. There is a lack of adequate data to establish general recognition of the safety... drug product that is labeled, represented, or promoted to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic... drug product labeled, represented, or promoted for OTC use to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic...

  17. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and delayed urination. There is a lack of adequate data to establish general recognition of the safety... drug product that is labeled, represented, or promoted to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic... drug product labeled, represented, or promoted for OTC use to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic...

  18. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and delayed urination. There is a lack of adequate data to establish general recognition of the safety... drug product that is labeled, represented, or promoted to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic... drug product labeled, represented, or promoted for OTC use to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic...

  19. Palmitoylethanolamide relieves pain and preserves pancreatic islet cells in a murine model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Donvito, Giulia; Bettoni, Isabella; Comelli, Francesca; Colombo, Anita; Costa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the intraperitoneal administration of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in mice with chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve evoked a relief of both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in neuropathic mice. Since diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common long-term complications of diabetes, we explored the ability of PEA to also relief this kind of chronic pain, employing the well established streptozotocin-induced animal model of type 1 diabetes. Our findings demonstrated that PEA relieves mechanical allodynia, counteracts nerve growth factor deficit, improves insulin level, preserves Langerhans islet morphology reducing the development of insulitis in diabetic mice. These results suggest that PEA could be effective in type 1-diabetic patients not only as pain reliever but also in controlling the development of pathology.

  20. The Research on the Impact of Green Beans Sports Drinks on Relieving Fatigue in Sports Training.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Ying, Liu

    2015-01-01

    For researching the function of relieving fatigue of green beans sports drinks, this paper selected 60 mice as subjects. They were randomly divided into four groups (low dose group, middle dose group, high dose group and physiological saline group). Each time they were respectively feed 10g 20g/L, 40g/L, 80 g/L green beans sports drinks and 15ml/(kg.d) physiological saline. The experiment lasted for a month. We recorded weight of mice, swimming time and blood urea nitrogen indicators. The results show that green beans sports drinks can significantly prolong swimming time of mice (p <0.05). For serum urea the results show no effect. So green beans sports drinks have a certain function of relieving physical fatigue.

  1. Automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system based on photoplethysmography-derived heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Il-Hyung; Cha, Jaepyeong; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Choonghee; Lee, Seung Yup; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system (ASMRS) for individual music listeners. The ASMRS uses a portable, wireless photoplethysmography module with a finger-type sensor, and a program that translates heartbeat signals from the sensor to the stress index. The sympathovagal balance index (SVI) was calculated from heart rate variability to assess the user's stress levels while listening to music. Twenty-two healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. The results have shown that the participants' SVI values are highly correlated with their prespecified music preferences. The sensitivity and specificity of the favorable music classification also improved as the number of music repetitions increased to 20 times. Based on the SVI values, the system automatically recommends favorable music lists to relieve stress for individuals.

  2. Effectiveness of a pressure-relieving mattress in an acute stroke ward.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Deborah

    2016-11-10

    Between the 10 May and 18 July 2016, St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust conducted a small, non-controlled evaluation set out to assess the performance of the Apex Pro-care Auto pressure-relieving mattress in an acute stroke ward. Seven patients, assessed as being at medium-to-high risk of developing a pressure ulcer (PU), were recruited into the evaluation; the mean age was 73.1 years. Three patients were bed bound and four had restricted mobility. The average length of time spent on the mattress was 31 days. At the end of the evaluation, none of the patients had developed a PU while using the mattress. These results indicate that, when combined with a robust PU prevention plan inclusive of repositioning, this pressure-relieving mattress is effective in preventing pressure ulceration.

  3. Non-Prescribed Use of Pain Relievers among Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    Background We examined gender-specific prevalences, patterns, and correlates of non-prescribed use of pain relievers—mainly opioids—in a representative sample of American adolescents (N = 18,678). Methods Data were drawn from the public use data file of the 2005 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a survey of non-institutionalized American household residents. The patterns of non-prescribed use of prescription pain relievers were examined, and logistic regression procedures were conducted to identify correlates of non-prescribed use. Results Approximately one in 10 adolescents aged 12−17 years reported non-prescribed use of pain relievers in their lifetime (9.3% in males and 10.3% in females). The mean age of first non-prescribed use was 13.3 years, which was similar to the mean age of first use of alcohol and marijuana but older than the age of first inhalant use. Among all non-prescribed users, 52% reported having used hydrocodone products (Vicodin, Lortab, Lorcet, and Lorcet Plus, and hydrocodone), 50% had used propoxyphene (Darvocet or Darvon) or codeine (Tylenol with codeine), and 24% had used oxycodone products (OxyContin, Percocet, Percodan, and Tylox). Approximately one quarter (26%) of all non-prescribed users had never used other non-prescribed or illicit drugs. There were gender variations in correlates of non-prescribed use. Conclusions Use of non-prescribed pain relievers occurs early in adolescence. Research is needed to understand whether early use of non-prescribed pain relievers is related to later drug use. PMID:18054444

  4. Oxygen relieves the CO2 and acetate dependency of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533.

    PubMed

    Hertzberger, Rosanne Y; Pridmore, R David; Gysler, Christof; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teixeira de Mattos, M Joost

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen relieves the CO2 and acetate dependency of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533. The probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 is relatively sensitive to oxidative stress; the presence of oxygen causes a lower biomass yield due to early growth stagnation. We show however that oxygen can also be beneficial to this organism as it relieves the requirement for acetate and CO2 during growth. Both on agar- and liquid-media, anaerobic growth of L. johnsonii NCC 533 requires CO2 supplementation of the gas phase. Switching off the CO2 supply induces growth arrest and cell death. The presence of molecular oxygen overcomes the CO2 dependency. Analogously, L. johnsonii NCC 533 strictly requires media with acetate to sustain anaerobic growth, although supplementation at a level that is 100-fold lower (120 microM) than the concentration in regular growth medium for lactobacilli already suffices for normal growth. Analogous to the CO2 requirement, oxygen supply relieves this acetate-dependency for growth. The L. johnsonii NCC 533 genome indicates that this organism lacks genes coding for pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), both CO2 and acetyl-CoA producing systems. Therefore, C1- and C2- compound production is predicted to largely depend on pyruvate oxidase activity (POX). This proposed role of POX in C2/C1-generation is corroborated by the observation that in a POX deficient mutant of L. johnsonii NCC 533, oxygen is not able to overcome acetate dependency nor does it relieve the CO2 dependency.

  5. A Numerical Investigation on the Response of Load Relieving Notches Subjected to Shock Wave Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    T WEERISOORIYA RDRL WMP C R BECKER S BILYK T BJERKE D CASEM J CLAYTON D DANDEKAR M GREENFIELD R LEAVY M...United States Air Force Project Rand, R -482-PR. [5] Nakayama, N., Ohashi, M., Sano, T., Horikoshi, S., Takeishi, H., 1997. Dynamic Stress Concentration...Optimization of Stress Relieving Notches. Journal of Strain Analysis Vol. 13 (3), p. 149. [7] Shea, R ., 1963. Dynamic Stress Concentration Factors. Watertown

  6. Well-Loved Music Robustly Relieves Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Christine; Kong, Jian; Kirsch, Irving; Edwards, Robert R.; Jensen, Karin B.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Gollub, Randy L.

    2014-01-01

    Music has pain-relieving effects, but its mechanisms remain unclear. We sought to verify previously studied analgesic components and further elucidate the underpinnings of music analgesia. Using a well-characterized conditioning-enhanced placebo model, we examined whether boosting expectations would enhance or interfere with analgesia from strongly preferred music. A two-session experiment was performed with 48 healthy, pain experiment-naïve participants. In a first cohort, 36 were randomized into 3 treatment groups, including music enhanced with positive expectancy, non-musical sound enhanced with positive expectancy, and no expectancy enhancement. A separate replication cohort of 12 participants received only expectancy-enhanced music following the main experiment to verify the results of expectancy-manipulation on music. Primary outcome measures included the change in subjective pain ratings to calibrated experimental noxious heat stimuli, as well as changes in treatment expectations. Without conditioning, expectations were strongly in favor of music compared to non-musical sound. While measured expectations were enhanced by conditioning, this failed to affect either music or sound analgesia significantly. Strongly preferred music on its own was as pain relieving as conditioning-enhanced strongly preferred music, and more analgesic than enhanced sound. Our results demonstrate the pain-relieving power of personal music even over enhanced expectations. Trial Information Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01835275. PMID:25211164

  7. Well-loved music robustly relieves pain: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Christine; Kong, Jian; Kirsch, Irving; Edwards, Robert R; Jensen, Karin B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Gollub, Randy L

    2014-01-01

    Music has pain-relieving effects, but its mechanisms remain unclear. We sought to verify previously studied analgesic components and further elucidate the underpinnings of music analgesia. Using a well-characterized conditioning-enhanced placebo model, we examined whether boosting expectations would enhance or interfere with analgesia from strongly preferred music. A two-session experiment was performed with 48 healthy, pain experiment-naïve participants. In a first cohort, 36 were randomized into 3 treatment groups, including music enhanced with positive expectancy, non-musical sound enhanced with positive expectancy, and no expectancy enhancement. A separate replication cohort of 12 participants received only expectancy-enhanced music following the main experiment to verify the results of expectancy-manipulation on music. Primary outcome measures included the change in subjective pain ratings to calibrated experimental noxious heat stimuli, as well as changes in treatment expectations. Without conditioning, expectations were strongly in favor of music compared to non-musical sound. While measured expectations were enhanced by conditioning, this failed to affect either music or sound analgesia significantly. Strongly preferred music on its own was as pain relieving as conditioning-enhanced strongly preferred music, and more analgesic than enhanced sound. Our results demonstrate the pain-relieving power of personal music even over enhanced expectations. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01835275.

  8. Combination budesonide/formoterol inhaler as maintenance and reliever therapy in Māori with asthma.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Janine; Patel, Mitesh; Smith, Ann; Davies, Cheryl; Pritchard, Alison; Travers, Justin; Black, Peter; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard; Harwood, Matire

    2014-08-01

    There are significant health disparities between Māori and non-Māori with asthma, a pattern seen between other ethnic populations. This study investigates outcomes for Māori in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of combination budesonide/formoterol inhaler therapy in asthma. This 24-week multicentre RCT recruited 303 adult asthma patients, 44 of whom were Māori. Participants were randomized to the single combination budesonide/formoterol inhaler as maintenance and reliever therapy ('SMART') regimen or 'standard' regimen (combination budesonide/formoterol inhaler for maintenance and salbutamol as reliever). Outcomes included patterns of beta-agonist inhaler use including 'high use' of reliever therapy (>8 actuations of budesonide/formoterol in excess of four maintenance doses per day for SMART and >16 actuations per day of salbutamol for standard). Differences in outcomes for Māori versus non-Māori were assessed using an interaction term between ethnicity and treatment. With adjustment for ethnicity, the SMART group had fewer days of high use (relative rate (RR) 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.85)), days of high use without medical review within 48 h (RR 0.49 (95% CI: 0.32-0.75)) and severe exacerbations (RR 0.54 (95% CI: 0.36-0.81)) compared with standard. The magnitude of the benefit from the SMART regimen was similar in Māori and non-Māori. Regardless of treatment regimen, Māori demonstrated more days of high use, high use without medical review and underuse of maintenance therapy. The SMART regimen has a favourable risk/benefit profile in Māori. Days of high use, days of high use without medical review and underuse of maintenance treatment were greater in Māori, regardless of treatment regimen. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Adolescent Nonmedical Use of Prescription Pain Relievers, Stimulants, and Depressants, and Suicide Risk.

    PubMed

    Zullig, Keith J; Divin, Amanda L; Weiler, Robert M; Haddox, J David; Pealer, Lisa N

    2015-01-01

    Although the link between drug abuse and suicide risk is established, few studies have examined the relationship between the nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and suicide risk, particularly among adolescents. To explore the relationship between NMUPD and suicide risk among 4,148 adolescents in grades 9-12 enrolled in five public high schools. Logistic regression models were constructed for the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers, depressants, stimulants, and a composite measure for any NMUPD. Models were estimated before and after controlling for key covariates. About 21% of respondents reported lifetime NMUPD. After covariate adjustment, students who had reported any NMUPD were between 1.7 and 2.3 times more likely to report suicidal ideation, but not a suicide attempt (p < .0001). When stratified by sex and drug, nonmedical use of pain relievers, stimulants, and depressants were significantly associated with greater odds of suicidal ideation and behavior for both males and females (p < .05). However, NMUPD of pain relievers were not associated with greater odds of suicide attempts for males or females or among males who reported nonmedical use of stimulants. Nonmedical use of depressants was associated with greater odds of suicide attempts for both males and females (OR = 1.61 and 2.25, respectively) and among females who reported nonmedical use of stimulants (OR = 2.06, p < .01). Results suggest that some adolescents may be inappropriately self-medicating psychological distress with prescription medications or NMUPD may promote suicide risk, especially for males and females who use depressants and females who use stimulants.

  10. Effect of Different Levels of Pressure Relieving Air-Mattress Firmness on Cough Strength

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Norimichi; Taito, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2016-01-01

    Cough is an important host-defense mechanism. The elderly and patients who are severely ill cannot cough effectively when lying in the supine position. Furthermore, pressure relieving air-mattresses are recommended for preventing the development of pressure ulcers. In this study, we clarified whether or not the cough peak flow (CPF), an index of cough strength, is affected by different firmness levels of a pressure relieving air-mattress in healthy volunteers in the supine position. Fifty-two healthy young men participated. All the measurements were carried out on each participant in the supine position on a pressure relieving air-mattress. The participants were assessed at two firmness levels, a “hard” and “soft” mode. The CPF, forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured without any activity and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax, and PImax were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax and PImax values of the participants coughing on the mattress were significantly lower when the mattress was in “soft” than in “hard” mode. The differences between the sinking distances of the mattress in “soft” and “hard” modes were larger for the anterior superior iliac spine. A harder mattress may lead to increased CPF in healthy young men lying in the supine position, and increased CPF may be important for host defense. PMID:26741497

  11. Effect of Different Levels of Pressure Relieving Air-Mattress Firmness on Cough Strength.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Norimichi; Taito, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2016-01-01

    Cough is an important host-defense mechanism. The elderly and patients who are severely ill cannot cough effectively when lying in the supine position. Furthermore, pressure relieving air-mattresses are recommended for preventing the development of pressure ulcers. In this study, we clarified whether or not the cough peak flow (CPF), an index of cough strength, is affected by different firmness levels of a pressure relieving air-mattress in healthy volunteers in the supine position. Fifty-two healthy young men participated. All the measurements were carried out on each participant in the supine position on a pressure relieving air-mattress. The participants were assessed at two firmness levels, a "hard" and "soft" mode. The CPF, forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured without any activity and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax, and PImax were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax and PImax values of the participants coughing on the mattress were significantly lower when the mattress was in "soft" than in "hard" mode. The differences between the sinking distances of the mattress in "soft" and "hard" modes were larger for the anterior superior iliac spine. A harder mattress may lead to increased CPF in healthy young men lying in the supine position, and increased CPF may be important for host defense.

  12. Benign coital headache relieved by partner's pregnancies with implications for future treatment.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Selwyn

    2010-01-01

    This is a case of a male patient with a 27 year history of severe benign coital headache and associated symptoms. His condition was spontaneously relieved in the first trimester of his partner's pregnancy. This relief continued through the remainder of the pregnancy term, returning only after the birth of their child. The timing of the condition's relief and return of symptoms suggested progesterone was an intrinsic factor in this. Post-pregnancy the patient was able to prevent his attacks by taking oral norethisterone 5 mg. While writing this case the patient's partner became pregnant once more, resulting again in spontaneous relief of the patient's syndrome.

  13. Pain-relieving factors in migraine and tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Bag, B; Karabulut, N

    2005-07-01

    We performed the present study to compare patients with migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in their behaviour during the attacks and the manoeuvres to relieve the pain. One hundred thirty consecutive patients with either migraine (n = 75) or TTH (n = 55) were questioned (including the use of a checklist) concerning their usual behaviour during the attacks and non-pharmacological manoeuvres performed to relieve the pain. The results of the two types of headache were compared. Patients with migraine tended to perform more manoeuvres than patients with TTH (mean: 4.3 vs. 3.6). These manoeuvres included pressing and applying cold stimuli to the painful site, trying to sleep, changing posture, sitting or reclining in bed (using more pillows than usual to lay down), isolating themselves, using symptomatic medication, inducing vomiting, changing diet and becoming immobile during the attacks. The only measure predominantly reported by patients with TTH was scalp massage. Migraineurs, compared to patients with TTH, changing eating habits, pressed the pain site; there were no significant differences between the two groups. The behaviour of patients during headache attacks varies with the diagnosis. Measures that do not always result in pain relief are performed in order to prevent its worsening or to improve associated symptoms. These behavioural differences may be because of the different pathogenesis of the attacks or of various styles of dealing with the pain. They can also aid the differential diagnosis between headaches in doubtful cases.

  14. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy relieved pain in patients with coccydynia: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Marwan, Yousef; Husain, Wael; Alhajii, Waleed; Mogawer, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ECSWT) has been used widely for musculoskeletal conditions; however, no reports are available about its use for coccydynia. Study the effect of ECSWT in relieving pain of coccydynia. Case report. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy was used for two male patients, Patients 1 and 2, who failed to respond completely to other conservative management of coccydynia. Numerical pain scale (NPS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to assess the pain. Consent to publish the data was obtained from both the patients. Before starting ECSWT, Patient 1 reported a pain intensity of 6/10 and 5.1/10 on NPS and VAS, respectively, whereas the intensity of pain in Patient 2 was 7/10 and 6.9/10 on NPS and VAS, respectively. Four weeks after ECSWT, Patient 1 reported complete relief of pain on NPS and VAS, whereas Patient 2 reported a pain intensity of 1/10 and 0.8/10 on NPS and VAS, respectively. The same intensity of pain was reported by both patients after 12 months of follow-up. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy relieved pain of coccydynia in our patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Barros, Gisele; Guerreiro, Stela; Fechine, Pierre; Umbelino, Sonia; Lyra, Arão; Borges, Boniek; Freitas, Allan; Queiroz, Danilo Caldas de; Ruela, Ronaldo; Almeida, Jackson Guedes; Quintans, Lucindo

    2014-02-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10%) combined with estriol (0.1%) + estradiol (0.25%) for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. A total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. An improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05) after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04±4.9 to 57.12±4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. The nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  16. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Barros, Gisele; Guerreiro, Stela; Fechine, Pierre; Umbelino, Sonia; Lyra, Arão; Borges, Boniek; Freitas, Allan; de Queiroz, Danilo Caldas; Ruela, Ronaldo; Almeida, Jackson Guedes; Quintans, Lucindo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10%) combined with estriol (0.1%) + estradiol (0.25%) for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. METHODS: A total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. RESULTS: An improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05) after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04±4.9 to 57.12±4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. CONCLUSION: The nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. PMID:24519196

  17. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  18. Patterns of analgesic use to relieve tooth pain among residents in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The use of prescription opioids has increased dramatically in Canada in recent decades. This rise in opioid prescriptions has been accompanied by increasing rates of opioid-related abuse and addiction, creating serious public health challenges in British Columbia (BC), one of Canada's most populated provinces. Our study explores the relationship between dental pain and prescription opioid use among residents in BC. We used data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), which asked respondents about their use of specific analgesic medications, including opioids, and their history of tooth pain in the past month. We used logistic regression, controlling for potential confounding variables, to identify the predictive value of socioeconomic factors, oral health-related variables, and dental care utilization indicators. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) was calculated to assess the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in the use of particular analgesics by incorporating income-derived ridit values into a binary logistic regression model. Our results showed that conventional non-opioid based analgesics (such as aspirin or Tylenol) and opioids were more likely to be used by those who had experienced a toothache in the past month than those who did not report experiencing a toothache. The use of non-opioid painkillers to relieve tooth pain was associated with more recent and more frequent dental visits, better self-reported oral health, and a greater income. Conversely, a lower household income was associated with a preference for opioid use to relieve tooth pain. The RII for recent opioid use and conventional painkiller use were 2.06 (95% CI: 1.75–2.37) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.35–0.91), respectively, among those who experienced recent tooth pain, suggesting that adverse socioeconomic conditions may influence the need for opioid analgesics to relieve dental pain. We conclude that programs and policies targeted at improving the dental health of the poor

  19. Patterns of analgesic use to relieve tooth pain among residents in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Jamie; Farmer, Julie; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The use of prescription opioids has increased dramatically in Canada in recent decades. This rise in opioid prescriptions has been accompanied by increasing rates of opioid-related abuse and addiction, creating serious public health challenges in British Columbia (BC), one of Canada's most populated provinces. Our study explores the relationship between dental pain and prescription opioid use among residents in BC. We used data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), which asked respondents about their use of specific analgesic medications, including opioids, and their history of tooth pain in the past month. We used logistic regression, controlling for potential confounding variables, to identify the predictive value of socioeconomic factors, oral health-related variables, and dental care utilization indicators. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) was calculated to assess the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in the use of particular analgesics by incorporating income-derived ridit values into a binary logistic regression model. Our results showed that conventional non-opioid based analgesics (such as aspirin or Tylenol) and opioids were more likely to be used by those who had experienced a toothache in the past month than those who did not report experiencing a toothache. The use of non-opioid painkillers to relieve tooth pain was associated with more recent and more frequent dental visits, better self-reported oral health, and a greater income. Conversely, a lower household income was associated with a preference for opioid use to relieve tooth pain. The RII for recent opioid use and conventional painkiller use were 2.06 (95% CI: 1.75-2.37) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.35-0.91), respectively, among those who experienced recent tooth pain, suggesting that adverse socioeconomic conditions may influence the need for opioid analgesics to relieve dental pain. We conclude that programs and policies targeted at improving the dental health of the poor may

  20. Effect of stress relieving treatment on low cycle fatigue behavior of USSP treated 7075 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Vaibhav; Chattopadhyay, K.; Santhi Srinivas, N. C.; Singh, Vakil

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ultrasonic shot peening (USSP) on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of the 7075 aluminium alloy was studied at room temperature. There was grain refinement approximately to 20 nm size, appreciable increase in micro hardness, and inducement of residual compressive stress in the surface region, due to the USSP treatment. The modified microstructure in surface region of the specimens subjected to USSP was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. There was marked increase in LCF life of the specimens due to USSP, however, LCF life of the USSP specimens was reduced due to subsequent treatment of stress relieving. The results are discussed in terms of the process of crack initiation and propagation in the different conditions.

  1. A block to pre-prepared movement in gait freezing, relieved by pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation.

    PubMed

    Thevathasan, Wesley; Pogosyan, Alek; Hyam, Jonathan A; Jenkinson, Ned; Bogdanovic, Marko; Coyne, Terry J; Silburn, Peter A; Aziz, Tipu Z; Brown, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Gait freezing and postural instability are disabling features of Parkinsonian disorders, treatable with pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation. Both features are considered deficits of proximal and axial musculature, innervated predominantly by reticulospinal pathways and tend to manifest when gait and posture require adjustment. Adjustments to gait and posture are amenable to pre-preparation and rapid triggered release. Experimentally, such accelerated release can be elicited by loud auditory stimuli--a phenomenon known as 'StartReact'. We observed StartReact in healthy and Parkinsonian controls. However, StartReact was absent in Parkinsonian patients with severe gait freezing and postural instability. Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation restored StartReact proximally and proximal reaction times to loud stimuli correlated with gait and postural disturbance. These findings suggest a relative block to triggered, pre-prepared movement in gait freezing and postural instability, relieved by pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation.

  2. Vertebral artery dolicoectasia with brainstem compression: role of microvascular decompression in relieving pyramidal weakness.

    PubMed

    Sadashiva, Nishanth; Shukla, Dhaval; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira

    2016-04-01

    Vertebral artery dolicoectasia (VAD) can cause brainstem compression and dysfunction. Reports of pyramidal tract involvement by brainstem compression and the surgical benefits and its long-term results are sparsely reported. We hereby report three cases of medullary compression by VAD causing pyramidal weakness. Two patients with bilateral compression with quadriparesis did not want surgical treatment and were still disabled at 58 months and 50 months of follow-up, respectively. One patient with unilateral medullary compression with hemiparesis underwent microvascular decompression using Teflon sling retraction. This patient was relieved of symptoms and is asymptomatic at 14-month follow-up. This report emphasizes the need of surgical decompression in cases of brainstem compression by VAD with caution about appropriate case selection.

  3. Frustration relieved ferrimagnetism in novel A- and B-site-ordered quadruple perovskite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-tin; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Saito, Takashi; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2013-07-28

    A novel A- and B-site-ordered quadruple perovskite CaCu3Fe2Sb2O12 was obtained and it shows ferrimagnetism below about 170 K. The B-site Fe spin sublattice adapts a tetrahedral framework in a cubic structure and the Fe(3+)-Fe(3+) antiferromagnetic interaction can result in a geometrical spin frustration as seen in a simple perovskite Ca2FeSbO6. With the introduction of Cu(2+) into the A' site, the antiferromagnetic spin frustration is relieved by the strong Cu(2+)-Fe(3+) interaction, and a ferrimagnetic ordering appears at a much higher temperature than the spin-glass transition temperature.

  4. Dorsal Root Ganglionic Field Stimulation Relieves Spontaneous and Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bin; Yu, Hongwei; Fischer, Gregory J; Kramer, Jeffery M; Hogan, Quinn H

    2016-12-01

    Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) electrical stimulation (ganglionic field stimulation [GFS]) is effective in relieving clinical pain, but its mechanism is unknown. We therefore developed a rat model for GFS to test analgesic effects in the context of neuropathic pain. GFS was applied with a bipolar electrode at L4, using parameters replicating clinical use (20 Hz, 150-μs pulse width, current at 80% of motor threshold). Neuropathic pain was generated by tibial nerve injury (TNI). Pain behavior was monitored by determining the threshold for withdrawal from punctate mechanical stimuli, by identifying hyperalgesic responses to noxious mechanical stimuli, and by hypersensitivity to cold. The affective dimension of pain was measured using conditioned place preference. We found that electrode insertion caused no behavioral evidence of pain and produced no histological evidence of DRG damage. GFS reversed TNI-induced hypersensitivity to cold and mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. Allodynia remained diminished 15 minutes after GFS. Conditioned place preference showed that GFS was not rewarding in uninjured control animals but was rewarding in animals subjected to TNI, which reveals analgesic efficacy of GFS for spontaneous pain. We conclude that GFS relieves neuropathic pain in rats. This model may provide a platform for identifying mechanisms and novel applications of GFS. We show that electrical stimulation of the DRG in rats reverses neuropathic pain behavior and provides a rewarding effect to animals with spontaneous neuropathic pain. This confirms analgesic efficacy of DRG stimulation in an animal model, and provides a platform for preclinical exploration. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation relieves the unilateral bias of a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiyan; Tian, Xulong; Qian, Long; Yu, Xuehong; Jiang, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The unilaterally lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease which fails to orient to the food stimuli presented on the contralateral side of its preferential side of body could be induced by the injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). We employed transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, current intensity: 80 μA, and 40 μA; anodal electrode area: 3.14 mm(2); stimulation time: 30 minutes) over the M1 area to relieve the ipsilateral bias in the rat model. A corridor test was set to count the ipsilateral bias of the rats. In this experiment, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats (80 μA: n = 8, 40 μA: n = 8, sham: n = 7, healthy control: n = 7) were chosen for the corridor test and the tDCS session. The lesioned rats exhibited increased ipsilateral bias 4 weeks after the lesion surgery (P < 0.01), and the anodal tDCS with the active electrode on the lesioned side relieved the ipsilateral bias significantly (P < 0.01) immediately after the surgery and the improvement lasted for nearly 1 day. The rats in the group of 80 μA exhibited more significant changes than the 40 μA group after one day. After all the experiments, the histological process showed no neurotrauma led by the tDCS. In conclusion, the modulatory function of the cortical excitability of the tDCS may awaken the compensatory mechanisms and the response mechanisms which modulate the loss of the brain function. Further studies should be done to provide more evidence about the assumption.

  6. Does cigarette smoking relieve stress? Evidence from the event-related potential (ERP).

    PubMed

    Choi, Damee; Ota, Shotaro; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported a paradox that cigarette smoking reduces stress psychologically; however, it increases the arousal level physiologically. To examine this issue, our study aimed to investigate whether cigarette smoking relieves stress by measuring the late positive potential (LPP), a component of the event-related potential (ERP). In Experiment 1, participants first watched emotionally neutral images; second, they received a break; and finally, they watched emotionally neutral images again. In the break, they smoked a cigarette (smoking condition) or simply rested without smoking (non-smoking condition). The procedure of Experiment 2 was the same as that of Experiment 1, except that the participants watched unpleasant images as stress stimuli before the break. In Experiment 1, the LPP decreased from before to after the break in the smoking condition, but not in the non-smoking condition, suggesting that smoking cigarettes in the neutral state reduces the arousal level. In Experiment 2, the LPP for 400-600 ms decreased from before to after the break, both in the smoking and non-smoking conditions; however, the LPP for 200-400 ms decreased from before to after the break only in the smoking condition. This suggests the possibility that cigarette smoking in the unpleasant state may facilitate a decrease in the arousal level faster than with non-smoking. In both Experiments 1 and 2, the subjective rating results also suggested that cigarette smoking decreased anxiety. Taken together, both the physiological (LPP) and the psychological responses from our study suggest that cigarette smoking perhaps relieves stress.

  7. [A girl with dyslexia suspected to have Irlen syndrome, completely relieved by wearing tinted lenses].

    PubMed

    Kusano, Yusuke; Awaya, Tomonari; Saito, Keiko; Yoshida, Takeshi; Ide, Minako; Kato, Takeo; Heike, Toshio; Kato, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Irlen syndrome is a proposed perceptual processing disorder characterized by visual distortions while reading. Patients with this syndrome may experience light sensitivity, visual stress, and other related problems such as dyslexia. Tinted lenses and colored overlays have been designed to help individuals with the symptoms of Irlen syndrome. However, there is still debate over the effectiveness of these interventions and whether this syndrome actually exists. In this report, we describe a case involving an 8-year-old girl with dyslexia who experienced severe visual hypersensitivity and whose symptoms completely resolved after wearing tinted lenses. While it is possible that she experienced a psychogenic visual disturbance that was relieved because of the placebo effect, the clinical course of her symptoms matched the findings previously described by Irlen. The patient was unable to read without tinted lenses. With tinted lenses, she could read at the appropriate age level, suggesting that her difficulty was due to a problem in optical information processing. The concepts underlying Irlen syndrome are vaguely defined, and several groups insist that the visual stress associated with this syndrome might be responsible for dyslexia as well as other disorders. These ambiguous criteria may be responsible for the criticism over the validity of this condition. Although this was only an anecdotal case, our patient exhibited the core functional deficit described in Irlen syndrome and showed a dramatic improvement with tinted lenses; therefore, this case may facilitate investigations into the mechanism underlying Irlen syndrome, if it actually exists. Although further studies are required to confirm the validity of this syndrome and the treatment approach, Irlen syndrome should be recognized as a disorder since its symptoms can be easily relieved by wearing tinted lenses or color filters.

  8. Documentation and Detection of Colour Changes of Bas Relieves Using Close Range Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Pierdicca, R.; Sturari, M.; Colosi, F.; Orazi, R.

    2017-05-01

    The digitization of complex buildings, findings or bas relieves can strongly facilitate the work of archaeologists, mainly for in depth analysis tasks. Notwithstanding, whether new visualization techniques ease the study phase, a classical naked-eye approach for determining changes or surface alteration could bring towards several drawbacks. The research work described in these pages is aimed at providing experts with a workflow for the evaluation of alterations (e.g. color decay or surface alterations), allowing a more rapid and objective monitoring of monuments. More in deep, a pipeline of work has been tested in order to evaluate the color variation between surfaces acquired at different époques. The introduction of reliable tools of change detection in the archaeological domain is needful; in fact, the most widespread practice, among archaeologists and practitioners, is to perform a traditional monitoring of surfaces that is made of three main steps: production of a hand-made map based on a subjective analysis, selection of a sub-set of regions of interest, removal of small portion of surface for in depth analysis conducted in laboratory. To overcome this risky and time consuming process, digital automatic change detection procedure represents a turning point. To do so, automatic classification has been carried out according to two approaches: a pixel-based and an object-based method. Pixel-based classification aims to identify the classes by means of the spectral information provided by each pixel belonging to the original bands. The object-based approach operates on sets of pixels (objects/regions) grouped together by means of an image segmentation technique. The methodology was tested by studying the bas-relieves of a temple located in Peru, named Huaca de la Luna. Despite the data sources were collected with unplanned surveys, the workflow proved to be a valuable solution useful to understand which are the main changes over time.

  9. [Pain-relieving effect of cantharidin blister on lumbar spinal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Rampp, Thomas; Michalsen, Andreas; Lüdtke, Rainer; Musial, Frauke; Kremer, Gerd; Dobos, Gustav J

    2009-08-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common cause of chronic lumbar pain and disability. Conventional therapy approaches include analgesics and spinal surgery. Topical cantharidin applications are used for the treatment of severe chronic lumbar pain in traditional European medicine (TEM). We tested the pain-relieving effect of lumbar cantharidin blisters in a non-randomised controlled pilot study. 28 consecutive patients with manifest LSS were included. The first 20 patients received a cantharidin blister, 8 patients served as controls (waiting list). Pain was assessed by means of a numeric visual analogue scale (VAS; 0 indicating no pain, 10 indicating strongest pain). Treatment started after a 3-day run-in phase, the blister was applied once for 12 h. Patients were comparable with respect to baseline pain. In the blister group, the pain score continuously improved from 7.2 +/- 2.1 at baseline to 2.9 +/- 2.3 (VAS) at day 7, whereas the score remained unchanged in control patients. Adjusted for baseline, the difference between the blister and the control group was estimated at 4.1 (95% CI: 2.4-5.9, p < 0.0001). The use of analgesics was slightly higher in the control group. No serious adverse events were observed. In this first study on the efficacy of cantharidin blisters, a clinically relevant pain-relieving short-term effect on LSS was observed. As the trial was non-randomised and only included a limited number of patients, the results should be interpreted with caution. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. DMSP Uptake and Retention by Natural Marine Bacteria Relieves Osmotic Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motard-Coté, J.; Kiene, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is synthesized and used by many marine phytoplankton species as an osmolyte. Grazing on phytoplankton results in formation of extracellular dissolved DMSP (DMSPd), which is rapidly taken up by bacterioplankton and used as an important carbon and sulfur source. Previous studies have, however, shown that some of the dissolved DMSP (DMSPd) in seawater is taken up by bacterioplankton and not degraded. We tested the hypothesis that retention of untransformed DMSP in cells provides some benefits to marine bacteria. In experiments with coastal seawater filtrates containing mainly bacteria, acute osmotic stresses of +5 and +10 ppt NaCl significantly inhibited bacterial production (BP) over 6 h, while the availability of 20 nM DMSPd relieved most of the BP inhibition. Partial relief of salt-induced inhibition of BP was observed with DMSPd concentrations as low as 2.5 nM, and DMSP was more effective at relieving osmotic stress than other low molecular weight compounds tested. Osmotic stresses resulted in a faster and greater overall uptake of DMSPd and accumulation of untransformed DMSP in bacterial cells (DMSPcell). Retained DMSP reached osmotically-significant intracellular concentrations of 54 mM in salt stressed bacterial populations. Retention of DMSP was accompanied by a lower production of methanethiol (MeSH), suggesting a down regulation of the demethylation/demethylation pathway under osmotic stress. These results show that estuarine bacterioplankton can use DMSP as an osmoprotectant, retaining up to 54% of the available dissolved DMSP untransformed in their cells. This benefit provided by DMSP may help explain why some DMSP is retained in bacteria in the ocean, even under unchanging salinity. This retention slows down the cycling of DMSP, with potential implications for the trophic transfer of DMSP through the food web and its contributions to sulfur and carbon fluxes in the ocean.

  11. Determinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade da função de luminosidade através de simulações de Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. E.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os principais resultados do estudo da população de galáxias anãs de baixo brilho superficial dos grupos compactos HCG44 e HCG68. A inclinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade a da função de luminosidade desses grupos foi estimado através de simulações de Monte Carlo. O método consistiu em simular galáxias anãs de baixo brilho superficial em imagens reais seguindo uma distribuição de magnitudes dada uma função de Schechter. Foram testados vários modelos com diferentes valores para os parâmetros M* e a da função de Schechter, e para cada um dos modelos foi repetido o mesmo processo de recuperação, seleção e análise usados com as galáxias anãs dos grupos. Os resultados de cada modelo foram então comparados com o observado nos grupos. Nossos resultados indicam que a distribuição de magnitudes (para magnitudes absolutas até MR»-12) observadas nos grupos são compatíveis com uma função de luminosidade de Schechter dada por um M* = -16 e um a entre -1.0 e -1.4, e portanto de acordo com a tendência observada de uma inclinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade da função de luminosidade de grupos mais plana (~1.2, Trentham & Tully 2002, MNRAS, 335, 712) que esperado pelo modelo hierárquico de formação de estruturas CDM (Cold Dark Matter - Matéria Escura Fria).

  12. [Relieving pre-exam anxiety syndrome with wrist-ankle acupuncture: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Shu, Shi; Li, Tong-ming; Fang, Fan-fu; He, Hou-luo; Zhou, Qing-hui; Gu, Wei; Zhou, Shuang

    2011-06-01

    Pre-exam anxiety syndrome is a common condition occurring in pre-exam students and directly affects their examination performance and physical state. Wrist-ankle acupuncture has significant therapeutic effects in treating mental disorders and may also relieve the symptoms of pre-exam anxiety syndrome. To assess the therapeutic effect of wrist-ankle acupuncture on pre-exam anxiety syndrome. A total of 60 students who met the inclusion criteria of pre-exam anxiety syndrome were enrolled from a university in Shanghai and they were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. There were 30 cases in each group, and no case failed to follow-up. In the treatment group, wrist-ankle acupuncture was adopted to point upper 1 bilaterally (impression between flexor carpi ulnaris tendon and ulnar margin), and there was no requirement for Deqi (arrival of qi). In the control group, sham acupuncture was adopted. The treatment was applied 3 times totally in both groups one week before the exam, once every other day, each time with the needles retained for 30 min. The therapeutic effects were compared between two groups. Before and after 3 treatments, Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) and Expectation and Treatment Credibility Scale (ETCS) were measured and evaluated. The therapeutic effect experienced by the treatment group was better than that of the control group (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in TAS and ETCS before treatment between the two groups. The scores of TAS after treatment in two groups were higher than those before treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01). There were statistical differences in TAS absolute difference and TAS relative difference between the two groups and the treatment group had better results (P<0.05, P<0.01). After treatment, patients in the treatment group had higher scores in ETCS than those in the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). No adverse reaction was reported. Wrist-ankle acupuncture can relieve the symptoms of pre

  13. Local cooling for relieving pain from perineal trauma sustained during childbirth.

    PubMed

    East, Christine E; Begg, Lisa; Henshall, Naomi E; Marchant, Paul R; Wallace, Karen

    2012-05-16

    Perineal trauma is common during childbirth and may be painful. Contemporary maternity practice includes offering women numerous forms of pain relief, including the local application of cooling treatments. To evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of localised cooling treatments compared with no treatment, other forms of cooling treatments and non-cooling treatments. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (10 January 2012), CINAHL (1982 to 10 January 2012), the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (10 January 2012) and contacted experts in the field. Published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials (RCTs) that compared localised cooling treatment applied to the perineum with no treatment or other treatments applied to relieve pain related to perineal trauma sustained during childbirth. At least two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and extracted data. A sub-set of data were double checked for accuracy. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis where data allowed. We sought additional information from the authors of three trials. Ten published RCTs were included (involving 1825 women). Comparisons were local cooling treatments (ice packs, cold gel pads (with or without compression) or cold/iced baths) with no treatment, gel pads with compression, hamamelis water (witch hazel), pulsed electromagnetic energy (PET), hydrocortisone/pramoxine foam (Epifoam), oral paracetamol or warm baths. Ice packs provided improved pain relief 24 to 72 hours after birth compared with no treatment (risk ratio (RR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41 to 0.91; one study, n = 208). Women preferred the utility of the gel pads compared with ice packs or no treatment (RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73, 0.92). Differences detected in a composite of perineal oedema and bruising and overall wound healing were noted in one small study, favouring cold gel pads (n = 37) over ice

  14. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2013-12-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral shoulder served as a passive control. Two hours later, the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. The participants rated the intensity of soreness (scale 0-10), and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment and 0, 10, 20, and 60 minutes after treatment 48 hours posteccentric exercise. Immediately before treatment, the intensity of soreness was 5.0 (SD 2.2) and PPT was 138 (SD 78) kPa. In response to treatment, a significant treatment by time interaction was found for the intensity of soreness (p < 0.001) and PPT (p < 0.05). Compared with control, both active exercise and massage significantly reduced the intensity of soreness and increased PPT (i.e., reduced pain sensitivity). For both types of treatment, the greatest effect on perceived soreness occurred immediately after treatment, whereas the effect on PPT peaked 20 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with that using massage

  15. Relieving effect of Artemisia argyi aqueous extract on immune stress in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P F; Shi, B L; Su, J L; Yue, Y X; Cao, Z X; Chu, W B; Li, K; Yan, S M

    2016-07-23

    This experiment aimed to investigate the relieving action of Artemisia argyi aqueous extract (AAE) on immune stress in broiler chickens. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to test the effect of 2 dietary treatments (adding 0 or 1000 mg/kg AAE) and 2 immune stress treatments (injecting saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). A total of 96 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly divided into four treatment groups with six replicates, four birds in each replicate. Broilers in Treatment groups 1 and 2 were fed with the basal diet, and those in Treatment groups 3 and 4 were fed with the experimental diet supplemented with 1000 mg/kg AAE. On days 14, 16, 18 and 20, broilers in both Treatments 1 and 3 were injected intra-abdominally with LPS solution at the dose of 500 μg LPS per kg BW with the LPS dissolved in sterile saline at a concentration of 100 μg/ml, and those in Treatments 2 and 4 were injected intra-abdominally with equal amount of sterile 0.9% saline. Blood samples were collected on days 21 and 28. The results showed that dietary supplementation of AAE prevented reductions in average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of broilers caused by LPS on d 15-21. On day 21, the injection of LPS increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT); meanwhile, feeding AAE reduced the rise of CORT caused by LPS. Immune parameters such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were also improved by LPS, but the content of IL-2 and IgG in broilers fed with AAE diet was significantly lower than that of broilers fed with control diet. All the data suggested that diets supplemented with AAE could relieve the immune stress response of broilers.

  16. Local cooling for relieving pain from perineal trauma sustained during childbirth.

    PubMed

    East, C E; Begg, L; Henshall, N E; Marchant, P; Wallace, K

    2007-10-17

    Perineal trauma is common during childbirth and may be painful. Contemporary maternity practice includes offering women numerous forms of pain relief, including the local application of cooling treatments. To evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of localised cooling treatments compared with no treatment, other forms of cooling treatments and non-cooling treatments. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (January 2007), CINAHL (1982 to January 2007) and contacted experts in the field. Published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials (RCTs) that compared localised cooling treatment applied to the perineum with no treatment or other treatments applied to relieve pain related to perineal trauma sustained during childbirth. At least two independent authors performed data extraction for each study. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis where data allowed. We sought additional information from the authors of three trials. Seven published RCTs were included, comparing local cooling treatments (ice packs, cold gel pads or cold/iced baths) with no treatment, hamamelis water (witch hazel), pulsed electromagnetic energy (PET), hydrocortisone/pramoxine foam [Epifoam] or warm baths. The RCTs reported on a total of 859 women. Ice packs provided improved pain relief 24 to 72 hours after birth compared with no treatment (risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41 to 0.91). Women preferred the utility of the gel pads compared with ice packs or no treatment, although no differences in pain relief were detected between the treatments. None of our comparisons of treatments resulted in differences detected in perineal oedema or bruising. Women reported more pain (RR 5.60, 95% CI 2.35 to 13.33) and used more additional analgesia (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.44 to 11.13) following the application of ice packs compared with PET. There is only limited evidence to support the effectiveness of local cooling

  17. NCI-funded CCOP Study Shows Antidepressant Drug Relieves Painful Neuropathy from Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The antidepressant drug duloxetine, known commercially as Cymbalta, helped relieve painful numbness and tingling feelings caused by chemotherapy in 59 percent of patients, a new study finds. This is the first clinical trial to find an effective treatment for this pain. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of certain chemotherapy drugs. |

  18. Kinetic mechanism of an aldehyde reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that relieves toxicity of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An effective means of relieving the toxicity of furan aldehydes, furfural (FFA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), on fermenting organisms is essential for achieving efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products. Ari1p, an aldehyde reductase from Saccharomyces cerev...

  19. Radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with pulsed radiofrequency helps relieve postoperative complications of trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W-X; Wang, Q; He, M-W; Yang, L-Q; Wu, B-S; Ni, J-X

    2015-07-13

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a sudden, severe condition characterized by stabbing and recurrent pain. Radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFT) and pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) are common surgical interventions used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and associated complications of a combination of RFT and PRF in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous RFT of the Gasserian ganglion was performed on 80 patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Patients were randomly assigned to either group A (RFT at 70°C) or group B (RFT at 75°C). Patients in each group were divided into 2 subgroups, receiving percutaneous RFT (240 s) with or without PRF (42°C, 2 Hz, 240 s). Six months later, pain relief and complication status were evaluated. There was no significant difference in visual analogue scores among groups with RFT at 70° or 75°C, with or without PRF. Data showed that facial numbness and postoperative masticatory muscle weakness recovered more rapidly in patients receiving combined RFT and PRF treatment. Decreased corneal reflex was relieved to a significantly greater extent in groups receiving PRF than those without. Thus, compared to the use of RFT at 75°C alone, the combination of PRF and RFT helped eliminate postoperative complications, such as facial numbness, masticatory muscle weakness, and decreased corneal reflex, indicating that it could be useful for surgically treating trigeminal neuralgia.

  20. Comparison of the effectiveness of 4 anti-inflammatory drops in relieving photophobia after pupil dilation.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M B; Wyse, T B; Borodkin, M J; Ocmand, A; Shoelson, B; Thompson, H

    1999-03-01

    To compare the relative effectiveness of diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ketorolac, and prednisolone acetate in relieving photophobia after pupil dilation for fundus examination. Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. This prospective, blind, placebo-controlled study comprised 105 patients randomly assigned to 1 of 10 treatment groups. Five minutes after instillation of dilating drops, each patient received drops of different test medications in the right and left eyes. Light sensitivity and pupil measurement tests were performed over 2 hours after the pharmacological mydriasis. After photostimulation, patients were asked to rate their photosensitivity on numerical and analog scales and to indicate a filter value required to alleviate right-induced discomfort. Test results were analyzed to detect differences among the pain levels associated with each treatment. There were no significant differences between the placebo and any active treatment drug at any time during the study. These findings suggest that mediators other than prostaglandins may have a role in photosensitivity or that increased postmydriatic photosensitivity is a result of higher light levels entering the eye through the dilated pupil.

  1. Efficacy of Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride for Relieving Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Berkiten, Güler; Saltürk, Ziya; Ataç, Enes; Atar, Yavuz; Uyar, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine dihydrochloride as a treatment for chronic tinnitus. Methods. A total of 97 chronic tinnitus patients were evaluated in this randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After assessing for eligibility, 82 patients were randomly assigned into placebo or trimetazidine groups according to the medication. The trimetazidine group received 20×3 mg/day per oral trimetazidine dihydrochloride and the placebo group received 20×3 mg/day per oral placebo for 3 months. Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires and audiometric results were used to determine the effectiveness of trimetazidine treatment. Results. The study group comprised 82 tinnitus subjects, 42 (51%) of whom received trimetazidine dihydrochloride and 40 (49%) who received placebo. There was no significant difference between placebo and trimetazidine groups in THI grade and VAS (both pre- and posttreatment scores) (P>0.05) and no significant improvement was observed in subjective loudness score in either group (P>0.05). Additionally there was no significant difference between groups in pre- and posttreatment pure tone hearing thresholds at all measured frequencies (P>0.05). Conclusion. Trimetazidine dihydrochloride therapy was ineffective for relieving chronic tinnitus. PMID:27230273

  2. A 3D Scanning Device for Architectural Relieves Based on Time-Of-Flight Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, M. C.; Fontana, R.; Gianfrate, G.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pezzati, L.

    In this work we present the results of some architectural and archaeological relieves realized by means of a Time-Of-Flight (TOF) laser scanner developed by the Art Diagnostic Group of Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata — INOA (the National Institute of Applied Optics). The instrument is composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a high precision scanning system, and is equipped with a tripod for total-stations. The device was projected in order to have the following characteristics: reliability, good accuracy and compatibility to other systems. For Cultural Heritage applications it is important to integrate the data acquired with different instruments, but a problem met with many commercial systems is the lack of compatibility with classic survey methodologies. Moreover, superimposition of results from different techniques is possible only if the output is metrically correct. Up to now, the realization of accurate 3D models of buildings was a prerogative of the photogrammetric devices, but the recent progress in opto-electronic technology and 3D software of analysis made possible the production of accurate 3D models. Laser scanning has the main advantage of allowing the acquisition of dense data sampling with high accuracy and high speed.

  3. Variation among states in prescribing of opioid pain relievers and benzodiazepines--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-12-01

    Overprescribing of opioid pain relievers (OPR) can result in multiple adverse health outcomes, including fatal overdoses. Interstate variation in rates of prescribing OPR and other prescription drugs prone to abuse, such as benzodiazepines, might indicate areas where prescribing patterns need further evaluation. CDC analyzed a commercial database (IMS Health) to assess the potential for improved prescribing of OPR and other drugs. CDC calculated state rates and measures of variation for OPR, long-acting/extended-release (LA/ER) OPR, high-dose OPR, and benzodiazepines. In 2012, prescribers wrote 82.5 OPR and 37.6 benzodiazepine prescriptions per 100 persons in the United States. State rates varied 2.7-fold for OPR and 3.7-fold for benzodiazepines. For both OPR and benzodiazepines, rates were higher in the South census region, and three Southern states were two or more standard deviations above the mean. Rates for LA/ER and high-dose OPR were highest in the Northeast. Rates varied 22-fold for one type of OPR, oxymorphone. Factors accounting for the regional variation are unknown. Such wide variations are unlikely to be attributable to underlying differences in the health status of the population. High rates indicate the need to identify prescribing practices that might not appropriately balance pain relief and patient safety. State policy makers might reduce the harms associated with the abuse of prescription drugs by implementing changes that will make the prescribing of these drugs more cautious and more consistent with clinical recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Vital signs: variation among States in prescribing of opioid pain relievers and benzodiazepines - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-07-04

    Overprescribing of opioid pain relievers (OPR) can result in multiple adverse health outcomes, including fatal overdoses. Interstate variation in rates of prescribing OPR and other prescription drugs prone to abuse, such as benzodiazepines, might indicate areas where prescribing patterns need further evaluation. CDC analyzed a commercial database (IMS Health) to assess the potential for improved prescribing of OPR and other drugs. CDC calculated state rates and measures of variation for OPR, long-acting/extended-release (LA/ER) OPR, high-dose OPR, and benzodiazepines. In 2012, prescribers wrote 82.5 OPR and 37.6 benzodiazepine prescriptions per 100 persons in the United States. State rates varied 2.7-fold for OPR and 3.7-fold for benzodiazepines. For both OPR and benzodiazepines, rates were higher in the South census region, and three Southern states were two or more standard deviations above the mean. Rates for LA/ER and high-dose OPR were highest in the Northeast. Rates varied 22-fold for one type of OPR, oxymorphone. Factors accounting for the regional variation are unknown. Such wide variations are unlikely to be attributable to underlying differences in the health status of the population. High rates indicate the need to identify prescribing practices that might not appropriately balance pain relief and patient safety. State policy makers might reduce the harms associated with abuse of prescription drugs by implementing changes that will make the prescribing of these drugs more cautious and more consistent with clinical recommendations.

  5. ARA 290 relieves pathophysiological pain by targeting TRPV1 channel: Integration between immune system and nociception.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjia; Yu, Guanling; Zhang, Mengyuan

    2016-02-01

    ARA 290 is an erythropoietin-derived polypeptide that possesses analgesic and tissue protective effect in many diseases such as diabetes and cancer. The analgesic effect of ARA 290 is mediated by its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions, or more specifically, by targeting the innate repair receptor (IRR) to down-regulate inflammation to alleviate neuropathic pain. However, whether other mechanisms or pathways are involved in ARA 290-mediated analgesic effect remains elusive. In this study, we are particularly interested in whether ARA 290 could directly target peripheral nociceptors by blocking or influencing receptors in pain sensation. Using calcium imaging, cell culture and behavioral tests, we demonstrated that ARA 290 was able to specifically inhibit TRPV1 channel activity, and relieve the mechanical hypersensitivity induced by capsaicin. Our study suggested that ARA 290 could potentially function as a novel antagonist for TRPV1 channel. This finding would not only contribute to the development of new pain treatment using ARA 290, but also help to improve our understanding of the integration between the immune system and the peripheral nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Iliac Artery Stent Placement Relieves Claudication in Patients with Iliac and Superficial Femoral Artery Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Ichihashi, Shigeo Higashiura, Wataru; Itoh, Hirofumi; Sakaguchi, Shoji; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of iliac artery stent placement for relief of claudication in patients with both iliac and superficial femoral artery (SFA) lesions. Methods. Stent placement for only iliac artery occlusive disease was performed in 94 limbs (74 patients) with both iliac and SFA occlusive disease on the same limb. All procedures were performed because intermittent claudication did not improve after continuation of antiplatelet medication therapy and home-based exercise for 3 months. Rutherford classification was 2 in 20 limbs and 3 in 74 limbs. Patients with critical limb ischemia were excluded. Median duration of follow-up was 40 months. Primary patency rates of the iliac stent, clinical improvement rates, and risk factors for requiring additional SFA procedures were evaluated. Results. Primary patency rates of the iliac stent at 1, 3, 5, and 7 years were 97, 93, 79, and 79 %, respectively. The initial clinical improvement rate was 87 %. Continued clinical improvement rates at 1, 3, 5, and 7 years were 87, 81, 69, and 66 %, respectively. SFA Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II C/D lesion was a significant risk factor for requiring additional SFA procedures. Conclusion. Intermittent claudication was relieved by iliac stent placement in most patients with both iliac and SFA lesions. Thus, the indications for treatment of the SFA intended for claudicants should be evaluated after treatment of the iliac lesion.

  7. Pressure ulcer prevention in intensive care - a randomised control trial of two pressure-relieving devices.

    PubMed

    Theaker, C; Kuper, M; Soni, N

    2005-04-01

    Pressure sores are a potential complication of intensive care. Modern methods of pressure sore prevention centre around the use of pressure-relieving devices. Few studies exist that confirm the effectiveness of these devices. This study evaluates the effectiveness of two devices, the Hill-Rom Duo mattress and the KCI TheraPulse. High-risk patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two devices. We excluded those patients who had pressure sores upon admission. Those patients that did develop a pressure sore had their wound digitally photographed and graded by two independent tissue viability nurses. Sixty-two patients were included (30 TheraPulse, 32 Duo. Nine developed a pressure sore (6 Duo, 3 TheraPulse). No statistical differences between the two devices could be found. The longer a patient was nursed on a device, the greater the risk of pressure sore development. Despite the use of these devices, pressure sores can still develop in the Intensive Care patient population.

  8. Enteral sesame oil therapeutically relieves disease severity in rat experimental osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chu, Pei-Yi; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of joint pain, affecting approximately 15% of the population. Recent studies indicate that quadriceps muscle weakness is directly involved in the pathogenesis of OA-associated joint pain. Oxidative stress plays an important role in skeletal muscle dysfunction. Sesame oil is a natural product with excellent antioxidative property. However, whether sesame oil can decrease OA-induced joint pain has never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sesame oil on OA-induced joint pain in rats. OA-associated joint pain in rats was induced by medial meniscal transection in rats. Sesame oil (0, 1, 2, or 4 ml/kg/day, orally) was given to rats 7 days after OA induction, while the parameters were determined 7 days after sesame oil administration. Daily sesame oil treatment for 7 days significantly decreased OA-associated joint pain. Sesame oil decreased muscular interleukin-6 and increased citrate synthase activity and myosin heavy chain IIa mRNA expression. Furthermore, sesame oil decreased muscular lipid peroxidation, nuclear Nrf2 protein expression, and reactive oxygen species generations as well as increased glutathione production and glutathione peroxidase activity in OA rats. Sesame oil may relieve OA-associated joint pain by inhibiting quadriceps muscular oxidative stress, at least partially, in rats.

  9. A Novel Selective Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis Inhibitor Relieves Pyrexia and Chronic Inflammation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Ryusuke; Kuwabara, Harumi; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Kubota, Kazufumi; Imamura, Yuichiro; Kiho, Toshihiro; Tengeiji, Atsushi; Kawakami, Katsuhiro; Shimada, Kohei

    2016-04-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a terminal prostaglandin in the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. Inhibition of PGE2 production may relieve inflammatory symptoms such as fever, arthritis, and inflammatory pain. We report here the profile of a novel selective PGE2 synthesis inhibitor, compound A [N-[(1S,3S)-3-carbamoylcyclohexyl]-1-(6-methyl-3-phenylquinolin-2-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamide], in animal models of pyrexia and inflammation. The compound selectively suppressed the synthesis of PGE2 in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells and rat macrophages. In the lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model, this compound selectively reduced PGE2 production in cerebrospinal fluid and showed an anti-pyretic effect. In the adjuvant-induced arthritis model, compound A therapeutically decreased foot swelling in the established arthritis. Our data demonstrates that selective suppression of PGE2 synthesis shows anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting that selective PGE2 synthesis inhibitors can be applied as an alternative treatment to nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or COX-2-selective inhibitors.

  10. Zeolites relieves inhibitory stress from high concentrations of long chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Nordell, Erik; Hansson, Anna B; Karlsson, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Protein and fat rich slaughterhouse waste is a very attractive waste stream for the production of biogas because of the high biochemical methane potential of the substrate. The material has however some drawbacks as the sole material for biogas production due to the production of several process disturbing metabolites such as ammonia, sulfides and long chain fatty acids. We can in this work present results that show that zeolites have the potential to relieve inhibitory stress from the presence of long chain fatty acids. Moreover, the results strongly indicate that it is mainly acetic acid consumers that are most negatively affected by long chain fatty acids and that the mechanism of stress relief is an adsorption of long chain fatty acids to the zeolites. In addition to this, it is shown that the effect is immediate and that only a small amount of zeolites is necessary to cancel the inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acetylcholine elevation relieves cognitive rigidity and social deficiency in a mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Karvat, Golan; Kimchi, Tali

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are defined by behavioral deficits in social interaction and communication, repetitive stereotyped behaviors, and restricted interests/cognitive rigidity. Recent studies in humans and animal-models suggest that dysfunction of the cholinergic system may underlie autism-related behavioral symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that augmentation of acetylcholine (ACh) in the synaptic cleft by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase may ameliorate autistic phenotypes. We first administered the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) Donepezil systemically by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections. Second, the drug was injected directly into the rodent homolog of the caudate nucleus, the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), of the inbred mouse strain BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR), a commonly-used model presenting all core autism-related phenotypes and expressing low brain ACh levels. We found that i.p. injection of AChEI to BTBR mice significantly relieved autism-relevant phenotypes, including decreasing cognitive rigidity, improving social preference, and enhancing social interaction, in a dose-dependent manner. Microinjection of the drug directly into the DMS, but not into the ventromedial striatum, led to significant amelioration of the cognitive-rigidity and social-deficiency phenotypes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence of the key role of the cholinergic system and the DMS in the etiology of ASD, and suggest that elevated cognitive flexibility may result in enhanced social attention. The potential therapeutic effect of AChEIs in ASD patients is discussed.

  12. Intractable itch relieved by 4-phenylbutyrate therapy in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1), an inherited liver disease caused by mutations in ATP8B1, progresses to severe cholestasis with a sustained intractable itch. Currently, no effective therapy has been established for PFIC1. Decreased function of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) in hepatocytes is suggested to be responsible for the severe cholestasis observed in PFIC1. We found a previously unidentified pharmacological effect of 4-phenylbutyrate (4PB) that increases the expression and function of BSEP. Here, we tested 4PB therapy in three patients with PFIC1. Methods The therapeutic potency of 4PB in these patients was tested by oral administration of this drug with gradually increasing dosage (200, 350, and 500 mg/kg/day) for 6 months. Biochemical, histological, and clinical data were collected. Results 4PB therapy had no beneficial effect on the patients’ liver functions, as assessed by biochemical and histological analyses, despite an increase in hepatic BSEP expression. However, therapy with 4PB at a dosage of 350 or 500 mg/kg/day significantly relieved the intractable itch. Serum levels of potential pruritogens in cholestasis were much higher than the reference ranges during the 4PB therapy. Conclusions 4PB therapy may be a new medication for patients with intractable cholestatic pruritus and may improve quality of life for patients and their families. PMID:25022842

  13. Update on nonpharmacologic approaches to relieve labor pain and prevent suffering.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Penny; Bolding, April

    2004-01-01

    The control of labor pain and prevention of suffering are major concerns of clinicians and their clients. Nonpharmacologic approaches toward these goals are consistent with midwifery management and the choices of many women. We undertook a literature search of scientific articles cataloged in CINAHL, PUBMED, the Cochrane Library, and AMED databases relating to the effectiveness of 13 non-pharmacologic methods used to relieve pain and reduce suffering in labor. Suffering, which is different from pain, is not an outcome that is usually measured after childbirth. We assumed that suffering is unlikely if indicators of satisfaction were positive after childbirth. Adequate evidence of benefit in reducing pain exists for continuous labor support, baths, intradermal water blocks, and maternal movement and positioning. Acupuncture, massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and hypnosis are promising, but they require further study. The effectiveness of childbirth education, relaxation and breathing, heat and cold, acupressure, hypnosis, aromatherapy, music, and audioanalgesia are either inadequately studied or findings are too variable to draw conclusions on effectiveness. All the methods studied had evidence of widespread satisfaction among a majority of users.

  14. Metamizol Relieves Pain Without Interfering With Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Franziska; Algül, Hana; Thoeringer, Christoph K; Schmid, Roland M; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R; Dahlhoff, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Animal models are essential to understand the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Although it has been shown that cerulein-induced AP is associated with pain in experimental animals, most experiments are carried out without any pain-relieving treatment because researchers are apprehensive of an interference of the analgetic agent with AP-associated inflammation. In light of the growing ethical concerns and the legal tightening regarding animal welfare during experiments, this attitude should be changed. Acute pancreatitis was induced by cerulein in the C57BL/6J and FVB/N mouse inbred strains. One group received vehicle only, and the other was treated with metamizol as analgetic agent. Pain sensation and parameters of AP were analyzed as well as the effect of metamizol in the pancreas and its actions in the brain. We report that oral administration of metamizol protects cerulein-treated mice from abdominal pain without influencing the clinical and histopathological course of the disease. In addition, it could be shown that metamizol reduces the central pain response. This study reveals that oral administered metamizol has no influence on the cerulein-induced AP and can be given as an analgesic to increase animal welfare in experiments with induced AP.

  15. Enteral sesame oil therapeutically relieves disease severity in rat experimental osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chu, Pei-Yi; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of joint pain, affecting approximately 15% of the population. Recent studies indicate that quadriceps muscle weakness is directly involved in the pathogenesis of OA-associated joint pain. Oxidative stress plays an important role in skeletal muscle dysfunction. Sesame oil is a natural product with excellent antioxidative property. However, whether sesame oil can decrease OA-induced joint pain has never been investigated. Objective The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sesame oil on OA-induced joint pain in rats. Design OA-associated joint pain in rats was induced by medial meniscal transection in rats. Sesame oil (0, 1, 2, or 4 ml/kg/day, orally) was given to rats 7 days after OA induction, while the parameters were determined 7 days after sesame oil administration. Results Daily sesame oil treatment for 7 days significantly decreased OA-associated joint pain. Sesame oil decreased muscular interleukin-6 and increased citrate synthase activity and myosin heavy chain IIa mRNA expression. Furthermore, sesame oil decreased muscular lipid peroxidation, nuclear Nrf2 protein expression, and reactive oxygen species generations as well as increased glutathione production and glutathione peroxidase activity in OA rats. Conclusions Sesame oil may relieve OA-associated joint pain by inhibiting quadriceps muscular oxidative stress, at least partially, in rats. PMID:27032670

  16. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis. PMID:27651800

  17. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Ruan, Guangping; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing; Pan, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  18. Periodically Relieving Ischial Sitting Load to Decrease the Risk of Pressure Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Makhsous, Mohsen; Rowles, Diane M.; Rymer, William Z.; Bankard, James; Nam, Ellis K.; Chen, David; Lin, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relieving effect on interface pressure of an alternate sitting protocol involving a sitting posture that reduces ischial support. Design Repeated measures in 2 protocols on 3 groups of subjects. Setting Laboratory. Participants Twenty able-bodied persons, 20 persons with paraplegia, and 20 persons with tetraplegia. Interventions Two 1-hour protocols were used: alternate and normal plus pushup. In the alternate protocol, sitting posture was alternated every 10 minutes between normal (sitting upright with ischial support) and with partially removed ischial support (WO-BPS) postures; in the normal plus pushup protocol, sitting was in normal posture with pushups (lifting the subject off the seat) performed every 20 minutes. Main Outcome Measure Interface pressure on seat and backrest. Results In WO-BPS posture, the concentrated interface pressure observed around the ischia in normal posture was significantly repositioned to the thighs. By cyclically repositioning the interface pressure, the alternate protocol was superior to the normal plus pushup protocol in terms of a significantly lower average interface pressure over the buttocks. Conclusions A sitting protocol periodically reducing the ischial support helps lower the sitting load on the buttocks, especially the area close to ischial tuberosities. PMID:17601466

  19. ALG-2 activates the MVB sorting function of ALIX through relieving its intramolecular interaction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Sheng; Zhou, Xi; Corvera, Joe; Gallick, Gary E; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Kuang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The modular adaptor protein ALIX is critically involved in endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-mediated multivesicular body (MVB) sorting of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); however, ALIX contains a default intramolecular interaction that renders ALIX unable to perform this ESCRT function. The ALIX partner protein ALG-2 is a calcium-binding protein that belongs to the calmodulin superfamily. Prompted by a defined biological function of calmodulin, we determined the role of ALG-2 in regulating ALIX involvement in MVB sorting of activated EGFR. Our results show that calcium-dependent ALG-2 interaction with ALIX completely relieves the intramolecular interaction of ALIX and promotes CHMP4-dependent ALIX association with the membrane. EGFR activation induces increased ALG-2 interaction with ALIX, and this increased interaction is responsible for increased ALIX association with the membrane. Functionally, inhibition of ALIX activation by ALG-2 inhibits MVB sorting of activated EGFR as effectively as inhibition of ALIX interaction with CHMP4 does; however, inhibition of ALIX activation by ALG-2 does not affect cytokinetic abscission or equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) budding. These findings indicate that calcium-dependent ALG-2 interaction with ALIX is specifically responsible for generating functional ALIX that supports MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors.

  20. Use of glucagon in relieving esophageal food bolus impaction in the era of eosinophilic esophageal infiltration.

    PubMed

    Thimmapuram, Jayaram; Oosterveen, Scott; Grim, Rodney

    2013-06-01

    Esophageal food bolus impaction may require an urgent endoscopy. Glucagon is often administered to promote spontaneous passage of the food bolus. Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia, and food impaction is often the presenting symptom. Our study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of glucagon in relieving esophageal foreign body obstruction in general and in the setting of esophageal eosinophilic infiltration (EEI). A retrospective chart review was performed using the ICD codes and the emergency department database of adult patients presenting with symptoms of esophageal food bolus impaction from July 2004 to October 2010. Response to glucagon was defined as symptomatic relief of obstruction prior to endoscopic intervention. A total of 213 episodes of esophageal food bolus obstruction in 192 patients were identified during the study period. Glucagon was given in 125 cases of which 41 had a response (32.8 %). A total of 170 episodes had an Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed either during the impaction event or at a later date. Of the 60 patients' biopsies, 45 had received glucagon (17 with EEI, 28 without EEI). None of the 17 episodes with EEI as compared to 8 of the 28 without EEI responded to glucagon (0 % vs. 28.5 %, p = 0.017). Glucagon is effective in about one third of patients with esophageal food bolus impaction, which is consistent with historical data. Patients with EEI appear less likely to respond to glucagon.

  1. Effect of Medical Educational Lectures by Pharmacists for Understanding and Relieving Post-laryngectomy Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hyoguchi, Naomi; Kubota, Toshio; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Shimazoe, Takao

    2017-01-01

     Patients who underwent total laryngectomy (TL) are limited in their access to health information and have reduced quality of life because of difficulties in communicating with health providers. Understanding the method for coping with symptoms after TL is important to self-control. However, their understanding and relief regarding the method including medicine use are not well known. In this study, we conducted a current situation survey about symptoms after TL and held medical educational lectures (ML) by pharmacists for the patients. We used one questionnaire to survey the present situation and another to evaluate the understanding and relieving about the method including medicine use for coping with four symptoms, such as constipation, insomnia, having phlegm, and skin dryness before and after ML. Most participants had one or more symptoms and felt there was a communication barrier between them and their health provider. The participants felt inadequate understanding and relief before the ML, but these were improved after ML. There was a positive correlation between the understanding and relief before ML. In conclusion, the participants might not feel relief of four symptoms because of inadequate understanding of the method including medicine use for coping with their symptoms. Grasping the current situation and medication use of patients after TL by pharmacists will be helpful for appropriate medication use.

  2. SuperPain—a resource on pain-relieving compounds targeting ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Gohlke, Björn O.; Preissner, Robert; Preissner, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Pain is more than an unpleasant sensory experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage: it is the most common reason for physician consultation and often dramatically affects quality of life. The management of pain is often difficult and new targets are required for more effective and specific treatment. SuperPain (http://bioinformatics.charite.de/superpain/) is freely available database for pain-stimulating and pain-relieving compounds, which bind or potentially bind to ion channels that are involved in the transmission of pain signals to the central nervous system, such as TRPV1, TRPM8, TRPA1, TREK1, TRESK, hERG, ASIC, P2X and voltage-gated sodium channels. The database consists of ∼8700 ligands, which are characterized by experimentally measured binding affinities. Additionally, 100 000 putative ligands are included. Moreover, the database provides 3D structures of receptors and predicted ligand-binding poses. These binding poses and a structural classification scheme provide hints for the design of new analgesic compounds. A user-friendly graphical interface allows similarity searching, visualization of ligands docked into the receptor, etc. PMID:24271391

  3. The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Lee-Mei; Lin, Li-Mei; Chen, Chien-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Lai, Hui-Ling; Peng, Tai-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cupping therapy (CT) in changes on skin surface temperature (SST) for relieving chronic neck and shoulder pain (NSP) among community residents. A single-blind experimental design constituted of sixty subjects with self-perceived NSP. The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. The cupping group received CT at SI 15, GB 21, and LI 15 acupuncture points, and the control group received no intervention. Pain was assessed using the SST, visual analog scale (VAS), and blood pressure (BP). The main results were SST of GB 21 acupuncture point raised from 30.6°C to 32.7°C and from 30.7°C to 30.6°C in the control group. Neck pain intensity (NPI) severity scores were reduced from 9.7 to 3.6 in the cupping group and from 9.7 to 9.5 in the control group. The SST and NPI differences between the groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). One treatment of CT is shown to increase SST. In conjunction with the physiological effect the subjective experience of NSP is reduced in intensity. Further studies are required to improve the understanding and potential long-term effects of CT. PMID:27073404

  4. A study on synthetic relieving plug agent for steam huff-puff wells in the water-sensitive formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Biao; Cheng Yunxin; Jian Yinxue; Hu Zimian

    1995-11-01

    A great quantity of heavy crude oil has been produced by using steam huff-puff method in the Liaohe Oil Field. This kind of crude contains a lot of resin-asphaltene and possesses the property of very high viscosity and specific gravity. The formation is not only very sensitive to water, but also is damaged by drilling muds. Through steam injection, the production rate was still very low and the duration of steam huff-puff was very short because of plugs which were formed by clay swelling and the residual hydrocarbon that was produced by volatilization of light fractions of heavy crude around the wellbore. This paper offers a synthetic relieving plug agent which is a mixed fluid, containing organic mixed solvent, inorganic acid, surfactant and other additives. The synthetic relieving plug agent (ARP-8801 and BJ-30) has been successfully used in 37 wells in Shuguang No. 48 Union, Liaohe Oil Field since April 1989. According to the statistical data obtained from 33 experimental wells, it has been shown that the ARP-8801 and BJ-30 synthetic relieving plug agent has excellent relieving plug ability for the heavy crude wells using steam huff-puff method in water-sensitive formations. The production rate per well was increased on an average from 0--8.6 tons/day (before treatment) to 6.0--26.7 tons/day (after treatment). The duration of steam huff-puff was increased on an average from 121 days (before treatment) to 218 days (after treatment). The oil/steam ratio increased from 0.41 (before treatment) to 1.17 (after treatment). The cumulative incremental oil production has reached 41,704 tons. The application in oil field proved that the method, offered by this paper, is a very nice stimulation treatment for heavy crude wells injecting steam in the water-sensitive formation. The mechanism of relieving plug is also discussed in this paper.

  5. The effectiveness of non-pharmacological pain management in relieving chronic pain for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mu, Pei-Fan; Chen, Yu-Chih; Cheng, Shu-Chen

    2009-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that recurring pain symptoms in children are becoming a serious health concern. Children and adolescents who suffer from ongoing pain have negative outcomes not only to their physical health, but also to their emotional and spiritual health. Furthermore, recurrent pain in children may also cause a number of other negative consequences to the child, the family and society. Thus, a non-pharmacological approach to reduce the pain is vital to help children having better quality of life. The objective of this review is to determine the best available evidence on the effectiveness of non-pharmacological pain management in relieving chronic pain for children and adolescents. The search strategy aimed to find published studies, between 1956 and 2008 and limited to the English or Chinese languages. Reference lists of studies that met the inclusion criteria were searched for additional studies. This review included any systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental design that explored the effectiveness of non-pharmacological intervention for chronic pain in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with cancer pain, Juvenile chronic arthritis, sickle cell disease, burn pain, chronic or recurrent abdominal pain, headache and aged 18 years old or less and suffering with pain for at least one month. The review considered studies that examined non-pharmacological interventions in relieving chronic pain for children and adolescents that included heat wrap therapy, massage, chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (distraction & guided imagery), meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, self-hypnosis, biofeedback, music therapy, and dance training. The primary outcome measures included: (1) Behavioral variables, such as pain behavior, cognitive coping and appraisal, psychiatric reaction (anxiety and depression), and social activities, (2) Quality of life scores and (3) Pain scores. The

  6. Nonnutritive sucking and oral sucrose relieve neonatal pain during intramuscular injection of hepatitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Zeng, Wen-Ping; Yang, Luke; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Yin, Ti; Yang, Meei-Horng

    2011-12-01

    Newborns are subject to pain during routine invasive procedures. Pain caused by immunization injections is preventable, but remains untreated in neonates. The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of three nonpharmacological pain relief strategies on newborns' pain, physiological parameters, and cry duration before, during, and after hepatitis B intramuscular (IM) injection. In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, we enrolled 165 newborns (gestational age, ≥36 weeks). The infants received IM injections and were randomized to three treatment groups: nonnutritive sucking (NNS), 20% oral sucrose, or routine care. Pain was measured by the Neonatal Facial Coding System, physiological signals by electrocardiogram monitors, and cry duration using a stopwatch. Pain was significantly lower among infants in the NNS (B=-11.27, P<0.001) and sucrose (B=-11.75, P<0.001) groups than that in controls after adjusting for time effects, infant sleep/wake state, number of prior painful experiences, and baseline pain scores. Infants in the NNS and sucrose groups also had significantly lower mean heart and respiratory rates than the controls. Cry duration of infants receiving sucrose was significantly shorter than those in the NNS (Z=-3.36, P<0.001) and control groups (Z=-7.80, P<0.001). NNS and oral sucrose can provide analgesic effects and need to be given before painful procedures as brief as a one-minute IM injection. Sucrose orally administered two minutes before injection more effectively reduced newborns' pain during injection than NNS. Both nonpharmacological methods more effectively relieved newborns' pain, stabilized physiological parameters, and shortened cry duration during IM hepatitis injection than routine care. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isorhamnetin attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling and relieving oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Sang Chan; Kim, Kyu Min; Jang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sam Seok; Kim, Seung Jung; Ku, Sae Kwang; Cho, Il Je; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Hepatic fibrosis is considered integral to the progression of chronic liver diseases, leading to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the dominant event in hepatic fibrogenesis. We investigated the ability of isorhamnetin, the 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, to protect against hepatic fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Isorhamnetin inhibited transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and collagen in primary murine HSCs and LX-2 cells. The TGF-β1- or Smad-induced luciferase reporter activity of Smad binding elements was significantly decreased by isorhamnetin with a concomitant decrease in Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Isorhamnetin increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in HSCs and increased antioxidant response element reporter gene activity. Furthermore, isorhamnetin blocked TGF-β1-induced reactive oxygen species production. The specific role of Nrf2 in isorhamnetin-mediated suppression of PAI-1 and phosphorylated Smad3 was verified using a siRNA against Nrf2. To examine the anti-fibrotic effect of isorhamnetin in vivo, liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in mice. Isorhamnetin significantly prevented CCl4-induced increases in serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, and caused histopathological changes characterized by decreases in hepatic degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen accumulation. Moreover, isorhamnetin markedly decreased the expression of phosphorylated Smad3, TGF-β1, α-SMA, and PAI-1. Isorhamnetin attenuated the CCl4-induced increase in the number of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine-positive cells, and prevented glutathione depletion. We propose that isorhamnetin inhibits the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway and relieves oxidative stress, thus inhibiting HSC activation and preventing liver fibrosis.

  8. A new device to relieve venipuncture pain can affect haematology test results

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Campelo, Marise Danielle Raulino; Tajra, Katharyne Soares Adala; Gomes, Flavio dos Santos; Valentim, Carlos David; Romano, Sylvio José Colonna; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Background In vitro diagnostic tests play a key role in patients’ management (e.g., guiding red blood cell transfusions). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an innovative device (Buzzy®) which is claimed to be able to relieve venipuncture pain by means of cold and vibration. This device was applied during collection of venous blood by venipuncture for conventional haematology testing. Materials and methods Blood was drawn from 100 volunteers by a single, expert phlebotomist. A vein was located in the left forearm without applying a tourniquet but using a subcutaneous tissue transilluminator device, so that venous stasis was avoided. Blood samples were collected with a 20G straight needle directly into 4mL K3EDTA vacuum tubes. In sequence, external cold and vibration was established by Buzzy® on the right forearm −5 cm above the venipuncture site- for 1 minute before venipuncture and continued until the end of the same procedure already performed in the left forearm. Conventional haematological tests were performed using the same instrument (Sysmex® XE-2100D) in all cases. Results When Buzzy® was applied before drawing blood, erythrocyte counts and associated parameters (i.e., haemoglobin and haematocrit) were higher, whereas platelet number, leucocyte count and differential were lower. Statistically and clinically significant differences (P <0.001) were observed for erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Discussion From a practical perspective, cold-induced haemoconcentration promotes the efflux of water, diffusible ions and low molecular weight molecules from the vessel, thus increasing the concentration of other blood analytes at the puncture site. These variations may influence test results, especially for erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit. The novel Buzzy® device should, therefore, be used with caution when collecting blood for conventional haematological testing because of the observed bias introduced in some parameters

  9. Radiofrequency treatment relieves chronic knee osteoarthritis pain: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo-Jong; Hwang, Seung-Jun; Song, Jun-Gol; Leem, Jeong-Gil; Kang, Yong-Up; Park, Pyong-Hwan; Shin, Jin-Woo

    2011-03-01

    Chronic osteoarthritis (OA) pain of the knee is often not effectively managed with current non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments. Radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy is a therapeutic alternative for chronic pain. We investigated whether RF neurotomy applied to articular nerve branches (genicular nerves) was effective in relieving chronic OA knee joint pain. The study involved 38 elderly patients with (a) severe knee OA pain lasting more than 3 months, (b) positive response to a diagnostic genicular nerve block and (c) no response to conservative treatments. Patients were randomly assigned to receive percutaneous RF genicular neurotomy under fluoroscopic guidance (RF group; n=19) or the same procedure without effective neurotomy (control group; n=19). Visual analogue scale (VAS), Oxford knee scores, and global perceived effect on a 7-point scale were measured at baseline and at 1, 4, and 12weeks post-procedure. VAS scores showed that the RF group had less knee joint pain at 4 (p<0.001) and 12 (p<0.001) weeks compared with the control group. Oxford knee scores showed similar findings (p<0.001). In the RF group, 10/17 (59%), 11/17 (65%) and 10/17 (59%) achieved at least 50% knee pain relief at 1, 4, and 12 weeks, respectively. No patient reported a post-procedure adverse event during the follow-up period. RF neurotomy of genicular nerves leads to significant pain reduction and functional improvement in a subset of elderly chronic knee OA pain, and thus may be an effective treatment in such cases. Further trials with larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of total body tissue interface pressure of specialized pressure-relieving mattresses.

    PubMed

    Hickerson, William L; Slugocki, George M; Thaker, Reuben L; Dunkan, Robert; Bishop, John F; Parks, Judy K

    2004-01-01

    The pressure-relieving ability of three specialized support surface mattresses was investigated and compared to a standard hospital mattress by measuring total body tissue interface pressure in a laboratory experiment designed to simulate clinical conditions predisposing to formation of pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are commonly seen in the elderly; in patients with trauma, burns, spinal cord injury, neurological deficits, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke; and in other patient groups with debilitating or emaciating illness. They represent from 4 to 29% of all hospital admissions. This study was undertaken to compare three different types of specialty beds to a standard hospital mattress in order to find a mattress that prevents the occurrence of pressure ulcers. The tested beds and mattresses were the Orthoderm Convertible II (Bio-Clinic Inc., Ontario, Canada) low air-loss mattress on a Stryker PMS (Stryker Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA) bed; the FluidAir Elite (KCI Inc., San Antonio, Texas, USA) air-fluidized bed; the Pegasus Airwave mattress (Pegasus Airwave Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA) on a Stryker PMS bed; and a standard hospital mattress on a Stryker PMS bed. The nineteen test subjects were all healthy with exclusion criteria of spinal cord injury, immobility, or other neurological or physical impairment. The Force Management System (Numotech Inc., Northridge, California, USA) was used to measure tissue interface pressure. The study data show that the Pegasus Airwave mattress total surface pressure values of the anatomical regions (total body, torso, hips) of the body are lower than those of the other three tested mattresses. The total body and hip pressure resulting from pressure maturation is significantly less on the Pegasus Airwave mattress than on to the hospital bed, the air-fluidized bed, and the low air-loss bed. The Pegasus Airwave mattress outperforms the other tested support surfaces by decreasing overall pressure. Therefore, the

  11. Cinacalcet hydrochloride relieves hypercalcemia in Japanese patients with parathyroid cancer and intractable primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Miura, Daishu; Katagiri, Makoto; Nakashima, Noriaki; Ohishi, Hiroko; Shimazaki, Ryutaro; Tominaga, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-21

    Pharmacological treatment of hypercalcemia is essential for patients with parathyroid carcinoma and intractable primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Use of the calcimimetic cinacalcet hydrochloride (cinacalcet) is an option to treat such patients. We investigated the efficacy and safety of cinacalcet in Japanese patients with parathyroid carcinoma and intractable PHPT. Five Japanese patients with parathyroid carcinoma and two with intractable PHPT were enrolled in an open-label, single-arm study consisting of titration and maintenance phases. Cinacalcet doses were titrated until the albumin-corrected serum calcium concentration decreased to 10.0 mg/dL or less or until dose escalation was considered not necessary or feasible. Serum calcium concentration at the baseline was 12.1 ± 1.3 mg/dL (mean ± standard deviation; range 10.4-14.6 mg/dL) and decreased to 10.1 ± 1.6 mg/dL (range 8.6-13.3 mg/dL) at the end of the titration phase with cinacalcet at a dosage of up to 75 mg three times a day. At the end of the titration phase, at least a 1 mg/dL reduction in serum calcium concentration from the baseline was observed in five patients (three with carcinoma and two with PHPT), and it decreased to the normocalcemic range in five patients (three with carcinoma and two with PHPT). Common adverse events were nausea and vomiting. One patient discontinued participation in the study because of an adverse event, liver disorder. Cinacalcet effectively relieved hypercalcemia in 60% of the Japanese patients with parathyroid carcinoma and might be effective in those with intractable PHPT. The drug might be tolerable and safe at a dosage of at most 75 mg three times a day.

  12. Pioneering Strategies for Relieving Dental Anxiety in Hearing Impaired Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Shalini; Madu, Ghanashyam Prasad; Ambati, Naga Radhakrishna; Suravarapu, Pavani Reddy; Uppu, Kalyani; Bolla, Deepthi

    2017-06-01

    Hearing impaired children have a problem in understanding and comprehending with dental treatments. Visual language is the sensible answer of how to improve communication with them. To evaluate the applicability of dental sign language in Hearing impaired children in relieving anxiety during stressful dental treatment by improving their means of communication. This randomized clinical trial was carried out in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry which included 40 Hearing Impaired children meeting inclusion criteria. The selected children were randomly divided into the study and control group comprising of 20 each. In the control group, initial oral examination and dental treatment (oral prophylaxis and class I restoration) were performed without the use of dental sign language. In the study group, the dental sign language specific to dental treatment was educated and during their subsequent visit to the dental clinic after dental sign language reinforcement, oral prophylaxis and class I restoration were done. Subjective and objective measurements of anxiety were recorded for both groups using facial image scale (FIS), pulse oximeter and electronic blood pressure apparatus to compare for correlation. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired t-test. There was a statistically significant reduction in the anxiety levels (p< 0.05) in the study group compared to the control group. Dental sign language was effective in reducing the level of anxiety in children who are hard of hearing. Dental sign language was able to improve behavior positively during dental treatment and may also aid in developing a positive dental attitude among children who are hard of hearing.

  13. Theoretical exploration of Tennessee community pharmacists' perceptions regarding opioid pain reliever abuse communication.

    PubMed

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Murawski, Matthew M; Lopez, Nicolas C; Alamian, Arsham; Pack, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Community pharmacists are a key intervention point in efforts to prevent and mitigate the impact of prescription drug abuse and misuse (PDA/M); yet pharmacists' perceptions regarding PDA/M have been explored only briefly in the literature. 1) To explore Tennessee community pharmacists' perceptions regarding opioid pain reliever (OPR) prescribing, dispensing and abuse; 2) to explore community pharmacists' self-efficacy beliefs regarding PDA/M-specific communication; and 3) to evaluate perceived barriers to engaging patients in PDA/M-specific communication. A 55-item survey instrument was developed using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) as a theoretical framework. Questionnaires were mailed to a stratified sample of 2000 licensed Tennessee pharmacists using the Tailored Design Method of survey administration during October and November, 2012. A response rate of 40% was obtained. A majority of pharmacists (87.5%) perceived OPR abuse to be a problem in their practice settings. On average, a little more than half (53%) of prescriptions issued for OPRs were estimated to be for patients with one or more legitimate medical reasons justifying the medication(s). A small fraction of pharmacists (13%) reported having addiction treatment facility information in their practice settings, and only a small percent reported strong self-efficacy beliefs regarding PDA/M patient communication. Job-related time constraints were perceived as the primary barrier to engaging in PDA/M communication. Community pharmacists in Tennessee are aware of PDA/M by patients receiving opioid prescriptions and value their role in communicating with these patients but indicate their ability to do so effectively is hindered by a lack of confidence, training, and time. Further research to identify and test methods for facilitating PDA/M communication by pharmacists is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parecoxib increases muscle pain threshold and relieves shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hufei; Liu, Xinhe; Jiang, Hongye; Liu, Zimeng; Zhang, Xu-Yu; Xie, Hong-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Postlaparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP) remains a common problem after laparoscopies. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pressure pain threshold (PPT) of different muscles and PLSP after gynecologic laparoscopy, and to explore the effect of parecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on the changes of PPT. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups; group P and group C. In group P, parecoxib 40 mg was intravenously infused at 30 minutes before surgery and 8 and 20 hours after surgery. In group C, normal saline was infused at the corresponding time point. PPT assessment was performed 1 day before surgery and at postoperative 24 hours by using a pressure algometer at bilateral shoulder muscles (levator scapulae and supraspinatus) and forearm (flexor carpi ulnaris). Meanwhile, bilateral shoulder pain was evaluated through visual analog scale score at 24 hours after surgery. Preoperative PPT level of the shoulder, but not of the forearm, was significantly and negatively correlated with the intensity of ipsilateral PLSP. In group C, PPT levels of shoulder muscles, but not of forearm muscles, decreased after laparoscopy at postoperative 24 hours. The use of parecoxib significantly improved the decline of PPT levels of bilateral shoulder muscles (all P<0.01). Meanwhile, parecoxib reduced the incidence of PLSP (group P: 45% vs group C: 83.3%; odds ratio: 0.164; 95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.382; P<0.001) and the intensity of bilateral shoulder pain (both P<0.01). Preoperative PPT levels of shoulder muscles are closely associated with the severity of shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy. PPT levels of shoulder muscles, but not of forearm muscles, significantly decreased after surgery. Parecoxib improved the decrease of PPT and relieved PLSP.

  15. Application of cold patch in relieving pain after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuan; Li, Yi; Gao, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A return toward toward photorefractive keratectomy has occurred due to better corneal stability and fewer corneal flap complications; however, pain remains a major drawback of the procedure. Currently, clinical pain control measures focus on the administration of pain medications, which may delay corneal epithelial healing and has, occasionally, led to serious corneal toxicity. To investigate the safety and efficacy of a cold patch on postoperative pain and other relevant consequences of transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy. A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted. Forty patients (80 eyes) scheduled to undergo transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy for myopia or myopic astigmatism were randomly and equally assigned to be treated with ice-cold balanced salt solution during surgery (wash group) or to wear a postoperative cold patch on the eye for 24 h. The main outcomes were pain score on a visual analogue scale, postoperative eyelid edema, conjunctival hyperemia, epithelial healing time, haze and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity. All patients completed the final tests. Demographic characteristics and pain scores during surgery were similar between the two groups. The mean postoperative pain scores of patients in the cold patch group at 8 h, 16 h and 24 h were significantly lower than those of patients in the wash group. Scores for postoperative eyelid edema and conjunctival hyperemia in the cold patch group were also lower than in the wash group. Patients in the cold patch group used fewer painkillers. Epithelial healing time, haze and early recovery of visual acuity were similar between the two groups. No eyelid frostbite was observed. Wearing a cold patch on the eye after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy effectively relieved pain and inflammation, and reduced the use of painkillers without any side effects.

  16. p300 relieves p53-evoked transcriptional repression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1).

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Tobias; Zhou, Jie; Köhl, Roman; Brüne, Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor comprising HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits, serves as a key regulator of metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. HIF-1 activity largely increases during hypoxia by attenuating pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau protein)-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent 26 S-proteasomal degradation of HIF-1alpha. Besides HIF-1, the transcription factor and tumour suppressor p53 accumulates and is activated under conditions of prolonged/severe hypoxia. Recently, the interaction between p53 and HIF-1alpha was reported to evoke HIF-1alpha degradation. Destruction of HIF-1alpha by p53 was corroborated in the present study by using pVHL-deficient RCC4 (renal carcinoma) cells, supporting the notion of a pVHL-independent degradation process. In addition, low p53 expression repressed HIF-1 transactivation without affecting HIF-1alpha protein amount. Establishing that p53-evoked inhibition of HIF-1 reporter activity was relieved upon co-transfection of p300 suggested competition between p53 and HIF-1 for limiting amounts of the shared co-activator p300. This assumption was confirmed by showing competitive binding of in vitro transcription/translation-generated p53 and HIF-1alpha to the CH1 domain of p300 in vitro. We conclude that low p53 expression attenuates HIF-1 transactivation by competing for p300, whereas high p53 expression destroys the HIF-1alpha protein and thereby eliminates HIF-1 reporter activity. Thus once p53 becomes activated under conditions of severe hypoxia/anoxia, it contributes to terminating HIF-1 responses. PMID:14992692

  17. Effect of White Noise in Relieving Vaccination Pain in Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Kucukoglu, Sibel; Aytekin, Aynur; Celebioglu, Ayda; Celebi, Arzu; Caner, Ibrahim; Maden, Rukiye

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of white noise as a distraction method in relieving procedural pain caused by vaccination for premature infants. This experimental study was performed at a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a university hospital in Turkey between July and September 2013. The study population was composed of 75 premature infants (35 in the study group and 40 in the control group) who met the inclusion criteria. Premature infants in the study group were exposed to white noise using MP3 players placed at the head of the infants' open crib for 1 minute before vaccination. The white noise continued until 1 minute after vaccination. Premature infants in the control group were not exposed to white noise. The Premature Infant Information Form, Intervention Follow-up Form, and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) were used to collect study data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate the data. The pain level of the control group (PIPP = 14.35 ± 2.59) was significantly higher than the pain level of the study group (PIPP = 8.14 ± 3.14) (p < .05). The authors found that 67.6% of the infants in the study group had moderate pain during vaccination and only 2.9% had severe pain. Most of the infants in the control group (82.5%) had severe pain, whereas 17.5% had moderate pain (p < .05). White noise was found to be effective for this sample; however, there is a dire need for extensive research on white noise and its use with this vulnerable population.

  18. Widespread pain reliever profile of a flower extract of Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Tenci, Barbara; Zanardelli, Matteo; Maidecchi, Anna; Lugli, Andrea; Mattoli, Luisa; Ghelardini, Carla

    2015-07-15

    Tanacetum parthenium L., commonly called Feverfew, is known for anti-inflammatory and anti-migraine properties. Aimed to individuate new therapeutical strategies to control acute and persistent pain induced by different origins we tested two hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from Feverfew flowers and leaves, respectively. Extracts were characterized according to the European Pharmacopoeia monograph. Both the extracts were tested after acute per os administration in the dose range 30-1000 mg kg(-1). The anti-nociceptive properties were evaluated by the Writhing test in mice. The number of abdominal contractions was dose dependently reduced by the flower extract. It reduced mechanical hypersensitivity (Paw pressure test) related to the acute inflammatory phase induced by carrageenan similarly to diclofenac and ibuprofen. In the osteoarthritis model induced by intra articular injection of monoiodoacetate (MIA) the flower extract significantly increased the pain threshold peaking 30 min after treatment. Moreover, it was effective in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain showing activity similar to the anti-epileptic drug gabapentin. The flower extract activity was confirmed in rat models of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. The mechanical hypersensitivity induced by repeated treatments with the anticancer drug oxaliplatin and with the antiviral dideoxycytidine was significantly reduced after a single injection of Feverfew flower extract. The leaf extract showed lesser efficacy and potency and it was devoid of any effect in carrageenan-, MIA- and chemotherapy-induced pain. The present Feverfew flower extract behaves as a potent pain reliever in acute, inflammatory, articular and neuropathic pain. It appears as a natural strategy potentially suitable for the treatment of different kinds of pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 relieves maladaptive chronic stress consequences.

    PubMed

    Peterlik, Daniel; Stangl, Christina; Bauer, Amelie; Bludau, Anna; Keller, Jana; Grabski, Dominik; Killian, Tobias; Schmidt, Dominic; Zajicek, Franziska; Jaeschke, Georg; Lindemann, Lothar; Reber, Stefan O; Flor, Peter J; Uschold-Schmidt, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Etiology and pharmacotherapy of stress-related psychiatric conditions and somatoform disorders are areas of high unmet medical need. Stressors holding chronic plus psychosocial components thereby bear the highest health risk. Although the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) is well studied in the context of acute stress-induced behaviors and physiology, virtually nothing is known about its potential involvement in chronic psychosocial stress. Using the mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator CTEP (2-chloro-4-[2-[2,5-dimethyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]imidazol-4yl]ethynyl]pyridine), a close analogue of the clinically active drug basimglurant - but optimized for rodent studies, as well as mGlu5-deficient mice in combination with a mouse model of male subordination (termed CSC, chronic subordinate colony housing), we demonstrate that mGlu5 mediates multiple physiological, immunological, and behavioral consequences of chronic psychosocial stressor exposure. For instance, CTEP dose-dependently relieved hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunctions, colonic inflammation as well as the CSC-induced increase in innate anxiety; genetic ablation of mGlu5 in mice largely reproduced the stress-protective effects of CTEP and additionally ameliorated CSC-induced physiological anxiety. Interestingly, CSC also induced an upregulation of mGlu5 in the hippocampus, a stress-regulating brain area. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that mGlu5 is an important mediator for a wide range of chronic psychosocial stress-induced alterations and a potentially valuable drug target for the treatment of chronic stress-related pathologies in man.

  20. 40 CFR 270.90 - Does my RAP grant me any rights or relieve me of any obligations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does my RAP grant me any rights or... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) General Information § 270.90 Does my RAP grant me any rights or relieve me of any obligations? The provisions of § 270.4 apply to RAPs. (Note: The provisions of § 270.4(a...

  1. 40 CFR 270.90 - Does my RAP grant me any rights or relieve me of any obligations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does my RAP grant me any rights or... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) General Information § 270.90 Does my RAP grant me any rights or relieve me of any obligations? The provisions of § 270.4 apply to RAPs. (Note: The provisions of § 270.4(a...

  2. 40 CFR 270.90 - Does my RAP grant me any rights or relieve me of any obligations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does my RAP grant me any rights or... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) General Information § 270.90 Does my RAP grant me any rights or relieve me of any obligations? The provisions of § 270.4 apply to RAPs. (Note: The provisions of § 270.4(a...

  3. 40 CFR 270.90 - Does my RAP grant me any rights or relieve me of any obligations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does my RAP grant me any rights or... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) General Information § 270.90 Does my RAP grant me any rights or relieve me of any obligations? The provisions of § 270.4 apply to RAPs. (Note: The provisions of § 270.4(a...

  4. 40 CFR 270.90 - Does my RAP grant me any rights or relieve me of any obligations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does my RAP grant me any rights or... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) General Information § 270.90 Does my RAP grant me any rights or relieve me of any obligations? The provisions of § 270.4 apply to RAPs. (Note: The provisions of § 270.4(a...

  5. Artificial pneumothorax: a safe and simple method to relieve pain during microwave ablation of subpleural lung malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaowei; Zhuang, Xingjun; Zhang, Haiwen; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yuanxin

    2017-08-01

    Microwave ablation has been extensively used for eliminating pulmonary tumors; however, it is usually associated with severe pain under local anesthesia. Decreasing the power and shortening the ablation time can help to relieve the pain; however, this leads to incomplete ablation and an increasing recurrence rate. This research aims to employ an artificial pneumothorax to increase both the curative effect and pain relief during the ablation procedure. From July 2013 to January 2015, nine patients presenting with 10 subpleural lung tumors (age: 44-78 years) with a high possibility of severe pain underwent the artificial pneumothorax during microwave ablation. The pain assessment scores and complications induced by the artificial pneumothorax were recorded and analyzed by a CT scan follow-up. The tumors of the nine patients were eliminated successfully using microwave ablation with artificial pneumothorax under local anesthesia. The pain caused by the ablation was relieved to a great extent with an average rate of 94.66% (range: 63.3%-100%) and all tumors were ablated completely. No severe complications occurred after the operation. The artificial pneumothorax is a reliable therapy to improve the curative effect of microwave ablation under local anesthesia by relieving the pain of the patients.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Effectiveness of a Self-Care Program for Pregnant Women for Relieving Hiesho.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sachiyo; Horiuchi, Shigeko

    2017-01-01

    To assess differences in improvement of hiesho (sensitivity to cold) through a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of one group that used a self-care program (the Home Care Package Program for Relieving Hiesho) and another that did not. Participants were pregnant women experiencing hiesho in the 28th to 33rd weeks of pregnancy. The group carried out the intervention program for 4 weeks by wearing leg warmers, performing exercises, and pressing acupuncture points. The control group did not take any specific actions. Hiesho condition was assessed by using thermography to measure temperature in the four limbs; the changes were analyzed. Findings for 140 pregnant women (73 in the experimental group and 67 in the control group) were analyzed. Participants' body temperatures were measured after completion of the program for 4 weeks and compared to their temperatures before start of the program. Compared with the control group, the experimental group had arm skin temperature 3.0°C (p < 0.001) higher and leg skin temperature 1.93°C (p = 0.02) higher; both differences were significant. The Home Care Package Program for Relieving Hiesho self-care program significantly relieved hiesho.

  7. Single maintenance and reliever therapy (SMART) of asthma: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Neil C; Greening, Andrew P; Jones, Paul W; Pedersen, S

    2010-01-01

    The use of a combination inhaler containing budesonide and formoterol as both maintenance and quick relief therapy (SMART) has been recommended as an improved method of using inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β agonist (ICS/LABA) therapy. Published double-blind trials show that budesonide/formoterol therapy delivered in SMART fashion achieves better asthma outcomes than budesonide monotherapy or lower doses of budesonide/formoterol therapy delivered in constant dosage. Attempts to compare budesonide/formoterol SMART therapy with regular combination ICS/LABA dosing using other compounds have been confounded by a lack of blinding and unspecified dose adjustment strategies. The asthma control outcomes in SMART-treated patients are poor; it has been reported that only 17.1% of SMART-treated patients are controlled. In seven trials of 6–12 months duration, patients using SMART have used quick reliever daily (weighted average 0.92 inhalations/day), have awakened with asthma symptoms once every 7–10 days (weighted average 11.5% of nights), have suffered asthma symptoms more than half of days (weighted average 54.0% of days) and have had a severe exacerbation rate of one in five patients per year (weighted average 0.22 severe exacerbations/patient/year). These poor outcomes may reflect the recruitment of a skewed patient population. Although improvement from baseline has been attributed to these patients receiving additional ICS therapy at pivotal times, electronic monitoring has not been used to test this hypothesis nor the equally plausible hypothesis that patients who are non-compliant with maintenance medication have used budesonide/formoterol as needed for self-treatment of exacerbations. Although the long-term consequences of SMART therapy have not been studied, its use over 1 year has been associated with significant increases in sputum and biopsy eosinophilia. At present, there is no evidence that better asthma treatment outcomes can be obtained by

  8. The economics of pressure relieving surfaces: an illustrative case study of the impact of high-specification surfaces on hospital finances.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Paul; Whitehead, Sarah J

    2010-02-01

    Pressure ulcers are associated with a significant economic burden that, in many cases, is recognised as being avoidable. The effectiveness of pressure relieving surfaces is well documented and acknowledged in clinical guidelines on the prevention and management of pressure ulcers. Whilst pressure relieving surfaces are more expensive than traditional hospital mattresses, judicious use, targeted to patients most at risk, can help to reduce the incidence and costs of pressure ulcers in hospital settings. This review paper includes a summary of pivotal clinical evidence on pressure relieving surfaces as well as a suggested approach for modelling their financial impact on hospital budgets. Simple financial modelling suggests that pressure relieving surfaces could lead to financial savings for a hospital when used appropriately.

  9. Acupuncture and Auricular Acupressure in Relieving Menopausal Hot Flashes of Bilaterally Ovariectomized Chinese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jue; Qu, Fan; Sang, Xisheng; Wang, Xiaotong; Nan, Rui

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of acupuncture and auricular acupressure in relieving menopausal hot flashes of bilaterally ovariectomized Chinese women. Between May 2006 and March 2008, 46 bilaterally ovariectomized Chinese women were randomized into an acupuncture and auricular acupressure group (n = 21) and a hormone replacement therapy (HRT) group (Tibolone, n = 25). Each patient was given a standard daily log and was required to record the frequency and severity of hot flashes and side effects of the treatment felt daily, from 1 week before the treatment started to the fourth week after the treatment ended. The serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), LH and E2 were detected before and after the treatment. After the treatment and the follow-up, both the severity and frequency of hot flashes in the two groups were relieved significantly when compared with pre-treatment (P <  .05). There was no significant difference in the severity of hot flashes between them after treatment (P >  .05), while after the follow-up, the severity of hot flashes in the HRT group was alleviated more. After the treatment and the follow-up, the frequency of menopausal hot flashes in the HRT group was reduced more (P <  .05). After treatment, the levels of FSH decreased significantly and the levels of E2 increased significantly in both groups (P <  .05), and they changed more in the HRT group (P <  .05). Acupuncture and auricular acupressure can be used as alternative treatments to relieve menopausal hot flashes for those bilaterally ovariectomized women who are unable or unwilling to receive HRT. PMID:19189989

  10. Comparison of application times for ice packs used to relieve perineal pain after normal birth: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sonia M J V; Silva, Flora M B; Riesco, Maria L G; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Nobre, Moacyr R C

    2012-12-01

    To compare the effect of an ice pack applied for 10, 15 and 20 minutes to relieve perineal pain after birth. Perineal pain after vaginal birth, with or without vaginal trauma, is one of the most common morbidities reported for postnatal women. Cryotherapy has been used in postpartum period to relieve perineal pain and investigated in several studies. However, cryotherapy treatment protocols in perineal care vary widely regarding temperature, frequency and duration of the application. A controlled trial, randomised for two groups and with a third group as a historical control. The intervention was carried out in a maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. The study population consisted of three groups of 38 women who used an ice pack on the perineum, in a single application: group A-10 minutes; group B-15 minutes; group C-20 minutes (historical control from another clinical trial). Participants' perineal pain magnitude was evaluated through a numerical scale (0-10), at four different points: before the cryotherapy; immediately after and at 20 and 40 minutes after cryotherapy. After application of the ice pack, there was no statistical difference when comparing the perineal pain among groups in the second, third and fourth evaluations. Most of the postnatal women reported pain relief, with 72.8% reporting a decrease in pain >50%; 21.9% reported a decrease between 30-50%. All postnatal women subjected to cryotherapy were favourable to the procedure. There is no difference in pain scores following ice pack application in three different times (10, 15 and 20 minutes) in women who report moderate or intense perineal pain after normal delivery. Ice treatment is safe, and application times of 10 or 15 minutes are as beneficial as an application time of 20 minutes to relieve perineal pain. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Sarcomere Contractility Acutely Relieves Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Joshua A.; Markova, Svetlana; Ueda, Yu; Kim, Jae B.; Pascoe, Peter J.; Evanchik, Marc J.; Green, Eric M.; Harris, Samantha P.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of the heart muscle characterized by otherwise unexplained thickening of the left ventricle. Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is present in approximately two-thirds of patients and substantially increases the risk of disease complications. Invasive treatment with septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation can improve symptoms and functional status, but currently available drugs for reducing obstruction have pleiotropic effects and variable therapeutic responses. New medical treatments with more targeted pharmacology are needed, but the lack of preclinical animal models for HCM with LVOT obstruction has limited their development. HCM is a common cause of heart failure in cats, and a subset exhibit systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leading to LVOT obstruction. MYK-461 is a recently-described, mechanistically novel small molecule that acts at the sarcomere to specifically inhibit contractility that has been proposed as a treatment for HCM. Here, we use MYK-461 to test whether direct reduction in contractility is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction in feline HCM. We evaluated mixed-breed cats in a research colony derived from a Maine Coon/mixed-breed founder with naturally-occurring HCM. By echocardiography, we identified five cats that developed systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and LVOT obstruction both at rest and under anesthesia when provoked with an adrenergic agonist. An IV MYK-461 infusion and echocardiography protocol was developed to serially assess contractility and LVOT gradient at multiple MYK-461 concentrations. Treatment with MYK-461 reduced contractility, eliminated systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and relieved LVOT pressure gradients in an exposure-dependent manner. Our findings provide proof of principle that acute reduction in contractility with MYK-461 is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction. Further, these studies suggest that feline

  12. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Sarcomere Contractility Acutely Relieves Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Stern, Joshua A; Markova, Svetlana; Ueda, Yu; Kim, Jae B; Pascoe, Peter J; Evanchik, Marc J; Green, Eric M; Harris, Samantha P

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of the heart muscle characterized by otherwise unexplained thickening of the left ventricle. Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is present in approximately two-thirds of patients and substantially increases the risk of disease complications. Invasive treatment with septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation can improve symptoms and functional status, but currently available drugs for reducing obstruction have pleiotropic effects and variable therapeutic responses. New medical treatments with more targeted pharmacology are needed, but the lack of preclinical animal models for HCM with LVOT obstruction has limited their development. HCM is a common cause of heart failure in cats, and a subset exhibit systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leading to LVOT obstruction. MYK-461 is a recently-described, mechanistically novel small molecule that acts at the sarcomere to specifically inhibit contractility that has been proposed as a treatment for HCM. Here, we use MYK-461 to test whether direct reduction in contractility is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction in feline HCM. We evaluated mixed-breed cats in a research colony derived from a Maine Coon/mixed-breed founder with naturally-occurring HCM. By echocardiography, we identified five cats that developed systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and LVOT obstruction both at rest and under anesthesia when provoked with an adrenergic agonist. An IV MYK-461 infusion and echocardiography protocol was developed to serially assess contractility and LVOT gradient at multiple MYK-461 concentrations. Treatment with MYK-461 reduced contractility, eliminated systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and relieved LVOT pressure gradients in an exposure-dependent manner. Our findings provide proof of principle that acute reduction in contractility with MYK-461 is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction. Further, these studies suggest that feline

  13. Comparative evaluation of the pain-relieving properties of a lecithinized formulation of curcumin (Meriva(®)), nimesulide, and acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Di Maio, Eleonora Adriana; Appendino, Giovanni; Franceschi, Federico; Togni, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its anti-inflammatory activity, Meriva(®), a proprietary lecithin formulation of curcumin, has been anecdotally reported to decrease acute pain in patients with various chronic diseases. Given that curcumin can desensitize transient receptor potential A1, a nociceptor seemingly also mediating the analgesic effect of acetaminophen, as well as inhibiting and downregulating the expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2, the selective target of nimesulide, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, we carried out a pilot comparative study of the acute pain-relieving properties of these three agents. At a dose of 2 g (corresponding to 400 mg of curcumin), Meriva showed clear analgesic activity, comparable with that of a standard dose (1 g) of acetaminophen, but lower than that of a therapeutic (100 mg) dose of nimesulide. The analgesic activity of lower (1.5 g) doses of Meriva was less satisfactory, and the onset of activity was longer than that of nimesulide for both doses. On the other hand, gastric tolerability was significantly better than that of nimesulide and comparable with that of acetaminophen. Taken together, our results show that the preclinical analgesic properties of curcumin have clinical relevance, at least at a dose of 2 g as the Meriva formulation. While this dose is significantly higher than that used to relieve chronic inflammatory conditions (1-1.2 g/day), its pain-relieving activity could benefit from the general downregulation of the inflammatory response induced by curcumin, considering that the transient receptor potential channel-mediated mechanisms of analgesia are magnified by attenuation of inflammation. In patients on treatment with Meriva, this would also translate into better control of acute pain, providing a rationale for the analgesic properties associated with this curcumin formulation.

  14. The opiate pain reliever epidemic among U.S. arrestees 2000-2010: regional and demographic variations.

    PubMed

    Golub, Andrew; Elliott, Luther; Brownstein, Henry H

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate of opiate pain reliever (OPR) use is a pressing concern in the United States. This article uses a drug epidemics framework to examine OPR use among arrestees surveyed by the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program. Results demonstrate regional and demographic variation in use across nine focal cities. High rates of OPR use on the West Coast illustrate the expansion of use from its initial epicenter. By 2010, OPR use had plateaued in all focal cities. Findings suggest directions for ongoing research into pathways to use and vectors of diffusion and for regionally specific interventions sensitive to age and ethnic diversity.

  15. The Opiate Pain Reliever Epidemic among U.S. Arrestees 2000–2010: Regional and Demographic Variations

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; ELLIOTT, LUTHER; BROWNSTEIN, HENRY H.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate of opiate pain reliever (OPR) use is a pressing concern in the United States. This article uses a drug epidemics framework to examine OPR use among arrestees surveyed by the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program. Results demonstrate regional and demographic variation in use across nine focal cities. High rates of OPR use on the West Coast illustrate the expansion of use from its initial epicenter. By 2010, OPR use had plateaued in all focal cities. Findings suggest directions for ongoing research into pathways to use and vectors of diffusion and for regionally specific interventions sensitive to age and ethnic diversity. PMID:23480209

  16. A cured patient who came back for consultation: neuropathic scrotal pruritus relieved after ipsilateral inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Koh, W L; Liu, T T

    2010-09-01

    When no demonstrable cause is uncovered after excluding inflammatory dermatosis, infectious disease or a manifestation of anorectal disease, anogenital pruritus is often described as 'idiopathic'. Lumbosacral radiculopathy was described by Cohen et al. as one of the possible causes of 'idiopathic' anogenital pruritus. We report a case of a patient with chronic pruritus of the right scrotum that was relieved immediately post-ipsilateral inguinal hernia repair. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of neuropathic scrotal pruritus secondary to direct nerve compression by an inguinal hernia. We propose that a proper examination for the presence of inguinal hernia be performed in the work-up for scrotal pruritus.

  17. Spa therapy (balneotherapy) relieves mental stress, sleep disorder, and general health problems in sub-healthy people.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bei; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Han, Ling-Li; Lin, Jing; Chen, Yu

    2017-09-21

    To investigate the relieving effects of hot spring balneotherapy on mental stress, sleep disorder, general health problems, and women's health problems in sub-healthy people, we recruited 500 volunteers in sub-health in Chongqing, and 362 volunteers completed the project, including 223 in the intervention group and 139 in the control group. The intervention group underwent hot spring balneotherapy for 5 months, while the control group did not. The two groups took questionnaire investigation (general data, mental stress, emotional status, sleep quality, general health problems, as well as some women's health problems) and physical examination (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid, blood sugar) 5 months before and after the intervention, respectively. After intervention, sleep disorder (difficulty in falling asleep (P = 0.017); dreaminess, nightmare suffering, and restless sleep (P = 0.013); easy awakening (P = 0.003) and difficulty in falling into sleep again after awakening(P = 0.016); and mental stress (P = 0.031) and problems of general health (head pain (P = 0.026), joint pain(P = 0.009), leg or foot cramps (P = 0.001), blurred vision (P = 0.009)) were relieved significantly in the intervention group, as compared with the control group. While other indicators (fatigue, eye tiredness, limb numbness, constipation, skin allergy) and women's health problems (breast distending pain; dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation) were relieved significantly in the self-comparison of the intervention group before and after intervention (P < 0.05), but showed no statistically significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05). All indications (except bad mood, low mood, and worry or irritability) in the intervention group significantly improved, with effect size from 0.096 to 1.302. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the frequency, length, and location of balneotherapy in the intervention group were the factors

  18. Nonmedical Opioid Pain Relievers and All-Cause Mortality: A 27-Year Follow-Up From the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hui; Smallwood, Bryan A.; Anthony, James C.; Wu, Li-Tzy; Eaton, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether nonmedical opioid pain reliever use is associated with higher mortality in the general US population. Methods. We assessed the history of nonmedical opioid pain reliever use among 9985 people interviewed at baseline of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program initiated in 1981 to 1983 in Baltimore, Maryland; St. Louis, Missouri; and Durham, North Carolina. We linked the data with the National Death Index through 2007. Results. Nonmedical opioid pain reliever use was 1.4%. Compared with no nonmedical drug use, mortality was increased for nonmedical opioid pain reliever use (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 2.53) or nonmedical use of other drugs (HR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.62). Mortality was also higher for males and for those beginning nonmedical opioid pain reliever use before aged 15 years. Conclusions. A history of nonmedical opioid pain reliever use was associated with increased mortality, in particular for males and early onset users. PMID:26691106

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Trichostatin A and MCP30 Relieve Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity via Restoring Topoisomerase IIα.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Zheng, Zhouyi; Chen, Yi; Li, Jiaqi; Qian, Shanhu; Shi, Yifen; Sun, Lan; Han, Yixiang; Zhang, Shenghui; Yu, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of histone acetylation inhibits topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα), which is implicated in benzene-induced hematotoxicity in patients with chronic benzene exposure. Whether histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can relieve benzene-induced hematotoxicity remains unclear. Here we showed that hydroquinone, a main metabolite of benzene, increased the HDAC activity, decreased the Topo IIα expression and induced apoptosis in human bone marrow mononuclear cells in vitro, and treatment with two HDAC inhibitors, namely trichostatin A (TSA) or a mixture of ribosome-inactivating proteins MCP30, almost completely reversed these effects. We further established a benzene poisoning murine model by inhaling benzene vapor in a container and found that benzene poisoning decreased the expression and activity of Topo IIα, and impaired acetylation of histone H4 and H3. The analysis of regulatory factors of Topo IIα promoter found that benzene poisoning decreased the mRNA levels of SP1 and C-MYB, and increased the mRNA level of SP3. Both TSA and MCP30 significantly enhanced the acetylation of histone H3 and H4 in Topo IIα promoter and increased the expression and activity of Topo IIα in benzene poisoning mice, which contributed to relieve the symptoms of hematotoxicity. Thus, treatment with HDAC inhibitors represents an attractive approach to reduce benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

  20. Chinese Medicinal Formula (MHGWT) for Relieving Diabetic Neuropathic Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-I; Li, Tsai-Chung; Chang, Ming-Hong; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Wang, Tzu-Yuan; Su, Yi-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of modified Hungqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang (MHGWT), a formula that comprises Chinese medicinal herbs, in relieving neuropathic pain in diabetics. Method. Between March 2008 and April 2009, 112 participants were randomly assigned to either the MHGWT group, whose members received MHGWT (n = 56), or the control group, whose members received a placebo (n = 56). Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) was rated using the 15-item Short-Form Brief Pain Inventory (SF-BPI), the 17-item Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), the 13-item Modified Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MMNSI), and the 36-item “SF-36.” Nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were performed before and after treatment. Results. After 12 weeks of treatment, the SF-MPQ and SF-BPI scores of the MHGWT group were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced and a significant difference between the groups was observed (P < 0.05). The levels of NCS in the MHGWT group were nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) reduced, and no significant difference in NCS level was observed between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. MHGWT shows promise in relieving DNP and deserves further investigation. PMID:24062790

  1. Conversion to modified duodenal switch for relieving intractable dumping syndrome and constipation after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Kun; Wang, Ming-Yu; Hsin, Ming-Che; Chang, Po-Chih

    2015-05-01

    Dumping syndrome is not infrequent after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and could result in dreaded complications, such as hypoglycemia or syncope. Those patients who failed medical therapy and diet modification, regarded as intractable dumping syndrome, may be considered as candidates for revisional surgery. Herein, we make a video presentation of laparoscopic revisional procedure for intractable dumping syndrome with unsatisfactory weight loss. A 32-year-old, morbidly obese woman (initial body mass index, 53.3 kg/m(2)) presented with dumping syndrome 17 months after initial laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. She underwent nutritional counseling, strict diet modification, and medication treatment but failed. In addition, the patient complained of worsening constipation and insufficient weight loss (body mass index, 36 kg/m(2)). Laparoscopic revisional procedure with modified duodenal switch was conducted to relieve her intractable condition. The procedure took 260 min without any intraoperative complication. Blood loss was 100 mL The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and the postoperative hospital stay was 5 days. The uncomfortable symptoms relieved successfully after the revisional surgery. Though long-term follow-up is warranted to draw a definite conclusion, modified duodenal switch with pyloric restoration and shortening bowel length remains an acceptable revisional procedure to relive intractable dumping syndrome and constipation in our patient successfully.

  2. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Trichostatin A and MCP30 Relieve Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity via Restoring Topoisomerase IIα

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jiaqi; Qian, Shanhu; Shi, Yifen; Sun, Lan; Han, Yixiang; Zhang, Shenghui; Yu, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of histone acetylation inhibits topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα), which is implicated in benzene-induced hematotoxicity in patients with chronic benzene exposure. Whether histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can relieve benzene-induced hematotoxicity remains unclear. Here we showed that hydroquinone, a main metabolite of benzene, increased the HDAC activity, decreased the Topo IIα expression and induced apoptosis in human bone marrow mononuclear cells in vitro, and treatment with two HDAC inhibitors, namely trichostatin A (TSA) or a mixture of ribosome-inactivating proteins MCP30, almost completely reversed these effects. We further established a benzene poisoning murine model by inhaling benzene vapor in a container and found that benzene poisoning decreased the expression and activity of Topo IIα, and impaired acetylation of histone H4 and H3. The analysis of regulatory factors of Topo IIα promoter found that benzene poisoning decreased the mRNA levels of SP1 and C-MYB, and increased the mRNA level of SP3. Both TSA and MCP30 significantly enhanced the acetylation of histone H3 and H4 in Topo IIα promoter and increased the expression and activity of Topo IIα in benzene poisoning mice, which contributed to relieve the symptoms of hematotoxicity. Thus, treatment with HDAC inhibitors represents an attractive approach to reduce benzene-induced hematotoxicity. PMID:27058040

  3. Chinese Medicinal Formula (MHGWT) for Relieving Diabetic Neuropathic Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-I; Li, Tsai-Chung; Chang, Ming-Hong; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Wang, Tzu-Yuan; Su, Yi-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of modified Hungqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang (MHGWT), a formula that comprises Chinese medicinal herbs, in relieving neuropathic pain in diabetics. Method. Between March 2008 and April 2009, 112 participants were randomly assigned to either the MHGWT group, whose members received MHGWT (n = 56), or the control group, whose members received a placebo (n = 56). Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) was rated using the 15-item Short-Form Brief Pain Inventory (SF-BPI), the 17-item Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), the 13-item Modified Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MMNSI), and the 36-item "SF-36." Nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were performed before and after treatment. Results. After 12 weeks of treatment, the SF-MPQ and SF-BPI scores of the MHGWT group were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced and a significant difference between the groups was observed (P < 0.05). The levels of NCS in the MHGWT group were nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) reduced, and no significant difference in NCS level was observed between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. MHGWT shows promise in relieving DNP and deserves further investigation.

  4. Intrathecal administration of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists in rats: A strategy to relieve chemotherapy-induced neuropathic hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Laura; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Anna; Guerrini, Remo; Trapella, Claudio; Calò, Girolamo; Ghelardini, Carla

    2015-11-05

    Oxaliplatin and paclitaxel are considered central components in the treatment of colorectal and breast cancer, respectively. The development of neuropathy during chronic treatment represents the major dose-limiting side effect that leads to discontinuation or interruption of therapies. The management of neuropathy is a challenge to individuate innovative therapeutic strategies based on new targets and correct routes of administration. We evaluated the hypersensitivity reliever effect of different opioid receptor agonists in rat models of oxaliplatin and paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Compounds were spinally infused by intrathecal catheter. In oxaliplatin-treated rats, 0.3 nmol morphine induced the reversion of the mechanical hypersensitivity (Paw-pressure test), nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ; 0.3-3 nmol) significantly increased the pain threshold without reaching the values of the control animals. The N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor full agonist UFP-112 reverted pain threshold alterations at lower dosage (0.1 nmol) vs morphine and N/OFQ, the partial agonist UFP-113 (0.1-1 nmol) was similar to N/OFQ. The higher efficacy of morphine vs N/OFQ was highlighted also in paclitaxel-treated rats. The mechanical hypersensitivity was fully reverted by 0.1 nmol UFP-112 and UFP-113. In conclusion, intrathecal μ opioid peptide (MOP) and NOP receptor agonists relieved chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. The synthetic peptides showed valuable potency and efficacy suggesting the NOP system as an exploitable target.

  5. Effectiveness of desensitizing agents in relieving the pre- and postcementation sensitivity for full coverage restorations: a clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Naveen; Reddy, Upendra Natha; Vasundhar, P Leela; Ramarao, K Sita; Varma, Kvv Pratap; Vinod, V

    2013-09-01

    Patients frequently report sensitivity of prepared abutment teeth during the temporization period and after the fnal cementation of full coverage restoration. Purpose of this clinical investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of desensitizing agents in reducing the pre- and postcementation sensitivity for full coverage restorations and to compare the relative effcacy of three in offce applied desensitizing agents in relieving the postcementation sensitivity with the use of glass ionomer luting cement. This study consisted of 30 patients requiring either full coverage restoration or 3 unit fxed partial denture. Total of 40 restorations (n = 40) were made and were randomly assigned into four groups comprising 10 restoration (n = 10) in each group. Group C control where no desensitizer application was done, group BB applied with BisBlock dentin desensitizer (Bisco Inc.), group ST applied with Systemp desensitizer (Ivoclar Vivadent), group GC applied with GC Tooth Mousse desensitizer (GC Asia). Desensitizer application was done immediately after the tooth preparation. Sensitivity of the tested abutment was determined by the patient response to cold, hot and bite stimuli and were recorded on visual analog scale (VAS). Sensitivity level scores was evaluated at 4 time intervals, i.e. 1 week after desensitizer application at baseline precementation appointment and others at 5 minutes, 1 day and 1 week postcementation appointment. VAS score data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey's test. BisBlock and GC Tooth Mousse desensitizer resulted in statistically signifcant (p < 0.01) reduction in postcementation sensitivity of glass ionomer cement in comparison to Systemp desensitizer at 5 minutes, 1 week postcementation time interval with no statistical difference was seen between all desensitizer groups at 1 day postcementation. Application of BisBlock and GC Tooth Mousse desensitizer resulted in highly signifcant (p < 0.01) reduction

  6. [Advance in studies on effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in relieving purgative activity of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin; Li, Xiao-bo

    2015-02-01

    Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely applied in clinic. Its major purgative constituent is anthraquinones, which are believed to be a toxic ingredient. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma has been reputed as the best alexipharmic to moderate medicine natures. In this paper, the effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in relieving purgative activity of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was studied in two aspects--the boiling process and intestinal metabolism; Studies on combined administration of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in recent years were summarized according to chemical constituent, intestinal flora, I/II phase metabolism and drug transport. However, the material basis and mechanism for their compatibility remain unclear, further studies will be made in the future.

  7. Real-life effectiveness of budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy in asthma patients across Asia: SMARTASIA study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nanshan; Lin, Jiangtao; Mehta, Parthiv; Ngamjanyaporn, Pintip; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Yunus, Faisal

    2013-04-04

    The use of budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler for both maintenance and reliever therapy is a recommended option for treatment of persistent asthma not responding well to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) alone. This was a multi-centre open-label study on patients whose asthma condition remained inadequately controlled by various asthma treatments other than budesonide/formoterol. After a 2-week run-in period, eligible patients underwent a 12-week treatment period with budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort SMART(®), 160/4.5 μg) twice daily plus as needed. Patient's asthma control and quality of life were assessed using the 5-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5) and the standardized Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ-S), respectively. A total of 862 eligible asthma patients who have had asthma for a mean duration of 10.73 ± 12.03 years entered a 12-week treatment with budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy. During treatment, ACQ-5 score improved significantly by 0.58 ± 0.93 (95% CI, 0.51 to 0.64, P < 0.0001) from the baseline level of 1.62 ± 1.00. AQLQ(S) score improved by 0.70 ± 0.89 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.76, P < 0.0001) from baseline. Asthma symptom score was also reduced significantly (P < 0.0001); between run-in and treatment periods, night- and day-time symptom scores were reduced by 0.32 ± 0.54 (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.35) and 0.30 ± 0.52 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.34), respectively. The percentage of nights with awakenings due to asthma symptoms was reduced by 11.09 ± 26.13% (95% CI, 9.34 to 12.85%), while the percentage of asthma-control and symptom-free days increased by 20.90 ± 34.40% (95% CI, 18.59 to 23.21%) and 23.89 ± 34.62% (95% CI, 21.56 to 26.21%), respectively (P < 0.0001). Together with the improvement in asthma control, the number of night- and day-time inhalations of as-needed reliever medication decreased by 0.30 ± 0.82 (95% CI, 0.24 to 0.35) inhalations and 0.30 ± 0.97 (95% CI, 0.23 to 0.36) inhalations, respectively (P

  8. [An instant pain-relief effect of balance acupuncture for relieving sore throat in acute pharyngitis patients].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Hong; Xie, Ping-Chang; Qin, Xiao-Lan

    2012-08-01

    To observe the instant effect of "Balance Acupuncture" in relieving sore throat in patients with acute pharyngitis. A total of 74 acute pharyngitis patients with sore throat were randomly assigned to treatment group (Balance Acupuncture, n = 36) and placebo acupuncture group (sham acupoint, n = 38). Patients of the Balance Acupuncture group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of bilateral "Yantong" (sore throat) point (the mid-point of the second metacarpal bone on the radial side) and those of the sham acupoint group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of the sham point (the site 1 cm lateral to the mid-point between the ulnar endpoint of the cubic transverse striation and that of the wrist-palm transverse striation). After insertion, the acupuncture needle was manipulated repeatedly till "Deqi" for patients of the treatment group but not manipulated for patients of the placebo acupuncture group, then removed immediately. The VAS (Visual Analogue Scores) were assessed 1 min after the treatment in addition to safety index records. Before the treatment, the VAS values of the treatment group and sham acupoint group were (5.25 +/- 1.51) points and (4.83 +/- 1.59) points, respectively, which had no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). One minute after the treatment, VAS values of the treatment and sham acupoint groups were (2.11 +/- 1.88) points and (3.39 +/- 1.94) points, respectively, both decreasing significantly (P < 0.01). The effect of the former group was significantly superior to that of the sham acupoint group (P < 0.05). Both Balance Acupuncture and sham-acupoint acupuncture treatments can relieve sore throat in acute pharyngitis patients, and the therapeutic effect of Balance Acupuncture treatment is obviously better.

  9. Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Gayoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Jang-Ho; Lee, Hoon-Sang; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD). We took blood samples periodically until 240 min after alcohol consumption, and we investigated the blood profiles, alcohol levels, and acetaldehyde levels. We also measured anthropometric parameters, expiratory air-alcohol levels, and hangover symptoms. The plasma alcohol concentrations within the RGD group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min (p = 0.002), 45 min (p = 0.016), and 60 min (p = 0.009); the areas under the response curves revealed a positive effect of RGD (p = 0.051). Furthermore, the expiratory alcohol concentration was significantly lower after 30 min (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.065), and the areas under the response curves (p = 0.058) likewise revealed a positive effect of RGD. The plasma acetaldehyde level was significantly elevated at 120 min (p = 0.020), but the areas under the response curves showed a similar trend (p = 0.054). While the plasma acetaldehyde concentration slightly increased, the RGD showed positive effects on hangover symptoms. Considering the reduction of plasma alcohol levels, expiratory concentrations, and hangover severity, we conclude that red ginseng relieves the symptoms of alcohol hangover.

  10. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Billet/Die Interface and Measures to Relieve Thermal Stress for Hot Forging Die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baoshan; Wang, Leigang; Geng, Zhe; Huang, Yao

    2017-07-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) shows the heat transfer capacity at the billet/die interface during the hot forming process, which affects the temperature gradient in the die that may potentially induce high thermal stress. Consequently, this determines the service life of the die. In this paper, a set of experimental equipments were used to identify the IHTC and the upsetting test of superalloy Inconel718 (GH4169) was carried out on the hot flat die to evaluate the IHTC characteristics after the billet heating and die preheating temperature, holding time, and billet deformation rate. The results indicated that the billet heating temperature has a minimal role in IHTC but the other components have a great impact on IHTC. Among them, the billet deformation rate has influenced the IHTC the most. In the die preheating temperature ranging from 150°C to 400°C, it was found that the preheating temperature was proportional to IHTC. A high preheating temperature that leads to a high IHTC was found unfavorable in relieving the die surface thermal stress, and also weakened the die hardness and strength. The IHTC declined with the increase in the holding time as a result of the billet oxidation. Based on these findings, the composite ceramic and polymetallic heat-resistant coatings on the die surface were prepared, respectively, to relieve the thermal stress of die surface by reducing IHTC. It showed that both of the treated dies could effectively reduce the IHTC, blocking the transferred heat from the hot billet and making it applicable to the different hot forging events.

  11. Comparison of steroid antibiotic pack and 10% ichthammol glycerine pack in relieving pain of acute otitis externa in children.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Prakash; Bhatta, Rishi; Bhandari, Sukmit; Pyakurel Bhatta, Manita

    2011-04-01

    This study was carried out with the objective of comparing clinical efficacy of 10% ichthammol glycerine (IG) pack with steroid-antibiotic pack for relieving pain in cases of acute otitis externa. A prospective quasi-randomized clinical trial was completely carried out in 65 patients at Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, TU Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu. Patients of less or equal to 12 years of age and both gender presenting in our outpatient department from October 2008 to December 2009 and diagnosed to have acute otitis externa was evaluated. Six patients were excluded from the study because of not meeting the inclusion criteria. Alternately IG and steroid antibiotic packing were done. For steroid antibiotic group, we use betnovate-N, a combination of betnovate sodium phosphate 0.1% and neomycin sulphate 0.5%. Before packing was carried out, pain was assessed using Wong Baker Scale. Statistical analysis was done using "Z" test of mean to compare average number of pain score and visits in two different groups. There were 33 patients in IG pack group and 32 patients in steroid antibiotic group. In less than 4 years, there were 30 children and in more than 4 years children, there were 35 children. There was male predominance in both the treatment groups and disease was most common in age group less than 4 years. There was statistical significant decrease in number of visits in steroid group in both children less than and more than 4 years. There was also significantly less pain in children with steroid antibiotic group. Use of steroid antibiotic pack in children presenting with acute otitis externa causes earlier relief of pain as well as significantly lesser number of visits. Thus, steroid antibiotic pack is better than 10% ichthammol glycerine packs in relieving pain in acute otitis externa in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy via Turbuhaler versus fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol plus terbutaline in patients with asthma: phase III study results.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Tito; Aquino, Teresita; Fernández, Marcelo; Boonsawat, Watchara; Kawai, Mitsuru; Kudo, Takahide; Ekelund, Jan; Ivanov, Stefan; Carlsson, Lars-Goran

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of budesonide/formoterol as maintenance and reliever therapy versus budesonide/formoterol maintenance plus terbutaline in adults with persistent asthma not adequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy alone. In this 12-month, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase III study (NCT00839800), patients (age ≥ 16 years; receiving maintenance ICS; ≥ 1 severe exacerbation in the 12 months prior to study entry) were randomized to either budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 μg 1 inhalation twice daily plus budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 μg as-needed or budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 μg 1 inhalation twice daily plus terbutaline 0.4 mg as-needed for 12 months. time to first severe asthma exacerbation; secondary outcomes included: lung function, asthma symptom variables and tolerability. Two thousand and ninety-one patients were randomized: 170 (16%) receiving budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy experienced 259 severe exacerbations versus 229 patients (22%) receiving budesonide/formoterol plus terbutaline who experienced 363 severe exacerbations. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy prolonged the time to first severe exacerbation versus budesonide/formoterol plus terbutaline (P = 0.0007) and reduced the instantaneous risk of an exacerbation by 30% (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.57-0.85, P = 0.0003). Times to first oral steroid use, first hospitalization and first emergency room treatment were all significantly prolonged in the budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever group versus budesonide/formoterol plus terbutaline. Both treatment groups were well tolerated. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy provided more effective asthma control, including a prolonged time to first severe asthma exacerbation, than budesonide/formoterol plus terbutaline and was well tolerated. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy also improved

  13. 43 CFR 1825.10 - If I relinquish my interest (such as a claim or lease) in public lands, am I relieved of all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false If I relinquish my interest (such as a claim or lease) in public lands, am I relieved of all further responsibility associated with that interest? 1825.10 Section 1825.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  14. 43 CFR 1825.10 - If I relinquish my interest (such as a claim or lease) in public lands, am I relieved of all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false If I relinquish my interest (such as a claim or lease) in public lands, am I relieved of all further responsibility associated with that interest? 1825.10 Section 1825.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. 43 CFR 1825.10 - If I relinquish my interest (such as a claim or lease) in public lands, am I relieved of all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false If I relinquish my interest (such as a claim or lease) in public lands, am I relieved of all further responsibility associated with that interest? 1825.10 Section 1825.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  16. 43 CFR 1825.10 - If I relinquish my interest (such as a claim or lease) in public lands, am I relieved of all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false If I relinquish my interest (such as a claim or lease) in public lands, am I relieved of all further responsibility associated with that interest? 1825.10 Section 1825.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Tadalafil and Tamsulosin in Relieving Double J Stent Related Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Satinder Pal; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, S. S.; Gangkak, Goto; Vyas, Nachiket; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kumar, Ujwal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Tadalafil and Tamsulosin in treating Double J stent related symptoms. Methods. In a prospective study, 161 patients with DJ related symptoms were randomized into 3 groups: Group A patients (54), Group B patients (53), and Group C patients (54). They were given Tadalafil, Tamsulosin, and placebo, respectively, at 1st week till removal of DJ stent at 3rd week. All patients completed Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ) at 1st week and at 3rd week. The statistical significant difference among groups was determined by the t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariate analysis were used to assess association of the variables within the three groups, and the level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. Tadalafil and Tamsulosin were comparable in relieving urinary symptoms, general health, and work performance (OR = 0.65, 1.8, and 0.92). But Tadalafil was more effective in relieving body pain, sexual problems, and additional problems than Tamsulosin (OR = 5.95, 19.25, and 2.69) and was statistically significant as P < 0.05. Conclusion. Tadalafil was as effective as Tamsulosin in relieving urinary symptom but more effective in relieving sexual symptoms and body pain. PMID:26788054

  18. Oxidative damage induced by heat stress could be relieved by nitric oxide in Trichoderma harzianum LTR-2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Zijun; Guo, Kai; Li, Zhe; Zhou, Hongzi; Wei, Yanli; Li, Jishun; Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul; Yang, Hetong

    2015-04-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is an important commercial biocontrol fungal agent. The temperature has been shown to be an important parameter and strain-specific to the mycelia growth of fungi, but less report makes the known of the mechanisms in T. harzianum. In our study, a 6-h treatment of heat increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) concentration in mycelia to 212 and 230 % the level of the control, respectively. The exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside (150 μM) reduced the TBARS concentration to 53 % of that under heat stress (HS). At the same time, the NO-specific scavenger at 250 μM, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-1-oxyl-3-oxide, prevented the exogenous NO-relieved TBARS accumulation under HS. The increased NO concentration under HS was reduced 41 % by the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, but not the nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor tungstate. Our study exhibited that NO can protect the mycelia of T. harzianum from HS and reduce the oxidative damage by enhancing the activity of NOS and NR.

  19. High-temperature mechanical behavior of cold-worked stress-relieved Zr-2.5Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, K.; Murlidharan, K.; Sreedharan, K. M.

    1995-10-01

    The mechanical behavior of cold-worked stress-relieved Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material used in pressurized heavy-water reactors is summarized in terms of ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and percentage elongation to fracture, strain-rate sensitivity ( m), strain-hardening index ( n), and activation energy for the self-diffusion of zirconium. Tensile tests carried out in the temperature range of 298 to 773 K at three different strain rates are used to calculate n and m. At higher temperatures, UTS, YS, percentage elongation, and n are found to be strain rate dependent. The plateaus observed in curves for UTS or YS versus temperature are typical of dynamic strain aging behavior. The drop in strength at high temperature is correlated with the self-diffusion of zirconium in α-phase zirconium by comparing the activation energies of the two phenomena. Transmission electron microstructures of thin foils from samples tested at ambient temperature and at 773 K are used to explain the observed variation of n and m with test temperature. A similar trend in the variation of m and percentage elongation with temperature is also explained.

  20. The horizontally-acquired response regulator SsrB drives a Salmonella lifestyle switch by relieving biofilm silencing

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Stuti K; Winardhi, Ricksen S; Periasamy, Saravanan; Dykas, Michal M; Jie, Yan; Kenney, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    A common strategy by which bacterial pathogens reside in humans is by shifting from a virulent lifestyle, (systemic infection), to a dormant carrier state. Two major serovars of Salmonella enterica, Typhi and Typhimurium, have evolved a two-component regulatory system to exist inside Salmonella-containing vacuoles in the macrophage, as well as to persist as asymptomatic biofilms in the gallbladder. Here we present evidence that SsrB, a transcriptional regulator encoded on the SPI-2 pathogenicity-island, determines the switch between these two lifestyles by controlling ancestral and horizontally-acquired genes. In the acidic macrophage vacuole, the kinase SsrA phosphorylates SsrB, and SsrB~P relieves silencing of virulence genes and activates their transcription. In the absence of SsrA, unphosphorylated SsrB directs transcription of factors required for biofilm formation specifically by activating csgD (agfD), the master biofilm regulator by disrupting the silenced, H-NS-bound promoter. Anti-silencing mechanisms thus control the switch between opposing lifestyles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10747.001 PMID:26880544

  1. Phage shock protein PspA of Escherichia coli relieves saturation of protein export via the Tat pathway.

    PubMed

    DeLisa, Matthew P; Lee, Philip; Palmer, Tracy; Georgiou, George

    2004-01-01

    Overexpression of either heterologous or homologous proteins that are routed to the periplasm via the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway results in a block of export and concomitant accumulation of the respective protein precursor in the cytoplasm. Screening of a plasmid-encoded genomic library for mutants that confer enhanced export of a TorA signal sequence (ssTorA)-GFP-SsrA fusion protein, and thus result in higher cell fluorescence, yielded the pspA gene encoding phage shock protein A. Coexpression of pspA relieved the secretion block observed with ssTorA-GFP-SsrA or upon overexpression of the native Tat proteins SufI and CueO. A similar effect was observed with the Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 PspA homologue, VIPP1, indicating that the role of PspA in Tat export may be phylogenetically conserved. Mutations in Tat components that completely abolish export result in a marked induction of PspA protein synthesis, consistent with its proposed role in enhancing protein translocation via Tat.

  2. Relieving pain in minor aphthous stomatitis by a single session of non-thermal carbon dioxide laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zand, Nasrin; Ataie-Fashtami, Leila; Djavid, Gholamreza Esmaeeli; Fateh, Mohsen; Alinaghizadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Fatemi, Seyyed-Mostafa; Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme

    2009-07-01

    This randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of single-session, non-thermal, carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser irradiation in relieving the pain of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis (miRAS) as a prototype of painful oral ulcers. Fifteen patients, each with two discrete aphthous ulcers, were included. One of the ulcers was randomly allocated to be treated with CO(2) laser (1 W of power in de-focused continuous mode) and the other one served as a placebo. Before laser irradiation, a layer of transparent, non-anesthetic gel was placed on both the laser lesions and the placebo lesions. The patients were requested to grade their pain on a visual analog scale up to 96 h post-operatively. The reduction in pain scores was significantly greater in the laser group than in the placebo group. The procedure itself was not painful, so anesthesia was not required. Powermetry revealed the CO(2) laser power to be 2-5 mW after passing through the gel, which caused no significant temperature rise or any visual effect of damage to the oral mucosa. Our results showed that a low-intensity, non-thermal, single-session of CO(2) laser irradiation reduced pain in miRAS immediately and dramatically, with no visible side effects.

  3. The Role of Scalp Acupuncture for Relieving the Chronic Pain of Degenerative Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study of Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Nagwa Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic and painful condition secondary to deterioration of cartilage. OA-related pain can be managed pharmacologically together with complementary therapies, such as acupuncture. Objective The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture (YNSA) for relieving pain associated with OA in Egyptian women. Design and Setting At the Female Outpatient Pain Clinic, of the National Research Centre, in Cairo, Egypt, between March 2008 and June 2009, 30 females (ages 27–80) presenting with chronic pain caused by OA were studied. Intervention The affected YNSA points were treated for 20 minutes in a single session. Main Outcome Measure Pain was assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) prior to, and 1 hour after, the intervention. Results Preintervention VAS scores were: 3–10 (mean 7.43±1.9; P>0.05). Postintervention VAS scores ranged from 0 to 8 (mean 3.37±2.1) with a statistically significant positive correlation between these scores and pretreatment values (P=0.01). Postintervention VAS scores were significantly related to pain locations. Post-hoc analysis showed statistically significant lower postintervention VAS scores for cervical OA, compared to those of lumbosacral OA. Conclusions YNSA acupuncture is effective in immediate pain relief among females suffering from degenerative OA. PMID:24761173

  4. The Role of Scalp Acupuncture for Relieving the Chronic Pain of Degenerative Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study of Egyptian Women.

    PubMed

    Allam, Hemat; Mohammed, Nagwa Hassan

    2013-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic and painful condition secondary to deterioration of cartilage. OA-related pain can be managed pharmacologically together with complementary therapies, such as acupuncture. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture (YNSA) for relieving pain associated with OA in Egyptian women. At the Female Outpatient Pain Clinic, of the National Research Centre, in Cairo, Egypt, between March 2008 and June 2009, 30 females (ages 27-80) presenting with chronic pain caused by OA were studied. The affected YNSA points were treated for 20 minutes in a single session. Pain was assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) prior to, and 1 hour after, the intervention. PREINTERVENTION VAS SCORES WERE: 3-10 (mean 7.43±1.9; P>0.05). Postintervention VAS scores ranged from 0 to 8 (mean 3.37±2.1) with a statistically significant positive correlation between these scores and pretreatment values (P=0.01). Postintervention VAS scores were significantly related to pain locations. Post-hoc analysis showed statistically significant lower postintervention VAS scores for cervical OA, compared to those of lumbosacral OA. YNSA acupuncture is effective in immediate pain relief among females suffering from degenerative OA.

  5. Sensitization behaviour of modified 316N and 316L stainless steel weld metals after complex annealing and stress relieving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathavarthini, N.; Dayal, R. K.; Khatak, H. S.; Shankar, V.; Shanmugam, V.

    2006-09-01

    Sensitization behaviour of austenitic stainless steel weld metals prepared using indigenously developed modified 316N (C = 0.05%; N = 0.12%) and 316L (C = 0.02%; N = 0.07%) electrodes was studied. Detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examination was carried out to understand the microstructural changes occurring in the weld metal during isothermal exposure at various temperatures ranging from 500 °C to 850 °C (773-1123 K). Based on these studies the mechanism of sensitization in the austenite-ferrite weld metal has been explained. Time-temperature-sensitization (TTS) diagrams were established using ASTM A262 Practice E test. From the TTS diagrams, critical cooling rate (CCR) above which there is no risk of sensitization was calculated for both materials. The heating/cooling rates to be followed for avoiding sensitization during heat treatment cycles consisting of solution-annealing and stress-relieving in fabrication of welded components of AISI 316LN stainless steel (SS) were estimated taking into account the soaking time and the number of times the component undergoes thermal excursions in the sensitization regime. The results were validated by performing controlled heating and cooling heat treatment trials on welded specimens.

  6. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles relieve silk gland damage and increase cocooning of Bombyx mori under phoxim-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Yu, Xiaohong; Gui, Suxin; Xie, Yi; Hong, Jie; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Sang, Xuezi; Sun, Qingqing; Wang, Ling; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

    2013-12-18

    Organophosphate pesticides are applied widely in the world for agricultural purposes, and their exposures often resulted in non-cocooning of Bombyx mori in China. TiO2 nanoparticles have been demonstrated to increase pesticide resistance of Bombyx mori. While the toxicity of phoxim is well-documented, very limited information exists on the mechanisms of TiO2 nanoparticles improving the cocooning function of Bombyx mori following exposure to phoxim. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to determine whether TiO2 nanoparticles attenuate silk gland injury and elevate cocooning of B. mori following exposure to phoxim. The findings suggested that phoxim exposure resulted in severe damages of the silk gland structure and significantly decreased the cocooning in the silk gland of Bombyx mori. Furthermore, phoxim exposure significantly resulted in reductions of total protein concentrations and suppressed expressions of silk protein synthesis-related genes, including Fib-L, Fib-H, P25, Ser-2, and Ser-3, in the silk gland. TiO2 nanoparticle pretreatment, however, could significantly relieve silk gland injury of Bombyx mori. Importantly, TiO2 nanoparticles could remarkably elevate cocooning and total protein contents and promote expressions of Fib-L, Fib-H, P25, Ser-2, and Ser-3 in the silk gland following exposure to phoxim.

  7. American and German students' knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors with respect to over-the-counter pain relievers.

    PubMed

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V; Gummerum, Michaela; Brass, Eric P

    2007-11-01

    To better understand the knowledge base and perceptions involved in the decision to buy and use over-the-counter pain relievers (OTCPRs) by taking into account the environment in which these decisions are made. The authors expected that the differences in access and marketing would affect knowledge and decision making related to OTCPRs in the United States and Germany. A survey was given to 108 undergraduate university students in the United States and Germany (58 and 50 participants, respectively). The authors found that significantly more Americans than Germans take OTCPRs and that they also take significantly more OTCPRs. Americans exhibited less knowledge about side effects than their German counterparts. When asked when they consulted package labels, Americans reported they were more likely to do so before buying a product, whereas Germans reported consulting labels before taking OTCPRs for the first time. Package labels affected more Americans' decisions to purchase OTCPRs; Americans were also less likely to consult a doctor when feeling pain but more likely to take OTCPRs. Finally, Americans viewed OTCPRs as riskier after their status changed from prescription only to over the counter, whereas Germans believed they posed less risk. This study analyzed health-related behavior by looking at how environmental factors shape decision processes related to over-the-counter drug use. The results indicate that looking at environmental factors does help to explain differences in knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors among German and American students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Perturbing NR2B-PSD-95 interaction relieves neuropathic pain by inactivating CaMKII-CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fangxia; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Lin; Song, Jia; Zhu, Yingjun; Chu, Shuaishuai; Shao, Xueming; Li, Xiuxiu; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2017-09-06

    Neuropathic pain is characterized by central sensitization. The interaction between N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) plays a major role in central sensitization. Here, we aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of disruption of the interaction between NMDAR and PSD-95. Chronic dorsal root ganglia compression model rats were used to mimic sciatica. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were evaluated. The expression of spinal phospho-NR2B, PSD-95, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) was measured using western blotting. A mimetic peptide Myr-NR2B9c was injected intrathecally to disrupt the interaction between PSD-95 and NR2B and detected by coimmunoprecipitation. Chronic dorsal root ganglia compression surgery induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, and upregulated pain-related proteins such as phospho-NR2B, PSD-95, CaMKII, and CREB expressions in the spinal cord. Myr-NR2B9c disrupted the interaction between NR2B-containing NMDARs and PSD-95 in the spinal cord. Intrathecal administration of Myr-NR2B9c attenuated neuropathic pain behaviors and downregulated the expressions of phospho-NR2B, PSD-95, CaMKII, and CREB in the spinal cord. The present study indicates that dissociation of NR2B-containing NMDARs from PSD-95 inactivates CaMKII and CREB signaling and relieves pain.

  9. Prospect of relieving pain due to tooth movement during orthodontic treatment utilizing a Ga-Al-As diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Goseki, Takemi; Shibata, Yasuko; Takiguchi, Hisashi; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Iwasawa, Tadamasa

    1995-04-01

    The effects of low-power laser irradiation on prostaglandin (PG)E2 and interleukin(IL)-1(beta) production in stretched human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were assessed in vitro. PDL cells derived from healthy premolars were utilized for these experiments. Cells were seeded in flexible-bottom culture plates and elongated (18% increase) under a vacuum at 6 cycles per minute for 1 to 5 days. The stretched cells were irradiated with a Ga-Al-As low-power diode laser (60 mW) once a day for 3 to 10 minutes for 1 to 5 days. PGE2 and IL-1(beta) levels in the medium were measured by radio immunoassay. Human PDL cells showed a marked elevation in PGE2 and IL-1(beta) production in response to mechanical stretching. The increase in PGE2 production was significantly inhibited by laser irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in IL-1(beta) production was also inhibited by laser irradiation, although the inhibition was only partial under this irradiation condition. Since high levels of PGE2 and IL-1(beta) are found in the PDL when teeth are moved during orthodontic treatment and since both factors are involved with the induction of pain, the inhibitory effects of laser irradiation on PGE2 and IL-1(beta) production suggest that laser irradiation may have therapeutic benefits in relieving the pain that accompanies orthodontic treatment.

  10. Arginine Relieves the Inflammatory Response and Enhances the Casein Expression in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tianyou; Wang, Chao; Ding, Luoyang; Shen, Yizhao; Cui, Huihui; Wang, Mengzhi; Wang, Hongrong

    2016-01-01

    As one of functional active amino acids, L-arginine holds a key position in immunity. However, the mechanism that arginine modulates cow mammary inflammatory response in ruminant is unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of L-arginine on inflammatory response and casein expression after challenging the bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cells were divided into four groups, stimulated with or without LPS (10 μg/mL) and treated with or without arginine (100 μg/mL) for 12 h. The concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways as well as the casein was determined. The results showed that arginine reduced the LPS-induced production like IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS. Though the expression of NF-κB was attenuated and the mTOR signaling pathway was upregulated, arginine had no effect on TLR4 expression. In addition, our results show that the content of β-casein and the total casein were enhanced after arginine was supplemented in LPS-induced BMECs. In conclusion, arginine could relieve the inflammatory reaction induced by LPS and enhance the concentration of β-casein and the total casein in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:27110069

  11. Sivelestat relieves respiratory distress refractory to dexamethasone in all-trans retinoic acid syndrome: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Kozo; Akaike, Hiroto; Miyauchi, Ayaka; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2006-01-01

    Kawasaki K, Akaike H, Miyauchi A, Ouchi K. Sivelestat relieves respiratory distress refractory to dexamethasone in all-trans retinoic acid syndrome: a report of two cases. Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) improves the prognosis of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but ATRA syndrome may occur as a possible fatal side effect, especially in cases refractory to medication or involving pulmonary hemorrhage. We describe two patients with APL who suffered from intracranial hemorrhage. The first patient was a 16-yr-old girl who was treated with ATRA and then developed respiratory distress refractory to treatment with dexamethasone combined with anthracycline-cytarabine cytoreduction therapy. Treatment with Sivelestat, a small molecule inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, achieved rapid improvement in oxygenation and chest radiograph findings, and the patient has been in complete remission for 24 months. The second patient was a 10-yr-old boy in whom pulmonary hemorrhage developed following administration of ATRA, dexamethasone and cytoreduction therapy. Aspiration and administration of Sivelestat improved oxygenation and he remained stable. Hematological improvement was also achieved, but the patient died of brain dysfunction because of cerebral edema accompanied by intracranial bleeding. The two cases suggest that Sivelestat may be effective as an additional agent in the treatment of refractory ATRA syndrome, and, therefore, prospective randomized studies of treatment protocols are warranted. PMID:16930140

  12. St. John's Wort seed and feverfew flower extracts relieve painful diabetic neuropathy in a rat model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Maidecchi, Anna; Mattoli, Luisa; Burico, Michela; Ghelardini, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes and the few approved therapies for the management of pain have limited efficacy and side effects. With the aim to explore and develop new pharmacological treatments, we investigated the antihyperalgesic properties of St. John's Wort (SJW) and feverfew in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Acute administration of a SJW seed extract reversed mechanical hyperalgesia with a prolonged effect. A SJW extract obtained from the aerial portion of the plant and a feverfew flower extract partially relieved neuropathic pain whereas a feverfew leaf extract was ineffective. The antihyperalgesic efficacy of these herbal drugs was comparable to that of clinically used antihyperalgesic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, l-acetyl-levocarnitine). Further examinations of SJW and feverfew composition revealed that hyperforin and hypericin might be responsible for the antihyperalgesic properties of SJW whereas the efficacy of feverfew seems to be related to the presence of parthenolide. Rats undergoing treatment with SJW and feverfew did not show any behavioral side effect or sign of altered locomotor activity. Our results suggest that SJW and feverfew extracts may become new therapeutic perspectives for painful DPN. © 2013.

  13. Erythrocyte-Membrane-Enveloped Perfluorocarbon as Nanoscale Artificial Red Blood Cells to Relieve Tumor Hypoxia and Enhance Cancer Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Liang, Chao; Song, Xuejiao; Chen, Qian; Jin, Qiutong; Wang, Chao; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-09-01

    Hypoxia, a common feature within many types of solid tumors, is known to be closely associated with limited efficacy for cancer therapies, including radiotherapy (RT) in which oxygen is essential to promote radiation-induced cell damage. Here, an artificial nanoscale red-blood-cell system is designed by encapsulating perfluorocarbon (PFC), a commonly used artificial blood substitute, within biocompatible poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), obtaining PFC@PLGA nanoparticles, which are further coated with a red-blood-cell membrane (RBCM). The developed PFC@PLGA-RBCM nanoparticles with the PFC core show rather efficient loading of oxygen, as well as greatly prolonged blood circulation time owing to the coating of RBCM. With significantly improved extravascular diffusion within the tumor mass, owing to their much smaller nanoscale sizes compared to native RBCs with micrometer sizes, PFC@PLGA-RBCM nanoparticles are able to effectively deliver oxygen into tumors after intravenous injection, leading to greatly relieved tumor hypoxia and thus remarkably enhanced treatment efficacy during RT. This work thus presents a unique type of nanoscale RBC mimic for efficient oxygen delivery into solid tumors, favorable for cancer treatment by RT, and potentially other types of therapy as well. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Could humic acid relieve the biochemical toxicities and DNA damage caused by nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms (Eisenia foetida)?

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen-Chao; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Wang, Mei-Zhen; Wan, Ming-Yang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether humic acid (HA) prevented gene and biochemical toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia foetida) exposed to nickel and deltamethrin (at 100 and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively) in soil. Cellular- and molecular-level toxic effects of nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms were evaluated by measuring damage to lipid membranes and DNA and the production of protein carbonyls over 42 days of exposure. Nickel and deltamethrin induced significant levels of oxidative stress in earthworms, increasing the production of peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls) and increasing the comet assay tail DNA% (determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis). DNA damage was the most sensitive of the three indices because it gave a higher sample/control ratio than did the other indices. The presence of HA alleviated (in decreasing order of effectiveness) damage to DNA, proteins, and lipid membranes caused by nickel and deltamethrin. A low HA dose (0.5-1% HA in soil) prevented a great deal of lipid membrane damage, but the highest HA dose (3% HA in soil) prevented still more DNA damage. However, the malondialdehyde concentrations in earthworms were higher at the highest HA dose than at the lower HA doses. The amounts of protein carbonyls produced at different HA doses were not significantly different. The toxic effects to earthworms caused by increased oxidizable nickel concentrations could be relieved by adding HA.

  15. Keeping Fit: Stress Relievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crupi, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    With all the extra demands that are placed on teachers during the months of May and June, the end of the year can be an extremely stressful time. This article describes several tips for diminishing the effects of end of year stress. The following relaxation tips are described: (1) Neck and Upper Shoulder Stretch; (2) Superman Stretch; (3) Doorway…

  16. Combination formoterol and budesonide as maintenance and reliever therapy versus inhaled steroid maintenance for chronic asthma in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cates, Christopher J; Lasserson, Toby J

    2009-04-15

    Traditionally inhaled treatment for asthma has been considered as preventer and reliever therapy. The combination of formoterol and budesonide in a single inhaler introduces the possibility of using a single inhaler for both prevention and relief of symptoms (single inhaler therapy). The aim of this review is to compare formoterol and corticosteroid in single inhaler for maintenance and relief of symptoms with inhaled corticosteroids for maintenance and a separate reliever inhaler. We last searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register in September 2008. Randomised controlled trials in adults and children with chronic asthma. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted the characteristics and results of each study. Authors or manufacturers were asked to supply unpublished data in relation to primary outcomes. Five studies on 5,378 adults compared single inhaler therapy with current best practice, and did not show a significant reduction in participants with exacerbations causing hospitalisation (Peto OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.24 to 1.45) or treated with oral steroids (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.03). Three of these studies on 4281 adults did not show a significant reduction in time to first severe exacerbation needing medical intervention (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07). These trials demonstrated a reduction in the mean total daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids with single inhaler therapy (mean reduction ranged from 107 to 267 micrograms/day, but the trial results were not combined due to heterogeneity). The full results from four further studies on 4,600 adults comparing single inhaler therapy with current best practice are awaited.Three studies including 4,209 adults compared single inhaler therapy with higher dose budesonide maintenance and terbutaline for symptom relief. No significant reduction was found with single inhaler therapy in the risk of patients suffering an asthma exacerbation leading to hospitalisation (Peto OR 0

  17. The CPP-ACP relieved enamel erosion from a carbonated soft beverage: an in vitro AFM and XRD study.

    PubMed

    Wang, C P; Huang, S B; Liu, Y; Li, J Y; Yu, H Y

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the CPP-ACP's effect on enamel against carbonated beverage erosion and explore the potential mechanism. A total of 30 enamel samples were prepared from sound bovine incisors, divided into 3 groups. Samples in the control group were kept in artificial saliva. Specimens' surfaces were smeared with a CPP-ACP agent (Tooth Mousse, TM) for 3 min, rinsed with distilled water for 10s, merged into cola (Coca Cola, CC) for 4 intervals of 2 min, rinsed again for the TM+CC group. In the CC group, specimens were treated solely with cola for 4 intervals (2 min each). The cycles were applied at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 h. The surface microhardness (SMH) alterations were measured using a microhardness tester, the surface profiles were analyzed using the atomic force microscope, and the surface crystalline amount (I%) and crystallinity (FWHM) were analyzed using X-ray diffractometer. The SMH were significantly decreased in CC group, showing the largest SMH alteration; the reduction of SMH in TM+CC group was lower than that in CC group, still larger than control. After cycles, the TM+CC group showed rougher surfaces than control, while the CC group had the roughest surfaces. The TM+CC had an I% higher than the CC, and lower than the control. The TM+CC group had a FWHM lower than CC, higher than control. CPP-ACP was able to relieve the erosion on enamel from carbonated beverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Case Report of the Symptom-Relieving Action of an Anterior Flat Plane Bite Plate for Temporomandibular Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Kengo; Chiwata, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Splint therapy is a widely used modality for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). However, questions remain regarding the mechanism of symptom relief. Recently, a relation between TMD and a discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP) and the anterior flat plane bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP) has been reported. Therefore, to understand the mechanism of the symptom relief associated with the use of a bite plate, the changes in both the HOP and BPOP values were observed during anterior bite plate treatment in a patient with TMD. Case presentation Anterior bite plate treatment was started in a patient complaining of arthralgia. A discrepancy between the HOP and BPOP values was recorded three days after the first visit; this discrepancy disappeared on day 6, and the disappearance was maintained between days 6 and 12. The disappearance was associated with a decrease in the severity of the patient’s symptoms; however, the discrepancy reappeared after 15 days, coinciding with the complete disappearance of the patient’s symptoms. Therefore, the effect of the bite plate on the resolution of the discrepancy between the HOP and BPOP values was interpreted as being unsustainable and occlusal equilibration for the BPOP was performed at 17 days. Thereafter, neither a discrepancy in the HOP and BPOP values nor any symptoms of TMD (right temporomandibular joint pain or limited jaw opening) reoccurred during a two-year follow-up period. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, the symptom-relieving action of an anterior flat plane bite plate on the resolution of occlusal discrepancy appeared to be temporary. This outcome supports previously reported conclusions that the effectiveness of stabilization splint therapy for reducing symptoms in patients with pain dysfunction syndrome does not differ significantly from that of other conservative therapies or of no treatment at all. PMID:21243070

  19. P2Y12 shRNA treatment relieved HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liran; Wu, Bing; Yi, Zhihua; Zhao, Shanhong; Zou, Lifang; Li, Lin; Yuan, Huilong; Jia, Tianyu; Liu, Shuangmei; Liu, Hui; Gao, Yun; Li, Guilin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Chunping; Liang, Shangdong

    2017-08-18

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein (glycoprotein 120, gp120) can induce chronic neuropathic pain by directly stimulating primary sensory afferent neurons. Activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) plays an important role in the transmission of neuropathic pain. The P2Y12 receptor is expressed in SGCs of DRG. In this study, we investigated the role of the P2Y12 receptor in HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain. The results showed that peripheral nerve exposure to HIV gp120 increased mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120-treated model rats. The gp120 treatment increased the expression of P2Y12 mRNA and protein in DRG SGCs. Treatment with P2Y12 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in DRG SGCs decreased the upregulated expression of P2Y12 mRNA and protein in DRG SGCs as well as relieved mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120-treated rats. Reduction of P2Y12 receptor decreased co-expression of P2Y12 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), expression of GFAP, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor 1 (TNF-R1), and phosphorylation of Akt (p-Akt) proteins in DRG of gp120-treated rats. Upregulation of GFAP is a marker of SGC activation. Therefore, P2Y12 shRNA treatment decreased HIV gp120-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120-treated rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivation of Cytochrome o Ubiquinol Oxidase Relieves Catabolic Repression of the Pseudomonas putida GPo1 Alkane Degradation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dinamarca, M. Alejandro; Ruiz-Manzano, Ana; Rojo, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Expression of the alkane degradation pathway encoded by the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 is regulated by two control systems. One relies on the transcriptional regulator AlkS, which activates expression of the pathway in the presence of alkanes. The other, which is a dominant global regulation control, represses the expression of the pathway genes when a preferred carbon source is present in the growth medium in addition to alkanes. This catabolite repression control occurs through a poorly characterized mechanism that ultimately regulates transcription from the two AlkS-activated promoters of the pathway. To identify the factors involved, a screening method was developed to isolate mutants without this control. Several isolates were obtained, all of which contained mutations that mapped to genes encoding cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase, the main terminal oxidase of the electron transport chain under highly aerobic conditions. Elimination of this terminal oxidase led to a decrease in the catabolic repression observed both in rich Luria-Bertani medium and in a defined medium containing lactate or succinate as the carbon source. This suggests that catabolic repression could monitor the physiological or metabolic status by using information from the electron transport chain or from the redox state of the cell. Since inactivation of the crc gene also reduces catabolic repression in rich medium (although not that observed in a defined medium), a strain was generated lacking both the Crc function and the cytochrome o terminal oxidase. The two mutations had an additive effect in relieving catabolic repression in rich medium. This suggests that crc and cyo belong to different regulation pathways, both contributing to catabolic repression. PMID:12081947

  1. The frequency of, and adherence to, single maintenance and reliever therapy instructions in asthma: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    DiSantostefano, Rachael L; Boudiaf, Nada; Stempel, David A; Barnes, Neil C; Greening, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) fixed-dose combinations are recommended regular maintenance options for asthma. ICS/LABAs containing formoterol may also be indicated for single maintenance and reliever therapy (SMART). This analysis evaluated the frequency of SMART dosing of budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (BFC) in the United Kingdom. Secondary objectives were to assess adherence and use of short-acting ß2-agonists (SABAs). This was a descriptive analysis of treatment patterns using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink-GP OnLine Database data (2009–2013). SMART dosing was determined when prescription instructions contained guidance for daily dosing plus ‘and when required’. Treatment and prescription refill patterns of BFC and SABA were described in the year following the index date to identify adherence and SMART dosing instructions versus other dosing regimens. Of 14,818 patients identified, 173 (1.2%) had evidence of prescriptions for SMART dosing at their index BFC prescription. Despite being prescribed SMART dosing, 91 of 173 patients (53%) were additionally dispensed SABA in the year following the index date. The mean number of BFC inhalers used was less than required for daily treatment for SMART and non-SMART dosing groups (4.7 and 4.8, respectively).This analysis suggests that SMART dosing is infrequent when examining dosing instructions. Therefore, results of randomised clinical trials using SMART dosing may not translate to clinical practice in the United Kingdom because of the low level of SMART prescription, concurrent use of SABA, and inadequate refill persistence observed. Further research is needed to understand SMART dosing in real-world clinical practice. PMID:27442488

  2. Acute single dose of ketamine relieves mechanical allodynia and consequent depression-like behaviors in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Fen; Wang, Jing; Han, Jin-Feng; Guo, Jie; Xie, Ze-Min; Pan, Wei; Yang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Kang-Jian

    2016-09-19

    Both chronic pain and depression are debilitating diseases, which often coexist in clinic. However, current analgesics and antidepressants exhibit limited efficacy for this comorbidity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ketamine on the comorbidity of inflammatory pain and consequent depression-like behaviors in a rat model established by intraplantar administration of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA). The mechanical withdrawal threshold, thermal withdrawal latency, open field test, forced swimming test, and sucrose preference test were evaluated after the CFA injection and ketamine treatment. The hippocampus was harvested to determine the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), kynurenine (KYN), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and tryptophan (TRP). The inflammatory pain-induced depression-like behaviors presented on 7days and lasted to at least 14days after the CFA injection. Single dose of ketamine at 20mg/kg relieved both the mechanical allodynia and the associated depression-like behaviors as demonstrated by the attenuated mechanical withdrawal threshold, reduced immobility time in the forced swim test, and increased sucrose preference after ketamine treatment. The total distance had no significant change after the CFA injection or ketamine treatment in the open field test. Simultaneously, ketamine reduced the levels of IL-6, IL-1β, IDO, and KYN/TRP ratio and increased the 5-HT/TRP ratio in the hippocampus. In conclusion, acute single dose of ketamine can rapidly attenuate mechanical allodynia and consequent depression-like behaviors and down-regulate hippocampal proinflammatory responses and IDO/KYN signal pathway in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extreme lateral interbody fusion relieves symptoms of spinal stenosis and low-grade spondylolisthesis by indirect decompression in complex patients.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Farwana, Mohammad; Lam, Khai S

    2017-01-01

    Spinal stenosis and low-grade spondylolisthesis produce symptoms of neural compression that can be treated with extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion (XLIF) via indirect decompression. This study aimed to investigate whether the restoration of disc dimensions would relieve symptoms of radiculopathy, claudication and back pain. In this retrospective study, patients undergoing XLIF surgery for relief of radicular symptoms or degenerative disc disease were included. Radiologically proven changes were used to assess the modes of degeneration. Objective measures such as the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for back and legs and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were used. Complications were collated post-operatively from clinical notes and outpatient appointments. Twenty-three consecutive patients were included, of whom 91% had spinal stenosis. The cohort presented with multiple comorbidities and 35% of the cohort had undergone previous lumbar surgery. There was a 61% improvement of coronal Cobb angle and an 11% correction of the lordosis sustained 1year after surgery. Clinical outcomes at 1year showed 39%, 50% and 60% improvements in the ODI, back and leg VAS scores respectively. 48% of patients had reduced sensation related to lumbosacral plexus manipulation and one retroperitoneal haematoma was conservatively managed. Minimally invasive spinal (MIS) XLIF resulted in effective restoration of disc dimensions via indirect decompression, providing good relief of clinical symptoms evidenced by significant improvement in clinical outcome scores. XLIF corrected scoliosis and improved lumbar lordosis significantly. Several plexopathies did not hinder long-term recovery. XLIF is highly suited to treating complex patients with multiple comorbidities and degenerative disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relieved residual damage in the hematopoietic system of mice rescued by radiation-induced adaptive response (Yonezawa Effect)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Maruyama, Kouichi; VarèS, Guillaume; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    Existence of adaptive response (AR) was previously demonstrated in C57BL/6J mice. Irradiations were performed by delivering a priming low dose of X-rays (0.50 Gy) in combination with a challenge high dose of accelerated carbon or neon ion particles. AR was characterized by significantly decreased mortality in the 30-day survival test. This mouse AR model (‘Yonezawa Effect’) was originally established by using X-rays as both the priming and challenge irradiations. The underlying mechanism was due to radio-resistance occurring in blood-forming tissues. In this study, we verified the existence of AR and further investigated residual damage in the hematopoietic system in surviving animals. Results showed that the priming low dose of X-rays could relieve the detrimental effects on the hematopoietic system. We observed both an improvement in the blood platelet count and the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) to the sum of PCEs and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) and a marked reduction of the incidences of micronucleated PCEs and micronucleated NCEs. These findings suggest that the priming low dose of low linear energy transfer (LET) X-rays induced a protective effect on the hematopoietic system, which may play an important role in both rescue from acute lethal damage (mouse killing) and prevention of late detrimental consequences (residual anhematopoiesis and delayed genotoxic effects) caused by exposure to a high challenge dose from low-LET (X-ray) or high-LET (carbon and neon ion) irradiations. These findings provide new knowledge of the characterization of the Yonezawa Effect by providing new insight into the mechanistic study of AR in vivo. PMID:22923746

  5. Complementary and alternative therapies to relieve labor pain: A comparative study between music therapy and Hoku point ice massage.

    PubMed

    Dehcheshmeh, Faranak Safdari; Rafiei, Hossein

    2015-11-01

    Pain is a common experience for women during labor. In the present study, we compared the effect of two types of non-pharmacological pain relief methods "music therapy" and "Hoku point ice massage" on the severity of labor pain. This prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in Shahrekord, Iran, from September 2013 to June 2014. We randomly assigned 90 primiparous women who expected a normal childbirth into three groups: group "A" received music therapy, group "B" received Hoku point ice massage, and group "C" received usual labor care. At the beginning of the active phase (4 cm cervical dilation) and before and after each intervention (at dilations 4, 6, and 8 cm), the intensities of labor pain were measured using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). At the beginning of the active phase, the mean VAS scores were 5.58 ± 1.29, 5.42 ± 1.31, and 6.13 ± 1.37 in the women in groups "A," "B," and "C," respectively (P > 0.05). After the intervention, the mean pain scores were significantly lower at all of the time points in groups "A" and "B" than in group "C" women (P < 0.05). Although the pain scores showed a more decreasing trend after the intervention in group "A" than that in group "B," the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Music therapy and Hoku point ice massage are easily available and inexpensive methods and have a similar effect in relieving labor pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comparative Study Between Total Contact Cast and Pressure-Relieving Ankle Foot Orthosis in Diabetic Neuropathic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Ray, Sayantan; Biswas, Dibakar; Baidya, Arjun; Bhattacharjee, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Off-loading of the ulcer area is extremely important for the healing of plantar ulcers. Off-loading with total contact cast (TCC) may be superior to other off-loading strategies studied so far, but practical limitations can dissuade clinicians from using this modality. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of TCC compared with that of a pressure-relieving ankle foot orthosis (PRAFO) in healing of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers and their effect on gait parameters. Methods: Thirty adult diabetic patients attending the foot clinic with neuropathic plantar ulcers irrespective of sex, age, duration and type of diabetes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 off-loading modalities (TCC and PRAFO). Main outcome measures were ulcer healing after 4 weeks of randomization and effect of each of the modalities on various gait parameters. Results: The percentage reduction of the ulcer surface area at 4 weeks from baseline was 75.75 ± 9.25 with TCC and 34.72 ± 13.07 with PRAFO, which was significantly different (P < .001). The results of this study however, showed that most of the gait parameters were better with PRAFO than with TCC. Conclusions: This study comprehensively evaluated the well known advantages and disadvantages of a removable (PRAFO) and a nonremovable device (TCC) in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcer. Further studies are needed involving larger subjects and using 3D gait analysis to collect more accurate data on gait parameters and wound healing with different off-loading devices. PMID:25452635

  7. Genetic counseling following the detection of hemoglobinopathy trait on the newborn screen is well received, improves knowledge, and relieves anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kladny, Beth; Williams, Andrea; Gupta, Ashish; Gettig, Elizabeth A; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan

    2011-07-01

    The primary purpose of newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies is the presymptomatic diagnosis and early treatment of sickle cell disease. Hemoglobinopathy traits detected on the newborn screening provide an opportunity for genetic counseling of families regarding the trait and information that may impact reproductive decisions of the parents. We describe the results of a study to determine the impact of newborn screening and genetic counseling on the lives of families in which an abnormal hemoglobin trait had been identified. From June 2003 to December 2009, families of children with trait attending a clinic visit and receiving professional genetic counseling were asked to participate in a semistructured follow-up survey regarding their experience and the impact of genetic counseling on their families. Of the 300 patients seen in clinic during the specified time period, 209 consented to be recontacted and 114 have completed the survey. Eighty-five percent of responders reported knowing that the newborn screen had been performed, but only 55% understood the purpose of newborn screening. When asked about the effect of finding out that trait was present in their baby, 19% reported feeling guilty or upset, whereas 4% believed that their partner blamed them for the child's results. That genetic counseling was found to be beneficial was indicated by the fact that 99% reported that their questions were answered, 82% reported feeling less anxious, and 78% discussed the trait with their partner after the appointment. Genetic counseling after newborn screening relieves anxiety, provides knowledge, facilitates dialog within families and between partners about hemoglobinopathy trait, and was seen as a positive experience for the majority of responders.

  8. Non-medical use of prescription pain relievers among high school students in China: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Xu, Yan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Gao, Xue; Li, Pengsheng; Wu, Hong; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given the differences between general high school (GHS) and vocational high school (VHS) students, this study aimed to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-medical use of prescription pain relievers (NMUPPR) among high school students as well as the associations between NMUPPR and individual-level factors and school category. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in GHS and VHS students in 2012 in Chongqing, and 11 906 students’ questionnaires were completed and qualified for the survey. Self-reported NMUPPR and information regarding individual-level determinants and school category were collected. A multilevel multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to explore independent predictors of NMUPPR. Results The total lifetime prevalence of NMUPPR was 11.3%, and NMUPPR was more prevalent among VHS students (15.8%) compared with GHS students (9.8%). Overall, the results indicated that VHS students were more likely to be involved in NMUPPR (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.64, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.89). Regarding the individual-level predictors of NMUPPR, below-average family economic status was negatively correlated with NMUPPR (AOR=0.77, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.98), and students with more pocket money were more likely to be engaged in NMUPPR. Students who had difficult family relationships, had poor relationships with teachers, had parents or friends who engaged in non-medical prescription drug use, and considered or attempted suicide were more likely to be engaged in NMUPPR. Conclusions NMUPPR among high school students is a multidetermined phenomenon. The current findings indicate that VHS students are an important subgroup of adolescents and highlight the need for additional research as well as targeted prevention and intervention programmes for NMUPPR. PMID:26169805

  9. A sigh of relief or a sigh to relieve: The psychological and physiological relief effect of deep breaths.

    PubMed

    Vlemincx, Elke; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2016-10-15

    Both animal and human research have revealed important associations between sighs and relief. Previously we argued to conceive of sighs as resetters which temporarily induce relief. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological relief effect of sighs by instructed deep breaths and spontaneous sighs compared to a control breathing maneuver. Participants completed three blocks of 40 trials during which uncertainty cues were followed by either safety cues followed by a positive picture, or danger cues followed by a negative picture. One block was presented without breathing instructions, two subsequent blocks with breathing instructions. During the presentation of the safety and danger cues, an instruction was given to either 'take a deep breath' or 'postpone the next inhalation for 2 s (breath hold). Continuously, participants rated relief and Frontalis electromyography was recorded. Trait anxiety sensitivity was assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Self-reported relief and physiological tension were compared 5s before and after instructed deep breaths and breath holds, and before and after spontaneous deep breaths and breath holds in the respective blocks. Results show that self-reported relief following an instructed deep breath was higher than before. Physiological tension decreased following a spontaneous sigh in high anxiety sensitive persons and following a spontaneous breath hold in low anxiety sensitive persons. These results are the first to show that a deep breath relieves and, in anxiety sensitive persons, reduces physiological tension. These findings support the hypothesis that sighs are psychological and physiological resetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Berberine relieves insulin resistance via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Fen; Zhao, Yun-bin; Wang, Ding-kun; Zou, Xin; Fang, Ke; Wang, Kai-fu

    2016-02-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Rhizoma coptidis and has been used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China. The development of T2DM is often associated with insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. In this study, we examined whether BBR attenuated glucose uptake dysfunction through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in HepG2 cells. Cellular glucose uptake, quantified by the 2-[N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), was inhibited by 21% after HepG2 cells were incubated with insulin (10(-6) mol/L) for 36 h. Meanwhile, the expression of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) protein was reduced without the change of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the culture supernatant, the ratio of phosphorylated I-kappa-B kinase-β (IKκβ) Ser181/IKKβ and the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein were also increased. However, the treatment with BBR enhanced the glucose uptake, increased the expression of α7nAChR protein and inhibited AChE activity. These changes were also accompanied with the decrease of the ratio of pIKKβ Ser181/IKKβ, NF-κB p65 expression and IL-6 level. Taken together, these results suggest that BBR could enhance glucose uptake, and relieve insulin resistance and inflammation in HepG2 cells. The mechanism may be related to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and the inhibition of AChE activity.

  11. Pain-relieving effects of pulsed magnetic fields in a rat model of carrageenan-induced hindpaw inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mert, Tufan; Ocal, Isil; Cinar, Ercan; Yalcin, M Serkan; Gunay, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Many strategies have been investigated to exclude the several side-effects of pharmacological or invasive treatments. Non-invasive pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment with no toxicity or side-effects can be an alternative to pharmacologic treatments. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the pain-relieving effects of PMF treatment in the inflammatory pain conditions. Effects of PMF treatment on the hallmarks of the inflammatory pain indices such as hyperalgesia, allodynia, edema and several biochemical parameters that evaluate oxidative stress were investigated using a well established carrageenan (CAR)-induced hindpaw inflammation model in rats. CAR injection lowered the paw withdrawal thermal latencies (hyperalgesia) and mechanical thresholds (allodynia). CAR also decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels compared with healthy rat paw tissues. PMF treatment produced significant increases in the thermal latencies and mechanical thresholds in CAR-injected paws. In the inflamed paw tissues, PMF increased the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx and decreased MDA level. We also demonstrated that PMF decreased paw mass indicating that it has an anti-edematous potential. The present results reveal that PMF treatment can ameliorate the CAR-induced inflammatory pain indices such as mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and edema, and attenuate the oxidative stress. The action mechanisms of PMF in CAR-induced inflammation might be related to the increases in the levels of antioxidant enzymes in inflamed tissues. The findings suggest that PMF treatment might be beneficial in inflammatory pain conditions.

  12. Chronic constriction injury-induced nociception is relieved by nanomedicine-mediated decrease of rat hippocampal tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Elizabeth; Spengler, Robert N; Bonoiu, Adela C; Mahajan, Supriya D; Davidson, Bruce A; Ding, Hong; Kumar, Rajiv; Prasad, Paras N; Knight, Paul R; Ignatowski, Tracey A

    2015-07-01

    Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain syndrome that arises from nerve injury. Current treatments only offer limited relief, clearly indicating the need for more effective therapeutic strategies. Previously, we demonstrated that proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is a key mediator of neuropathic pain pathogenesis; TNF is elevated at sites of neuronal injury, in the spinal cord, and supraspinally during the initial development of pain. The inhibition of TNF action along pain pathways outside higher brain centers results in transient decreases in pain perception. The objective of this study was to determine whether specific blockade of TNF in the hippocampus, a site of pain integration, could prove efficacious in reducing sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced pain behavior. Small inhibitory RNA directed against TNF mRNA was complexed to gold nanorods (GNR-TNF siRNA; TNF nanoplexes) and injected into the contralateral hippocampus of rats 4 days after unilateral CCI. Withdrawal latencies to a noxious thermal stimulus (hyperalgesia) and withdrawal to innocuous forces (allodynia) were recorded up to 10 days and compared with baseline values and sham-operated rats. Thermal hyperalgesia was dramatically decreased in CCI rats receiving hippocampal TNF nanoplexes; and mechanical allodynia was transiently relieved. TNF levels (bioactive protein, TNF immunoreactivity) in hippocampal tissue were decreased. The observation that TNF nanoplex injection into the hippocampus alleviated neuropathic pain-like behavior advances our previous findings that hippocampal TNF levels modulate pain perception. These data provide evidence that targeting TNF in the brain using nanoparticle-protected siRNA may be an effective strategy for treatment of neuropathic pain.

  13. The efficacy of facilitated tucking for relieving procedural pain of endotracheal suctioning in very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Ward-Larson, Charlotte; Horn, Robert A; Gosnell, Florence

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of a behavioral pain reducing intervention (facilitated tucking) with standard neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) care for decreasing procedural pain (endotracheal suctioning) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. A prospective randomized crossover design with infants as their own controls were used. The sample consisted of 40 VLBW infants, 23-32 weeks gestation, and weighing 560-1498 g with tracheal intubation. The infants were observed twice during each endotracheal suctioning experience; one suctioning was done according to normal nursery routine; another was done using facilitated tucking (the caregiver "hand-swaddling" the infant by placing a hand on the infant's head and feet while providing flexion and containment). The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) measured the infant's pain response, and severity of illness of each infant was measured by the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP) and the NTISS (Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System). Repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) determined the efficacy of facilitated tucking for reducing procedural pain (PIPP) and the effects of order of intervention vs. control. Regression analyses examined the relationship of gestational age, severity of illness, and number of painful procedures to the pain response. There was a significant difference between the PIPP scores for tucking and nontucking positions (p = 0.001) and a nonsignificant interaction with order (p = 0.64) as well as a nonsignificant main effect for order (p = 0.46). In the regression analyses, all predictors taken together did not significantly predict PIPP scores in the tucked position (p = 0.11) or nontucked position (p = 0.57). Facilitated tucking is a developmentally sensitive, nonpharmacological comfort measure that can relieve procedural pain in VLBW infants. Nurses need to be increasingly aware of infant pain during daily care taking, and to use validated pain assessment instruments

  14. Rectogesic (glyceryl trinitrate 0.2%) ointment relieves symptoms of haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures.

    PubMed

    Tjandra, J J; Tan, J J Y; Lim, J F; Murray-Green, C; Kennedy, M L; Lubowski, D Z

    2007-06-01

    Some haemorrhoids are associated with high resting anal canal pressures. The aim of this study was to assess if Rectogesic, a topical glyceryl trinitrate 0.2% ointment was effective in relieving symptoms of early grade haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures. This was a prospective, two-centre, open label study of 58 patients with persistent haemorrhoidal symptoms. Patients with first or second degree haemorrhoids and a maximum resting anal canal pressure > 70 mmHg were included. Rectogesic was applied three times a day for 14 days. Anorectal manometry was performed 30 min after the first application of Rectogesic. A 28-day diary was completed during 14 days of therapy and for 14 days after cessation of treatment. This recorded the incidence of rectal bleeding, and visual analogue scales for anal pain, throbbing, pruritus, irritation and difficulty in bowel movement. Maximum resting anal canal pressures were reduced after application of Rectogesic (115.0 +/- 40.4 mmHg vs 94.7 +/- 34.1 mmHg, P < 0.001). In the study period and at 14 days after cessation of Rectogesic, there was significant reduction in rectal bleeding (P = 0.0002), and significant improvement of anal pain (P = 0.0024), throbbing (P = 0.0355), pruritus (P = 0.0043), irritation (P = 0.0000) and difficulty in bowel movement (P = 0.001). The main adverse event was headache in 43.1% of patients. Rectogesic is a safe and feasible treatment for patients with early grade haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures.

  15. Clinical hypnosis for palliative care in severe chronic diseases: a review and the procedures for relieving physical, psychological and spiritual symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Maria Paola

    2016-10-01

    Hypnotic treatment in severe chronic diseases, for pain and symptoms relief, has proven efficacy as adjuvant therapy, and should be offered to any individual, who expresses an interest in this method. While some theorize hypnotizability as a changing attribute of the individual, there is a growing body of literature that indicates hypnotizability may be characterized as a constellation of potentially modifiable attitudes and skills, which are strongly influenced by related factors, as suffering, in severe chronic diseases. In this article, I briefly review representative studies recognizing how clinical hypnosis in medicine is an effective complementary therapy, for pain and symptom's relief in severe chronic diseases and in palliative care. This paper highlights: (I) a scientific review to underline how clinical hypnosis has an important impact on the treatment goals and integration in relieving pain and symptoms; (II) the advanced techniques for effectively relieving pain and symptoms.

  16. Multicenter comparison of the efficacy on prevention of pressure ulcer in postoperative patients between two types of pressure-relieving mattresses in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qixia; Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Aiqin; Guo, Yanxia; Liu, Yahong; Liu, Haiying; Qu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Yajun; Guo, Xiujun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Liyan; Bo, Suping; Jia, Jing; Chen, Yuejuan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Present study is designed to evaluate the effects of preventing pressure ulcer in surgical patients with two types of pressure-relieving mattresses. Methods: 1074 surgical patients from 12 hospitals in China were divided into A group (static air mattress with repositioning every 2 hours, n = 562) and B group (power pressure air mattress with repositioning every 2 hours, n = 512). The patient was subjected to a pressure-relieving mattress and observed from 0-5 days after surgery. Indications include the Braden scores, hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) incidence and stage. Results: The Braden scores between two groups in five days after surgery were no significant (P > 0.05). The incidence of HAPU between two groups in same days also was no significant (1.07% vs. 0.98%, P > 0.05). The incidence of Stage I and stage II pressure ulcers in group A and B were 1.07% (6/562) and 0.98% (5/512), respectively (χ2 = 0.148, P = 0.882). Conclusion: The effects of preventing pressure ulcer in surgical patients with two types of pressure-relieving mattresses are similar, but the protocol by static air mattress with repositioning every 2 hours is benefit when no power. PMID:25356144

  17. Relieving nasal congestion in children with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis: efficacy and safety studies of mometasone furoate nasal spray

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In surveys of children with allergic rhinitis (AR), nasal congestion has been identified as the most frequently experienced and bothersome symptom. This analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) on congestion in children with AR. Methods Two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies randomly assigned children to MFNS 100 μg or placebo, 1 spray/nostril QD for 4 weeks (Study 1: ages 6–11 years with seasonal AR [SAR] ≥1 year; Study 2: ages 3–11 years with perennial AR [PAR] ≥1 year). Least square (LS) means were obtained from an ANCOVA model with treatment and study center effects, with baseline score as a covariate. We conducted post hoc evaluation of changes from baseline in AM/PM PRIOR (average of reflective AM and PM scores) nasal congestion (0=none to 3=severe). Results Study 1: MFNS (n=134) reduced congestion significantly more than placebo (n=135) on day 2 (P=.004) and on 23/29 days (P≤.037). Change from baseline was −0.53 and −0.28 for MFNS and placebo (P<.001) over days 1–15 and −0.64 and −0.38 for MFNS and placebo (P<.001) over days 1–29. Study 2: MFNS (n=185) reduced congestion significantly more than placebo (n=189) on day 3 (P=.015) and on 22/29 days (P≤.047). Change from baseline was −0.56 and −0.36 for MFNS and placebo (P<.001) over days 1–15 and −0.64 and −0.45 for MFNS and placebo (P<.001) over days 1–29. MFNS was well tolerated, with no unusual or unexpected adverse events. Conclusion MFNS effectively relieved nasal congestion and was well tolerated in children with SAR or PAR. PMID:23663488

  18. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  19. Clinical Evaluation of self and professionally applied desensitizing agents in relieving dentin hypersensitivity after a single topical application: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Sachin G.; Acharya, Shashidhar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of self and professionally applied desensitizing agents in relieving dentinal hypersensitivity after single direct topical application. Study Design: This was a randomized controlled trial conducted among 57 patients. 8% Arginine paste was self-applied by the subject and Gluma desensitizer was applied by investigator. Numeric rating scale was used to measure hypersensitivity after tactile stimulus, Schiff scale was used for cold and air blast stimuli respectively. Scores were recorded at baseline, immediately, 15 and 30 days after the application. Friedman, Wilcoxon test as post hoc was used to analyze within group differences, between group differences analyzed using Mann Whitney U test (P<0.05 considered significant). Results: 8% Arginine paste elicited significantly higher reductions in sensitivity (P<0.05) than that of Gluma group at all follow ups. There was a significant decrease in hypersensitivity for both the groups from baseline till final follow-up (P<0.05) for all three stimuli. 8% Arginine paste was found to be more effective than Gluma desensitizer in providing immediate relief from dentine hypersensitivity and also sustained the effect significantly for a period of 30 days. Conclusions: Self applied 8% Arginine paste is effective than professionally applied Gluma desensitizer in relieving dentinal hypersensitivity immediately and over a period of one month. Key words:Dentine hypersensitivity, arginine, gluma, desensitizing agents. PMID:25593653

  20. X-ray measurement of near surface residual stress in textured cold-worked stress-relieved Zr 2.5%Nb pressure tube material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, K.; Lahiri, D.; Padmaprabu, C.; Sanyal, T.

    2002-06-01

    In the present study, the near surface residual stress in Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes was measured using X-ray diffraction. Both cold rolled (pilgered) and stress-relieved tubes were studied. Since the material is highly textured and the hexagonal close packed crystal lattice has anisotropic elastic constants, special care is required in collection and analysis of experimental data to minimise errors. The standard multi-exposure technique of X-ray residual-stress measurement results in inaccuracies for textured material. Diffraction intensities depend on factors like inclination of the sample, the rotation of the beam and the position of detectors. Low intensity due to texture can result in increased uncertainties in observed stress value. Anisotropy of elastic constants in textured materials can further increase the errors in measured stress. A general approach has been developed for accurate determination of the stress tensor in textured material. The measured stresses for Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes were highest and compressive along the rolling direction (RD) in the pilgered samples. The stress-relieved samples showed a small tensile component along the RD. Errors up to 20% are introduced if isotropic elastic constants are used in the analysis instead of the more realistic anisotropic elastic constants calculated for the observed texture.

  1. Efficacy of the device combining high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and thermotherapy for relieving primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Banghyun; Hong, Seung Hwa; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Wee Chang; No, Jae Hong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Yang, Eun Joo; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Yong Beom

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of the combined therapy with high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (hf-TENS) and thermotherapy in relieving primary dysmenorrheal pain. In this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study, 115 women with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea were assigned to the study or control group at a ratio of 1:1. Subjects in the study group used an integrated hf-TENS/thermotherapy device, whereas control subjects used a sham device. A visual analog scale was used to measure pain intensity. Variables related to pain relief, including reduction rate of dysmenorrheal score, were compared between the groups. The dysmenorrheal score was significantly reduced in the study group compared to the control group following the use of the devices. The duration of pain relief was significantly increased in the study group compared to the control group. There were no differences between the groups in the brief pain inventory scores, numbers of ibuprofen tablets taken orally, and World Health Organization quality of life-BREF scores. No adverse events were observed related to the use of the study device. The combination of hf-TENS and thermotherapy was effective in relieving acute pain in women with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Blocking of TRPV-1 in the parodontium relieves orthodontic pain by inhibiting the expression of TRPV-1 in the trigeminal ganglion during experimental tooth movement in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yunan; Liu, Yingfei; Zhu, Kun; Zhang, Zhichao; Qiao, Hu; Lu, Zhen; Zhong, Tianyu; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Hong

    2016-08-15

    Orthodontic pain has confused the orthodontics for a long time, and recent research demonstrated that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) had crucial functions in transduction of painful stimuli. The present research investigated the analgesia effects of the blocking TRPV1 on orthodontic pain during experimental tooth movement. Under challenge with experimental tooth movement, the expression of TRPV1 in the parodontium was increased in a time-dependent and force-dependent manner. And treatment with selective TRPV1 antagonist AMG-9810 in the parodontium reduced the expression of TRPV1 in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and decreased the secretion of IL-1β in the gingival crevicular fluid. Furthermore, AMG-9810 could relieve orthodontic pain arising from experimental tooth movement in rats. We suggest that TRPV1 both in the parodontium and trigeminal ganglion are involved in orthodontic pain, and TRPV1 in the parodontium influence on orthodontic pain through reducing the expression of TRPV1 in trigeminal ganglion. Our finding may help to develop strategies for relieving orthodontic pain after orthodontics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Collaboration of local governments and experts responding to the increase of the environmental radiation level secondary to the nuclear accident: a unique activity to relieve residents' anxiety.

    PubMed

    Fujii, H; Iimoto, T; Tsuzuki, T; Iiizumi, S; Someya, S; Hamamichi, S; Kessler, M M

    2015-11-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, 'hot spots' were found in Tokatsu area in Chiba prefecture. Although ambient radiation dose in this area was too low to harm residents' health, local residents were particularly worried about possible adverse effects from exposure to radiation. To avoid unnecessary panic reactions in the public, local governments in Tokatsu area collaborated with radiation specialists and conducted activities to provide local residents with accurate information on health effects from radiation. In addition to these activities, the authors offered one-to-one consultations with a radiologist for parents of small children and expecting mothers. They herein report this unique attempt, focusing on parents' anxiety and the age of their children. Taken together, this unique collaborative activity between local government and experts would be one of the procedures to relieve residents' anxiety. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Improvement in electrical properties of high-κ film on Ge substrate by an improved stress relieved pre-oxide method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji-Bin, Fan; Xiao-Fu, Ding; Hong-Xia, Liu; Peng-Fei, Xie; Yuan-Tao, Zhang; Qing-Liang, Liao

    2016-02-01

    High-κ/Ge gate stack has recently attracted a great deal of attention as a potential candidate to replace planar silicon transistors for sub-22 generation. However, the desorption and volatilization of GeO hamper the development of Ge-based devices. To cope with this challenge, various techniques have been proposed to improve the high-κ/Ge interface. However, these techniques have not been developed perfectly yet to control the interface. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an improved stress relieved pre-oxide (SRPO) method to improve the thermodynamic stability of the high-κ/Ge interface. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results indicate that the GeO volatilization of the high-κ/Ge gate stack is efficiently suppressed after 500 °C annealing, and the electrical characteristics are greatly improved.

  5. Mambalgin-1 Pain-relieving Peptide, Stepwise Solid-phase Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Functional Domain for Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1a Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mourier, Gilles; Salinas, Miguel; Kessler, Pascal; Stura, Enrico A; Leblanc, Mathieu; Tepshi, Livia; Besson, Thomas; Diochot, Sylvie; Baron, Anne; Douguet, Dominique; Lingueglia, Eric; Servent, Denis

    2016-02-05

    Mambalgins are peptides isolated from mamba venom that specifically inhibit a set of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) to relieve pain. We show here the first full stepwise solid phase peptide synthesis of mambalgin-1 and confirm the biological activity of the synthetic toxin both in vitro and in vivo. We also report the determination of its three-dimensional crystal structure showing differences with previously described NMR structures. Finally, the functional domain by which the toxin inhibits ASIC1a channels was identified in its loop II and more precisely in the face containing Phe-27, Leu-32, and Leu-34 residues. Moreover, proximity between Leu-32 in mambalgin-1 and Phe-350 in rASIC1a was proposed from double mutant cycle analysis. These data provide information on the structure and on the pharmacophore for ASIC channel inhibition by mambalgins that could have therapeutic value against pain and probably other neurological disorders.

  6. Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting to Relieve Extrinsic Compression by a Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Idiopathic Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hung-Chih; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Liang, Kae-Woei

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is a rare but lethal disease. We present a female patient with idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH)-related PAA, who suffered from unstable angina pectoris. Multi-detector computed tomography and coronary angiogram revealed extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) caused by a giant PAA with severe ostial stenosis. Intravascular ultrasound showed an oval-shaped ostium of the LMCA, indicating extrinsic compression. After successful LMCA stent implantation, chest pain was greatly relieved. This case illustrates that beyond right ventricle ischaemia and coronary atherosclerotic disease, LMCA compression by PAA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of angina in patients with IPAH related PAA. In addition, intravascular ultrasound can be used to confirm the diagnosis and guide the stent implantation safely. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Study of the Effect of Intravenous Paracetamol and Tramadol in Relieving of Postoperative Pain after General Anesthesia in Nephrectomy Patients.

    PubMed

    Manne, Venkata Sesha Sai Krishna; Gondi, Srinivasa Rao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intravenous paracetamol and tramadol in relieving of postoperative pain after general anesthesia for nephrectomy in prospective donor patients for kidney transplantation. A randomized study was conducted on 100 adult patients scheduled for nephrectomy aged from 35 to 55 years of both sexes and divided into two groups and were administered intravenous paracetamol and tramadol for postoperative pain relief and assessed with visual analog scale score and variations in vital parameters to assess extent of pain relief. After statistical interpretation of collected data, the observations were extrapolated. There was a statistically significant difference in the pain intensity scores obtained between the paracetamol and tramadol groups. On the basis of the present study, it is concluded that tramadol due to its lesser onset of action time was superior to paracetamol in providing acute postoperative pain relief.

  8. Comparative Study of the Effect of Intravenous Paracetamol and Tramadol in Relieving of Postoperative Pain after General Anesthesia in Nephrectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Venkata Sesha Sai Krishna; Gondi, Srinivasa Rao

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intravenous paracetamol and tramadol in relieving of postoperative pain after general anesthesia for nephrectomy in prospective donor patients for kidney transplantation. Materials and Methods: A randomized study was conducted on 100 adult patients scheduled for nephrectomy aged from 35 to 55 years of both sexes and divided into two groups and were administered intravenous paracetamol and tramadol for postoperative pain relief and assessed with visual analog scale score and variations in vital parameters to assess extent of pain relief. Results: After statistical interpretation of collected data, the observations were extrapolated. There was a statistically significant difference in the pain intensity scores obtained between the paracetamol and tramadol groups. Conclusion: On the basis of the present study, it is concluded that tramadol due to its lesser onset of action time was superior to paracetamol in providing acute postoperative pain relief. PMID:28298768

  9. Mambalgin-1 Pain-relieving Peptide, Stepwise Solid-phase Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Functional Domain for Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1a Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Mourier, Gilles; Salinas, Miguel; Kessler, Pascal; Stura, Enrico A.; Leblanc, Mathieu; Tepshi, Livia; Besson, Thomas; Diochot, Sylvie; Baron, Anne; Douguet, Dominique; Lingueglia, Eric; Servent, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Mambalgins are peptides isolated from mamba venom that specifically inhibit a set of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) to relieve pain. We show here the first full stepwise solid phase peptide synthesis of mambalgin-1 and confirm the biological activity of the synthetic toxin both in vitro and in vivo. We also report the determination of its three-dimensional crystal structure showing differences with previously described NMR structures. Finally, the functional domain by which the toxin inhibits ASIC1a channels was identified in its loop II and more precisely in the face containing Phe-27, Leu-32, and Leu-34 residues. Moreover, proximity between Leu-32 in mambalgin-1 and Phe-350 in rASIC1a was proposed from double mutant cycle analysis. These data provide information on the structure and on the pharmacophore for ASIC channel inhibition by mambalgins that could have therapeutic value against pain and probably other neurological disorders. PMID:26680001

  10. Movement disorders in encephalitis induced by Rhodococcus aurantiacus infection relieved by the administration of L-dopa and anti-T-cell antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Min, Y; Asano, M; Kohanawa, M; Minagawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Mice injected with Rhodococcus aurantiacus by the intravenous (i.v.) route show neurological disorders, hemiparesis, vertical headshake and turn-round gait after day 7 postinfection (p.i.). Neurological symptoms caused by i.v. inoculation of R. aurantiacus were relieved by treatment with levodopa (l-dopa). R. aurantiacus was isolated from the brain and was found to be completely eliminated at day 7 p.i. Focal encephalitis was mainly observed in the brain stem, and T cells could be isolated from the brain after day 7 p.i. Administration of both an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and an anti-CD8 mAb suppressed neurological symptoms. These results suggest that R. aurantiacus induces movement disorders in mice, and that the symptoms are mediated by T cells infiltrating the brain, rather than directly by the bacterium. PMID:10233672

  11. β3-Adrenoceptor activation relieves oxidative inhibition of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump in hyperglycemia induced by insulin receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A; Hamilton, Elisha J; Figtree, Gemma A; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2015-09-01

    Dysregulated nitric oxide (NO)- and superoxide (O2 (·-))-dependent signaling contributes to the pathobiology of diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications. We examined if stimulation of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), coupled to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation, relieves oxidative inhibition of eNOS and the Na(+)-K(+) pump induced by hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was established in male New Zealand White rabbits by infusion of the insulin receptor antagonist S961 for 7 days. Hyperglycemia increased tissue and blood indexes of oxidative stress. It induced glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit in cardiac myocytes, an oxidative modification causing pump inhibition, and reduced the electrogenic pump current in voltage-clamped myocytes. Hyperglycemia also increased glutathionylation of eNOS, which causes its uncoupling, and increased coimmunoprecipitation of cytosolic p47(phox) and membranous p22(phox) NADPH oxidase subunits, consistent with NADPH oxidase activation. Blocking translocation of p47(phox) to p22(phox) with the gp91ds-tat peptide in cardiac myocytes ex vivo abolished the hyperglycemia-induced increase in glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit and decrease in pump current. In vivo treatment with the β3-AR agonist CL316243 for 3 days eliminated the increase in indexes of oxidative stress, decreased coimmunoprecipitation of p22(phox) with p47(phox), abolished the hyperglycemia-induced increase in glutathionylation of eNOS and the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit, and abolished the decrease in pump current. CL316243 also increased coimmunoprecipitation of glutaredoxin-1 with the Na(+)-K(+) pump β1-subunit, which may reflect facilitation of deglutathionylation. In vivo β3-AR activation relieves oxidative inhibition of key cardiac myocyte proteins in hyperglycemia and may be effective in targeting the deleterious cardiac effects of diabetes.

  12. Inhibition of ROS-induced p38MAPK and ERK activation in microglia by acupuncture relieves neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Doo C; Lee, Jee Y; Lim, Eun J; Baik, Hyung H; Oh, Tae H; Yune, Tae Y

    2012-08-01

    Acupuncture (AP) is currently used worldwide to relieve pain. However, little is known about its mechanisms of action. We found that after spinal cord injury (SCI), AP inhibited the production of superoxide anion (O(2)·), which acted as a modulator for microglial activation, and the analgesic effect of AP was attributed to its anti-microglial activating action. Direct injection of a ROS scavenger inhibited SCI-induced NP. After contusion injury which induces the below-level neuropathic pain (NP), Shuigou and Yanglingquan acupoints were applied. AP relieved mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, while vehicle and simulated AP did not. AP also decreased the proportion of activated microglia, and inhibited both p38MAPK and ERK activation in microglia at the L4-5. Also, the level of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE2), which is produced via ERK signaling and mediates the below-level pain through PGE2 receptor, was reduced by AP. Injection of p38MAPK or ERK inhibitors attenuated NP and decreased PGE2 production. Furthermore, ROS produced after injury-induced p38MAPK and ERK activation in microglia, and mediated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, which were inhibited by AP or a ROS scavenger. AP also inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators. Therefore, our results suggest that the analgesic effect of AP may be partly mediated by inhibiting ROS-induced microglial activation and inflammatory responses after SCI and provide the possibility that AP can be used effectively as a non-pharmacological intervention for SCI-induced chronic NP in patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Is the 'blue' colour convention for inhaled reliever medications important? A UK-based survey of healthcare professionals and patients with airways disease.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Monica; Scullion, Jane; White, John; Thompson, Bronwen; Capstick, Toby

    2016-11-03

    In many countries, short-acting β2-agonist inhalers have traditionally been coloured blue. This inhaled therapy has also conventionally been known as a 'reliever' by patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), in comparison with 'preventer' medications (inhaled steroids). With the rapidly changing market in inhaled therapy for COPD and asthma and growing numbers of devices, there has been some concern that the erosion of traditional colour conventions is leading to patients (and HCPs) becoming confused about the role of different therapies. In order to assess whether there was concern over the perceived changing colour conventions, the UK Inhaler Group carried out a large online survey of patients and HCPs. The aim was to determine how patients and HCPS identify and describe inhaled drugs, and how this might impact on use of medicines and safety. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of the term 'blue inhaler' for patients with only 11.3% never referring to the colour when referring to their inhaler. For HCPs, 95% felt colour conventions were important when referring to reliever medication. In addition, HCPs appear to refer to inhalers mainly by colour when talking to patients. Our conclusions were that the concept of a 'blue inhaler' remains important to patients and healthcare professionals. These results add to the debate about the need to formalise the colour coding of inhaled therapies, in particular using the colour blue for inhalers for rapid relief of symptoms, as this convention may be an important measure and contributor to patient safety. Our survey should provide impetus for all interested parties to discuss and agree a formal industry-wide approach to colour coding of inhaled therapies for the benefit of patients and carers and HCPs.

  14. Prescription pain reliever misuse and levels of pain impairment: 3-year course in a nationally representative outpatient sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Scott P; Glasheen, Cristie; Roland, Carl L

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this work was to present the prevalence data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a representative 3-year longitudinal survey (ages 18+ years) that captured information on patterns of self-reported pain interference and prescription pain reliever misuse. A second aim was to assess the degree to which the risk of various types of opioid misuse (onset, desistance, and incidence of dependence) was related to the longitudinal course of self-reported pain interference over the 3-year period. Methods We used a two-wave, nationally representative sample of adults (aged 18+ years) in which the baseline data were collected during 2001–2002 and a single follow-up was obtained ~3 years later (2004–2005 with 34,332 respondents with complete data on study variables for both waves). Results Our findings indicated that ~10% reported high pain interference in the past month at each wave. There was tremendous stability in levels of pain, with ~5% reporting consistent levels of high impairment over the 3-year study, a proxy for chronic pain. Levels of pain were more strongly associated with prescription pain reliever misuse concurrently rather than prospectively, and the association was largely linear, with the likelihood of misuse increasing with levels of pain. Finally, health service factors were also prominent predictors of onset, but not the outcomes, of desistance or transitions to problem use. Conclusion This study is the first to use a nationally representative sample with measures of pain and drug use history collected over an extended period. These results may help provide clinicians with an understanding that the risk of misuse is greatest when pain is active and may help guide the selection of appropriate intervention materials and monitor strategies for those at greatest risk. PMID:27418863

  15. β3-Adrenoceptor activation relieves oxidative inhibition of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump in hyperglycemia induced by insulin receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A.; Hamilton, Elisha J.; Figtree, Gemma A.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated nitric oxide (NO)- and superoxide (O2·−)-dependent signaling contributes to the pathobiology of diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications. We examined if stimulation of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), coupled to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation, relieves oxidative inhibition of eNOS and the Na+-K+ pump induced by hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was established in male New Zealand White rabbits by infusion of the insulin receptor antagonist S961 for 7 days. Hyperglycemia increased tissue and blood indexes of oxidative stress. It induced glutathionylation of the Na+-K+ pump β1-subunit in cardiac myocytes, an oxidative modification causing pump inhibition, and reduced the electrogenic pump current in voltage-clamped myocytes. Hyperglycemia also increased glutathionylation of eNOS, which causes its uncoupling, and increased coimmunoprecipitation of cytosolic p47phox and membranous p22phox NADPH oxidase subunits, consistent with NADPH oxidase activation. Blocking translocation of p47phox to p22phox with the gp91ds-tat peptide in cardiac myocytes ex vivo abolished the hyperglycemia-induced increase in glutathionylation of the Na+-K+ pump β1-subunit and decrease in pump current. In vivo treatment with the β3-AR agonist CL316243 for 3 days eliminated the increase in indexes of oxidative stress, decreased coimmunoprecipitation of p22phox with p47phox, abolished the hyperglycemia-induced increase in glutathionylation of eNOS and the Na+-K+ pump β1-subunit, and abolished the decrease in pump current. CL316243 also increased coimmunoprecipitation of glutaredoxin-1 with the Na+-K+ pump β1-subunit, which may reflect facilitation of deglutathionylation. In vivo β3-AR activation relieves oxidative inhibition of key cardiac myocyte proteins in hyperglycemia and may be effective in targeting the deleterious cardiac effects of diabetes. PMID:26063704

  16. Descripción del coronógrafo a ser instalado en Argentina (MICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Francile, C.; Schwenn, R.; Epple, A.; Rovira, M.

    El ``Coronógrafo de espejo para Argentina'' es un telescopio solar terrestre a ser colocado en el Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (El Leoncito), antes de finalizar 1996, como parte de un programa de ciencia bilateral entre Alemania y Argentina. Eclipses fotográficos de alta resolución han revelado que la corona solar es altamente estructurada y variable. De hecho, está contínuamente deformada y moldeada por los movimientos convectivos de los extremos de los arcos magnéticos en la fotosfera, estando, en muchas oportunidades, afectada por explosivas liberaciones de energía. MICA, en conjunción con otros telescopios solares espaciales y terrestres, tratará de contribuir al entendimiento de cuestiones fundamentales de la física solar. Entre ellas: cómo la corona está siendo calentada, dónde y cómo el viento solar es acelerado, qué causa los transitorios coronales, etc. Para ello investigará la distribución de los parámetros del plasma y su evolución con el tiempo, la estructura espacial de la corona en fina y gran escala, procesos que ocurren en los transitorios coronales y factores que los disparan, etc. Para responder a estas cuestiones MICA observará la atmósfera solar por sobre el limbo entre 1.1 y 2 radios solares aproximadamente, usando un nuevo tipo de sistema coronográfico que permite suprimir el brillo del disco solar suficientemente bien, tomando las imágenes con una cámara CCD de 1024x1024 pixels, codificada en 12 bits, pudiendo el mismo ser operado en forma remota. En la presente exposición describiremos las características del instrumento, cómo será controlado y qué esperamos observar basados en las imágenes obtenidas por los telescopios de similares características LASCO C1 a bordo del SOHO y PICO (ubicado en el Observatorio de Pic du Midi, Francia).

  17. The comparison effects of intra-articular injection of different opioids on postoperative pain relieve after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A randomized clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Arti, Hamidreza; Mehdinasab, Seyed Abdoulhossein

    2011-09-01

    Pain after knee surgery, if not relieved, it would lead to a more severe and prolonged pain that can delay the patients recovery and rehabilitation. The effect of pain relief by some drugs after intra-articular injection has been shown. This study compared the effect of intra-articular injection of opioids (morphine, pethidine, methadone, and tramadol) on postoperative relieving pain after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. 150 candidate patients for knee arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were randomly enrolled into five groups. At the end of the procedure, all patients in each group received a joint injection solution including 9.5 millimeters bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. The remaining 0.5 milliliters of syringe capacity was filled with one of the five solutions listed below: methadone group I: 5 mg methadone, morphine group II: 5 mg morphine, pethidine group III: 37.5 mg pethidine, tramadol group IV: 100 mg Tramadol, and control group V: 0.5 ml normal saline. Afterwards, any drug further administered to the patients based on need was recorded, and the morphine equivalent for all drugs was calculated. Patients need to narcotic drugs during the first twelve hours of hospitalization and pain scores were recorded. After data gathering, they were analyzed by SPSS 16 software with chi-Square, Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA statistical tests. The highest and the lowest significant pain intensity were seen in placebo and morphine groups, respectively, in the first, second and third 4 hours after surgery. There were significant differences among the groups for need to analgesics. In other words, placebo group needed the highest dosage of analgesics and morphine and methadone groups needed the lowest dosage of analgesics. Morphine and methadone groups had maximum and minimum response to pain, respectively, in the first, second and third 4 hours after surgery. Administering 5 mg intra-articular morphine after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction is

  18. The comparison effects of intra-articular injection of different opioids on postoperative pain relieve after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A randomized clinical trial study*

    PubMed Central

    Arti, Hamidreza; Mehdinasab, Seyed Abdoulhossein

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain after knee surgery, if not relieved, it would lead to a more severe and prolonged pain that can delay the patients recovery and rehabilitation. The effect of pain relief by some drugs after intra-articular injection has been shown. This study compared the effect of intra-articular injection of opioids (morphine, pethidine, methadone, and tramadol) on postoperative relieving pain after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS: 150 candidate patients for knee arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were randomly enrolled into five groups. At the end of the procedure, all patients in each group received a joint injection solution including 9.5 millimeters bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. The remaining 0.5 milliliters of syringe capacity was filled with one of the five solutions listed below: methadone group I: 5 mg methadone, morphine group II: 5 mg morphine, pethidine group III: 37.5 mg pethidine, tramadol group IV: 100 mg Tramadol, and control group V: 0.5 ml normal saline. Afterwards, any drug further administered to the patients based on need was recorded, and the morphine equivalent for all drugs was calculated. Patients need to narcotic drugs during the first twelve hours of hospitalization and pain scores were recorded. After data gathering, they were analyzed by SPSS 16 software with chi-Square, Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA statistical tests. RESULTS: The highest and the lowest significant pain intensity were seen in placebo and morphine groups, respectively, in the first, second and third 4 hours after surgery. There were significant differences among the groups for need to analgesics. In other words, placebo group needed the highest dosage of analgesics and morphine and methadone groups needed the lowest dosage of analgesics. Morphine and methadone groups had maximum and minimum response to pain, respectively, in the first, second and third 4 hours after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Administering 5 mg intra

  19. The Effectiveness of Manual Therapy for Relieving Pain, Stiffness, and Dysfunction in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinguang; Chen, Bei; Wang, Yueyi; Wang, Xuezong; Han, Dapeng; Ding, Daofang; Zheng, Yuxin; Cao, Yuelong; Zhan, Hongsheng; Zhou, Yao

    2017-05-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is the most common form of arthritis, leading to pain disability in seniors and increased health care utilization. Manual therapy is one widely used physical treatment for KOA. To evaluate the effectiveness and adverse events (AEs) of manual therapy compared to other treatments for relieving pain, stiffness, and physical dysfunction in patients with KOA. A systematic review and meta-analysis of manual therapy for KOA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Chinese databases for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of manual therapy for patients with KOA from the inception to October 2015 without language restrictions. RCTs compared manual therapy to the placebo or other interventional control with an appropriate description of randomization. Two reviewers independently conducted the search results identification, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment. The methodological quality was assessed by PEDro scale. Pooled data was expressed as standard mean difference (SMD), with 95% confident intervals (CIs) in a random effects model. The meta-analysis of manual therapy for KOA on pain, stiffness, and physical function were conducted. Fourteen studies involving 841 KOA participants compared to other treatments were included. The methodological quality of most included RCTs was poor. The mean PEDro scale score was 6.6. The meta-analyses results showed that manual therapy had statistically significant effects on relieving pain (standardized mean difference, SMD = -0.61, 95% CI -0.95 to -0.28, P = 76%), stiffness (SMD = -0.58, 95% CI -0.95 to -0.21, P = 81%), improving physical function (SMD = -0.49, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.22, P = 65%), and total score (SMD = -0.56, 95% CI -0.78 to -0.35, P = 50%). But in the subgroups, manual therapy did not show significant improvements on stiffness and physical function when treatment duration was less than 4 weeks. And the long-term information for manual therapy was

  20. Activation of human macrophages by bacterial components relieves the restriction on replication of an interferon-inducing Parainfluenza Virus 5 (PIV5) P/V mutant

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Caitlin M.; Holder, Robert C.; Reid, Sean D.; Parks, Griffith D.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages regulate immune responses during many viral infections, and can be a major determinant of pathogenesis, virus replication and immune response to infection. Here, we have addressed the question of the outcome of infection of primary human macrophages with parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) and a PIV5 mutant (P/V-CPI-) that is unable to counteract interferon (IFN) responses. In cultures of naïve monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), WT PIV5 established a highly productive infection, whereas the P/V-CPI- mutant was restricted for replication in MDMs by IFN-beta. Restricted replication in vitro was relieved in MDM that had been activated by prior exposure to heat killed Gram positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus anthracis. Enhanced replication of the P/V mutant in MDM previously activated by bacterial components correlated with a reduced ability to produce IFN-beta in response to virus infection, whereas IFN signaling was intact. Activated MDM were found to upregulate the synthesis of IRAK-M, which has been previously shown to negatively regulate factors involved in TLR signaling and IFN-beta production. We discuss these results in terms of the implications for mixed bacteria-virus infections and for the use of live RNA virus vectors that have been engineered to be attenuated for IFN sensitivity. PMID:21185944

  1. Effect of Breast-Feeding and Maternal Holding in Relieving Painful Responses in Full-Term Neonates: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Hala M; Shuriquie, Mona A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of breast-feeding with maternal holding as compared with maternal holding without breast-feeding in relieving painful responses during heel lance blood drawing in full-term neonates. A convenience sample of 128 full-term newborn infants, in their fourth to sixth days of life, undergoing heel lance blood drawing for screening of hypothyroidism were included in the study. The neonates were randomly assigned into 2 equivalent groups. During heel lance blood drawing for infants, they either breast-fed with maternal holding (group I) or were held in their mother's lap without breast-feeding (group II). The painful responses were assessed simultaneously by 2 neonatal nurses blinded to the purpose of the study. Outcome measures for painful responses of the full-term neonates were evaluated with the Premature Infant Pain Profile scale. Independent t test showed significant differences in Premature Infant Pain Profile scale scores among the 2 groups (t = -8.447, P = .000). Pain scores were significantly lower among infants who were breast-fed in addition to maternal holding. Evidence from this study indicates that the combination of breast-feeding with maternal holding reduces painful responses of full-term infants during heel lance blood drawing.

  2. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  3. Clinical evaluation of BIOXTRA in relieving signs and symptoms of dry mouth after head and neck radiotherapy of cancer patients at Seyed-al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gookizadeh, Abbas; Emami, Hamid; Najafizadeh, Nadia; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers causes acute and chronic xerostomia and acute mucositis. Xerostomia increases risk of radiation caries and affects on oral comfort, fit of prostheses, speech, swallowing, and the growth of caries-producing organisms. Salivary flow rate can be measured by asking patients some questions. There are different types of commercial synthetic saliva such as BIOXTRA, but until now, no one can effectively relieve xerostomia. We tried to design a clinical research on BIOXTRA efficacy for treating xerostomia. Materials and Methods: In this research, 58 patients with head and neck cancer (except salivary gland cancers) treated in Seyed-al-Shohada Hospital. The patients received at least 40-50 GY; and after 2 months of compilation treatment, they were evaluated by asking about having xerostomia. Before and after treatment with the BIOXTRA, the PH of the oral cavity, candida albicans, and lactobacillus counts measured and documented in laboratory. We used BIOXTRA for 2 weeks, 3 times daily, and then re-evaluated patients with some questions. Results: The counts of candida albicans and lactobacilli statistically significant decreased. Conclusion: Xerostomia for most patients improved clinically during the day and night while PH of the oral cavity increased. PMID:23326802

  4. Ultraviolet-B Radiation (UV-B) Relieves Chilling-Light-Induced PSI Photoinhibition And Accelerates The Recovery Of CO2 Assimilation In Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Tikkanen, Mikko; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is generally considered to negatively impact the photosynthetic apparatus and plant growth. UV-B damages PSII but does not directly influence PSI. However, PSI and PSII successively drive photosynthetic electron transfer, therefore, the interaction between these systems is unavoidable. So we speculated that UV-B could indirectly affect PSI under chilling-light conditions. To test this hypothesis, the cucumber leaves were illuminated by UV-B prior or during the chilling-light treatment, and the leaves were then transferred to 25 °C and low-light conditions for recovery. The results showed that UV-B decreased the electron transfer to PSI by inactivating the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), thereby protecting PSI from chilling-light-induced photoinhibition. This effect advantages the recoveries of PSI and CO2 assimilation after chilling-light stress, therefore should minimize the yield loss caused by chilling-light stress. Because sunlight consists of both UV-B and visible light, we suggest that UV-B-induced OEC inactivation is critical for chilling-light-induced PSI photoinhibition in field. Moreover, additional UV-B irradiation is an effective strategy to relieve PSI photoinhibition and yield loss in protected cultivation during winter. This study also demonstrates that minimizing the photoinhibition of PSI rather than that of PSII is essential for the chilling-light tolerance of the plant photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:27686324

  5. Ultraviolet-B Radiation (UV-B) Relieves Chilling-Light-Induced PSI Photoinhibition And Accelerates The Recovery Of CO2 Assimilation In Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Tikkanen, Mikko; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2016-09-30

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is generally considered to negatively impact the photosynthetic apparatus and plant growth. UV-B damages PSII but does not directly influence PSI. However, PSI and PSII successively drive photosynthetic electron transfer, therefore, the interaction between these systems is unavoidable. So we speculated that UV-B could indirectly affect PSI under chilling-light conditions. To test this hypothesis, the cucumber leaves were illuminated by UV-B prior or during the chilling-light treatment, and the leaves were then transferred to 25 °C and low-light conditions for recovery. The results showed that UV-B decreased the electron transfer to PSI by inactivating the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), thereby protecting PSI from chilling-light-induced photoinhibition. This effect advantages the recoveries of PSI and CO2 assimilation after chilling-light stress, therefore should minimize the yield loss caused by chilling-light stress. Because sunlight consists of both UV-B and visible light, we suggest that UV-B-induced OEC inactivation is critical for chilling-light-induced PSI photoinhibition in field. Moreover, additional UV-B irradiation is an effective strategy to relieve PSI photoinhibition and yield loss in protected cultivation during winter. This study also demonstrates that minimizing the photoinhibition of PSI rather than that of PSII is essential for the chilling-light tolerance of the plant photosynthetic apparatus.

  6. S-Propargyl-Cysteine, a Novel Hydrogen Sulfide Donor, Inhibits Inflammatory Hepcidin and Relieves Anemia of Inflammation by Inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hong; Zhu, Yi Zhun

    2016-01-01

    Anemia of inflammation (AI) is clinically prevalent and greatly threatens public health. Traditional remedies have raised controversy during clinical practice, calling for alternative therapies. We have recently found that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhibits inflammatory hepcidin, the critical mediator of AI. However, due to the chemical property of H2S, there remains an urgent need for a stable H2S donor in AI treatment. Here we reported that S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), a novel water-soluble H2S donor, suppressed hepatic hepcidin and corrected hypoferremia induced by lipopolysaccharide. The effects of SPRC were reversed by inhibition of cystathionine γ-lyase, one of the major endogenous H2S synthases. Moreover, SPRC reduced serum hepcidin, improved transferrin saturation, and maintained erythrocyte membrane integrity in a chronic mouse AI model. Consistently, splenomegaly was ameliorated and splenic iron accumulation relieved. Mechanism study indicated that serum IL-6 content and hepatic Il-6 mRNA were decreased by SPRC, in parallel with reduced hepatic JAK2/STAT3 activation. On the whole, our data reveal the inhibition of inflammatory hepcidin by SPRC, and suggest SPRC as a potential remedy against AI. PMID:27649298

  7. Binding site and inhibitory mechanism of the mambalgin-2 pain-relieving peptide on acid-sensing ion channel 1a.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Miguel; Besson, Thomas; Delettre, Quentin; Diochot, Sylvie; Boulakirba, Sonia; Douguet, Dominique; Lingueglia, Eric

    2014-05-09

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are neuronal proton-gated cation channels associated with nociception, fear, depression, seizure, and neuronal degeneration, suggesting roles in pain and neurological and psychiatric disorders. We have recently discovered black mamba venom peptides called mambalgin-1 and mambalgin-2, which are new three-finger toxins that specifically inhibit with the same pharmacological profile ASIC channels to exert strong analgesic effects in vivo. We now combined bioinformatics and functional approaches to uncover the molecular mechanism of channel inhibition by the mambalgin-2 pain-relieving peptide. Mambalgin-2 binds mainly in a region of ASIC1a involving the upper part of the thumb domain (residues Asp-349 and Phe-350), the palm domain of an adjacent subunit, and the β-ball domain (residues Arg-190, Asp-258, and Gln-259). This region overlaps with the acidic pocket (pH sensor) of the channel. The peptide exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on ASIC1a, and we propose a model where mambalgin-2 traps the channel in a closed conformation by precluding the conformational change of the palm and β-ball domains that follows proton activation. These data help to understand inhibition by mambalgins and provide clues for the development of new optimized blockers of ASIC channels.

  8. Electroacupuncture at ST-36 relieves visceral hypersensitivity and decreases 5-HT(3) receptor level in the colon in chronic visceral hypersensitivity rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dan; Cheng, Pengfei; Xiong, Huiling; Zhang, Junjun; Liu, Shi; Hou, Xiaohua

    2011-05-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is an important pathological mechanism of irritable bowel syndrome. Electroacupuncture (EA) could relieve chronic visceral hypersensitivity (CVH) in rats. However, little information is available about the mechanism. The aim of this study was to confirm the effects of EA at acupoint ST-36 (Zusanli) on CVH induced by the chemical colorectal irritation during postnatal development of rats, and to explore the possible 5-HT(3) receptor mechanism. Rats were randomized into four groups, including the normal control group, CVH group, CVH with EA group, and CVH with sham EA group. The abdominal electromyogram (EMG) in response to colorectal distension was selected as the index for measurement of visceral hypersensitivity. 5-HT(3) receptors were analyzed through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. EA at ST-36 significantly decreased evoked EMG. The expression of 5-HT(3) receptor in the colon was increased in rats with CVH, and decreased after EA treatment. EA at acupoint ST-36 attenuates CVH in rats and decreases 5-HT(3) receptor level in the colon. Decreased 5-HT(3) receptor level in the colon may mediate the beneficial effect of EA in rats with CVH.

  9. Acupuncture Relieves the Excessive Excitation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis Function and Correlates with the Regulatory Mechanism of GR, CRH, and ACTHR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Qie, Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    It had been indicated in the previous studies that acupuncture relieved the excessive excitation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis (HPAA) function induced by stress stimulation. But the changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) induced by acupuncture have not been detected clearly. The objective of the study was to observe the impacts of acupuncture on the protein expressions of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR), and GR under the physiological and stress states. The results showed that under the stress state, acupuncture upregulated the protein expression of GR in the hippocampus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and pituitary gland, downregulated the protein expression of GR in the adrenal cortex, and obviously reduced the protein expressions of CRH and ACTHR. Under the physiological state, acupuncture promoted GR protein expression in the hippocampus and CRH protein expression in the hippocampus and PVN. The results explained that acupuncture regulated the stress reaction via promoting the combination of glucocorticoids (GC) with GR, and GR protein expression. The increase of GR protein expression induced feedback inhibition on the overexpression of CRH and ACTHR, likely decreased GC level, and caused the reduction of GR protein expression in the adrenal cortex.

  10. Efficacy of a proton pump inhibitor given in the early postoperative period to relieve symptoms of hiatal hernia after open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Hata, Mitsumasa; Shiono, Motomi; Sekino, Hisakuni; Furukawa, Hidekazu; Sezai, Akira; Iida, Mitsuru; Yoshitake, Isamu; Hattori, Tsutomu; Wakui, Shinji; Taoka, Makoto; Negishi, Nanao; Sezai, Yukiyasu

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a proton pump inhibitor, we retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent gastric fiberscopy (GFS) in the early phase after cardiac surgery. The subjects were 103 patients who underwent GFS for poor appetite, gastric pain, heartburn, or hematemesis after cardiac surgery. We divided the patients into two groups: group I consisted of 49 patients who received an H2-receptor antagonist (ranitidine hydrochloride 300 mg/day), and group II consisted of 54 patients who received a proton pump inhibitor (PPI; sodium rabeprazole 10 mg/day) as prophylactic treatment. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) disease was compared in the two groups. Gastric fiberscopy confirmed that 82.5% of the patients had type I hiatal hernia. The incidences of gastric pain and heartburn were significantly higher in group I (12.2% and 83.7%) than in group II (0% and 37.0%). Moreover, gastric bleeding occurred in two patients from group I, one [corrected] of whom died of coagulopathy. The incidences of hemorrhagic gastritis, active ulcer, and reflux esophagitis were significantly higher in group I than in group II, at 22.4%, 22.4%, and 24.5% vs 1.9%, 0%, and 7.4%. Early postcardiotomy GFS confirmed a high incidence of type I hiatal hernia. However, the proton pump inhibitor given in the early postoperative period proved more effective than the H2-receptor antagonist for relieving GI symptoms and preventing upper GI disorders after cardiac surgery.

  11. Systematic review: Is Metoclopramide more effective than Sumatriptan in relieving pain from migraine in adults in the Emergency Department (ED) setting?

    PubMed

    Barleycorn, Donna

    2016-07-01

    Migraine headache is a common disorder; patients attending Emergency Departments (ED) for migraine symptoms internationally account for 1-3% of total ED annual attendances. A systematic review was undertaken of reports comparing the effectiveness of metoclopramide intravenously (IV) with that of sumatriptan subcutaneously (SC), in an ED setting, for the immediate relief of migraine and their measurable effects in relieving pain intensity. Findings of two identified comparable reports confirm the individual efficacy of the study drugs in pain relief. However, whilst one report concludes that there is no statistical or significant clinical advantage for one drug over the other, the other report suggests that metoclopramide has a distinct advantage. One study is well structured methodologically, but the other has significant risk of bias. The analysis of the chosen studies demonstrates the need for rigorous study design and robust reporting requirements to obviate this risk. Further studies are required to explore comparable effect. Implications for clinical practice from the report outcomes indicate the individual effectiveness of both study drugs in providing pain relief for migraine in the Emergency setting, but not the comparable efficacy of one drug over the other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination formoterol and budesonide as maintenance and reliever therapy versus current best practice (including inhaled steroid maintenance), for chronic asthma in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cates, Christopher J; Karner, Charlotta

    2013-04-30

    Traditionally inhaled treatment for asthma has used separate preventer and reliever therapies. The combination of formoterol and budesonide in one inhaler has made possible a single inhaler for both prevention and relief of symptoms (single inhaler therapy or SiT). To assess the efficacy and safety of budesonide and formoterol in a single inhaler for maintenance and reliever therapy in asthma compared with maintenance with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) (alone or as part of current best practice) and any reliever therapy. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register in February 2013. Parallel, randomised controlled trials of 12 weeks or longer in adults and children with chronic asthma. Studies had to assess the combination of formoterol and budesonide as SiT, against a control group that received inhaled steroids and a separate reliever inhaler. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 trials involving 13,152 adults and one of the trials also involved 224 children (which have been separately reported). All studies were sponsored by the manufacturer of the SiT inhaler. We considered the nine studies assessing SiT against best practice to be at a low risk of selection bias, but a high risk of detection bias as they were unblinded.In adults whose asthma was not well-controlled on ICS, the reduction in hospital admission with SiT did not reach statistical significance (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 1.44, eight trials, N = 8841, low quality evidence due to risk of detection bias in open studies and imprecision). The rates of hospital admission were low; for every 1000 people treated with current best practice six would experience a hospital admission over six months compared with between three and eight treated with SiT. The odds of experiencing exacerbations needing treatment with oral steroids were lower with SiT compared with control (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0

  13. Terminal differentiation of cardiac and skeletal myocytes induces permissivity to AAV transduction by relieving inhibition imposed by DNA damage response proteins.

    PubMed

    Lovric, Jasmina; Mano, Miguel; Zentilin, Lorena; Eulalio, Ana; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2012-11-01

    Gene therapy vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are extremely efficient for gene transfer into post-mitotic cells of heart, muscle, brain, and retina. The reason for their exquisite tropism for these cells has long remained elusive. Here, we show that upon terminal differentiation, cardiac and skeletal myocytes downregulate proteins of the DNA damage response (DDR) and that this markedly induces permissivity to AAV transduction. We observed that expression of members of the MRN complex (Mre11, Rad50, Nbs1), which bind the incoming AAV genomes, faded in cardiomyocytes at ~2 weeks after birth, as well as upon myoblast differentiation in vitro; in both cases, withdrawal of the cells from the cell cycle coincided with increased AAV permissivity. Treatment of proliferating cells with short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against the MRN proteins, or with microRNA-24, which is normally upregulated upon terminal differentiation and negatively controls the Nbs1 levels, significantly increased permissivity to AAV transduction. Consistently, delivery of these small RNAs to the juvenile liver concomitant with AAV markedly improved in vivo hepatocyte transduction. Collectively, these findings support the conclusion that cellular DDR proteins inhibit AAV transduction and that terminal cell differentiation relieves this restriction.

  14. Acupuncture Relieves the Excessive Excitation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis Function and Correlates with the Regulatory Mechanism of GR, CRH, and ACTHR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Qie, Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    It had been indicated in the previous studies that acupuncture relieved the excessive excitation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis (HPAA) function induced by stress stimulation. But the changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) induced by acupuncture have not been detected clearly. The objective of the study was to observe the impacts of acupuncture on the protein expressions of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR), and GR under the physiological and stress states. The results showed that under the stress state, acupuncture upregulated the protein expression of GR in the hippocampus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and pituitary gland, downregulated the protein expression of GR in the adrenal cortex, and obviously reduced the protein expressions of CRH and ACTHR. Under the physiological state, acupuncture promoted GR protein expression in the hippocampus and CRH protein expression in the hippocampus and PVN. The results explained that acupuncture regulated the stress reaction via promoting the combination of glucocorticoids (GC) with GR, and GR protein expression. The increase of GR protein expression induced feedback inhibition on the overexpression of CRH and ACTHR, likely decreased GC level, and caused the reduction of GR protein expression in the adrenal cortex. PMID:24761151

  15. Il problema del litio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  16. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  17. Discovery – Relieving Oral Mucositis

    Cancer.gov

    Intensive cancer treatments can lead to the inflammation of the mouth and throat in cancer patients. NCI scientists developed the drug, Palifermin, which has been shown to prevent and treat this condition, increasing patients’ quality of life.

  18. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous meetings archive Advocacy News Advocacy priorities Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Skin cancer ... or 10 minutes Use warm rather than hot water Wash with a gentle, fragrance-free cleanser Apply ...

  19. [Symphysiotomy to relieve shoulder dystocia].

    PubMed

    Mourad, Selma M; van de Nieuwenhof, Hedwig P; Biert, Jan; Heidema, Wieteke M; Bekker, Mireille N

    2014-01-01

    Symphysiotomy to manage shoulder dystocia is seldom used in the western world. For this reason, in well-resourced countries knowledge of its recuperation rate and the management of physical discomfort in the post-partum period is scarce. We describe two cases of symphysiotomy for shoulder dystocia. Both babies did very well in the postpartum period. The short-term 6-week and 6-month follow-up of both mothers is described. Short-term maternal complications were minor and based on prolonged immobilization. In accordance with the international literature, the short-term and long-term follow-up after symphysiotomy for shoulder dystocia was good and there were no major maternal or neonatal complications. We therefore wish to advocate symphysiotomy as a good and safe option to deliver a baby in cases of severe shoulder dystocia, when all other manoeuvres fail.

  20. Condiciones fisicas de exoplanetas y microorganismos que habitan ambientes extremos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M.; Abrevaya, X. C.; Gómez, M. N.

    In this work we identified exoplanet candidates that could host different types of microorganisms like those that inhabit extreme environments on Earth. Following this aim; we determined two physical parameters of the planets: the equilibrium temperature and atmospheric pressure. We identified microorganisms that can inhabit on Earth in the same ranges of temperature and/or pressure. We also analyzed the Stellar Habitable Zone around each planetary system and made some considerations taking into account the ultraviolet radiation that these planets would receive. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. Is the ‘blue’ colour convention for inhaled reliever medications important? A UK-based survey of healthcare professionals and patients with airways disease

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Monica; Scullion, Jane; White, John; Thompson, Bronwen; Capstick, Toby

    2016-01-01

    In many countries, short-acting β2-agonist inhalers have traditionally been coloured blue. This inhaled therapy has also conventionally been known as a ‘reliever’ by patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), in comparison with ‘preventer’ medications (inhaled steroids). With the rapidly changing market in inhaled therapy for COPD and asthma and growing numbers of devices, there has been some concern that the erosion of traditional colour conventions is leading to patients (and HCPs) becoming confused about the role of different therapies. In order to assess whether there was concern over the perceived changing colour conventions, the UK Inhaler Group carried out a large online survey of patients and HCPs. The aim was to determine how patients and HCPS identify and describe inhaled drugs, and how this might impact on use of medicines and safety. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of the term ‘blue inhaler’ for patients with only 11.3% never referring to the colour when referring to their inhaler. For HCPs, 95% felt colour conventions were important when referring to reliever medication. In addition, HCPs appear to refer to inhalers mainly by colour when talking to patients. Our conclusions were that the concept of a ‘blue inhaler’ remains important to patients and healthcare professionals. These results add to the debate about the need to formalise the colour coding of inhaled therapies, in particular using the colour blue for inhalers for rapid relief of symptoms, as this convention may be an important measure and contributor to patient safety. Our survey should provide impetus for all interested parties to discuss and agree a formal industry-wide approach to colour coding of inhaled therapies for the benefit of patients and carers and HCPs. PMID:27808097

  2. The Vitamin B12-Dependent Photoreceptor AerR Relieves Photosystem Gene Repression by Extending the Interaction of CrtJ with Photosystem Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Mingxu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purple nonsulfur bacteria adapt their physiology to a wide variety of environmental conditions often through the control of transcription. One of the main transcription factors involved in controlling expression of the Rhodobacter capsulatus photosystem is CrtJ, which functions as an aerobic repressor of photosystem genes. Recently, we reported that a vitamin B12 binding antirepressor of CrtJ called AerR is required for anaerobic expression of the photosystem. However, the mechanism whereby AerR regulates CrtJ activity is unclear. In this study, we used a combination of next-generation sequencing and biochemical methods to globally identify genes under control of CrtJ and the role of AerR in controlling this regulation. Our results indicate that CrtJ has a much larger regulon than previously known, with a surprising regulatory function under both aerobic and anaerobic photosynthetic growth conditions. A combination of in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation-DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) and ChIP-seq and exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo) studies and in vitro biochemical studies demonstrate that AerR forms a 1:2 complex with CrtJ (AerR-CrtJ2) and that this complex binds to many promoters under photosynthetic conditions. The results of in vitro and in vivo DNA binding studies indicate that AerR-CrtJ2 anaerobically forms an extended interaction with the bacteriochlorophyll bchC promoter to relieve repression by CrtJ. This is contrasted by aerobic growth conditions where CrtJ alone functions as an aerobic repressor of bchC expression. These results indicate that the DNA binding activity of CrtJ is modified by interacting with AerR in a redox-regulated manner and that this interaction alters CrtJ’s function. PMID:28325764

  3. Phosphorylation of ARF2 Relieves Its Repression of Transcription of the K+ Transporter Gene HAK5 in Response to Low Potassium Stress[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuai; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Ma, Tian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K+) plays crucial roles in plant growth and development. In natural environments, K+ availability in soils is relatively low and fluctuating. Transcriptional regulation of K+ transporter genes is one of the most important mechanisms in the plant’s response to K+ deficiency. In this study, we demonstrated that the transcription factor ARF2 (Auxin Response Factor 2) modulates the expression of the K+ transporter gene HAK5 (High Affinity K+ transporter 5) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The arf2 mutant plants showed a tolerant phenotype similar to the HAK5-overexpressing lines on low-K+ medium, whose primary root lengths were longer than those of wild-type plants. High-affinity K+ uptake was significantly increased in these plants. ARF2-overexpressing lines and the hak5 mutant were both sensitive to low-K+ stress. Disruption of HAK5 in the arf2 mutant abolished the low-K+-tolerant phenotype of arf2. As a transcriptional repressor, ARF2 directly bound to the HAK5 promoter and repressed HAK5 expression under K+ sufficient conditions. ARF2 can be phosphorylated after low-K+ treatment, which abolished its DNA binding activity to the HAK5 promoter and relieved the inhibition on HAK5 transcription. Therefore, HAK5 transcript could be induced, and HAK5-mediated high-affinity K+ uptake was enhanced under K+ deficient conditions. The presented results demonstrate that ARF2 plays important roles in the response to external K+ supply in Arabidopsis and regulates HAK5 transcription accordingly. PMID:27895227

  4. Opposing Control by Transcription Factors MYB61 and MYB3 Increases Freezing Tolerance by Relieving C-Repeat Binding Factor Suppression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunqin; Miao, Zhenyan; Xie, Can; Meng, Xiangzhao; Deng, Jie; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Frugier, Florian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cold acclimation is an important process by which plants respond to low temperature and enhance their winter hardiness. C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR1 (CBF1), CBF2, and CBF3 genes were shown previously to participate in cold acclimation in Medicago truncatula. In addition, MtCBF4 is transcriptionally induced by salt, drought, and cold stresses. We show here that MtCBF4, shown previously to enhance drought and salt tolerance, also positively regulates cold acclimation and freezing tolerance. To identify molecular factors acting upstream and downstream of the MtCBF4 transcription factor (TF) in cold responses, we first identified genes that are differentially regulated upon MtCBF4 overexpression using RNAseq Digital Gene Expression Profiling. Among these, we showed that MtCBF4 directly activates the transcription of the COLD ACCLIMATION SPECIFIC15 (MtCAS15) gene. To gain insights into how MtCBF4 is transcriptionally regulated in response to cold, an R2R3-MYB TF, MtMYB3, was identified based on a yeast one-hybrid screen as binding directly to MYB cis-elements in the MtCBF4 promoter, leading to the inhibition of MtCBF4 expression. In addition, another MYB TF, MtMYB61, identified as an interactor of MtMYB3, can relieve the inhibitory effect of MtMYB3 on MtCBF4 transcription. This study, therefore, supports a model describing how MtCBF4 is regulated by antagonistic MtMYB3/MtMYB61 TFs, leading to the up-regulation of downstream targets such as MtCAS15 acting in cold acclimation in M. truncatula. PMID:27578551

  5. Lens epithelium-derived growth factor relieves transforming growth factor-beta1-induced transcription repression of heat shock proteins in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Preeti; Fatma, Nigar; Kubo, Eri; Shinohara, Toshimichi; Chylack, Leo T; Singh, Dhirendra P

    2003-05-30

    Lens epithelium-cell derived growth factor (LEDGF) is a transcriptional activator. It protects the cells by binding to cis-stress response ((A/T)GGGG(T/A)), and heat shock (HSE; nGAAn) elements in the stress genes and activating their transcription. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated in the control of tissue homeostasis, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis. Here we provide evidence that TGF-beta1 down-regulates LEDGF expression and diminishes its affinity for DNA during TGF-beta1-induced phenotypic changes and apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells. Surprisingly, TGF-beta1 treatment for 48 h markedly decreased the LEDGF, Hsp27, and alphaB-crystallin promoter activities with the decrease of abundance of LEDGF mRNA and protein. Deletion mutants of the LEDGF promoter showed that one TGF-beta1 inhibitory element (TIE) like sequence nnnTTGGnnn (-444 to -433) contributed to this negative regulation. Mutation of TIE (TTGG to TATT) abolished the down-regulation of the LEDGF promoter. Gel mobility and supershift assays showed that LEDGF in the nuclear extracts of TGF-beta1-treated human lens epithelial cells did not bind to stress-response elements and HSE. The TGF-beta1-induced down-regulation of LEDGF, Hsp27, and alphaB-crystallin promoters activity was reversed by cotransfection with a plasmid expressing LEDGF. Because overexpression of LEDGF was able to relieve TGF-beta1 and/or stress-induced changes, it would be a candidate molecule to postpone age-related degenerating disorders.

  6. The auto-inhibitory state of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5/TIM can be relieved by targeting its SH3 domain with rationally designed peptide aptamers.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Tan, De-Li; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lv, Feng-Lin; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The short isoform of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5 is known as TIM, which plays diverse roles in, for example, tumorigenesis, neuronal development and Src-induced podosome formation through the activation of its substrates, the Rho family of GTPases. The activation is auto-inhibited by a putative helix N-terminal to the DH domain of TIM, which is stabilized by the intramolecular interaction of C-terminal SH3 domain with a poly-proline sequence between the putative helix and the DH domain. In this study, we systematically investigated the structural basis, energetic landscape and biological implication underlying TIM auto-inhibition by using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analysis. The computational study revealed that the binding of SH3 domain to poly-proline sequence is the prerequisite for the stabilization of TIM auto-inhibition. Thus, it is suggested that targeting SH3 domain with competitors of the poly-proline sequence would be a promising strategy to relieve the auto-inhibitory state of TIM. In this consideration, we rationally designed a number of peptide aptamers for competitively inhibiting the SH3 domain based on modeled TIM structure and computationally generated data. Peptide binding test and guanine nucleotide exchange analysis solidified that these designed peptides can both bind to the SH3 domain potently and activate TIM-catalyzed RhoA exchange reaction effectively. Interestingly, a positive correlation between the peptide affinity and induced exchange activity was observed. In addition, separate mutation of three conserved residues Pro49, Pro52 and Lys54 - they are required for peptide recognition by SH3 domain -- in a designed peptide to Ala would completely abolish the capability of this peptide activating TIM. All these come together to suggest an intrinsic relationship between peptide binding to SH3 domain and the activation of TIM.

  7. Intrathecal injection of lentivirus-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor RNA interference relieves bone cancer-induced pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fu-Fen; Xu, Yang; Dan, Qi-Qin; Wei, La; Deng, Ying-Jie; Liu, Jia; He, Mu; Liu, Wei; Xia, Qing-Jie; Zhou, Fiona H; Wang, Ting-Hua; Wang, Xi-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Bone cancer pain is a common symptom in cancer patients with bone metastases and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the endogenous analgesic mechanisms to develop new therapeutic strategies for bone-cancer induced pain (BCIP) as a result of metastases. MRMT-1 tumor cells were injected into bilateral tibia of rats and X-rays showed that the area suffered from bone destruction, accompanied by an increase in osteoclast numbers. In addition, rats with bone cancer showed apparent mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia at day 28 after intratibial MRMT-1 inoculation. However, intrathecal injection of morphine or lentivirus-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor RNAi (Lvs-siGDNF) significantly attenuated mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, as shown by increases in paw withdrawal thresholds and tail-flick latencies, respectively. Furthermore, Lvs-siGDNF interference not only substantially downregulated GDNF protein levels, but also reduced substance P immunoreactivity and downregulated the ratio of pERK/ERK, where its activation is crucial for pain signaling, in the spinal dorsal horn of this model of bone-cancer induced pain. In this study, Lvs-siGDNF gene therapy appeared to be a beneficial method for the treatment of bone cancer pain. As the effect of Lvs-siGDNF to relieve pain was similar to morphine, but it is not a narcotic, the use of GDNF RNA interference may be considered as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain in the future.

  8. Challenging sequential approach to treatment resistant depression: cost-utility analysis based on the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(⁎)D) trial.

    PubMed

    Olgiati, Paolo; Bajo, Emanuele; Bigelli, Marco; Montgomery, Stuart; Serretti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    In major depression, when a first antidepressant does not cause remission of symptoms (60%-75%), there are several options for continuing treatment in the next step. This study is a cost-utility analysis (CUA) of different second-line approaches. In a simulated trial outpatients with MDD were treated with citalopram for 13 weeks (level 1), then based on two alternative algorithms implemented from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(*)D) study. Algorithm A: citalopram was continued until study endpoint (week 26). Algorithm B: patients who remitted during level 1 continued citalopram. Those who did not remit could opt for switching to another antidepressant (venlafaxine; sertraline) (b1) or adding bupropion to citalopram treatment (augmentation; b2). Algorithm B increased remission rate by 10.6% over Algorithm A (number needed to treat: 9.9; sensitivity range: 9.1-12.5). As a comparison, differences between active antidepressants and placebo are associated with NNT values of 6 to 8. In CUA Algorithm B was dominant with an ICER of $11,813 (sensitivity range=$1783 - $21,784), which is <1GDP per capita cost-effectiveness threshold (USA=$47,193). Among Algorithm B options, switching (b1) dominated Algorithm A with a smaller number of responders than augmentation approach (b2) (NNT 11 vs. 7.7), whereas ICER values were similar (b1: $14,738; b2: $15,458). However we cannot exclude a bias in selecting second treatment. This cost-utility analysis shows (in line with current guidelines) a benefit in modifying antidepressant treatment if response to first-line agent does not occur within 3 months, but not a clear-cut evidence in terms of NNT.

  9. Do Menopausal Status and Use of Hormone Therapy Affect Antidepressant Treatment Response? Findings from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Study

    PubMed Central

    Toups, Marisa; Rush, A. John; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Thase, Michael E.; Luther, James; Warden, Diane; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Menopausal status and use of hormonal contraception or menopausal hormone therapy (HT) may affect treatment response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This report evaluates whether menopausal status and use of hormonal contraceptives or menopausal HT affect outcome in women treated with citalopram. Methods In the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, 896 premenopausal and 544 postmenopausal women were treated with citalopram for 12–14 weeks. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were used in adjusted analysis of the effect of menopausal status and use of hormonal contraceptives or menopausal HT on outcomes. Remission was defined as final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HRSD17) ≤7 or Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR16) score ≤5 and response as ≥50% decrease from the baseline QIDS-SR16 score. Results Premenopausal and postmenopausal women differed in multiple clinical and demographic baseline variables but did not differ in response or remission rates. Premenopausal women taking hormonal contraceptives had significantly greater unadjusted remission rates on the HRSD17 and the QIDS-SR16 than women not taking contraception. Response and remission rates were not different between postmenopausal women taking vs. not taking HT. Adjusted results showed no significant difference in any outcome measure across menopause status in women who were not taking contraception/HT. There were no significant differences in adjusted results across HT status in premenopausal or postmenopausal women. Conclusions In this study, citalopram treatment outcome was not affected by menopausal status. Hormonal contraceptives and HT also did not affect probability of good outcome. PMID:23398127

  10. Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase Gln1;2 Is the Main Isozyme Contributing to GS1 Activity and Can Be Up-Regulated to Relieve Ammonium Toxicity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic GS1 (Gln synthetase) is central for ammonium assimilation in plants. High ammonium treatment enhanced the expression of the GS1 isogene Gln-1;2 encoding a low-affinity high-capacity GS1 protein in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) shoots. Under the same conditions, the expression of the high-affinity low-capacity isoform Gln-1;1 was reduced. The expression of Gln-1;3 did not respond to ammonium treatment while Gln-1;4 and Gln-1;5 isogenes in all cases were expressed at a very low level. Gln-2 was highly expressed in shoots but only at a very low level in roots. To investigate the specific functions of the two isogenes Gln-1;1 and Gln-1;2 in shoots for ammonium detoxification, single and double knock-out mutants were grown under standard N supply or with high ammonium provision. Phenotypes of the single mutant gln1;1 were similar to the wild type, while growth of the gln1;2 single mutant and the gln1;1:gln1;2 double mutant was significantly impaired irrespective of N regime. GS1 activity was significantly reduced in both gln1;2 and gln1;1:gln1;2. Along with this, the ammonium content increased while that of Gln decreased, showing that Gln-1;2 was essential for ammonium assimilation and amino acid synthesis. We conclude that Gln-1;2 is the main isozyme contributing to shoot GS1 activity in vegetative growth stages and can be up-regulated to relieve ammonium toxicity. This reveals, to our knowledge, a novel shoot function of Gln-1;2 in Arabidopsis shoots. PMID:27231101

  11. XerR, a negative regulator of XccR in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, relieves its repressor function in planta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Lili; Geng, Yunfeng; Xi, Wei; Fang, Rongxiang; Jia, Yantao

    2011-07-01

    We previously reported that XccR, a LuxR-type regulator of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), activates the downstream proline iminopeptidase virulence gene (pip) in response to certain host plant factor(s). In this report, we further show that the expression of the xccR gene was repressed in the culture medium by an NtrC-type response regulator, which we named XerR (XccR expression-related, repressor), and that this repression was relieved when the bacteria were grown in planta. Such a regulatory mechanism is reinforced by the observations that XerR directly bound to the xccR promoter in vitro, and that mutations at the phosphorylation-related residues of XerR resulted in the loss of its repressor function. Furthermore, the expression level of xccR increased even in XerR-overexpressing Xcc cells when they were vacuum infiltrated into cabbage plants. We also preliminarily characterized the host factor(s) involved in the above mentioned interactions between Xcc and the host plant, showing that a plant material(s) with molecular weight(s) less than 1 kDa abolished the binding of XerR to the xccR promoter, while the same material enhanced the binding of XccR to the luxXc box in the pip promoter. Taken together, our results implicate XerR in a new layer of the regulatory mechanism controlling the expression of the virulence-related xccR/pip locus and provide clues to the identification of plant signal molecules that interact with XerR and XccR to enhance the virulence of Xcc.

  12. XerR, a negative regulator of XccR in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, relieves its repressor function in planta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Lili; Geng, Yunfeng; Xi, Wei; Fang, Rongxiang; Jia, Yantao

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that XccR, a LuxR-type regulator of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), activates the downstream proline iminopeptidase virulence gene (pip) in response to certain host plant factor(s). In this report, we further show that the expression of the xccR gene was repressed in the culture medium by an NtrC-type response regulator, which we named XerR (XccR expression-related, repressor), and that this repression was relieved when the bacteria were grown in planta. Such a regulatory mechanism is reinforced by the observations that XerR directly bound to the xccR promoter in vitro, and that mutations at the phosphorylation-related residues of XerR resulted in the loss of its repressor function. Furthermore, the expression level of xccR increased even in XerR-overexpressing Xcc cells when they were vacuum infiltrated into cabbage plants. We also preliminarily characterized the host factor(s) involved in the above mentioned interactions between Xcc and the host plant, showing that a plant material(s) with molecular weight(s) less than 1 kDa abolished the binding of XerR to the xccR promoter, while the same material enhanced the binding of XccR to the luxXc box in the pip promoter. Taken together, our results implicate XerR in a new layer of the regulatory mechanism controlling the expression of the virulence-related xccR/pip locus and provide clues to the identification of plant signal molecules that interact with XerR and XccR to enhance the virulence of Xcc. PMID:21483448

  13. Predictive factors for the success of McRoberts' manoeuvre and suprapubic pressure in relieving shoulder dystocia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lok, Zara Lin Zau; Cheng, Yvonne Kwun Yue; Leung, Tak Yeung

    2016-10-29

    McRoberts' and suprapubic pressure are often recommended as the initial choices of manoeuvres to manage shoulder dystocia, as they are believed to be less invasive compared to other manoeuvres. However, their success rates range from 23 to 40 %. This study aims to investigate the predictive factors for the success of McRoberts' manoeuvre with or without suprapubic pressure (M+/-S). All cases of shoulder dystocia in a tertiary hospital in South East Asia were recruited from 1995 to 2009. Subjects were analysed according to either 'success' or 'failure' of M+/-S. Maternal and fetal antenatal and intrapartum factors were compared by univariate and multivariate analysis. Among 198 cases of shoulder dystocia, M+/-S as the primary manoeuvre was successful in 25.8 %. The other 74.2 % needed either rotational or posterior arm manoeuvres or combination of manoeuvres. Instrumental delivery was the single most significant factor associated with an increased risk of failed M+/-S on logistic regression (p < 0.001, OR 4.88, 95 % CI 2.05-11.60). The success rate of M+/-S was only 15.0 % if shoulder dystocia occurred after instrumental delivery but was 47.7 % after spontaneous vaginal delivery. When shoulder dystocia occurs after instrumental vaginal delivery, the chance of failure of M+/-S is 85 %, which is 4.7 times higher than that after spontaneous vaginal delivery. Hence all operators performing instrumental delivery should be proficient in performing all manoeuvres to relieve shoulder dystocia when M+/-S cannot do so.

  14. Prospective evaluation of intense pulsed light and meibomian gland expression efficacy on relieving signs and symptoms of dry eye disease due to meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dell, Steven J; Gaster, Ronald N; Barbarino, Sheila C; Cunningham, Derek N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL), followed by meibomian gland expression (MGX), for reducing the number and severity of signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) secondary to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). In a prospective study conducted in two sites, 40 subjects (80 eyes) with moderate to severe MGD were enrolled. Major inclusion criteria consisted of at least two of the following measures being compatible with DED in both eyes: tear breakup time (TBUT), meibomian gland score (MGS), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire, and tear film osmolarity (TFO). Enrolled patients underwent four treatment sessions, 3 weeks apart. Each treatment included the administration of 10-15 pulses of IPL on the cheeks and nose, followed by MGX of the upper and lower eyelids. TBUT, MGS, CFS, SPEED, TFO, and lipid layer thickness (LLT) were measured at baseline (BL) and at 9, 12, and 15 weeks after BL. Due to different staining methods used for TBUT measurements, TBUT and CFS were analyzed separately for each site. From BL to the final follow-up, the number of signs compatible with DED decreased from 3.3±0.1 to 1.4±0.1. TBUT improved by +93% (n=38; P<0.0001) and +425% (n=42; P<0.0001) for sites 1 and 2, respectively. SPEED, MGS, and CFS improved by -55% (n=80; P<0.0001), -36% (n=80; P<0.0001), and -58% (n=38; P<0.0001), respectively. In 20 eyes with abnormally elevated TFO at BL, TFO improved by -7% (n=20; P<0.005). LLT did not change (n=38; P=0.88). In subjects with moderate to severe MGD, IPL combined with MGX reduced the number and severity of symptoms and signs of DED. Except for LLT, all examined outcome measures significantly improved after 15 weeks. These results support the efficacy of IPL + MGX in relieving both signs and symptoms of DED secondary to MGD.

  15. Prospective evaluation of intense pulsed light and meibomian gland expression efficacy on relieving signs and symptoms of dry eye disease due to meibomian gland dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Steven J; Gaster, Ronald N; Barbarino, Sheila C; Cunningham, Derek N

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to estimate the efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL), followed by meibomian gland expression (MGX), for reducing the number and severity of signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) secondary to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Patients and methods In a prospective study conducted in two sites, 40 subjects (80 eyes) with moderate to severe MGD were enrolled. Major inclusion criteria consisted of at least two of the following measures being compatible with DED in both eyes: tear breakup time (TBUT), meibomian gland score (MGS), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire, and tear film osmolarity (TFO). Enrolled patients underwent four treatment sessions, 3 weeks apart. Each treatment included the administration of 10–15 pulses of IPL on the cheeks and nose, followed by MGX of the upper and lower eyelids. TBUT, MGS, CFS, SPEED, TFO, and lipid layer thickness (LLT) were measured at baseline (BL) and at 9, 12, and 15 weeks after BL. Results Due to different staining methods used for TBUT measurements, TBUT and CFS were analyzed separately for each site. From BL to the final follow-up, the number of signs compatible with DED decreased from 3.3±0.1 to 1.4±0.1. TBUT improved by +93% (n=38; P<0.0001) and +425% (n=42; P<0.0001) for sites 1 and 2, respectively. SPEED, MGS, and CFS improved by −55% (n=80; P<0.0001), −36% (n=80; P<0.0001), and −58% (n=38; P<0.0001), respectively. In 20 eyes with abnormally elevated TFO at BL, TFO improved by −7% (n=20; P<0.005). LLT did not change (n=38; P=0.88). Conclusion In subjects with moderate to severe MGD, IPL combined with MGX reduced the number and severity of symptoms and signs of DED. Except for LLT, all examined outcome measures significantly improved after 15 weeks. These results support the efficacy of IPL + MGX in relieving both signs and symptoms of DED secondary to MGD. PMID:28496300

  16. PKA activity is essential for relieving the suppression of hyphal growth and appressorium formation by MoSfl1 in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Xue; Hu, Shuai; Liu, Huiquan; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2017-08-01

    In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the cAMP-PKA pathway regulates surface recognition, appressorium turgor generation, and invasive growth. However, deletion of CPKA failed to block appressorium formation and responses to exogenous cAMP. In this study, we generated and characterized the cpk2 and cpkA cpk2 mutants and spontaneous suppressors of cpkA cpk2 in M. oryzae. Our results demonstrate that CPKA and CPK2 have specific and overlapping functions, and PKA activity is essential for appressorium formation and plant infection. Unlike the single mutants, the cpkA cpk2 mutant was significantly reduced in growth and rarely produced conidia. It failed to form appressoria although the intracellular cAMP level and phosphorylation of Pmk1 MAP kinase were increased. The double mutant also was defective in plant penetration and Mps1 activation. Interestingly, it often produced fast-growing spontaneous suppressors that formed appressoria but were still non-pathogenic. Two suppressor strains of cpkA cpk2 had deletion and insertion mutations in the MoSFL1 transcription factor gene. Deletion of MoSFL1 or its C-terminal 93-aa (MoSFL1ΔCT) was confirmed to suppress the defects of cpkA cpk2 in hyphal growth but not appressorium formation or pathogenesis. We also isolated 30 spontaneous suppressors of the cpkA cpk2 mutant in Fusarium graminearum and identified mutations in 29 of them in FgSFL1. Affinity purification and co-IP assays showed that this C-terminal region of MoSfl1 was essential for its interaction with the conserved Cyc8-Tup1 transcriptional co-repressor, which was reduced by cAMP treatment. Furthermore, the S211D mutation at the conserved PKA-phosphorylation site in MoSFL1 partially suppressed the defects of cpkA cpk2. Overall, our results indicate that PKA activity is essential for appressorium formation and proper activation of Pmk1 or Mps1 in M. oryzae, and phosphorylation of MoSfl1 by PKA relieves its interaction with the Cyc8-Tup1 co-repressor and

  17. Fermented Milk Containing Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota Preserves the Diversity of the Gut Microbiota and Relieves Abdominal Dysfunction in Healthy Medical Students Exposed to Academic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kato-Kataoka, Akito; Nishida, Kensei; Takada, Mai; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Kikuchi-Hayakawa, Hiroko; Suda, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Gondo, Yusuke; Shimizu, Kensuke; Matsuki, Takahiro; Kushiro, Akira; Hoshi, Ryoutaro; Watanabe, Osamu; Igarashi, Tomoki; Kuwano, Yuki; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stress-induced abdominal dysfunction is an attractive target for probiotics. To investigate the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on abdominal dysfunction, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with healthy medical students undertaking an authorized nationwide examination for academic advancement. For 8 weeks, until the day before the examination, 23 and 24 subjects consumed an L. casei strain Shirota-fermented milk and a placebo milk daily, respectively. In addition to assessments of abdominal symptoms, psychophysical state, and salivary stress markers, gene expression changes in peripheral blood leukocytes and composition of the gut microbiota were analyzed using DNA microarray analysis and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequence analysis, respectively, before and after the intervention. Stress-induced increases in a visual analog scale measuring feelings of stress, the total score of abdominal dysfunction, and the number of genes with changes in expression of more than 2-fold in leukocytes were significantly suppressed in the L. casei strain Shirota group compared with those in the placebo group. A significant increase in salivary cortisol levels before the examination was observed only in the placebo group. The administration of L. casei strain Shirota, but not placebo, significantly reduced gastrointestinal symptoms. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing demonstrated that the L. casei strain Shirota group had significantly higher numbers of species, a marker of the alpha-diversity index, in their gut microbiota and a significantly lower percentage of Bacteroidaceae than the placebo group. Our findings indicate that the daily consumption of probiotics, such as L. casei strain Shirota, preserves the diversity of the gut microbiota and may relieve stress-associated responses of abdominal dysfunction in healthy subjects exposed to stressful situations. IMPORTANCE A novel clinical trial was conducted with healthy

  18. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  19. Traffic circulation study and long-range plan for Del Rio. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, A.J.; Islam, R.

    1996-03-01

    A 1992 report to Congress, pursuant to Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) sections 1089 and 6015, acknowledges that Texas serves a disproportionate share of the U.S.-Mexico international trade, and, accordingly, recommends the development of federal-aid program options to improve transportation infrastructure related to international trade. In order to take advantage of this recommendation, border states must monitor their transborder traffic demand and develop traffic circulation plans for their border cities. This report presents a 25-year traffic circulation plan for the City of Del Rio, Texas. The plan includes recommendations for increasing roadway capacity, adding left-turn lanes, building new routes to relieve congestion, and adding international thoroughfares. It also includes a comprehensive analysis of a transborder traffic in Del Rio, as well as of international thoroughfares between Cuidad Acuna and Del Rio. The recommendations take into account input from TxDOT personnel, City officials, border inspectors, international bridge managers, and several Mexican officials. The recommendations and schedules discussed in this report can assist TxDOT not only in planning land transport infrastructure, but also in alleviating problems associated with additional highway capacity, pavement rehabilitation, signalization, and right-of-way.

  20. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  1. Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br (Convolvulaceae) relieved nociception and inflammation in mice - A topical herbal medicine against effects due to cnidarian venom-skin contact.

    PubMed

    da Silva Barth, Cristiane; Tolentino de Souza, Hugo Guilherme; Rocha, Lilian W; da Silva, Gislaine Francieli; Dos Anjos, Mariana Ferreira; Pastor, Veronica D'Avila; Belle Bresolin, Tania Mari; Garcia Couto, Angelica; Roberto Santin, José; Meira Quintão, Nara Lins

    2017-03-22

    induced by histamine injection. Finally, the semisolid presented significant inhibition in trypsin- and capsaicin-induced spontaneous nociception. The hydroethanolic extract of I. pes-caprae showed compliance with the topical popular use of the herbal product to relieve the symptoms evoked by the cnidarian venom-skin contact, such as neurogenic oedema and nociception. The extract components seem to interfere with the effects resulting from the TRPV1, B2R and PAR-2 activation, once it interfered with painful-behaviour and oedema induced by capsaicin, BK and trypsin, pointing the histaminergic system as the main target, once it is an important mediator in the signalling pathway of the aforementioned receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ácaros del mango

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  3. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  4. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  5. Conservacion de truchas del Pacifico

    Treesearch

    Brooke E. Penaluna

    2016-01-01

    La historia de las truchas del Pacífico, pertenecientes al género Oncorhynchus, es una historia muy interesante que se basa en la persistencia y diversificación de sus especies debido, en gran parte, al dinamismo propio que existe en su medio ambiente. Desde el oeste de Norteamérica, extendiéndose hasta el este de Asia, las truchas del Pacífico han experimentado la...

  6. Epidemiological evidence on extra-medical use of prescription pain relievers: transitions from newly incident use to dependence among 12-21 year olds in the United States using meta-analysis, 2002-13.

    PubMed

    Parker, Maria A; Anthony, James C

    2015-01-01

    Background. When 12-to-21-year-olds start using prescription pain relievers extra-medically, some of them transition into opioid dependence within 12 months after such use. Our main aim for this epidemiological research on 12-to-21-year-olds in the United States (US) is to estimate the risk of becoming a newly incident case of opioid dependence within 12 months after onset of using prescription pain relievers extra-medically (EMPPR). Methods. Meta-analyses from multiple independent replication samples now are possible, based upon nationally representative survey samples of US adolescents age 12-21 years. All 12-to-21-year-olds were sampled and recruited for the US National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, with standardized assessments of EMPPR use and opioid dependence (NSDUH, 2002-2013). Results. Peak risk for a transition from start of EMPPR use to opioid dependence within 12 months is seen at mid-adolescence among 14-to-15-year-olds (6.3%, 8.7% per year), somewhat earlier than peak risk for starting EMPPR use (seen for 16-to-19-year-olds at 4.1%, 5.9% per year). Applied to 12-to-21-year-olds in the US between 2002-2013, an estimated 8 million started using PPR extra-medically. Each year, roughly 42,000 to 58,000 transitioned into opioid dependence within 12 months after onset of such use. Discussion. These epidemiological estimates for the US in recent years teach us to expect one transition into adolescent-onset opioid dependence within 12 months for every 11-16 newly incident EMPPR users, yielding perhaps 120 newly incident opioid dependent cases in need of practitioner attention or treatment services, each day of each year. This evidence can be used to motivate more effective public health prevention, outreach, and early intervention programs as might prevent or delay occurrence of EMPPR use and opioid dependence.

  7. Surgical desensitisation of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle relieves chronic tension-type headache caused by tonic reflexive contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle in patients with aponeurotic blepharoptosis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya

    2013-02-01

    Proprioceptively innervated intramuscular connective tissues in Müller's muscle function as exterior mechanoreceptors to induce reflex contraction of the levator and occipitofrontalis muscles. In aponeurotic blepharoptosis, since the levator aponeurosis is disinserted from the tarsus, stretching of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle is increased even on primary gaze to induce phasic and tonic reflexive contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle. It was hypothesised that in certain patients with aponeurotic blepharoptosis, the presence of tonic reflexive contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle due to the sensitised mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle, can cause chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) associated with occipitofrontalis tenderness. To verify this hypothesis, this study evaluated (1) what differentiates patients with CTTH from patients without CTTH, (2) how pharmacological contraction of Müller's smooth muscle fibres as a method for desensitising the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle affects electromyographic activity of the frontalis muscle, and (3) how surgical aponeurotic reinsertion to desensitise the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle electromyographically or subjectively affects activities of the occipitofrontalis muscle or CTTH. It was found that patients had sustained CTTH when light eyelid closure did not markedly reduce eyebrow elevation. However, pharmacological contraction of Müller's smooth muscle fibres or surgery to desensitise the mechanoreceptor electromyographically reduced the tonic contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle on primary gaze and subjectively relieved aponeurotic blepharoptosis-associated CTTH. Over-stretching of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle on primary gaze may induce CTTH due to tonic reflexive contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle. Therefore, surgical desensitisation of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle appears to relieve CTTH.

  8. Effect of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 [corrected] in relieving clinical symptoms and modulating plasma cytokine levels of Japanese cedar pollinosis during the pollen season. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J Z; Kondo, S; Yanagisawa, N; Takahashi, N; Odamaki, T; Iwabuchi, N; Iwatsuki, K; Kokubo, S; Togashi, H; Enomoto, K; Enomoto, T

    2006-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms have been shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic inflammation and food allergy, but their efficacy remains controversial. This study tested the effect of a yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum BB536 in the treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Forty subjects with a clinical history of JCPsis were given yoghurt either containing BB536 (BB536 yoghurt) or without BB536 (placebo yoghurt) at 2 X 100 g per day for 14 weeks, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective symptoms and self-care measures were recorded daily and blood samples were taken before and during the intervention (at weeks 4, 9, and 14) to measure the blood parameter levels related to JCPsis. Yoghurt supplemented with BB536 significantly alleviated eye symptoms compared with placebo yoghurt (odds ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.97; p = 0.044). Although no statistically significant differences were detected, nasal symptoms such as itching, rhinorrhea, and blockage, as well as throat symptoms tended to be relieved with the BB536 yoghurt. BB536 tended to suppress the decreasing blood levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and the increasing blood eosinophil rates; a significantly higher IFN-gamma level was observed for the difference from baseline at week 4. A decreased trend in the difference from baseline levels of JCP-specific IgE levels was also observed at week 4 in the BB536 group compared with the placebo group. In conclusion, these results suggest that intake of BB536-supplemented yoghurt may relieve JCPsis symptoms, probably through a modulating effect on Th balance.

  9. El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper resume the investigation entitled ``El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas''. That consist in an edition of the original text of the book of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours from the Books of the knowledge of Astronomy of Alfonso X (Manuscript 156, Complutense University). And a description of the astronomical functionality of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours. It includes a geometric description of the positional astronomy on which the operation of the Palace is based.

  10. Torres del Paine National Park

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Grinding glaciers and granite peaks mingle in Chile’s Torres del Paine National Park. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this summertime image of the park on January 21, 2013. This image shows just a portion of the park, including Grey Glacier and the mountain range of Cordillera del Paine. The rivers of glacial ice in Torres del Paine National Park grind over bedrock, turning some of that rock to dust. Many of the glaciers terminate in freshwater lakes, which are rich with glacial flour that colors them brown to turquoise. Skinny rivers connect some of the lakes to each other (image upper and lower right). Cordillera del Paine rises between some of the wide glacial valleys. The compact mountain range is a combination of soaring peaks and small glaciers, most notably the Torres del Paine (Towers of Paine), three closely spaced peaks emblematic of the mountain range and the larger park. By human standards, the mountains of Cordillera del Paine are quite old. But compared to the Rocky Mountains (70 million years old), and the Appalachians (about 480 million years), the Cordillera del Paine are very young—only about 12 million years old. A study published in 2008 described how scientists used zircon crystals to estimate the age of Cordillera del Paine. The authors concluded that the mountain range was built in three pulses, creating a granite laccolith, or dome-shaped feature, more than 2,000 meters (7,000 feet) thick. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using Advanced Land Imager data from the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: EO-1 - ALI View more info: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=80266 Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA

  11. Determinación del perfil instrumental del EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M. F.; Rodriguez, M. V.; Pintado, O. I.

    Se calcula el perfil instrumental para el telescopio de 2,15m del CASLEO con EBASIM. Para ello se usaron flats de cielo y el espectro solar FTS de Kurucz. El método, que se puede utilizar para otras configuraciones instrumentales, es convolucionar ambos espectros para obtener los coeficientes de corrección.

  12. An un-commissioned randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study to test the effect of deep sea fish oil as a pain reliever for dogs suffering from canine OA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An un-commissioned randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical study was planned using a deep sea fish oil product for pets. Seventy-seven client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to supplement the food with either the fish oil product or corn (=placebo) oil. Our main outcome variables were force platform variables peak vertical force (PVF) and impulse, the validated Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI) and the use of rescue NSAIDs. Secondary outcome variables were a locomotion visual analog scale (VAS), a Quality of life VAS, a comparative questionnaire, a veterinary assessment, owners’ final assessment of outcome and guessing the product given. Results When comparing the two test groups at the end of the trial (16 weeks) there was no significant difference in any of the main outcome variables but owners of dogs that had taken fish oil were significantly happier with the treatment at the end visit and did significantly better at guessing what group their dogs had been in, compared to the placebo group. When comparing variables within the fish oil group as change from baseline to trial end, there were significant positive changes in PVF, HCPI, NSAID use, Quality of life VAS, as well as in all three scores in the comparative questionnaire (locomotion, every-day situations, and skin & coat). There were similar positive trends in force platform impulse and in the veterinary assessment variables, although they did not reach significance. Within the placebo group there were significant positive changes only in the HCPI and a significant deterioration according to veterinary assessment. Conclusions When compared to placebo, there was not a major statistically significant benefit in using deep sea fish oil as a pain reliever in our study population of dogs suffering from osteoarthritis. However, the fish oil treated patients improved significantly in many of the variables, when comparing baseline values to the study-end values

  13. An un-commissioned randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study to test the effect of deep sea fish oil as a pain reliever for dogs suffering from canine OA.

    PubMed

    Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Roine, Johanna; Elo, Kari; Lappalainen, Anu; Junnila, Jouni; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi

    2012-09-06

    An un-commissioned randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical study was planned using a deep sea fish oil product for pets. Seventy-seven client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to supplement the food with either the fish oil product or corn (=placebo) oil. Our main outcome variables were force platform variables peak vertical force (PVF) and impulse, the validated Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI) and the use of rescue NSAIDs. Secondary outcome variables were a locomotion visual analog scale (VAS), a Quality of life VAS, a comparative questionnaire, a veterinary assessment, owners' final assessment of outcome and guessing the product given. When comparing the two test groups at the end of the trial (16 weeks) there was no significant difference in any of the main outcome variables but owners of dogs that had taken fish oil were significantly happier with the treatment at the end visit and did significantly better at guessing what group their dogs had been in, compared to the placebo group. When comparing variables within the fish oil group as change from baseline to trial end, there were significant positive changes in PVF, HCPI, NSAID use, Quality of life VAS, as well as in all three scores in the comparative questionnaire (locomotion, every-day situations, and skin & coat). There were similar positive trends in force platform impulse and in the veterinary assessment variables, although they did not reach significance. Within the placebo group there were significant positive changes only in the HCPI and a significant deterioration according to veterinary assessment. When compared to placebo, there was not a major statistically significant benefit in using deep sea fish oil as a pain reliever in our study population of dogs suffering from osteoarthritis. However, the fish oil treated patients improved significantly in many of the variables, when comparing baseline values to the study-end values within the group, indicating a true

  14. Over-the-counter pain relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects than other pain medicines. Examples of OTC brands of acetaminophen are Tylenol, Paracetamol, and Panadol. Acetaminophen ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  15. Pain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs (also called NSAIDs). NSAIDs include the following:Aspirin (2 brand names: Bayer, St. Joseph)Ibuprofen (2 ... name: Aleve)Some products contain both acetaminophen and aspirin (brand names: Excedrin Extra Strength, Excedrin Migraine, Vanquish). ...

  16. Tailbone Pain: How Can I Relieve It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes tailbone pain, and how can I ease it? Answers from Margaret Moutvic, M.D. Tailbone pain — pain that occurs in ... called coccydynia or coccygodynia, usually goes away on its own within a few weeks or months. To ...

  17. Potential method for relieving fatigue in radiologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2013-03-01

    Radiologists moved to an environment in which they read digital images off of computer displays instead of film images off of light boxes. With film and light boxes they typically would read for about an hour (seated) and then take a break while the film librarian changed the images on the view box. With digital viewing off computers they tend to sit all day in front of the computers with far fewer breaks and opportunity to stand up and move around than with film. There is concern that this lack of activity not only contributes to back, shoulder and neck discomfort, but also contributes to increased fatigue which has been shown to impact reader performance. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in physiologic vital signs (heart rate and blood pressure) of radiologists as a function of whether they read images while seated or while standing up. Five subjects had their blood pressure and heart rate measured while seated and while standing reading cases in the normal clinical setting. For all three measures there was a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) difference between seated and standing measures with seated being lower than standing. The higher heart rate and blood pressure with standing suggests that the radiologists are more active in this position and thus potentially more attentive than while seated. This study will be followed up to determine impact on diagnostic performance of standing vs seated as well as subjective ratings of wakefulness and mood.

  18. The use of methylphenidate to relieve fatigue.

    PubMed

    Rojí, Rocío; Centeno, Carlos

    2017-09-06

    To review recent evidence on the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate as a symptomatic treatment of patients with cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Five clinical trials published since 2011 were identified. Two of these concluded that methylphenidate is more efficacious than placebo in providing relief from CRF, but the remaining three showed no difference in favour of methylphenidate. The studies were heterogeneous as per the dosage, scales used for evaluating fatigue and the target group studied. None of the studies detected serious reactions, and only mild and infrequent side-effects of methylphenidate were reported. Three new metanalyses show the slightly superior effect of methylphenidate compared to placebo in CRF. Overall, literature supports the existence of moderate benefit of methylphenidate in CRF, backed up by weak evidence. Future studies should aim at better identifying the profile of patients who would benefit most from this pharmacological intervention.

  19. Relieving stress through value-rich work.

    PubMed

    Knoop, R

    1994-12-01

    On the basis of Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959) motivator-hygiene theory, it was hypothesized that intrinsic but not extrinsic work values would be inversely related to stress. Also investigated was the question of which work values provide the most relief from stress. Elementary school teachers and administrators (N = 607) from nine school boards in southern Ontario completed a survey that included Pines, Aronson, and Kafry's (1981) stress scale and Elizur's (1984) work values scale. Almost all of the 12 intrinsic work values investigated were negatively correlated with stress, but the 4 extrinsic work values studied were not consistently related to stress. Five work values explained 11% of the variance in physical stress, 9 work values explained 22% of the variance in emotional stress, and 6 work values explained 26% of the variance in mental stress. Four work values emerged as meaningful predictors of all three types of stress: being esteemed by others, achieving through work, doing meaningful work, and being able to use one's knowledge and abilities.

  20. Clinical Inquiry. Does turmeric relieve inflammatory conditions?

    PubMed

    White, Brett; Judkins, Dolores Zegar

    2011-03-01

    Yes, but data aren't plentiful. Limited evidence suggests that turmeric and its active compound, curcumin, are effective for rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, primarily low-quality cohort studies with small patient numbers). Curcumin has shown limited benefit for patients with psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), inflammatory eye diseases, familial adenomatous polyposis, and kidney transplantation (SOR: B, small, short randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). No evidence indicates that curcumin helps patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (SOR: B, single RCT).

  1. NASA Helps Industry Relieve Pressure Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In many industrial applications, pressure relief valves (PRV) perform the critical function of safely releasing pressure before potentially damaging build-ups occur. Conventional relief valves, however, have proven unstable, leading to premature wear and devasting consequences. A high-performance pressure relief valve, the PRV95, now being manufactured my Marotta Scientific Controls, Inc., of Montville, NJ, provides the answer to premature wear and instability. Using an improved valve design developed under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) contract from John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), Marotta's PRV95 pressure relief valve provides stability over the entire operational range, from fully closed to fully open. The valve employs upstream control for valve positioning, that makes the valve more stable and affords excellent repeatability with minimal lag time. 'It opens and closes softly, and does not oscillate or generate hard impacts; oscillation can result in a hard impact pressure release, which can lead to an explosion in the presence of oxygen,' says Bill St. Cyr, Chief of Test Technology Branch at Stennis Space Center. Marotta's PRV95 design is also unique in its ability to maintain a seal near the set point of the relief limit. Typically, relief valves seal tightly up to 90% of set point and then reseat when pressure is reduced to 85% of set point. The PRV95 technology maintains seal integrity until 98% of set point and will reseat a 95-97% of set point. This allows the operator to protect his system while not exceeding its limits.

  2. Water Retention: Relieve This Premenstrual Symptom

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you continue to be troubled by monthly water retention, consult your doctor. He or she might suggest that you keep a symptom diary for a few months. This can help confirm that your symptoms are related to your menstrual cycle, rather than other causes of abdominal bloating — including ...

  3. Anesthesiologist's Role in Relieving Patient's Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Brij; Kumar, Rajan; Attri, Joginder Pal; Chatrath, Veena; Bala, Neeru

    2017-01-01

    Anesthesia and surgery have proved to be highly anxiety provoking and with the rise of elective surgery, its aspect of patient's experience has become prominent in time. However, our fault as anesthesiologists is that we have not made people get versed with what we people as anesthesiologist do in the operating room. Hence, keeping in view all this, a study was carried out, in which video information/images regarding anesthesia and surgical procedure was shown to patients on PowerPoint Presentation. Different images showing previous patient's hospital journey were shown to educate patients. Two hundred patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery were taken and were divided into two groups of 100 each. Patients (study group or Group I) were shown video clippings/images of other previously operated patients and their hospital journey including surgery and anesthesia for which patient came in hospital. The study was carried out on the patient in each group while Group II was treated in normal way and not shown any type of images/videos. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale was used as a criterion to measure the level of anxiety in Group I and II at four different intervals that are before pre anesthetic check up (PAC), after showing videos and images in Group I, 1 h before surgery and 8 h after surgery. The results of observation of both the groups at different intervals time were statistically compared and analyzed. These characteristics were analyzed using the "Chi-square tests" and "unpaired t-test." Video and images information if done preoperatively have been shown to reduce patient's anxiety, although little is known regarding the effects of the method. Showing videos/images of hospital journey for educating the patients before the operation is beneficial to patients undergoing elective surgery.

  4. Mal del pinto in Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Francisco; Rein, Charles R.; Arias, Oswaldo

    1955-01-01

    This report deals with the geographical distribution, prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, serological, clinical, and histopathological features, and treatment of mal del pinto, or pinta, in Mexico. Repository penicillin preparations (PAM and Panbiotic) have been found highly effective in the treatment of this endemic, non-venereal treponematosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13260889

  5. SLC6A4 Polymorphisms and Age of Onset in Late-life Depression on Treatment Outcomes with Citalopram: A Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) report

    PubMed Central

    Shiroma, Paulo R.; Drews, Maureen S.; Geske, Jennifer R.; Mrazek, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Age at onset of first major depressive episode (MDE) does not necessarily translate into different treatment outcomes to antidepressants in late-life depression. The influence of genetic variants may affect this relationship. Design Post-hoc dataset analysis of the association between variants in the promoter region (indel, rs25531) and within intron 2 (Stin2 VNTR) of the SCL6A4 gene and treatment outcomes among older participants in the first treatment arm of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression trial (STAR*D). Setting Participants were enrolled from 23 psychiatric and 18 primary care settings. Participants Two hundred twenty one, white-non Hispanic subjects, aged 60 to 75 years, with 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rating (QIDS-CR16) initial score ≥10, and who remained in the study for at least 6 weeks were genotyped. Intervention Citalopram treatment for up to 14 weeks Measurements Main outcome was remission rate defined as a score of ≤5 on the QIDS-CR16. Response was a secondary outcome defined as a reduction of ≥50% of baseline QIDS-CR16. Results Polymorphism in the indel promoter region was associated with remission among subjects whose first lifetime episode of major depression occurred later than age 55. In this group, subjects with L/L genotype had significantly higher remission (80% vs. 43%) as compared to those subjects with any other indel promoter genotype. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the genetic effect of the indel promoter region on remission increases along with age at onset of MDE. Conclusions Variants in the indel promoter region of SLC6A4 gene have a more robust effect to antidepressant outcome among older subjects who experienced their first MDE at a later age. The mechanism of action of these variants remains to be determined. PMID:23973251

  6. Out of the wave: the meaning of suffering and relieved suffering for survivors of the tsunami catastrophe. An hermeneutic-phenomenological study of TV-interviews one year after the tsunami catastrophe, 2004.

    PubMed

    Roxberg, Asa; Burman, Marianne; Guldbrand, Mona; Fridlund, Bengt; da Silva, António Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    The tsunami catastrophe, 26th December 2004, is one of a number of catastrophes that has stricken mankind. Climate reports forecast that natural disasters will increase in number in the future. Research on human suffering after a major catastrophe, using a caring science perspective, is scarce. The aim of the study was to explore the meaning of suffering and relieved suffering of survivors of the tsunami catastrophe, 26th December 2004. An explorative study design, inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic-phenomenology, was used. Interviews made by the Swedish Television (SVT) in connection with the 1 year anniversary were carried out on site in the disaster area and in Sweden. The text analysis revealed four main themes: 'An incomprehensible event', 'A heavy burden', 'Help that helps', and to 'Being changed in a changed life situation'. The findings were mainly interpreted in light of Paul Ricoeur's thinking on suffering, quilt, forgiveness, time and narrative. The first year after the loss of loved ones in the tsunami catastrophe, 2004, was like starting an inner as well as an outer journey. This journey was experienced as living with the heavy burden of an incomprehensible event. Help that helped was mediated by consolers who endured the suffering of the other. An 'enduring courage' is a key moral virtue to encounter the alienation of the sufferer and how it in turn alienates from the sufferer. It is also important to recognize that the complexity of the world of those who have lost loved ones in major catastrophes includes possibilities for reconciliation with the loss. The reconciliation creates hope that opens up for being changed in a changed life situation. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. A multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE relieves Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammatory reaction via up-regulating microRNA-155 to inhibit Th17 response in C57/BL6 mice model.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaobo; Song, Hui; Yang, Jue; Li, Tong; Xi, Tao; Xing, Yingying

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is an effective mean of preventing infectious diseases, including those caused by Helicobacter pylori. Th17 cell responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. In view of Th17 responses to multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE, the IL-17 production in antiserum was examined. CTB-UE immunization decreased IL-17 production, implying that Th17 responses may be inhibited. Furthermore, IL-17 aggravated GES-1 cell injury induced by H. pylori SS1; In contrast, CTB-UE antiserum could alleviate this cell injury, which suggesting that CTB-UE can protect GES-1 cell infected with H. pylori SS1 by inhibiting Th17 responses. Treatment of mice with CTB-UE significantly reduced the H. pylori burden and inflammation in the stomach. On the other hand, the production of IL-17 in the stomach in H. pylori-infected mice was increased; but the production of IL-17 in the stomach was decreased after treatment with CTB-UE. Furthermore, the expression of microRNA-155 in gastric tissue was significantly up-regulated. The results suggested that CTB-UE could relieve the H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory reaction via up-regulating microRNA-155 to inhibit Th17 responses, implying that the microRNA-155/IL-17 pathway was involved. Further study is required to elucidate the relationship between miRNA-155 and IL-17. We found that the production of IL-17 was significantly increased after the expression of miRNA-155 being down-regulated; however, the production of IL-17 was significantly decreased after the expression of miRNA-155 being upregulated.

  8. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  9. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  10. Calidad del aire interior en las escuelas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ha desarrollado el Programa de Herramientas de Calidad del Aire Interior para las Escuelas para reducir la exposición a los contaminantes ambientales en las mismas a través de la adopción voluntaria de las prácticas para manejar la calidad del aire int

  11. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  12. Dust formation in Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Taranova, O. G.; Tatarnikov, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the result of the IR photometry of Nova Del 2013 obtained at the Crimean Station (Nauchny, Ukraine) of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. JHKLM photometry was carried out with 125-cm telescope using a InSb-photometer on:

  13. Gonadal dysgenesis in del (18p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, A.; Fouquet, F.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a girl with syndromal gonadal dysgenesis and a de novo del (18p). Genetic factors controlling gonadal development are located not only on the X chromosome, but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on 18p. We conclude that patients with del (18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Canibalismo Extremo y Lente Gravitacional Intensa en el Cúmulo de Galaxias Abell 3827

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. J.; West, M.; Bergmann, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; Gomez, P.; Lee, H.; Miller, B.; Turner, J.

    Abell 3827 is one of the most massive known clusters and at its center we observe an extreme example of galactic canibalism: a super giant elliptical galaxy in its formation process, devoring five massive galaxies at the same time. Using high spatial resolution Gemini+GMOS imagery and multi-object spectroscopy, we derived the redshift (z=0.099) and the radial velocity dispersion of the 55 brightest galaxies in the cluster central region (1134 +- 125 km/s). The estimated virial mass is ~ 1E14 M(sun) inside a radius of 300 kpc of the cluster center. We have also found features corresponding to a strong gravitational lense, four anular features arranged in an Einstein Ring from a galaxy (z=0.2) at double redshift than the cluster, and a fifth arclet feature corresponding to the lensed light of a farther galaxy (z=0.4). The possible Einstein Ring is of small angular size and the gravitational lense morphology would confirm that the cluster is indeed very massive and dense. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH.

  15. Unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico: la influencia del clima, el substrato y la topografia

    Treesearch

    William Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2008-01-01

    El mapa de unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico representa variaciones climaticas, topograficas y del substrato mediante la integracion de seis zonas climaticas (Ewel y Whitmore, 1973), seis substratos (Bawiec, 2001; USGS, 2005), cinco posiciones topograficas, o topoformas (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), y cuerpos de agua (USGS 2005). Los substratos representan el conjunto...

  16. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  17. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  18. del universe from string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shou-Long; Feng, Xing-Hui; Wei, Hao; Lü, H.

    2017-05-01

    The Gödel universe is a direct product of a line and a three-dimensional spacetime we call G_α . In this paper, we show that the Gödel metrics can arise as exact solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-Axion, Einstein-Proca-Axion, or Freedman-Schwarz gauged supergravity theories. The last option allows us to embed the Gödel universe in string theory. The ten-dimensional spacetime is a direct product of a line and the nine-dimensional one of an S^3× S^3 bundle over G_α , and it can be interpreted as some decoupling limit of the rotating D1/D5/D5 intersection. For some appropriate parameter choice, the nine-dimensional metric becomes an AdS_3× S^3 bundle over squashed 3-sphere. We also study the properties of the Gödel black holes that are constructed from the double Wick rotations of the Gödel metrics.

  19. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements.

  20. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  1. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  2. [Revista de Gastroenterologia del Peru: 25 years].

    PubMed

    Celestino Fernández, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    In this article is described in a very summarized form the history of the Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú (RGP) that dates from the same origins of the Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú, when based in October 30 of 1952 already glimpse the presence of the RGP as the official organ for the publication for studies of doctors of the society or foreign guests. We spent 29 years, and this idea becomes reality; and today the RGP turns to their XXV anniversary. The RGP, to locate itself as the Peruvian medical publication best reputation.

  3. Manual del McVCO 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    El McVCO es un generador de frecuencias basado en un microcontrolador que reemplaza al oscilador controlado por voltaje (VCO) utilizado en telemetría analógica de datos sísmicas. Acepta señales de baja potencia desde un sismómetro y produce una señal subportadora modulada en frecuencia adecuada para enlaces telefónicos o vía radio a un lugar remoto de recolección de datos. La frecuencia de la subportadora y la ganancia pueden ser seleccionadas mediante un interruptor. Tiene la opción de poder operar con dos canales para la observación con ganancia alta y baja. El McVCO fue diseñado con el propósito de mejorar la telemetría analógica de las señales dentro de la Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN) (Red Sismográfica del Noroeste del Pacífico). Su desarrollo recibió el respaldo del Programa de Geofísica de la Universidad de Washington y del "Volcano Hazards and Earthquake Hazards programs of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Volcánicos y Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Sísmicos de los EEUU). Cientos de instrumentos se han construido e instalado. Además de utilizarlo el PNSN, el McVCO es usado por el Observatorio Vulcanológico de Alaska para monitorear los volcanes aleutianos y por el USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (Programa de Ayuda en las Catástrofes Volcánicas del USGS) para responder a crisis volcánicas en otros países. Este manual cubre el funcionamiento del McVCO, es una referencia técnica para aquellos que necesitan saber con más detalle cómo funciona el McVCO, y cubre una serie de temas que requieren un trato explícito o que derivan del despliegue del instrumento.

  4. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light...

  5. Comunidades de la Cuenca Baja del Río Merrimack

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lista de todas las comunidades que se incluyen en los límites 8, 10 y 12 del código de unidades hidrológicas (HUC) para la cuenca del río Merrimack y las ubicaciones de la ciudad de las estaciones de control de calidad del agua de la EPA.

  6. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  7. Del Mod System. 1972 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Charlotte H.

    The overall aim of the Del Mod System is the improvement of science programs taught in Delaware schools; it is a working agreement among the University of Delaware, Delaware Technical and Community College, Delaware State College, State Department of Public Instruction, industry, and the schools. It was formed to bring about changes in science…

  8. Hopeful (protein InDel) monsters?

    PubMed

    Tóth-Petróczy, Agnes; Tawfik, Dan S

    2014-06-10

    In this issue of Structure, Arpino and colleagues describe in atomic detail how a protein stomachs a deletion within a helix, an event that rarely occurs in nature or in the lab. Can insertions and deletions (InDels) trigger dramatic structural transitions? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Del Norte means north to recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    Del Norte Regional Recycling and Transfer Station is owned by the city of Oxnard, California and operated by BLT Enterprises, Inc. The Del Norte facility--located in southwestern Ventura County about an hour northwest of Los Angeles--processes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers, aluminum, steel, glass, old corrugated containers (OCC), newspapers, computer printout paper, white and colored ledger paper, coated book, supermix paper, telephone books, and old magazines. According to the company, there has been virtually no community opposition to the site. The facility has few neighbors, and those are agricultural. To keep the community relationship strong, the facility`s design and location all but eliminated odor and noise complaints. The building was designed against the prevailing wind pattern, and BLT processes odorous material fast. A misting system installed for dust suppression also can be used with a solution for odor control should the need arise.

  10. del, Einstein, Mach, Gamow, and Lanczos: Gödel's remarkable excursion into cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    This article is an expanded version of a talk given at the International Symposium Celebrating the 100th Birthday of Kurt Gödel (Vienna, 2006). It seeks to trace the path which led this preeminent mathematical logician to discover one of the famous results of General Relativity, the rotating Gödel Universe. This universe has some remarkable properties, which gave the philosophers plenty to worry about. It allows a person to travel into his own past, with all the ensuing causal paradoxes; it allows no unique temporal ordering of events; and though Gödel's Universe is rigid and infinite, the Foucault pendulum planes everywhere in it rotate in unison, a clear affront to adherents of Mach's Principle. We also discuss some lesser known precursors in the field, who just missed discovering Gödel's universe. While the article gives all the necessary derivations in simplified form (for example, of the metric and its geodesics), much of it should be accessible to the general reader, who can simply skip most of the mathematics. [Reprinted, with permission, from Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics: Horizons of Truth, edited by Matthias Baaz, Christos H. Papadimitriou, Dana S. Scott, Hilary Putnam, and Charles L. Harper, Jr. (Cambridge U. P., New York, 2009).

  11. Antenatal Rh prophylaxis is unnecessary for "Asia type" DEL women.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chao-Peng; Xu, Hua; Xu, Qun; Sun, Guo-Dong; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Wei; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Zhong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Dan; Zhuang, Nai-Bao

    2010-10-01

    Generally Rh-negative patients need to be transfused with Rh-negative red blood cells. For pregnant women carrying Rh-positive fetus, the antenatal anti-D detection and Rh immunoglobulin prophylaxis are required worldwide. In East Asia, a RhD variant, termed "Asia type" DEL, was found in approximately 30% of apparent Rh-negative individuals. The antigenic and molecular properties of the DEL were previously defined. Few data discuss whether DEL could be immunized by D antigen clinically although DEL was reported arousing alloimmunization to true Rh-negative patients. To determine whether the DEL variant can be immunized to the D antigen, we retrospectively evaluated 104 Rh-negative pregnancies with allo-anti-D antibodies, and we also tracked 199 consecutive apparent Rh-negative pregnant women, with a history of gestations or parturitions but not subject to anti-D gamma-globulin prophylaxis, for evidence of allo-anti-D. The DEL variant was first excluded by ccee phenotypes and then identified through PCR analysis or sequencing. In the retrospective study, we expected to find 30 DEL variants, yet none of the anti-D alloimmunized women were DEL-positive. And in the second group, none of 44 DEL-positive women versus 38 of 155 (24.5%) true Rh-negative women (those excluding DEL) formed allo-anti-D. The data indicate that the "Asia type" DEL variant does not appear at risk of alloimmunization to the D antigen. It strongly suggests that the antenatal Rh immune globulin prophylaxis is unnecessary for DEL women. Furthermore, it implicates that the "Asia type" DEL may be deemed Rh-positive safely for clinical transfusion therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  13. A Description of Del Mod and Its Final Evaluation, Final Report, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Charlotte H.; Bolig, John R.

    This monograph presents an overview of five Del Mod System final reports, comments by the project director, financial structure of the Del Mod System, and descriptions of Del Mod Projects. The Del Mod System was concerned with changing the science and mathematics education programs in the state of Delaware. Between 1970 and 1976, Del Mod conducted…

  14. Kurt Gödels Brünner Verwandte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dora

    2007-11-01

    The author of this memoir Dora Müller (born 1920) belongs - as well as Kurt Gödel-to the German minority playing an important role in the past life of Brno. The marriage of his son included her among the Gödels collaterals. She was chemist, but also pianist, historician, participant of antinacist movement and iniciator of Czech-German understanding after war. Following her personal experiences, remembrances of Gödels relatives and documental materials, she evokes the atmosphere of broader family milieu of Kurt Gödel.

  15. An evening at "La Clinica del Pueblo".

    PubMed

    Shefsky, M L

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a typical evening at the Clinica del Pueblo in the Hispanic neighborhood of Adams-Morgan in Washington, D.c. The Clinical del Pueblo began operating in 1983 in response to the urgen medical needs of Central American refugees arriving in the Washington D.c. area. The refugees bring with them severe trauma, fear, and health problems caused by the civil was and exacerbated by inadequate or non-existant health services. Approximately 80,000 Salvadoran refugees live in the area. They do not receive adequate health care for 3 reasons. 1) Because the US goverment is unwilling to recognize them as true refugees, they live with the constant threat of deportatin back to the violence from which they have fled. 2) Refugees lack the ability to pay for private care. 3) Langauage and culture create frightening barriers to health care for the refugees. For those who do seek care, these barriers can lead to the inadequate or incomplete diagnoses and poor compliance and follow-up. Plenty International and the Central American Refugee Center responded to these problems by organizing a free clinic to provide not only medical care but also a training course for volunteers. The director of the clinic organizes the course, the classes are taught by a variety of people including the clinic's volunteer physicians, nurses, and public health educators as well as graduates of previus training courses and people from the wider community. The services of the clinic reach only a small portion of the population in need. However, the fact that free medical services are now available to some Central American refugees make the Clinica del Pueblo an important program.

  16. Huave de San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca (Huave of San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Huave, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Mateo del Mar, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  17. UBVJHKLM photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlak, A. M.; Shenavrin, I. V.; Tatarnikov, M. A.; Tatarnikova, A. A.

    2013-08-01

    We present the results of the optical and IR photometry of Nova Del 2013 obtained at the Crimean Station (Nauchny, Ukraine) of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. UBV photometry was carried out with 60-cm Zeiss telescope using a photoelectric photometer on August 15.94 UT: U=4.54+/-0.02, B=5.07+/-0.01, V=5.05+/-0.01; on August 16.80 UT: U=4.54+/-0.01, B=4.85+/-0.02, V=4.68+/-0.01; on August 16.86 UT: U=4.66+/-0.01, B=4.92+/-0.01, V=4.73+/-0.01.

  18. FISH and SNP-A karyotyping in myelodysplastic syndromes: improving cytogenetic detection of del(5q), monosomy 7, del(7q), trisomy 8, and del(20q)

    PubMed Central

    Makishima, Hideki; Rataul, Manjot; Gondek, Lukasz P.; Huh, Jungwon; Cook, James R.; Theil, Karl S.; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Kuczkowski, Elizabeth; O’Keefe, Christine; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2009-01-01

    Cytogenetic aberrations identified by metaphase cytogenetics (MC) have important diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic roles in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) complements MC by the ability to evaluate large numbers of both interphase and metaphase nuclei. However, clinically practical FISH strategies are limited to detection of known lesions. Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A)-based karyotyping can reveal unbalanced defects with superior resolution over MC and FISH and identify segmental uniparental disomy (UPD) undetectable by either method. Using a standardized approach, we focused our investigation on detection of -5/del(5q), -7/del(7q), trisomy 8 and del(20q) in patients with MDS (N=52), MDS/myeloproliferative overlap syndromes (N=7) and acute myeloid leukemia (N=15) using MC, FISH and SNP-A karyotyping. The detection rate for del(5q) was 30%, 32% and 32% by MC, FISH, and SNP-A, respectively. No single method detected all defects, and detection rates improved when all methods were used. The rate for detection of del(5q) increased incrementally to 35% (MC+FISH), 38% (MC+SNP-A), 38% (FISH+SNP-A) and 39% (all 3 methods). Similar findings were observed for -7/del(7q), trisomy 8 and -20/del(20q). We conclude that MC, FISH and SNP-A are complementary techniques that, when applied and interpreted together, can improve the diagnostic yield for identifying genetic lesions in MDS and contribute to the better description of abnormal karyotypes. PMID:19758696

  19. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Han, Deok-Jong; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-12-04

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  20. 33 CFR 110.111 - Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. 110.111 Section 110.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. An area...

  1. Research and Evaluation Within the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, John R.

    Described is the Del Mod System, its inception, the fundings associated with it, and its objectives. A number of projects have already been completed and implemented. This monograph describes the evaluations of such projects and of the Del Mod systems-approach to science education. The area of evaluation and the method of data collection (with…

  2. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization…

  3. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization…

  4. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Intra-articular Injection of the Radio-ulnar and Radio-humeral Joints and Ultrasound-Guided Dry Needling of the Affected Limb Muscles to Relieve Fixed Pronation Deformity and Myofascial Issues around the Shoulder, in a Case of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1.

    PubMed

    Pai, Renuka S; Vas, Lakshmi

    2017-04-23

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) occurs due to different pathophysiological mechanisms. Presently there is no description of definitive treatment that can resolve the especially recalcitrant motor issues of disability in CRPS type 1 (CRPS-1). We have herein described the successful management of motor disability with a multimodal approach in a patient with CRPS-1 that occurred as a result of a fracture sustained in the lower end of the radius. Sensory/sudomotor/vasomotor symptoms were relieved completely by medications and stellate ganglion block in 2 weeks. Ultrasound-guided dry needling secured near-complete improvement of shoulder and hand movements in 45 days. Ultrasound guided intra-articular (radio-ulnar and radio-humeral joint) injections with steroid reduced residual pain and improved forearm movements by 50% initially. The patient continued to receive regular sessions of dry needling, physiotherapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. By the end of 1 year, the functions of the limb improved remarkably, as did the functional outcome scores. In this patient with CRPS-1, intra-articular injections with steroid reduced nociception in the affected local structures and sensitization in the nervous system; dry needling resolved the myofascial issues; sustained physiotherapy maintained the motor recovery; and behavioral therapy techniques addressed the cognitive and life stress issues. It was concluded that the presenting symptoms in this case were a consequence of interactions between humoral, nervous, and myofascial systems. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  8. The New Biology: What Price Relieving Man's Estate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Leon R.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses ethical and social issues arising from the possible application of biomedical technologies providing control over life and death, human potentialities, and human achievement. Argues that "because we lack wisdom, caution is our urgent need," and proposes that systems of international control and regulation are needed. (AL)

  9. Thermoplastic Single-Ply Roof Relieves Water Damage and Inconvenience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Assesses use of thermoplastic single-ply roofs by North Carolina's Mars Hill College to prevent leaks, reduce maintenance costs, and enhance the value of their older historic buildings. Administrators comment on the roof's installation efficiency and cleanliness. (GR)

  10. SVC obstruction and stridor relieved by nasogastric tube insertion.

    PubMed

    Molena, Emma J; Krishnamoorthy, Ashwin; Praveen, Coimbatore

    2016-03-01

    Achalasia is an idiopathic motility disorder of the oesophagus of increasing incidence. It is characterized by aperistalsis of the lower oesophagus and failure of relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter. Patients classically present with chronic symptoms of dysphagia, chest pain, weight loss and regurgitation, and they commonly suffer pulmonary complications such as recurrent microaspiration of static, retained food contents of the upper oesophagus. However, it has also been described, uncommonly, to present with megaoesophagus and secondary tracheal compression. We present a case of megaoesophagus secondary to achalasia which presented with stridor and signs of acute superior vena caval obstruction. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  11. Acoustic analysis and mood classification of pain-relieving music.

    PubMed

    Knox, Don; Beveridge, Scott; Mitchell, Laura A; MacDonald, Raymond A R

    2011-09-01

    Listening to preferred music (that which is chosen by the participant) has been shown to be effective in mitigating the effects of pain when compared to silence and a variety of distraction techniques. The wide range of genre, tempo, and structure in music chosen by participants in studies utilizing experimentally induced pain has led to the assertion that structure does not play a significant role, rather listening to preferred music renders the music "functionally equivalent" as regards its effect upon pain perception. This study addresses this assumption and performs detailed analysis of a selection of music chosen from three pain studies. Music analysis showed significant correlation between timbral and tonal aspects of music and measurements of pain tolerance and perceived pain intensity. Mood classification was performed using a hierarchical Gaussian Mixture Model, which indicated the majority of the chosen music expressed contentment. The results suggest that in addition to personal preference, associations with music and the listening context, emotion expressed by music, as defined by its acoustical content, is important to enhancing emotional engagement with music and therefore enhances the level of pain reduction and tolerance.

  12. Relieving of Misconceptions of Derivative Concept with Derive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Ozturk, Mesut; Ocal, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine students' learning levels in derivative subjects and their misconceptions. In addition, this study aims to compared to the effects of the computer based instruction and traditional instruction in resolving these misconceptions. For this purpose, 70 12th grade students were chosen from high schools in Agri…

  13. Relieving of Misconceptions of Derivative Concept with Derive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Ozturk, Mesut; Ocal, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine students' learning levels in derivative subjects and their misconceptions. In addition, this study aims to compared to the effects of the computer based instruction and traditional instruction in resolving these misconceptions. For this purpose, 12th grade 70 students were chosen from high schools in Agri…

  14. Oral analgesia for relieving post-caesarean pain.

    PubMed

    Mkontwana, Nondumiso; Novikova, Natalia

    2015-03-29

    Oral analgesia is a convenient and widely used form of pain relief following caesarean section. It includes various medications used at different doses alone or in adjunction to other form of analgesia. To determine the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of oral analgesia for post-caesarean pain relief. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-randomised and cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion.Interventions included oral medication given to women for post-caesarean pain relief compared with oral medication, or placebo/no treatment. Two review authors independently assessed for inclusion all the potential studies and independently assessed trial quality, extracted the data using the agreed data extraction form, and checked them for accuracy. Eight small trials involving 962 women (out of 13 included trials) contributed data to the analysis, of which only four trials had low risk of bias.None of the included studies reported on 'adequate pain relief', which is one of this review's primary outcomes. 1. Opiod analgesics versus placeboBased on one trial involving 120 women, the effect of opioids versus placebo was not significant in relation to the need for additional pain relief (primary outcome) (risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06 to 1.92), and the effect in terms of adverse drug effects outcomes was also uncertain (RR 6.58, 95% CI 0.38 to 113.96).Low (75 mg) and high (150 mg) doses of tramadol had a similar effect on the need for additional pain relief (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.12 to 3.78 and RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.68, respectively, one study, 80 women). 2. Non-opioid analgesia versus placeboThe confidence interval for the lower requirement for additional analgesia (primary outcome) with the non-opioid analgesia group was wide and includes little or no effect (average RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.01, six studies, 584 women). However, we observed substantial heterogeneity due to the variety of non-opioid drugs used (I(2) = 85%). In a subgroup analysis of different drugs, only gabapentin use resulted in less need for additional pain relief (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.51, one trial, 126 women). There was no difference in need for additional pain relief with the use of celexocib, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, paracetamol. Maternal drug effects were more common with the use of non-opioid analgesics (RR 11.12, 95% CI 2.13 to 58.22, two trials, 267 women).Gabapentin 300 mg (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.49, one study, 63 women) and 600 mg (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.71, one study, 63 women) as well as ketoprofen 100 mg (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.79, one study 72 women) were both more effective than placebo with respect to the need for additional pain relief. However, the 50 mg ketoprofen group and the placebo group did not differ in terms of the number of women requiring additional pain relief (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.07, one study, 72 women). 3. Combination analgesics versus placeboOur pooled analysis for the effect of combination analgesics on the need for additional pain relief was RR 0.70 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.40, three trials, 242 women, I(2) = 69%). When comparing different drugs within the combination oral analgesics versus placebo comparison we observed subgroup differences (P = 0.05; I² = 65.8%). One trial comparing paracetamol plus codeine versus placebo resulted in fewer women requiring additional pain relief (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.82, one trial, 65 women). However, there were no differences in the the number of women requiring additional pain relief when comparing paracetamol plus oxycodone versus placebo, or paracetamol plus propoxyphene (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.28, one trial, 96 women and RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.11 to 3.69, one trial, 81 women, respectively).Maternal drug effects were more common in combination analgesics group versus placebo (RR 13.18, 95% CI 2.86 to 60.68, three trials, 252 women). 4. Opioid analgesics versus non-opioid analgesicsThe confidence interval for the effect on additional pain relief between opioid and non-opioid drugs was very wide (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.07 to 3.51, one trial, 121 women). Side effects were more common with the use opioids versus non-opioids analgesics (RR 2.32, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.69, two trials 241 women). 5. Opioid analgesics versus combination analgesicsThere was no difference in need for additional pain relief in opioid analgesics versus combination analgesics based on one study involving 121 women comparing tramadol and paracetamol plus propoxyphene (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.07 to 3.51). Maternal adverse effects also did not differ between the two groups (RR 6.74, 95% CI 0.39 to 116.79). 6. Non-opioid versus combination analgesicsThe need for additional pain relief was greater in the group of women who received non-opoid analgesics (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.93, one trial, 192 women) compared with the group of women who received combination analgesics. Secondary outcomes not reported in the included studiesNo data were found on the following secondary outcomes: number of days in hospital post-operatively, re-hospitalisation due to incisional pain, fully breastfeeding on discharge, mixed feeding at discharge, incisional pain at six weeks after caesarean section, maternal post partum depression, effect (negative) on mother and baby interaction and cost of treatment. Eight trials with 962 women were included in the analysis, but only four trials were of high quality. All the trials were small. We carried out subgroup analysis for different drugs within the same group and for high versus low doses of the same drug. However, the relatively few studies (one to two trials) and numbers of women (40 to 136) limits the reliability of these subgroup analyses.Due to limited data available no conclusions can be made regarding the safest and the most effective form of oral analgesia for post-caesarean pain. Further studies are necessary.

  15. Resveratrol relieves Angiostrongylus cantonensis - Induced meningoencephalitis by activating sirtuin-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, An-Chih; Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Chen, Ke-Min; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2017-09-01

    Resveratrol, a natural herbal compound found in high levels in grapes and red wine, is frequently used as activator of sirtuin-1. This study investigated the potential function of sirtuin-1 in regulating angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis in resveratrol-treated mice. Mice were subjected to meningoencephalitis to study the protective effect of resveratrol against meningoencephalitis and investigate the effects of sirtuin-1 activation on brain. Results demonstrated that sirtuin-1 level decreased in mice with meningoencephalitis and significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Moreover, resveratrol treatment significantly reduced eosinophil counts, p65, Interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-33, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, claudin-5 degradation, and blood-brain barrier permeability. By contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Resveratrol treatment was partially beneficial in controlling the pathological processes of angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. The results demonstrate the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol against Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in mice. Treatment with sirtuin-1 agonist was given within a therapeutic window after A. cantonensis infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. How Can I Relieve My Pregnancy Leg Cramps?

    MedlinePlus

    ... trimesters. Experts aren't sure what causes "charley horses" (the nonclinical name for painful cramps in your ... muscles). Although they can be extremely painful, charley horses are — luckily! — usually brief. What might help: Do ...

  17. The New Biology: What Price Relieving Man's Estate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Leon R.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses ethical and social issues arising from the possible application of biomedical technologies providing control over life and death, human potentialities, and human achievement. Argues that "because we lack wisdom, caution is our urgent need," and proposes that systems of international control and regulation are needed. (AL)

  18. Heimlich manoeuvre: adjunctive emergency procedure to relieve choking and asphyxia.

    PubMed

    du Toit, D F

    2004-02-01

    Choking on aspirated food or a foreign body (i.e. meat, mushroom, coin, chewing gum and a balloon) is a common cause of laryngeal obstruction, particularly in those persons who are intoxicated by alcohol or who have bulbar palsy (degeneration of motor neurons in the brain stem nuclei of the glossopharyngeal and vagal nerve). The rima glottis in the larynx is an important site where aspirated food or material becomes lodged, thereby causing laryngeal obstruction (choking). Because the lungs still contain air, intentional compression thrusts to the abdomen (Heimlich manoeuvre) will theoretically expel air from the lungs and dislodge the entrapped food or other material. The manoeuvre can also be used to expel aspirated water from the airways in cases of near drowning. The manoeuvre has been found to be successful as an emergency adjunct measure in removing food blocking the airway.

  19. Pain-relieving prospects for adenosine receptors and ectonucleotidases

    PubMed Central

    Zylka, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine receptor agonists have potent antinociceptive effects in diverse preclinical models of chronic pain. In contrast, the efficacy of adenosine or adenosine receptor agonists at treating pain in humans is unclear. Two ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive neurons were recently identified. When injected spinally, these enzymes have long-lasting adenosine A1 receptor (A1R)-dependent antinociceptive effects in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that spinal adenosine A2A receptor activation can enduringly inhibit neuropathic pain symptoms. Collectively, these studies suggest the possibility of treating chronic pain in humans by targeting specific adenosine receptor subtypes in anatomically defined regions with agonists or with ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine. PMID:21236731

  20. The effect of ginger for relieving of primary dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Jenabi, Ensiyeh

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ginger in providing relief to patients of primary dysmenorrhoea. The clinical trial was conducted at Toyserkan Azad University in western Iran from July 10 to September 5, 2010. It comprised of 70 female students of the university with primary dysmenorrhoea.The subjects were randomly divided in to two equal groups and were given either placebo or ginger in capsule form for 3 days in first menstruation cycles. They graded the severity of their pain using a visual analogue scale. A 5-point Likert scale was used to assess response to treatment. Wilcoxor's rank-sum test was used to compare the severity of pain in the two groups. Compared with the baseline, the decrease in the visual analogue scores of post-therapy pain in the ginger group was significantly greater than that for placebo group. In the ginger group, 29 (82.85%) subjects reported an improvement in nausea symptoms, compared with 16 (47.05%) in the placebo group. Ginger is effective in minimising the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhoea.

  1. Urologic 'nuisances': how to work up and relieve men's symptoms.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, P C

    1997-02-01

    Common urologic complaints in the midlife man include bladder outlet obstruction, bladder hyperactivity, and large urinary output. Obstruction can result from benign prostate hypertrophy or some other problem distal to the bladder neck, such as urethral stricture. Hyperactivity can be induced by stress and caffeine or can suggest neurologic disease or bladder neoplasia. Large urinary output suggests excessive fluid intake, diabetes insipidus or mellitus, or mobilization of fluid from the use of diuretics or reclining at night. Sexual dysfunction may be caused by stress, but it is more often linked to peripheral vascular disease. Screening for prostate cancer is controversial; the benefit of PSA testing is most clear in patients at elevated risk (eg, due to race or family history).

  2. Relieving symptoms in cancer: innovative use of art therapy.

    PubMed

    Nainis, Nancy; Paice, Judith A; Ratner, Julia; Wirth, James H; Lai, Jerry; Shott, Susan

    2006-02-01

    Art therapy has been used in a variety of clinical settings and populations, although few studies have explored its use in cancer symptom control. The specific aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 1-hour art therapy session on pain and other symptoms common to adult cancer inpatients. A quasi-experimental design was used (n=50). The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI-S) were used prior to and after the art therapy to quantify symptoms, while open-ended questions evaluated the subjects' perceptions of the experience. There were statistically significant reductions in eight of nine symptoms measured by the ESAS, including the global distress score, as well as significant differences in most of the domains measured by the STAI-S. Subjects overwhelmingly expressed comfort with the process and desire to continue with therapy. This study provides beginning evidence for the efficacy of art therapy in reducing a broad spectrum of symptoms in cancer inpatients.

  3. Primary teachers' knowledge and acquisition of stress relieving strategies.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, A D

    1996-09-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been numerous studies of teacher stress but little is known of how teachers acquire coping strategies; their knowledge of those available to them and their opinion of these techniques. A total of 335 Norfolk primary teachers responded to a postal questionnaire providing biographical details; levels of job satisfaction and work related stress; responses to a range of commonly advocated techniques to reduce teacher stress and their opinion on who-if anyone-should take more responsibility for reducing teacher stress. On average the respondents were aware of 35 stress reduction strategies. The most effective strategies were ensuring that one understood what one was about to teach and thorough lesson preparation. A significant proportion of practitioners said that they would not consider seeking expert sources of advice. A total of 89 per cent of practitioners reported that they acquired at least some strategies through their own experience. It was concluded that the issue of teacher stress needs to be considered at governmental, school and individual levels. In the light of some resistance to traditional methods of stress reduction, the implications for initial and in-service training were explored.

  4. Electrical acustimulation relieves vection-induced motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Stern, R. M.; Koch, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of electrical acustimulation on gastric myoelectric activity and severity of symptoms of motion sickness. In experiment 1, 16 Chinese subjects received electrical acustimulation in one of two sessions. In experiment 2, 45 white and black American subjects were randomly divided into three groups: acustimulation, sham acustimulation, and control. Each subject sat in an optokinetic drum for 15 minutes baseline and 15 minutes of drum rotation. Subjects' electrogastrograms and subjective symptoms of motion sickness were obtained. In experiment 1, the mean symptom score and tachyarrhythmia during acustimulation sessions were significantly lower than during no-acustimulation sessions. In experiment 2, the mean symptom score of the acustimulation group was significantly lower than that of the sham-stimulation group and the control group; tachyarrhythmia in the acustimulation group was significantly less than that of the control group but not the sham-stimulation group. In conclusion, electrical acustimulation reduces the severity of symptoms of motion sickness and appears to decrease gastric tachyarrhythmia.

  5. Activation of peripheral KCNQ channels relieves gout pain

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yueming; Xu, Haiyan; Zhan, Li; Zhou, Xindi; Chen, Xueqin; Gao, Zhaobing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intense inflammatory pain caused by urate crystals in joints and other tissues is a major symptom of gout. Among therapy drugs that lower urate, benzbromarone (BBR), an inhibitor of urate transporters, is widely used because it is well tolerated and highly effective. We demonstrate that BBR is also an activator of voltage-gated KCNQ potassium channels. In cultured recombinant cells, BBR exhibited significant potentiation effects on KCNQ channels comparable to previously reported classical activators. In native dorsal root ganglion neurons, BBR effectively overcame the suppression of KCNQ currents, and the resultant neuronal hyperexcitability caused by inflammatory mediators, such as bradykinin (BK). Benzbromarone consistently attenuates BK-, formalin-, or monosodium urate–induced inflammatory pain in rat and mouse models. Notably, the analgesic effects of BBR are largely mediated through peripheral and not through central KCNQ channels, an observation supported both by pharmacokinetic studies and in vivo experiments. Moreover, multiple residues in the superficial part of the voltage sensing domain of KCNQ channels were identified critical for the potentiation activity of BBR by a molecular determinant investigation. Our data indicate that activation of peripheral KCNQ channels mediates the pain relief effects of BBR, potentially providing a new strategy for the development of more effective therapies for gout. PMID:25735002

  6. Pressure ulcer prevention and pressure-relieving surfaces.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Maureen

    Although rarely subject to media attention, political interest or research funding, pressure ulcers, and their almost inevitable increase in incidence, detrimentally affect the quality of life of thousands of patients, both in the hospital and community setting. In addition, the costs to the NHS of pressure-ulcer-related care in hospitals is estimated to be pounds sterling 1.8-pounds sterling 2.5 billion annually. Many pressure ulcers that develop could have been prevented, and there are several up-to-date, easily-accessible sources of evidence to guide decision-making regarding appropriate interventions in pressure care. Consideration and assessment of the patient holistically, followed by appropriate intervention and evaluation, is the key to any prevention strategy.

  7. Does oral α-galactosidase relieve irritable bowel symptoms?

    PubMed

    Hillilä, Markku; Färkkilä, Martti A; Sipponen, Taina; Rajala, Janne; Koskenpato, Jari

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is reported by a majority of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Excess colonic fermentation may cause gaseous symptoms. Several foodstuffs contain oligosaccharides with an α-galactosidic linkage that is resistant to mammalian hydrolases. Assisted hydrolysis by exogenous α-galactosidase enzyme (AG) could offer a way of controlling IBS symptoms by reducing colonic fermentation and gas production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of AG on symptom severity and quality of life in IBS patients with abdominal bloating or flatulence. A total of 125 subjects with IBS received AG or placebo at meals for 12 weeks. IBS-Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS) and quality of life (QoL) were assessed at baseline, during the treatment and at 4-week follow-up. AG showed a trend toward a more prominent decrease in IBS-SSS. The responder rate at week 16 was higher for the AG group. No difference was detected in QoL between AG and placebo groups. A total of 25 patients (18 in AG group and 7 in placebo group, p = 0.016) withdrew from the study. Abdominal pain and diarrhea were more often reported as reason for withdrawal in AG group. We found no evidence to support the use of AG routinely in IBS patients. Improvement of clinical response at 4-week follow-up may suggest a long-term effect of unknown mechanism, but could also be attributed to non-responder drop out. Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects may be a coincidence in this study, but irritation of GI tract by AG administration cannot be excluded.

  8. Playing Music to Relieve Stress in a College Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Eileen; Lew, Polong; Jung, Sarah M.; Janeke, Emilia; Garcia, Michelle; Peng, Cindy; Poon, George; Rathod, Vinisha; Beckwith, Sharon; Tam, Chick F.

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy can be an effective treatment that prevents stress from contributing to the etiology of disease. For this study, the participants, college students enrolled in an annual Alternative Nutrition class at California State University, Los Angeles, were instructed to select a song to present during class. After listening to each song…

  9. Treatments to Relieve Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... products may be available in pills, creams, or gels. The specific treatment depends on the severity of ... clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , 93, 1105–1120. [top] U.S. Food and Drug ...

  10. MASS TRANSIT: FTA Could Relieve New Starts Program Funding Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    1970s, the federal government has provided a large share of the nations capital investment in urban mass transportation . Much of this investment has come...projects throughout the country. The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), 1 enacted in 1998, authorized $6 billion in guaranteed...Democratic Member Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure House of Representatives Since the early 1970s, the federal government has provided a

  11. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Relieves Pain in Cervical Spine Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Li; Jia, Pu; Li, Jinjun; Chen, Hao; Dong, Yipeng; Feng, Fei; Yang, He; Chen, Mengmeng

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) has been shown to release spinal pain and stabilize the vertebral body. PVP is suggested as an alternative treatment in spinal metastasis. Although cervical metastases is less prevalent than thoracic and lumbar spine, PVP procedure in cervical vertebrae remains technical challenging. We retrospectively analyzed the data from patients (n = 9) who underwent PVP using anterolateral approach to treat severe neck pain and restricted cervical mobility from metastatic disease. Patients were rated using modified Tokuhashi score and Tomita score before the procedure. Visual analog scale (VAS), neck disability index (NDI), analgesic use, and imaging (X-ray or CT) were evaluated before PVP and 3 days, 3 months, and 6 months after PVP. All patients were in late stage of cancer evaluated using modified Tokuhashi and Tomita score. The cement leakage rate was 63.6% (14 of the 22 vertebrae) with no severe complications. VAS, NDI, and analgesic use were significantly decreased 3 days after the procedure and remained at low level until 6 months of follow-up. Our result suggested PVP effectively released the pain from patients with cervical metastasis. The results warrant further clinical investigation. PMID:28239257

  12. Nitrate, a signal relieving seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Alboresi, A; Gestin, C; Leydecker, M-T; Bedu, M; Meyer, C; Truong, H-N

    2005-04-01

    Nitrate is an important nitrogen source for plants, but also a signal molecule that controls various aspects of plant development. In the present study the role of nitrate on seed dormancy in Arabidopsis was investigated. The effects of either mutations affecting the Arabidopsis nitrate reductase genes or of different nitrate regimes of mother plants on the dormancy of the seeds produced were analysed. Altogether, data show that conditions favouring nitrate accumulation in mother plants and in seeds lead to a lower dormancy of seeds with little other morphological or biochemical differences. Analysis of germination during seed development indicated that nitrate does not prevent the onset of dormancy but rather its maintenance. The effect of an exogenous supply of nitrate on seed germination was tested: nitrate in contrast to glutamine or potassium chloride clearly stimulated the germination of dormant seeds. Data show, moreover, that the Arabidopsis dual affinity nitrate transporter NRT1.1 (CHL1) may be involved in conveying the nitrate signal into seeds. Thus, nitrate provided exogenously or by mother plants to the produced seeds, acts as a signal molecule favouring germination in Arabidopsis. This signalling may involve interaction with the abscisic acid or gibberellin pathway.

  13. Thermoplastic Single-Ply Roof Relieves Water Damage and Inconvenience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Assesses use of thermoplastic single-ply roofs by North Carolina's Mars Hill College to prevent leaks, reduce maintenance costs, and enhance the value of their older historic buildings. Administrators comment on the roof's installation efficiency and cleanliness. (GR)

  14. Providing correct pressure-relieving devices for optimum outcome.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L

    Pressure redistributing (PR) support surfaces are positioned by manufacturers against different levels of patient vulnerability to developing pressure ulcers. However, there is no agreed method through which such linkage between a patient and an appropriate support surface can be made. This lack of clarity leads to new devices being positioned in a manner not representative of their eventual use in clinical practice. Using a data hierarchy approach, three strands of evidence (interface pressure, a pilot national survey and a randomized controlled trial) are presented to illustrate, and support, the repositioning of the Viaclin dynamic mattress overlay (formerly the Pegasus Overture) from use with medium-risk patients to use with higher-risk patients. The need for amendment is seen most strikingly in the two clinical studies featured in this article, during which 87% of all patients nursed on the Viaclin dynamic mattress overlay were at high- to very high-risk of developing ulcers.

  15. Playing Music to Relieve Stress in a College Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Eileen; Lew, Polong; Jung, Sarah M.; Janeke, Emilia; Garcia, Michelle; Peng, Cindy; Poon, George; Rathod, Vinisha; Beckwith, Sharon; Tam, Chick F.

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy can be an effective treatment that prevents stress from contributing to the etiology of disease. For this study, the participants, college students enrolled in an annual Alternative Nutrition class at California State University, Los Angeles, were instructed to select a song to present during class. After listening to each song…

  16. Pallidal deep brain stimulation relieves camptocormia in primary dystonia.

    PubMed

    Hagenacker, Tim; Gerwig, Marcus; Gasser, Thomas; Miller, Dorothea; Kastrup, Oliver; Jokisch, Daniel; Sure, Ulrich; Frings, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Camptocormia, characterised by a forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine may occur in various movement disorders, mainly in Parkinson's disease or in primary dystonia. In severe cases, patients with camptocormia are unable to walk. While treatment options are limited, deep brain stimulation (DBS) with bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus internus (GPi) has been proposed as a therapeutic option in refractory cases of Parkinson's disease. Here we present two patients with severe camptocormia as an isolated form of dystonia and as part of generalised dystonia, respectively, which were both treated with bilateral stimulation of the GPi. Symptoms of dystonia were assessed using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale (BFM) before and during deep brain stimulation. In both patients there was a significant functional improvement following long-term bilateral GPi stimulation and both patients gained ability to walk. In the first patient with an isolated dystonic camptocormia the BFM motor subscore for the truncal flexion improved by 75 %. The total BFM motor score in the second patient with a camptocormia in generalised dystonia improved by 45 %, while the BFM score for truncal flexion improved by 87 %. In both patients the effect of the bilateral GPi stimulation on camptocormia was substantial, independent of generalisation of dystonia. Therefore, GPi DBS is a possible treatment option for this rare disease.

  17. Electrical acustimulation relieves vection-induced motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Stern, R. M.; Koch, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of electrical acustimulation on gastric myoelectric activity and severity of symptoms of motion sickness. In experiment 1, 16 Chinese subjects received electrical acustimulation in one of two sessions. In experiment 2, 45 white and black American subjects were randomly divided into three groups: acustimulation, sham acustimulation, and control. Each subject sat in an optokinetic drum for 15 minutes baseline and 15 minutes of drum rotation. Subjects' electrogastrograms and subjective symptoms of motion sickness were obtained. In experiment 1, the mean symptom score and tachyarrhythmia during acustimulation sessions were significantly lower than during no-acustimulation sessions. In experiment 2, the mean symptom score of the acustimulation group was significantly lower than that of the sham-stimulation group and the control group; tachyarrhythmia in the acustimulation group was significantly less than that of the control group but not the sham-stimulation group. In conclusion, electrical acustimulation reduces the severity of symptoms of motion sickness and appears to decrease gastric tachyarrhythmia.

  18. Miniature fuel cells relieve gas pressure in sealed batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature fuel cells within sealed silver zinc batteries consume evolved hydrogen and oxygen rapidly, preventing pressure rupturing. They do not significantly increase battery weight and they operate in all battery life phases. Complete gas pressure control requires two fuel cells during all phases of operation of silver zinc batteries.

  19. Chronic pain: challenges and opportunities for relieving suffering.

    PubMed

    Rowe, John; Caprio, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    This issue of the NCMJ addresses the problem of chronic pain in North Carolina; its diagnosis and management in primary and specialty care; and the need to balance efficacy and safety when prescribing opioid medications, as these drugs are associated with significant potential for misuse and abuse. The commentaries in this issue not only address the use of opioids for the management of chronic pain but also explore various alternatives, including medical marijuana, epidural and other injections, surgery, acupuncture, and other integrative therapies. Articles in this issue also describe the management of chronic pain in palliative care, the ways in which mental health affects pain, and the unintended consequences of chronic pain management. Finally, this issue describes several initiatives across the state that are addressing the epidemic of prescription drug abuse; these initiatives are effecting systematic changes in clinical practice to more effectively manage chronic pain, protect patients, and minimize the negative impact of prescription drug abuse on communities.

  20. Using Alcohol to Relieve Your Pain: What Are the Risks?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes more alcohol to produce the same effects. Increasing alcohol use to stay ahead of tolerance can lead ... is important to learn about possible adverse health effects. Ask your health care provider if any alcohol use is safe for you. References: USDA/DHHS. ...

  1. Relieving Mipafox Inhibition in Organophosphorus Acid Anhydrolase by Rational Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    acid anhydrolase (OPAA, EC 3.1.8.2) was purified from halophilic Alteromonas sp. bacteria. OPPA displayed hydrolysis activity against several highly...2010, 49, 547–559. 3. DeFrank, J.J.; Cheng, T.-C. Purification and Properties of Organophosphorus Acid Anhydrolase from a Halophilic Bacterial

  2. [Strengths and future of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The journals of medicine arose as a communication tool more than 200 years ago. At the beginning, their nature was local; later, their aim was to spread medical information along the nation; and, finally, they sought to reach the world distribution. The Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social was published for the first time 52 years ago, and it has walked its way from local to international distribution. This journal has 23 000 subscribers, it is included in Medline and it reached a 0.112 SCImago Journal Rank in 2012. Its website receives around 200 000 visits monthly and 45 % are foreign visits. In the future, the peer review system is going to be strengthened, and the journal is going to offer audio, video, and applications to reinforce interactive participation between authors, readers in order to reach modernity and draw young new attention.

  3. Polarimetry of the Nova V339 Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhovskoy, D. N.; Antonyuk, K. A.; Belan, S. P.

    2017-03-01

    Polarimetric UBVRI observations of the Nova V339 Del during the 5-108 days following the maximum of the outburst of 2013 reveal a variability in the degree of linear polarization with an amplitude of about 0.2%. The character of the variability in the polarization parameters during the period up to 30 days after the maximum is indicative of a nonspherical diffuse shell, with a geometry that is more likely bipolar than disk-shaped. In the early nebular stage (30-100 days after the maximum) a variability in the position angle of the intrinsic polarization was observed that suggests that the shape of the shell deviates from axial symmetry.

  4. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics theory of water put forward by Del Giudice and colleagues provides a useful foundation for a new science of water for life. The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favoring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. Coherent domains stabilized by surfaces, such as membranes and macromolecules, provide the excited interfacial water that enables photosynthesis to take place, on which most of life on Earth depends. Excited water is the source of superconducting protons for rapid intercommunication within the body. Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function.

  5. Wave maps from Gödel's universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Magliaro, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Using a result by Koch (1988 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 307 827-41) we realize Gödel's universe G_{α }^{4}=({{{R}}^{4}},{{g}_{α}}) as the total space of a principal {R}-bundle over a strictly pseudo-convex CR manifold M3 and exploit the analogy between {{g}_{Yalpha;}} and Fefferman's metric {{F}_{θ}} (Fefferman 1976 Ann. Math. 103 395-416 104 393-4) to show that for any {R}-invariant wave map Φ of G_{α}^{4} into a Riemannian manifold N, the corresponding base map φ :{{M}^{3}}\\to N is subelliptic harmonic, with respect to a canonical choice of contact form θ on M3. We show that the subelliptic Jacobi operator J_{b}^{φ} of ϕ has a discrete Dirichlet spectrum on any bounded domain D\\subset {{M}^{3}} supporting the Poincaré inequality on \\mathop{W}\\limits^{\\circ }{}_{H}^{1,2}(D,{{φ}^{-1}}TN) and Kondrakov compactness, i.e. compactness of the embedding \\mathop{W}\\limits^{\\circ }{}_{H}^{1,2}(D,{{φ }^{-1}}TN)\\hookrightarrow {{L}^{2}}(D,{{φ}^{-1}}TN). We exhibit an explicit solution π :G_{α}^{4}\\to {{M}^{3}} to the wave map system on G_{α}^{4}, of index in{{d}^{Ω}}(π)\\geqslant 1 for any bounded domain Ω \\subset G_{α}^{4}. Mounoud's distance (Mounoud 2001 Differ. Geom. Appl. 15 47-57) d_{{{G}_{0}}, Ω }^{∞}({{g}_{α }}, {{F}_{θ}}) is bounded below by a constant depending only on the rotation frequency of Gödel's universe, thus giving a measure of the bias of {{g}_{α}} from being Fefferman like in the region Ω \\subset {{{R}}^{4}}.

  6. Estudio teórico del CO2. Orbitales de valencia y del ``core''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalla Gutiérrez, E.

    Hemos calculado las intensidades de las transiciones E1 a los miembros de las series de Rydberg con origen en los orbitales ``no enlazantes'' del dióxido de carbono, especie de conocida relevancia atmosférica. Se han computado, asimismo, los continuos de fotoionización correspondientes a los distintos canales de ionización, representándolos como densidad espectral de fuerza de oscilador frente a la energía del fotón incidente; mostramos los resultados df/dE para la fotoionización total de esta especie en el intervalo 15-60 eV. Todos los cálculos se han llevado a cabo mediante la formulación Molecular del Método de los Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico, MQDO [1,2]. La calidad de los resultados que presentamos se ha evaluado en base a la comparación con los datos, tanto experimentales como teóricos, disponibles en la bibliografía. El acuerdo encontrado es altamente satisfactorio

  7. Características del viento en estrellas Be derivadas del perfil Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, R.; Cidale, L.

    El estudio teórico de perfiles Hα y su variabilidad en estrellas Be ha sido frecuentemente desarrollado en base a modelos de envolturas circunestelares inhomogéneas, donde la geometría del material es responsable de la forma del perfil dependiendo de la dirección de observación. Nosotros damos una interpretación alternativa y proponemos que la mayoría de las propiedades de esta línea tienen origen en la base de un viento estelar y de una estructura cromosférica anexa a la fotósfera. Encontramos que típicos perfiles Hα en Be, como son los llamados pole-on y winebottle, pueden ser reproducidos cualitativamente sin recurrir a la existencia de una envoltura asimétrica. Analizamos como la línea Hα permite identificar la posible estructura del viento en la región donde éste se inicia.

  8. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  9. The Del Mod System: An External Evaluation, Final Report, Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Donald W.; And Others

    This is one of five volumes prepared to describe various aspects of the Del Mod System. This volume deals with the evaluation of the Del Mod System. Included are the following: (1) Del Mod Responsive Evaluation; (2) Evaluation Outcomes; (3) Validation of the Del Mod Responsive Evaluation Process; and (4) Conclusions. Appendices include: (A)…

  10. A Descriptive Analysis of the Del Mod System's Field Agent Component, Final Report, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golts, Uldis R.

    This monograph describes the field agent of the Delaware Del Mod System. The following sections are included in the report: (1) The Duties and Activities of the Del Mod System Field Agents; (2) The Field Agents' Mode of Operation; (3) The Conduct of Projects; (4) The Hiring and Training of Del Mod Field Agents; (5) The Administration of Del Mod…

  11. Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori Life, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

  12. On some structure results for Gödel-type spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaue, Matthias; Scherfner, Mike

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we prove structure results on Gödel-type spacetimes, which we understand as stationary charged perfect fluid solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with geodesic flow. Given in a standard product form, we investigate relations between the vorticity and the geometry of the fiber. For the four dimensional case in particular, we classify the Gödel-type spacetimes with constant vorticity scalar. We give a complete list of the solutions, which provides a generalization of an observation by Gödel, proved later by Ozsváth: The Gödel spacetime and Einstein's static universe are the only stationary Λ-dust solutions of Einstein's equations with positive energy density that are spatially homogeneous.

  13. 65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, HIGHWAY 1, 1-DN-1-B #66A, STA. 166.0+00 WIDENED ROADBED BEFORE COVERING LOG CRIB, 3-31. BACK READS: WIDENING ROAD BED WITH LOGS, APPROX 30 SQUARE & 60 LONG ON DN-1 SEC B STA 156+. Stamped office copy, - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  14. Estudio del sistema simbiótico AR Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; García, L.; Barbá, R.

    Se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y polarimétrico de la binaria eclipsante AR Pavonis a partir de observaciones obtenidas con el telescopio de 2.15 m. del CASLEO (San Juan). El estudio de la naturaleza del sistema se realizó a través del análisis de algunos espectros reunidos entre los años 1990 y 1995 y de datos polarimétricos correspondientes al intervalo 1995 y 1997. El análisis espectroscópico indica que AR Pav está compuesta por una gigante roja M3.7 y una componente caliente compacta, con una temperatura mayor a 90000 K y una luminosidad del orden de 500Lsolar. A lo largo del período orbital, las variaciones observadas en flujo y en velocidades radiales, reflejan que las emisiones permitidas se forman en una región que rodea la componente caliente. El estudio de la polarización lineal de AR Pav indica que además de una componente interestelar, existe una componente intrínseca del sistema que varía temporalmente y con la longitud de onda de la luz polarizada. El distinto comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición observado en fases diferentes, sugiere que distintos mecanismos pueden estar actuando, dependiendo de la región de scattering observado a lo largo de la línea de la visual.

  15. Extreme Environments in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, C.; D'Antoni, H.; Burgess, S.; Zamora, J.; Skiles, J.

    2007-12-01

    The upper timberline of the Andes Cordillera on the island of Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America is an environment subject to extreme conditions. In order to further understand this environment, ecosystem parameters were measured within two transects of the Andes at Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco. The measurements included pH, soil temperature, soil moisture, nitrogen, sodium and potassium concentration, chlorophyll absorbance, and irradiance in the ultraviolet range (200-400 nm). These data comprise a survey that serves as a baseline for an intensive research program. Chlorophyll concentration and soil data were within the range of our observations at several other sites, from Lapataia Bay on the southwestern boundary with Chile, through the eastern end of Lake Fagnano. However, unusual levels of solar irradiance were found in the open sites of both transects while those in the forest exhibited lower UV values, suggesting strong absorption and/or reflection by the forest canopy. High levels of UV radiation damage important biomolecules and may be partially responsible for the presence of life forms such as the krummholz belt in the upper timberline. These UV values may be due to the effects of global ozone depletion and the ozone hole. The low temperatures, strong winds, snow and ice-covered soil and especially the exposure to UV radiation make this area an extreme environment for life.

  16. MF498 [N-{[4-(5,9-Diethoxy-6-oxo-6,8-dihydro-7H-pyrrolo[3,4-g]quinolin-7-yl)-3-methylbenzyl]sulfonyl}-2-(2-methoxyphenyl)acetamide], a selective E prostanoid receptor 4 antagonist, relieves joint inflammation and pain in rodent models of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Patsy; Rowland, Steven E; Denis, Danielle; Mathieu, Marie-Claude; Stocco, Rino; Poirier, Hugo; Burch, Jason; Han, Yongxin; Audoly, Laurent; Therien, Alex G; Xu, Daigen

    2008-05-01

    Previous evidence has implicated E prostanoid receptor 4 (EP4) in mechanical hyperalgesia induced by subplantar inflammation. However, its role in chronic arthritis remains to be further defined because previous attempts have generated two conflicting lines of evidence, with one showing a marked reduction of arthritis induced by a collagen antibody in mice lacking EP4, but not EP1-EP3, and the other showing no impact of EP4 antagonism on arthritis induced by collagen. Here, we assessed the effect of a novel and selective EP4 antagonist MF498 [N-{[4-(5,9-diethoxy-6-oxo-6,8-dihydro-7H-pyrrolo[3,4-g]quinolin-7-yl)-3-methylbenzyl]sulfonyl}-2-(2-methoxyphenyl)acetamide] on inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA), a rat model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and joint pain in a guinea pig model of iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis (OA). In the AIA model, MF498, but not the antagonist for EP1, MF266-1 [1-(5-{3-[2-(benzyloxy)-5-chlorophenyl]-2-thienyl}pyridin-3-yl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethane-1,1-diol] or EP3 MF266-3 [(2E)-N-[(5-bromo-2-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-3-[5-chloro-2-(2-naphthylmethyl)phenyl]acrylamide], inhibited inflammation, with a similar efficacy as a selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor MF-tricyclic. In addition, MF498 was as effective as an nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac, or a selective microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 inhibitor, MF63 [2-(6-chloro-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-2-yl)isophthalonitrile], in relieving OA-like pain in guinea pigs. When tested in rat models of gastrointestinal toxicity, the EP4 antagonist was well tolerated, causing no mucosal leakage or erosions. Lastly, we evaluated the renal effect of MF498 in a furosemide-induced diuresis model and demonstrated that the compound displayed a similar renal effect as MF-tricyclic [3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-4-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-2-(5H)-furanone], reducing furosemide-induced natriuresis by approximately 50%. These results not only suggest that EP4 is the major EP

  17. Confirming and Improving Ross Variable Star RV Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Tyler R.; Sanchez, Rick; Palser, Sage; Schultze, Kendra; Kenney, Jessica; Thompson, Briana; DeCoster, Richard; Mills, Frank; Osborn, Wayne; Hoette, Vivian L.; Skynet Junior Scholars; Stone Edge Observatory

    2017-01-01

    RV Del is an intrinsic pulsating variable star in the constellation Delphinus, discovered by Ross (1926). The AAVSO list RV Del as a RRAB type of variable star. RV Del has been found to have a magnitude that varies from 12.9 - 14.2 and a period of 11.9553 hours.The purpose of our research of RV Del is to confirm and improve previous results as well as explore different methods to engage middle school students in the scientific method and astronomy. The SKYNET network of telescopes allows students to request images from a group of international research class telescopes. The telescope request process allows students first-hand experience in astronomy while the data analysis allows students to understand advance software systems to produce publishable results. Data is being gathered using the SKYNET network and Stone Edge Observatory to gather photometry of RV Del and create a new light curve. Findings will be presented the January 2017 AAS.

  18. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  19. May Gödel's Ideas Be Addressed Philosophically?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokulil, Miloš

    2007-11-01

    del emphasised philosophy as an important tool in science. Much less is known about his religious background. We should bear in mind that our evaluational perspective differs very much from the one in which Gödel lived. He was personally sure that there must be another existence after death-an afterlife (''of unlimited life span''). As a ''Baptized Lutheran'' he did not include ''Trinity'' in his creed. He was also certain that mind is separate from matter. This text tries to include Libet's ''readiness potential'' into the debate concerning the specificity of the mind. Neither Gödel's identification of materialism with mechanism nor his vision of the ''spirit'' are a viable solution of the problem.

  20. The novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation in a family with prelingual sensorineural deafness.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael B; Grigoriadou, Maria; Koutroumpe, Maria; Kokotas, Haris

    2012-07-01

    Non-syndromic hearing loss is one of the most common hereditary determined diseases in human, and the disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26 (Cx26), are a major cause of non-syndromic recessive hearing impairment in many countries and are largely dependent on ethnic groups. Due to the high frequency of the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the Greek population, we have previously suggested that Greek patients with sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness should be tested for the c.35delG mutation and the coding region of the GJB2 gene should be sequenced in c.35delG heterozygotes. Here we present on the clinical and molecular genetic evaluation of a family suffering from prelingual, sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness. A novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation was detected in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the proband and was later confirmed in the father, while the mother was homozygous for the c.35delG GJB2 mutation. We conclude that compound heterozygosity of the novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) and the c.35delG mutations in the GJB2 gene was the cause of deafness in the proband and his father.

  1. Mejoras en la exactitud del reloj de ángulo horario del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Para aumentar la exactitud en el control del ángulo horario del telescopio, se está implementando el uso de un reloj con una precisión de 1/100 seg. En conjunto con el encoder que otorga la posición con un acierto de 0,012 seg. de arco, se podrá implementar otro dígito en el reloj de ángulo horario con la posibilidad de ver las décimas. Esto, sumado a la precisión ya lograda en declinación, permitirá realizar offsets con mayor exactitud.

  2. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  3. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  4. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  5. Development of the Hα profile in Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrs, Alex; Mahmoudian, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report observations of the Hα profile of Nova Del 2013, with resolving power R = 3000. Starting in late August the expected P Cygni profile (blueshifted absorption) was observed. Beginning in September a redshifted absorption appears and strengthens through the month. We will report observations through fall and discuss possible causes of these features.

  6. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, R. G.; FernandezNiello, J. O.; Reedy, R. C.; Fifield, L. K.; diTada, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41, and Ni-59 were measured in the Campo del Cielo iron meteorite. Our results led us to conclude that the pre-atmospheric radius might have been approximately 2 m. Comparisons with other big bodies are also presented. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math…

  8. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  9. Reproductive biology of the Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus).

    Treesearch

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2013-01-01

    We examined seasonal reproductive patterns of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, in mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Seasonal size differences in reproductive structures suggested that maximum spermatogenic activity occurred during the late summer, with spermatozoa transfer to the...

  10. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math…

  11. Del Mod: A State-Wide System for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Daniel C.

    This is a retrospective account of the Del Mod System, a statewide project to improve science and mathematics education in the elementary and secondary schools of Delaware. The project functioned from 1970-76 under the auspices of a committee including the presidents of institutions of higher education, the state superintendent of public…

  12. 77 FR 50080 - Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Forest Service Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice.... The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  13. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...'s passage through the waterway shall not relieve the owners, agents, and operators of the vessel of full responsibility for its safe passage. (d) Radio equipment. Requirements for radio equipment on...) Damage to waterway property. Damage to the waterway, lands, banks, bridges, jetties, piers, fences...

  14. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...'s passage through the waterway shall not relieve the owners, agents, and operators of the vessel of full responsibility for its safe passage. (d) Radio equipment. Requirements for radio equipment on...) Damage to waterway property. Damage to the waterway, lands, banks, bridges, jetties, piers, fences...

  15. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...'s passage through the waterway shall not relieve the owners, agents, and operators of the vessel of full responsibility for its safe passage. (d) Radio equipment. Requirements for radio equipment on...) Damage to waterway property. Damage to the waterway, lands, banks, bridges, jetties, piers, fences...

  16. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...'s passage through the waterway shall not relieve the owners, agents, and operators of the vessel of full responsibility for its safe passage. (d) Radio equipment. Requirements for radio equipment on...) Damage to waterway property. Damage to the waterway, lands, banks, bridges, jetties, piers, fences...

  17. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...'s passage through the waterway shall not relieve the owners, agents, and operators of the vessel of full responsibility for its safe passage. (d) Radio equipment. Requirements for radio equipment on...) Damage to waterway property. Damage to the waterway, lands, banks, bridges, jetties, piers, fences...

  18. Del Mod at a Glance, Volume 3. 1973-1974 Annual Report for the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, John R.

    A synopsis of the 1973-74 annual report for the Del Mod System is presented. The activities described were conducted by the University of Delaware, Delaware State College, Delaware Technical and Community College, and the Department of Public Instruction. Activities of field agents, several local district projects, and individual teacher grants…

  19. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  20. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  1. Genomic Copy Number Variations in the Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Kim, Young-Mi; Wang, Xianfu; Li, Yan; Lu, Xianglan; Sternenberger, Andrea R.; Li, Shibo; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The most common chromosomal abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are -5/del(5q) and -7/del(7q). When -5/del(5q) and -7/del(7q) coexist in patients, a poor prognosis is typically associated. Given that -5/del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q) often are accompanied with additional recurrent chromosomal alterations, genetic change(s) on the accompanying chromosome(s) other than chromosomes 5 and 7 may be important factor(s) affecting leukemogenesis and disease prognosis. Using an integrated analysis of karyotype, FISH and array CGH results in this study, we evaluated the smallest region of overlap (SRO) of chromosomes 5 and 7 as well as copy number alterations (CNAs) on the other chromosomes. Moreover, the relationship between the CNAs and del(5q) and -7/del(7q) was investigated by categorizing the cases into three groups based on the abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 7 [group I: cases only with del(5q), group II: cases only with -7/del(7q) and group III: concurrent del(5q) and del(7q) cases]. The overlapping SRO of chromosome 5 from groups I and III was 5q31.1-33.1 and of chromosome 7 from groups II and III was 7q31.31-q36.1. A total of 318 CNAs were observed; ~ 78.3% of them were identified on chromosomes other than chromosomes 5 and 7, which were defined as 'other CNAs'. Group III was a distinctive group carrying the most high number (HN) CNAs, cryptic CNAs and 'other CNAs'. The loss of TP53 was highly associated with del(5q). The loss of ETV6 was specifically associated with group III. These CNAs or genes may play a secondary role in disease progression and should be further evaluated for their clinical significance and influence on therapeutic approaches in patients with MDS/AML carrying del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q) in large-scale, patient population study. PMID:26392809

  2. Biological and behavioral determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C E; Hernández, M

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive history of 182 women in postreproductive life or near menopause from the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego was traced back by means of familial interviews. These postmenopausal women represent the population since almost the beginning of the settlement, and their reproductive years were spent on the island. Path analysis was applied to analyze fertility determinants of these women and to propose a complex model of interconnections among factors. The reproductive history of these women is characterized by a long fertile span, a short childbearing period, and low fertility. Age at menarche is relatively late, and the age of the women at first birth is mainly determined by their late age at marriage. The use of contraception is related to both spacing and stopping behaviors. The late age of women at marriage, the rhythm of conception, and practices of contraception are proposed as the main determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

  3. The first century of the "clinica del lavoro" in Milan.

    PubMed

    Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Foà, Vito

    2005-01-01

    The Clinica del Lavoro was created in Milan at the beginning of the 20th century by Luigi Devotto, who deemed it essential for physicians and health researchers to get involved in the life and health problems of working populations. The main roles of the Clinica del Lavoro were to educate medical students and train physicians; study actual workplaces, examine health and safety hazards and their noxious effects; and create initiatives and services to protect and promote workers' health. Important scientific contributions were made in several fields, including chemical carcinogenesis, effects of mineral and biologicalfibers, mechanism of action of silica dust, methods for the detection and measurements of toxic substances in both the work environment and workers' biological media.

  4. El ``Aula del Cel'': astronomy approaching high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Gómez Collado, M.; Gallego Calvente, A. T.

    The “Aula del Cel” is a project carried out by the Astronomical Obsevatory of the University of Valencia, Spain. It offers high-school teachers a tool for teaching Astronomy to 10 to 17 year-old students. Different programs, experiments, and audiovisual presentations have been prepared by a team formed both by professional astronomers and teachers, and are offered in a format chosen to suit each particular age and curriculum group. Special sessions have been designed for students with special needs (for example blind or autistic children) in close contact with the pedagogical teams responsible for their education. Nearly three thousand students have already visited the “Aula del Cel” over the first six months that it has been offered to the school community.

  5. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  6. 3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY RECENT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. Solar adaptive optics at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Schmidt, Dirk; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2013-10-01

    Observing the Sun with high angular resolution is difficult because the turbulence in the atmosphere is strongest during day time. In this paper we describe the principles of solar adaptive optics exemplified by the two German solar telescopes VTT and GREGOR at the Observatorio del Teide. With theses systems we obtain near diffraction limited images of the Sun. Ways to overcome the limits of conventional AO by applying multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) are shown.

  9. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  10. [Validazione del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire, un questionario diagnostico autosomministrato per il gioco d'azzardo patologico basato sui criteri del DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Villella, Corrado; Pascucci, Marco; de Waure, Chiara; Bellomo, Antonello; Conte, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Il DSM-5 presenta delle modifiche nei criteri diagnostici per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, rispetto alla precedente edizione del manuale; è pertanto necessario sviluppare nuovi strumenti diagnostici. Questo studio ha valutato le caratteristiche psicometriche del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire (GDSQ), un questionario sviluppato per l'autosomministrazione, basato sui criteri diagnostici del DSM-IV e del DSM-5 per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, misurandone la validità e la consistenza interna e sottoponendo il questionario all'analisi delle componenti principali. Metodi. 71 pazienti reclutati da un ambulatorio dedicato al gioco d'azzardo patologico e 70 controlli sono stati valutati con il GDSQ, con il South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) e con valutazione psichiatrica. Risultati. Il test ha mostrato una buona sensibilità, specificità, consistenza interna, correlazione con il SOGS. L'esclusione del criterio degli atti illeciti e l'abbassamento del punteggio di cut-off a quattro criteri positivi, come suggerito dal DSM-5, migliora la sensibilità e consistenza interna del test. Discussione e conclusioni. Il GDSQ può essere considerato un utile test di screening per il gioco d'azzardo patologico. Inoltre, questo studio conferma il miglioramento nell'accuratezza diagnostica dei criteri elencati nella quinta edizione del Manuale Diagnostico e Statistico dei Disturbi Mentali rispetto alla precedente edizione.

  11. Max brödel: illustrating healed valve ring abscesses.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Brendan P; Thomas, Caroline Bedell; Hutchins, Grover M

    2005-09-01

    A 14-year-old adolescent girl presented with severe congestive heart failure, progressive throughout 3 months. A precordial thrill, machinery-like murmur, and right bundle branch block were noted. Death occurred despite digitalis and diuretic therapy and removal of pleural and ascitic fluid. The autopsy revealed 2 multilocular cystic structures in the interventricular septum consistent with being spontaneously drained valve ring abscesses. One of these lesions formed a fistulous communication that penetrated through the interventricular septum between the right aortic sinus of Valsalva and the crista supraventricularis that connected to the right ventricle. Another lesion, an adjacent separate but similar cystlike structure, communicated only with the left ventricular cavity. Although the cause of these lesions is uncertain, it seems probable that they are the residue of spontaneously drained and healed valve ring abscesses. Max Brödel, a medical illustrator and the first director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at The Johns Hopkins University, drew previously unpublished figures of this patient's cardiac lesions. These illustrations exhibit Brödel's superb command of both art and medicine essential to his ability to make complex anatomic relationships demonstrable. We discuss Brödel's career and his influence on both the art and science of medicine.

  12. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de λ˜21-cm del hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100μm, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5,Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  13. Modeling visibility in the Paso del Norte (PDN) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Calderon, Richard

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts on air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Region to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Region. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using this methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Region. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso Del Norte Region.

  14. Modeling Visibility in the EL Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. M.; Medina, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Novlan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts in air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic Extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Airshed to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Airshed. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using our methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Airshed. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso del Norte Region.

  15. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  16. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  17. El bosque estatal del nuevo milenio antes y después del huracán Georges

    Treesearch

    A.E. Lugo; E. Román Nunci; M. Quinones; H. Marcano Vega; I. Vicéns

    2005-01-01

    We studied changes that occurred between 1997 and 2005 on a secondary wet subtropical urban forest in the University of Puerto Rico’s Botanical Garden (Bosque Estatal del Nuevo Milenio). Hurricane Georges passed south of the forest on November 21, 1998 with 127 km/h winds. The study consisted of identifying species in 40 plots of 254 m2 each, measuring the diameter at...

  18. The 2012 Reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordoñez, M.; Lopez, C.; Cortes, G. P.; Londoño, J.; Battaglia, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nevado Del Ruiz volcano is most known for its tragic November 13, 1985 explosive event, when a small eruption produced an enormous lahar that buried and destroyed the town of Armero in Tolima, causing an estimated 25,000 deaths. Similar but less deadly incidents occurred in 1595 and 1845, again where a small explosive eruption was followed by a large lahar. Other minor explosive events occurred in 1805, 1828-9, and 1989. The Armero tragedy was a major factor in the establishment of a volcano monitoring program in Colombia. The network monitoring Nevado del Ruiz volcano has dramatically improved since the 1985 eruption and now includes geodetic, geophysical, geochemical and visual monitoring. The activity of Nevado Del Ruiz between 1985 and 1991 saw significant increases in seismicity and significant gas emissions with the main eruptive events of November 13, 1985 and September 1st, 1989. The volcano became seismically active again in 1995 and 2002, whit an increase in seismicity, without any gas emission or eruption. In October 2010 the volcano entered in a new phase of unrest with increased seismicity (HB events), deformation and gas emissions, likely associated with a new magma intrusion. In February, 2012 the volcano had a new and significant increase in seismicity (VT-LP), followed in May and June 2012 by small phreatic and phreato-magmatic eruption. This eruptive activity is still ongoing. Deformation measurements at Nevado Del Ruiz volcano have been carried out since just after the tragic eruption of the 13th of November 1985. In 2007 seven new electronic tilt meters were set up to monitor the deformation. Significant uplift was measured from August 2007 to October 2010, for a total cumulative value of more than 500 microradians. From the end of 2011 to July 2012, moderate changes of uplift were detected for a total of 70 microradians. The analysis of these deformation data shows a pattern of surface displacement associated with an intrusion of new magma

  19. Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.

    Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de

  20. The Cuernos del Paine mountains in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, during NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-11

    The Cuernos del Paine mountains in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, during NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition in Central and South America by an international team of scientists that is using an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), located onboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory. Scientists from many parts of the world are combining ground research with NASA's AirSAR technology to improve and expand on the quality of research they are able to conduct. Founded in 1959, Torres del Paine National Park encompasses 450,000 acres in the Patagonia region of Chile. This region is being studied by NASA using a DC-8 equipped with an Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR) developed by scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This is a very sensitive region that is important to scientists because the temperature has been consistently rising causing a subsequent melting of the region’s glaciers. AirSAR will provide a baseline model and unprecedented mapping of the region. This data will make it possible to determine whether the warming trend is slowing, continuing or accelerating. AirSAR will also provide reliable information on ice shelf thickness to measure the contribution of the glaciers to sea level.

  1. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create an integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components...

  2. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components.

  3. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create an integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components...

  4. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components.

  5. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1B Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Musner, Nicolò; Sidoli, Mariapaola; Zambroni, Desireè; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; D’Antonio, Maurizio; Feltri, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del) accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B)–S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha) is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment: Perk haploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/− compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition, Perk deficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non–Schwann-cell autonomous manner. PMID:27095827

  6. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Musner, Nicolò; Sidoli, Mariapaola; Zambroni, Desireè; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Feltri, Maria L; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del) accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B)-S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha) is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment:Perkhaploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/- compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition,Perkdeficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non-Schwann-cell autonomous manner. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Effect of GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG genetic polymorphisms on risk of congenital deafness in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Zhong, M; Chen, J; Yan, Y L; Lin, X F; Li, X

    2017-02-08

    Congenital deafness is a serious and irreversible condition in humans. The GJB2 gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Its 235delC and 30-35delG polymorphisms are reported to be associated with risk of hereditary deafness. However, the effect of the interaction between GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG and environmental factors on congenital deafness has not been described. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the influence of these polymorphisms on congenital deafness risk, and their interaction with maternal and other environmental factors in the development of this disease. Between March 2014 and May 2015, 118 patients with congenital deafness and 242 healthy controls were enrolled into our study. Compared with the GG genotype, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) [and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for the 235delC GC and CC genotypes were 4.66 (1.77-13.07) and 8.28 (2.06-47.52), respectively. Individuals harboring the GC+CC genotypes were at a greatly increased risk of congenital deafness compared to those with the GG genotype (OR = 5.65, 95%CI = 2.54-13.18). However, no significant relationship was established between the 30-35delG variant and this disease. The 235delC polymorphism exhibited an interaction with use of aminoglycoside antibiotics during pregnancy in conferring susceptibility to congenital deafness (chi-square = 8.76, P = 0.003). In conclusion, our study suggests that the GJB2 235delC polymorphism, but not the 30-35delG variant, contributes to congenital deafness susceptibility in the Chinese population examined, and demonstrates an interaction with consumption of aminoglycoside antibiotics during pregnancy in exerting this effect.

  8. The highly prevalent BRCA2 mutation c.2808_2811del (3036delACAA) is located in a mutational hotspot and has multiple origins.

    PubMed

    Infante, Mar; Durán, Mercedes; Acedo, Alberto; Sánchez-Tapia, Eva María; Díez-Gómez, Beatriz; Barroso, Alicia; García-González, María; Feliubadaló, Lídia; Lasa, Adriana; de la Hoya, Miguel; Esteban-Cardeñosa, Eva; Díez, Orland; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Godino, Javier; Teulé, Alexandre; Osorio, Ana; Lastra, Enrique; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Miner, Cristina; Velasco, Eladio A

    2013-11-01

    BRCA2-c.2808_2811del (3036delACAA) is one of the most reported germ line mutations in non-Ashkenazi breast cancer patients. We investigated its genetic origin in 51 Spanish carrier families that were genotyped with 11 13q polymorphic markers. Three independent associated haplotypes were clearly distinguished accounting for 23 [west Castilla y León (WCL)], 20 [east Castilla y León (ECL)] and 6 (South of Spain) families. Mutation age was estimated with the Disequilibrium Mapping using Likelihood Estimation software in a range of 45-68 and 45-71 generations for WCL and ECL haplotypes, respectively. The most prevalent variants, c.2808_2811del and c.2803G > A, were located in a double-hairpin loop structure (c.2794-c.2825) predicted by Quikfold that was proposed as a mutational hotspot. To check this hypothesis, random mutagenesis was performed over a 923 bp fragment of BRCA2, and 86 DNA variants were characterized. Interestingly, three mutations reported in the mutation databases (c.2680G > A, c.2944del and c.2957dup) were replicated and 20 affected the same position with different nucleotide changes. Moreover, five variants were placed in the same hairpin loop of c.2808_2811del, and one affected the same position (c.2808A > G). In conclusion, our results support that at least three different mutational events occurred to generate c.2808_2811del. Other highly prevalent DNA variants, such as BRCA1-c.68_69delAG, BRCA2-c.5946delT and c.8537delAG, are concentrated in hairpin loops, suggesting that these structures may represent mutational hotspots.

  9. Non-seasonality of births in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C; Hernández, M

    2000-01-01

    Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain and Italy. In the present study, the existence of a seasonal pattern in 5430 births registered in the Chilean population of Tierra del Fuego from 1890 to 1995 was analysed. The analysis showed no seasonal distribution of births in the periods 1890-1920 and from 1946 to the present day, a phenomenon rarely reported in the literature. The absence of seasonality in birth distribution could be related to the great diversity in the origins of the population's families, the constant renovation of this and the declining importance of the administrative capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Porvenir, in favour of Punta Arenas, capital of the Magellanic region. In the period of maximum development of the capital of the province, a seasonal pattern was detected with a peak in April and a trough in October, which corresponds with a maximum of conceptions in July and, in general, during the early southern winter and a decline in births from late spring to mid-summer, with a trough in January. This birth distribution is interpreted as a subordination of activity and social life to the annual sheep cycle. In addition to temporal trends, the influence on the observed patterns of environmental parameters, father's occupation, seasonality of marriage and the origin of the parents were analysed.

  10. The probable quadruple systems FK Aql and FZ Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Orbital-period variations of the eclipsing binaries FK Aql and FZ Del are analyzed. For each of the systems, a superposition of two cyclic variations of their orbital periods is found. FK Aql may be a quadruple system that contains two more bodies, besides the eclipsing binary, with masses M 3 ⩾ 1.75 M ⊙ and M 4 ⩾ 1.47 M ⊙, and the corresponding periods 15 and 82 yrs. This could also be a triple system with a third body of mass M 3 ⩾ 1.75 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 15 yrs, or with a third body of mass M 3 ⩾ 1.30 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 82 yrs. FZ Del may be a quadruple system with the additional componentmasses M 3 ⩾ 0.2 M ⊙ and M 4 ⩾ 0.3 M ⊙, with the periods 10.2 and 53.7 yrs. This could also be a triple system with a third-body mass M 3 ⩾ 0.2 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 10.2 yrs. In both systems, the residual period variations could be due to magnetic cycles of the secondary. The period variations of the eclipsing binary FZ Del could also be due to apsidal motion, together with the influence of a third body or the effects of magnetic activity.

  11. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Ilkiewicz, K.; Swierczynski, E.; Belcheva, M.; Dimitrov, D.

    2013-08-01

    We report optical BV photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013, carried out between August 14.88 UT and August 15.08 UT. Using a 60 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Nicolaus Copernicus University Observatory (Torun, Poland) we estimated the V brightness of the Nova to be 6.31+/-0.02 mag and 6.18+/-0.03 mag on Aug. 14.94 UT and Aug. 15.02 UT respectively. HD 194113 (F2, V=8.00 mag) was used as a comparison star.

  12. Albedo polarimétrico de asteroides del grupo Hungaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Benavidez, P.

    La región del cinturón de asteroides en donde se encuentra el grupo de los Hungarias (a= 1.79 a 1.98 UA, i=15 a 40 grados) es la única zona donde es común encontrar objetos de tipo taxonómico E, caracterizados por altos albedos, colores relativamente neutros y espectros sin detalles. Este tipo de asteroides está relacionado espectralmente con ciertos meteoritos (aubritas) que indican la existencia de episodios de gran calentamiento que ocurrieron durante la formación del Sistema Solar. Como el espectro de los asteroides de tipo E es idéntico a los de tipo M y P, la única forma de clasificar un asteroide en alguno de estos tres tipos taxonómicos es mediante el albedo. En este trabajo se presentan resultados preliminares sobre la determinación polarimétrica de albedos para objetos de este grupo utilizando el polarímetro CASPROF de CASLEO.

  13. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  14. Modeling landscapes and past vegetation patterns of New Mexico's Rio Del Oso Valley

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Periman

    2005-01-01

    Humans have interacted with the landscape and ecosystem of New Mexico's Rio del Oso Valley for thousands of years. Throughout the Holocene, various cultures have dramatically affected and altered the Rio del Oso. An interdisciplinary research approach, incorporating geomorphology, paleobotany, archaeology, and history, provides a broad range of methodologies and...

  15. Statistical Comparisons of Pre and Post Del Mod Data, Final Report, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, John R.; Wall, Charles A.

    This is one of five volumes prepared to describe various aspects of the Del Mod System. This report attempts to compare baseline data gathered in 1970-71 to post experimental data gathered in 1975-76. Sections include analyses of achievement test scores, research conducted under the auspices of the Del Mod System, and a follow-up study of…

  16. The Role of the State Department of Public Instruction in the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiher, John F.

    This is one of a series of monographs providing information about the Delaware Model: A Systems Approach to Science Education (Del Mod System). The State Department of Public Instruction is the agency that represents the public schools of Delaware. The two branches of the state department with which Del Mod interacts are the Instructional Services…

  17. 78 FR 74008 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Del Rio, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Del Rio, TX AGENCY: Federal... Rio, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new circling approach requirements at... Del Rio, TX, area, creating additional controlled airspace at Laughlin AFB (78 FR 52716) Docket No...

  18. 60. C.J.T., photographer December 23, 1955 KLAMATH RIVER BRIDGE, DEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. C.J.T., photographer December 23, 1955 KLAMATH RIVER BRIDGE, DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. DN-1-A #538, KLAMATH RIVER BR. FROM SO. END, 12/23/55, C.J.T. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  19. 61. M.C., photographer June 22, 1951 KLAMATH, DEL NORTE COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. M.C., photographer June 22, 1951 KLAMATH, DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. DN-1-A #452 NORTHERLY THROUGH KLAMATH FROM STA. 325+50, 6/22/51, M.C. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  20. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Del Valle Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Roselin; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the Del Valle Bilingual Education Program of Del Valle, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  1. [Recommendations to improve the scientific communication process in the Revista Médica del IMSS].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ivón

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the position of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social among the different journals, in this editorial we enumerate a series of recommendations to ameliorate the practices of the different actors who participate in the scientific communication process of this journal.

  2. 62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION D, HIGHWAY 1. REDWOOD CLEARING ON EXISTING LINE, 1-DN-71-A #26, R.L.T. 11-1-34. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  3. A novel compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Connexin 26 gene causes non-syndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Onsori, Habib; Rahmati, Mohammad; Fazli, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Connexin 26 (Cx26) gene are a common cause of hereditary hearing loss in different populations. In the present study, an Iranian patient with bilateral hearing loss underwent molecular analysis for the causative mutation. DNA studies were performed for the Cx26 gene by PCR and sequencing methods. We describe a novel compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Cx26 gene that is strongly associated with congenital non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL).

  4. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  5. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  6. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock falls and debris flows developed for several years now in the east face of Monte Rosa, somewhat more to the south of the accelerated glacier movement and at an altitude where relatively warm permafrost must be expected. Besides the scientific interest in these phenomena, the growing hazard potential to the local infrastructure must be considered seriously. Es- pecially potentials for the destabilization of large rock and ice masses in the

  7. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  8. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  9. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities.

  10. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  11. Renewable energy load assessment for Boquillas Del Carmen Coahuila, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report outlines the estimates that were made in 1992 of the potential load requirements for Boquillas del Carmen, a small Mexican village on the northern border of the state of Coahuila, Mexico near Big Bend National Park in southern Texas. The study was made to help determine the possibility that village might be electrified by solar or wind energy. Various estimates of are given of the potential load based on estimates ranging from basic use of lights, radio, television, and small household appliances to microwave ovens, refrigerators, and direct evaporative coolers. The low-energy consumption case was estimated to be at 23.0 kWh/month per residence per month, and the high-energy consumption case (with cooling) was 140.7 kWh/month per residence. On average, the typical residence is occupied by five individuals.

  12. Spatially Controlled Fe Isotope Variations at Torres del Paine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, N.; Lundstrom, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in mass-spectrometry have identified systematic trends of non-traditional stable isotope variation in igneous rocks with differentiation index. We present new Fe isotope data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of a 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous and possibly cogenetic 0.5 km mafic gabbro suite. Whereas previous isotopic investigations do little to address variations across important magmatic contacts, this study focuses on a first-of-its-kind spatially dependent non-traditional stable isotope investigation of an igneous pluton. Samples were collected at Torres del Paine in spatially significant transects, focusing on major contacts between country rock, granite and mafic units. Results collected by bracketed double spike MC-ICP-MS (2s precision of ×0.03) show an increase in δ56Fe towards the high silica margins of the pluton with values as high as δ56Fe 0.36. Additionally, the data show a decrease in δ56Fe toward the mafic center of the pluton with δ56Fe values ranging from δ56Fe -0.05 to 0.18. Samples collected on the contact between the granite and mafic complex show intermediate values of δ56Fe= 0.18(×) 0.03. Country rock samples in contact with granite show an isotopically light signature of δ56Fe=0.04 (×) 0.03. Analysis of 50 samples in total show a trend of increasing δ56Fe with SiO2 content. The process responsible for Fe isotope variations remains debated but is suggested to reflect four mechanisms: (1) crustal assimilation, (2) fractional crystallization, (3) late stage fluid exsolution [1] and (4) thermal migration [3]. Preliminary results show that mechanisms #1 and #2 would produce isotopic signatures opposite of those seen at Torres del Paine and other plutonic rocks. Isotopically light Torres country rock samples reveal that assimilation of rocks would not produce the isotopically heavy granites seen at Torres. Based on

  13. Argentine gas system underway for Gas del Estado

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.

    1980-10-01

    Gas del Estado's giant 1074-mile Centro-Oeste pipeline project - designed to ultimately transport over 350 million CF/day of natural gas from the Neuquen basin to the Campo Duran-Buenos Aires pipeline system - is now underway. The COGASCO consortium of Dutch and Argentine companies awarded the construction project will also operate and maintain the system for 15 years after its completion. In addition to the 30-in. pipelines, the agreement calls for a major compressor station at the gas field, three intermediate compressor stations, a gas-treatment plant, liquids-recovery facilities, and the metering, control, communications, and maintenance equipment for the system. Fabricated in Holland, the internally and externally coated pipe will be double-jointed to 80-ft lengths after shipment to Argentina; welders will use conventional manual-arc techniques to weld the pipeline in the field.

  14. Taphonomy of guanaco bones in Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Luis Alberto

    1990-11-01

    Guanaco carcasses are deposited in great quantities in Cabo San Pablo, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), as a result of winter stress. Taphonomic studies indicate that the gnawing action of foxes on guanaco ( Lama guanicoe) carcasses produces only very tenuous marks on the bones. Lack of sustained interest in the carcasses by carnivores results in slow disarticulation. The articulated and disarticulated bones are exposed to heavy trampling by guanacos, a process that produces vertical migration of small/dense bones and fracturing of the most weathered bones. An understanding of this ongoing process is important for local archaeology, since modern bones are migrating into archaeological contexts. A regional approach to taphonomy is the most appropriate instrument to solve this and other related problems.

  15. High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

    2006-12-01

    The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic

  16. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  17. The hydrothermal system of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Nevado del Ruiz is an andesitic stratovolcano located 150 km northwest of Bogota, Columbia characterized by a large hydrothermal system with two very distinctive types of water: acid sulfate waters, and bicarbonate and neutral chloride waters. The waters within each group fall in well-defined lines on compositional cross plots with an apparent lack of mixing between the two water types. The acid sulfate waters appear to be related to the north-west striking and seismically active Villamaria-Termales fault. The neutral chloride waters are clustered to the west and south-east of the volcano. The bicarbonate waters are more widespread. Several hydrothermally-altered samples from Nevado del Ruiz volcano hydrothermal system were analyzed using X-ray diffraction techniques. It was possible to distinguish two sets of mineral assemblages which correspond to the two water types. The acid sulfate waters produce cristobalite, sulfates, hematite or pyrite, sulfur and minor amounts of trydimite, kaolinite, smectite, and illite. The alteration products at the neutral chloride and bicarbonate waters include mainly carbonates and cristobalite. Simulation of the reaction between the hydrothermal fluids and the basaltic andesites of the lower volcanic units at Ruiz using the computer program CHILLER yielded mineral assemblages which are consistent with the observed alteration mineralogy. High chloride and sulfate concentrations, and helium and sulfur isotopes suggest that the acid sulfate waters have an important magmatic contribution. The composition of the neutral chloride an bicarbonate waters suggests mineral equilibria with feldspars and carbonates. Both types of waters appear to be the product of mixing of high salinity end members with different proportions of meteoric water. Linear variations in composition of the gases discharged at Ruiz suggested that the gas phase also represents mixing. Faults and contacts play a key role in the circulation of fluids at Ruiz.

  18. Deficiency of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) aggravates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Eun Young

    2014-03-07

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease wherein lung parenchyma is gradually and irreversibly replaced with collagen. The molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is not fully understood and the only effective treatment available is lung transplantation. To test if Del-1, an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, may be implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, we induced pulmonary fibrosis in wild type (WT) and Del-1(-/-) mice by intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Del-1 expression in the lung was decreased in the WT mice treated with bleomycin compared to control mice. In addition, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis increased collagen deposition and TGF-β production in the lung of Del-1(-/-) mice. Finally, Del-1(-/-) mice treated with bleomycin displayed higher weight loss and greater mortality than did WT mice identically treated. These findings suggest that Del-1 may negatively regulate development of pulmonary fibrosis. Further delineation of a role for Del-1 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis will broaden our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and hopefully help develop potential therapeutics.

  19. Max Brödel: his art, legacy, and contributions to neurosurgery through medical illustration.

    PubMed

    Patel, Smruti K; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2011-07-01

    Max Brödel is considered the father of modern medical illustration. This report reviews his contributions to neurosurgery as a medical illustrator. Max Brödel, a young artist from Leipzig, Germany, was hired at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1894, where he illustrated an operative textbook of gynecology for Howard A. Kelly. Although Brödel did not have any formal medical training, he quickly acquired knowledge of anatomy, pathology, physiology, and surgery. Brödel's extraordinary illustrations were characterized by an aerial perspective that conveyed the surgeon's operative viewpoint and precise surgical anatomy. He masterfully incorporated tissue realism with cross-sectional anatomy to accentuate concepts while maintaining topographical accuracy. Brödel's reputation spread quickly and resulted in collaborations with prominent surgeons, such as Cushing, Halsted, and Dandy. Cushing, who also possessed artistic talent, became a pupil of Brödel and remained a very close friend. In 1911, Brödel was appointed the director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins, the first academic department of its kind in the world. For the next several decades, he trained generations of renowned medical illustrators. Just as Osler, Halsted, and Cushing passed their skills and knowledge to future leaders of medicine and surgery, Brödel did the same for the field of medical illustration. The advancement of neurosurgical education has been greatly facilitated by Max Brödel's artistic contributions. His unique ability to synthesize art and medicine resulted in timeless illustrations that remain indispensable to surgeons. The art produced by his legacy of illustrators continues to flourish in neurosurgical literature today.

  20. Observaciones del CH interestelar y el continuo en 3,3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.; Combi, J. A.; Pöppel, W.; Benaglia, P.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    Se informa sobre el proyecto que se lleva a cabo en el IAR con el propósito de observar las líneas hiperfinas del estado fundamental del CH y el continuo en la banda de 3,3 GHz. El nuevo receptor construído en nuestro laboratorio para tal fin se instaló sobre uno de los radiotelescopios, funcionando conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamiento actuales del IAR. Los resultados de las primeras observaciones, realizadas tanto en las líneas espectrales como en el continuo sobre fuentes conocidas, fueron satisfactorios.